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Sample records for choice experiment study

  1. A choice experiment analysis for solid waste disposal option: a case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Jamal, Othman

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee. PMID:21820795

  2. Using blocked fractional factorial designs to construct discrete choice experiments for healthcare studies.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, Jessica; Wong, Weng-Kee; Xu, Hongquan

    2016-07-10

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used for studying and quantifying subjects preferences in a wide variety of healthcare applications. They provide a rich source of data to assess real-life decision-making processes, which involve trade-offs between desirable characteristics pertaining to health and healthcare and identification of key attributes affecting healthcare. The choice of the design for a DCE is critical because it determines which attributes' effects and their interactions are identifiable. We apply blocked fractional factorial designs to construct DCEs and address some identification issues by utilizing the known structure of blocked fractional factorial designs. Our design techniques can be applied to several situations including DCEs where attributes have different number of levels. We demonstrate our design methodology using two healthcare studies to evaluate (i) asthma patients' preferences for symptom-based outcome measures and (ii) patient preference for breast screening services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26823156

  3. Simulation study to determine the impact of different design features on design efficiency in discrete choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Cunningham, Charles E; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are routinely used to elicit patient preferences to improve health outcomes and healthcare services. While many fractional factorial designs can be created, some are more statistically optimal than others. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate how varying the number of (1) attributes, (2) levels within attributes, (3) alternatives and (4) choice tasks per survey will improve or compromise the statistical efficiency of an experimental design. Design and methods A total of 3204 DCE designs were created to assess how relative design efficiency (d-efficiency) is influenced by varying the number of choice tasks (2–20), alternatives (2–5), attributes (2–20) and attribute levels (2–5) of a design. Choice tasks were created by randomly allocating attribute and attribute level combinations into alternatives. Outcome Relative d-efficiency was used to measure the optimality of each DCE design. Results DCE design complexity influenced statistical efficiency. Across all designs, relative d-efficiency decreased as the number of attributes and attribute levels increased. It increased for designs with more alternatives. Lastly, relative d-efficiency converges as the number of choice tasks increases, where convergence may not be at 100% statistical optimality. Conclusions Achieving 100% d-efficiency is heavily dependent on the number of attributes, attribute levels, choice tasks and alternatives. Further exploration of overlaps and block sizes are needed. This study's results are widely applicable for researchers interested in creating optimal DCE designs to elicit individual preferences on health services, programmes, policies and products. PMID:27436671

  4. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  5. Parents' Experience with School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaich, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to understand the experiences of a group of parents residing in the Novato Unified School District, Marin County, CA., as they engaged in the process of deciding where to send their children to school as the students matriculated from eighth to ninth grade, or middle school to high school. The four major…

  6. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  7. Research Focus and Methodological Choices in Studies into Students' Experiences of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews representative research into blended learning in universities, taking into account the methodology used, the focus of the research and the relationship between the two. In terms of methodology, most research was classifiable as case-studies, survey-based studies or comparative studies. A small number of studies take a…

  8. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  9. Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy

  10. A discrete choice experiment investigating preferences for funding drugs used to treat orphan diseases: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Stefanowska, Patricia; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2011-07-01

    Policy debate about funding criteria for drugs used to treat rare, orphan diseases is gaining prominence. This study presents evidence from a discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of university students to investigate individual preferences regarding public funding for drugs used to treat rare diseases and common diseases. This pilot study finds that: other things equal, the respondents do not prefer to have the government spend more for drugs used to treat rare diseases; that respondents are not willing to pay more per life year gained for a rare disease than a common disease; and that respondents weigh relevant attributes of the coverage decisions (e.g. costs, disease severity and treatment effectiveness) similarly for both rare and common diseases. The results confirm the importance of severity and treatment effectiveness in preferences for public funding. Although this is the first study of its kind, the results send a cautionary message regarding the special treatment of orphan drugs in coverage decision-making. PMID:21205401

  11. Modeling Choice and Valuation in Decision Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a parsimonious descriptive model of individual choice and valuation in the kinds of experiments that constitute a substantial part of the literature relating to decision making under risk and uncertainty. It suggests that many of the best known "regularities" observed in those experiments may arise from a tendency for…

  12. A quantum delayed-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Shadbolt, Peter; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-11-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle- or wavelike behavior depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics. Its paradoxical nature is best captured in the delayed-choice thought experiment, in which a photon is forced to choose a behavior before the observer decides what to measure. Here, we report on a quantum delayed-choice experiment in which both particle and wave behaviors are investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behavior is certified via nonlocality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer in the original experiment. We observed strong nonlocal correlations, which show that the photon must simultaneously behave both as a particle and as a wave. PMID:23118183

  13. Wheeler thought experiment with delayed choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    This is an alternative interpretation of Jacques, et. al. (2007), Wheeler's thought experiment with delayed choice. The researchers find that the choice of observables changes the previous behavior of the photon inside the interferometer. Stepping outside the QM box, we propose that elementary waves from the detectors travel backwards through the interferometer, and the photon is following such a ray in the reverse direction. Thus a change in observables changes the behavior of the photon for the simple reason that the observable is transmitting information to the photon and the photon is able to change its polarization mid-stream in response to a change in that information. According to this explanation there is no delayed choice. It is an illusion.

  14. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  15. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment.

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  16. Riverscape and groundwater preservation: a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation. PMID:24085155

  17. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:18802123

  18. Student Perceptions of Science Ability, Experiences, Expectations, and Career Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherney, Michael; Cherney, I.

    2006-12-01

    The decision to study physics or astronomy is affected by many factors, including preferences, motivations, and expectations for success. Differing cognitive profiles contribute to the learning of science through a complex process in which intrinsic capacities are tuned both by everyday experience and by instruction. In an attempt to identify the developmental pathways and intrinsic factors that most strongly influence the choice to study science, we administered an extensive survey to a sample of 400 students. The survey questions were based on Eccles et al.’s model of achievement-related choices and findings showing that previous play experiences, spatial experiences, task beliefs, as well as perceived mathematics ability, motivational and personality characteristics affect mathematics achievement and science career choices. The perceptions of students planning a science career are compared with those planning a career in other areas. Gender differences are also discussed.

  19. Choices in health care: the European experience.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sarah; Dixon, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines some policies to increase or restrict consumer choice in western European health systems as regards four decisions: choice between public and private insurance; choice of public insurance fund; choice of first contact care provider and choice of hospital. Choice between public and private insurance is limited and arose for historical reasons in Germany. Owing to significant constraints, few people choose the private option. Choice of public insurance fund tends to be exercised by younger and healthier people, the decision to change fund is mainly associated with price and, despite complex risk adjustment mechanisms, it has led to risk selection by funds. Choice of first contact care provider is widespread in Europe. In countries where choice has traditionally been restricted, reforms aim to make services more accessible and convenient to patients. Reforms to restrict direct access to specialists aim to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate care but have been unpopular with the public and professionals. Patients' take up of choice of hospital has been surprisingly low, given their stated willingness to travel. Only where choice is actively supported in the context of long waiting times is take up higher. The objectives, implementation and impact of policies about choice have varied across western Europe. Culture and embedded norms may be significant in determining the extent to which patients exercise choice. PMID:16824264

  20. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  1. Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: a pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing number of genetic tests available, decisions have to be made on how to allocate limited health-care resources to them. Different criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting. However, their relative importance is unclear. Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and best-worst scaling experiments (BWSs) are methods used to identify and weight various criteria that influence orders of priority. This study tests whether these preference eliciting techniques can be used for prioritising genetic tests and compares the empirical findings resulting from these two approaches. Pilot DCE and BWS questionnaires were developed for the same criteria: prevalence, severity, clinical utility, alternatives to genetic testing available, infrastructure for testing and care established, and urgency of care. Interview-style experiments were carried out among different genetics professionals (mainly clinical geneticists, researchers and biologists). A total of 31 respondents completed the DCE and 26 completed the BWS experiment. Weights for the levels of the six attributes were estimated by conditional logit models. Although the results derived from the DCE and BWS experiments differed in detail, we found similar valuation patterns in the DCE and BWS experiments. The respondents attached greatest value to tests with high clinical utility (defined by the availability of treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity) and to testing for highly prevalent conditions. The findings from this study exemplify how decision makers can use quantitative preference eliciting methods to measure aggregated preferences in order to prioritise alternative clinical interventions. Further research is necessary to confirm the survey results. PMID:23486538

  2. Choice of experimental venue matters in ecotoxicology studies: Comparison of a laboratory-based and an outdoor mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Imrei, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5 mg a.e./L glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated

  3. The Dependent Poisson Race Model and Modeling Dependence in Conjoint Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Shiling; MacEachern, Steven N.; Otter, Thomas; Dean, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    Conjoint choice experiments are used widely in marketing to study consumer preferences amongst alternative products. We develop a class of choice models, belonging to the class of Poisson race models, that describe a "random utility" which lends itself to a process-based description of choice. The models incorporate a dependence structure which…

  4. Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences in health care.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Whenever processes are reconfigured or new products are designed the needs and preferences of patients and consumers have to be considered. Although at times neglected, this becomes more and more relevant in health care settings: Which modes of health care delivery will be accepted? What are the patients' priorities and what is the willingness to pay? To which degree are patients mobile and for which kind of services are they willing to travel? Preferences, however, are difficult to measure, as they are latent constructs. This becomes even more difficult, when no past choices can be analyzed either as the service or the product is yet to be developed or as in the past there has not been free choice for patients. In such cases, preferences cannot be surveyed directly. Asking individuals openly for their attitudes towards certain services and products, the results are likely biased as individuals are not confronted with budget constraints and trade-offs. For this reason, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are frequently used to elicit patient preferences. This approach confronts patients with hypothetical scenarios of which only one can be chosen. Over the past few years, this tool to reveal patients' preferences for health care has become very popular in health economics. This contribution aims at introducing the principles of DCEs, highlighting the underlying theory and giving practical guidance for conducting a discrete choice experiment in health economics. Thereby we focus on three major fields of patient demand: designing health insurance, assessing patient utility of new pharmaceuticals and analyzing provider choice. By having a closer look at selected international studies, we discuss the application of this technique for the analysis of the supply and the demand of health care as well as the implications for assessing patient mobility across different health care systems. PMID:24864381

  5. How Important Is Study Mode in Student University Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagel, Pauline; Shaw, Robin N.

    2010-01-01

    Conjoint analysis was used to model the importance of study mode in students' choice of university. Study mode was proposed as a key choice attribute as universities have diversified their means of delivering education and increased the use of online delivery. Results are reported for two conjoint experiments. The first investigated how…

  6. The Australian Middle Class and Education: A Small-Scale Study of the School Choice Experience as Framed by "My School" within Inner City Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Emma E.; Windle, Joel

    2012-01-01

    With the launch of the "My School" website in 2010, Australia became a relative latecomer to the publication of national school performance comparisons. This paper primarily seeks to explore the school choice experience as framed by "My School" website, for participating middle-class families. We will draw on Bourdieusian theory of cultural…

  7. Deconstructing the Student Experience on an Educational Studies Degree, with Reference to Student Choice, Access and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela Joy

    2011-01-01

    Educational studies as a discipline is now a feature in many British universities, but little research has been undertaken to explore what kinds of student choose the subject, how easily they access it or how they fare as undergraduate students. This article attempts to address this paucity of research by drawing on a selection of findings from a…

  8. Delayed-Choice Experiments and the Metaphysics of Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egg, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Delayed-choice experiments in quantum mechanics are often taken to undermine a realistic interpretation of the quantum state. More specifically, Healey has recently argued that the phenomenon of delayed-choice entanglement swapping is incompatible with the view that entanglement is a physical relation between quantum systems. This paper argues against these claims. It first reviews two paradigmatic delayed-choice experiments and analyzes their metaphysical implications. It then applies the results of this analysis to the case of entanglement swapping, showing that such experiments pose no threat to realism about entanglement.

  9. Effects of Experience on Preference between Forced and Free Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Preference between forced choice and free choice in concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement was investigated in pigeons after exposure to particular combinations of terminal links. In Experiment 1, in which terminal links always ended with reinforcers, one of three pairs of terminal links was arranged as preexposure: (a) both terminal links…

  10. Medicare's drug discount card program: beneficiaries' experience with choice.

    PubMed

    Hassol, Andrea; Wrobel, Marian V; Doksum, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Medicare beneficiaries' experience with the choice among Medicare drug discount cards and is based primarily on surveys and focus groups with beneficiaries as well as interviews with other stakeholders. Although competition and choice have the potential to reduce cost and enhance quality in the Medicare Program, our findings highlight some of the challenges involved in making choice work in practice. Despite the unique and temporary nature of the drug discount card program, these findings have considerable relevance to the Part D drug benefit and to other Medicare initiatives that rely on choice. PMID:17722747

  11. Creativity as a Matter of Choice: Prior Experience and Task Instruction as Boundary Conditions for the Positive Effect of Choice on Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Roy Yong-Joo; Iyengar, Sheena S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of prior experience, task instruction, and choice on creative performance. Although extant research suggests that giving people choice in how they approach a task could enhance creative performance, we propose that this view needs to be circumscribed. Specifically, we argue that when choice is administered…

  12. Entanglement-enabled delayed-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Florian; Coudreau, Thomas; Milman, Pérola; Ostrowsky, Daniel B; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    Wave-particle complementarity is one of the most intriguing features of quantum physics. To emphasize this measurement apparatus-dependent nature, experiments have been performed in which the output beam splitter of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is inserted or removed after a photon has already entered the device. A recent extension suggested using a quantum beam splitter at the interferometer's output; we achieve this using pairs of polarization-entangled photons. One photon is tested in the interferometer and is detected, whereas the other allows us to determine whether wave, particle, or intermediate behaviors have been observed. Furthermore, this experiment allows us to continuously morph the tested photon's behavior from wavelike to particle-like, which illustrates the inadequacy of a naive wave or particle description of light. PMID:23118184

  13. Entanglement-Enabled Delayed-Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Florian; Coudreau, Thomas; Milman, Pérola; Ostrowsky, Daniel B.; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    Wave-particle complementarity is one of the most intriguing features of quantum physics. To emphasize this measurement apparatus-dependent nature, experiments have been performed in which the output beam splitter of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is inserted or removed after a photon has already entered the device. A recent extension suggested using a quantum beam splitter at the interferometer’s output; we achieve this using pairs of polarization-entangled photons. One photon is tested in the interferometer and is detected, whereas the other allows us to determine whether wave, particle, or intermediate behaviors have been observed. Furthermore, this experiment allows us to continuously morph the tested photon’s behavior from wavelike to particle-like, which illustrates the inadequacy of a naive wave or particle description of light.

  14. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205

  15. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-11-22

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205

  16. [Woman's experience with the choice of the Billings Ovulation Method].

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, Adriana Cristina; Pereira, Daliane da Silva Alves; Jardim, Danúbia Mariane Barbosa; Caillaux, Michelle; Sales, Vinícius Bernardo Lemos

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study with a qualitative approach, carried out between February and November 2010 with 10 women, mean age of 34 years old, users of this Billings Ovulation Method (MOB) for over than two years, with the objective of understand the experience of women by choosing the MOB. Data was obtained from interviews, and analyzed through content analysis technique. The categories of analysis showed that the reasons for the choices of the MOB were: religion; natural method, and benefits of self-knowledge. It was concluded that women show confidence in carrying out the method, that it brings benefits for users and that there is a need for professional guidance for its correct practice. PMID:24008700

  17. Delayed-choice gedanken experiments and their realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-song; Kofler, Johannes; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The wave-particle duality dates back to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect through quanta of light and de Broglie's hypothesis of matter waves. Quantum mechanics uses an abstract description for the behavior of physical systems such as photons, electrons, or atoms. Whether quantum predictions for single systems in an interferometric experiment allow an intuitive understanding in terms of the particle or wave picture depends on the specific configuration which is being used. In principle, this leaves open the possibility that quantum systems always behave either definitely as a particle or definitely as a wave in every experimental run by a priori adapting to the specific experimental situation. This is precisely what is tried to be excluded by delayed-choice experiments, in which the observer chooses to reveal the particle or wave character of a quantum system—or even a continuous transformation between the two—at a late stage of the experiment. The history of delayed-choice gedanken experiments, which can be traced back to the early days of quantum mechanics, is reviewed. Their experimental realizations, in particular, Wheeler's delayed choice in interferometric setups as well as delayed-choice quantum erasure and entanglement swapping are discussed. The latter is particularly interesting, because it elevates the wave-particle duality of a single quantum system to an entanglement-separability duality of multiple systems.

  18. Effectiveness and acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing uptake of vaccinations in preschool children: systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; Bateman, Belinda; Becker, Frauke; Cresswell, Tricia; Flynn, Darren; McNaughton, Rebekah; Oluboyede, Yemi; Robalino, Shannon; Ternent, Laura; Sood, Benjamin Gardner; Michie, Susan; Shucksmith, Janet; Sniehotta, Falko F; Wigham, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uptake of preschool vaccinations is less than optimal. Financial incentives and quasi-mandatory policies (restricting access to child care or educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been used to increase uptake internationally, but not in the UK. OBJECTIVE To provide evidence on the effectiveness, acceptability and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations. DESIGN Systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment (DCE) with questionnaire. SETTING Community, health and education settings in England. PARTICIPANTS Qualitative study - parents and carers of preschool children, health and educational professionals. DCE - parents and carers of preschool children identified as 'at high risk' and 'not at high risk' of incompletely vaccinating their children. DATA SOURCES Qualitative study - focus groups and individual interviews. DCE - online questionnaire. REVIEW METHODS The review included studies exploring the effectiveness, acceptability or economic costs and consequences of interventions that offered contingent rewards or penalties with real material value for preschool vaccinations, or quasi-mandatory schemes that restricted access to 'universal' services, compared with usual care or no intervention. Electronic database, reference and citation searches were conducted. RESULTS Systematic review - there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions considered are effective. There was some evidence that the quasi-mandatory interventions were acceptable. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Qualitative study - there was little appetite for parental financial incentives. Quasi-mandatory schemes were more acceptable. Optimising current services was consistently preferred to the interventions proposed. DCE and questionnaire - universal parental financial incentives

  19. Novel application of a discrete choice experiment to identify preferences for a national healthcare-associated infection surveillance programme: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Ratcliffe, Julie; Hall, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify key stakeholder preferences and priorities when considering a national healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance programme through the use of a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Setting Australia does not have a national HAI surveillance programme. An online web-based DCE was developed and made available to participants in Australia. Participants A sample of 184 purposively selected healthcare workers based on their senior leadership role in infection prevention in Australia. Primary and secondary outcomes A DCE requiring respondents to select 1 HAI surveillance programme over another based on 5 different characteristics (or attributes) in repeated hypothetical scenarios. Data were analysed using a mixed logit model to evaluate preferences and identify the relative importance of each attribute. Results A total of 122 participants completed the survey (response rate 66%) over a 5-week period. Excluding 22 who mismatched a duplicate choice scenario, analysis was conducted on 100 responses. The key findings included: 72% of stakeholders exhibited a preference for a surveillance programme with continuous mandatory core components (mean coefficient 0.640 (p<0.01)), 65% for a standard surveillance protocol where patient-level data are collected on infected and non-infected patients (mean coefficient 0.641 (p<0.01)), and 92% for hospital-level data that are publicly reported on a website and not associated with financial penalties (mean coefficient 1.663 (p<0.01)). Conclusions The use of the DCE has provided a unique insight to key stakeholder priorities when considering a national HAI surveillance programme. The application of a DCE offers a meaningful method to explore and quantify preferences in this setting. PMID:27147392

  20. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  1. Proposal for a quantum delayed-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Terno, Daniel R

    2011-12-01

    Gedanken experiments help to reconcile our classical intuition with quantum mechanics and nowadays are routinely performed in the laboratory. An important open question is the quantum behavior of the controlling devices in such experiments. We propose a framework to analyze quantum-controlled experiments and illustrate it by discussing a quantum version of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment. Using a quantum control has several consequences. First, it enables us to measure complementary phenomena with a single experimental setup, pointing to a redefinition of complementarity principle. Second, it allows us to prove there are no consistent hidden-variable theories having "particle" and "wave" as realistic properties. Finally, it shows that a photon can have a morphing behavior between particle and wave. The framework can be extended to other experiments (e.g., Bell inequality). PMID:22182073

  2. Optimal Decision Stimuli for Risky Choice Experiments: An Adaptive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R.; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than others, so the choice of stimuli is critical. This paper provides the theoretical background and a methodological framework for adaptive selection of optimal stimuli for discriminating among models of risky choice. The approach, called Adaptive Design Optimization (ADO), adapts the stimulus in each experimental trial based on the results of the preceding trials. We demonstrate the validity of the approach with simulation studies aiming to discriminate Expected Utility, Weighted Expected Utility, Original Prospect Theory, and Cumulative Prospect Theory models. PMID:24532856

  3. Optimal Decision Stimuli for Risky Choice Experiments: An Adaptive Approach.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I; Pitt, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than others, so the choice of stimuli is critical. This paper provides the theoretical background and a methodological framework for adaptive selection of optimal stimuli for discriminating among models of risky choice. The approach, called Adaptive Design Optimization (ADO), adapts the stimulus in each experimental trial based on the results of the preceding trials. We demonstrate the validity of the approach with simulation studies aiming to discriminate Expected Utility, Weighted Expected Utility, Original Prospect Theory, and Cumulative Prospect Theory models. PMID:24532856

  4. Preferences for physician services in Ukraine: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Danyliv, Andriy; Pavlova, Milena; Gryga, Irena; Groot, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on preferences of Ukrainian consumers for healthcare improvements can help to design reforms that correspond to societal priorities. This study aims to elicit and to place monetary values on public preferences for out-patient physician services in Ukraine. The method of discrete choice experiment is used on a sample of 303 respondents, representative of the adult Ukrainian population. The random effect logit model with interactions provides the best fit for the data and is used to calculate the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for quality and access improvements. At a sample level, there is no clear preference to pay formally rather than informally or vice versa. We also do not find that visiting a general practitioner is preferred over direct access to a medical specialist. However, there are differences between population groups. Quality-related attributes of physician services appear important to respondents, especially the attitude of medical staff. Thus, interpersonal aspects of out-patient care should be given priority in decisions about investments in quality improvements. Other aspects, that is social quality and access, are important as well but their improvement brings fewer social gains. Measures should be taken to eradicate the informal payment channels and to strengthen the gate-keeping role of primary care. PMID:24399636

  5. Protocol for a qualitative study on promoting dietary change and positive food choices for poor people with low income who experience cardiovascular disease in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Barolia, Rubina Iqbal; Clark, Alexander M; Higginbottom, Gina M A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a misconception that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the burden of wealthy nations, but, in fact, it is the leading cause of death and disability-adjusted life worldwide. Healthy diets are an essential factor in the prevention of CVD. However, promoting healthy diet is challenging, particularly for people with low-socioeconomic status (SES), because poverty is linked with many risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy eating and obesity. Multiple factors, cultural values and beliefs interact and make healthy eating very challenging. The effects of these factors in the context of low-SES populations with CVD are largely unknown. To address this gap, this study will examine the factors that affect decisions about consuming healthy diet in Pakistanis with low SES who suffer from CVD. Methods and analysis A qualitative method of interpretive description will be used. 25 participants will be selected from two cardiac rehabilitation (CR) centres in Karachi, Pakistan. Face-to-face interviews using a critical realist framework will be used to understand individual and contextual factors in the food choices of people with low SES and CVD. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software will be used to identify themes and patterns in the interview data. Ethics and discussion Ethical approvals were received from the Ethics Review board of University of Alberta, Canada and Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. The findings will generate new knowledge about which and how factors influence the food choices of Pakistanis with CVD and low SES to provide an insight into the development of an operational framework for designing interventions for prevention of CVD. For knowledge-translation purposes, we will publish the findings in highly accessed, peer-reviewed scientific and health policy journals at the national and international level. This research protocol received IRDC (International Development Research Centre) doctoral award from International Development

  6. The Experience of Choice in Physical Activity Contexts for Adults with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphy, Lorraine Y.; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study described the experiences of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments. The experiences of 3 female and 2 males with mobility impairments between 18 and 23 years of age were described using the interpretive phenomenological methods of individual interviews, written stories, and field notes.…

  7. The impact of gender and working experience on intertemporal choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Zhuang, Xintian

    2014-09-01

    Intertemporal choice has been drawing attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. In this paper, we experimentally estimate the parameters and AICc (Akaike Information Criterion with small sample correction) of intertemporal choice models (exponential, simple hyperbolic, quasi hyperbolic, and q-exponential) for senior undergraduate students and MBA students, respectively. Our results show that (1) regardless of gender or working experience, q-exponential discount model always generates minimum AICc value, and it is thus the optimal discount model; (2) gender affects the degree of inconsistency and fitness of the discount model. Comparing to female participants, male participants have a higher degree of inconsistency while their discount pattern is better explained by q-exponential discount model; (3) working experience has an interaction effect with gender. For male participants, working experience is inversely related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model. On the contrary, for female participants, working experience is positively related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model.

  8. Preferences for colorectal cancer screening strategies: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hol, L; de Bekker-Grob, E W; van Dam, L; Donkers, B; Kuipers, E J; Habbema, J D F; Steyerberg, E W; van Leerdam, M E; Essink-Bot, M L

    2010-01-01

    Background: Guidelines underline the role of individual preferences in the selection of a screening test, as insufficient evidence is available to recommend one screening test over another. We conducted a study to determine the preferences of individuals and to predict uptake for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using various screening tests. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire was distributed among naive subjects, yet to be screened, and previously screened subjects, aged 50–75 years. Subjects were asked to choose between scenarios on the basis of faecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), total colonoscopy (TC) with various test-specific screening intervals and mortality reductions, and no screening (opt-out). Results: In total, 489 out of 1498 (33%) screening-naïve subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±7 years) and 545 out of 769 (71%) previously screened subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±6 years) returned the questionnaire. The type of screening test, screening interval, and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality influenced subjects' preferences (all P<0.05). Screening-naive and previously screened subjects equally preferred 5-yearly FS and 10-yearly TC (P=0.24; P=0.11), but favoured both strategies to annual FOBT screening (all P-values <0.001) if, based on the literature, realistic risk reduction of CRC-related mortality was applied. Screening-naive and previously screened subjects were willing to undergo a 10-yearly TC instead of a 5-yearly FS to obtain an additional risk reduction of CRC-related mortality of 45% (P<0.001). Conclusion: These data provide insight into the extent by which interval and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality affect preferences for CRC screening tests. Assuming realistic test characteristics, subjects in the target population preferred endoscopic screening over FOBT screening, partly, due to the more favourable risk reduction of CRC-related mortality by endoscopy

  9. Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment with a single atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, A. G.; Khakimov, R. I.; Dall, R. G.; Truscott, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    The wave-particle dual nature of light and matter and the fact that the choice of measurement determines which one of these two seemingly incompatible behaviours we observe are examples of the counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. They are illustrated by Wheeler’s famous `delayed-choice’ experiment, recently demonstrated in a single-photon experiment. Here, we use a single ultracold metastable helium atom in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to create an atomic analogue of Wheeler’s original proposal. Our experiment confirms Bohr’s view that it does not make sense to ascribe the wave or particle behaviour to a massive particle before the measurement takes place. This result is encouraging for current work towards entanglement and Bell’s theorem tests in macroscopic systems of massive particles.

  10. Delayed choice experiments, the arrow of time, and quantum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, L. S.

    2011-11-29

    By a radical modification of statistical mechanics the measurement process of quantum mechanics can be described in terms of pure, unitary time evolution, with no wave function collapse or many-world ideas. The key notion is 'special states', rare microscopic states of a complex system. Recovering the standard probabilities requires of this theory the appearance of Cauchy-distributed noise in some measurement processes. This article treats experimental situations where such noise might be detected and correlated with the need or absence of need for special states. Included in this possibility are 'delayed choice' experiments, in which the correlation contravenes conventional ideas on causality. Background material on all topics is provided.

  11. Managing coastal area resources by stated choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2010-02-01

    In many coastal regions, oil spills can be considered as one of the most important and certainly the most noticeable forms of marine pollution. Efficient contingency management responding to oil spills on waters, which aims at minimizing pollution effects on coastal resources, turns out to be critically important. Such a decision making highly depends on the importance attributed to different coastal economic and ecological resources. Economic uses can, in principal, be addressed by standard measures such as value added. However, there is a missing of market in the real world for natural goods. Coastal resources such as waters and beach cannot be directly measured in money terms, which increases the risk of being neglected in a decision making process. This paper evaluates these natural goods of coastal environment in a hypothetical market by employing stated choice experiments. Oil spill management practice in German North Sea is used as an example. Results from a pilot survey show that during a combat process, beach and eider ducks are of key concerns for households. An environmental friendly combat option has to be a minor cost for households. Moreover, households with less children, higher monthly income and a membership of environmental organization are more likely to state that they are willing to pay for combat option to prevent coastal resources from an oil pollution. Despite that choice experiments require knowledge of designing questionnaire and statistical skills to deal with discrete choices and conducting a survey is time consumed, the results have important implications for oil spill contingency management. Overall, such a stated preference method can offer useful information for decision makers to consider coastal resources into a decision making process and can further contribute to finding a cost-effective oil preventive measure, also has a wide application potential in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).

  12. School Choice Signals: Research Review and Survey Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II

    2014-01-01

    For the past several decades, a perennial topic on surveys about education has been school choice. Interest in public opinion about choice is more than just "nice to know." The results are often used to support or oppose choice in general or specific choice initiatives under consideration or adopted by state legislatures and even school…

  13. Food transfers in capuchin monkeys: an experiment on partner choice.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Gloria; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-10-23

    Although most primates live in groups, experiments on reciprocity usually test individuals in dyads. This could hide the processes emerging in richer social settings, reducing the ecological validity of the results. We run an experiment on reciprocal food transfers testing capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in triads, so that subjects could choose to allow access to their food to either of their two partners. We tested the hypothesis that partner choice was related to a comparison of long-term social bonds with the two partners, more than to a comparison of recent food transfer events from the two partners. The results confirmed this hypothesis, thus supporting the notion that reciprocal partner preferences are based on long-term accounts of benefits that have been exchanged. PMID:22832127

  14. Food transfers in capuchin monkeys: an experiment on partner choice

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Gloria; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Although most primates live in groups, experiments on reciprocity usually test individuals in dyads. This could hide the processes emerging in richer social settings, reducing the ecological validity of the results. We run an experiment on reciprocal food transfers testing capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in triads, so that subjects could choose to allow access to their food to either of their two partners. We tested the hypothesis that partner choice was related to a comparison of long-term social bonds with the two partners, more than to a comparison of recent food transfer events from the two partners. The results confirmed this hypothesis, thus supporting the notion that reciprocal partner preferences are based on long-term accounts of benefits that have been exchanged. PMID:22832127

  15. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. PMID:27427284

  16. Determinants of College Major Choice: Identification Using an Information Experiment. Working Paper #02-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiswall, Matthew; Zafar, Basit

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of college major choice using a unique "information" experiment embedded in a survey. We first ask respondents their "self" beliefs--beliefs about their own expected earnings and other major-specific outcomes conditional on various majors, their "population" beliefs--beliefs about…

  17. The Role of Discriminatory Experiences on Hispanic Students' College Choice Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Amanda; Crisp, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of discriminatory experiences on Hispanic students' decisions concerning postsecondary enrollment. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with Hispanic students' decisions to attend either a 2- or a 4-year institution within the context of theory concerning college choice/success. Data were…

  18. The Relationship between Choice of Major and Career, Experience of University and Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcoxson, Lesley; Wynder, Monte

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on earlier findings that clear choice of major and clarity of career direction is associated with university student retention. Data on business students' experience of university were correlated with data on intention to leave for two distinct major or career groupings--students who had committed themselves to a career-related…

  19. Segmenting patients and physicians using preferences from discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Deal, Ken

    2014-01-01

    People often form groups or segments that have similar interests and needs and seek similar benefits from health providers. Health organizations need to understand whether the same health treatments, prevention programs, services, and products should be applied to everyone in the relevant population or whether different treatments need to be provided to each of several segments that are relatively homogeneous internally but heterogeneous among segments. Our objective was to explain the purposes, benefits, and methods of segmentation for health organizations, and to illustrate the process of segmenting health populations based on preference coefficients from a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE) using an example study of prevention of cyberbullying among university students. We followed a two-level procedure for investigating segmentation incorporating several methods for forming segments in Level 1 using DCE preference coefficients and testing their quality, reproducibility, and usability by health decision makers. Covariates (demographic, behavioral, lifestyle, and health state variables) were included in Level 2 to further evaluate quality and to support the scoring of large databases and developing typing tools for assigning those in the relevant population, but not in the sample, to the segments. Several segmentation solution candidates were found during the Level 1 analysis, and the relationship of the preference coefficients to the segments was investigated using predictive methods. Those segmentations were tested for their quality and reproducibility and three were found to be very close in quality. While one seemed better than others in the Level 1 analysis, another was very similar in quality and proved ultimately better in predicting segment membership using covariates in Level 2. The two segments in the final solution were profiled for attributes that would support the development and acceptance of cyberbullying prevention programs among university

  20. Personal Traits Underlying Environmental Preferences: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  1. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment and Wave-Particle Superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-08-01

    We propose a simple implementation scheme of quantum delayed-choice experiment in linear optical system without initial entanglement resource. By choosing different detecting devices, one can selectively observe the photon's different behaviors after the photon has been passed the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The scheme shows that the photon's wave behavior and particle behavior can be observed with a single experimental setup by postselection, that is, the photon can show the superposition behavior of wave and particle. Especially, we compare the wave-particle superposition behavior and the wave-particle mixture behavior in detail, and find the quantum interference effect between wave and particle behavior, which may be helpful to reveal the nature of photonessentially.

  2. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  3. User Choice: The Experience since 1998. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chris Selby; Ferrier, Fran

    Australia introduced User Choice nationally in January 1998 to develop a national training system that is more responsive to clients' needs. User Choice is based on nine principles, including the following: (1) clients can negotiate their publicly funded training needs; (2) User Choice operates in a national training market not limited by state or…

  4. Inclusion and Healthcare Choices: The Experiences of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Morag; Jarrett, Dominic; Terras, Melody

    2011-01-01

    People with learning disabilities have fewer choice opportunities than the general population. Existing research provides some insight, but the choice-making experiences of those who do not always utilise available healthcare remains under-explored. This research explored the choice-making experiences of two groups of individuals with a learning…

  5. Accounting for substitution and spatial heterogeneity in a labelled choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lizin, S; Brouwer, R; Liekens, I; Broeckx, S

    2016-10-01

    Many environmental valuation studies using stated preferences techniques are single-site studies that ignore essential spatial aspects, including possible substitution effects. In this paper substitution effects are captured explicitly in the design of a labelled choice experiment and the inclusion of different distance variables in the choice model specification. We test the effect of spatial heterogeneity on welfare estimates and transfer errors for minor and major river restoration works, and the transferability of river specific utility functions, accounting for key variables such as site visitation, spatial clustering and income. River specific utility functions appear to be transferable, resulting in low transfer errors. However, ignoring spatial heterogeneity increases transfer errors. PMID:27372251

  6. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment…

  7. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  8. Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard…

  9. Choice Experiments to Quantify Preferences for Health and Healthcare: State of the Practice.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel; Johnson, F Reed

    2016-06-01

    Stated-preference methods increasingly are used to quantify preferences in health economics, health technology assessment, benefit-risk analysis and health services research. The objective of stated-preference studies is to acquire information about trade-off preferences among treatment outcomes, prioritization of clinical decision criteria, likely uptake or adherence to healthcare products and acceptability of healthcare services or policies. A widely accepted approach to eliciting preferences is discrete-choice experiments. Patient, physician, insurant or general-public respondents choose among constructed, experimentally controlled alternatives described by decision-relevant features or attributes. Attributes can represent complete health states, sets of treatment outcomes or characteristics of a healthcare system. The observed pattern of choice reveals how different respondents or groups of respondents implicitly weigh, value and assess different characteristics of treatments, products or services. An important advantage of choice experiments is their foundation in microeconomic utility theory. This conceptual framework provides tests of internal validity, guidance for statistical analysis of latent preference structures, and testable behavioural hypotheses. Choice experiments require expertise in survey-research methods, random-utility theory, experimental design and advanced statistical analysis. This paper should be understood as an introduction to setting up a basic experiment rather than an exhaustive critique of the latest findings and procedures. Where appropriate, we have identified topics of active research where a broad consensus has not yet been established. PMID:26992386

  10. A review of the application and contribution of discrete choice experiments to inform human resources policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2009-01-01

    Although the factors influencing the shortage and maldistribution of health workers have been well-documented by cross-sectional surveys, there is less evidence on the relative determinants of health workers' job choices, or on the effects of policies designed to address these human resources problems. Recently, a few studies have adopted an innovative approach to studying the determinants of health workers' job preferences. In the absence of longitudinal datasets to analyse the decisions that health workers have actually made, authors have drawn on methods from marketing research and transport economics and used Discrete Choice Experiments to analyse stated preferences of health care providers for different job characteristics. We carried out a literature review of studies using discrete choice experiments to investigate human resources issues related to health workers, both in developed and developing countries. Several economic and health systems bibliographic databases were used, and contacts were made with practitioners in the field to identify published and grey literature. Ten studies were found that used discrete choice experiments to investigate the job preferences of health care providers. The use of discrete choice experiments techniques enabled researchers to determine the relative importance of different factors influencing health workers' choices. The studies showed that non-pecuniary incentives are significant determinants, sometimes more powerful than financial ones. The identified studies also emphasized the importance of investigating the preferences of different subgroups of health workers. Discrete choice experiments are a valuable tool for informing decision-makers on how to design strategies to address human resources problems. As they are relatively quick and cheap survey instruments, discrete choice experiments present various advantages for informing policies in developing countries, where longitudinal labour market data are seldom

  11. Free-Choice Family Learning Experiences at Telescope Observing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, M. C.; Carter, K.; Harris, C. J.

    2011-09-01

    This study examines family experiences at nighttime telescope observing events. The goal was to observe family visitors and understand how they negotiate meaning and incorporate these experiences into their family culture. In this case study of one family's telescope observing experience, the participants' motivations and agenda are described as well as ways in which they negotiated identity and family-community membership at the same time as they were involved in the construction of meaning. The analysis revealed evidence of both meaning making and identity negotiation during, and related to, the educational leisure activity of attending a nighttime telescope observing event.

  12. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:26719101

  13. Reconceptualising the external validity of discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Lancsar, Emily; Swait, Joffre

    2014-10-01

    External validity is a crucial but under-researched topic when considering using discrete choice experiment (DCE) results to inform decision making in clinical, commercial or policy contexts. We present the theory and tests traditionally used to explore external validity that focus on a comparison of final outcomes and review how this traditional definition has been empirically tested in health economics and other sectors (such as transport, environment and marketing) in which DCE methods are applied. While an important component, we argue that the investigation of external validity should be much broader than a comparison of final outcomes. In doing so, we introduce a new and more comprehensive conceptualisation of external validity, closely linked to process validity, that moves us from the simple characterisation of a model as being or not being externally valid on the basis of predictive performance, to the concept that external validity should be an objective pursued from the initial conceptualisation and design of any DCE. We discuss how such a broader definition of external validity can be fruitfully used and suggest innovative ways in which it can be explored in practice. PMID:24920196

  14. Privatizing Education and Educational Choice: Concepts, Plans, and Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Simon, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains articles by educational researchers who examine the issues surrounding educational choice in public school systems and the voucher system for private schools. They discuss when choice should be considered, methods of implementation, and the extent to which government should be involved. Descriptions and evaluations of choice…

  15. Using choice experiments to understand household tradeoffs regarding pineapple production and environmental management in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robert B; Kellon, Delanie; Leon, Ramon G; Arvai, Joseph

    2013-09-30

    Choices among environmental management alternatives involve tradeoffs where, for example, the benefits of environmental protection may be offset by economic costs or welfare losses to individual agents. Understanding individual or household-level preferences regarding these tradeoffs is not always straightforward, and it often requires an analysis of choices under alternative scenarios. A household survey was used to gather data for a choice experiment, where respondents were asked to choose among pairs of alternative management scenarios about pineapple production in Costa Rica. The experimental design consisted of six attributes that varied on between two and five attribute levels, and the experiment and accompanying survey were administered orally in Spanish. The results show that respondents are willing to make tradeoffs with respect to the management attributes in order to see an overall improvement in environmental quality. Respondents were willing to accept a moderate level of pesticide application, presumably in exchange for paying a lower cost or seeing a gain in another area, such as monitoring or soil conservation. Buffer zones were significant only in the case of large farms. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to reflect public attitudes, particularly the aspects of pineapple production that matter most to people living near pineapple plantations. The study also highlights the effectiveness of the choice experiment approach in examining household preferences about environmental management in a rural development context. PMID:23807434

  16. Recent Experience with Urban School Choice Plans. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 127.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.; Shroff, Sonali M.

    School choice plans have been widely adopted, and most urban areas have a limited choice plan of some sort. This digest presents an overview of different choice strategies by reviewing the experiences of several urban areas. Minnesota has statewide open enrollment for all students, making all public schools throughout the state open to all…

  17. Does Choose & Book fail to deliver the expected choice to patients? A survey of patients' experience of outpatient appointment booking

    PubMed Central

    Green, Judith; McDowall, Zoe; Potts, Henry WW

    2008-01-01

    Background Choose and Book is a central part of the UK Government patient choice agenda that seeks to provide patients with a choice over the time, date and place of their first outpatient appointment. This is done through the use of a computerised booking system. After a 2004 pilot study, Choose and Book was formally launched in January 2006. This is the first study of patient experience of Choose and Book since then. Methods A questionnaire survey of reported experience of choice over the time, data and place of appointment, carried out in a National Health Service hospital in London. 104 patients at their first outpatient appointment completed the questionnaire, consisting of a consecutive series of patients referred through Choose and Book and a sample referred through the conventional booking system. Results Among the Choose and Book patients, 66% (31/47; 95% CI 52 to 78%) reported not being given a choice of appointment date, 66% (31/47; 95% CI 52 to 78%) reported not being given a choice of appointment time, 86% (37/43; 95% CI 74 to 94%) reported being given a choice of fewer than four hospitals in total and 32% (15/47; 95% CI 20 to 46%) reported not being given any choice of hospital. Conclusion In this study, patients did not experience the degree of choice that Choose and Book was designed to deliver. PMID:18673533

  18. 'Mom by choice, single by life's circumstance...' Findings from a large scale survey of the experiences of single mothers by choice.

    PubMed

    Jadva, V; Badger, S; Morrissette, M; Golombok, S

    2009-12-01

    There has been a rise in recent years in the number of women choosing to have a child without the involvement of a partner. These women, often referred to as 'single mothers by choice' or 'choice mothers' differ from single mothers who find themselves parenting alone following divorce or separation. The present study collected data on the motivations and experiences of 291 single mothers by choice using online questionnaires. The findings showed that women often sought advice from others and made practical changes before becoming choice mothers. The most common method used to have a child was sperm donation with most opting for an anonymous donor. The majority felt that it was important for their child to have a male role model, and most ensured that their child had a male figure in their lives. Many choice mothers expressed some concern about their child of growing up without a father, although this did not necessarily mean that they wished to form a relationship in the future. Single mothers by choice are a distinct group of single mothers and more detailed studies are required to focus on issues that are of most relevance to them. PMID:19895361

  19. Modeling improvements in booster seat use: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Bruce, Beth S; Snowdon, Anne W; Chen, Yvonne; Kolga, Carol; Piotrowski, Caroline; Warda, Lynne; Correale, Heather; Clark, Erica; Barwick, Melanie

    2011-11-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death in children aged 1-14 years. Many children, however, are not properly restrained in safety seats that reduce serious injury and death. This study used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to study factors influencing the decision to use booster seats. Parents of 1714 children aged 4-9 years from nine Canadian provinces completed choice tasks presenting experimentally varied combinations of 15 4-level booster seat promotion attributes. Latent class analysis yielded three segments of parents. The choices of the Benefit Sensitive segment (50%) were most sensitive to the injury prevention benefits of booster seats. The choices of parents in the Context Sensitive segment (33.5%) were more likely to be influenced by installation complexity, oppositional behavior, and the prospect that their child may be teased for riding in booster seats. Parents in the High Risk segment (16.5%) were younger, less educated, and less knowledgeable about vehicle safety legislation. They anticipated fewer benefits, expected more barriers and were less likely to use booster seats. Simulations suggest that consistent enforcement coupled with advertising focusing on injury prevention and the use of booster seats by other parents would increase adoption. PMID:21819828

  20. Benefit–risk assessment of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sornlertlumvanich, Korn; Ngorsuraches, Surachat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the benefit–risk assessment of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) using a discrete choice experiment, based on 3 major stakeholders’ perspectives including patients, experts and policymakers in Thailand. Design A discrete choice experiment questionnaire survey in three stakeholders’ perspectives. Setting Public hospitals in Thailand. Participants A total of 353 policymakers, experts and patients. Outcomes Stakeholders’ preferences for assessment criteria (stroke reduction, myocardial infarction reduction, myalgia and hepatotoxicity). Statins’ ranking and maximum acceptable risk in all perspectives were also calculated. Results For any perspective, the most and least important criteria were the risk of hepatotoxicity and the benefit of myocardial infarction reduction, respectively. Patients and experts agreed on the order of importance for myalgia and stroke reduction, but policymakers had different order of importance in these criteria. Overall, results showed that the highest and lowest chances of being chosen were atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, respectively. Only patients’ ranking order was different from others. Maximum acceptable risk of hepatotoxicity was lower than that of myalgia, reflecting the greater concern of all perspectives to statin consequence on liver. Conclusions The results of benefit–risk assessment from every perspective were somewhat consistent. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a discrete choice experiment in the benefit–risk assessment of drugs and encouraged the engagement of multiple stakeholders in the decision-making process. PMID:26916689

  1. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  2. Can decision biases improve insurance outcomes? An experiment on status quo bias in health insurance choice.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  3. Which incentive package will retain regionalized health personnel in Burkina Faso: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of motivation of health workers to practice in rural areas remains a crucial problem for decision-makers, as it deprives the majority of access to health care. To solve the problem, many countries have implemented health worker retention strategies. However, the development of such strategies requires an understanding of the preferences of health workers. The objective of the study was to identify a package for attracting and retaining health workers in underserved areas. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three health regions of Burkina Faso in 2012. A discrete choice experiment was used to investigate preferences for incentive packages among health workers recruited under the regionalized policy. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers currently working in the East and Sahel regions and policy makers, and a literature review on attraction and retention in low income countries, were performed to identify the attributes and levels. These attributes were: the regionalized recruitment policy, health insurance, work equipment, housing, and specific incentive compensation. The final design resulted in 16 choice sets. A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on choice of a given option. A probit logistic regression model was then used to analyze the effect of these difference variables on choice, to identify the incentive package best suited to health workers. In total, questionnaires were administered to 315 regional health workers. Results For all participants, choice of package was strongly influenced by length of commitment under the policy and provision of housing. Sex, number of years in profession, and location also influenced the choice of package. Women are twice more likely to choose a package with free housing and the cancellation of the policy. Conclusion It is important that governments consider health worker preferences in

  4. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

  5. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  6. Sample Size Requirements for Discrete-Choice Experiments in Healthcare: a Practical Guide.

    PubMed

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Donkers, Bas; Jonker, Marcel F; Stolk, Elly A

    2015-10-01

    Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) have become a commonly used instrument in health economics and patient-preference analysis, addressing a wide range of policy questions. An important question when setting up a DCE is the size of the sample needed to answer the research question of interest. Although theory exists as to the calculation of sample size requirements for stated choice data, it does not address the issue of minimum sample size requirements in terms of the statistical power of hypothesis tests on the estimated coefficients. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to provide insight into whether and how researchers have dealt with sample size calculations for healthcare-related DCE studies; (2) to introduce and explain the required sample size for parameter estimates in DCEs; and (3) to provide a step-by-step guide for the calculation of the minimum sample size requirements for DCEs in health care. PMID:25726010

  7. How Choice Changes the Education System: A Michigan Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, David; Sykes, Gary

    1999-11-01

    In countries around the world policy makers propose that parents should exercise more control over the choice of schools that their children attend. This paper considers the ways in which the introduction of new opportunities for school choice changes the education system. It argues that choice affects the education system as a whole by introducing new actors into the system, by changing the terms of relationships among existing actors, and by creating new pressures within the system that require new responses. The nature, magnitude, and consequences of these effects cannot be predicted in advance, as they depend on a number of factors including the social and economic context. The empirical basis for this paper derives from a case study of the implementation of choice policies in the state of Michigan in the US, but the conceptual issues raised have important implications for the study of school choice wherever such policies are adopted.

  8. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas. PMID:22857606

  9. Choices and Chances: A Study of Pupils' Choices and Future Career Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryrie, A. C.; And Others

    This book is the first result of a research project involving a study of the process by which young people move through secondary school into work or advanced education. The process of subject choice which takes place at the end of the second year of the Scottish secondary system and the students' intentions for the future, at this stage, are…

  10. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  11. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A Qualitative Study of the Patterns in Stem Students' Higher Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of…

  12. Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?

    PubMed

    Roche, Erin A; Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2011-12-01

    The variation in breeding-colony size seen in populations of most colonial birds may reflect heritable choices made by individuals who are phenotypically specialized for particular social environments. Although a few studies have reported evidence for genetically based choice of group sizes in birds, we know relatively little about the extent to which animals potentially rely on experience versus innate preferences in deciding with how many conspecifics to settle at different times of their lives. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in 1997-1998 on cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska, USA, in which some individuals were reared in colonies different in size from those in which they were born. Breeding-colony sizes chosen by this cohort of birds were monitored by mark-recapture throughout their lives. A multistate mark-recapture analysis revealed that birds in their first breeding year chose colony sizes similar to those of their birth, regardless of their rearing environment, confirming a previous analysis. Beyond the first breeding year, however, cliff swallows' colony choice was less dependent on where they were born. Birds born in small colonies and reared in large colonies showed evidence of a delayed rearing effect, with these birds overwhelmingly choosing large colonies in later years. Heritabilities suggested strong genetic effects on first-year colony choice but not in later years. Cliff swallows' genetically based colony-size preferences their first year could be a way to ensure matching of their phenotype to an appropriate social environment as yearlings. In later years, familiarity with particular colony sites and available information on site quality may override innate group-size preferences when birds choose colonies. PMID:22247565

  13. Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2011-01-01

    The variation in breeding-colony size seen in populations of most colonial birds may reflect heritable choices made by individuals who are phenotypically specialized for particular social environments. Although a few studies have reported evidence for genetically based choice of group sizes in birds, we know relatively little about the extent to which animals potentially rely on experience versus innate preferences in deciding with how many conspecifics to settle at different times of their lives. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in 1997–1998 on cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska, USA, in which some individuals were reared in colonies different in size from those in which they were born. Breeding-colony sizes chosen by this cohort of birds were monitored by mark-recapture throughout their lives. A multistate mark-recapture analysis revealed that birds in their first breeding year chose colony sizes similar to those of their birth, regardless of their rearing environment, confirming a previous analysis. Beyond the first breeding year, however, cliff swallows’ colony choice was less dependent on where they were born. Birds born in small colonies and reared in large colonies showed evidence of a delayed rearing effect, with these birds overwhelmingly choosing large colonies in later years. Heritabilities suggested strong genetic effects on first-year colony choice but not in later years. Cliff swallows’ genetically based colony-size preferences their first year could be a way to ensure matching of their phenotype to an appropriate social environment as yearlings. In later years, familiarity with particular colony sites and available information on site quality may override innate group-size preferences when birds choose colonies. PMID:22247565

  14. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  15. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment with a Beam Splitter in a Quantum Superposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shi-Biao; Zhong, You-Peng; Xu, Kai; Wang, Qi-Jue; Wang, H; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Chui-Ping; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N; Han, Si-Yuan

    2015-12-31

    A quantum system can behave as a wave or as a particle, depending on the experimental arrangement. When, for example, measuring a photon using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the photon acts as a wave if the second beam splitter is inserted, but as a particle if this beam splitter is omitted. The decision of whether or not to insert this beam splitter can be made after the photon has entered the interferometer, as in Wheeler's famous delayed-choice thought experiment. In recent quantum versions of this experiment, this decision is controlled by a quantum ancilla, while the beam splitter is itself still a classical object. Here, we propose and realize a variant of the quantum delayed-choice experiment. We configure a superconducting quantum circuit as a Ramsey interferometer, where the element that acts as the first beam splitter can be put in a quantum superposition of its active and inactive states, as verified by the negative values of its Wigner function. We show that this enables the wave and particle aspects of the system to be observed with a single setup, without involving an ancilla that is not itself a part of the interferometer. We also study the transition of this quantum beam splitter from a quantum to a classical object due to decoherence, as observed by monitoring the interferometer output. PMID:26764976

  16. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment with a Beam Splitter in a Quantum Superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shi-Biao; Zhong, You-Peng; Xu, Kai; Wang, Qi-Jue; Wang, H.; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Chui-Ping; Martinis, John M.; Cleland, A. N.; Han, Si-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum system can behave as a wave or as a particle, depending on the experimental arrangement. When, for example, measuring a photon using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the photon acts as a wave if the second beam splitter is inserted, but as a particle if this beam splitter is omitted. The decision of whether or not to insert this beam splitter can be made after the photon has entered the interferometer, as in Wheeler's famous delayed-choice thought experiment. In recent quantum versions of this experiment, this decision is controlled by a quantum ancilla, while the beam splitter is itself still a classical object. Here, we propose and realize a variant of the quantum delayed-choice experiment. We configure a superconducting quantum circuit as a Ramsey interferometer, where the element that acts as the first beam splitter can be put in a quantum superposition of its active and inactive states, as verified by the negative values of its Wigner function. We show that this enables the wave and particle aspects of the system to be observed with a single setup, without involving an ancilla that is not itself a part of the interferometer. We also study the transition of this quantum beam splitter from a quantum to a classical object due to decoherence, as observed by monitoring the interferometer output.

  17. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    Background In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. Objective To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. Methods We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Results Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women’s abilities to make trade-offs. Conclusion Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting. PMID:26508842

  18. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  19. Brand Placement and Consumer Choice: An in-Store Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.…

  20. BRAND PLACEMENT AND CONSUMER CHOICE: AN IN-STORE EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior. PMID:20190939

  1. How Choice Ecology Influences Search in Decisions from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejarraga, Tomas; Hertwig, Ralph; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2012-01-01

    Research into human decision-making has often sidestepped the question of search despite its importance across a wide range of domains such as search for food, mates, allies, visual targets or information. Recently, research on decisions from experience has made progress in finding out how individual characteristics shape search for information.…

  2. Practical choices for infobutton customization: experience from four sites.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Overby, Casey L; Devine, Emily B; Hulse, Nathan C; Jing, Xia; Maviglia, Saverio M; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware links between electronic health records (EHRs) and online knowledge resources, commonly called "infobuttons" are being used increasingly as part of EHR "meaningful use" requirements. While an HL7 standard exists for specifying how the links should be constructed, there is no guidance on what links to construct. Collectively, the authors manage four infobutton systems that serve 16 institutions. The purpose of this paper is to publish our experience with linking various resources and specifying particular criteria that can be used by infobutton managers to select resources that are most relevant for a given situation. This experience can be used directly by those wishing to customize their own EHRs, for example by using the OpenInfobutton infobutton manager and its configuration tool, the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment. PMID:24551334

  3. Extending Science beyond the Classroom Door: Learning from Students' Experiences with the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallya, Aarti; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of seventh-grade students living in high poverty areas of New York City who participated in the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) science curriculum. Data were collected from eight case study students in the form of individual interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts. Analysis of these data…

  4. A Qualitative Investigation of the College Choice Experiences and Reentry Expectations of U.S. American Third Culture Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston-Gonzalez, Sara J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is on U.S. third culture kids (TCKs), youth who have grown up abroad because of their parent's work, and their college choice experiences and reentry expectations. Through a background questionnaire and personal interviews with eleven students transitioning from two international secondary schools in a…

  5. "Pente" or Slope? Using Student Voices to Explore Program Choice and Experiences in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culligan, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores students' decision-making about whether to remain in an optional French immersion (FI) mathematics course in Grade 11, as well as students' subsequent experiences in their mathematics course of choice. Interview data were collected from 10 students who remained in FI mathematics and from six students who did…

  6. Choices Between... Community Study Unit, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    Because of its geographical location, topography, and climate, South Florida has unique water problems. When the rainfall situation is combined with changing land use patterns and increasing population growth rates, the result is often water shortages in some areas and floods in others. This study unit looks at some of the reasons for the present…

  7. The evolution of mate choice: a dialogue between theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Roff, Derek A

    2015-12-01

    Research on the evolution of mate choice has followed three avenues of investigation: (1) theoretical models of the evolution of preference and the preferred trait; (2) proposed models of mate choice; and (3) experiments and observations on mate choice, both in the laboratory and with free-ranging animals. However, there has been relatively little dialogue among these three areas. Most attempts to account for observations of mate choice using theoretical mate-choice models have focused only upon a subset of particular models and have generally failed to consider the difference between probabilistic and deterministic models. In this review, I outline the underlying reasoning of the commonly cited mate-choice models and review the conclusions of the empirical investigations. I present a brief outline of how one might go about testing these models. It remains uncertain if, in general, mate-choice models can be realistically analyzed. Although it is clear that females frequently discriminate among males, data also suggest that females may typically have a very limited number of males from which to choose. The extent to which female choice under natural conditions is relatively random because of limited opportunities remains an open question for the majority of species. PMID:25906973

  8. Turkish Students' Career Choices in Engineering: Experiences from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavas, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cavas, Pinar; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    The shortfall of young people, particularly women, in the field of Science, Mathematics and Engineering (SME) has been shown in many national studies. Schreiner and Sjoberg (2007) indicated that boys outnumber girls in physics and engineering studies, while the gender balance is shifted towards the girls in studies including medicine, veterinary…

  9. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  10. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F. P.; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. Methods: German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25–30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Results: Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Conclusions: Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of

  11. Cost effective assay choice for rare disease study designs.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Desmond D; Porsch, Robert M; Cherny, Stacey S; Capra, Valeria; Merello, Elisa; De Marco, Patrizia; Sham, Pak C; Garcia-Barceló, Maria-Mercè

    2015-01-01

    High throughput assays tend to be expensive per subject. Often studies are limited not so much by the number of subjects available as by assay costs, making assay choice a critical issue. We have developed a framework for assay choice that maximises the number of true disease causing mechanisms 'seen', given limited resources. Although straightforward, some of the ramifications of our methodology run counter to received wisdom on study design. We illustrate our methodology with examples, and have built a website allowing calculation of quantities of interest to those designing rare disease studies. PMID:25648394

  12. Predicting the Influence of Demographic Differences and Schooling Experience in Adolescence on Occupational Choice in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Edward C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict occupational choices based on demographic variables and high school curriculum tracks. Based on an analysis of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data set that examined high school graduates' occupational choices in 2006, findings indicated that CTE graduates were 2.7 times more likely to…

  13. Rural clinician scarcity and job preferences of doctors and nurses in India: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Ryan, Mandy; Shroff, Zubin; Vujicic, Marko; Ramani, Sudha; Berman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable

  14. Modeling the Mental Health Practice Change Preferences of Educators: A Discrete-Choice Conjoint Experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Barwick, Melanie; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather; Ratcliffe, Jenna; Mielko, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Schools are sometimes slow to adopt evidence-based strategies for improving the mental health outcomes of students. This study used a discrete-choice conjoint experiment to model factors influencing the decision of educators to adopt strategies for improving children's mental health outcomes. A sample of 1,010 educators made choices between hypothetical mental health practice change strategies composed by systematically varying the four levels of 16 practice change attributes. Latent class analysis yielded two segments with different practice change preferences. Both segments preferred small-group workshops, conducted by engaging experts, teaching skills applicable to all students. Participants expressed little interest in Internet options. The support of colleagues, administrators, and unions exerted a strong influence on the practice change choices of both segments. The Change Ready segment, 77.1 % of the sample, was more intent on adopting new strategies to improve the mental health of students. They preferred that schools, rather than the provincial ministry of education, make practice change decisions, coaching was provided to all participants, and participants received post-training follow-up sessions. The Demand Sensitive segment (22.9 %) was less intent on practice change. They preferred that individual teachers make practice change decisions, recommended discretionary coaching, and chose no post-training follow-up support. This study emphasizes the complex social, organizational, and policy context within which educators make practice change decisions. Efforts to disseminate strategies to improve the mental health outcomes of students need to be informed by the preferences of segments of educators who are sensitive to different dimensions of the practice change process. In the absence of a broad consensus of educators, administrators, and unions, potentially successful practice changes are unlikely to be adopted. PMID:24563679

  15. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  16. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an

  17. Understanding the impact of economic evidence on clinical decision making: a discrete choice experiment in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Torbica, Aleksandra; Fattore, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the impact of cost-effectiveness information on clinical decision making using discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire administered to Italian cardiologists in June 2007 (n = 129 respondents, 1143 observations). The questionnaire asked clinicians to make choices between paired scenarios, across which three key dimensions were identified and varied: (1) quality of clinical evidence, (2) size of health gain (reduction of relative and absolute risk), and (3) economic impact (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio). A random effects probit model was used to estimate clinicians' preferences for the different dimensions, while the heterogeneity of preferences was tested in a model with interaction terms. Dominance tests were used to assess the consistency of responses. The results indicate that Italian cardiologists regard economic impact (cost-effectiveness) as an important factor in their decision making. Economic evidence is valued more highly among clinicians with a higher self-assessed level of knowledge regarding economic evaluation techniques, as well as among younger professionals (age<45). While relevant study limitations should be acknowledged, our results suggest that DCEs can be used to elicit clinicians' decision-making criteria and to inform the allocation of resources for future research in a logical manner. Italian cardiologists appear to take cost-effectiveness information into account when deciding whether to use new treatments. PMID:20207466

  18. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. PMID:27395825

  19. Discrete Choice Experiment to Evaluate Factors That Influence Preferences for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Dean A.; Diorio, Caroline; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial and fungal infections in pediatric oncology patients cause morbidity and mortality. The clinical utility of antimicrobial prophylaxis in children is uncertain and the personal utility of these agents is disputed. Objectives were to use a discrete choice experiment to: (1) describe the importance of attributes to parents and healthcare providers when deciding between use and non-use of antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis; and (2) estimate willingness-to-pay for prophylactic strategies. Methods Attributes were chances of infection, death and side effects, route of administration and cost of pharmacotherapy. Respondents were randomized to a discrete choice experiment outlining hypothetical treatment options to prevent antibacterial or antifungal infections. Each respondent was presented 16 choice tasks and was asked to choose between two unlabeled treatment options and an opt-out alternative (no prophylaxis). Results 102 parents and 60 healthcare providers participated. For the antibacterial discrete choice experiment, frequency of administration was significantly associated with utility for parents but not for healthcare providers. Increasing chances of infection, death, side effects and cost were all significantly associated with decreased utility for parents and healthcare providers in both the antibacterial and antifungal discrete choice experiment. Parental willingness-to-pay was higher than healthcare providers for both strategies. Conclusion Chances of infection, death, side effects and costs were all significantly associated with utility. Parents have higher willingness-to-pay for these strategies compared with healthcare providers. This knowledge can help to develop prophylaxis programs. PMID:23082169

  20. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. Setting A large university in the Southeastern USA. Participants Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Design Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Outcome measures Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. Results On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Conclusions Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. PMID:26353876

  1. The description-experience gap in risky choice in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Sarah R; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2016-04-01

    Risk attitudes in humans depend on the format used to present the gamble: we are more risk-averse for common gambles in the gains domain whose properties are described to us verbally than for those whose properties we learned about solely through experience. This difference, which constitutes part of the description-experience gap, is important, because it highlights the role of knowledge acquisition in decision-making. The reasons for the gap remain obscure, but could depend upon uniquely human cognitive abilities, such as those associated with language. Thus, the gap may or may not extend to nonhuman animals. For this study, rhesus monkeys performed a novel task in which the properties of some gambles were explicitly cued (described), whereas others were learned through previous choices (experienced). Our monkeys displayed a description-experience gap. Overall, monkeys were more risk-seeking for experienced than for described gambles. This difference was observed for a range of gamble probabilities (from 20% to 80% likelihood of payoff), indicating that it is not limited to low probability events. These results suggest that the description-experience gap does not depend on uniquely human cognitive abilities, such as those associated with language, and support the idea that epistemic influences on risk attitudes are evolutionarily ancient. PMID:26286883

  2. Accounting for Attribute-Level Non-Attendance in a Health Choice Experiment: Does it Matter?

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny; Hole, Arne Risa

    2015-07-01

    An extensive literature has established that it is common for respondents to ignore attributes of the alternatives within choice experiments. In most of the studies on attribute non-attendance, it is assumed that respondents consciously (or unconsciously) ignore one or more attributes of the alternatives, regardless of their levels. In this paper, we present a new line of enquiry and approach for modelling non-attendance in the context of investigating preferences for health service innovations. This approach recognises that non-attendance may not just be associated with attributes but may also apply to the attribute's levels. Our results show that respondents process each level of an attribute differently: while attending to the attribute, they ignore a subset of the attribute's levels. In such cases, the usual approach of assuming that respondents either attend to the attribute or not, irrespective of its levels, is erroneous and could lead to misguided policy recommendations. Our results indicate that allowing for attribute-level non-attendance leads to substantial improvements in the model fit and has an impact on estimated marginal willingness to pay and choice predictions. PMID:24798402

  3. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices. PMID:16442667

  4. Evaluating the welfare effects of improved wastewater treatment using a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Ezekiel N; Mungatana, Eric D

    2013-07-15

    This paper employs the discrete choice experiment method to estimate the benefits of improved wastewater treatment programs to mitigate the impacts of water pollution in Nairobi, Kenya. Urban and peri-urban farmers who use wastewater for irrigation from Motoine to Ngong River in Nairobi were randomly selected for the study. A random parameter logit model was used to estimate the individual level willingness to pay for the wastewater treatment before reuse in irrigation. The results show that urban and peri-urban farmers are willing to pay significant monthly municipality taxes for treatment of wastewater. We find that the quality of treated wastewater, the quantity of treated wastewater and the riverine ecosystem restoration are significant factors of preference over alternative policy designs in reduction of water pollution. PMID:23583865

  5. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. PMID:22044643

  6. [Choice experiment method and its application to solid waste management in Macao].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhi-shi

    2006-04-01

    Economic valuation of environmental goods or services has been becoming a research frontier and hotspot of environmental economics in the world. Choice experiment (CE) is a relatively new method that can be used to value the economic benefits of environmental goods or services. This paper reports an attempt to apply the CE method in Macao that aimed to understand Macao residents' preferences for solid waste management programs. A random sample survey of 260 respondents in Macao was conducted during the summer in 2004. Survey data was analyzed using multinomial logit models. Results from 260 in-person interviews indicate that Macao residents preferred waste segregation and recycling at source and noise reduction during waste collection and transportation. The study concludes that CE is a reliable tool in the analysis of respondents' preferences for the development of suitable solid waste management programs in Macao. PMID:16768014

  7. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

  8. Implementing Academic Choice: A Self-Study in Evolving Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katrina E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine how implementing a new pedagogical structure, Academic Choice, informs my understanding of my students as learners and individuals. Using a self-study methodology over the course of eight working sessions in my Kindergarten classroom, I collected multiple forms of qualitative data, including student work…

  9. Bilingual Lexicon: Implications for Studies of Language Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Bilingual case study of infant acquiring Spanish and English from birth to 1;10 is used to address whether young bilinguals differentiate between their languages based on language choice. Daily diary records and weekly video recordings in the two language contexts were used to construct the child's lexicon and establish that translation…

  10. Eliciting community preferences for complementary micro health insurance: a discrete choice experiment in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kwalamasa, Kassim; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-11-01

    There is a limited understanding of preferences for micro health insurance (MHI) as a strategy for moving towards universal health coverage. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), we explored community preferences for the attributes and attribute-levels of a prospective MHI scheme, aimed at filling health coverage gaps in Malawi. Through a qualitative study informed by a literature review, we identified six MHI attributes (and attribute-levels): unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, copayment levels, transportation coverage, and monthly premium per person. Qualitative data was collected from 12 focus group discussions and 8 interviews in August-September, 2012. We constructed a D-efficient design of eighteen choice-sets, each comprising two MHI choice alternatives and an opt-out. Using pictorial images, trained interviewers administered the DCE in March-May, 2013, to 814 household heads and/or their spouse(s) in two rural districts. We estimated preferences for attribute-levels and relative importance of attributes using conditional and nested logit models. The results showed that all attribute-levels except management by external NGO significantly influenced respondents' choice behavior (P<0.05). These included: enrollment as core nuclear family (odds ratio (OR)=1.1574), extended family (OR=1.1132), compared to individual; management by community committee (OR=0.9494) compared to local micro finance institution; comprehensive health service package (OR=1.4621), medium service package (OR=1.2761), compared to basic service package; no copayment (OR=1.1347), 25% copayment (OR=1.1090), compared to 50% copayment; coverage of all transport (OR=1.5841), referral and emergency transport (OR=1.2610), compared to no transport; and premium (OR=0.9994). The relative importance of attributes is ordered as: transport, health services benefits, enrollment unit, premium, copayment, and management. To maximize consumer utility and encourage

  11. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  12. Concurrent-Chains Schedules as a Method to Study Choice between Alcohol-Associated Conditioned Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive body of research using concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement has shown that choice for one of two differentially valued food-associated stimuli is dependent upon the overall temporal context in which those stimuli are embedded. The present experiments examined whether the concurrent chains procedure was useful for the study of…

  13. Prioritising patients for bariatric surgery: building public preferences from a discrete choice experiment into public policy

    PubMed Central

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Ratcliffe, Julie; Kendall, Elizabeth; Burton, Paul; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Harris, Paul; Krinks, Rachael; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To derive priority weights for access to bariatric surgery for obese adults, from the perspective of the public. Setting Australian public hospital system. Participants Adults (N=1994), reflecting the age and gender distribution of Queensland and South Australia. Primary and secondary outcome measures A discrete choice experiment in which respondents indicated which of two individuals with different characteristics should be prioritised for surgery in repeated hypothetical choices. Potential surgery recipients were described by seven key characteristics or attributes: body mass index (BMI), presence of comorbid conditions, age, family history, commitment to lifestyle change, time on the surgical wait list and chance of maintaining weight loss following surgery. A multinomial logit model was used to evaluate preferences and derive priority weights (primary analysis), with a latent class model used to explore respondent characteristics that were associated with variation in preference across the sample (see online supplementary analysis). Results A preference was observed to prioritise individuals who demonstrated a strong commitment to maintaining a healthy lifestyle as well as individuals categorised with very severe (BMI≥50 kg/m2) or (to a lesser extent) severe (BMI≥40 kg/m2) obesity, those who already have obesity-related comorbidity, with a family history of obesity, with a greater chance of maintaining weight loss or who had spent a longer time on the wait list. Lifestyle commitment was considered to be more than twice as important as any other criterion. There was little tendency to prioritise according to the age of the recipient. Respondent preferences were dependent on their BMI, previous experience with weight management surgery, current health state and education level. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of the publics’ preferences for priority setting to the context of bariatric surgery, and derives priority weights

  14. The Influence of First-Year Chemistry Students' Learning Experiences on Their Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here examined factors that influence student tertiary level chemistry enrolment choices. Students enrolled in a first-year chemistry class were surveyed, using the Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ), three times throughout their academic year: at the start of the year (n=126), the end of the first…

  15. Modelling the Preferences of Students for Alternative Assignment Designs Using the Discrete Choice Experiment Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Brendan; Flannery, Darragh; Considine, John; Doherty, Edel; Hynes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines how a discrete choice experiment (DCE) can be used to learn more about how students are willing to trade off various features of assignments such as the nature and timing of feedback and the method used to submit assignments. A DCE identifies plausible levels of the key attributes of a good or service and then presents the…

  16. Making pragmatic choices: women’s experiences of delivery care in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched the Health Extension Programme (HEP), which was intended to increase access to reproductive health care. Despite enormous effort, utilization of maternal health services remains limited, and the reasons for the low utilization of the services offered through the HEP previously have not been explored in depth. This study explores women’s experiences and perceptions regarding delivery care in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia, and enables us to make suggestions for better implementation of maternal health care services in this setting. Methods We used six focus group discussions with 51 women to explore perceptions and experiences regarding delivery care. The data were analysed by means of grounded theory. Results One core category emerged, ‘making pragmatic choices’, which connected the categories ‘aiming for safer deliveries’, ‘embedded in tradition’, and ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’. In this setting, women – aiming for safer deliveries – made choices pragmatically between the two available models of childbirth. On the one hand, choice of home delivery, represented by the category ‘embedded in tradition’, was related to their faith, the ascendancy of elderly women, the advantages of staying at home and the custom of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). On the other, institutional delivery, represented by the category ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’, and linked to how women appreciated medical resources and the support of health extension workers (HEWs) but were uncertain about the quality of care, emphasized the barriers to transportation. In Tigray women made choices pragmatically and seemed to not feel any conflict between the two available models, being supported by traditional birth attendants, HEWs and husbands in their decision-making. Representatives of the two models were not as open to collaboration as the women

  17. Quantum delayed-choice experiment in an environment with arbitrary white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueiras, J. G.; Sarthour, R. S.; Souza, A. M.; Oliveira, I. S.; Serra, R. M.; Céleri, L. C.

    2013-06-01

    The development of quantum technologies depends on the investigation of the behaviour of quantum systems in noisy environments, since complete isolation from its environment is impossible to achieve. In this paper, we show that the main features of a quantum delayed-choice experiment hold even if performed in a system with an arbitrary level of white noise. In light of our results, we analyse recent optical and NMR experiments and show that a loophole on non-locality is not fundamental.

  18. An experimental field study of weight salience and food choice.

    PubMed

    Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C; Finch, Laura E; Buss, Julia; Guardino, Christine M; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory research has found that individuals will consume more calories and make unhealthy food choices when in the presence of an overweight individual, sometimes even regardless of what that individual is eating. This study expanded these laboratory paradigms to the field to examine how weight salience influences eating in the real world. More specifically, we tested the threshold of the effect of weight salience of food choice to see if a more subtle weight cue (e.g., images) would be sufficient to affect food choice. Attendees (N = 262) at Obesity Week 2013, a weight-salient environment, viewed slideshows containing an image of an overweight individual, an image of a thin individual, or no image (text only), and then selected from complimentary snacks. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that participants who viewed the image of the overweight individual had higher odds of selecting the higher calorie snack compared to those who viewed the image of the thin individual (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.04, 3.04]), or no image (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = [1.29, 4.54]). Perceiver BMI category did not moderate the influence of image on food choice, as these results occurred regardless of participant BMI. These findings suggest that in the context of societal weight salience, weight-related cues alone may promote unhealthy eating in the general public. PMID:25698080

  19. Matching, undermatching, and overmatching in studies of choice

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1979-01-01

    Almost all of 103 sets of data from 23 different studies of choice conformed closely to the equation: log (B1/B2) = a log (r1/r2) + log b, where B1 and B2 are either numbers of responses or times spent at Alternatives 1 and 2, r1 and r2 are the rates of reinforcement obtained from Alternatives 1 and 2, and a and b are empirical constants. Although the matching relation requires the slope a to equal 1.0, the best-fitting values of a frequently deviated from this. For B1 and B2 measured as numbers of responses, a tended to fall short of 1.0 (undermatching). For B1 and B2 measured as times, a fell to both sides of 1.0, with the largest mode at about 1.0. Those experiments that produced values of a for both responses and time revealed only a rough correspondence between the two values; a was often noticeably larger for time. Statistical techniques for assessing significance of a deviation of a from 1.0 suggested that values of a between .90 and 1.11 can be considered good approximations to matching. Of the two experimenters who contributed the most data, one generally found undermatching, while the other generally found matching. The difference in results probably arises from differences in procedure. The procedural variations that lead to undermatching appear to be those that produce (a) asymmetrical pausing that favors the poorer alternative; (b) systematic temporal variation in preference that favors the poorer alternative; and (c) patterns of responding that involve changing over between alternatives or brief bouts at the alternatives. PMID:501274

  20. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A qualitative study of the patterns in STEM students' higher education choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette

    2015-06-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of students' construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students' sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students' social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students' choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students' interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense.

  1. Modeling the hospital safety partnership preferences of patients and their families: a discrete choice conjoint experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E; Hutchings, Tracy; Henderson, Jennifer; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients and their families play an important role in efforts to improve health service safety. Objective The objective of this study is to understand the safety partnership preferences of patients and their families. Method We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the safety partnership preferences of 1,084 patients or those such as parents acting on their behalf. Participants made choices between hypothetical safety partnerships composed by experimentally varying 15 four-level partnership design attributes. Results Participants preferred an approach to safety based on partnerships between patients and staff rather than a model delegating responsibility for safety to hospital staff. They valued the opportunity to participate in point of service safety partnerships, such as identity and medication double checks, that might afford an immediate risk reduction. Latent class analysis yielded two segments. Actively engaged participants (73.3%) comprised outpatients with higher education, who anticipated more benefits to safety partnerships, were more confident in their ability to contribute, and were more intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer a personal engagement strategy, valued scientific evidence, preferred a more active approach to safety education, and advocated disclosure of errors. The passively engaged segment (26.7%) anticipated fewer benefits, were less confident in their ability to contribute, and were less intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer an engagement strategy based on signage. They preferred that staff explain why they thought patients should help make care safer and decide whether errors were disclosed. Inpatients, those with immigrant backgrounds, and those with less education were more likely to be in this segment. Conclusion Health services need to communicate information regarding risks, ask about partnership preferences, create opportunities respecting individual differences, and

  2. Preferences of overweight and obese patients for weight loss programmes: a discrete-choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mühlbacher, Axel; Bethge, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality and also appears to have an adverse effect on health-related quality of life. Though advances in obesity therapy and rehabilitation can be observed, the long-lasting outcome is dissatisfying to most of the patients and, therefore, the whole health care system. Theory and methodology The study aims to identify key attributes of coordinated weight loss programmes and elicit patients’ preferences for overweight and obesity therapy in rehabilitation programmes. A self-administered survey measuring attitudes and preferences was conducted in Germany in 2009. Discrete-choice experiment scenarios were developed using a fractional factorial design and results analysed using a random effects logit model. Results N=110 patients completed the questionnaire, 51.82% of these were male, the mean age was 53.05 years and mean body mass index was 33.54 kg/m2 (SD 7.73). A total of 823 choices could be included in the final estimation. The most important aspects for the respondents’ selection were care coordination (coefficient 1.473; SE 0.185) and individual therapy (coefficient 1.446; SE 0.188). The aspect ‘infrastructure of care’ (coefficient 0.570; SE 0.175) was less relevant. All attributes led to significant coefficients. Conclusion Patients value coordination of care and individual therapy most highly. So weight reduction therapy should enable patients to receive a structured, coordinated and interpersonal therapy that is tailored to their personal needs, behaviour and circumstances. Patients are willing to forego infrastructure quality in favour of better coordination and structure in their therapy. PMID:24179457

  3. Heterogeneous HIV Testing Preferences in an Urban Setting in Tanzania: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Brown, Derek S.; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through treatment rely on HIV testing programs that are acceptable to broad populations. Yet, testing preferences among diverse at-risk populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) to evaluate factors that influence HIV-testing preferences in a low-resource setting. Methods Using formative work, a pilot study, and pretesting, we developed a DCE survey with five attributes: distance to testing, confidentiality, testing days (weekday vs. weekend), method for obtaining the sample for testing (blood from finger or arm, oral swab), and availability of HIV medications at the testing site. Cluster-randomization and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) sampling methodology were used to enroll 486 community members, ages 18–49, in an urban setting in Northern Tanzania. Interviewer-assisted DCEs, presented to participants on iPads, were administered between September 2012 and February 2013. Results Nearly three of five males (58%) and 85% of females had previously tested for HIV; 20% of males and 37% of females had tested within the past year. In gender-specific mixed logit analyses, distance to testing was the most important attribute to respondents, followed by confidentiality and the method for obtaining the sample for the HIV test. Both unconditional assessments of preferences for each attribute and mixed logit analyses of DCE choice patterns suggest significant preference heterogeneity among participants. Preferences differed between males and females, between those who had previously tested for HIV and those who had never tested, and between those who tested in the past year and those who tested more than a year ago. Conclusion The findings suggest potentially significant benefits from tailoring HIV testing interventions to match the preferences of specific populations, including males and females and those who

  4. Event-by-event simulation of a quantum delayed-choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donker, Hylke C.; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-12-01

    The quantum delayed-choice experiment of Tang et al. (2012) is simulated on the level of individual events without making reference to concepts of quantum theory or without solving a wave equation. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the quantum theoretical predictions of this experiment. The implication of the work presented in the present paper is that the experiment of Tang et al. can be explained in terms of cause-and-effect processes in an event-by-event manner.

  5. Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Coast, Joanna; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Sutton, Eileen J; Horrocks, Susan A; Vosper, A Jane; Swancutt, Dawn R; Flynn, Terry N

    2012-06-01

    Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies. PMID:21557381

  6. Understanding HIV-positive patients' preferences for healthcare services: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Elaney; Cooper, Vanessa; Miners, Alec; Llewellyn, Carrie; Pollard, Alex; Lagarde, Mylene; Sachikonye, Memory; Sabin, Caroline; Foreman, Claire; Perry, Nicky; Nixon, Eileen; Fisher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the care of HIV-positive patients, including the detection and management of comorbidities, has historically been provided in HIV specialist outpatient clinics, recent years have seen a greater involvement of non-HIV specialists and general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study is to determine whether patients would prefer to see their GP or HIV physician given general symptoms, and to understand what aspects of care influence their preferences. Methods/analysis We have developed and piloted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to better understand patients' preferences for care of non-HIV-related acute symptoms. The design of the DCE was informed by our exploratory research, including the findings of a systematic literature review and a qualitative study. Additional questionnaire items have been included to measure demographics, service use and experience of non-HIV illnesses and quality of life (EQ5D). We plan to recruit 1000 patients from 14 HIV clinics across South East England. Data will be analysed using random-effects logistic regression and latent class analysis. ORs and 95% CIs will be used to estimate the relative importance of each of the attribute levels. Latent class analysis will identify whether particular groups of people value the service attribute levels differently. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Newcastle and North Tyneside Research Ethics Committee (reference number 14/NE/1193). The results will be disseminated at national and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. A study report, written in plain English, will be made available to all participants. The Patient Advisory Group will develop a strategy for wider dissemination of the findings to patients and the public. PMID:27431895

  7. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  8. Residents' preferences for household kitchen waste source separation services in Beijing: a choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents' preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  9. Decision-Making Training for Occupational Choice and Early Turnover: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazy, Asya; Ganzach, Yoav; Davidov, Yariv

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The study seeks to examine how a short intervention, aimed at enhancing occupational choice skills, influences turnover during the early stages of organizational membership. It seeks to explore two theoretical rationales for this effect: social exchange and self-determination. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a "constructive…

  10. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons’ job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary’s provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Results: Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons’ attraction and retention in rural areas. Conclusion: A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons’ retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. PMID:26885340

  11. Willingness-To-Accept Pharmaceutical Retail Inconvenience: Evidence from a Contingent Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Keith; Stoecker, Charles; Cunningham, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Restrictions on retail purchases of pseudoephedrine are one regulatory approach to reduce the social costs of methamphetamine production and use, but may impose costs on legitimate users of nasal decongestants. This is the first study to evaluate the costs of restricting access to medications on consumer welfare. Our objective was to measure the inconvenience cost consumers place on restrictions for cold medication purchases including identification requirements, purchase limits, over-the-counter availability, prescription requirements, and the active ingredient. Methods We conducted a contingent choice experiment with Amazon Mechanical Turk workers that presented participants with randomized, hypothetical product prices and combinations of restrictions that reflect the range of public policies. We used a conditional logit model to calculate willingness-to-accept each restriction. Results Respondents’ willingness-to-accept prescription requirements was $14.17 ($9.76–$18.58) and behind-the-counter restrictions was $9.68 ($7.03–$12.33) per box of pseudoephedrine product. Participants were willing to pay $4.09 ($1.66–$6.52) per box to purchase pseudoephedrine-based products over phenylephrine-based products. Conclusions Restricting access to medicines as a means of reducing the social costs of non-medical use can imply large inconvenience costs for legitimate consumers. These results are relevant to discussions of retail access restrictions on other medications. PMID:26024444

  12. Residential preferences for river network improvement: an exploration of choice experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers. PMID:25011532

  13. Residential Preferences for River Network Improvement: An Exploration of Choice Experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.

  14. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  15. The School Choice Market in China: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast to the top-down government-designated school choice programmes in many countries, e.g. in the UK and USA in particular, school choice in the Chinese context is a bottom-up movement initiated by parents and is characterised by the payment of a substantial "choice fee" to the preferred school, and by competition by…

  16. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  17. Understanding women's choices to enroll in engineering: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eileen

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) college programs is a troublesome local, national and global phenomenon. The topic of this doctoral thesis specifically focused on the underrepresentation of women in the field of engineering and more specifically on the factors that women may perceive as chiefly motivating them to choose engineering as a college major. By not choosing to major in engineering, women forego intellectual opportunities and the financial rewards that engineering careers can provide. Their absence means that the field of engineering also suffers from the lack of contributions from a diverse workforce. Women who graduated from a specific community college's engineering program in the United States were the focus of this qualitative study. Grounded in achievement motivation theory, and in particular expectancy-value theory of academic and career choice, this research was guided by two questions: How do women perceive their academic self-efficacies and expectations for success as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? How do women perceive their subjective task values as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? This single, holistic case study with one main unit of analysis incorporated a written questionnaire, individual interviews and a focus group meeting as the three instruments used to collect data. The qualitative data, cyclically coded, shed light on the complex mechanisms of academic and career choice.

  18. The influence student placement experience can have on the employment choices of graduates: A paediatric nursing context.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Turner, Danni; Bell, Elaine; Russell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how the student placement experience may influence employment choices in the context of paediatric nursing. A qualitative research methodology was used. Data was collected using semi structured interviews at a tertiary teaching hospital. The sample group comprised of six newly qualified nurses who had completed their Bachelor of Nursing less than 12 months before the interview. They had completed at least one clinical placement at the site of data collection in their 2nd or 3rd year of undergraduate nursing studies. The main themes contributing to the student nurse experience within the context of paediatric nursing included the wish to work with children, a job being available, support during clinical placements and assistance with future career planning while on placement. The support experienced by student nurses during their clinical placement was seen to have a very positive influence on their future employment choices. Group de-briefing to support mutual understanding and sharing was seen to be a highly positive aspect of a clinical placement. Also how students were treated by clinical staff was a key factor that influenced future employment choices. PMID:26497419

  19. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a technology-based program for 2-year community college students to help prevent unhealthy weight gain. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) provide a brief background on weight-related interventions in young adults; 2) describe the study design for the CHOICES study, the conceptual model guiding the research and the CHOICES intervention; and 3) discuss implications of this research for health educators. Translation to Health Education Practice Our experiences from the CHOICES study will be useful in suggesting other theory-based models and intervention strategies that might be helpful in programs attempting to prevent unhealthy weight gain in young adults. In addition, this paper discusses important considerations for working with 2-year colleges on this type of health promotion work. PMID:24910855

  20. Temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration in Austria using a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Bliem, Markus; Getzner, Michael; Rodiga-Laßnig, Petra

    2012-07-30

    Temporal stability of values (environmental preferences) is usually considered to be an indicator of the reliability of a valuation instrument because the values can be "reproduced" by follow-up experiments. The objective of this paper is to test temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration by employing two identical choice experiments with a time difference of one year. We compared the results of two surveys carried out on the stretch of the Danube River between the Austrian capital of Vienna and the border to the Slovak Republic in 2007 and 2008. The choice experiment method considered economic costs and benefits of ecological improvements along the river, in order to value environmental resources. Using a multinomial logit and a mixed logit model for the two samples and a pooled sample, we found that preferences and willingness-to-pay estimates for program attributes are not sensitive to time. The results suggest that, in the absence of an extreme event, individual preferences are robust over a short time period. PMID:22459072

  1. A proposal to implement a quantum delayed choice experiment assisted by cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, N. G.; Avelar, A. T.; Cardoso, W. B.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a scheme with current technology to implement a quantum delayed-choice experiment in the realm of cavity QED. Our scheme uses two-level atoms interacting on and off resonantly with a single mode of a high Q cavity. At the end of the protocol, the state of the cavity returns to its ground state, allowing new sequential operations. The particle and wave behavior, which are verified in a single experimental setup, are postselected after the atomic states are selectively detected.

  2. Restrictive Food Intake As A Choice – A Paradigm for Study

    PubMed Central

    Steinglass, Joanna; Foerde, Karin; Kostro, Katrina; Shohamy, Daphna; Timothy Walsh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Inadequate intake and preference for low-calorie foods are salient behavioral features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pathological food choice have not been characterized. This study aimed to develop a new paradigm for experimentally modeling maladaptive food choice in AN. Method: Individuals with AN (n=22) and healthy controls (HC, n=20) participated in a computer-based Food Choice Task, adapted for individuals with eating disorders. Participants first rated 43 food images (including high-fat and low-fat items) for Healthiness and Tastiness; an item rated neutral on both blocks was then selected as the Reference item. On each of 42 subsequent trials participants were asked to choose between the food item presented and the Reference item. Results: The AN group was less likely to choose high-fat foods relative to HC, as evidenced both in multilevel logistic regression (z=2.59, p=0.009) and ANOVA (F(1,39)=7.80, p=0.008) analyses. Health ratings influenced choice significantly more in AN relative to HC (z=2.7, p=0.006), and were more related to Taste among AN (χ2=4.10, p=0.04). Additionally, Taste ratings declined with duration of illness(r=−0.50, p=0.02). Conclusions: The Food Choice Task captures the preference for low-fat foods among individuals with AN. The findings suggest that the experience of tastiness changes over time and may contribute to perpetuation of illness. By providing an experimental quantitative measure of food restriction, this task opens the door to new experimental investigations into the cognitive, affective and neural factors contributing to maladaptive food choices characteristic of AN. PMID:25130380

  3. Who's choosing whom? A sociological study of the specialty choices in a Danish context

    PubMed Central

    Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate if habitus, the unconscious and embodied mental structures founded early in life, can contribute to our understanding of how individuals choose a medical specialty. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using standardized open-ended interviews. In the present research, sampling was purposive, with an aim to illuminating the study objective. A sample of six juniors and three senior doctors were recruited from gynecology and obstetrics, vascular surgery and general practice via a snowball method. The interview guide and the subsequent analysis were based on Bourdieu’s sociological theory. Results Three central themes emerged, labeled as “the use of distinctions and dichotomies”, “the shaping of habitus” and “consequences of the shaping of habitus”. These represent values and preferences developed through childhood education and experiences which may contribute to explaining specialty choices. Participants distinguished between specialties by referring to dichotomous characteristics of the specialty (such as sick/healthy patients; young/elderly patients; fine/coarse surgery). Conclusions Bourdieu’s theory is useful for broadening our understanding of specialty choice, as his central concept, habitus, was found to direct the choice of specialty and constrain the number of possible specialties for the individual doctor. Research is needed to better understand how various factors affect the specialty choices of medical school graduates.

  4. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F.; McColl, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics? Methods We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Results Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Conclusions Cash or shopping voucher

  5. Women’s preferences for inpatient and outpatient priming for labour induction: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries a high proportion of births begin as induced labours. Induction can be lengthy if cervical priming is required prior to induction. This usually occurs as an inpatient, however, an alternative is to allow women to go home after satisfactory fetal monitoring. The aim of this study was to assess the preferences of women for cervical priming for induction of labour in an outpatient or inpatient setting. Method A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted alongside a randomised trial of inpatient and outpatient cervical priming (the OPRA trial) in two maternity hospitals in South Australia. 362 participants were included, and women’s preferences for cervical priming for induction of labour were assessed. Results Women were willing to accept an extra 1.4 trips to hospital (2.4 trips total) and a total travel time of 73.3 minutes to be able to return to their own home while waiting for the priming to work. For enhanced inpatient services, women were willing to accept a total travel time of 54.7 minutes to have a private room with private bathroom while waiting for the priming to work. The overall benefit score for outpatient priming was 3.63, 3.59 for enhanced inpatient care and 2.89 for basic inpatient care, suggesting slightly greater preferences for outpatient priming. Preferences for outpatient priming increased when women could return to their own home (compared to other offsite accommodation), and decreased with more trips to hospital and longer travel time. Conclusions Our results suggest that outpatient priming was slightly more preferred than either enhanced inpatient priming or basic care; these results should be confirmed in different clinical settings. There may be merit in providing women information about both options in the future, as preferences varied according to the characteristics of the services on offer and the sociodemographic background of the woman. PMID:25073486

  6. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes. PMID:24858928

  7. Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

    2012-01-01

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

  8. The reversed description-experience gap: Disentangling sources of presentation format effects in risky choice.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Henninger, Felix; Fiedler, Susann

    2016-04-01

    Previous literature has suggested that risky choice patterns in general--and probability weighting in particular--are strikingly different in experience-based as compared with description-based formats. In 2 reanalyses and 3 new experiments, we investigate differences between experience-based and description-based decisions using a parametric approach based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Once controlling for sampling biases, we consistently find a reversal of the typical description-experience gap, that is, a reduced sensitivity to probabilities and increased overweighting of small probabilities in decisions from experience as compared with decisions from descriptions. This finding supports the hypothesis that regression to the mean effects in probability estimation are a crucial source of differences between both presentation formats. Further analyses identified task specific information asymmetry prevalent in gambles involving certainty as a third source of differences. We present a novel conceptualization of multiple independent sources of bias that contribute to the description-experience gap, namely sampling biases and task specific information asymmetry on the one hand, and regression to the mean effects in probability estimation on the other hand. PMID:26974209

  9. Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G

    2014-12-01

    Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes. PMID:25371062

  10. The best laid plans? Women's choices, expectations and experiences in childbirth.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Claudia; Boulton, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have seen a drastic increase in the medicalization of childbirth, evidenced by increasing Caesarean section rates in many Western countries. In a rare moment of congruence, alternative health-care providers, feminist advocates for women's health and, most recently, mainstream medical service providers have all expressed serious concerns about the rise in Caesarean section rates and women's roles in medicalization. These concerns stem from divergent philosophical positions as well as differing assumptions about the causes for increasing medicalization. Drawing on this debate, and using a feminist and governmentality framing of the problem, we interviewed 22 women who have recently had children about their birthing choices, their expectations and their birth experiences. The women's narratives revealed a disjuncture between their expectations of choosing, planning and achieving as natural a birth as possible, and their lived experiences of births that did not typically go to plan. They also reveal the disciplining qualities of both natural and medical discourses about birth and choice. Furthermore, their narratives counter assumptions that women, as ideal patient consumers, are driving medicalization. PMID:23426792

  11. The Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and the influence of the presenting context: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul; Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Julie; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study seeks to quantify the Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and determine if preferences differ depending on presenting circumstances. Setting Increasing presentations to emergency departments have led to overcrowding, long waiting times and suboptimal health system performance. Accordingly, new service models involving the provision of care in alternative settings and delivered by other practitioners continue to be developed. Participants A stratified sample of Australian adults (n=1838), 1382 from Queensland and 456 from South Australia, completed the survey. This included 951 females and 887 males from the 2045 people who met the screening criteria out of the 4354 people who accepted the survey invitation. Interventions A discrete choice experiment was used to elicit preferences in the context of one of four hypothetical scenarios: a possible concussion, a rash/asthma-related problem involving oneself or one's child and an anxiety-related presentation. Mixed logit regression was used to analyse the dependent variable choice and identify the relative importance of care attributes and the propensity to access care in each context. Results Results indicated a preference for treatment by an emergency physician in hospital for possible concussion and treatment by a doctor in ambulatory settings for rash/asthma-related and anxiety-related problems. Participants were consistently willing to wait longer before making trade-offs in the context of the rash/asthma-related scenario compared with when the same problem affected their child. Results suggest a clear preference for lower costs, shorter wait times and strong emphasis on quality care; however, significant preference heterogeneity was observed. Conclusions This study has increased awareness that the public's emergency care choices will differ depending on the presenting context. It has further demonstrated the importance of service quality as a determinant of

  12. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  13. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  14. Realization of an entanglement-assisted quantum delayed-choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tao; Li, Hang; Wang, Bi-Xue; Long, Gui-Lu

    2015-08-01

    The puzzling properties of quantum mechanics, i.e., wave-particle duality, entanglement, and superposition, have been dissected experimentally over the past decades. However, hidden-variable (HV) models based on three classical assumptions of wave-particle objectivity, determinism, and independence strive to explain the same experiments or even defeat quantum mechanics. Meanwhile, the steady development of quantum technologies continues to enable us to test experimentally the predictions of quantum mechanics and HV theories. We report an experimental demonstration of an entanglement-assisted quantum delayed-choice scheme using a liquid nuclear magnetic resonance quantum-information processor. This experiment is based on the recently proposed scheme [R. Ionicioiu et al., Nat. Commun. 5. 3997 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms5997], which predicted different results for quantum mechanics and HV theories. In our experiments, the intensities and the visibilities of the interference are consistent with the theoretical predictions of quantum mechanics. The results show that a contradiction with the experiments is indeed appearing when all three assumptions of the HV models are combined, though any two of those assumptions are compatible with the experiments.

  15. Study on simple reaction and choice times in patients with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Medina, Jose A; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Amador-Licona, Norma; Cardona-Torres, Luz M; Galicia-Resendiz, Delia; Diaz-Carmona, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A study on simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time in patients having diabetes is described in this paper. The study was applied to fourteen patients with type I diabetes, as well as to fourteen non-diabetic persons. The research is based on two visual signal perception experiments, both implemented on a computer based environment. The SRT experiment consisted on measuring participants' reaction times to a light change event in a simulated traffic light scenario. The choice reaction time was studied through the performance indexes (d') achieved by participants in a two alternative forced experiment, where a known visual signal is identified from two noisy images. According to the obtained results, the diabetic patients' SRTs were an average of 24% longer than the reaction time of non-diabetic persons, in the same way a significant average difference of 41% was obtained in the efficient index d' too. A positive correlation of 0.6594 between the time periods since diabetes has been diagnosed and the average SRTs of diabetic patients was obtained, also significant correlation differences between age of all experiments participants and resulting variables, SRTs and d', were observed; for instance the correlation factor between participants' ages and their average SRTs was -0.8529 for diabetic patients, meanwhile a value of -0.2905 was obtained for non-diabetic persons. The evidence suggests that the time period since diabetes has been diagnosed notably affects motor and sensorial systems maturity, and consequently conduction speed of sural and peroneal nerves. PMID:23402936

  16. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods: To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results: Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the

  17. Given the Choice: A Study of the PAVE Program and School Choice in Milwaukee. Policy Study No. 183.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beales, Janet R.; Wahl, Maureen

    In response to declining student performance in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS), the Wisconsin State Legislature and the private sector each created programs to give school choice to low-income students. In 1990-91 the Legislature implemented the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). About 750 students received government-funded tuition…

  18. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    PubMed

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method. PMID:27256562

  19. Perch compliance and experience affect destination choice of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    PubMed

    Mauro, A Alexander; Jayne, C Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input. PMID:26723759

  20. The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R; Salinas, Zenia M

    2002-06-01

    Many nations promote nature-based tourism in order to promote the dual goals of nature conservation and income generation. To be most effective in providing services that facilitate achievement of these goals, decision makers will need to understand and incorporate tourist preferences for nature appreciation, infrastructure, use restrictions, and other attributes of national parks and protected areas. This paper presents the use of choice experiments as a mechanism to analyze preferences of national and international tourists in relation to the development of Barva Volcano Area in Costa Rica. In this section of the Braulio Carrillo National Park, managers are faced with an immediate need to plan for greatly increased visitation rates due to a new road, which will greatly improve access. Choice sets were developed in collaboration with park managers. A survey was conducted of 171 Costa Rican and 271 foreign tourists who visited Poás Volcano, a well-visited alternative site to Barva Volcano. Survey data was analyzed using conditional multinomial logit models. Results of the study demonstrate, that both sets of tourists preferred: (i) improved infrastructure; (ii) aerial trams with observation towers and picnic areas; (iii) more information; and (iv) low entrance fees. Foreign tourists demonstrated strong preferences for the inclusion of restrictions in the access to some trails, whereas Costa Ricans did not show any significant preference for restrictions. Marginal willingness-to-pay for greater information was estimated to be $1.54 for foreign tourists and $1.01 for Costa Rican visitors. The study concludes that choice experiments are a useful tool in the analyses of tourist preferences for the development of protected areas in developing countries. PMID:12197077

  1. Graduate Students Have an Unprecedented Range of Choices as Ph.D. Offerings in Black Studies Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cage, Mary Crystal

    1996-01-01

    Sudden growth in the number of doctoral programs in black studies is helping to legitimize the discipline in academe, and diversity of curricula is providing students with many more choices of emphasis. Programs have a wide range of focus, from the broadest, the black American experience, to the African diaspora and comparative black studies.…

  2. The Importance of Place for International Students' Choice of University: A Case Study at a Malaysian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jasvir Kaur Nachatar; Schapper, Jan; Jack, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The scholarly bias toward Western and English-speaking settings in the study of international education overlooks the experiences of international students in emerging education hubs in Asia. To redress this imbalance, this article offers insights into the crucial role of place in the study destination choices of a group of international…

  3. Women's Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women's preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  4. Effects of chlordiazepoxide, food familiarization, and prior shock experience on food choice in rats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S J; McClelland, A

    1980-01-01

    Chlordiazepoxide (5, 10 mg/kg) increased the time devoted to eating familiar laboratory chow without altering the response to a range of novel, palatable foods which were also available to the food-deprived rats. Prior experience with the same range of alternative foods (food familiarization) radically changed the effect of the drug. After familiarization with these foods, chow was virtually ignored as a food choice, indicating its low relative palatability; chlordiazepoxide then prolonged the time eating the familiarized foods without significantly increasing the response to chow. These results are not consistent with an anti-food neophobia action of chordiazepoxide. They suggest instead that chlordiazepoxide enhances feeding responses related to food saliency. Footshock, delivered two days before the food choice test affected performance within the test. Its effects were opposite those of chlordiazepoxide, but they competed additively with the drug's effects. These results indicate that chlordiazepoxide's action was not simply to remove any inhibitory effect on feeding produced by fear; instead the drug promoted approach to food antagonizing any deficit in approach associated with fear. These findings are viewed as consistent with an action of chlordiazepoxide to augment the level of feeding motivation. Chlordiazepoxide (15 mg/kg) may act to overcome food neophobia. PMID:7367459

  5. Women’s Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women’s preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women’s sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  6. Patients’ preferences for attributes related to health care services at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Adugnaw; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2015-01-01

    Background Information from the patient’s point of view is essential in policy and clinical decisions. Prioritizing what patients value, need, and prefer in various aspects of a health program can be helpful in evaluating and designing hospital health care services. Objective To examine patients’ preference for attributes related to health care services and to ascertain the relative impact of attributes at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia. Methods A stated-preference discrete choice experiment survey was performed in multistage, stratified, and systematic sampling of patients who visited the hospitals. Attributes were selected based on a literature review of the most important characteristics of hospital health care service and reviewed and validated with inputs from patients and researchers in the field. Attributes included in the study were waiting time, physician communication, nursing communication, drug availability, continuity of care, and diagnostic facilities. A random-effects probit model was used to perform the analysis. Results One thousand and five respondents who received care in the outpatient and inpatient departments participated in the study. All attributes included in the study affected the choice of hospital. Patients were willing to wait up to 3.3 hours and 2.7 hours to get full drugs in the hospital and good nursing communication, respectively. The interaction terms indicate that preferences differ with the variables sex, occupation, and type of hospital. Patients expressed clear preferences in a decreasing order of all the significant attribute levels: a lot of diagnostic facilities, full drug availability, continuity of care, good nursing communication, partial drug availability, good physician communication, and shorter waiting time for the consultation. Conclusion Different hospital care attributes had a significant and different influence on patients’ choice of hospital. The study informs about patients’ preferences

  7. Metacognition and Control of Study Choice in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

    2013-01-01

    Middle childhood may be crucial for the development of metacognitive monitoring and study control processes. The first three experiments, using different materials, showed that Grade 3 and Grade 5 children exhibited excellent metacognitive resolution when asked to make delayed judgments of learning (JOLs, using an analogue scale) or binary…

  8. Are patients willing to pay for total shoulder arthroplasty? Evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Nathan N.; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Mohammadi, Tima; Marra, Carlo A.; Vicente, Milena R.; Khakban, Amir; McKee, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is a common treatment to decrease pain and improve shoulder function in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA). In Canada, patients requiring this procedure often wait a year or more. Our objective was to determine patient preferences related to accessing TSA, specifically comparing out-of-pocket payments for treatment, travel time to hospital, the surgeon’s level of experience and wait times. Methods We administered a discrete choice experiment among patients with end-stage shoulder OA currently waiting for TSA. Respondents were presented with 14 different choice sets, each with 3 options, and they were asked to choose their preferred scenario. A conditional logit regression model was used to estimate the relative preference and willingness to pay for each attribute. Results Sixty-two respondents completed the questionnaire. Three of the 4 attributes significantly influenced treatment preferences. Respondents had a strong preference for an experienced surgeon (mean 0.89 ± standard error [SE] 0.11), while reductions in travel time (−0.07 ± 0.04) or wait time (−0.04 ± 0.01) were of less importance. Respondents were found to be strongly averse (−1.44 ± 0.18) to surgical treatment by a less experienced surgeon and to paying out-of-pocket for their surgical treatment (−0.56 ± 0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that patients waiting for TSA to treat severe shoulder OA have minimal willingness to pay for a reduction in wait time or travel time for surgery, yet will pay higher amounts for treatment by an experienced surgeon. PMID:27007091

  9. Using Tourism Free-Choice Learning Experiences to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour: The Role of Post-Visit "Action Resources"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the need for the providers of ecotourism and other free-choice environmental learning experiences to promote the adoption of environmentally sustainable actions beyond their own sites, when visitors return to their home environments. Previous research indicates that although visitors often leave such experiences with a heightened…

  10. Economics: Choice Making. Social Studies I. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.

    The material in this secondary teacher's manual, Economics: Choice Making, the second of three sequential units in Course I, provides a foundation upon which subsequent courses will build. Objectives are for students to grasp economic principles which serve as fundamental tools needed to analyze basic facts and institutions of modern economic…

  11. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko; Kim, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program is to assist states and local school districts in the development of innovative strategies to expand options for students, and to encourage transfers of students from low-performing to higher-performing schools. This report presents interim findings from the National Evaluation of…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Personality and Choice of Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonge, George D.; Regan, Mary C.

    1975-01-01

    Several aspects of Holland's theory of vocational choice are examined using freshman and senior Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) and freshman Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) data for 833 men. Generally, evidence in support of Holland's theory is based on relationships which have been well established and known for a long time. (Author)

  13. CHOICE Reviews in Women's Studies, 1990-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLam, Helen, Ed.

    "CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries," a publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, provides academic librarians and faculty with concise, informed evaluations of significant recent scholarly publications--both print and electronic--in more than 40 disciplines spanning the humanities, science and technology, and…

  14. How Choice Changes the Education System: A Michigan Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David N.; Sykes, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents preliminary observations on how allowing some parents in Michigan to choose which schools their children attend affects the educational system. Asserts that the current enthusiasm for educational choice is an example of a broader effort to shift the responsibility for addressing deeply-rooted social and economic problems out of the public…

  15. Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment: A proposal for the Bragg-regime cavity-QED implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram, Manzoor; Imran, Muhammad; Abbas, Tasawar; Islam, Rameez-ul-

    2015-04-01

    Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment highlights strange features of quantum theory such as pre-sensing of the experimental setup by the quantum object and the role of time. A recent proposal for such an experiment with an interferometer having a quantum beam splitter (QBS) [R. Ionicioiu and D. R. Terno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 230406 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.230406] and its subsequent experimental implementations through photonics and NMR have produced results including the modification in the concept of complementarity. Here we propose a matter-wave Mach-Zehnder-Bragg cavity-QED interferometric setup with final QBS engineered through a cavity field that is taken initially in the superposition of zero and one photon. The setup operates through first-order off-resonant Bragg diffraction of the neutral atoms from the cavity fields with the matter wave's particle (wave) nature marked through the absence (presence) of a photon in the final cavity. The proposal, addressing the issue through atomic de Broglie waves, can be executed within the present cavity-QED experimental scenario with appreciable success probability and fidelity.

  16. Modeling the bullying prevention program preferences of educators: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne

    2009-10-01

    We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally varied combinations of the study's attribute levels. Latent class analysis yielded three segments with different preferences. Decision Sensitive educators (31%) preferred that individual schools select bullying prevention programs. In contrast, Support Sensitive educators (51%) preferred that local school boards chose bullying prevention programs. This segment preferred more logistical and social support at every stage of the adoption, training, implementation, and long term maintenance processes. Cost Sensitive educators (16%) showed a stronger preference for programs minimizing costs, training, and implementation time demands. They felt prevention programs were less effective and that the time and space in the curriculum for bullying prevention was less adequate. They were less likely to believe that bullying prevention was their responsibility and more likely to agree that prevention was the responsibility of parents. All segments preferred programs supported by the anecdotal reports of colleagues from other schools rather than those based on scientific evidence. To ensure that the bullying prevention options available reflect the complex combination of attributes influencing real world adoption decisions, program developers need to accommodate the differing views of the Decision, Support, and Cost Sensitive segments while maximizing the support of parents and students. PMID:19455413

  17. Country Image and the Study Abroad Destination Choice of Students from Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author focuses on the issue of country image in destination choice. To examine the relationship between these two variables, the study tests whether mainland Chinese who favor a destination as their ideal first choice for study abroad have a significantly more positive view of that destination's country image than their…

  18. "For Me, Change Is Not a Choice": The Lived Experience of a Teacher Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Karrin

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the lived experience of a teacher change agent who was identified by her secondary school colleagues as someone who pursued positive changes outside her classroom. In conversations about her experiences, she shared what motivated her, the strategies she used, and the challenges she faced. Findings derived from both quantitative…

  19. Choice chamber experiments to test the attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to water of estuarine and riverine origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Nicola C.; Cowley, Paul D.; Whitfield, Alan K.; Kaiser, Horst

    2008-03-01

    Although the recruitment of larvae and juveniles of marine fishes into estuaries has been well documented, little is known about the factors governing the immigration of estuary-associated marine fishes into estuaries. Fishes have a well-developed sense of smell and it has been suggested by several workers that olfactory cues of freshwater or estuarine origin serve as stimuli, attracting larvae and juveniles of estuary-associated species into estuaries. Attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to estuary and river water from the Kowie estuarine system, South Africa, was measured using a rectangular choice chamber. In experiments, conducted during peak recruitment periods, larvae selected estuary and river water with a significantly higher frequency than sea water. This study, the first to assess the possible role of olfaction in the recruitment process of an estuary-associated marine fish species, demonstrates that larvae are able to recognise water from different origins, probably based on odour.

  20. Qualitative study of influences on food store choice

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

  1. Sexual Decision Making in the Absence of Choice: The African American Female Dating Experience

    PubMed Central

    Andrasik, Michele P.; Nguyen, Hong V.; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2016-01-01

    Although links between low mate availability and increased HIV and STI risk for African American women have been documented in the literature, we know little about the impact of limited mate choices on the quality of relationships between Black men and women and how these relationship dynamics impact risk for young Black women. We conducted a qualitative study with African American female young adults (N=12) to explore the perceived impact of structural forces on African American female young adults’ dating and sexual behavior. Participants reported (1) perceptions of Black men as untrustworthy and manipulative, (2) the limited and often negative roles for Black men in the larger Black community, and (3) heterosexual relationships in the Black community as increasingly influenced by economics and commerce. Recommendations for HIV prevention interventions that include micro and macro level approaches are discussed. PMID:27182463

  2. The effect of traffic lights and regulatory statements on the choice between complementary and conventional medicines in Australia: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Mortimer, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that complementary medicines are currently 'under-regulated' in some countries due to their potential for harm as a direct result from side-effects or interactions; from delaying more effective care; or from the economic cost of purchasing an ineffective or inappropriate treatment. The requirement of additional labelling on complementary medicine products has been suggested in Australia and may provide additional information to consumers at the point of purchase. This paper details a unique way of testing the potential effects on consumer behaviour of including either a traffic light logo or regulatory statement on labels. Using a discrete choice experiment, data were collected in 2012 in a sample of 521 Australians with either type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We find that additional labelling can affect consumer behaviour, but in unpredictable ways. The results of this experiment are informative to further the dialogue concerning possible regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25483723

  3. Frictions between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between…

  4. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  5. An Australian discrete choice experiment to value eq-5d health states.

    PubMed

    Viney, Rosalie; Norman, Richard; Brazier, John; Cronin, Paula; King, Madeleine T; Ratcliffe, Julie; Street, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    Conventionally, generic quality-of-life health states, defined within multi-attribute utility instruments, have been valued using a Standard Gamble or a Time Trade-Off. Both are grounded in expected utility theory but impose strong assumptions about the form of the utility function. Preference elicitation tasks for both are complicated, limiting the number of health states that each respondent can value and, therefore, that can be valued overall. The usual approach has been to value a set of the possible health states and impute values for the remainder. Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) offer an attractive alternative, allowing investigation of more flexible specifications of the utility function and greater coverage of the response surface. We designed a DCE to obtain values for EQ-5D health states and implemented it in an Australia-representative online panel (n = 1,031). A range of specifications investigating non-linear preferences with respect to time and interactions between EQ-5D levels were estimated using a random-effects probit model. The results provide empirical support for a flexible utility function, including at least some two-factor interactions. We then constructed a preference index such that full health and death were valued at 1 and 0, respectively, to provide a DCE-based algorithm for Australian cost-utility analyses. PMID:23765787

  6. Parents’ preferences for vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus in the Netherlands: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To generate knowledge about potential improvements to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination information and organization strategies, we assessed how aspects of HPV vaccination are associated with parents’ preferences for their daughters’ uptake, and which trade-offs parents are willing to make between these aspects. Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among parents with a daughter aged 10–12 years. Panel mixed logit regression models were used to determine parents’ preferences for vaccination. Trade-offs were quantified between four vaccination programme aspects: degree of protection against cervical cancer, duration of protection, risk of serious side-effects, and age of vaccination. Results Total response rate was 302/983 (31%). All aspects influenced respondents’ preferences for HPV vaccination (p < 0.05). Respondents preferred vaccination at age 14 years instead of at a younger age. Respondents were willing to trade-off 11% of the degree of protection to obtain life-time protection instead of 25 years. To obtain a vaccination with a risk of serious side-effects of 1/750,000 instead of 1/150,000, respondents were willing to trade-off 21%. Conclusions Uptake may rise if the age ranges for free HPV vaccinations are broadened. Based on the trade-offs parents were willing to make, we conclude that uptake would increase if new evidence indicated outcomes are better than are currently understood, particularly for degree and duration of protection. PMID:24885861

  7. Public perceptions of coronary events risk factors: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamarneh, Yazid N; Agus, Ashley; Campbell, Danny; Crealey, Grainne E; McElnay, James C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess public perceptions of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Design Discrete choice experiment questionnaire. Setting Six provincial centres in Northern Ireland. Participants 1000 adults of the general public in Northern Ireland. Primary and secondary outcomes The general public's perception of CHD risk factors. The effect of having risk factor(s) on that perception. Results Two multinomial logit models were created. One was a basic model (no heterogeneity permitted), while the other permitted heterogeneity based on respondents’ characteristics. In both models individuals with very high cholesterol were perceived to be at the highest risk of having a coronary event. Respondents who reported having high cholesterol perceived the risk contribution of very high cholesterol to be greater than those who reported having normal cholesterol. Similar findings were observed with blood pressure and smoking. Respondents who were male and older perceived the contribution of age and gender to be lower than respondents who were female and younger. Conclusions Respondents with different risk factors perceived such factors differently. These divergent perceptions of CHD risk factors could be a barrier to behavioural change. This brings into focus the need for more tailored health promotion campaigns to tackle CHD. PMID:22952164

  8. Valuing improvements to threatened and endangered marine species: an application of stated preference choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2011-07-01

    Non-market valuation research has produced value estimates for over forty threatened and endangered (T&E) species, including mammals, fish, birds, and crustaceans. Increasingly, Stated Preference Choice Experiments (SPCE) are utilized for valuation, as the format offers flexibility for policy analysis and may reduce certain types of response biases relative to the more traditional Contingent Valuation method. Additionally, SPCE formats can allow respondents to make trade-offs among multiple species, providing information on the distinctiveness of preferences for different T&E species. In this paper we present results of an SPCE involving three U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species: the Puget Sound Chinook salmon, the Hawaiian monk seal, and the smalltooth sawfish. We estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for improving each species' ESA listing status and statistically compare these values between the three species using a method of convolutions approach. Our results suggest that respondents have distinct preferences for the three species, and that WTP estimates differ depending on the species and the level of improvement to their ESA status. Our results should be of interest to researchers and policy-makers, as we provide value estimates for three species that have limited, if any, estimates available in the economics literature, as well as new information about the way respondents make trade-offs among three taxonomically different species. PMID:21392881

  9. Assessing Preferences for a University-Based Smoking Cessation Program in Lebanon: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Abbyad, Christine W.; Kohler, Racquel E.; Kratka, Allison K.; Oh, Leighanne; Wood, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking prevalence rates in Lebanon are among the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Few smoking cessation programs are offered in Lebanon and little is known about the preferences of Lebanese smokers for cessation treatment programs. Objective: To establish which attributes of smoking cessation programs are most important to Lebanese smokers. Methods: Smokers at the American University of Beirut were surveyed to elicit their preferences for, and tradeoffs between the attributes of a hypothetical university-based smoking cessation program. Preferences for medication type/mechanism, risk of benign side effects, availability of support, distance traveled to obtain medication, and price of complete treatment were assessed using the discrete choice experiment method. Results: The smokers’ responses (N = 191) to changes in attributes were statistically significant. Smokers were willing to make trade-offs between attributes. On average, smokers were willing to pay LBP 103,000 (USD 69) for cessation support. Respondents were willing to give up LBP 105,000 (USD 70) to avoid an additional 10% risk of minor side effects and LBP 18,000 (USD 12) to avoid an addition kilometer of travel to the nearest pharmacy. Heavy smokers were the least responsive group and had the lowest demand elasticities. Conclusions: Student smokers were willing to participate in a relatively complex exercise that weighs the advantages and disadvantages of a hypothetical smoking cessation program. Overall they were less interested in the pill form of smoking cessation treatment, but they were willing to make tradeoffs to be smoke-free. PMID:25239962

  10. Hawaiian Residents' Preferences for Miconia Control Program Attributes Using Conjoint Choice Experiment and Latent Class Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens ( Miconia) . Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents’ willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more (2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii.

  11. Hawaiian residents' preferences for Miconia control program attributes using conjoint choice experiment and latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens (Miconia). Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents' willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more ($2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii. PMID:20033159

  12. Weak measurement combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment and implementation in optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Ye, Ming-Yong; Song, He-Shan

    2015-12-01

    Weak measurement [Y. Aharonov, D.Z. Albert, L. Vaidman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351 (1988); C. Simon, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 040101(R) (2011)] combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment that use Controlled Hadamard gate instead of Hadamard gate in quantum networks give rise to a surprising amplification effect, i.e., counterintuitive negative amplification effect. We show that this effect is caused by the wave and particle behaviours of the system, and it can't be explained by a semiclassical wave theory [D. Suter, Phys. Rev. A 51, 45 (1995); J.C. Howell, D.J. Starling, P.B. Dixon, P.K. Vudyasetu, A.N. Jordan, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033813 (2010); N. Brunner, A. Acín, D. Collins, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 180402 (2003)] and by the statistical feature of preselection and postselection with disturbance [C. Ferrie, J. Combes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120404 (2014)], due to the entanglement of the system and the ancilla in Controlled Hadamard gate. The generation mechanism with wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics lead us to a scheme for implementation of weak measurement in optomechanical system.

  13. Reprint of "Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach".

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:27561231

  14. Modeling the Bullying Prevention Program Preferences of Educators: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally…

  15. A rapid usability assessment methodology to support the choice of clinical information systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M C; Watbled, L; Carpentier, A M; Degroisse, M; Alao, O

    2002-01-01

    We present here an adapted methodology integrating usability engineering and early evaluation procedures to support the choice of a Clinical Information System in the context of a standard Call for Tender. We illustrate the application of this methodology with a case study. We integrated a standard 'contextual task and activity analysis' into the choice process and then drew up usability recommendations for the choice of an application. We organized a one-week on-site exhibition and test for each candidate company. During the test sessions, we performed a rapid usability assessment. The final choice of the application is strongly and positively influenced by the results of the usability assessment. PMID:12463784

  16. International Student Destination Choice: The Influence of Home Campus Experience on the Decision to Consider Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that the country and institution choices of international students are greatly influenced by recommendations they receive from others who have experience of undertaking higher education overseas. For Western universities, it is of utmost importance to satisfy their international students, who can then encourage the next…

  17. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  18. Modeling the Information Preferences of Parents of Children with Mental Health Problems: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Deal, Ken; Rimas, Heather; Buchanan, Don H.; Gold, Michelle; Sdao-Jarvie, Katherine; Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although materials informing parents about children's mental health (CMH) problems can improve outcomes, we know relatively little about the design factors that might influence their utilization of available resources. We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the information preferences of parents seeking mental health services for 6…

  19. A portable system for studying discrete-trial group choice.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Tonneau, François; Cordevant, Marie-Alix

    2015-03-01

    Whether groups of people or animals behave optimally in relation to resources is an issue of interest to psychology, ecology, and economics. In behavioral ecology, the simplest model of optimal group choice is the ideal free distribution (IFD). The IFD model has been tested in humans with discrete or continuous inputs and through manual or automated procedures (e.g., Kraft, Baum, & Burge, 2002; Madden, Peden, & Yamagushi, 2002). Manual procedures tend to be time consuming, however, whereas automated procedures typically require access to a computer network. In this article, we describe a new automated system for discrete-trial tests of the IFD model. Our protocol involves a single computer connected to a digital projector (for stimulus presentation) and a network of gamepads (for registering choices). The system is comparatively inexpensive, easy to install, easy to transport, and it permits the automated collection of group data in minimal time. We show that the data generated through this protocol are comparable to those previously reported in the IFD literature. PMID:25732576

  20. The Effect of Including an Opt-Out Option in Discrete Choice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine to what extent the inclusion of an opt-out option in a DCE may have an effect on choice behaviour and therefore might influence the attribute level estimates, the relative importance of the attributes and calculated trade-offs. Methods 781 Dutch Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients completed a questionnaire containing nine choice tasks with an opt-out option and nice forced choice tasks. Mixed-logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of the five lifestyle program related attributes that were included. Willingness to pay (WTP) values were calculated and it was tested whether results differed between respondents who answered the choice tasks with an opt-out option in the first or second part of the questionnaire. Results 21.4% of the respondents always opted out. Respondents who were given the opt-out option in the first part of the questionnaire as well as lower educated respondents significantly more often opted out. For both the forced and unforced choice model, different attributes showed significant estimates, the relative importance of the attributes was equal. However, due to differences in relative importance weights, the WTP values for the PA schedule differed significantly between both datasets. Conclusions Results show differences in opting out based on the location of the opt-out option and respondents' educational level; this resulted in small differences between the forced and unforced choice model. Since respondents seem to learn from answering forced choice tasks, a dual response design might result in higher data quality compared to offering a direct opt-out option. Future research should empirically explore how choice sets should be presented to make them as easy and less complex as possible in order to reduce the proportion of respondents that opts-out due to choice task complexity. Moreover, future research should debrief respondents to examine the reasons for choosing the opt-out alternative. PMID:25365169

  1. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  2. A Study of Alternatives in American Education, Vol. IV: Family Choice in Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, R. Gary; Blackman, Julie

    Originating in the Rand Corporation's evaluation of the voucher demonstration project in the Alum Rock Union School District (California), this study of family choice in schooling focuses on these questions: Are parents motivated and competent to make intelligent choices among competing educational alternatives? What kinds of schools do parents…

  3. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  4. Enacting Glasser's (1998) Choice Theory in a Grade 3 Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Choice theory identifies five psychological needs: survival, freedom, power, belonging, and fun (Glasser, 1998). There are close parallels with self-determination theory (SDT), which specifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as essential needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000). This case study examines a very successful example of choice theory…

  5. Subgroup Analysis in Social Experiments: Measuring Program Impacts Based on Post-Treatment Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Laura R.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a methodology for analyzing the impacts of social programs on previously unexamined subgroups. The approach estimates the impact of programs on subgroups identified by a postreatment choice while maintaining the integrity of the experimental research design. (SLD)

  6. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  7. Using the choice experiment method in the design of breeding goals in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ragkos, A; Abas, Z

    2015-02-01

    Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits. PMID:25245334

  8. Mothers More Altruistic than Fathers, but Only When Bearing Responsibility Alone: Evidence from Parental Choice Experiments in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Vyrastekova, Jana; Huisman, Janine; Mosha, Idda; Smits, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts humans to be more altruistic towards genetically more closely related kin. Because fathers face uncertainty about the relation to their children, the asymmetric parental altruism hypothesis predicts mothers to provide a higher share of parental care than fathers. We tested this hypothesis using parental choice experiments in rural Tanzania, in which fathers and mothers could choose between an outcome that benefited themselves and an outcome that benefited their children. When a parent was solely responsible for the outcome, mothers chose more altruistic than fathers. However when the choice situation was changed into a coordination game in which responsibility was shared with the partner, the sex difference disappeared. Fathers then chose somewhat more altruistic, but mothers substantially less. Our findings thus partly support the asymmetric parental altruism hypothesis, but they also show that parental altruism is influenced by the context in which choices are taken. PMID:24964142

  9. Defining Continuous Improvement and Cost Minimization Possibilities through School Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2009-01-01

    Studies of existing best practices cannot determine whether the current "best" schooling practices could be even better, less costly, or more effective and/or improve at a faster rate, but we can discover a cost effective menu of schooling options and each item's minimum cost through market accountability experiments. This paper describes…

  10. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  11. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career. PMID:24179019

  12. Estimating the monetary value of willingness to pay for E-book reader's attributes using partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Chin-Khian

    2013-09-01

    A partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiments design was used to examine the monetary value of the willingness to pay for E-book Reader's attributes. Conjoint analysis is an efficient, cost-effective, and most widely used quantitative method in marketing research to understand consumer preferences and value trade-off. Value can be interpreted by customer or consumer as the received of multiple benefits from a price that was paid. The monetary value of willingness to pay for battery life, internal memory, external memory, screen size, text to Speech, touch screen, and converting handwriting to digital text of E-book reader were estimated in this study. Due to the significant interaction effect of the attributes with the price, the monetary values for the seven attributes were found to be different at different values of odds of purchasing versus not purchasing. The significant interactions effects were one of the main contribution of the partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment.

  13. Valuation of environmental improvements in a specially protected marine area: a choice experiment approach in Göcek Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Özge; Alp, Emre

    2012-11-15

    Although the Göcek Bay area was declared as a specially protected area by General Directorate of Natural Assets Protection, the region is threatened because of pollution resulting from increased boat tourism and lack of efficient policies. Extensive measures are being planned in order to protect the region. Coastal management requires the use of technical, social political and economic tools to create a comprehensive management strategy. For environmental investments, it is necessary that benefits and the costs of environmental improvements should be identified in monetary terms in order to determine the feasibility of the investments. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of the management alternatives to improve environmental quality in Göcek Bay to aid decision makers. In this study, the environmental benefits that can be obtained with improved water quality and restored marine ecosystem were calculated using the Choice Experiment Method, a non-market valuation technique. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model and the results showed that, local residents and tourists are willing to pay 18TL/month and 16.6TL/tour, respectively for improvements in water quality. For improvements in marine life, local residents are willing to pay 14.8TL/month and tourists are willing to pay 11.2TL/tour. With this study, it has been seen that the results obtained will pave the way for new policies and measures against the deterioration of the marine environment of Göcek Bay. PMID:23085470

  14. Eliciting health state utilities for Dupuytren’s contracture using a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose An internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to elicit preferences for a wide range of Dupuytren’s contracture (DC)-related health states. An algorithm was subsequently developed to convert these preferences into health state utilities that can be used to assess DC’s impact on quality of life and the value of its treatments. Methods Health state preferences for varying levels of DC hand severity were elicited via an internet survey from a sample of the UK adult population. Severity levels were defined using a combination of contractures (0, 45, or 90 degrees) in 8 proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous respondents indicated which hand was preferable in each of the 10 randomly-selected hand-pairings comparing different DC severity levels. For consistency across comparisons, anatomically precise digital hand drawings were used. To anchor preferences onto the traditional 0–1 utility scale used in health economic evaluations, unaffected hands were assigned a utility of 1.0 whereas the utility for a maximally affected hand (i.e., all 8 joints set at 90 degrees of contracture) was derived by asking respondents to indicate what combination of attributes and levels of the EQ-5D-5L profile most accurately reflects the impact of living with such hand. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate indirect utilities, then rescaled to the anchor points on the EQ-5D-5L. Results Estimated utilities based on the responses of 1,745 qualified respondents were 0.49, 0.57, and 0.63 for completely affected dominant hands, non-dominant hands, or ambidextrous hands, respectively. Utility for a dominant hand with 90-degree contracture in t h e metacarpophalangeal joints of the ring and little fingers was estimated to be 0.89. Separately, reducing the contracture of metacarpophalangeal joint for a little finger from 50 to 12

  15. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.

    PubMed

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

    2013-10-01

    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period

  16. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public’s Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public’s use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public’s relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Method A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. Results When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents’ preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Conclusion Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people’s decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to

  17. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  18. Becoming Unionized in a Charter School: Teacher Experiences and the Promise of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montaño, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    When California legislators passed the California Charter School Act of 1992, it allowed parents the choice of sending their children to public charter schools, places where teachers would have more autonomy and where schools faced exemptions from state education codes and from collective bargaining contracts. Hope Charter School (a pseudonym;…

  19. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that--for the first time--allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  20. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that – for the first time – allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  1. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: Addressing design and sampling issues

    PubMed Central

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-01-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. PMID:24908173

  2. The Role of Incomplete Information and Others' Choice in Reducing Traffic: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Angelo; Mosso, Cristina O.; Merlone, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the role of payoff information and conformity in improving network performance in a traffic dilemma known as the Braess paradox. Our goal is to understand when decisions are guided by selfish motivations or otherwise by social ones. For this purpose, we consider the manipulation of others' choice, public and private monitoring and information on distribution of choices. Data show that when social comparison was not salient, participants were more cooperative. By contrast, cooperativeness of others' choice made participants more competitive leading to traffic and collective performance decrease. The implications of these findings to the literature on social dilemmas are discussed. PMID:26903931

  3. Undergraduates talk about their choice to study physics at university: what was key to their participation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodd, Melissa; Reiss, Michael; Mujtaba, Tamjid

    2013-07-01

    Background . The research on which this article is based was commissioned because of concerns about perceived shortages of willing and able young people choosing to study physics at university. Purpose This article reports on first year physics undergraduates' narratives of why they are studying physics and uses these narratives to identify reasons for their choice. Design and method Narrative-style interviewing with a purposive sample of first year undergraduates yielded data that revealed complexities around decision making, including choice of university course. Analysis of the texts was informed by psychoanalytical notions rooted in the work of Sigmund Freud. These psychoanalytical notions were used both in generating the interview data - the undergraduate volunteer interviewees were conceptualised as 'defended subjects' - and in analysing these interviews in order to conjecture how unconscious forces might figure in young people's decision making. Results After analysing the interviews with physics undergraduates, with respect to the question 'why are they reading physics?', the claim is that identification with a key adult is an important element in an individual's participation. On the other hand, we discerned no evidence that experience of the sorts of innovation typically designed to increase physics uptake - for example 'fun projects' or competitions - had been key with respect to a desire to read physics. Conclusion Attempts to recruit more students to university to study physics should note that a young person who identifies with a significant adult associated with physics, typically a teacher or family member, is in a good position to believe that physics is a subject that is worth studying.

  4. Developing attributes and attribute-levels for a discrete choice experiment on micro health insurance in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are attribute-driven experimental techniques used to elicit stakeholders’ preferences to support the design and implementation of policy interventions. The validity of a DCE, therefore, depends on the appropriate specification of the attributes and their levels. There have been recent calls for greater rigor in implementing and reporting on the processes of developing attributes and attribute-levels for discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This paper responds to such calls by carefully reporting a systematic process of developing micro health insurance attributes and attribute-levels for the design of a DCE in rural Malawi. Methods Conceptual attributes and attribute-levels were initially derived from a literature review which informed the design of qualitative data collection tools to identify context specific attributes and attribute-levels. Qualitative data was collected in August-September 2012 from 12 focus group discussions with community residents and 8 in-depth interviews with health workers. All participants were selected according to stratified purposive sampling. The material was tape-recorded, fully transcribed, and coded by three researchers to identify context-specific attributes and attribute-levels. Expert opinion was used to scale down the attributes and levels. A pilot study confirmed the appropriateness of the selected attributes and levels for a DCE. Results First, a consensus, emerging from an individual level analysis of the qualitative transcripts, identified 10 candidate attributes. Levels were assigned to all attributes based on data from transcripts and knowledge of the Malawian context, derived from literature. Second, through further discussions with experts, four attributes were discarded based on multiple criteria. The 6 remaining attributes were: premium level, unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, transportation coverage and copayment levels. A final

  5. A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Grrishma; Uppinakudru, Gurunandan; Girwar Singh, Gaur; Bangera, Shobith; Dutt Raghavendra, Aswini; Thangavel, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person's central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction (P values <0.0001 and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. PMID:25580294

  6. Healthcare Worker Preferences for Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Programs in South Africa: A Best-Worst Scaling Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Nathan N.; Roy, Lilla; O’Hara, Lyndsay M.; Spiegel, Jerry M.; Lynd, Larry D.; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Yassi, Annalee; Nophale, Letshego E.; Marra, Carlo A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa are at a high risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) due to their occupational exposures. This study aimed to systematically quantify and compare the preferred attributes of an active TB case finding program for HCWs in South Africa. Methods A Best–Worst Scaling choice experiment estimated HCW’s preferences using a random-effects conditional logit model. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to explore heterogeneity in preferences. Results “No cost”, “the assurance of confidentiality”, “no wait” and testing at the occupational health unit at one’s hospital were the most preferred attributes. LCA identified a four class model with consistent differences in preference strength. Sex, occupation, and the time since a previous TB test were statistically significant predictors of class membership. Conclusions The findings support the strengthening of occupational health units in South Africa to offer free and confidential active TB case finding programs for HCWs with minimal wait times. There is considerable variation in active TB case finding preferences amongst HCWs of different gender, occupation, and testing history. Attention to heterogeneity in preferences should optimize screening utilization of target HCW populations. PMID:26197344

  7. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  8. How to make rural jobs more attractive to health workers. Findings from a discrete choice experiment in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise

    2011-02-01

    The geographical imbalance of the health workforce in Tanzania represents a serious problem when it comes to delivering crucial health services to a large share of the population. This study provides new quantitative information about how to make jobs in rural areas more attractive to newly educated clinical officers (COs). A unique data set stemming from a discrete choice experiment with CO finalists in Tanzania is applied. The results show that offering continuing education after a certain period of service is one of the most powerful recruitment instruments the authorities have available. Increased salaries and hardship allowances will also substantially increase recruitment in rural areas. Offers of decent housing and good infrastructure, including the provision of equipment, will increase recruitment to rural remote areas but not as much as higher wages and offers of education. Women are less responsive to pecuniary incentives and are more concerned with factors that directly allow them to do a good job, while those with parents living in a remote rural area are generally less responsive to the proposed policies. When the willingness to help other people is a strong motivating force, policies that improve the conditions for helping people appear particularly effective. PMID:20094993

  9. Recent experience modulates forebrain gene-expression in response to mate-choice cues in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Sockman, Keith W; Gentner, Timothy Q; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-12-01

    Mate-choice decisions can be experience dependent, but we know little about how the brain processes stimuli that release such decisions. Female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) prefer males with long-bout songs over males with short-bout songs, and show higher expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK in the auditory forebrain when exposed to long-bout songs than when exposed to short-bout songs. We exposed female starlings to a short-day photoperiod for one of three durations and then, on an increased photophase, exposed them to one week of long-bout or short-bout song experience. We then examined their IEG response to novel long-bout versus novel short-bout songs by quantifying ZENK protein in two song-processing areas: the caudo-medial hyperstriatum ventrale and the caudo-medial neostriatum. ZENK expression in both areas increased with tenure on short-day photoperiods, suggesting that short days sensitize females to song. The ZENK response bias toward long-bout songs was greater in females with long-bout experience than in females with short-bout experience, indicating that the forebrain response bias toward a preferred trait depends on recent experience with that category of trait. This surprising level of neuroplasticity is immediately relevant to the natural history and fitness of the organism, and may underlie a mechanism for optimizing mate-choice criteria amidst locally variable distributions of secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:12495492

  10. Recent experience modulates forebrain gene-expression in response to mate-choice cues in European starlings.

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, Keith W; Gentner, Timothy Q; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-01-01

    Mate-choice decisions can be experience dependent, but we know little about how the brain processes stimuli that release such decisions. Female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) prefer males with long-bout songs over males with short-bout songs, and show higher expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK in the auditory forebrain when exposed to long-bout songs than when exposed to short-bout songs. We exposed female starlings to a short-day photoperiod for one of three durations and then, on an increased photophase, exposed them to one week of long-bout or short-bout song experience. We then examined their IEG response to novel long-bout versus novel short-bout songs by quantifying ZENK protein in two song-processing areas: the caudo-medial hyperstriatum ventrale and the caudo-medial neostriatum. ZENK expression in both areas increased with tenure on short-day photoperiods, suggesting that short days sensitize females to song. The ZENK response bias toward long-bout songs was greater in females with long-bout experience than in females with short-bout experience, indicating that the forebrain response bias toward a preferred trait depends on recent experience with that category of trait. This surprising level of neuroplasticity is immediately relevant to the natural history and fitness of the organism, and may underlie a mechanism for optimizing mate-choice criteria amidst locally variable distributions of secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:12495492

  11. Wealth, Stereotypes, and Issues of Prestige: The College Choice Experience of Mexican American Students within Their Community Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Melissa Ann

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing the notion of community cultural wealth, this study focuses on the various forms of capital that Mexican American students from the South Texas Border draw upon within their community to navigate the college choice process. Findings indicate that neighbors, church members, and in one case, a physician, served as sources of social…

  12. Social Studies Education: A Challenge, A Choice, A Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Presents the address delivered by President Richard Theisen at the 79th National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Annual Conference in Orlando (Florida). Discusses topics such as improving pre-service teacher education, content of social studies textbooks, staff development for teachers, student assessment, and civics education. (CMK)

  13. Contaminants and habitat choice in the Baltic Sea: Behavioural experiments with the native species, Monoporeia affinis, and the invasive genus, Marenzelleria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Vilhelmsson, Sandra; Wiklund, Stig Johan; Eklund, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The invasive polychaete genus, Marenzelleria and the native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis are food and habitat competitors in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have shown that moderate densities of Marenzelleria can affect the behaviour of M. affinis. To examine the short-term interactive effects of interspecific habitat choice and environmental contaminants a series of habitat colonisation experiments were performed. The contaminants examined included harbor sediments and sediment spiked with the antifouling substances, Cu, Zn and Irgarol. Polychaetes and amphipods were exposed to contaminants in single-species and two-species experiments. In spiked-sediment experiments, M. affinis showed clear dose-dependent response. These experiments verified that behavioural response of M. affinis to different habitats is a sensitive method for testing toxicity under controlled conditions. In experiments with three different harbor sediments and reference sediment both species showed the lowest preference for the reference sediment. This sediment also had the lowest content of quality food, indicating that factors such as food quality and quantity may override the disturbing effects of contaminants in natural sediments. The presence of Marenzelleria spp. did not affect amphipod habitat choice, indicating no short-term effects, which implies that both species can co-exist provided sufficient food is available.

  14. Beyond Labelling: What Strategies Do Nut Allergic Individuals Employ to Make Food Choices? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Julie; Vasileiou, Konstantina; Gowland, M. Hazel; Raats, Monique M.; Lucas, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. Methods Three qualitative methods: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task – were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. Results Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1) qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2) past experience of consuming a food product, and (3) sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. Conclusions Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed. PMID:23383141

  15. Differences in preferences for rural job postings between nursing students and practicing nurses: evidence from a discrete choice experiment in Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A discrete choice experiment was conducted to investigate preferences for job characteristics among nursing students and practicing nurses to determine how these groups vary in their respective preferences and to understand whether differing policies may be appropriate for each group. Methods Participating students and workers were administered a discrete choice experiment that elicited preferences for attributes of potential job postings. Job attributes included salary, duration of service until promotion to permanent staff, duration of service until qualified for further study and scholarship, housing provision, transportation provision, and performance-based financial rewards. Mixed logit models were fit to the data to estimate stated preferences and willingness to pay for attributes. Finally, an interaction model was fit to formally investigate differences in preferences between nursing students and practicing nurses. Results Data were collected from 256 nursing students and 249 practicing nurses. For both groups, choice of job posting was strongly influenced by salary and direct promotion to permanent staff. As compared to nursing students, practicing nurses had significantly lower preference for housing allowance and housing provision as well as lower preference for provision of transportation for work and personal use. Conclusions In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, nursing students and practicing nurses demonstrated important differences in their respective preferences for rural job posting attributes. This finding suggests that it may be important to differentiate between recruitment and retention policies when addressing human resources for health challenges in developing countries, such as Laos. PMID:23705805

  16. Women's ICT Career Choices: Four Cross-Cultural Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiadou, Elli; Abu-Hassan, Norihan; Siakas, Kerstin Viola; Wang, Xueming; Ross, Margaret; Anandan, Prem Anand

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the under-representation of women in computing, information technology (IT) and information systems in most Western countries. This under-representation can only be detrimental to society. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss recently published studies on the under-representation of…

  17. Aspiration Levels and Educational Choices: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lionel; Garboua, Louis Levy; Montmarquette, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The explanation of social inequalities in education is still a debated issue in economics. Recent empirical studies tend to downplay the potential role of credit constraint. This article tests a different potential explanation of social inequalities in education, specifically that social differences in aspiration level result in different…

  18. On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully et al. I. The Micromaser Case and Delayed-Choice Quantum Erasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbut, F.

    2008-11-01

    Delayed-choice erasure is investigated in two-photon two-slit experiments that are generalizations of the micromaser experiment of Scully et al. (Nature 351:111-116, 1991). Applying quantum mechanics to the localization detector, it is shown that erasure with delayed choice in the sense of Scully, has an analogous structure as simple erasure. The description goes beyond probabilities. The EPR-type disentanglement, consisting in two mutually incompatible distant measurements, is used as a general framework in both parts of this study. Two simple coherence cases are shown to emerge naturally, and they are precisely the two experiments of Scully et al. The treatment seems to require the relative-reality-of-unitarily-evolving-state (RRUES) approach. Besides insight in the experiments, this study has also the goal of insight in quantum mechanics. The question is if the latter can be more than just a “book-keeping device” for calculating probabilities as Scully et al. modestly and cautiously claim.

  19. Public preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland: estimating willingness-to-pay using a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Trine; Bech, Mickael; Kronborg, Christian; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-10-01

    At present there are no nephrology facilities in Greenland. Greenlandic patients with renal failure needing dialysis thus have to travel to Denmark to obtain treatment. For patients in haemodialysis this necessitates a permanent residence in Denmark. Our study was aimed at examining Greenlanders' preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland at Queen Ingrid's Hospital in Nuuk, and to estimate the associated change in welfare. Preferences were elicited using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). A random sample of 500 individuals of the general population was sent a postal questionnaire in which they were asked to consider the trade-offs of establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland as opposed to the current situation. This involved trading off the benefits of having such facilities in their home country against the costs of the intervention. Besides including a payment attribute described in terms of incremental tax payment, the DCE included two interventions attributes related to (1) the organisation of labour, and (2) the physical settings of the patients. Respondents succeeded in answering the DCE despite cultural and linguistic disparity. We found that all the included attributes had a significant effect on respondents' choices, and that respondents' answers to the DCE were in keeping with their values as stated in the questionnaire. DCE data was analyzed using a random parameter logit model reparametrized in willingness-to-pay space. The results showed that establishing facilities in Greenland were preferred to the current treatment in Denmark. The welfare estimate from the DCE, at DKK 18.74 million, exceeds the estimated annual costs of establishing treatment facilities for patients with chronic renal failure. Given the estimated confidence interval this result seems robust. Establishing facilities in Greenland therefore would appear to be welfare-improving, deriving positive net benefits. Despite the relatively narrow policy focus, we

  20. The Influence of Prior Learning Experience on Pollinator Choice: An Experiment Using Bumblebees on Two Wild Floral Types of Antirrhinum majus

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Coline C.; Andalo, Christophe; Raynaud, Christine; Simon, Valérie; Thébaud, Christophe; Chave, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how pollinator behavior may influence pollen transmission across floral types is a major challenge, as pollinator decision depends on a complex range of environmental cues and prior experience. Here we report an experiment using the plant Antirrhinum majus and the bumblebee Bombus terrestris to investigate how prior learning experience may affect pollinator preferences between floral types when these are presented together. We trained naive bumblebees to forage freely on flowering individuals of either A. majus pseudomajus (magenta flowers) or A. majus striatum (yellow flowers) in a flight cage. We then used a Y-maze device to expose trained bumblebees to a dual choice between the floral types. We tested the influence of training on their choice, depending on the type of plant signals available (visual signals, olfactory signals, or both). Bumblebees had no innate preference for either subspecies. Bumblebees trained on the yellow-flowered subspecies later preferred the yellow type, even when only visual or only olfactory signals were available, and their preference was not reinforced when both signal types were available. In contrast, bumblebees trained on the magenta-flowered subspecies showed no further preference between floral types and took slightly more time to make their choice. Since pollinator constancy has been observed in wild populations of A. majus with mixed floral types, we suggest that such constancy likely relies on short-term memory rather than acquired preference through long-term memory induced by prior learning. PMID:26263186

  1. Cumulative assessment: strategic choices to influence students’ study effort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students’ learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at helping initially low-scoring students improve their performance during a module, without impairing initially high-scoring students’ performance. We used performance as a proxy for study effort and investigated whether the program worked as intended. Methods We analysed students’ test scores in two second-year (n = 494 and n = 436) and two third-year modules (n = 383 and n = 345) in which cumulative assessment was applied. We used t-tests to compare the change in test scores of initially low-scoring students with that of initially high-scoring students between the first and second subtest and again between the combined first and second subtest and the third subtest. During the interpretation of the outcomes we took regression to the mean and test difficulty into account. Results Between the first and the second subtest in all four modules, the scores of initially low-scoring students increased more than the scores of initially high-scoring students decreased. Between subtests two and three, we found a similar effect in one module, no significant effect in two modules and the opposite effect in another module. Conclusion The results between the first two subtests suggest that cumulative assessment may positively influence students’ study effort. The inconsistent outcomes between subtests two and three may be caused by differences in perceived imminence, impact and workload between the third subtest and the first two. Cumulative assessment may serve as an example of how several evidence-based assessment principles can be integrated into a program for the benefit of student learning. PMID:24370117

  2. The effect of choice on the physiology of emotion: An affective startle modulation study

    PubMed Central

    Genevsky, Alexander; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The affective startle modulation task has been an important measure in understanding physiological aspects of emotion and motivational responses. Research utilizing this method has relied primarily on a ‘passive’ viewing paradigm, which stands in contrast to everyday life where much of emotion and motivation involves some active choice or agency. The present study investigated the role of choice on the physiology of emotion. Eighty-four participants were randomized into ‘choice’ (n=44) or ‘no-choice’ (n=40) groups distinguished by the ability to choose between stimuli. EMG eye blink responses were recorded in both anticipation and stimulus viewing. Results indicated a significant attenuation of the startle magnitude in choice condition trials (relative to no-choice) across all picture categories and probe times. We interpret these findings as an indication that the act of choice may decrease one’s defensive response, or conversely, lacking choice may heighten the defensive response. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22285891

  3. A protocol for a discrete choice experiment: understanding preferences of patients with cancer towards their cancer care across metropolitan and rural regions in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Shu Fen; Norman, Richard; Dunning, Trisha L; Ashley, David M; Lorgelly, Paula K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical decision-making in oncology is a complicated process and to date there are few studies examining how patients with cancer make choices with respect to different features of their care. It is also unknown whether patient choices vary by geographical location and how location could account for observed rural and metropolitan cancer differences. This paper describes an ongoing study that aims to (1) examine patient and healthcare-related factors that influence choices of patients with cancer; (2) measure and quantify preferences of patients with cancer towards cancer care using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) and (3) explore preference heterogeneity between metropolitan and rural locations. Methods and analysis A DCE is being conducted to understand how patients with cancer choose between two clinical scenarios accounting for different patient and healthcare-related factors (and levels). Preliminary qualitative research was undertaken to guide the development of an appropriate DCE design including characteristics that are important and relevant to patients with cancer. A fractional factorial design using the D-efficiency criteria was used to estimate interactions among attributes. Multinomial logistic regression will be used for the primary DCE analysis and to control for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Ethics and dissemination The Barwon Health Human Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Findings from the study will be presented in national/international conferences and peer-reviewed journals. Our results will form the basis of a feasibility study to inform the development of a larger scale study into preferences of patients with cancer and their association with cancer outcomes. PMID:25344489

  4. Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden ("general" emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters. PMID:26717120

  5. Reciprocal Markov modeling of feedback mechanisms between emotion and dietary choice using experience sampling data

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in Experience Sampling Method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well-equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants’ food consumption and momentary emotions six times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal healthiness decision, the proposed Reciprocal Markov Model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden (“general” emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent to the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters. PMID:26717120

  6. On the choice of analogue fluids in CO2 convective dissolution experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Emami-Meybodi, Hamid; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Mixtures of ethylene glycol and methanol (EG-MeOH) have been used as an analogue system (i.e., EG-MeOH/water) in recent experiments in the context of convective dissolution of CO2 in deep saline aquifers. We have conducted a linear stability analysis of a gravitationally unstable diffusive boundary layer as well as direct numerical simulation of convective mixing involved in dissolution of EG-MeOH species in water. We provide new evidences that EG-MeOH does not resemble the dynamics of convective instabilities and subsequent mixing associated with dissolution of CO2 in water. It is found that there are fundamental differences in the evolution of the buoyancy-driven instability and dynamics of convective mixing between CO2/water and a typical EG-MeOH/water analogue system. Our results show that for a constant Rayleigh number, the onset of convective instabilities for EG-MeOH/water can be different by an order of magnitude as compared with CO2/water. In addition, EG-MeOH/water system reveals different dynamics associated with the convective mixing as compared to CO2/water system. This study improves our understanding of the instability behavior of analogue systems, their proper selection, and motivates further experiments.

  7. Breeding Experience and the Heritability of Female Mate Choice in Collared Flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Wilson, Alastair J.; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Rosivall, Balázs; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2010-01-01

    Background Heritability in mate preferences is assumed by models of sexual selection, and preference evolution may contribute to adaptation to changing environments. However, mate preference is difficult to measure in natural populations as detailed data on mate availability and mate sampling are usually missing. Often the only available information is the ornamentation of the actual mate. The single long-term quantitative genetic study of a wild population found low heritability in female mate ornamentation in Swedish collared flycatchers. One potentially important cause of low heritability in mate ornamentation at the population level is reduced mate preference expression among inexperienced individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Applying animal model analyses to 21 years of data from a Hungarian collared flycatcher population, we found that additive genetic variance was 50 percent and significant for ornament expression in males, but less than 5 percent and non-significant for mate ornamentation treated as a female trait. Female breeding experience predicted breeding date and clutch size, but mate ornamentation and its variance components were unrelated to experience. Although we detected significant area and year effects on mate ornamentation, more than 85 percent of variance in this trait remained unexplained. Moreover, the effects of area and year on mate ornamentation were also highly positively correlated between inexperienced and experienced females, thereby acting to remove difference between the two groups. Conclusions/Significance The low heritability of mate ornamentation was apparently not explained by the presence of inexperienced individuals. Our results further indicate that the expression of mate ornamentation is dominated by temporal and spatial constraints and unmeasured background factors. Future studies should reduce unexplained variance or use alternative measures of mate preference. The heritability of mate preference in the wild

  8. Learning from experience: Event-related potential correlates of reward processing, neural adaptation, and behavioral choice

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew M.; Anderson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have been informative with respect to the question of how such learning occurs. These studies have revealed a frontocentral negativity termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that appears after negative feedback. According to one prominent theory, the FRN tracks the difference between the values of actual and expected outcomes, or reward prediction errors. As such, the FRN provides a tool for studying reward valuation and decision making. We begin this review by examining the neural significance of the FRN. We then examine its functional significance. To understand the cognitive processes that occur when the FRN is generated, we explore variables that influence its appearance and amplitude. Specifically, we evaluate four hypotheses: (1) the FRN encodes a quantitative reward prediction error; (2) the FRN is evoked by outcomes and by stimuli that predict outcomes; (3) the FRN and behavior change with experience; and (4) the system that produces the FRN is maximally engaged by volitional actions. PMID:22683741

  9. A Study of Student Career Choices in Three High Schools of the Upper Cumberland Region of Middle Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Sam

    A study determined what careers 11th- and 12th-grade students have chosen and who was the greatest influence in their choices. It identified the following: (1) career choices teachers selected for the most able student; (2) career counseling roles for school personnel; and (3) major influences in students' career choices. Questionnaires were…

  10. Patient and nurse preferences for nurse handover—using preferences to inform policy: a discrete choice experiment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Jean; Chaboyer, Wendy; Bucknall, Tracey; Tobiano, Georgia; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nursing bedside handover in hospital has been identified as an opportunity to involve patients and promote patient-centred care. It is important to consider the preferences of both patients and nurses when implementing bedside handover to maximise the successful uptake of this policy. We outline a study which aims to (1) identify, compare and contrast the preferences for various aspects of handover common to nurses and patients while accounting for other factors, such as the time constraints of nurses that may influence these preferences.; (2) identify opportunities for nurses to better involve patients in bedside handover and (3) identify patient and nurse preferences that may challenge the full implementation of bedside handover in the acute medical setting. Methods and analysis We outline the protocol for a discrete choice experiment (DCE) which uses a survey design common to both patients and nurses. We describe the qualitative and pilot work undertaken to design the DCE. We use a D-efficient design which is informed by prior coefficients collected during the pilot phase. We also discuss the face-to-face administration of this survey in a population of acutely unwell, hospitalised patients and describe how data collection challenges have been informed by our pilot phase. Mixed multinomial logit regression analysis will be used to estimate the final results. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by a university ethics committee as well as two participating hospital ethics committees. Results will be used within a knowledge translation framework to inform any strategies that can be used by nursing staff to improve the uptake of bedside handover. Results will also be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal articles and will be presented at national and international conferences. PMID:26560060

  11. A Think Aloud Study Comparing the Validity and Acceptability of Discrete Choice and Best Worst Scaling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Whitty, Jennifer A.; Walker, Ruth; Golenko, Xanthe; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study provides insights into the validity and acceptability of Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) and profile-case Best Worst Scaling (BWS) methods for eliciting preferences for health care in a priority-setting context. Methods An adult sample (N = 24) undertook a traditional DCE and a BWS choice task as part of a wider survey on Health Technology Assessment decision criteria. A ‘think aloud’ protocol was applied, whereby participants verbalized their thinking while making choices. Internal validity and acceptability were assessed through a thematic analysis of the decision-making process emerging from the qualitative data and a repeated choice task. Results A thematic analysis of the decision-making process demonstrated clear evidence of ‘trading’ between multiple attribute/levels for the DCE, and to a lesser extent for the BWS task. Limited evidence consistent with a sequential decision-making model was observed for the BWS task. For the BWS task, some participants found choosing the worst attribute/level conceptually challenging. A desire to provide a complete ranking from best to worst was observed. The majority (18,75%) of participants indicated a preference for DCE, as they felt this enabled comparison of alternative full profiles. Those preferring BWS were averse to choosing an undesirable characteristic that was part of a ‘package’, or perceived BWS to be less ethically conflicting or burdensome. In a repeated choice task, more participants were consistent for the DCE (22,92%) than BWS (10,42%) (p = 0.002). Conclusions This study supports the validity and acceptability of the traditional DCE format. Findings relating to the application of BWS profile methods are less definitive. Research avenues to further clarify the comparative merits of these preference elicitation methods are identified. PMID:24759637

  12. Exploring inequalities in access to care and the provision of choice to women seeking breast reconstruction surgery: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Potter, S; Mills, N; Cawthorn, S; Wilson, S; Blazeby, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast reconstruction (BR) may improve psychosocial and cosmetic outcomes after mastectomy for breast cancer but currently, few women opt for surgery. Reasons for this are unclear. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore access to care and the provision of procedure choice to women seeking reconstructive surgery. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of patients who had undergone BR and professionals providing specialist care explored participants' experiences of information provision before BR. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative technique of grounded theory. Sampling, data collection and analysis were performed concurrently and iteratively until data saturation was achieved. Results: Both patients and professionals expressed concerns about the provision of adequate procedure choice and access to care. Lack of information and/or time, involvement in decision making and issues relating to the evolution and organisation of reconstructive services, emerged as potential explanations for the inequalities seen. Interventions to improve cross-speciality collaboration were proposed to address these issues. Conclusion: Inequalities in the provision of choice in BR exist, which may be explained by a lack of integration between surgical specialities. Pathway restructuring, service reorganisation and standardisation of training may enhance cross-speciality collaboration and improve the patient experience. PMID:23928662

  13. Is culture important in the choice of role models? Experiences from a culturally diverse medical school.

    PubMed

    McLean, Michelle

    2004-03-01

    In a multicultural student population at a South African medical school, for over one-third of students (Years 1-5) undertaking a traditional curriculum, culture was an important consideration in their choice of a role model. This was particularly so for senior students, perhaps reflecting their relatively recent exposure to patients and their forthcoming internship. Some student comments might, however, be interpreted as reflecting a rigid perception of culture that could translate into a possible lack of respect for other cultures. It is therefore imperative that each institution provide appropriate early and continuous mainstream diversity training, as well as identify role models to match the student profile. With the increasing diversity of students globally, this issue of culture should assume even greater importance in medical education than it is currently afforded. PMID:15203523

  14. Authentic science experiences as a vehicle to change students' orientations toward science and scientific career choices: Learning from the path followed by Brad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-09-01

    Bringing a greater number of students into science is one of, if not the most fundamental goals of science education for all, especially for heretofore-neglected groups of society such as women and Aboriginal students. Providing students with opportunities to experience how science really is enacted—i.e., authentic science—has been advocated as an important means to allow students to know and learn about science. The purpose of this paper is to problematize how "authentic" science experiences may mediate students' orientations towards science and scientific career choices. Based on a larger ethnographic study, we present the case of an Aboriginal student who engaged in a scientific internship program. We draw on cultural-historical activity theory to understand the intersection between science as practice and the mundane practices in which students participate as part of their daily lives. Following Brad, we articulate our understanding of the ways in which he hybridized the various mundane and scientific practices that intersected in and through his participation and by which he realized his cultural identity as an Aboriginal. Mediated by this hybridization, we observe changes in his orientation towards science and his career choices. We use this case study to revisit methodological implications for understanding the role of "authentic science experiences" in science education.

  15. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways

    PubMed Central

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Bergstra, Arnold D.; Bliemer, Michiel C. J.; Trijssenaar-Buhre, Inge J. M.; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens’ protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens’ protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce. Methods A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19–64 years) living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects’ protective behaviour. Results The response was 44% (881/1,994). The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, ‘escaping’ was more preferred than ‘seeking shelter’, although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people. Conclusion Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects’ protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs

  16. "I Study because I'm Interested": University Students' Explanations for Their Disciplinary Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkonen, Johanna; Heikkila, Annamari; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how new university students in three different fields of study--arts, law and veterinary medicine--explain their own disciplinary choices (n = 536). Despite the differences between the study fields, the new students' answers often included the word "interest". Because interest is linked to high-quality learning, the students…

  17. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Study Guide for Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Francis J.

    The study guide for a newspaper course on moral choices in contemporary society provides overviews, definitions, and review questions to accompany the reader and related articles. Designed for independent study, the guide helps students to understand central concepts, relate various readings to a central theme, and pursue additional reading on…

  18. [Choice of plant light status for space greenhouse: results of ground-based experience].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    To decide on the light status of plants in space greenhouse, a theoretical study was undertaken to correlate specific productivity of space greenhouse with illumination characteristics including vertical PAR flux density (I), photoperiod (tau), and crop leaf index (L). It was demonstrated that in pace with I the daily productivity per a volume unit tended to monotonously approach maximum at I = Ip, whereas the greenhouse energy efficiency ME peaked at I = IE, IK < IE < IP, where IK is a compensation point of the light curve of crop photosynthesis. Proposed are compromise criteria to optimize illumination as a maximum of linear combination of MV and ME and coefficients which account for the cost of a space station volume unit and a unit of board power supply, and as maximum of product Q = MV.ME. Experimental results serve as the basis for a technique for determination of the best, by the Q criterion, light status parameters for three types of space greenhouses: research growth chamber for synchronous cultivation of leaf mustard, wheat growth chamber with fixed crop density, and green conveyer for cultivation of Brassica pekinensis (Lour Rupor). For the last mentioned Q effective I and tau values differed with the conveyer step. The technique allows design of ground-based experiments aimed at determination of the most effective light status of space-grown crops. PMID:10732194

  19. Young People’s Preferences for Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Malawi: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Lagarde, Mylene; Chipeta, Effie; Cairns, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the impact of service provider characteristics on young people’s choice of family planning (FP) service provider in rural Malawi in order to identify strategies for increasing access and uptake of FP among youth. Methods and Findings A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess the relative impact of service characteristics on preferences for FP service providers among young people (aged 15–24). Four alternative providers were included (government facility, private facility, outreach and community based distribution of FP) and described by six attributes (the distance between participants’ home and the service delivery point, frequency of service delivery, waiting time at the facility, service providers’ attitude, availability of FP commodities and price). A random parameters logit model was used to estimate preferences for service providers and the likely uptake of services following the expansion of outreach and community based distribution (CBDA) services. In the choice experiment young people were twice as likely to choose a friendly provider (government service odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, p<0.01; private service OR = 1.99, p<0.01; CBDA OR = 1.88, p<0.01) and more than two to three times more likely to choose a provider with an adequate supply of FP commodities (government service OR = 2.48, p<0.01; private service OR = 2.33, p<0.01; CBDA = 3.85, p<0.01). Uptake of community based services was greater than facility based services across a variety of simulated service scenarios indicating that such services may be an effective means of expanding access for youth in rural areas and an important tool for increasing service uptake among youth. Conclusions Ensuring that services are acceptable to young people may require additional training for service providers in order to ensure that all providers are friendly and non-judgemental when dealing with younger clients and to ensure that supplies are consistently available. PMID

  20. Trust, choice and obligation: a qualitative study of enablers of colorectal cancer screening in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Meyer, Samantha

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer prevalence and mortality rates in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free faecal occult blood testing. The NBCSP aims to offer choice to consumers about whether or not to participate in screening. This article presents data on trust, choice and perceived obligation to participate in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia. We interviewed 94 people from four culturally distinct groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous peoples. This article demonstrates the complexity of factors shaping the choice, or lack thereof, to participate in the NBCSP. Informed choice is based on adequate knowledge, although this varied among our participants, highlighting the need for more health education in appropriate languages. An obligation to participate was found in the Iranian and Anglo-Australian groups and resulted from an established personal relationship with the doctor, a sense of duty, the acknowledgement of government investment and appreciation. Overall, this article makes a link between trust, choice and obligation, adding to literature on the sociology of trust and medical screening and highlighting important issues in the need of a policy and practice to improve CRC screening rates. PMID:25912247

  1. Impacts of electric demand-side management programs on fuel choice: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Sandahl, L.J.; Vinnard, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Information, rebates, and technical assistance associated with utility demand-side management (DSM) programs can alter consumer behavior. Such programs may unintentionally affect consumer fuel choices. This study addresses fuel choice effects of a unique Pacific Northwest DSM program: (1) it is directed at new manufactured homes only, (2) it is an acquisition program -- utilities make $2,500 payments directly to manufacturers for each electrically heated, energy-efficient home built, (3) it has rapidly penetrated nearly 100% of the potential market, and (4) over 90% of the affected homes in the participating region have traditionally used electricity for space heating. Heating equipment data for all manufactured homes built in the region since 1987 were sampled and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the DSM program and fuel shares. The quantitative data were supplemented with interview data to better understand the relationship between the program and fuel choice. The results should be useful for program design and evaluation.

  2. The ATLAS EventIndex: architecture, design choices, deployment and first operation experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, D.; Cárdenas Zárate, S. E.; Cranshaw, J.; Favareto, A.; Fernández Casaní, Á.; Gallas, E. J.; Glasman, C.; González de la Hoz, S.; Hřivnáč, J.; Malon, D.; Prokoshin, F.; Salt Cairols, J.; Sánchez, J.; Többicke, R.; Yuan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The EventIndex is the complete catalogue of all ATLAS events, keeping the references to all files that contain a given event in any processing stage. It replaces the TAG database, which had been in use during LHC Run 1. For each event it contains its identifiers, the trigger pattern and the GUIDs of the files containing it. Major use cases are event picking, feeding the Event Service used on some production sites, and technical checks of the completion and consistency of processing campaigns. The system design is highly modular so that its components (data collection system, storage system based on Hadoop, query web service and interfaces to other ATLAS systems) could be developed separately and in parallel during LSI. The EventIndex is in operation for the start of LHC Run 2. This paper describes the high-level system architecture, the technical design choices and the deployment process and issues. The performance of the data collection and storage systems, as well as the query services, are also reported.

  3. Encouraging choice, serendipity and experimentation: experiences from Griffith University library (G11) extension and Gumurrii Centre.

    PubMed

    Legerton, Graham

    2013-09-01

    The refurbishment and extension of existing university buildings is a critical consideration for many universities. This article details an architect's perspective of an innovative and collaborative design approach to transforming an existing library into a futuristic and student-centric interactive learning environment. The design is responsive to people, place, the community and the environment, due, in part, to the enhanced physical permeability of the building. Associated user-group forums comprised the end user client, the university's facilities body, the builder, lead architectural consultants, the Centre for Indigenous Students (Gumurrii Centre) and architectural sub-consultants. This article discusses five key design moves--"triangulate", "unique geometries and spaces", "learning aviary", "sky lounge" and "understanding flexibility". It goes on to discuss these elements in relation to designing spaces to enhance interprofessional education and collaboration. In summary, this article identifies how it is possible to maximise the value and characteristics of an existing library whilst creating a series of innovative spaces that offer choice, encourage serendipity and embrace experimentation. PMID:23930689

  4. Assessing preferences for wastewater treatment in a rural area using choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genius, Margarita; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2012-04-01

    In areas that are still not serviced by a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), economic valuation of the benefits derived from its construction should focus not only on those attributes that are linked to the services provided by the plant, such as cleaner environment and the possibility of reuse, but also on those attributes that are linked to its existence such as possible landscape and odor effects. This paper presents a choice modeling (CM) application that elicits the value of the attributes of a WWTP, where the latter are given by odor and landscape effects, jobs created, water quality, irrigation applications of the produced recycled water, and the additional charging. The results show that for rural populations such as farmers' communities, the potential increase of irrigated agricultural land is the main driver of willingness to pay while concerns over possible odor effects are also important. In addition, ignoring possible correlations across subsets of alternatives and variance heterogeneity would lead to substantial overestimation of willingness to pay.

  5. Modeling Mental Health Information Preferences During the Early Adult Years: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Walker, John R.; Eastwood, John D.; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P.; Bracken, Keyna

    2013-01-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g. books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels. PMID:24266450

  6. Modeling mental health information preferences during the early adult years: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Walker, John R; Eastwood, John D; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P; Bracken, Keyna; The Mobilizing Minds Research Group

    2014-04-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g., books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels. PMID:24266450

  7. Providing Choice in Middle Grade Classrooms: An Exploratory Study of Enactment Variability and Student Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jasmine D.; Wallace, Tanner LeBaron; Sung, Hannah C.

    2016-01-01

    Employing descriptive and interpretive analyses of classroom videos and focus group data, this study details how the provision of choice was enacted in instruction, and the subsequent messages students perceived. Participants included six teachers (fourth to eighth grade) and 114 students (age X-bar = 11.28 years, 60% African American). Survey…

  8. Colorado Teen Challenges and Choices Curriculum State Content Standards for Consumer & Family Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlender, Pat; Calhoun, Peggy; Goemer, Phil; Inman, Sondra; Kilgore, Cherryl; McManigal, Lori; Neergaard, Hope; Peppler, Colleen; Wateman, Linda

    This document presents materials and guidelines for evaluating Colorado high school students' attainment of the eight state standards for consumer and family studies that pertain to teen challenges and choices. The materials presented are designed to promote and evaluate students' mastery of the following competencies: (1) examine and demonstrate…

  9. The Distribution of Job Satisfaction among Young European Graduates: Does the Choice of Study Field Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Luis E.; Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2007-01-01

    A student's choice of a field of study is a personal decision that combines individual tastes, inclinations, preferences, and prospects related to the working life with a number of financial and academic constraints. Therefore, the analysis of the effects of degree field on job satisfaction should also address the unobserved heterogeneity among…

  10. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  11. Why Do They Study There? Diary Research into Students' Learning Space Choices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Higher education learning and teaching methods have changed while most educational buildings are still rather traditional. Yet, there is an increasing interest in whether we can educate today's higher education students in yesterday's buildings. This paper aims to contribute to this debate by studying the learning space choices of higher education…

  12. Rockin' around the Clock: An Exploratory Study of Music Teachers' Personal Listening Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Virginia Wayman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the personal music listening choices of music teachers. Specifically, in which formats do teachers listen to music for personal pleasure, how do they obtain the music they choose, and how frequently do they choose to listen to certain genres of music. Using an online survey, music teachers answered questions about their…

  13. A "Shared Repertoire" of Choices: Using Phenomenology to Study Writing Tutor Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring services often restrict their data collection and analysis practices to publicizing session counts and tutee GPAs. This study suggests that programs that offer writing consultation may enhance their sessions' epistemic power by researching their tutoring staff's instructional choices. After explaining why and describing how a…

  14. School Choice: Four Case Studies of Home School Families in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Nancy M.; And Others

    Home schooling is one form of school choice that is on the increase. During the 1993-94 school year, Connecticut school officials estimated that there were 1,113 home-instructed students in the state, an increase of 305 students from the previous year and a 1,384 percent increase since 1983. This paper presents findings of a case study that…

  15. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  16. Women Leaders in Student Affairs: A Case Study Exploring Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Costello, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, multiple case study explored what women working in student affairs reported as influences on their career choices and the impact that the type and level of student interaction has on their careers. Data from semi-structured interviews and journal entries were obtained from ten women working in student affairs at private,…

  17. Researching the Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Mark; Wainwright, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, with the focus being on how study abroad experiences affect psychological constructs as opposed to looking solely at study-abroad-related outcomes. Social learning theory is used as a possible theoretical basis for making testable hypotheses and guiding…

  18. How Can the Health System Retain Women in HIV Treatment for a Lifetime? A Discrete Choice Experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Riley, Patricia L.; Palma, Anton M.; Adhikari, Sweta; Ahoua, Laurence; Arnaldo, Carlos; Belo, Dercio F.; Brusamento, Serena; Cumba, Luisa I. G.; Dziuban, Eric J.; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Gutema, Yoseph; Habtamu, Zelalem; Heller, Thomas; Kidanu, Aklilu; Langa, Judite; Mahagaja, Epifanio; McCarthy, Carey F.; Melaku, Zenebe; Shodell, Daniel; Tsiouris, Fatima; Young, Paul R.; Rabkin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Option B+, an approach that involves provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected pregnant women for life, is the preferred strategy for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Lifelong retention in care is essential to its success. We conducted a discrete choice experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique to identify health system characteristics preferred by HIV-infected women to promote continuity of care. Methods Women living with HIV and receiving care at hospitals in Oromia Region, Ethiopia and Zambézia Province, Mozambique were shown nine choice cards and asked to select one of two hypothetical health facilities, each with six varying characteristics related to the delivery of HIV services for long term treatment. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the influence of six health service attributes on choice of clinics. Results 2,033 women participated in the study (response rate 97.8% in Ethiopia and 94.7% in Mozambique). Among the various attributes of structure and content of lifelong ART services, the most important attributes identified in both countries were respectful provider attitude and ability to obtain non-HIV health services during HIV-related visits. Availability of counseling support services was also a driver of choice. Facility type, i.e., hospital versus health center, was substantially less important. Conclusions Efforts to enhance retention in HIV care and treatment for pregnant women should focus on promoting respectful care by providers and integrating access to non-HIV health services in the same visit, as well as continuing to strengthen counseling. PMID:27551785

  19. Drug self-administration studies: a novel reinforcement schedule enhances choice.

    PubMed

    Meisch, Richard A; Gomez, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Relative reinforcing effects of different ethanol and different cocaine doses were studied under concurrent independent fixed-ratio (FR) schedules and concurrent nonindependent FR schedules with rhesus monkeys. Nonindependent FR schedules differed from independent FR schedules in that responses on either side counted towards the FR requirements of two concurrently presented choices. Thus, responses on the right operandum counted toward completion of both right and left FR schedules and, symmetrically, responses on the left did the same. Nonindependent schedules allow the number of responses per drug delivery to vary considerably, unlike independent schedules, thereby making the number of responses per delivery a sensitive dependent variable. In contrast, standard independent schedules do not allow responses per drug delivery to vary; the required number of responses is an independent variable. Three rhesus monkeys were subjects, and choices between different doses of ethanol or cocaine were studied. Larger doses maintained higher response rates than smaller doses - consistent with previous choice studies. By using nonindependent schedules, however, graded responses per drug delivery and increased switching between sides were obtained, providing additional data and useful measures of choice. PMID:23549451

  20. The Integrative Business Experience: Real Choices and Real Consequences Create Real Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Mary; Houseworth, Matthew; Michaelsen, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an innovation called the Integrative Business Experience (IBE) that links a set of required core business courses to an entrepreneurial practicum course in which two things occur. One is that students are concurrently enrolled in the required core business courses and a practicum course while they create a start-up business…

  1. Voice, Choice, Equity and Access: Young Children Capture Their Art Gallery Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Narelle

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a digital camera in the art gallery space is somewhat confrontational. Most museums have strict protocols on what can and cannot be captured. From the educational perspective it does, however, offer a new and innovative way of working that supports young people's ability to record what they see and how they experience the gallery, the…

  2. Foundations for Choice: Good Practice in Adult Training Drawn from the Experiences of Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mary; Lane, Joanna

    This document describes the experiences of 13 unemployed adults who participated in job training that was provided by the Croydon Continuing Education and Training Service in the London borough of Croydon with funding from the European Social Fund from 1995-1997. The document begins with an overview of the two projects: the New Addington NOW (New…

  3. Societal preferences for distributive justice in the allocation of health care resources: a latent class discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Skedgel, Chris; Wailoo, Allan; Akehurst, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that resources should be allocated in a way that produces the greatest outputs, on the grounds that maximizing output allows for a redistribution that could benefit everyone. In health care, this is known as QALY (quality-adjusted life-year) maximization. This justification for QALY maximization may not hold, though, as it is difficult to reallocate health. Therefore, the allocation of health care should be seen as a matter of distributive justice as well as efficiency. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to test consistency with the principles of QALY maximization and to quantify the willingness to trade life-year gains for distributive justice. An empirical ethics process was used to identify attributes that appeared relevant and ethically justified: patient age, severity (decomposed into initial quality and life expectancy), final health state, duration of benefit, and distributional concerns. Only 3% of respondents maximized QALYs with every choice, but scenarios with larger aggregate QALY gains were chosen more often and a majority of respondents maximized QALYs in a majority of their choices. However, respondents also appeared willing to prioritize smaller gains to preferred groups over larger gains to less preferred groups. Marginal analyses found a statistically significant preference for younger patients and a wider distribution of gains, as well as an aversion to patients with the shortest life expectancy or a poor final health state. These results support the existence of an equity-efficiency tradeoff and suggest that well-being could be enhanced by giving priority to programs that best satisfy societal preferences. Societal preferences could be incorporated through the use of explicit equity weights, although more research is required before such weights can be used in priority setting. PMID:25145575

  4. Effects of natal habitat odour, reinforced by adult experience, on choice of oviposition site in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C E; Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2011-12-01

    The effects of natal experience on the oviposition behaviour of adult female mosquitoes were investigated in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). 'Treatment' mosquitoes were exposed to a dilute repellent (inducing stimulus) in their breeding water (aquatic stages) and/or in the air (adults) during various combinations of life stages [larval only (L regime); larval and pupal (LP regime); larval, pupal and emergent adult (LPE regime); larval, pupal, emergent adult and adult (LPEA regime); pupal, emergent adult and adult (PEA regime); adult only (A regime)]. 'Control' mosquitoes were raised in an identical manner, but were not exposed to the inducing stimulus. The oviposition behaviour of treatment and control females was assessed in an oviposition assay that presented a choice of water with or without the inducing stimulus. Of the 435 mosquitoes tested in the experiment, 176 were non-distributors (i.e. laid all of their eggs in only one of the choices). Treatment females (distributors plus non-distributors) reared in the presence of the inducing stimulus throughout their lives (LPEA regime) showed a significant preference for the oviposition option containing the inducing stimulus (24/36 females) compared with corresponding controls (5/39 females). Distributors reared under the LPEA and PEA regimes also showed this preference (6/6 treatment vs. 2/29 control females, and 13/18 treatment vs. 7/23 control females, respectively). Females that had been exposed to the inducing stimulus as either immatures or adults only showed no preference for, and some showed an aversion to, the treatment oviposition option. This is interpreted as evidence for a natal habitat preference induction (NHPI) in this species, albeit one that requires extensive reinforcement in the adult stage. This adult experience-reinforced NHPI (AER-NHPI) is discussed in terms of its adaptive significance for container breeders, the possible timing mechanism and sensory basis of

  5. Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Mabel LS; Robson, Stephen C; May, Carl R

    2008-01-01

    Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18) on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety. PMID:18637178

  6. Acupuncture or low frequency infrared treatment for low back pain in Chinese patients: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jen; Zhang, Yan; He, Xin; Knaggs, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is a popular but controversial treatment option for low back pain. In China, it is practised as traditional Chinese medicine; other treatment strategies for low back pain are commonly practised as Western medicine. Research on patient preference for low back-pain treatment options has been mainly conducted in Western countries and is limited to a willingness-to-pay approach. A stated-preference, discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine Chinese patient preferences and trade-offs for acupuncture and low frequency infrared treatment in low back pain from September 2011 to August 2012 after approval from the Department of Scientific Research in the study settings. Eight-six adult outpatients who visited the 'traditional medicine department' at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital and the 'rehabilitation department' at a Western medicine hospital in Guangdong Province of China for chronic low back pain during study period participated in an interview survey. A questionnaire containing 10 scenarios (5 attributes in each scenario) was used to ask participants' preference for acupuncture, low frequency infrared treatment or neither option. Validated responses were analysed using a nested-logit model. The decision on whether to receive a therapy was not associated with the expected utility of receiving therapy, female gender and higher out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased chance to receive treatments. Of the utility of receiving either acupuncture or low frequency infrared treatment, the treatment sensation was the most important attribute as an indicator of treatment efficacy, followed by the maximum efficacy, maintenance duration and onset of efficacy, and the out-of-pocket payment. The willingness-to-pay for acupuncture and low frequency infrared treatment were about $618.6 and $592.4 USD per course respectively, demonstrated patients' demand of pain management. The treatment sensation was regarded as an indicator of treatment

  7. Acupuncture or Low Frequency Infrared Treatment for Low Back Pain in Chinese Patients: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jen; Zhang, Yan; He, Xin; Knaggs, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is a popular but controversial treatment option for low back pain. In China, it is practised as traditional Chinese medicine; other treatment strategies for low back pain are commonly practised as Western medicine. Research on patient preference for low back-pain treatment options has been mainly conducted in Western countries and is limited to a willingness-to-pay approach. A stated-preference, discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine Chinese patient preferences and trade-offs for acupuncture and low frequency infrared treatment in low back pain from September 2011 to August 2012 after approval from the Department of Scientific Research in the study settings. Eight-six adult outpatients who visited the ‘traditional medicine department’ at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital and the ‘rehabilitation department’ at a Western medicine hospital in Guangdong Province of China for chronic low back pain during study period participated in an interview survey. A questionnaire containing 10 scenarios (5 attributes in each scenario) was used to ask participants' preference for acupuncture, low frequency infrared treatment or neither option. Validated responses were analysed using a nested-logit model. The decision on whether to receive a therapy was not associated with the expected utility of receiving therapy, female gender and higher out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased chance to receive treatments. Of the utility of receiving either acupuncture or low frequency infrared treatment, the treatment sensation was the most important attribute as an indicator of treatment efficacy, followed by the maximum efficacy, maintenance duration and onset of efficacy, and the out-of-pocket payment. The willingness-to-pay for acupuncture and low frequency infrared treatment were about $618.6 and $592.4 USD per course respectively, demonstrated patients' demand of pain management. The treatment sensation was regarded as an indicator of treatment

  8. Kindergartners Having Microcomputer Experiences: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sydney L.

    Five-year-old children's activity choices were examined in an early childhood classroom setting designed to foster interactive microcomputer activities. It was hypothesized that engaging and sustaining the children's active involvement with interactive computer experiences would be very difficult, due to their limited academic skills. Further, it…

  9. A benefit–risk assessment model for statins using multicriteria decision analysis based on a discrete choice experiment in Korean patients

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ji-Hye; Kwon, Sun-Hong; Ha, Ji-Hye; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The benefit–risk balance for drugs can alter post approval owing to additional data on efficacy or adverse events. This study developed a quantitative benefit–risk assessment (BRA) model for statins using multicriteria decision analysis with discrete choice experiments and compared a recent BRA with that at the time of approval. Patients and methods Following a systematic review of the literature, the benefit criteria within the statin BRA model were defined as a reduction in the plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a reduction in myocardial infarction incidence; the risk criteria were hepatotoxicity (Liv) and fatal rhabdomyolysis (Rha). The scores for these criteria were estimated using mixed treatment comparison methods. Weighting was calculated from a discrete choice experiment involving 203 Korean patients. The scores and weights were integrated to produce an overall value representing the benefit–risk balance, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results In this BRA model, low-density lipoprotein (relative importance [RI]: 37.50%) was found to be a more important benefit criterion than myocardial infarction (RI: 35.43%), and Liv (RI: 16.28%) was a more important risk criterion than Rha (RI: 10.79%). Patients preferred atorvastatin, and the preference ranking of cerivastatin and simvastatin was switched post approval because of the emergence of additional risk information related to cerivastatin. Conclusion A quantitative statin BRA model confirmed that the preference ranking of statins changed post approval because of the identification of additional benefits or risks. PMID:27358567

  10. Patients’ and physicians’ preferences for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatments in Spain and Portugal: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Morillas, Carlos; Feliciano, Rosa; Catalina, Pablo Fernández; Ponte, Carla; Botella, Marta; Rodrigues, João; Esmatjes, Enric; Lafita, Javier; Lizán, Luis; Llorente, Ignacio; Morales, Cristóbal; Navarro-Pérez, Jorge; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Paz, Silvia; Ramirez de Arellano, Antonio; Cardoso, Cristina; Tribaldos Causadias, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess Spanish and Portuguese patients’ and physicians’ preferences regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatments and the monthly willingness to pay (WTP) to gain benefits or avoid side effects. Methods An observational, multicenter, exploratory study focused on routine clinical practice in Spain and Portugal. Physicians were recruited from multiple hospitals and outpatient clinics, while patients were recruited from eleven centers operating in the public health care system in different autonomous communities in Spain and Portugal. Preferences were measured via a discrete choice experiment by rating multiple T2DM medication attributes. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model. Results Three-hundred and thirty (n=330) patients (49.7% female; mean age 62.4 [SD: 10.3] years, mean T2DM duration 13.9 [8.2] years, mean body mass index 32.5 [6.8] kg/m2, 41.8% received oral + injected medication, 40.3% received oral, and 17.6% injected treatments) and 221 physicians from Spain and Portugal (62% female; mean age 41.9 [SD: 10.5] years, 33.5% endocrinologists, 66.5% primary-care doctors) participated. Patients valued avoiding a gain in bodyweight of 3 kg/6 months (WTP: €68.14 [95% confidence interval: 54.55–85.08]) the most, followed by avoiding one hypoglycemic event/month (WTP: €54.80 [23.29–82.26]). Physicians valued avoiding one hypoglycemia/week (WTP: €287.18 [95% confidence interval: 160.31–1,387.21]) the most, followed by avoiding a 3 kg/6 months gain in bodyweight and decreasing cardiovascular risk (WTP: €166.87 [88.63–843.09] and €154.30 [98.13–434.19], respectively). Physicians and patients were willing to pay €125.92 (73.30–622.75) and €24.28 (18.41–30.31), respectively, to avoid a 1% increase in glycated hemoglobin, and €143.30 (73.39–543.62) and €42.74 (23.89–61.77) to avoid nausea. Conclusion Both patients and physicians in Spain and Portugal are willing to pay for the health benefits

  11. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  12. Multi-choice multi-objective mathematical programming model for integrated production planning: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, M. P.; Acharya, S.

    2013-09-01

    This article develops a multi-choice multi-objective linear programming model in order to solve an integrated production planning problem of a steel plant. The aim of the integrated production planning problem is to integrate the planning sub-functions into a single planning operation. The sub-functions are formulated by considering the capacity of different units of the plant, cost of raw materials from various territories, demands of customers in different geographical locations, time constraint for delivery the products, production cost and production rate at different stages of production process. Departure cost is also considered in the formulation of mathematical programming model. Some of the parameters are decided from a set of possible choices, therefore such parameters are considered as multi-choice type. Multi-choice mathematical programming problem cannot be solved directly. Therefore an equivalent multi-objective mathematical programming model is established in order to find the optimal solution of the problem. Computation of the mathematical programming model is performed with the practical production data of a plant to study the methodology.

  13. Comparison of benefit–risk preferences of patients and physicians regarding cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors using discrete choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ji-Hye; Kwon, Sun-Hong; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cheon, Ji-Eun; Jang, Eun-Jin; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate and compare benefit–risk preferences among Korean patients and physicians concerning cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibitor treatments for arthritis. Materials and methods Subjects included 100 patients with arthritis and 60 board-certified orthopedic surgeon physicians in South Korea. Through a systematic review of the literature, beneficial attributes of using Cox-2 inhibitors were defined as a decrease in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index for pain score and improvement in physical function. Likewise, risk attributes included upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications and cardiovascular (CV) adverse events. Discrete choice experiments were used to determine preferences for these four attributes among Korean patients and physicians. Relative importance and maximum acceptable risk for improving beneficial attributes were assessed by analyzing the results of the discrete choice experiment by using a conditional logit model. Results Patients ranked the relative importance of benefit–risk attributes as follows: pain reduction (35.2%); physical function improvement (30.0%); fewer CV adverse events (21.5%); fewer GI complications (13.4%). The physicians’ ranking for the same attributes was as follows: fewer CV (33.5%); pain reduction (32.4%); fewer GI complications (18.1%); physical function improvement (16.0%). Patients were more willing than physicians to accept risks when pain improved from 20% or 45% to 55% and physical function improved from 15% or 35% to 45%. Conclusion We confirmed that patients and physicians had different benefit–risk preferences regarding Cox-2 inhibitors. Patients with arthritis prioritized the benefits of Cox-2 inhibitors over the risks; moreover, in comparison with the physicians, arthritis patients were more willing to accept the trade-off between benefits and risks to achieve the best treatment level. To reduce the preference gap and achieve treatment goals, physicians must better

  14. The Role of Experience: A Qualitative Study of Adult Learning in History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    The problem to be investigated by this study is whether museum visitors' history content knowledge is enhanced by their museum experience and whether their lived experiences played a role in their learning. The study is based on the theories of experiential, informal and free-choice learning. A qualitative design examined the lived experiences of…

  15. Medical student career choice: a qualitative study of fourth-year medical students at Memorial University, Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Pianosi, Kiersten; Bethune, Cheri; Hurley, Katrina F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specialty career choice is a critical decision for medical students, and research has examined factors influencing particular specialties or assessed it from a demographic perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe influential factors in students' decision-making, irrespective of their particular specialty in a Canadian medical school. Methods: Study participants were recruited from fourth-year medical classes at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Sixteen focus groups (n = 70) were led by a nonfaculty facilitator to uncover factors affecting medical student career choice. The analysis was guided by principles of grounded theory methodology. The focus group transcripts were sequentially coded based on recurring topics and themes that arose in the students' discussions. A set of key themes emerged and representative quotations for each theme were tracked. Results: Twenty themes were identified from the focus group discussions: 7 major, 3 intermediate and 10 minor themes. The major themes were undergraduate experience, exposure, public perception and recruitment, teacher influence, family/outside influences, residency issues and personal philosophy. Intermediate themes included lifestyle, bad-mouthing/negative perceptions and context. Minor themes included critical incidents/experiences, information gaps, uncertainty, nature of the work, extracurricular programs, timing of decision-making, financial issues, prestige, fit with colleagues and gender issues. Interpretation: Exposure to specialties and the timing of this exposure appears to be crucial to career choice, as does the context (who, what, when, where) of any particular rotation. Given the influence of personal philosophy, future research examining students' level of self-assessment and self-reflection in their decision-making processes and level of certainty about their selected specialty would be useful. PMID:27398357

  16. Fractionating choice: A study on reward discrimination, preference, and relative valuation in the rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Ricker, Joshua M; Hatch, Justin D; Powers, Daniel D; Cromwell, Howard Casey

    2016-05-01

    Choice behavior combines discrimination between distinctive outcomes, preference for specific outcomes and relative valuation of comparable outcomes. Previous work has focused on 1 component (i.e., preference) disregarding other influential processes that might provide a more complete understanding. Animal models of choice have been explored primarily utilizing extensive training, limited freedom for multiple decisions and sparse behavioral measures constrained to a single phase of motivated action. The present study used a paradigm that combines different elements of previous methods with the goal to distinguish among components of choice and explore how well components match predictions based on risk-sensitive foraging strategies. In order to analyze discrimination and relative valuation, it was necessary to have an option that shifted and an option that remained constant. Shifting outcomes among weeks included a change in single-option outcome (0 to 1 to 2 pellets) or a change in mixed-option outcome (0 or 5 to 0 or 3 to 0 or 1 pellets). Constant outcomes among weeks were also mixed-option (0 or 3 pellets) or single-option (1 pellet). Shifting single-option outcomes among weeks led to better discrimination, more robust preference and significant incentive contrast effects for the alternative outcome. Shifting multioptions altered choice components and led to dissociations among discrimination, preference, and reduced contrast effects. During extinction, all components were impacted with the greatest deficits during the shifting mixed-option outcome sessions. Results suggest choice behavior can be optimized for 1 component but suboptimal for others depending upon the complexity of alterations in outcome value between options. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078079

  17. Determinants of Responsible Hiking Behavior: Results from a Stated Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tian; Smith, Jordan W; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Moore, Roger L

    2015-09-01

    This research examined the determinants of responsible hiking behavior through a lab-based experiment in which two managerial factors believed to influence individuals' behavior (the presentation of an educational message and the method of displaying degraded trail conditions) were varied across four experimental treatments in a 2 × 2 between subjects factorial design. The effect of trail degradation type (muddiness and erosion) and severity (moderate or severe) of trail degradation were also examined within each of the 4 treatment groups. Analyses revealed neither the educational message nor the method of displaying the image had a consistent and expected impact on individuals' behavioral intentions. In fact, participants who viewed the educational message were more likely to indicate they would hike off the trail. The effects of both trail degradation type and severity were consistent and significant with muddiness and more severe levels of degradation having a greater influence on individuals' intent to hike on the edge of or off the trail. The analyses also revealed both gender and hiking frequency had significant effects on behavioral intentions. Female participants were more likely to indicate they would turn around than males when they encountered degraded trail sections. Women were also less likely to indicate they would hike off the trail than men. Collectively, these findings highlight a variety of ways recreation resource managers can more efficiently inform recreationists about the impacts of off-trail hiking and prioritize trail management needs. PMID:25900602

  18. Determinants of Responsible Hiking Behavior: Results from a Stated Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tian; Smith, Jordan W.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Moore, Roger L.

    2015-09-01

    This research examined the determinants of responsible hiking behavior through a lab-based experiment in which two managerial factors believed to influence individuals' behavior (the presentation of an educational message and the method of displaying degraded trail conditions) were varied across four experimental treatments in a 2 × 2 between subjects factorial design. The effect of trail degradation type (muddiness and erosion) and severity (moderate or severe) of trail degradation were also examined within each of the 4 treatment groups. Analyses revealed neither the educational message nor the method of displaying the image had a consistent and expected impact on individuals' behavioral intentions. In fact, participants who viewed the educational message were more likely to indicate they would hike off the trail. The effects of both trail degradation type and severity were consistent and significant with muddiness and more severe levels of degradation having a greater influence on individuals' intent to hike on the edge of or off the trail. The analyses also revealed both gender and hiking frequency had significant effects on behavioral intentions. Female participants were more likely to indicate they would turn around than males when they encountered degraded trail sections. Women were also less likely to indicate they would hike off the trail than men. Collectively, these findings highlight a variety of ways recreation resource managers can more efficiently inform recreationists about the impacts of off-trail hiking and prioritize trail management needs.

  19. Information Systems Education in Kenya: Students' Specialization Choice Trends (A Case Study of Kenya Polytechnic University College)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndede-Amadi, Atieno A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the time and level of Information Systems (IS) awareness among Kenyan university students and the choice of IS as a field of specialization. The study posited that the choice of a field of specialization is dependent upon a student's awareness of its existence, its utilization in the real world, its…

  20. Maryland Child Care Choices Study: Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Young Children in Maryland. Publication #2014-57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…

  1. Racial Diversity, Student Religiosity, and School Choice: An Empirical Case Study of Multi-Racial Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    This article comprises an empirical case study of student religiosity in the context of urban school choice. The purpose of this study was to compare student religiosity in a racially diverse religious private school to determine whether religious faith is a unifying factor across racial categories. Insofar as school choice has been called…

  2. Experiences in adding multiple-choice questions to an objective structural clinical examination (OSCE) in undergraduate dental education.

    PubMed

    Näpänkangas, R; Harila, V; Lahti, S

    2012-02-01

    In the University of Oulu, the competencies of fourth-year dental students have traditionally been assessed with a written examination before they go to work for the first time as dentists outside the Institute of Dentistry. In 2009, the objective structural clinical examination (OSCE) modified with multiple-choice questions was introduced as a tool for assessing clinical competencies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of the modified OSCE (m-OSCE) by measuring the attitude of examiners (teachers) and dental students towards the m-OSCE and to evaluate whether the OSCE is preferred to the written examination in the assessment of knowledge and clinical skills. Additionally, the aim was to evaluate the reliability of the multiple-choice examination. Altogether 30 students (86%) and 11/12 examiners (92%) responded to the questionnaire. Most of the students considered the multiple-choice questions easy, but complained about the complex formulation of the questions. The test stations were easy for 87% of the students, but the time allocated was too short. Most of the students (73%) and examiners (91%) preferred the m-OSCE to the written examination. All students and examiners found the immediate assessment of the tasks good. Based on the evaluations of m-OSCE, it could be concluded that both students and examiners preferred the m-OSCE to the pure written examination in assessment, which indicate that m-OSCE had good face validity. Combining multiple methods in assessment of knowledge and clinical skills whilst simultaneously taking into account the feasibility and available resources provides more valid results. PMID:22251338

  3. Using qualitative research to facilitate the interpretation of quantitative results from a discrete choice experiment: insights from a survey in elderly ophthalmologic patients

    PubMed Central

    Vennedey, Vera; Danner, Marion; Evers, Silvia MAA; Fauser, Sascha; Stock, Stephanie; Dirksen, Carmen D; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in industrialized countries. Currently, mainly three treatment options are available, which are all intravitreal injections, but differ with regard to the frequency of injections needed, their approval status, and cost. This study aims to estimate patients’ preferences for characteristics of treatment options for neovascular AMD. Methods An interviewer-assisted discrete choice experiment was conducted among patients suffering from AMD treated with intravitreal injections. A Bayesian efficient design was used for the development of 12 choice tasks. In each task patients indicated their preference for one out of two treatment scenarios described by the attributes: side effects, approval status, effect on visual function, injection and monitoring frequency. While answering the choice tasks, patients were asked to think aloud and explain the reasons for choosing or rejecting specific characteristics. Quantitative data were analyzed with a mixed multinomial logit model. Results Eighty-six patients completed the questionnaire. Patients significantly preferred treatments that improve visual function, are approved, are administered in a pro re nata regimen (as needed), and are accompanied by bimonthly monitoring. Patients significantly disliked less frequent monitoring visits (every 4 months) and explained this was due to fear of deterioration being left unnoticed, and in turn experiencing disease deterioration. Significant preference heterogeneity was found for all levels except for bimonthly monitoring visits and severe, rare eye-related side effects. Patients gave clear explanations of their individual preferences during the interviews. Conclusion Significant preference trends were discernible for the overall sample, despite the preference heterogeneity for most treatment characteristics. Patients like to be monitored and treated regularly, but not too frequently

  4. EDF's studies and first choices regarding the design of electrical equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Michel; Metzger, Gisele; Pays, Michel; Pasdeloup, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    In the performance of its studies and in its first choices, Electricite de France has taken into account the three parameters that have been judged essential for its electrical installations: flammability and flame propagation; smoke opacity; and corrosiveness and toxicity of emitted gases. In this research, materials tests have been widely developed in order to insure simple manufacturing controls, and to decrease the costly testing of near to full size models.

  5. Experiment study on friction drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guomin; Ma, Lisheng; Yao, Zhengqiu; Li, Guoping

    2004-09-01

    In the past years, friction drive was developed to overcome the inherent deficiencies in both worm drive and gear drive. No periodical error and free of backlash are the main advantages of friction drive. With the trend towards bigger and bigger aperture of the optical telescopes, there are some reports about friction drive employed to drive the telescopes. However friction drive has its own deficiencies, such as slippage and creepage. This report here describes the study on the friction drive finished in an experiment arranged by LAMOST project. It comprises three main parts. First, it introduces the experiment apparatus and proposes a new kind of measurement and adjustment mechanisms. Secondly, the report gives the analysis of friction drive characteristics theoretically, such as slippage, creepage and gives the results of corresponding experiments. The experiment shows that the lowest stable speed reaches 0.05″/s with precision of 0.009″(RMS), the preload has little influence on the drive precision in the case of constant velocity and the variable velocity when the angle acceleration is less than 5″/s2 with close loop control and the creepage velocity of this experiment system is 1.47″/s. Lastly, the analysis in the second section lists some measures to improve the precision and stability further. These measures have been actually conducted in the testing system and proved to be reliable.

  6. Public choice in water resource management: two case studies of the small-scale hydroelectric controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Hydroelectric issues have a long history in the Pacific Northwest, and more recently have come to focus on developing environmentally less-obtrusive means of hydroelectric generation. Small-scale hydroelectric represents perhaps the most important of these means of developing new sources of renewable resources to lessen the nation's dependence on foreign sources of energy. Each potential small-scale hydroelectric project, however, manifests a unique history which provides a highly useful opportunity to study the process of collective social choice in the area of new energy uses of water resources. Utilizing the basic concepts of public choice theory, a highly developed and increasingly widely accepted approach in the social sciences, the politicalization of small-scale hydroelectric proposals is analyzed. Through the use of secondary analysis of archival public opinion data collected from residents of the State of Idaho, and through the development of the two case studies - one on the Palouse River in Eastern Washington and the other at Elk Creek Falls in Northern Idaho, the policy relevant behavior and influence of major actors is assessed. Results provide a useful test of the utility of public-choice theory for the study of cases of natural-resources development when public involvement is high.

  7. Exploring the effects of the atherosclerosis progression and the choice of affected arteries in the design of experiments with Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Riera-Borrull, Marta; Sabench, Fàtima; Del Castillo, Daniel; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the longitudinal progression of atherosclerosis and the correlation between methods to measure the lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Atherosclerosis progression was assessed by measurements of foam cell-rich depositions in their proximal aortas, and/or in surgically excised arteries, to assess the histological luminal narrowing. A longitudinal study was performed by comparing the values for carotid, aorta, and femoral and iliac arteries using common histological techniques. There were no significant differences in progression between different arteries, but correlation with the classical measurement of atherosclerosis in the aortic root was poor. Each laboratory requires specific standardization. Carotid arteries were sensitive to atherosclerosis in these mice, and progression was exponential. In conclusion, morphometric data show the importance of the choice of the duration of treatment, the appropriate controls, and the age at which to begin the experiments. PMID:26899621

  8. Do They Enter the Workforce? Career Choices after an Undergrad Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, S.; Wissel, S.; Zwicker, A.; Ortiz, D.; Dominguez, A.

    2015-11-01

    Students in undergrad research internships go on to grad school at rates of 50-75% (Lopatto, 2007;Russell, 2005). NSF studied its undergrad program and found that 74% of physics interns (67% for engineering) go to grad school. PPPL undergrad interns were tracked for 10 years. Only 3% of physics PhD candidates are studying plasma physics, but 23% of our alumni that entered grad school did so in plasma. AIP reports that 60% of physics majors go to grad school (AIP, 2012), but 95% of PPPL interns have gone on to grad schools. Several programs track enrollment in grad school. AIP compiles statistics of undergrads who enter grad school and PhD students who work in the field. There has been no study of interns that follows the path from undergrad to grad school and then on to employment. Our tracking shows that most not only complete their advanced degrees but also stay in STEM fields following their academic careers. 88% of them become part of the STEM workforce, higher than the 82% of all physics PhDs employed in physics after obtaining their degree (AIP, 2014). PPPL puts more students in grad school in physics, and specifically plasma physics, and a higher percentage of those grad students stay in the STEM workforce.

  9. Delayed Choice in Feynman's Neutron Scattering Off a Crystal Experiment: The Effect of Information on the Neutron Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Feynman (Lect. on Phys., v. 3, 1965, ps. 3-7 to 3-9) maintained in his neutron scattering off a crystal experiment that which-way info can exist even if one does not perform a measurement. This interaction involves a spin flip for both the neutron and nucleus that the neutron scatters off. With the flip, the spin of the nucleus that the neutron scattered off becomes different than the spin direction of all the other nuclei in the crystal that the neutron could have scattered off. The spins of all the other nuclei are the same. It may be possible to eliminate the ww info as long as particle detections have not been made. Through spin-lattice relaxation after the neutron-nucleus interaction occurs, the spin flip of the nucleus would reverse before any detection is made. It would no longer be possible to determine which nucleus the neutron scattered off. The result is only interference in the distribution of the neutrons. This change from ww info to interference would be affected by a change in info regarding the nuclei in the crystal since there is no physical process whereby the change in the nuclei can affect the distribution of the neutrons. Altering relaxation duration relative to neutron detection time could provide a delayed choice. Another possibility would be to shut off the uniform, strong, external magnetic field B, that initially aligns all of the spins of the nuclei along the same axis, after the spin flip and before the neutron is detected. Ww info would be eliminated since the spin directions of all the nuclei would quickly become essentially random. Maintaining or turning off B could be a delayed choice.

  10. Coexistence of full which-path information and interference in Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment with photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, K.; Yuan, S.; Zhao, S.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a computer simulation model that is a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment that employs a single photon source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of a 50/50 input beam splitter and a variable output beam splitter with adjustable reflection coefficient R [V. Jacques, E. Wu, F. Grosshans, F. Treussart, P. Grangier, A. Aspect, J.-F. Roch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 220402]. For 0⩽R⩽0.5, experimentally measured values of the interference visibility V and the path distinguishability D, a parameter quantifying the which-path information (WPI), are found to fulfill the complementary relation V2+D2⩽1, thereby allowing to obtain partial WPI while keeping interference with limited visibility. The simulation model that is solely based on experimental facts that satisfies Einstein's criterion of local causality and that does not rely on any concept of quantum theory or of probability theory, reproduces quantitatively the averages calculated from quantum theory. Our results prove that it is possible to give a particle-only description of the experiment, that one can have full WPI even if D=0, V=1 and therefore that the relation V2+D2⩽1 cannot be regarded as quantifying the notion of complementarity.

  11. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. PMID:21316880

  12. Student Destination Choices in Higher Education: Exploring Attitudes of Brazilian Students to Study in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border education provides evidence about international student destination choice including the push and pull model of international student choice. The research upon which this article is based, into Brazilian students' decisions to study at universities in the United Kingdom, reveals some particular barriers such as cost, negative…

  13. Private Education: Studies in Choice and Public Policy. Yale Studies on Nonprofit Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    Private education and comparisons between private and public education at the collegiate and elementary/secondary levels are discussed in 11 articles. Attention is directed to relationships between private choice and public policy as they affect the quality, finance, governance, mission, and division of labor in a cross-national, interdisciplinary…

  14. Consumer-perceived risks and choices about pharmaceuticals in the environment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern that pollution from pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and agriculture can be a threat to the environment. Little is known, however, if people are aware that pharmaceuticals may have a detrimental influence on the environment. The present study examines people’s risk perception and choices in regard to environmental risks of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and for agricultural purposes. Methods A representative sample of the U.S. population (N = 640) was surveyed. Respondents completed a hypothetical choice task that involved tradeoffs between human and environmental health. In addition, it was examined how much people would support an environment policy related to drug regulation. Results For agricultural pharmaceuticals, respondents reported a high level of satisfaction for a policy requiring farms to limit their use of antibiotics. In the domain of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine, we found that people were willing to consider environmental consequences when choosing a drug, but only when choices were made about treatment options for a rather harmless disease. In contrast, when decisions were made about treatment options for a severe disease, the drug’s effectiveness was the most important criterion. Conclusions It can be concluded that the environmental impact of a drug will be hardly considered in decisions about pharmaceuticals for severe diseases like cancer, and this may be due to the fact that these decisions are predominantly affective in nature. However, for less severe health risks, people are willing to balance health and environmental considerations. PMID:23734758

  15. Reimagining cost recovery in Pakistan's irrigation system through willingness-to-pay estimates for irrigation water from a discrete choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Andrew Reid; Shah, M. Azeem Ali; Ward, Patrick S.

    2014-08-01

    It is widely argued that farmers are unwilling to pay adequate fees for surface water irrigation to recover the costs associated with maintenance and improvement of delivery systems. In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment to study farmer preferences for irrigation characteristics along two branch canals in Punjab Province in eastern Pakistan. We find that farmers are generally willing to pay well in excess of current surface water irrigation costs for increased surface water reliability and that the amount that farmers are willing to pay is an increasing function of their existing surface water supply as well as location along the main canal branch. This explicit translation of implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for water (via expenditure on groundwater pumping) to WTP for reliable surface water demonstrates the potential for greatly enhanced cost recovery in the Indus Basin Irrigation System via appropriate setting of water user fees, driven by the higher WTP of those currently receiving reliable supplies.

  16. Reimagining cost recovery in Pakistan's irrigation system through willingness-to-pay estimates for irrigation water from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Andrew Reid; Shah, M Azeem Ali; Ward, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    It is widely argued that farmers are unwilling to pay adequate fees for surface water irrigation to recover the costs associated with maintenance and improvement of delivery systems. In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment to study farmer preferences for irrigation characteristics along two branch canals in Punjab Province in eastern Pakistan. We find that farmers are generally willing to pay well in excess of current surface water irrigation costs for increased surface water reliability and that the amount that farmers are willing to pay is an increasing function of their existing surface water supply as well as location along the main canal branch. This explicit translation of implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for water (via expenditure on groundwater pumping) to WTP for reliable surface water demonstrates the potential for greatly enhanced cost recovery in the Indus Basin Irrigation System via appropriate setting of water user fees, driven by the higher WTP of those currently receiving reliable supplies. PMID:25552779

  17. Recent SEL experiments and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Smith, Donald

    1993-01-01

    The studies discussed in this paper are all examples of activities that are performed as part of the Software Engineering Laboratory's (SEL's) process improvement model. Using this model, the SEL starts by understanding the product and process, then assesses the impact of new technologies, and finally packages what was learned. The preliminary examination of maintenance effort, error, and change profiles to establish a maintenance baseline exemplifies understanding-phase activities. The ongoing testing study that is examining the effects of various testing approaches on process and product measures is an example of typical assessing efforts. Finally, the derivation of cost and schedule estimation models from locally driven factors such as reuse level, application type, and language is an example of experience packaging. In the SEL, no study is ever really completed. Studies will be repeated and iterated upon in the future as part of the ongoing software improvement process.

  18. Sustained Attention is Associated with Error Processing Impairment: Evidence from Mental Fatigue Study in Four-Choice Reaction Time Task

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yi; Ma, Feng; Lv, Yixuan; Cai, Gui; Teng, Peng; Xu, FengGang; Chen, Shanguang

    2015-01-01

    Attention is important in error processing. Few studies have examined the link between sustained attention and error processing. In this study, we examined how error-related negativity (ERN) of a four-choice reaction time task was reduced in the mental fatigue condition and investigated the role of sustained attention in error processing. Forty-one recruited participants were divided into two groups. In the fatigue experiment group, 20 subjects performed a fatigue experiment and an additional continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for 1 h. In the normal experiment group, 21 subjects only performed the normal experimental procedures without the PVT test. Fatigue and sustained attention states were assessed with a questionnaire. Event-related potential results showed that ERN (p < 0.005) and peak (p < 0.05) mean amplitudes decreased in the fatigue experiment. ERN amplitudes were significantly associated with the attention and fatigue states in electrodes Fz, FC1, Cz, and FC2. These findings indicated that sustained attention was related to error processing and that decreased attention is likely the cause of error processing impairment. PMID:25756780

  19. Optimisation of maintenance concept choice using risk-decision factor - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Vladimir M.; Vasic, Branko M.; Rakicevic, Branislav B.; Vorotovic, Goran S.

    2012-10-01

    The design of maintenance system and the corresponding logistic support is a very complex process, during which the aim is to find the compromise solutions regarding the relations among different maintenance procedures and the ways of their implementation. As a result of this, various solutions can be adopted, since this is conditioned by a series of important factors and criteria, which can be contradictory sometimes. There are different perspectives on ways of solving practical maintenance problems, that is dilemmas when it comes to the choice of maintenance concept. The principal dilemma is how and when to decide on carrying out maintenance procedures. Should the decision be based on theoretical grounds or experience, how does one reconcile those two extremes, who is to decide upon this? In this article we have offered one, basically new solution as a possibility for maintenance concept choice, based on a significant modification of the widely used failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) method. This solution is risk-decision factor (RDF). This is a result of seven parameters (of different importance and weight) that have the key impact on the process of production and logistic support. The application of this factor is illustrated by the example of planning, organisation and functioning of the maintenance system applied in The Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins (ZIN) in Belgrade.

  20. Farmers' valuation of incentives to produce genetically modified organism-free milk: Insights from a discrete choice experiment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, J A; Latacz-Lohmann, U

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in a genetically modified organism (GMO)-free milk production scheme offered by some German dairy companies. The empirical analysis is based upon discrete choice experiments with 151 dairy farmers from 2 regions in Germany. A conditional logit estimation reveals a strong positive effect of the price premium on offer. Reliable feed monitoring and free technical support increase the likelihood of scheme adoption, the latter however only in farms that have been receiving technical support in other fields. By contrast, any interference with the entrepreneurial autonomy of farmers, through pre-arranged feed procurement or prescriptive advice on the part of the dairy company, lowers acceptance probabilities. Farmers' attitudes toward cultivation of genetically modified soy, their assessment of the market potential of GMO-free milk and future feed prices were found to be significant determinants of adoption, as are farmer age, educational status, and current feeding regimens. Respondents requested on average a mark-up of 0.80 eurocents per kilogram of milk to accept a contract. Comparison of the estimates for the 2 regions suggests that farmers in northern Germany are, on average, more likely to convert to genetically modified-free production; however, farmers in the south are, ceteris paribus, more responsive to an increase in the price premium offered. A latent class model reveals significant differences in the valuation of scheme attributes between 2 latent classes of adopters and nonadopters. PMID:26342979

  1. "The Land of Opportunity Doesn't Apply to Everyone": The Immigrant Experience, Race, and Asian American Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, OiYan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their popular portrayal as high achieving and structurally incorporated, race continues to shape the career choices of Asian American college students. As second-generation Americans, Asian Americans negotiate a constellation of factors when deciding their career choices, most notably, pressures from immigrant parents, awareness of labor…

  2. An assessment of the impact of science experiences on the career choices of male and female biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Jane Butler; Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Cho, Hee-Hyung

    Earlier studies of gender differences in science courses and careers have identified three probable causes: numbers of mathematics courses, level of science achievement, and attitudes toward science. Recently, differential science experiences have been suggested as a factor contributing to the gender differences found in science interest and achievement. A study of science activities, both within and outside of school, has been conducted. Although both boys and girls report similar classroom experiences, boys more often than girls report extracurricular science activities. The findings suggest that equal experiences within science classrooms do not overcome the advantage that boys hold due to more extracurricular science activities. Increased experiences in science, however, have led to more positive attitudes toward science among the girls in this study.

  3. Sustainable Forest Management Preferences of Interest Groups in Three Regions with Different Levels of Industrial Forestry: An Exploratory Attribute-Based Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berninger, Kati; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Messier, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The challenge of sustainable forest management is to integrate diverse and sometimes conflicting management objectives. In order to achieve this goal, we need a better understanding of the aspects influencing the preferences of diverse groups and how these groups make trade-offs between different attributes of SFM. We compare the SFM preferences of interest groups in regions with different forest use histories based on the reasoning that the condition of the forest reflects the forest use history of the area. The condition of the forest also shapes an individual’s forest values and attitudes. These held values and attitudes are thought to influence SFM preferences. We tested whether the SFM preferences vary amongst the different interest groups within and across regions. We collected data from 252 persons using a choice experiment approach, where participants chose multiple times among different options described by a combination of attributes that are assigned different levels. The novelty of our approach was the use of choice experiments in the assessment of regional preference differences. Given the complexity of inter-regional comparison and the small sample size, this was an exploratory study based on a purposive rather than random sample. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the aggregation of preferences of all individuals within a region does not reveal all information necessary for forest management planning since opposing viewpoints could cancel each other out and lead to an interpretation that does not reflect possibly polarised views. Although based on a small sample size, the preferences of interest groups within a region are generally statistically significantly different from each other; however preferences of interest groups across regions are also significantly different. This illustrates the potential importance of assessing heterogeneity by region and by group.

  4. Language Choices: Conditions, Constraints, and Consequences. Impact Studies in Language and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putz, Martin, Ed.

    The collection of essays on language contact and language conflict includes: "Language Choices: Contact and Conflict?" (Martin Putz); "Language Ecology: Contact Without Conflict" (Peter Muhlhausler); "Towards a Dynamic View of Multilingualism" (Ulrike Jessner); "A Matter of Choice" (Florian Coulmas); The Choice of Linguae Francae in Triglossic…

  5. A Discrete Choice Experiment to Elicit Patient Willingness to Pay for Attributes of Treatment-Induced Symptom Relief in Comorbid Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anuja N.; Madhavan, S. Suresh; Lloyd, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Insomnia is a burdensome, commonly comorbid condition. How patients value various aspects of the safety and efficacy of available drugs has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to quantify patient-rated utility by studying willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes of symptom relief via a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Methodology Adult primary care patients (West Virginia University Hospital) with comorbid insomnia were enrolled. The attributes and levels examined were sleep onset latency (SOL; 10, 20, 30 minutes), awakenings (1, 2, 3), wake time after sleep onset (WASO; 15, 45, 60 minutes), total sleep time (TST; 6, 7, 8 hours), hangover (none, mild, moderate), FDA-approved duration of use (short term, not restricted to short term, no restrictions), and out-of-pocket cost per month ($20, $35, $50). Willingness to pay (WTP) data were analyzed using a random effects binary logistic regression model. Results A total of 82 patients completed the DCE (74 analyzed). SOL, WASO, TST, and cost were all found to predict treatment choice. Higher values of SOL, WASO, and cost resulted in decreased preference for a particular treatment, while higher TST predicted increased preference. Modeling revealed an estimated marginal WTP of $66.69 for an example product that improved SOL by 10 minutes, reduced WASO by 15 minutes, and improved TST by 1 hour. Conclusion Patient WTP for symptomatic relief in insomnia can help clinicians fine-tune interventions based on patient preferences, provide evidence for drug formulary and reimbursement decisions, and potentially guide the development of novel drugs. PMID:26489177

  6. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  7. Patients' & Healthcare Professionals' Values Regarding True- & False-Positive Diagnosis when Colorectal Cancer Screening by CT Colonography: Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Darren; Mallett, Susan; Zhu, Shihua; Yao, Guiqing Lily; Bell, Nichola; Ghanouni, Alex; von Wagner, Christian; Taylor, Stuart A.; Altman, Douglas G.; Lilford, Richard; Halligan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To establish the relative weighting given by patients and healthcare professionals to gains in diagnostic sensitivity versus loss of specificity when using CT colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening. Materials and Methods Following ethical approval and informed consent, 75 patients and 50 healthcare professionals undertook a discrete choice experiment in which they chose between “standard” CTC and “enhanced” CTC that raised diagnostic sensitivity 10% for either cancer or polyps in exchange for varying levels of specificity. We established the relative increase in false-positive diagnoses participants traded for an increase in true-positive diagnoses. Results Data from 122 participants were analysed. There were 30 (25%) non-traders for the cancer scenario and 20 (16%) for the polyp scenario. For cancer, the 10% gain in sensitivity was traded up to a median 45% (IQR 25 to >85) drop in specificity, equating to 2250 (IQR 1250 to >4250) additional false-positives per additional true-positive cancer, at 0.2% prevalence. For polyps, the figure was 15% (IQR 7.5 to 55), equating to 6 (IQR 3 to 22) additional false-positives per additional true-positive polyp, at 25% prevalence. Tipping points were significantly higher for patients than professionals for both cancer (85 vs 25, p<0.001) and polyps (55 vs 15, p<0.001). Patients were willing to pay significantly more for increased sensitivity for cancer (p = 0.021). Conclusion When screening for colorectal cancer, patients and professionals believe gains in true-positive diagnoses are worth much more than the negative consequences of a corresponding rise in false-positives. Evaluation of screening tests should account for this. PMID:24349014

  8. Project CHOICE: #100. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Ecology Workers. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Occupations Career Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Ecology Workers, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and Ecological…

  9. A Developmental Study of Choice Reaction Time: The Effect of Two Forms of Stimulus Degradation on Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Labert A.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1975-01-01

    Preschool, third grade and fifth grade children were presented with two choice-reaction time experiments in which probe stimulus quality was manipulated, to measure the effects of probe stimulus degradation at three developmental levels. Results support the hypothesis that children and adults employ similar strategies in preprocessing degraded…

  10. Healthy snacks at the checkout counter: A lab and field study on the impact of shelf arrangement and assortment structure on consumer choices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The essence of nudging is to adapt the environment in which consumers make decisions to help them make better choices, without forcing certain outcomes upon them. To determine how consumers can effectively be guided to select healthier snacks, we examine the effect of manipulating the assortment structure and shelf layout of an impulse display including both healthy and unhealthy snacks near the checkout counter of a canteen. Methods Both a lab and field study applied a two-factor experimental design manipulating snack offerings both in an on-screen choice environment and a natural environment (hospital staff restaurant). Shelf arrangement (i.e. accessibility) was altered by putting healthy snacks at higher shelves versus lower shelves. Assortment structure (i.e. availability) was altered by offering an assortment that either included 25% or 75% healthy snacks. Participants in the lab study (n = 158) made a choice from a shelf display. A brief survey following snack selection asked participants to evaluate the assortment and their choice. The field experiment took place in a hospital canteen. Daily sales data were collected for a period of four weeks. On completion of the field study, employees (n = 92) filled out a questionnaire about all four displays and rated their attractiveness, healthiness and perceived freedom of choice. Results The lab study showed a higher probability of healthy snack choice when 75% of the assortment consisted of healthy snacks compared to conditions with 25% healthy snack assortments, even though choices were not rated less satisfying or more restrictive. Regarding shelf display location of healthy snacks, no significant differences were observed. There was also no significant shelf arrangement by assortment structure interactive effect. The field study replicated these findings, in that this assortment structure led to higher sales of healthy snacks. Sales of unhealthy and total snacks were not impacted by

  11. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  12. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females. PMID:26053150

  13. On the choice of orbits for an altimetric satellite to study ocean circulation and tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Michael E.; Stewart, Robert H.; Farless, David L.; Cartwright, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The choice of an orbit for satellite altimetric studies of the ocean's circulation and tides requires an understanding of the orbital characteristics that influence the accuracy of the satellite's measurements of sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of the measurements. The orbital characteristics that influence accurate calculations of the satellite's position as a function of time are examined, and the pattern of ground tracks laid down on the ocean's surface as a function of the satellite's altitude and inclination is studied. The results are used to examine the aliases in the measurements of surface geostrophic currents and tides. Finally, these considerations are used to specify possible orbits that may be useful for the upcoming Topex/Poseidon mission.

  14. Lesbians and Gay Men's Vacation Motivations, Perceptions, and Constraints: A Study of Cruise Vacation Choice.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Clare; Lester, Jo-Anne; Jarvis, Nigel

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the push-pull vacation motivations of gay male and lesbian consumers and examines how these underpin their perceptions and purchase constraints of a mainstream and LGBT(1) cruise. Findings highlight a complex vacation market. Although lesbians and gay men share many of the same travel motivations as their heterosexual counterparts, the study reveals sexuality is a significant variable in their perception of cruise vacations, which further influences purchase constraints and destination choice. Gay men have more favorable perceptions than lesbians of both mainstream and LGBT cruises. The article recommends further inquiry into the multifaceted nature of motivations, perception, and constraints within the LGBT market in relation to cruise vacations. PMID:26983585

  15. Managing neurogenic bowel dysfunction: what do patients prefer? A discrete choice experiment of patient preferences for transanal irrigation and standard bowel management

    PubMed Central

    Nafees, Beenish; Lloyd, Andrew J; Ballinger, Rachel S; Emmanuel, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients with bowel dysfunction secondary to neurological illness are managed by a range of nonsurgical methods, including dietary changes, laxatives, and suppository use to transanal irrigation (TAI). The aim of the present study was to explore individuals’ preferences regarding TAI devices and furthermore investigate willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes in devices in the UK. Methods A discrete choice experiment survey was conducted to evaluate the patients’ perceived value of TAI devices. Attributes were selected based upon a literature review and input from clinicians. Interviews were conducted with three clinicians and the survey was developed and finalized with the input from both patients and professionals. The final attributes were “risk of urinary tract infections” (UTIs), “risk of fecal incontinence” (FI), “frequency of use”, “time spent on toilet”, “ease of use”, “level of control/independence”, and “cost”. Participants were recruited by a patient panel of TAI device users in the UK. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model whereby the coefficients obtained from the model provided an estimate of the (log) odds ratios (ORs) of preference for attributes. WTP was also estimated for each attribute. Results A total of 129 participants were included in the final analyses. Sixty two percent of the participants had suffered from three UTIs in the preceding year and 58% of patients reported currently experiencing FI using their current device. All attributes were significant predictors of choice. The most important attributes for participants were the “risk of FI”, “frequency of use”, and “risk of UTIs”. Conclusion Participants with bowel dysfunction regarded “risk of FI”, “frequency of use”, and “avoiding UTIs” as the most important features of a TAI device. These preferences are valuable in informing decision makers and clinicians regarding different bowel management solutions

  16. WRF model sensitivity to choice of parameterization: a study of the `York Flood 1999'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, Renji; Bellerby, Tim; Holman, Ian; Frostick, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    Numerical weather modelling has gained considerable attention in the field of hydrology especially in un-gauged catchments and in conjunction with distributed models. As a consequence, the accuracy with which these models represent precipitation, sub-grid-scale processes and exceptional events has become of considerable concern to the hydrological community. This paper presents sensitivity analyses for the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model with respect to the choice of physical parameterization schemes (both cumulus parameterisation (CPSs) and microphysics parameterization schemes (MPSs)) used to represent the `1999 York Flood' event, which occurred over North Yorkshire, UK, 1st-14th March 1999. The study assessed four CPSs (Kain-Fritsch (KF2), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell-Devenyi ensemble (GD) and the old Kain-Fritsch (KF1)) and four MPSs (Kessler, Lin et al., WRF single-moment 3-class (WSM3) and WRF single-moment 5-class (WSM5)] with respect to their influence on modelled rainfall. The study suggests that the BMJ scheme may be a better cumulus parameterization choice for the study region, giving a consistently better performance than other three CPSs, though there are suggestions of underestimation. The WSM3 was identified as the best MPSs and a combined WSM3/BMJ model setup produced realistic estimates of precipitation quantities for this exceptional flood event. This study analysed spatial variability in WRF performance through categorical indices, including POD, FBI, FAR and CSI during York Flood 1999 under various model settings. Moreover, the WRF model was good at predicting high-intensity rare events over the Yorkshire region, suggesting it has potential for operational use.

  17. Moving Toward Patient-Centered Care in Africa: A Discrete Choice Experiment of Preferences for Delivery Care among 3,003 Tanzanian Women

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elysia; Vail, Daniel; Mbaruku, Godfrey M.; Kimweri, Angela; Freedman, Lynn P.; Kruk, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to develop patient-centered care we need to know what patients want and how changing socio-demographic factors shape their preferences. Methods We fielded a structured questionnaire that included a discrete choice experiment to investigate women’s preferences for place of delivery care in four rural districts of Pwani Region, Tanzania. The discrete choice experiment consisted of six attributes: kind treatment by the health worker, health worker medical knowledge, modern equipment and medicines, facility privacy, facility cleanliness, and cost of visit. Each woman received eight choice questions. The influence of potential supply- and demand- side factors on patient preferences was evaluated using mixed logit models. Results 3,003 women participated in the discrete choice experiment (93% response rate) completing 23,947 choice tasks. The greatest predictor of health facility preference was kind treatment by doctor (β = 1.13, p<0.001), followed by having a doctor with excellent medical knowledge (β = 0.89 p<0.001) and modern medical equipment and drugs (β = 0.66 p<0.001). Preferences for all attributes except kindness and cost were changed with changes to education, primiparity, media exposure and distance to nearest hospital. Conclusions Care quality, both technical and interpersonal, was more important than clinic inputs such as equipment and cleanliness. These results suggest that while basic clinic infrastructure is necessary, it is not sufficient for provision of high quality, patient-centered care. There is an urgent need to build an adequate, competent, and kind health workforce to raise facility delivery and promote patient-centered care. PMID:26262840

  18. Seizure metaphors in children with epilepsy: A study based on a multiple-choice self-report questionnaire.

    PubMed

    D'Angelosante, Valentina; Tommasi, Marco; Casadio, Claudia; Verrotti, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The advantages of metaphorical representation are pointed out in many fields of clinical research (e.g. cancer, HIV, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures). This study aimed at offering a novel contribution showing how children with epilepsy describe the symptomatology of their seizure experiences by means of particular kinds of cognitive metaphors. Twenty-three children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and thirty-one healthy children were recruited for this study and interviewed with a multiple-choice questionnaire asking them to describe their epileptic seizures by means of suitable metaphors. A psychologist blinded to medical diagnosis assessed and categorized all metaphors. By considering the 89 metaphors produced by the children with epilepsy and the 147 ones by the healthy controls, Agent/Force was the primary metaphor assessed by children with epilepsy, followed by Event/Situation as the second preference. Moreover, comparing the results of the control group with those of the subjects with epilepsy, it was found that controls were oriented towards selecting exogenous forces, while subjects with epilepsy tended to select endogenous forces. In particular, children with epilepsy showed a peculiar preference for an endogenous force resembling the waggle metaphor, which is similar to the effect of a quake's shaking (earthquake or seaquake). The metaphors identified by this research are a useful resource to better understand the seizure experiences of patients with epilepsy, helping to improve clinical treatment. PMID:25934584

  19. Advanced tracking and data relay experiment study: Multimode transponder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments utilizing a multimode transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station is studied. The purpose of the experiments is to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI and multipath propagation and to determine the characteristics of VHF and UHF RFI in discreet bands. The experiments would also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques.

  20. Studies of earth simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The low gravity environment of earth orbit offers the potential for performing experiments involving baroclinic Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) on spherical surfaces. These experiments in turn have the potential for providing deeper understanding of large scale planetary and solar circulations. However, to perform these experiments, one requires an experimental technique whereby a radially directed body force can be generated to simulate a radial gravitational force field. One viable technique is the use of dielectric fluids with temperature dependent dielectric permittivity in a radially directed electric field. Application of the Boussinesq approximation to the equations of motion for this system and restrictions on the size of certain electrodynamic terms in the energy equations yields a set of equations which are analogous to the equations of motions of geophysical systems like the earth's atmosphere on term by term basis. The theoretical design of GFD experiments for performance in earth orbit are described along with results of preliminary tests of a prototype.

  1. An indirect latent informational conformity social influence choice model: Formulation and case study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maness, Michael; Cirillo, Cinzia

    2016-11-01

    The current state-of-the-art in social influence models of travel behavior is conformity models with direct benefit social influence effects. Indirect effects have seen limited development, but this paper presents a latent class discrete choice model of an indirect informational conformity hypothesis. Moreover, class membership depends on the proportion of group members who adopt a behavior. Membership into the more informed class causes changes in the preferences of those individuals thus making adoption more attractive. Equilibrium properties are derived for this model showing the possibility of multiple equilibria but under different conditions than the direct-benefit formulations. Social influence elasticity is derivedmore » for both models types. The informational conformity model can represent non-linear elasticity behavior unlike the direct-benefit formulation. Additionally, a two-stage control function is developed to obtain consistent parameter estimates in the presence of an endogenous class membership model covariate that is correlated with choice model unobservables. A case study to study social influence in bicycle ownership in the United States is presented. Our results showed that more informed households had a greater chance of owning a bike due to preference changes with less sensitivity to smaller home footprints and limited incomes. The behavioral hypothesis of positive preference change due to information transfer was confirmed. Observed ownership share closely matched predicted local-level equilibrium in some metropolitan areas but was unable to achieve expected prediction rate within confidence intervals. Finally, the elasticity of social influence was found to range locally from about 0.5% to 1.0%.« less

  2. Which are my Future Career Priorities and What Influenced my Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice—Case of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerinsek, Gregor; Hribar, Tina; Glodez, Natasa; Dolinsek, Slavko

    2013-11-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to identify different important factors (i.e. key persons, previous school and out-of-school experiences) that influenced their choice of studying STEM. The main data collection method was a questionnaire developed within the Interests and Recruitment in Science project group. The sample consisted of 861 males and 420 female undergraduate STEM students towards the end of their first year of higher education and this represented 60.8% of the whole target population. For data analysis, basic descriptive statistics with one-way analysis of variance was used. Our study demonstrates that all students want to do something interesting and fulfilling using their talents and abilities, nevertheless female STEM students favour inter-personal career priorities (i.e. helping other people, contributing to society and protecting the environment) more than males. Mothers and good teachers were found to influence females' choice of studying STEM significantly more than males' choice. Interest in STEM subjects was found as an important factor influencing the choice of studying STEM, especially for female students. Females have been furthermore found to be more inspired towards STEM by lessons showing the relevance of the subjects to society. Popular science television channels and programmes were found to have a considerable influence, especially on males' educational choice.

  3. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  4. School Choice and the Quasi-market. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education. Volume 6, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    This book examines the development of educational "quasi-markets" in nine different countries. Each chapter focuses on a particular country and explores the development of school choice over the last 5 to 10 years, assessing the research evidence on the workings of the quasi-market of schools. The chapters discuss the nature of the choice-making…

  5. The Role of Family in Vocational Education and Training Choices: A Case Study in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormeier Freire, Alexandre; Giang, Hong Trinh

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of family in vocational education and training (VET) choices, using primary qualitative data collected in the commune of Hung An, Vietnam. The authors demonstrate that, next to issues relating to income, it is family characteristics that are the predominant influence on an individual's choice of the VET track,…

  6. Are ADHD Symptoms Associated with Delay Aversion or Choice Impulsivity? A General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with choice impulsivity is examined. Findings were found to indicate that primary constitutional processes that underlie choice impulsivity and their potential role in behavioral inattention are important. It was also found that behavioral and brain processes that underlie choice…

  7. Factors Influencing the College Choice of Music Majors Attending a Four Year Institution: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research sought to investigate and compare the factors influencing the college choice of music majors attending four-year private and four-year public universities. A comparison of college choice data among four universities was completed in the following areas: academic, institutional, financial, and personal/social. These…

  8. Effectiveness Criteria in School Effectiveness Studies: Further Research on the Choice for a Multivariate Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Maeyer, Sven; van den Bergh, Huub; Rymenans, Rita; Van Petegem, Peter; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2010-01-01

    In order to ascertain which school characteristics can explain the differences in effectiveness between schools, important methodological choices have to be made in school effectiveness research. One of these choices relates to the criterion or criteria the researcher wishes to use to compare schools. Should, for example, a school be deemed…

  9. Mass modification experiment definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Forward, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes an attempt to find an experiment that would test the Haisch, Rueda, and Puthoff (HRP) conjecture that the mass and inertia of a body are induced effects brought about by changes in the quantum-fluctuation energy of the vacuum. It was not possible, however, to identify a definitive experiment. But, it was possible to identify an experiment that might be able to prove or disprove that the inertial mass of a body can be altered by making changes in the vacuum surrounding the body. Other experiments, which do not involve mass modification, but which teach something about the vacuum, were also defined and included in a ranked list of experiments. This report also contains an annotated bibliography. An interesting point raised by this paper is this: We can estimate the `vacuum energy density` to be 10{sup 108} J/cc, and the vacuum mass density to be 10{sup 94} g/cc, much higher numbers than those associated with nuclear energy. Although the field of `electromagnetic fluctuation energy of the vacuum` is admittedly an esoteric, little-understood field, it does seem to have definite potential as an energy source. 47 refs.

  10. Two Roads Diverged: Exploring Variation in Students' School Choice Experiences by Socioeconomic Status, Parental Nativity, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattin-Bajaj, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the high school search activities, choices, and final assignments of academically similar, but ethnically and socioeconomically different, eighth-grade students attending one New York City middle school. Despite being comparable candidates for admission to academically competitive high schools, the middle-class children of…

  11. Community values for environmental protection in a cane farming catchment in northern Australia: a choice modelling study.

    PubMed

    Mallawaarachchi, T; Blamey, R K; Morrison, M D; Johnson, A K; Bennett, J W

    2001-07-01

    Choice modelling is an emerging approach to estimating the non-use values of environmental services with multiple attributes. In this paper, results are reported of a choice modelling study conducted in the Herbert River District of North Queensland to estimate the value placed on the protection of natural vegetation in areas suitable for cane production by the local community. Resource use options that vary in the level of environmental protection and the level of agricultural production were presented as a series of choice sets and respondents were asked to choose among a set of three discrete alternatives in a given choice set. The alternatives in each choice set were described by four attributes, pertaining to the area of teatree woodlands, the area of vegetation along rivers and in wetlands, regional income from cane production, and an environmental levy. The responses were analysed together with socio-economic data using a nested-logit discrete-choice model to estimate the community willingness-to-pay for the protection of natural vegetation. The results indicate that the environmental values of wetlands are comparable to returns from commercial production of sugar cane and that the values of teatree woodlands are comparable to returns from extensive grazing. It is argued that land allocation policies should recognise these values in tandem with commercial benefits of production to ensure that resources are used more efficiently. PMID:11475087

  12. Studies of orbital Eoetvoes experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, P. K.

    1977-01-01

    A direct force-balance technique was analyzed for carrying out the Eoetvoes experiment in space, which is intended to give sufficient sensitivity to allow investigation of the gravitational interactions of energy stored in the weak interaction. The heart of experiment is an exceedingly sensitive dual accelerometer, containing two proof masses constructed of the materials whose Eoetvoes ratio is to be compared. For use in development of the accelerometer, a magnetic microbalance is proposed in which the weight of the proof mass is supported by magnetic forces which vary very slowly with the proof mass position. It is shown that at least two different mechanizations of the magnetic suspension may be feasible.

  13. The downside of choice: Having a choice benefits enjoyment, but at a cost to efficiency and time in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; Ariyabandu, Surani; Jami, Zaffran

    2016-04-01

    The efficiency of how people search for an item in visual search has, traditionally, been thought to depend on bottom-up or top-down guidance cues. However, recent research has shown that the rate at which people visually search through a display is also affected by cognitive strategies. In this study, we investigated the role of choice in visual search, by asking whether giving people a choice alters both preference for a cognitively neutral task and search behavior. Two visual search conditions were examined: one in which participants were given a choice of visual search task (the choice condition), and one in which participants did not have a choice (the no-choice condition). The results showed that the participants in the choice condition rated the task as both more enjoyable and likeable than did the participants in the no-choice condition. However, despite their preferences, actual search performance was slower and less efficient in the choice condition than in the no-choice condition (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 showed that the difference in search performance between the choice and no-choice conditions disappeared when central executive processes became occupied with a task-switching task. These data concur with a choice-impaired hypothesis of search, in which having a choice leads to more motivated, active search involving executive processes. PMID:26892010

  14. An evaluation of choice on instructional efficacy and individual preferences among children with autism.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Karen A; Kodak, Tiffany; Vladescu, Jason C

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared the differential effects of choice and no-choice reinforcement conditions on skill acquisition. In addition, we assessed preference for choice-making opportunities with 3 children with autism, using a modified concurrent-chains procedure. We replicated the experiment with 2 participants. The results indicated that choice-making opportunities increased treatment efficacy for 2 of the 3 participants, and all 3 participants demonstrated a preference for choice-making opportunities. PMID:26510978

  15. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  16. Higher Cognitive Performance Is Prospectively Associated with Healthy Dietary Choices: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Davey, A.; Alkerwi, A.; Dore, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Few studies have examined whether cognitive function predicts dietary intake. The majority of research has focused on how diet can influence cognitive performance or risk for cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study was to examine prospective relationships between cognitive performance and dietary intake in participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. DESIGN A prospective study with neuropsychological testing at baseline and nutritional assessments measured a mean of 18 years later. SETTING Community-dwelling individuals residing in central New York state. PARTICIPANTS 333 participants free of dementia and stroke. MEASUREMENTS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was assessed at baseline and dietary intake was measured using the Nutrition and Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Higher WAIS Scores at baseline were prospectively associated with higher intakes of vegetables, meats, nuts and legumes, and fish, but inversely associated with consumption of total grains and carbonated soft drinks. After adjustment for sample selection, socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity), and cardiovascular risk factors, the relations between higher cognitive performance and greater consumption of vegetables, meat, and fish, and lower consumption of grains remained significant. CONCLUSION These data suggest that cognition early in life may influence dietary choices later in life. PMID:26878011

  17. Effects of different discount levels on healthy products coupled with a healthy choice label, special offer label or both: results from a web-based supermarket experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two strategies commonly recommended to improve population diets include food labels and food taxes/subsidies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both strategies separately and in combination. Findings An experiment with a 3x3 factorial design was conducted, including: three levels of price reduction (10%; 25%; and 50%) x three labels (‘special offer’, ‘healthy choice’ and ‘special offer & healthy choice’) on healthy foods defined following the Choices front-of-pack nutrition label. N = 109 participants completed the experiment by conducting a typical weekly shop for their household at a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. Participants receiving a 50% price discount purchased significantly more healthy foods for their household in a typical weekly shop than the 10% discount (+8.7 items; 95%CI = 3.8-13.6) and the 25% discount group (+7.7 items; 95%CI = 2.74 – 12.6). However, the proportion of healthy foods was not significantly higher and the discounts lead to an increased amount of energy purchased. No significant effects of the labels were found. Conclusion This study brings some relevant insights into the effects of price discounts on healthier foods coupled with different labels and shows that price effects over shadowed food labels. However, price discounts seem to have ambiguous effects; they do encourage the purchase of healthy products, but also lead to increased energy purchases. More research is needed to examine how pricing strategies can work in directing consumers towards interchanging unhealthier options for healthier alternatives. PMID:23680347

  18. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from $9.45 to $21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species-the 'iconization' of species in two of the three surveys-had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be $10 to $25 per species or $10 to $20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk. PMID:27294723

  19. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  20. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.

    PubMed

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Fagerlin, Angela; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bliemer, Michiel C; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of the cooperation between members of the project entitled Effective Communication in Outbreak Management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe (ECOM). Data were analysed using panel latent class regression models. In the case of a severe pandemic scenario, vaccine effectiveness was the most important characteristic determining vaccination preference in all countries, followed by the body that advises on vaccination. In Sweden, the advice of family and/or friends and the advice of physicians strongly affected vaccine preferences, in contrast to Poland and Spain, where the advice of (international) health authorities was more decisive. Irrespective of pandemic scenario or vaccination programme characteristics, the predicted vaccination uptakes were lowest in Sweden, and highest in Poland. To increase vaccination uptake during future pandemics, the responsible authorities should align with other important stakeholders in the country and communicate in a coordinated manner. PMID:27277581

  1. Latinas in Higher Education: An Interpretive Study of Experiential Influences That Impact Their Life Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Capeles, Belkis

    2012-01-01

    This basic interpretive qualitative study used individual semi-structured interviews to explore and understand the experiences of seven self-identified Latina participants, who reside in Northeast Ohio and belong to a volunteer organization promoting professional Latinas. The study used Latina Critical Race theory and feminist perspectives to…

  2. Sensitive Subjects: Research Choices and Presentational Challenges in Studying Immigrant Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We write from our own experience as researchers on the integration of immigrants and their children, describing several ethical and research considerations that we addressed. In one study we examined the use of public benefits among immigrant families. This study posed issues regarding the selection of which "benefits" should be…

  3. Linkage studies on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: What is the strategy of choice?

    SciTech Connect

    Heutink, P.; Wetering, J.M. van de; Oostra, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    For a linkage study it is important to ascertain family material that is sufficiently informative. The statistical power of linkage sample can be determined via computer simulation. For complex traits uncertain parameters such as incomplete penetrance, frequency of phenocopies, gene frequency and variable expression have to be taken into account. One can either include only the most severe phenotype in the analysis or apply multiple linkage tests for a gradually broadened disease phenotype. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by multiple, intermittent motor and vocal tics. Segregation analyses suggests that GTS and milder phenotypes are caused by a single dominant gene. We report here the results of an extensive simulation study on a large set of families. We compared the effectiveness of linkage tests with only the GTS phenotype versus multiple tests that included various milder phenotypes and different gene frequencies. The scenario of multiple tests yielded superior power. Our results show that computer simulation can indicate the strategy of choice in linkage studies of multiple, complex phenotypes. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Opportunity Cost Neglect Attenuates the Effect of Choices on Preferences.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Adam Eric; Spiller, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The idea that choices alter preferences has been widely studied in psychology, yet prior research has focused primarily on choices for which all alternatives were salient at the time of choice. Opportunity costs capture the value of the best forgone alternative and should be considered as part of any decision process, yet people often neglect them. How does the salience of opportunity costs at the time of choice influence subsequent evaluations of chosen and forgone options? In three experiments, we found that there was a larger postchoice spread between evaluations of focal options and opportunity costs when opportunity costs were explicit at the time of choice than when they remained implicit. PMID:26573905

  5. Study motives, career choices and interest in paediatric dentistry among final year dental students in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Students’ motives for studying Dentistry have been a subject of interest for years because of the potential for understanding the psychological makeup and subsequent job satisfaction for the dentist. It is also useful in identifying expectations of the profession. This study therefore tried to identify study motives and career preferences of dental students especially with respect to the practice of paediatric dentistry. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. The final year students in six dental schools in Nigeria were required to fill the questionnaire. Students were asked to rank their motives and career preferences on a Likert like scale with points ranging from 0–5 where 0 represented a factor that had no influence on their decision and 5 represented a very influential factor. The underlying dimensions for study motives, career preference, impression about and motive for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were identified using factor analysis. Results One hundred and seventy nine of 223 students (80.3%) participated in this study. Motives for the practice of dentistry included characteristics of the profession, altruism and intellectual challenges, existence of artistic theme in dentistry and parent’s recommendation. Overall, 67.1% of respondents indicated interest in postgraduate studies and 50.8% were interested in paediatric dentistry practice. The main motives for showing interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were ‘personal interest, professional interest and interest of significant others in children’, and ‘family influence’. Significantly more males than females were interested in the practice of paediatric dentistry though the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry did not differ significantly by sex or age. Conclusion The non-significant sex difference in the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry is a possible

  6. Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Which-Way Information and the Use of Extrinsic WW Information in a Delayed Choice Experiment to Send Information Immediately Between 2 Paired Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsic states characterize a quantity inherent in the particle itself, such as spin. Extrinsic states characterize a quantity that is not in the particle itself but that describes the particle. An example is the specific path a particle is taking through an interferometer. Extrinsic states such as the specific path of a particle can be eliminated before a measurement is made. An experiment is described to show the impact that this ability to eliminate extrinsic states can make. This experiment relies on a delayed choice for an idler photon that immediately affects the signal photon with which it is entangled. The delayed choice concerns whether to maintain or eliminate the entanglement before any measurements are made. The idler photon can essentially be lost before any measurements are made because the states of the idler photon that enters the optical microcavity related to its entanglement are eliminated when the idler photon enters the optical microcavity. One of the reasons is that the states of the idler photon are extrinsic to the particle itself (they characterize the particular path of the particle, a characteristic not inherent to the particle itself) where the information underlying the extrinsic state is eliminated when the particle enters the cavity situated at the confluence of the two possible particle paths. Over a number of runs with this choice, the resulting distribution of the paired signal photons shows interference. If the entanglement is instead maintained, the resulting distribution of the paired signal photons shows ww information.

  7. Perceptions of High School Seniors' Montessori Experiences and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Molly McHugh

    2010-01-01

    More than twenty-five years after the release of "A Nation at Risk," our federal government continues to explore innovative ways to close the achievement gap. The goal of this phenomenological study was to describe four students' experiences with one school choice option in South Carolina, public Montessori. The purpose of the study was to…

  8. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Third Year Report" Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Quick Review of the Report "The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Third Year Report". The study examined whether students in Milwaukee who use a voucher to attend private school have greater mathematics and reading achievement than students who…

  9. Choice of Fields of Study of University Canadian Graduates: The Role of Gender and Their Parents' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudarbat, Brahim; Montmarquette, Claude

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of the choice of field of study by university students using data from the Canadian National Graduate Survey. The sample of 18,708 graduates holding a Bachelor degree is interesting in itself, knowing that these students completed their study and thus represent a pool of high-quality individuals. What impact do…

  10. Group Communication Media Choice and the Use of Information and Communication Technology to Support Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Karim, Nor Shariza; Heckman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports a study conducted longitudinally to investigate group communication media choice and the use of a web-based learning tool, as well as other types of communication media, such as e-mail, telephone, and face-to-face, for communication and collaboration to complete given tasks. Design/methodology/approach: This study was…

  11. Choice-disability and HIV infection: a cross sectional study of HIV status in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal power gradients may prevent people implementing HIV prevention decisions. Among 7,464 youth aged 15-29 years in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland we documented indicators of choice-disability (low education, educational disparity with partner, experience of sexual violence, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), poverty, partner income disparity, willingness to have sex without a condom despite believing partner at risk of HIV), and risk behaviours like inconsistent use of condoms and multiple partners. In Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, 22.9, 9.1, and 26.1% women, and 8.3, 2.8, and 9.3% men, were HIV positive. Among both women and men, experience of IPV, IPV interacted with age, and partner income disparity interacted with age were associated with HIV positivity in multivariate analysis. Additional factors were low education (for women) and poverty (for men). Choice disability may be an important driver of the AIDS epidemic. New strategies are needed that favour the choice-disabled. PMID:21390539

  12. A univariate analysis of variance design for multiple-choice feeding-preference experiments: A hypothetical example with fruit-eating birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrinaga, Asier R.

    2010-01-01

    I consider statistical problems in the analysis of multiple-choice food-preference experiments, and propose a univariate analysis of variance design for experiments of this type. I present an example experimental design, for a hypothetical comparison of fruit colour preferences between two frugivorous bird species. In each fictitious trial, four trays each containing a known weight of artificial fruits (red, blue, black, or green) are introduced into the cage, while four equivalent trays are left outside the cage, to control for tray weight loss due to other factors (notably desiccation). The proposed univariate approach allows data from such designs to be analysed with adequate power and no major violations of statistical assumptions. Nevertheless, there is no single "best" approach for experiments of this type: the best analysis in each case will depend on the particular aims and nature of the experiments.

  13. School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Progress of Education Reform 1999-2001, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This publication is the first in a series of reports that examine policy issues in education. It looks at the four major forms of school choice--charter schools, open enrollment, home schooling, and vouchers--and how they are changing the landscape of public education. School choice is one of the fastest-growing innovations in public education,…

  14. Full receiver operating characteristic curve estimation using two alternative forced choice studies.

    PubMed

    Massanes, Francesc; Brankov, Jovan G

    2016-01-01

    Task-based medical image quality is typically measured by the degree to which a human observer can perform a diagnostic task in a psychophysical human observer study. During a typical study, an observer is asked to provide a numerical score quantifying his confidence as to whether an image contains a diagnostic marker or not. Such scores are then used to measure the observers' diagnostic accuracy, summarized by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under ROC curve. These types of human studies are difficult to arrange, costly, and time consuming. In addition, human observers involved in this type of study should be experts on the image genre to avoid inconsistent scoring through the lengthy study. In two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) studies, known to be faster, two images are compared simultaneously and a single indicator is given. Unfortunately, the 2AFC approach cannot lead to a full ROC curve or a set of image scores. The aim of this work is to propose a methodology in which multiple rounds of the 2AFC studies are used to re-estimate an image confidence score (a.k.a. rating, ranking) and generate the full ROC curve. In the proposed approach, we treat image confidence score as an unknown rating that needs to be estimated and 2AFC as a two-player match game. To achieve this, we use the ELO rating system, which is used for calculating the relative skill levels of players in competitor-versus-competitor games such as chess. The proposed methodology is not limited to ELO, and other rating methods such as TrueSkill™, Chessmetrics, or Glicko can be also used. The presented results, using simulated data, indicate that a full ROC curve can be recovered using several rounds of 2AFC studies and that the best pairing strategy starts with the first round of pairing abnormal versus normal images (as in the classical 2AFC approach) followed by a number of rounds using random pairing. In addition, the proposed method was tested in a pilot human

  15. Simplifying healthful choices: a qualitative study of a physical activity based nutrition label format

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study used focus groups to pilot and evaluate a new nutrition label format and refine the label design. Physical activity equivalent labels present calorie information in terms of the amount of physical activity that would be required to expend the calories in a specified food item. Methods Three focus groups with a total of twenty participants discussed food choices and nutrition labeling. They provided information on comprehension, usability and acceptability of the label. A systematic coding process was used to apply descriptive codes to the data and to identify emerging themes and attitudes. Results Participants in all three groups were able to comprehend the label format. Discussion about label format focused on issues including gender of the depicted figure, physical fitness of the figure, preference for walking or running labels, and preference for information in miles or minutes. Feedback from earlier focus groups was used to refine the labels in an iterative process. Conclusions In contrast to calorie labels, participants shown physical activity labels asked and answered, “How does this label apply to me?” This shift toward personalized understanding may indicate that physical activity labels offer an advantage over currently available nutrition labels. PMID:23742678

  16. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  17. Sociodemographic Predictors of Breast Reconstruction Procedure Choice: Analysis of the Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Tiffany N. S.; Kim, Yeonil; Cohen, Wess A.; Hamill, Jennifer B.; Momoh, Adeyiza O.; Pusic, Andrea L.; Kim, H. Myra; Wilkins, Edwin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To promote patient-centered care, it is important to understand the impact of sociodemographic factors on procedure choice for women undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction. In this context, we analyzed the effects of these variables on the reconstructive method chosen. Methods. Women undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction were recruited for the prospective Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium Study. Procedure types were divided into tissue expander-implant/direct-to-implant and abdominally based flap reconstructions. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated from logistic regression. Results. The analysis included 2,203 women with current or previous breast cancer and 202 women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. Compared with women <40 years old with current or previous breast cancer, those 40 to 59 were significantly more likely to undergo an abdominally based flap. Women working or attending school full-time were more likely to receive an autologous procedure than those working part-time or volunteering. Women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy who were ≥50 years were more likely to undergo an abdominal flap compared to those <40. Conclusions. Our results indicate that sociodemographic factors affect the reconstructive procedure received. As we move forward into a new era of patient-centered care, providing tailored treatment options to reconstruction patients will likely lead to higher satisfaction and better outcomes for those we serve. PMID:26605082

  18. The importance of choice of anaesthetics in studying radiation effects in the 9L rat glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, M.; Wróblewski, K.; Manevich, Y.; Kim, S.; Biaglow, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we demonstrate that the glycolysis of the tumour 9L glioma, in vivo, may be manipulated with ketamine/xylazine combinations of anaesthetics. Xylazine alone or in combination with ketamine causes hyperglycaemia which is enhanced by glucose injections. Intracellular tumour pH is acidified when glucose is administered with ketamine/xylazine. However, the combination of inorganic phosphate and insulin with ketamine/xylazine and glucose caused an alkaline shift in the tumour pH as measured by 31P NMR. The anaesthetic combination of ketamine/acepromazine did not produce alterations in blood glucose or in tumour pH status as detected by 31P NMR spectroscopy. These results demonstrate dramatic effects of ketamine/xylazine on the acidification or alkalinisation of the cells of 9L glioma. These altered metabolic states are of potential therapeutic importance. The choice of xylazine alone would be useful for chemotherapy and hyperthermia modalities, both known to be dependent upon glucose metabolism and resultant acidification. PMID:8763885

  19. The Process of Supervision with Student Teacher Choice: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Carrie Ann; Waters, Randol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to give three students teachers the freedom to choose their supervisory model and to explain their experiences as the result of doing so. Student teachers majoring in agricultural education from the University of Tennessee did select different avenues of supervision. One selected clinical supervision, one…

  20. Factors Influencing Students' Choice of Study Mode: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Gosper, Maree; Bailey, Matthew; Kretzschmar, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    Despite the expansion of online and blended learning, as well as open education, little research has been undertaken on what motivates students to enrol in particular study modes at university level. This project addresses this gap in higher education research by exploring the reasons why humanities students choose to study through specific modes.…

  1. Temporal dynamics of choice behavior in rats and humans: an examination of pre- and post-choice latencies

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Justine; Westbrook, Fred; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Identifying similarities and differences in choice behavior across species is informative about how basic mechanisms give rise to more complex processes. In the present study, we compared pre- and post-choice latencies between rats and humans under two paradigms. In Experiment 1, we used a cued choice paradigm where subjects were presented with a cue that directed them as to which of two options to respond for rewards. In Experiment 2, subjects were free to choose between two options in order to procure rewards. In both Experiments rewards were delivered with distinct probabilities. The trial structure used in these experiments allowed the choice process to be decomposed into pre- and post-choice processes. Overall, post-choice latencies reflected the difference in reward probability between the two options, where latencies for the option with higher probability of reward were longer than those for the option with lower probability of reward. An interesting difference between rats and humans was observed: the choice behavior for humans, but not rats, was sensitive to the free-choice aspect of the tasks, such that in free-choice trials post-choice latencies no longer reflected the difference in reward probabilities between the two options. PMID:26862000

  2. There’s more to food store choice than proximity: a questionnaire development study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proximity of food stores is associated with dietary intake and obesity; however, individuals frequently shop at stores that are not the most proximal. Little is known about other factors that influence food store choice. The current research describes the development of the Food Store Selection Questionnaire (FSSQ) and describes preliminary results of field testing the questionnaire. Methods Development of the FSSQ involved a multidisciplinary literature review, qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts, and expert and community reviews. Field testing consisted of 100 primary household food shoppers (93% female, 64% African American), in rural and urban Arkansas communities, rating FSSQ items as to their importance in store choice and indicating their top two reasons. After eliminating 14 items due to low mean importance scores and high correlations with other items, the final FSSQ questionnaire consists of 49 items. Results Items rated highest in importance were: meat freshness; store maintenance; store cleanliness; meat varieties; and store safety. Items most commonly rated as top reasons were: low prices; proximity to home; fruit/vegetable freshness; fruit/vegetable variety; and store cleanliness. Conclusions The FSSQ is a comprehensive questionnaire for detailing key reasons in food store choice. Although proximity to home was a consideration for participants, there were clearly other key factors in their choice of a food store. Understanding the relative importance of these different dimensions driving food store choice in specific communities may be beneficial in informing policies and programs designed to support healthy dietary intake and obesity prevention. PMID:23773428

  3. Review of disability weight studies: comparison of methodological choices and values

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is widely used to assess the burden of different health problems and risk factors. The disability weight, a value anchored between 0 (perfect health) and 1 (equivalent to death), is necessary to estimate the disability component (years lived with disability, YLDs) of the DALY. After publication of the ground-breaking Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1996, alternative sets of disability weights have been developed over the past 16 years, each using different approaches with regards to the panel, health state description, and valuation methods. The objective of this study was to review all studies that developed disability weights and to critically assess the methodological design choices (health state and time description, panel composition, and valuation method). Furthermore, disability weights of eight specific conditions were compared. Methods Disability weights studies (1990¿2012) in international peer-reviewed journals and grey literature were identified with main inclusion criteria being that the study assessed DALY disability weights for several conditions or a specific group of illnesses. Studies were collated by design and methods and evaluation of results. Results Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. There is considerable variation in methods used to derive disability weights, although most studies used a disease-specific description of the health state, a panel that consisted of medical experts, and nonpreference-based valuation method to assess the values for the majority of the disability weights. Comparisons of disability weights across 15 specific disease and injury groups showed that the subdivision of a disease into separate health states (stages) differed markedly across studies. Additionally, weights for similar health states differed, particularly in the case of mild diseases, for which the disability weight differed by a factor of two or more. Conclusions In terms of

  4. Teaching Goal-Setting for Weight-Gain Prevention in a College Population: Insights from the CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…

  5. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  6. Smart Choices for Healthy Families: A Pilot Study for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinard, Courtney A.; Hart, Michael H.; Hodgkins, Yvonne; Serrano, Elena L.; McFerren, Mary M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This pre-post study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the impact of a family-based weight management program among a low-income population. Smart Choices for Healthy Families was developed through an integrated research-practice partnership and piloted with 26 children and parents (50% boys; mean age = 10.5 years; 54% Black) who were…

  7. College Athletic Reputation and College Choice among African American High School Seniors: Evidence from the Educational Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Lv, Hua; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends research on college choice, with recent national survey data, by examining what African American students say about the importance of college athletic reputation in choosing which school to attend. We use the Educational Longitudinal Survey to examine the overall distribution of self-reported factors that shape college choices…

  8. Factors Influencing Food Choices of 4-H Club Members in Williamson County, Tennessee. A Research Summary of a Graduate Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Virginia Ruth; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify some of the eating habits and factors influencing food choices of selected junior (9 to 13 years old) and senior (14 to 19 years old) 4-H club members enrolled in Williamson County, Tennessee, in 1968. Data were collected through group interviews with 200 juniors and 70 seniors--116 boys and 154 girls.…

  9. An Investigation of Factors Determining the Study Abroad Destination Choice: A Case Study of Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the field of education abroad have mainly focused on the factors influencing the mobility of international students from developing to developed countries and very few have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the flow of international students to the Asia Pacific region. As a piece of country-specific…

  10. Skylab experiment results: Hematology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Ritzmann, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.; Fischer, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate specific aspects of man's immunologic and hematologic systems that might be altered by or respond to the space flight environment. Biochemical functions investigated included cytogenetic damage to blood cells, immune resistance to disease, regulation of plasma and red cell volumes, metabolic processes of the red blood cell, and physicochemical aspects of red blood cell function. Measurements of hematocrit value showed significant fluctuations postflight, reflecting observed changes in red cell mass and plasma volume. The capacity of lymphocytes to respond to an in vitro mitogenic challenge was repressed postflight, and appeared to be related to mission duration. Most other deviations from earth function in these systems were minor or transient.

  11. Anxiety in High-Functioning Autism: A Pilot Study of Experience Sampling Using a Mobile Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and…

  12. A Study of Business Student Choice to Study Abroad: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. In this study, we build upon previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for identifying the factors which might influence their intention to study abroad. A survey administered…

  13. Student Choice in Higher Education: Motivations for Choosing to Study at an International Branch Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus has emerged as a prominent feature on the international higher education landscape. Although there exists a fairly substantial body of literature that has sought to identify the motivations or choice criteria used by international students to select countries and institutions, there has to date been little research…

  14. Multiple-Choice Question Tests: A Convenient, Flexible and Effective Learning Tool? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Mercedes; Wilson, Juliette; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is part of a project investigating assessment practices, funded by the Scottish Funding Council. Using established principles of good assessment and feedback, the use of online formative and summative multiple choice tests (MCT's) was piloted to support independent and self-directed learning and improve…

  15. A Gender Lens on Pedagogical Choice in Academia: Revisiting Hartlaub and Lancaster's Study on Teaching Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfall, Patricia Moss; Hall, Paula Quick

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of gender in faculty choice of teaching methodologies at colleges and universities in North Carolina. We replicate research conducted by Hartlaub and Lancaster who examined pedagogical preference among a national sample of political science instructors. In revisiting that inquiry, published in 2008, we have explored…

  16. A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda, Stephanie DuPont

    2011-01-01

    Objective testing techniques, such as multiple-choice examinations, are a widely accepted method of assessment in gross anatomy. In order to deter cheating on these types of examinations, instructors often design several versions of an examination to distribute. These versions usually involve the rearrangement of questions and their corresponding…

  17. Women's Sense of Self and Life Choices: A Study of Mother-Daughter Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholomskas, Diane; Axelrod, Rosalind

    To investigate the relationship of women's role choices, role satisfaction, and self-esteem to their perceptions of their earlier relationship with their mothers and to their perceptions of their mothers' roles and role satisfaction, 67 women between the ages of 28 and 38, married and college educated with preschool children, participated in this…

  18. The "None of the Above" Option in Multiple-Choice Testing: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBattista, David; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Fortuna, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the effects of using "none of the above" as an option in a 40-item, general-knowledge multiple-choice test administered to undergraduate students. Examinees who selected "none of the above" were given an incentive to write the correct answer to the question posed. Using "none of the above" as the…

  19. A Case Study of Parents' School Choice Strategies in a Finnish Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poikolainen, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses how Finnish parents of sixth graders in a comprehensive school act in the local "school markets" of the case city. The parents' subject positions as choosers are reflected on and explored in relation to the discourses and resources they use when discussing their school choices. The data were gathered in 2009 by administering…

  20. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  1. Perceived Influences on the Career Choices of Children and Youth: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Flanagan, Sean; Castine, Eleanor; Walsh, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Children's understanding of factors influencing their career choices was examined. Seventy-two children, in grades kindergarten, 4, and 8, responded to questions about their perceptions of career influences. Responses were coded to capture the nature of the influences identified, including the global versus specific and linear versus interacting…

  2. Increasing the Career Choice Readiness of Young Adolescents: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas; Lage, Damian

    2008-01-01

    A career workshop that applies models of the Cognitive Information Processing Approach (Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, & Lenz, 2004) and incorporates critical ingredients (Brown and Ryan Krane, 2000) to promote the career choice readiness of young adolescents was developed and evaluated with 334 Swiss students in seventh grade applying a Solomon four…

  3. Language Choice in the Earliest Utterances: A Case Study with Methodological Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuchar, Margaret; Quay, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how early a developing bilingual who is exposed simultaneously to English and Spanish can make appropriate language choices. Kept detailed records of the child's cumulative vocabulary from the first word at 10 months and on weekly audiovideo recording in both Spanish and English contexts from age 1-3. (Author/VWL)

  4. School Choice in Spain and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umpstead, Regina; Jankens, Benjamin; Ortega Gil, Pablo; Weiss, Linda; Umpstead, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article explores issues of school choice in Spain and the United States by examining the roles and functions of "centros concertados," publicly funded private schools in Spain, and public charter schools in the United States, to provide key insights into the similarities and differences between them. After making a national…

  5. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission. PMID:17601001

  6. Learning from other people's experience: a neuroimaging study of decisional interactive-learning.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Nicola; Motterlini, Matteo; Alemanno, Federica; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F

    2011-03-01

    Decision-making is strongly influenced by the counterfactual anticipation of personal regret and relief, through a learning process involving the ventromedial-prefrontal cortex. We previously reported that observing the regretful outcomes of another's choices reactivates the regret-network. Here we extend those findings by investigating whether this resonant mechanism also underpins interactive-learning from others' previous outcomes. In this functional-Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging study 24 subjects either played a gambling task or observed another player's risky/non-risky choices and resulting outcomes, thus experiencing personal or shared regret/relief for risky/non-risky decisions. Subjects' risk-aptitude in subsequent choices was significantly influenced by both their and the other's previous outcomes. This influence reflected in cerebral regions specifically coding the effect of previously experienced regret/relief, as indexed by the difference between factual and counterfactual outcomes in the last trial, when making a new choice. The subgenual cortex and caudate nucleus tracked the outcomes that increased risk-seeking (relief for a risky choice, and regret for a non-risky choice), while activity in the ventromedial-prefrontal cortex, amygdala and periaqueductal gray-matter reflected those reducing risk-seeking (relief for a non-risky choice, and regret for a risky choice). Crucially, a subset of the involved regions was also activated when subjects chose after observing the other player's outcomes, leading to the same behavioural change as in a first person experience. This resonant neural mechanism at choice may subserve interactive-learning in decision-making. PMID:21126586

  7. Career Choice Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behymer, Jo; Cockriel, Irvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The study attempted to determine the effect of availability of scholarships and loans on the career choice of high school juniors and seniors. A survey of 911 college-bound students revealed that 89 percent considered availability of scholarships important to career choice, and 84 percent considered loan availability important. (CH)

  8. Fitting observed and theoretical choices - women's choices about prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seror, Valerie

    2008-05-01

    Choices regarding prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome - the most frequent chromosomal defect - are particularly relevant to decision analysis, since women's decisions are based on the assessment of their risk of carrying a child with Down syndrome, and involve tradeoffs (giving birth to an affected child vs procedure-related miscarriage). The aim of this study, based on face-to-face interviews with 78 women aged 25-35 with prior experience of pregnancy, was to compare the women' expressed choices towards prenatal diagnosis with those derived from theoretical models of choice (expected utility theory, rank-dependent theory, and cumulative prospect theory). The main finding obtained in this study was that the cumulative prospect model fitted the observed choices best: both subjective transformation of probabilities and loss aversion, which are basic features of the cumulative prospect model, have to be taken into account to make the observed choices consistent with the theoretical ones. PMID:17806133

  9. How do women trade-off benefits and risks in chemotherapy treatment decisions based on gene expression profiling for early-stage breast cancer? A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Deborah A; Deal, Ken; Bombard, Yvonne; Leighl, Natasha; MacDonald, Karen V; Trudeau, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gene expression profiling (GEP) of tumours informs baseline risk prediction, potentially affecting adjuvant chemotherapy decisions for women with early-stage breast cancer. Since only 15% will experience a recurrence, concerns have been raised about potential harms from overtreatment and high GEP costs in publicly funded healthcare systems. We aimed to estimate preferences and personal utility of GEP testing information and benefit–risk trade-offs in chemotherapy treatment decisions. Design, setting and intervention Based on literature review and findings from our qualitative research (focus groups, interviews with patients with breast cancer and medical oncologists), we developed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey and administered it via an internet panel. The DCE included 12 choice tasks with 5 attributes and 3 alternatives considering orthogonality, D-efficiency and level balance. Participants The DCE survey was administered to 1004 Canadian women from the general population. Main outcome measures Preferences were analysed using conditional logit and hierarchical Bayes and evaluated for goodness of fit. We conducted simulation analyses for alternative scenarios. Results GEP test score indicating likely benefit from chemotherapy was the most important attribute. Doctor's clinical estimate of the risk of cancer returning, trust in your cancer doctor and side effects of chemotherapy (temporary and permanent) were relatively less important but showed significant differences among levels. In the scenario analyses, 78% were likely to choose chemotherapy in a high-risk scenario, 55% in a moderate-risk scenario and 33% in a low-risk scenario, with the other attributes held constant. A high GEP score was more important in influencing the choice of chemotherapy for those at intermediate clinical risk. Conclusions GEP testing information influences chemotherapy treatment decisions in early-stage breast cancer and varies depending on clinical risk

  10. Occupational Choice, Socio-Economic Status and Educational Attainment: A Study of the Occupational Choices and Destinations of Young People in the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The article considers young people's occupational choices at the age of 15 in relation to their educational attainment, the occupations of their parents and their actual occupations when they are in their early 20s. It uses data from the British Household Panel Survey over periods of between five and ten years. The young people in the survey are…

  11. A Practical, Straightforward Experiment to Obtain Distinct Overall Which Way and Non-Which Way Distributions at a Distance Using Delayed Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    The proposed experiment relies on a delayed choice whether or not to keep the entanglement between paired signal and idler photons where the idler photon provides which way information to a distant signal photon. One can produce an overall distribution of the signal photons showing interference by losing the idler photons in many other similar photons over many experimental runs or instead an overall which way distribution for the signal photons at a distance by not losing their paired idler photons over many experimental runs. The idler photon is either detected or lost before the entangled signal photon is detected. The overall which way or non which way distributions (the latter exhibiting interference) for the signal photons are not dependent on correlating measurement results on the paired signal and idler photons. Ultrafast switches (such as that of Hall, Altepeter, and Kumar, http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/13/10/105004/fulltext/) can be used to change the paths for the idler photon while the idler photon is in flight. Optical microcavities filled with photons similar to the idler photon can be used to lose the idler photon. The method underlying the experiment is described. One reference to the delayed choice method proposed here is: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.MAR.K1.303.

  12. Field study on the choice of friends in two multi-racial pre-schools (South Africa/London).

    PubMed

    Exenberger, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    The present research examined the influence of the two independent variables sex and race on the choice of friends in pre-school children. Data for this investigation were collected in two pre-schools, one situated in Stellenbosch, South Africa, the other in London, U.K. Both schools have in common that they accommodate children of different racial backgrounds (black, white, and coloured children), but the children's experience with desegregated classrooms differ. Friendship was operational defined with thirteen categories, summarized to the basic category pro-social behaviour. Fifty hours of free-play time were taped with one video camera in South Africa, and hundred hours were taped with two video cameras in London. The results showed that sex and race interact in their effect on the choice of friends. In South Africa race is supposed to be a strong indicator for friendship choices, especially for black children, whereas the black children in London choose friends more or less on the basis of sex. PMID:12872548

  13. Physiological Evidence for Response Inhibition in Choice Reaction Time Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burle, Boris; Vidal, Frank; Tandonnet, Christophe; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Inhibition is a widely used notion proposed to account for data obtained in choice reaction time (RT) tasks. However, this concept is weakly supported by empirical facts. In this paper, we review a series of experiments using Hoffman reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography to study inhibition in choice RT tasks. We…

  14. An Evaluation of Choice on Instructional Efficacy and Individual Preferences among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Kodak, Tiffany; Vladescu, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared the differential effects of choice and no-choice reinforcement conditions on skill acquisition. In addition, we assessed preference for choice-making opportunities with 3 children with autism, using a modified concurrent-chains procedure. We replicated the experiment with 2 participants. The results indicated that…

  15. The Student Teaching Experience: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper describes a 1996 study that compared the student teaching experiences of a traditional and a nontraditional student to ascertain what differences in their experiences might imply about teacher preparation. The two students kept journals that could be written in at any time of the day. They recorded their impressions of their situation…

  16. Studying Career Science Teachers' Personal Histories: A Methodology for Understanding Intrinsic Reasons for Career Choice and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles J.

    2002-06-01

    Career choice and retention of nineteen secondary science education graduates were studied using a biographical approach. Autobiographical papers written as preservice teachers and rewritten as career teachers were compared for intrinsic reasons for vocational choice. Comparisons were made between early vocation teachers and those who chose science teaching later in their higher education studies. Participants beginning college as science education majors wanted to teach for student learning and to shape their students' lives. Participants beginning college as science majors wanted to continue learning science while also enhancing their students' science literacy. Ten participants' data from both groups showed great similarities in self as teacher across autobiographical papers. Teaching for impact on students appeared to support retention in this study. Implications for development and potential retention of future science teachers are discussed.

  17. Method study of parameter choice for a circular proton-proton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Feng; Gao, Jie; Xiao, Ming; Wang, Dou; Wang, Yi-Wei; Bai, Sha; Bian, Tian-Jian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show a systematic method of appropriate parameter choice for a circular proton-proton collider by using an analytical expression for the beam-beam tune shift limit, starting from a given design goal and technical limitations. A suitable parameter space has been explored. Based on the parameter scan, sets of appropriate parameters designed for a 50 km and 100 km circular proton-proton collider are proposed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175192)

  18. Patient's view of dialysis care: development of a taxonomy and rating of importance of different aspects of care. CHOICE study. Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD.

    PubMed

    Rubin, H R; Jenckes, M; Fink, N E; Meyer, K; Wu, A W; Bass, E B; Levin, N; Powe, N R

    1997-12-01

    Quality assessment efforts to enhance public accountability in dialysis care and to support provider efforts to improve care have lacked patient input. To develop brief patient evaluation or satisfaction surveys suitable for busy clinical settings, knowing patients' priorities can be helpful in deciding which aspects of care should be tracked. We conducted a study to identify salient attributes of dialysis care and to rank the importance of these attributes from the perspective of dialysis patients. We analyzed the content of patient focus group transcripts to characterize dialysis care from the patients' perspective. We then surveyed 86 patients to determine how patients would rank the importance of each aspect to quality of dialysis care. The 18 broad aspects of care identified in the focus group included: (1) care provided by nephrologists, (2) care provided by other physicians (nonnephrologists), (3) care provided by dialysis center nurses, (4) care provided by social workers and psychologists, (5) care provided by dieticians, (6) clergy, (7) care provided by technicians and physician assistants/nurse practitioners, (8) care provided by dialysis center staff in general, (9) supplies, (10) treatment choice and effectiveness, (11) patient education and training, (12) self-care, (13) dialysis machines, (14) unit environment and policies, (15) cost containment, (16) billing, (17) cost of care, and (18) health outcomes. Items ranked in the top 10 by both groups of patients included issues related to nephrologists, other doctors, nurses, and patient education and training. Compared with hemodialysis patients, peritoneal dialysis patients gave higher ratings to hospital doctors' and nurses' attention to cleanliness when working with access sites, how correct the nephrologist's instructions to patients are, whether emergency room doctors check with nephrologists, the amount of information patients get about their diet, and how well nurses answer patients' questions

  19. A qualitative study of male dental hygienists' experiences after graduation.

    PubMed

    Faust, C C

    1999-01-01

    This report is part of a larger study undertaken in 1996 and 1997 for the author's doctoral dissertation. The study's purpose was to explore the experiences of male dental hygienists--focusing on their experiences before, during, and after graduation. The researcher interviewed 14 practicing male dental hygienists from east of the Mississippi River and one participant from the Midwest. Because of the length of the study, only their experiences following graduation from a dental hygiene program are discussed. Qualitative research methods were used to evaluate the information gained from the interviews, which entails analyzing interview transcripts and developing themes from the data. Four post-graduation themes emerged: participants experienced (1) no job-search difficulties, although some participants experienced minor problems with securing a position, most had little trouble in finding a job; (2) societal gender discrimination, mainly in relation to societal stereotypes about what men and women should do; (3) mixed feelings of acceptance by the profession, although most felt the profession accepting, there were some feelings of not belonging; and (4) career satisfaction, all but one of the participants felt satisfied with his career choice. PMID:10634114

  20. Ramp Compression Experiments - a Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, M; Reisman, D

    2007-02-26

    We present the first sensitivity study of the material isentropes extracted from ramp compression experiments. We perform hydrodynamic simulations of representative experimental geometries associated with ramp compression experiments and discuss the major factors determining the accuracy of the equation of state information extracted from such data. In conclusion, we analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively the major experimental factors that determine the accuracy of equations of state extracted from ramp compression experiments. Since in actual experiments essentially all the effects discussed here will compound, factoring out individual signatures and magnitudes, as done in the present work, is especially important. This study should provide some guidance for the effective design and analysis of ramp compression experiments, as well as for further improvements of ramp generators performance.

  1. A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Barr, Susan I; Hanning, Rhona M; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-12-01

    This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating. PMID:26212268

  2. Chinese Students' Choice of Transnational Higher Education in a Globalized Higher Education Market: A Case Study of W University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Wenhong; Wang, Shen

    2014-01-01

    This research studies Chinese students' choice of transnational higher education in the context of the higher education market. Through a case study of the students in the transnational higher education programs of W University, the research finds that Chinese students' choice of transnational higher education is a complicated…

  3. Pursuing Educational Ambitions? Higher Education Enrolment and the Choice of Study Programmes among Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Youth in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storen, Liv Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on differences in higher education (HE) enrolment and choice of study according to students' background, specifically amongst first- or second-generation immigrants to Norway. A special emphasis is placed on the choice of prestigious study programmes. The results indicate that students with an immigrant background tend to make…

  4. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to…

  5. Studying the Elusive Experience in Pervasive Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenros, Jaakko; Waern, Annika; Montola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Studying pervasive games is inherently difficult and different from studying computer or board games. This article builds upon the experiences of staging and studying several playful pervasive technology prototypes. It discusses the challenges and pitfalls of evaluating pervasive game prototypes and charts methods that have proven useful in…

  6. Choice Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Darcy

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the author allows the children to make choices about their art and writing, enabling them to make connections between their own lives and work. Suggests that educators need to provide doorways to the things that give students ideas: books, music, objects, pictures, smells, sounds, and textures. (SG)

  7. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads’ performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens’ preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice. PMID:27286247

  8. The Substitution of a Super Black Fixed Micro-Object for an Optical Microcavity in a Delayed Choice Experiment to Send Information Immediately Between 2 Paired Particles: Simplifying the Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    An experiment has been described that relies on a delayed choice for an idler photon that immediately affects the signal photon with which it is at least initially entangled and for which the idler photon provides which-way information. The delayed choice concerns whether to maintain or eliminate the entanglement before any measurements are made. In one option of the delayed choice, the entanglement can be eliminated because the relevant state of the idler photon related to its entanglement is eliminated when the idler photon enters an optical microcavity filled with photons with the same mode as the incoming idler photon. The microcavity is located at the crossroads of two possible idler photon paths. The relevant state of the idler photon characterizes the particular path taken by the photon and this information is eliminated when the particle enters the cavity. Over a number of runs with this choice, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows interference. If the entanglement is maintained, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows which-way information. This experiment can be simplified by using a super black material (e.g., Vantablack) affixed to a fixed micro-object located at the crossroads of the two possible idler photon paths instead of the optical microcavity. The photon would be absorbed by the material and there would be no way to detect from which direction it came. Objects such as fixed mirrors in a Mach Zehnder interferometer do not provide ww information. The super black fixed micro-object should not either.

  9. Simulation of the above-threshold-ionization experiment using the molecular strong-field approximation: The choice of gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Busuladzic, M.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate how various versions of the molecular strong-field approximation (MSFA) agree with the experiment by Grasbon et al. [Phys. Rev. A 63, 041402(R) (2001)], in which the suppression of the ionization yield in the low-energy spectrum of the O{sub 2} molecule, compared to the spectrum of its companion atom Xe, was observed. In this experiment, it was also found that the spectrum of the N{sub 2} molecule is comparable to the corresponding spectrum of its companion atom Ar. We show that the length-gauge version of the MSFA with the initial state dressed by the laser field gives the best agreement with the experimental data for both O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} molecules.

  10. Is human mating adventitious or the result of lawful choice? A twin study of mate selection.

    PubMed

    Lykken, D T; Tellegen, A

    1993-07-01

    Pairs of middle-aged twins and their spouses provided data on 74 mainly psychological variables. Neither spousal similarity nor idiosyncratic criteria could account for specific mate selection in these 738 couples. Of the twins (and their spouses), 547 independently rated their initial attraction to their twin's mate (or to their spouse's twin): Findings suggest that characteristics both of the chooser and the chosen constrain mate selection only weakly. This article proposes that it is romantic infatuation that commonly determines the final choice from a broad field of potential eligibles and that this phenomenon is inherently random, in the same sense as is imprinting in precocial birds. PMID:8355143

  11. Choosing a doctor: an exploratory study of factors influencing patients' choice of a primary care doctor.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, B H; Marcus, D; Cassidy, W

    2000-08-01

    We assessed the relative importance healthcare consumers attach to various factors in choosing a primary care doctor (PCD) in a cross-sectional, in-person survey. Three survey locations were used: doctors' offices, a public shopping area, and meetings of a women's organization. A total of 636 community residents, varying across major demographic categories, participated. Participants completed a 23-item survey, designed to assess which factors consumers perceive as most relevant in choosing a PCD. Participants perceived professionally relevant factors (e.g. whether the doctor is board certified, office appearance) and management practices (e.g. time to get an appointment, evening and weekend hours) as more important than the doctor's personal characteristics (race, age, gender, etc.). Participants' own characteristics bore little relationship to the perceived importance of doctor characteristics. Factors patients perceive as most important to their choice of a PCD are also those that have the greatest effect on the quality of healthcare they will receive. However, they do not always have access to this information. A better understanding of the factors that influence people's choice of a PCD can contribute to efforts to provide them with the resources to make well-informed decisions in selecting among healthcare options. PMID:11083036

  12. Effort estimation for enterprise resource planning implementation projects using social choice - a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitlöhner, Johann

    2010-08-01

    ERP implementation projects have received enormous attention in the last years, due to their importance for organisations, as well as the costs and risks involved. The estimation of effort and costs associated with new projects therefore is an important topic. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of models that can cope with the special characteristics of these projects. As the main focus lies in adapting and customising a complex system, and even changing the organisation, traditional models like COCOMO can not easily be applied. In this article, we will apply effort estimation based on social choice in this context. Social choice deals with aggregating the preferences of a number of voters into a collective preference, and we will apply this idea by substituting the voters by project attributes. Therefore, instead of supplying numeric values for various project attributes, a new project only needs to be placed into rankings per attribute, necessitating only ordinal values, and the resulting aggregate ranking can be used to derive an estimation. We will describe the estimation process using a data set of 39 projects, and compare the results to other approaches proposed in the literature.

  13. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for the electric pedal support system. Two groups were compared: elderly cyclists (65 years of age and older) and a reference group of cyclists in middle adulthood (between 30 and 45 years of age). Participants rode a fixed route with a length of approximately 3.5 km on both bicycles in counterbalanced order. The route consisted of secluded bicycle paths and roads in a residential area where cyclist have to share the road with motorized traffic. The straight sections on secluded bicycle paths were classified as simple traffic situations and the intersections in the residential area where participants had to turn left, as complex traffic situations. Speed and mental workload were measured. For the assessment of mental workload the peripheral detection task (PDT) was applied. In simple traffic situations the elderly cyclists rode an average 3.6 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. However, in complex traffic situations they rode an average only 1.7 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. Except for the fact that the cyclists in middle adulthood rode an average approximately 2.6 km/h faster on both bicycle types and in both traffic conditions, their speed patterns were very similar. The speed of the elderly cyclists on an e-bike was approximately the speed of the cyclists in middle adulthood on a conventional bicycle. For the elderly cyclist and the cyclists in middle adulthood, mental workload did not differ between bicycle type. For both groups, the mental workload was higher in complex traffic situations than in simple traffic situations. Mental workload of the elderly cyclists was somewhat higher than the mental workload of the

  14. Sensitive subjects: research choices and presentational challenges in studying immigrant children and families.

    PubMed

    Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We write from our own experience as researchers on the integration of immigrants and their children, describing several ethical and research considerations that we addressed. In one study we examined the use of public benefits among immigrant families. This study posed issues regarding the selection of which "benefits" should be considered as "welfare"; how to construct comparison groups of immigrants versus natives; and the political sensitivities in reporting widely high use rates of certain benefits, particularly Medicaid. A second study examined the effects of parental detention and deportation on children. It raised issues regarding identifying samples of immigrants to interview, creating trust with interviewees and protecting their confidentiality, and examining the views not just of advocates and families but others involved in the process (such as law enforcement officials) to ensure their perspectives were reflected in resulting reports. A third project examined the young children of Black immigrants--a group that varies widely in their modes of entry, recency of arrival, and levels of human capital. To avoid simplistic misinterpretations, we disaggregated data by national origin where possible and ensured that the results highlight both the risks and protective factors identified. PMID:24038808

  15. Operationalizing Consumer Decision Making and Choice in the VR Process. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (21st, Baltimore, Maryland, March 1995). Report from the Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Ronald R., Ed.

    This document is the product of meetings of the Prime Study Group of the Institute on Rehabilitation Issues, whose mission was to: examine consumer choice and decision making in rehabilitation; review the legislation and consumer movements leading to greater consumer choice; identify the roles and responsibilities of the consumer, the counselor,…

  16. A National Study of Outdoor Wilderness Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.

    A study examined the learning and character development effects of the outdoor wilderness experience. The research consisted of a retrospective study in which surveys were completed by 429 participants in outdoor programs sponsored by the Student Conservation Association, the National Outdoor Leadership School, and Outward Bound; and a…

  17. The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sieta T.; de Vries, Folgerdiena M.; Dekker, Thijs; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether patients’ willingness to add a blood pressure-lowering drug and the importance they attach to specific treatment characteristics differ among age groups in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients being prescribed at least an oral glucose-lowering and a blood pressure-lowering drug completed a questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment. This experiment contained choice sets with hypothetical blood pressure-lowering drugs and a no additional drug alternative, which differed in their characteristics (i.e. effects and intake moments). Differences in willingness to add a drug were compared between patients <75 years (non-aged) and ≥75 years (aged) using Pearson χ2-tests. Multinomial logit models were used to assess and compare the importance attached to the characteristics. Results Of the 161 patients who completed the questionnaire, 151 (72%) could be included in the analyses (mean age 68 years; 42% female). Aged patients were less willing to add a drug than non-aged patients (67% versus 84% respectively; P = 0.017). In both age groups, the effect on blood pressure was most important for choosing a drug, followed by the risk of adverse drug events and the risk of death. The effect on limitations due to stroke was only significant in the non-aged group. The effect on blood pressure was slightly more important in the non-aged than the aged group (P = 0.043). Conclusions Aged patients appear less willing to add a preventive drug than non-aged patients. The importance attached to various treatment characteristics does not seem to differ much among age groups. PMID:26445349

  18. Evaluating consumer preferences for healthy eating from Community Kitchens in low-income urban areas: A discrete choice experiment of Comedores Populares in Peru.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Trujillo, Antonio J; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Many low-income individuals from around the world rely on local food vendors for daily sustenance. These small vendors quickly provide convenient, low-priced, tasty foods, however, they may be low in nutritional value. These vendors serve as an opportunity to use established delivery channels to explore the introduction of healthier products, e.g. fresh salad and fruits, to low-income populations. We sought to understand preferences for items prepared in Comedores Populares (CP), government-supported food vendors serving low-income Peruvians, to determine whether it would be feasible to introduce healthier items, specifically fruits and vegetables. We used a best-worst discrete choice experiment (DCE) that allowed participants to select their favorite and least favorite option from a series of three hypothetical menus. The characteristics were derived from a series of formative qualitative interviews conducted previously in the CPs. We examined preferences for six characteristics: price, salad, soup, sides, meat and fruit. A total of 432 individuals, from two districts in Lima, Peru responded to a discrete choice experiment and demographic survey in 2012. For the DCE, price contributed the most to individual's utility relative to the other attributes, with salad and soup following closely. Sides (e.g. rice and beans) were the least important. The willingness to pay for a meal with a large main course and salad was 2.6 Nuevos Soles, roughly a 1 Nuevo Sol increase from the average menu price, or USD $0.32 dollars. The willingness to pay for a meal with fruit was 1.6 Nuevo Soles. Overall, the perceived quality of service and food served in the CPs is high. The willingness to pay indicates that healthier additions to meals are feasible. Understanding consumer preferences can help policy makers design healthier meals in an organization with the potential to scale up to reach a considerable number of low-income families. PMID:26184703

  19. Variation, Repetition, and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; Lattal, Kennon A.; dos Santos, Cristiano V.; Matos, Ricardo A.

    2005-01-01

    Experiment 1 investigated the controlling properties of variability contingencies on choice between repeated and variable responding. Pigeons were exposed to concurrent-chains schedules with two alternatives. In the REPEAT alternative, reinforcers in the terminal link depended on a single sequence of four responses. In the VARY alternative, a…

  20. Choice, changeover, and travel

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1982-01-01

    Since foraging in nature can be viewed as instrumental behavior, choice between sources of food, known as “patches,” can be viewed as choice between instrumental response alternatives. Whereas the travel required to change alternatives deters changeover in nature, the changeover delay (COD) usually deters changeover in the laboratory. In this experiment, pigeons were exposed to laboratory choice situations, concurrent variable-interval schedules, that were standard except for the introduction of a travel requirement for changeover. As the travel requirement increased, rate of changeover decreased and preference for a favored alternative strengthened. When the travel requirement was small, the relations between choice and relative reinforcement revealed the usual tendencies toward matching and undermatching. When the travel requirement was large, strong overmatching occurred. These results, together with those from experiments in which changeover was deterred by punishment or a fixed-ratio requirement, deviate from the matching law, even when a correction is made for cost of changeover. If one accepted an argument that the COD is analogous to travel, the results suggest that the norm in choice relations would be overmatching. This overmatching, however, might only be the sign of an underlying strategy approximating optimization. PMID:16812283

  1. Surface electrical properties experiment study phase, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The choice of an antenna for a subsurface radio sounding experiment is discussed. The radiation properties of the antennas as placed on the surface of the medium is examined. The objective of the lunar surface electrical properties experiment is described. A numerical analysis of the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of a subsurface domain is developed. The application of electromagnetic field measurements between one or more transmitting antennas and a roving receiving station is explained.

  2. The Impact of Limited School Choice on Public School Districts: Case Studies of How School Districts in Michigan's Largest County Are Responding to Competition from Charter Schools and Public "Schools-of-Choice."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Matthew; Brouillette, Matthew J.

    This study sought to determine whether increased competition among Michigan public schools, resulting from charter schools and the state's "schools-of-choice" program, has improved educational opportunities for children and whether competition encourages or discourages schools to respond to the needs and demands of students and parents. The…

  3. Mega-joule experiment area study, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.; Oirth, C.; Woodworth, J.

    1995-03-09

    This document contains Chapters 3 and 4 from the Mega-Joule Experiment Area Study, 1989. Water frost on the first containment wall is studied in detail in Chapter 3. Considered topics are the computer modeling of frost ablation and shock propagation and the experimental characterization of water frost. The latter is broken down into: frost crystal morphology, experiment configuration, growth rate results, density results, thermal conductivity, crush strength of frost, frost integrity, frost response to simulated soft x-rays. Chapter 4 presents information on surrounding shielding and structures to include: cryogenic spheres for first wall and coolant containment; shield tank concerning primary neutron and gamma ray shielding; and secondary shielding.

  4. What can we talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom? Sami patients' experiences of language choice and cultural norms in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Background The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients’ encounters with mental health services. Objectives To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Methods Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Findings Two themes were identified: (I) Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about. Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants’ lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami. (II) Cultural norms influence what one talks about, in what way and to whom. However, norms could be bypassed, by talking about norm-regulated topics in Norwegian with health providers. Conclusion Sami patients’ language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients. PMID:25976741

  5. Undergraduates' Memories of School-Based Work Experience and the Role of Social Class in Placement Choices in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Richard; Harrison, Neil; Hatt, Sue; Chudry, Farooq

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of 49 young first-year UK undergraduates who had undergone one or two weeks of work experience at school between the ages of 14 and 16. Previous studies focusing on the whole school cohort suggested that the nature of work experience placements was strongly predicted by class. In particular, middle class…

  6. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  7. Online Learner's "Flow" Experience: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Namin

    2006-01-01

    This study is concerned with online learners' "low" experiences. On the basis of Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow, flow was conceptualised as a complex, multimentional, reflective construct composing of "enjoyment", "telepresence", "focused attention", "engagement" and "time distortion" on the part of learners. A flow model was put forward with…

  8. Chance, choice and opportunity: Life history study of two exemplary female elementary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Kathleen Milligan

    adequate conceptual understanding in college science courses. Addressing knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and gender issues inherent in prior science education assists students to be reflective. Practicing teachers should be encouraged to work collaboratively, be reflective, and be aware of gender inequity issues. In-depth professional development efforts are need to support these changes. Administrators must be supportive of the process. Further research can add to and expand this body of knowledge through additional research into male elementary science teachers' life experiences. Research with preservice teachers may reveal similar findings even though their historical time period differs from the two participants in this study.

  9. A Practical Experiment to Obtain Either Which-Way or Interference Photon Distributions at a Distance Using Delayed Choice and Without Correlating Measurement Results on Entangled Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    For a pair of entangled signal-idler photons, one may ``lose'' the idler photon (that provides which-way information to the entangled signal photon) in many other photons with similar characteristics to the idler photon before the signal photon is detected, thereby losing the which-way information supplied to the signal photon and eliminating the entanglement. The experiment allows for a delayed choice on the idler photons (whether or not to lose the idler photon before the signal photon is detected) to determine the distribution of distant signal photons (either overall which-way or overall interference) without making correlations between signal and idler photon detections. When the idler photon is lost, it is lost in an optical microcavity filled with photons in the same mode as the idler photon. The experiment could provide the basis for a useful quantum communications device. It might be possible to use a micropost coated with a material such as Vantablack in place of the optical microcavity.

  10. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. PMID:25208271

  11. Autonomy, Choice, Patient-Centered Care, and Hip Protectors: The Experience of Residents and Staff in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; McKay, Heather A.; Feldman, Fabio; Scott, Victoria; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine long-term care (LTC) resident and staff perceptions on the decision to use hip protectors and identify the factors that influence attitudes toward hip protector use. Staff (N = 39) and residents (N = 27) at two residential care facilities in British Columbia, Canada were invited to participate in focus groups on fall prevention and hip protector use. A total of 11 focus groups were conducted. Using framework analysis results show that residents and staff shared concerns on aesthetic and comfort issues with hip protectors. Residents also generally felt they did not need, or want to use, hip protectors. However, they also had desire to be cooperative within the LTC environment. Staff underscored their role in advocating for hip protector use and their desire to protect residents from harm. Practice considerations for facilities wishing to promote hip protectors within a patient centered framework are highlighted. PMID:24652886

  12. Hard choices.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1999-01-01

    The cultural discourse that frames the abortion debate has changed and become more complex over the years. To date, concerns about the need to defend the choice have shifted to moral and ethical issues surrounding abortion. The right of women to abortion can be situated in the context of ethical principles, which are basic to what we hold valuable in the modern society. The ethical principle of "procreative autonomy", the right of humans to control their own role in procreation has an unusually significant place in modern political culture in which human dignity was an important feature. Central to human dignity was the principle that "people possess the moral right and responsibility to answer the basic questions about the value and meaning of their own lives." Another crucial issue is the need to defend the "bodily autonomy" of women. Forcing women to support the fetus against her will flies against such principles as the need for voluntary consent to medical treatment. These arguments do not suggest for a moral indifference towards abortion choices, but as Ronald Dworkin argues, "tolerance is a cost we must pay for our adventure in liberty." PMID:12178906

  13. Household's willingness to pay for heterogeneous attributes of drinking water quality and services improvement: an application of choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauda, Suleiman Alhaji; Yacob, Mohd Rusli; Radam, Alias

    2015-09-01

    The service of providing good quality of drinking water can greatly improve the lives of the community and maintain a normal health standard. For a large number of population in the world, specifically in the developing countries, the availability of safe water for daily sustenance is none. Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. It hosts a population of more than two hundred thousand, yet only 45 % of the households are connected to the network of Yobe State Water Corporation's pipe borne water services; this has led people to source for water from any available source and thus, exposed them to the danger of contracting waterborne diseases. In order to address the problem, Yobe State Government has embarked on the construction of a water treatment plant with a capacity and facility to improve the water quality and connect the town with water services network. The objectives of this study are to assess the households' demand preferences of the heterogeneous water attributes in Damaturu, and to estimate their marginal willingness to pay, using mixed logit model in comparison with conditional logit model. A survey of 300 households randomly sampled indicated that higher education greatly influenced the households' WTP decisions. The most significant variable from both of the models is TWQ, which is MRS that rates the water quality from the level of satisfactory to very good. 219 % in simple model is CLM, while 126 % is for the interaction model. As for MLM, 685 % is for the simple model and 572 % is for the interaction model. Estimate of MLM has more explanatory powers than CLM. Essentially, this finding can help the government in designing cost-effective management and efficient tariff structure.

  14. The choice of prior distribution for a covariance matrix in multivariate meta-analysis: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hurtado Rúa, Sandra M; Mazumdar, Madhu; Strawderman, Robert L

    2015-12-30

    Bayesian meta-analysis is an increasingly important component of clinical research, with multivariate meta-analysis a promising tool for studies with multiple endpoints. Model assumptions, including the choice of priors, are crucial aspects of multivariate Bayesian meta-analysis (MBMA) models. In a given model, two different prior distributions can lead to different inferences about a particular parameter. A simulation study was performed in which the impact of families of prior distributions for the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal random effects MBMA model was analyzed. Inferences about effect sizes were not particularly sensitive to prior choice, but the related covariance estimates were. A few families of prior distributions with small relative biases, tight mean squared errors, and close to nominal coverage for the effect size estimates were identified. Our results demonstrate the need for sensitivity analysis and suggest some guidelines for choosing prior distributions in this class of problems. The MBMA models proposed here are illustrated in a small meta-analysis example from the periodontal field and a medium meta-analysis from the study of stroke. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26303671

  15. Development of the choices and acquisition of antibiotics model from a descriptive study of a lay Honduran population.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Nancy J; Holcomb, Lygia; Grogan, Reina Lidylia; Vasquez, Myrna; Parchment, Chrystabel; Almendares, Juan; Lagos, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem that is accelerated by overuse and misuse of antibiotics. In today's world of increasing international travel and exchange of goods, the spread of antibiotic resistant organisms is a growing threat. Despite significant antibiotic use in developing nations, research to describe and curtail inappropriate use is limited. In this study, the investigators developed a model of antibiotic use, choices and acquisition of antibiotics model, from a study of a lay population in Honduras. A representative sample of 939 rural and urban Hondurans completed the Preguntas Para El Uso de Antibiotics questionnaire to determine how the participant made choices about antibiotic use. The study indicated that the rural participants used significantly fewer antibiotics than the urban participants and that the demographic indicators did not show a significant difference in antibiotic use in those of lower socioeconomic status. In addition, the participants reported that they seek out professional advice and care rather than self-prescribing. Implications for educational and empowerment programs based on the model are discussed. PMID:15288797

  16. Using Post-Study-Abroad Experiences to Enhance International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kevin W.; Jendzurski, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Many study abroad experiences offer opportunities for a broadened global perspective gleaned from interpersonal engagement with cultural others in an international setting. Unfortunately, and far too often, the campus majority who do not have this firsthand travel experience remain disengaged and might feel excluded. This article contends that…

  17. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  18. It's all about the children: a participant-driven photo-elicitation study of Mexican-origin mothers' food choices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a desperate need to address diet-related chronic diseases in Mexican-origin women, particularly for those in border region colonias (Mexican settlements) and other new destination communities in rural and non-rural areas of the U.S. Understanding the food choices of mothers, who lead food and health activities in their families, provides one way to improve health outcomes in Mexican-origin women and their children. This study used a visual method, participant-driven photo-elicitation, and grounded theory in a contextual study of food choices from the perspectives of Mexican-origin mothers. Methods Teams of trained promotoras (female community health workers from the area) collected all data in Spanish. Ten Mexican-origin mothers living in colonias in Hidalgo County, TX completed a creative photography assignment and an in-depth interview using their photographs as visual prompts and examples. English transcripts were coded inductively by hand, and initial observations emphasized the salience of mothers' food practices in their routine care-giving. This was explored further by coding transcripts in the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti. Results An inductive conceptual framework was created to provide context for understanding mothers' daily practices and their food practices in particular. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) a mother's primary orientation was toward her children; 2) leveraging resources to provide the best for her children; and 3) a mother's daily food practices kept her children happy, healthy, and well-fed. Results offer insight into the intricate meanings embedded in Mexican-origin mothers' routine food choices. Conclusions This paper provides a new perspective for understanding food choice through the eyes of mothers living in the colonias of South Texas -- one that emphasizes the importance of children in their routine food practices and the resilience of the mothers themselves. Additional research is needed to

  19. Experiences of Vasectomy: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Habibollah; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irregular growth of population is considered as a serious threat to the international community. It is a major obstacle for socioeconomic development. One of the methods to control the population is by providing effective methods of contraception. Vasectomy, as a simple and effective contraceptive method, has been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is very important to involve men in the control of population and the promotion of reproductive health. Aims: This study was conducted with the aim of describing the experiences of the men who underwent vasectomy. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. The sample consisted of 14 vasectomized men selected through purposive sampling method. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data. Results: The results were transcribed and recorded in comprehensive field notes. Colaizzi's method was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the obtained results of the present study, which described the structure of the experiences of men as follows: Opinions about vasectomy, own perceptions about vasectomy, experiences with the procedure, and recommendation of vasectomy to others. Conclusion: Vasectomy can influence achievement of family planning goals and participation of men in this regard. The results of this study can help the planners and health-care providers for appropriate interventions, and training and counseling programmers to increase the acceptability and uptake of vasectomy in the society. PMID:23272302

  20. A Qualitative Study of Work-Life Choices in Academic Internal Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Carol; Byars-Winston, Angela; McSorley, Rebecca; Schultz, Alexandra; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    The high attrition rate of female physicians pursuing an academic medicine research career has not been examined in the context of career development theory. We explored how internal medicine residents and faculty experience their work within the context of their broader life domain in order to identify strategies for facilitating career…

  1. Evaluating the Impact of SPEED on Students' Career Choices: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodier-Harris, Naomi R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is two-fold; first, to explore the Student Placements for Entrepreneurs in Education (SPEED) programme, which aims to help students gain real business start-up experience whilst at university and second to examine the impact of SPEED on the students. Design/methodology/approach: For the first part of the paper,…

  2. A Nuclear Tech Course = Nuclear Technology in War and Peace: A Study of Issues and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    A nuclear technology college course for engineering students is outlined and described. The course begins with an historical account of the scientific discoveries leading up to the uranium experiments of Hahn and Strassman in Germany and the subsequent explanation of nuclear fission by Meitner and Frisch. The technological achievements of the…

  3. The Impact of the Choice of Data Source in Record Linkage Studies Estimating Mortality in Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Arlene M; Williams, Tim; Leufkens, Hubert G M; de Vries, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Linked electronic healthcare databases are increasingly being used in observational research. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the choice of data source in estimating mortality following VTE, with a secondary aim to investigate the influence of the denominator definition. We used the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to identify patients aged 18+ with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Multiple cohorts were identified in order to assess how mortality rates differed with a range of data sources. For each of the cohorts, incidence rates per 1,000 person years (/1000py) and relative rates (RRs) of all-cause mortality were calculated. The lowest mortality rate was found when only primary care data were used for both the exposure (VTE) and the outcome (death) (108.4/1000py). The highest mortality rate was found for patients diagnosed in secondary care (237.2/1000py). When linked primary and secondary care data were included for eligible patients and for the overlapping period of data collection, a mortality rate of 173.2/1000py was found. Sensitivity analyses varying the denominator definition provided a range of results (140.6-164.3/1000py). The relative rates of mortality by gender and age were comparable across all cohorts. Depending on the choice of data source, the population studied may be different. This may have substantial impact on the main findings, in particular on incidence rates of mortality following VTE. PMID:26863417

  4. The Impact of the Choice of Data Source in Record Linkage Studies Estimating Mortality in Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Arlene M.; Williams, Tim; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; de Vries, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Linked electronic healthcare databases are increasingly being used in observational research. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the choice of data source in estimating mortality following VTE, with a secondary aim to investigate the influence of the denominator definition. We used the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to identify patients aged 18+ with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Multiple cohorts were identified in order to assess how mortality rates differed with a range of data sources. For each of the cohorts, incidence rates per 1,000 person years (/1000py) and relative rates (RRs) of all-cause mortality were calculated. The lowest mortality rate was found when only primary care data were used for both the exposure (VTE) and the outcome (death) (108.4/1000py). The highest mortality rate was found for patients diagnosed in secondary care (237.2/1000py). When linked primary and secondary care data were included for eligible patients and for the overlapping period of data collection, a mortality rate of 173.2/1000py was found. Sensitivity analyses varying the denominator definition provided a range of results (140.6–164.3/1000py). The relative rates of mortality by gender and age were comparable across all cohorts. Depending on the choice of data source, the population studied may be different. This may have substantial impact on the main findings, in particular on incidence rates of mortality following VTE. PMID:26863417

  5. Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

  6. Target Study for the RACE HP Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, P.; Ciotti, M.; Beneamati, G.; Sansone, L.; Elmi, N.; Carta, M.; Petrovich, C.; Bergeron, A.; Krakowiak, C.; Beller, D.

    2006-07-01

    The full development of a multi-disks uranium target is described, including neutron production analysis, power deposition distributions, thermo-mechanical simulations and cooling schemes. A detailed material choice and a geometrical optimization were carried on in order to maximize the neutron production. (authors)

  7. Trends in oral anticoagulant choice for acute stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Japan: The SAMURAI‐NVAF Study

    PubMed Central

    Arihiro, Shoji; Todo, Kenichi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumi; Furui, Eisuke; Terasaki, Tadashi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takizawa, Shunya; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kameda, Tomoaki; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nakashima, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Nagatsuka, K; Minematsu, K; Nakagawara, J; Akiyama, H; Shibazaki, K; Maeda, K; Shibuya, S; Yoshimura, S; Endo, K; Miyagi, T; Osaki, M; Kobayashi, J; Okata, T; Tanaka, E; Sakamoto, Y; Takizawa, H; Takasugi, J; Tokunaga, K; Homma, K; Kinoshita, N; Matsuki, T; Higashida, K; Shiozawa, M; Kanai, H; Uehara, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Large clinical trials are lack of data on non‐vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for acute stroke patients. Aim To evaluate the choice of oral anticoagulants at acute hospital discharge in stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and clarify the underlying characteristics potentially affecting that choice using the multicenter Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk‐factor Assessment and Improvement‐NVAF registry (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01581502). Method The study included 1192 acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (527 women, 77·7 ± 9·9 years old) between September 2011 and March 2014, during which three nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant oral anticoagulants were approved for clinical use. Oral anticoagulant choice at hospital discharge (median 23‐day stay) was assessed. Results Warfarin was chosen for 650 patients, dabigatran for 203, rivaroxaban for 238, and apixaban for 25. Over the three 10‐month observation periods, patients taking warfarin gradually decreased to 46·5% and those taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants increased to 48·0%. As compared with warfarin users, patients taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants included more men, were younger, more frequently had small infarcts, and had lower scores for poststroke CHADS 2, CHA 2 DS 2‐VASc, and HAS‐BLED, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale, and discharge modified Rankin Scale. Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants were started at a median of four‐days after stroke onset without early intracranial hemorrhage. Patients starting nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants earlier had smaller infarcts and lower scores for the admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale and the discharge modified Rankin Scale than those starting later. Choice of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants was independently associated with 20‐day or

  8. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  9. Partner choice creates fairness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  10. Project CHOICE: #111. A Career Education Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Introduction to Dairy Occupations. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Career Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Introduction to Dairy Occupations, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the…

  11. Project CHOICE: #111-A. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Introduction to Fishing. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Career Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Introduction to Fishing, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and…

  12. Study of the properties and the choice of alloys for bladed disks (blisks) and a method for their joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarova, K. B.; Valitov, V. A.; Obsepyan, S. V.; Drozdov, A. A.; Bazyleva, O. A.; Valitova, E. V.

    2014-09-01

    The choice of materials for the bladed disks (blisks) that are intended for next-generation aviation gas turbine engines is grounded. As blade materials, single crystals of light heterophase γ' + γ VKNA-type alloys based on the γ'(Ni3Al) intermetallic compound with an ordered structure are proposed. The choice of novel deformable EP975-type nickel superalloys, which are intended for operation at 800-850°C, as the disk material is grounded. It is shown that the most effective method for forming one-piece joints of an Ni3Al-based alloy and a high-alloy EP975-type nickel superalloy is the new process of solid-phase pressure welding under conditions of high-temperature superplasticity. Solid-phase joints are formed for heterophase Ni3Al-based alloy single crystals and deformable EK61 and EP975 nickel alloys. The gradient structures in the zone of the solid-phase joints that form under the conditions of low- and high-temperature superplasticity at homologous temperatures of ˜0.6 T m and 0.9 T m are studied. The character and direction of the diffusion processes at the joint of an intermetallic alloy single crystal and a deformable polycrystalline alloy are determined.

  13. Female mate choice can drive the evolution of high frequency echolocation in bats: a case study with Rhinolophus mehelyi.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Borissov, Ivailo M; Zsebok, Sándor; Allegrini, Benjamin; Hizem, Mohammed; Kuenzel, Sven; Schuchmann, Maike; Teeling, Emma C; Siemers, Björn M

    2014-01-01

    Animals employ an array of signals (i.e. visual, acoustic, olfactory) for communication. Natural selection favours signals, receptors, and signalling behaviour that optimise the received signal relative to background noise. When the signal is used for more than one function, antagonisms amongst the different signalling functions may constrain the optimisation of the signal for any one function. Sexual selection through mate choice can strongly modify the effects of natural selection on signalling systems ultimately causing maladaptive signals to evolve. Echolocating bats represent a fascinating group in which to study the evolution of signalling systems as unlike bird songs or frog calls, echolocation has a dual role in foraging and communication. The function of bat echolocation is to generate echoes that the calling bat uses for orientation and food detection with call characteristics being directly related to the exploitation of particular ecological niches. Therefore, it is commonly assumed that echolocation has been shaped by ecology via natural selection. Here we demonstrate for the first time using a novel combined behavioural, ecological and genetic approach that in a bat species, Rhinolophus mehelyi: (1) echolocation peak frequency is an honest signal of body size; (2) females preferentially select males with high frequency calls during the mating season; (3) high frequency males sire more off-spring, providing evidence that echolocation calls may play a role in female mate choice. Our data refute the sole role of ecology in the evolution of echolocation and highlight the antagonistic interplay between natural and sexual selection in shaping acoustic signals. PMID:25075972

  14. Factors That Affect Large Subunit Ribosomal DNA Amplicon Sequencing Studies of Fungal Communities: Classification Method, Primer Choice, and Error

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Teresita M.; Golding, G. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA is widely used in fungal phylogenetics and to an increasing extent also amplicon-based environmental sequencing. The relatively short reads produced by next-generation sequencing, however, makes primer choice and sequence error important variables for obtaining accurate taxonomic classifications. In this simulation study we tested the performance of three classification methods: 1) a similarity-based method (BLAST + Metagenomic Analyzer, MEGAN); 2) a composition-based method (Ribosomal Database Project naïve Bayesian classifier, NBC); and, 3) a phylogeny-based method (Statistical Assignment Package, SAP). We also tested the effects of sequence length, primer choice, and sequence error on classification accuracy and perceived community composition. Using a leave-one-out cross validation approach, results for classifications to the genus rank were as follows: BLAST + MEGAN had the lowest error rate and was particularly robust to sequence error; SAP accuracy was highest when long LSU query sequences were classified; and, NBC runs significantly faster than the other tested methods. All methods performed poorly with the shortest 50–100 bp sequences. Increasing simulated sequence error reduced classification accuracy. Community shifts were detected due to sequence error and primer selection even though there was no change in the underlying community composition. Short read datasets from individual primers, as well as pooled datasets, appear to only approximate the true community composition. We hope this work informs investigators of some of the factors that affect the quality and interpretation of their environmental gene surveys. PMID:22558215

  15. Female Mate Choice Can Drive the Evolution of High Frequency Echolocation in Bats: A Case Study with Rhinolophus mehelyi

    PubMed Central

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Borissov, Ivailo M.; Zsebok, Sándor; Allegrini, Benjamin; Hizem, Mohammed; Kuenzel, Sven; Schuchmann, Maike; Teeling, Emma C.

    2014-01-01

    Animals employ an array of signals (i.e. visual, acoustic, olfactory) for communication. Natural selection favours signals, receptors, and signalling behaviour that optimise the received signal relative to background noise. When the signal is used for more than one function, antagonisms amongst the different signalling functions may constrain the optimisation of the signal for any one function. Sexual selection through mate choice can strongly modify the effects of natural selection on signalling systems ultimately causing maladaptive signals to evolve. Echolocating bats represent a fascinating group in which to study the evolution of signalling systems as unlike bird songs or frog calls, echolocation has a dual role in foraging and communication. The function of bat echolocation is to generate echoes that the calling bat uses for orientation and food detection with call characteristics being directly related to the exploitation of particular ecological niches. Therefore, it is commonly assumed that echolocation has been shaped by ecology via natural selection. Here we demonstrate for the first time using a novel combined behavioural, ecological and genetic approach that in a bat species, Rhinolophus mehelyi: (1) echolocation peak frequency is an honest signal of body size; (2) females preferentially select males with high frequency calls during the mating season; (3) high frequency males sire more off-spring, providing evidence that echolocation calls may play a role in female mate choice. Our data refute the sole role of ecology in the evolution of echolocation and highlight the antagonistic interplay between natural and sexual selection in shaping acoustic signals. PMID:25075972

  16. Capillary Study - Skylab Student Experiment ED-72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment ED-72, Capillary Study, proposed by Roger G. Johnson of St. Paul, Mirnesota. Johnson theorized that capillary rise might continue to infinity in Skylab's zero-gravity environment. The behavior of fluids, particularly their flow properties in a low-gravity environment, had been important from the time that Robert H. Goddard launched his liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's to the more sophisticated space systems of the day. It was necessary to design fluid-flow systems that would not only overcome the lack of gravity but also overcome, or take advantage of, the effect of surface tension. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  17. Experiment definition studies for AMPS Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, H.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical charging of the space shuttle orbiter is discussed in relation to the AMPS Spacelab payload along with an operations research technique for the selection of AMPS Spacelab experiments. Experiments proposed for AMPS include: hydromagnetic wave experiments; bistatic sounder of AMPS wake; and an artificial meteor gun. Experiment objectives and instrument functions are given for all experiments.

  18. Reversible frequency-dependent switches in male mate choice.

    PubMed

    van Gossum, H; Stoks, R; De Bruyn, L

    2001-01-01

    Current sexual-selection theories predict that mating should occur preferentially with the highest-quality partner, and assume that for distinguishing among potential mates the choosy sex applies an internal representation of the characteristics of the desired mate, i.e. a template. Binary choice experiments were performed to test male mate choice between two different female colour morphs in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Choice experiments were conducted before and after an habituation period, during which males were exposed to only one female colour morph. Given the choice between the two female morphs, males did exhibit a choice for the most recently experienced female morph. This is the first evidence for a reversible switch in mate choice in a frequency-dependent way. In contrast with previous studies on mate choice, template formation in male I. elegans seems not to be based on quality. Switching mate choice in a frequency-dependent manner, choosing the most common morph, probably allows males to minimize their search efforts and to maximize fitness. PMID:12123302

  19. The Role of Women in Food Provision and Food Choice Decision-Making in Singapore: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MAY C.; NAIDOO, NASHEEN; FERZACCA, STEVE; REDDY, GEETHA; VAN DAM, ROB M.

    2015-01-01

    As countries develop economically and increasing numbers of women enter the workforce, children are partly being cared for by someone other than their mother. Little is known about the impact of this shift in child-care provider on children’s nutrition. This study presents findings from a case study of Singapore, a small country that has experienced phenomenal economic growth. Focus groups were conducted with 130 women of varying educational levels and ethnicities to learn about food decisions in their families. The findings showed that Singaporean working women cook infrequently, families eat out frequently, and children exert considerable influence on food choices. Implications for work–family policies and child health are discussed. PMID:25357270

  20. Teachers' Instructional Choices with Student-Created Digital Documentaries: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn; Hammond, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes qualitative case studies of two teachers who integrated student-created digital documentaries into their social studies classrooms. Thornton's (2001a) concept of the teacher as curricular gatekeeper and Mishra and Koehler's (2006) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge framed the study. The teachers worked within the…