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Sample records for choice experiment study

  1. A choice experiment analysis for solid waste disposal option: a case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Jamal, Othman

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee. PMID:21820795

  2. Using blocked fractional factorial designs to construct discrete choice experiments for healthcare studies.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, Jessica; Wong, Weng-Kee; Xu, Hongquan

    2016-07-10

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used for studying and quantifying subjects preferences in a wide variety of healthcare applications. They provide a rich source of data to assess real-life decision-making processes, which involve trade-offs between desirable characteristics pertaining to health and healthcare and identification of key attributes affecting healthcare. The choice of the design for a DCE is critical because it determines which attributes' effects and their interactions are identifiable. We apply blocked fractional factorial designs to construct DCEs and address some identification issues by utilizing the known structure of blocked fractional factorial designs. Our design techniques can be applied to several situations including DCEs where attributes have different number of levels. We demonstrate our design methodology using two healthcare studies to evaluate (i) asthma patients' preferences for symptom-based outcome measures and (ii) patient preference for breast screening services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26823156

  3. Simulation study to determine the impact of different design features on design efficiency in discrete choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Cunningham, Charles E; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are routinely used to elicit patient preferences to improve health outcomes and healthcare services. While many fractional factorial designs can be created, some are more statistically optimal than others. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate how varying the number of (1) attributes, (2) levels within attributes, (3) alternatives and (4) choice tasks per survey will improve or compromise the statistical efficiency of an experimental design. Design and methods A total of 3204 DCE designs were created to assess how relative design efficiency (d-efficiency) is influenced by varying the number of choice tasks (2–20), alternatives (2–5), attributes (2–20) and attribute levels (2–5) of a design. Choice tasks were created by randomly allocating attribute and attribute level combinations into alternatives. Outcome Relative d-efficiency was used to measure the optimality of each DCE design. Results DCE design complexity influenced statistical efficiency. Across all designs, relative d-efficiency decreased as the number of attributes and attribute levels increased. It increased for designs with more alternatives. Lastly, relative d-efficiency converges as the number of choice tasks increases, where convergence may not be at 100% statistical optimality. Conclusions Achieving 100% d-efficiency is heavily dependent on the number of attributes, attribute levels, choice tasks and alternatives. Further exploration of overlaps and block sizes are needed. This study's results are widely applicable for researchers interested in creating optimal DCE designs to elicit individual preferences on health services, programmes, policies and products. PMID:27436671

  4. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  5. Parents' Experience with School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaich, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to understand the experiences of a group of parents residing in the Novato Unified School District, Marin County, CA., as they engaged in the process of deciding where to send their children to school as the students matriculated from eighth to ninth grade, or middle school to high school. The four major…

  6. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  7. Research Focus and Methodological Choices in Studies into Students' Experiences of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews representative research into blended learning in universities, taking into account the methodology used, the focus of the research and the relationship between the two. In terms of methodology, most research was classifiable as case-studies, survey-based studies or comparative studies. A small number of studies take a…

  8. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  9. Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy

  10. A discrete choice experiment investigating preferences for funding drugs used to treat orphan diseases: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Stefanowska, Patricia; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2011-07-01

    Policy debate about funding criteria for drugs used to treat rare, orphan diseases is gaining prominence. This study presents evidence from a discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of university students to investigate individual preferences regarding public funding for drugs used to treat rare diseases and common diseases. This pilot study finds that: other things equal, the respondents do not prefer to have the government spend more for drugs used to treat rare diseases; that respondents are not willing to pay more per life year gained for a rare disease than a common disease; and that respondents weigh relevant attributes of the coverage decisions (e.g. costs, disease severity and treatment effectiveness) similarly for both rare and common diseases. The results confirm the importance of severity and treatment effectiveness in preferences for public funding. Although this is the first study of its kind, the results send a cautionary message regarding the special treatment of orphan drugs in coverage decision-making. PMID:21205401

  11. Modeling Choice and Valuation in Decision Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a parsimonious descriptive model of individual choice and valuation in the kinds of experiments that constitute a substantial part of the literature relating to decision making under risk and uncertainty. It suggests that many of the best known "regularities" observed in those experiments may arise from a tendency for…

  12. A quantum delayed-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Shadbolt, Peter; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-11-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle- or wavelike behavior depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics. Its paradoxical nature is best captured in the delayed-choice thought experiment, in which a photon is forced to choose a behavior before the observer decides what to measure. Here, we report on a quantum delayed-choice experiment in which both particle and wave behaviors are investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behavior is certified via nonlocality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer in the original experiment. We observed strong nonlocal correlations, which show that the photon must simultaneously behave both as a particle and as a wave. PMID:23118183

  13. Wheeler thought experiment with delayed choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    This is an alternative interpretation of Jacques, et. al. (2007), Wheeler's thought experiment with delayed choice. The researchers find that the choice of observables changes the previous behavior of the photon inside the interferometer. Stepping outside the QM box, we propose that elementary waves from the detectors travel backwards through the interferometer, and the photon is following such a ray in the reverse direction. Thus a change in observables changes the behavior of the photon for the simple reason that the observable is transmitting information to the photon and the photon is able to change its polarization mid-stream in response to a change in that information. According to this explanation there is no delayed choice. It is an illusion.

  14. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  15. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment.

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  16. Riverscape and groundwater preservation: a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation. PMID:24085155

  17. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:18802123

  18. Student Perceptions of Science Ability, Experiences, Expectations, and Career Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherney, Michael; Cherney, I.

    2006-12-01

    The decision to study physics or astronomy is affected by many factors, including preferences, motivations, and expectations for success. Differing cognitive profiles contribute to the learning of science through a complex process in which intrinsic capacities are tuned both by everyday experience and by instruction. In an attempt to identify the developmental pathways and intrinsic factors that most strongly influence the choice to study science, we administered an extensive survey to a sample of 400 students. The survey questions were based on Eccles et al.’s model of achievement-related choices and findings showing that previous play experiences, spatial experiences, task beliefs, as well as perceived mathematics ability, motivational and personality characteristics affect mathematics achievement and science career choices. The perceptions of students planning a science career are compared with those planning a career in other areas. Gender differences are also discussed.

  19. Choices in health care: the European experience.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sarah; Dixon, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines some policies to increase or restrict consumer choice in western European health systems as regards four decisions: choice between public and private insurance; choice of public insurance fund; choice of first contact care provider and choice of hospital. Choice between public and private insurance is limited and arose for historical reasons in Germany. Owing to significant constraints, few people choose the private option. Choice of public insurance fund tends to be exercised by younger and healthier people, the decision to change fund is mainly associated with price and, despite complex risk adjustment mechanisms, it has led to risk selection by funds. Choice of first contact care provider is widespread in Europe. In countries where choice has traditionally been restricted, reforms aim to make services more accessible and convenient to patients. Reforms to restrict direct access to specialists aim to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate care but have been unpopular with the public and professionals. Patients' take up of choice of hospital has been surprisingly low, given their stated willingness to travel. Only where choice is actively supported in the context of long waiting times is take up higher. The objectives, implementation and impact of policies about choice have varied across western Europe. Culture and embedded norms may be significant in determining the extent to which patients exercise choice. PMID:16824264

  20. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  1. Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: a pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing number of genetic tests available, decisions have to be made on how to allocate limited health-care resources to them. Different criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting. However, their relative importance is unclear. Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and best-worst scaling experiments (BWSs) are methods used to identify and weight various criteria that influence orders of priority. This study tests whether these preference eliciting techniques can be used for prioritising genetic tests and compares the empirical findings resulting from these two approaches. Pilot DCE and BWS questionnaires were developed for the same criteria: prevalence, severity, clinical utility, alternatives to genetic testing available, infrastructure for testing and care established, and urgency of care. Interview-style experiments were carried out among different genetics professionals (mainly clinical geneticists, researchers and biologists). A total of 31 respondents completed the DCE and 26 completed the BWS experiment. Weights for the levels of the six attributes were estimated by conditional logit models. Although the results derived from the DCE and BWS experiments differed in detail, we found similar valuation patterns in the DCE and BWS experiments. The respondents attached greatest value to tests with high clinical utility (defined by the availability of treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity) and to testing for highly prevalent conditions. The findings from this study exemplify how decision makers can use quantitative preference eliciting methods to measure aggregated preferences in order to prioritise alternative clinical interventions. Further research is necessary to confirm the survey results. PMID:23486538

  2. Choice of experimental venue matters in ecotoxicology studies: Comparison of a laboratory-based and an outdoor mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Imrei, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5 mg a.e./L glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated

  3. The Dependent Poisson Race Model and Modeling Dependence in Conjoint Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Shiling; MacEachern, Steven N.; Otter, Thomas; Dean, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    Conjoint choice experiments are used widely in marketing to study consumer preferences amongst alternative products. We develop a class of choice models, belonging to the class of Poisson race models, that describe a "random utility" which lends itself to a process-based description of choice. The models incorporate a dependence structure which…

  4. Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences in health care.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Whenever processes are reconfigured or new products are designed the needs and preferences of patients and consumers have to be considered. Although at times neglected, this becomes more and more relevant in health care settings: Which modes of health care delivery will be accepted? What are the patients' priorities and what is the willingness to pay? To which degree are patients mobile and for which kind of services are they willing to travel? Preferences, however, are difficult to measure, as they are latent constructs. This becomes even more difficult, when no past choices can be analyzed either as the service or the product is yet to be developed or as in the past there has not been free choice for patients. In such cases, preferences cannot be surveyed directly. Asking individuals openly for their attitudes towards certain services and products, the results are likely biased as individuals are not confronted with budget constraints and trade-offs. For this reason, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are frequently used to elicit patient preferences. This approach confronts patients with hypothetical scenarios of which only one can be chosen. Over the past few years, this tool to reveal patients' preferences for health care has become very popular in health economics. This contribution aims at introducing the principles of DCEs, highlighting the underlying theory and giving practical guidance for conducting a discrete choice experiment in health economics. Thereby we focus on three major fields of patient demand: designing health insurance, assessing patient utility of new pharmaceuticals and analyzing provider choice. By having a closer look at selected international studies, we discuss the application of this technique for the analysis of the supply and the demand of health care as well as the implications for assessing patient mobility across different health care systems. PMID:24864381

  5. How Important Is Study Mode in Student University Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagel, Pauline; Shaw, Robin N.

    2010-01-01

    Conjoint analysis was used to model the importance of study mode in students' choice of university. Study mode was proposed as a key choice attribute as universities have diversified their means of delivering education and increased the use of online delivery. Results are reported for two conjoint experiments. The first investigated how…

  6. The Australian Middle Class and Education: A Small-Scale Study of the School Choice Experience as Framed by "My School" within Inner City Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Emma E.; Windle, Joel

    2012-01-01

    With the launch of the "My School" website in 2010, Australia became a relative latecomer to the publication of national school performance comparisons. This paper primarily seeks to explore the school choice experience as framed by "My School" website, for participating middle-class families. We will draw on Bourdieusian theory of cultural…

  7. Deconstructing the Student Experience on an Educational Studies Degree, with Reference to Student Choice, Access and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela Joy

    2011-01-01

    Educational studies as a discipline is now a feature in many British universities, but little research has been undertaken to explore what kinds of student choose the subject, how easily they access it or how they fare as undergraduate students. This article attempts to address this paucity of research by drawing on a selection of findings from a…

  8. Delayed-Choice Experiments and the Metaphysics of Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egg, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Delayed-choice experiments in quantum mechanics are often taken to undermine a realistic interpretation of the quantum state. More specifically, Healey has recently argued that the phenomenon of delayed-choice entanglement swapping is incompatible with the view that entanglement is a physical relation between quantum systems. This paper argues against these claims. It first reviews two paradigmatic delayed-choice experiments and analyzes their metaphysical implications. It then applies the results of this analysis to the case of entanglement swapping, showing that such experiments pose no threat to realism about entanglement.

  9. Effects of Experience on Preference between Forced and Free Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Preference between forced choice and free choice in concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement was investigated in pigeons after exposure to particular combinations of terminal links. In Experiment 1, in which terminal links always ended with reinforcers, one of three pairs of terminal links was arranged as preexposure: (a) both terminal links…

  10. Medicare's drug discount card program: beneficiaries' experience with choice.

    PubMed

    Hassol, Andrea; Wrobel, Marian V; Doksum, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Medicare beneficiaries' experience with the choice among Medicare drug discount cards and is based primarily on surveys and focus groups with beneficiaries as well as interviews with other stakeholders. Although competition and choice have the potential to reduce cost and enhance quality in the Medicare Program, our findings highlight some of the challenges involved in making choice work in practice. Despite the unique and temporary nature of the drug discount card program, these findings have considerable relevance to the Part D drug benefit and to other Medicare initiatives that rely on choice. PMID:17722747

  11. Creativity as a Matter of Choice: Prior Experience and Task Instruction as Boundary Conditions for the Positive Effect of Choice on Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Roy Yong-Joo; Iyengar, Sheena S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of prior experience, task instruction, and choice on creative performance. Although extant research suggests that giving people choice in how they approach a task could enhance creative performance, we propose that this view needs to be circumscribed. Specifically, we argue that when choice is administered…

  12. Entanglement-enabled delayed-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Florian; Coudreau, Thomas; Milman, Pérola; Ostrowsky, Daniel B; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    Wave-particle complementarity is one of the most intriguing features of quantum physics. To emphasize this measurement apparatus-dependent nature, experiments have been performed in which the output beam splitter of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is inserted or removed after a photon has already entered the device. A recent extension suggested using a quantum beam splitter at the interferometer's output; we achieve this using pairs of polarization-entangled photons. One photon is tested in the interferometer and is detected, whereas the other allows us to determine whether wave, particle, or intermediate behaviors have been observed. Furthermore, this experiment allows us to continuously morph the tested photon's behavior from wavelike to particle-like, which illustrates the inadequacy of a naive wave or particle description of light. PMID:23118184

  13. Entanglement-Enabled Delayed-Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Florian; Coudreau, Thomas; Milman, Pérola; Ostrowsky, Daniel B.; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    Wave-particle complementarity is one of the most intriguing features of quantum physics. To emphasize this measurement apparatus-dependent nature, experiments have been performed in which the output beam splitter of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is inserted or removed after a photon has already entered the device. A recent extension suggested using a quantum beam splitter at the interferometer’s output; we achieve this using pairs of polarization-entangled photons. One photon is tested in the interferometer and is detected, whereas the other allows us to determine whether wave, particle, or intermediate behaviors have been observed. Furthermore, this experiment allows us to continuously morph the tested photon’s behavior from wavelike to particle-like, which illustrates the inadequacy of a naive wave or particle description of light.

  14. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-11-22

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205

  15. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205

  16. [Woman's experience with the choice of the Billings Ovulation Method].

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, Adriana Cristina; Pereira, Daliane da Silva Alves; Jardim, Danúbia Mariane Barbosa; Caillaux, Michelle; Sales, Vinícius Bernardo Lemos

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study with a qualitative approach, carried out between February and November 2010 with 10 women, mean age of 34 years old, users of this Billings Ovulation Method (MOB) for over than two years, with the objective of understand the experience of women by choosing the MOB. Data was obtained from interviews, and analyzed through content analysis technique. The categories of analysis showed that the reasons for the choices of the MOB were: religion; natural method, and benefits of self-knowledge. It was concluded that women show confidence in carrying out the method, that it brings benefits for users and that there is a need for professional guidance for its correct practice. PMID:24008700

  17. Delayed-choice gedanken experiments and their realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-song; Kofler, Johannes; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The wave-particle duality dates back to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect through quanta of light and de Broglie's hypothesis of matter waves. Quantum mechanics uses an abstract description for the behavior of physical systems such as photons, electrons, or atoms. Whether quantum predictions for single systems in an interferometric experiment allow an intuitive understanding in terms of the particle or wave picture depends on the specific configuration which is being used. In principle, this leaves open the possibility that quantum systems always behave either definitely as a particle or definitely as a wave in every experimental run by a priori adapting to the specific experimental situation. This is precisely what is tried to be excluded by delayed-choice experiments, in which the observer chooses to reveal the particle or wave character of a quantum system—or even a continuous transformation between the two—at a late stage of the experiment. The history of delayed-choice gedanken experiments, which can be traced back to the early days of quantum mechanics, is reviewed. Their experimental realizations, in particular, Wheeler's delayed choice in interferometric setups as well as delayed-choice quantum erasure and entanglement swapping are discussed. The latter is particularly interesting, because it elevates the wave-particle duality of a single quantum system to an entanglement-separability duality of multiple systems.

  18. Effectiveness and acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing uptake of vaccinations in preschool children: systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; Bateman, Belinda; Becker, Frauke; Cresswell, Tricia; Flynn, Darren; McNaughton, Rebekah; Oluboyede, Yemi; Robalino, Shannon; Ternent, Laura; Sood, Benjamin Gardner; Michie, Susan; Shucksmith, Janet; Sniehotta, Falko F; Wigham, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uptake of preschool vaccinations is less than optimal. Financial incentives and quasi-mandatory policies (restricting access to child care or educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been used to increase uptake internationally, but not in the UK. OBJECTIVE To provide evidence on the effectiveness, acceptability and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations. DESIGN Systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment (DCE) with questionnaire. SETTING Community, health and education settings in England. PARTICIPANTS Qualitative study - parents and carers of preschool children, health and educational professionals. DCE - parents and carers of preschool children identified as 'at high risk' and 'not at high risk' of incompletely vaccinating their children. DATA SOURCES Qualitative study - focus groups and individual interviews. DCE - online questionnaire. REVIEW METHODS The review included studies exploring the effectiveness, acceptability or economic costs and consequences of interventions that offered contingent rewards or penalties with real material value for preschool vaccinations, or quasi-mandatory schemes that restricted access to 'universal' services, compared with usual care or no intervention. Electronic database, reference and citation searches were conducted. RESULTS Systematic review - there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions considered are effective. There was some evidence that the quasi-mandatory interventions were acceptable. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Qualitative study - there was little appetite for parental financial incentives. Quasi-mandatory schemes were more acceptable. Optimising current services was consistently preferred to the interventions proposed. DCE and questionnaire - universal parental financial incentives

  19. Novel application of a discrete choice experiment to identify preferences for a national healthcare-associated infection surveillance programme: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Ratcliffe, Julie; Hall, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify key stakeholder preferences and priorities when considering a national healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance programme through the use of a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Setting Australia does not have a national HAI surveillance programme. An online web-based DCE was developed and made available to participants in Australia. Participants A sample of 184 purposively selected healthcare workers based on their senior leadership role in infection prevention in Australia. Primary and secondary outcomes A DCE requiring respondents to select 1 HAI surveillance programme over another based on 5 different characteristics (or attributes) in repeated hypothetical scenarios. Data were analysed using a mixed logit model to evaluate preferences and identify the relative importance of each attribute. Results A total of 122 participants completed the survey (response rate 66%) over a 5-week period. Excluding 22 who mismatched a duplicate choice scenario, analysis was conducted on 100 responses. The key findings included: 72% of stakeholders exhibited a preference for a surveillance programme with continuous mandatory core components (mean coefficient 0.640 (p<0.01)), 65% for a standard surveillance protocol where patient-level data are collected on infected and non-infected patients (mean coefficient 0.641 (p<0.01)), and 92% for hospital-level data that are publicly reported on a website and not associated with financial penalties (mean coefficient 1.663 (p<0.01)). Conclusions The use of the DCE has provided a unique insight to key stakeholder priorities when considering a national HAI surveillance programme. The application of a DCE offers a meaningful method to explore and quantify preferences in this setting. PMID:27147392

  20. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  1. Proposal for a quantum delayed-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Terno, Daniel R

    2011-12-01

    Gedanken experiments help to reconcile our classical intuition with quantum mechanics and nowadays are routinely performed in the laboratory. An important open question is the quantum behavior of the controlling devices in such experiments. We propose a framework to analyze quantum-controlled experiments and illustrate it by discussing a quantum version of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment. Using a quantum control has several consequences. First, it enables us to measure complementary phenomena with a single experimental setup, pointing to a redefinition of complementarity principle. Second, it allows us to prove there are no consistent hidden-variable theories having "particle" and "wave" as realistic properties. Finally, it shows that a photon can have a morphing behavior between particle and wave. The framework can be extended to other experiments (e.g., Bell inequality). PMID:22182073

  2. Optimal Decision Stimuli for Risky Choice Experiments: An Adaptive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R.; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than others, so the choice of stimuli is critical. This paper provides the theoretical background and a methodological framework for adaptive selection of optimal stimuli for discriminating among models of risky choice. The approach, called Adaptive Design Optimization (ADO), adapts the stimulus in each experimental trial based on the results of the preceding trials. We demonstrate the validity of the approach with simulation studies aiming to discriminate Expected Utility, Weighted Expected Utility, Original Prospect Theory, and Cumulative Prospect Theory models. PMID:24532856

  3. Optimal Decision Stimuli for Risky Choice Experiments: An Adaptive Approach.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I; Pitt, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than others, so the choice of stimuli is critical. This paper provides the theoretical background and a methodological framework for adaptive selection of optimal stimuli for discriminating among models of risky choice. The approach, called Adaptive Design Optimization (ADO), adapts the stimulus in each experimental trial based on the results of the preceding trials. We demonstrate the validity of the approach with simulation studies aiming to discriminate Expected Utility, Weighted Expected Utility, Original Prospect Theory, and Cumulative Prospect Theory models. PMID:24532856

  4. Preferences for physician services in Ukraine: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Danyliv, Andriy; Pavlova, Milena; Gryga, Irena; Groot, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on preferences of Ukrainian consumers for healthcare improvements can help to design reforms that correspond to societal priorities. This study aims to elicit and to place monetary values on public preferences for out-patient physician services in Ukraine. The method of discrete choice experiment is used on a sample of 303 respondents, representative of the adult Ukrainian population. The random effect logit model with interactions provides the best fit for the data and is used to calculate the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for quality and access improvements. At a sample level, there is no clear preference to pay formally rather than informally or vice versa. We also do not find that visiting a general practitioner is preferred over direct access to a medical specialist. However, there are differences between population groups. Quality-related attributes of physician services appear important to respondents, especially the attitude of medical staff. Thus, interpersonal aspects of out-patient care should be given priority in decisions about investments in quality improvements. Other aspects, that is social quality and access, are important as well but their improvement brings fewer social gains. Measures should be taken to eradicate the informal payment channels and to strengthen the gate-keeping role of primary care. PMID:24399636

  5. Protocol for a qualitative study on promoting dietary change and positive food choices for poor people with low income who experience cardiovascular disease in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Barolia, Rubina Iqbal; Clark, Alexander M; Higginbottom, Gina M A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a misconception that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the burden of wealthy nations, but, in fact, it is the leading cause of death and disability-adjusted life worldwide. Healthy diets are an essential factor in the prevention of CVD. However, promoting healthy diet is challenging, particularly for people with low-socioeconomic status (SES), because poverty is linked with many risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy eating and obesity. Multiple factors, cultural values and beliefs interact and make healthy eating very challenging. The effects of these factors in the context of low-SES populations with CVD are largely unknown. To address this gap, this study will examine the factors that affect decisions about consuming healthy diet in Pakistanis with low SES who suffer from CVD. Methods and analysis A qualitative method of interpretive description will be used. 25 participants will be selected from two cardiac rehabilitation (CR) centres in Karachi, Pakistan. Face-to-face interviews using a critical realist framework will be used to understand individual and contextual factors in the food choices of people with low SES and CVD. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software will be used to identify themes and patterns in the interview data. Ethics and discussion Ethical approvals were received from the Ethics Review board of University of Alberta, Canada and Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. The findings will generate new knowledge about which and how factors influence the food choices of Pakistanis with CVD and low SES to provide an insight into the development of an operational framework for designing interventions for prevention of CVD. For knowledge-translation purposes, we will publish the findings in highly accessed, peer-reviewed scientific and health policy journals at the national and international level. This research protocol received IRDC (International Development Research Centre) doctoral award from International Development

  6. The Experience of Choice in Physical Activity Contexts for Adults with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphy, Lorraine Y.; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study described the experiences of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments. The experiences of 3 female and 2 males with mobility impairments between 18 and 23 years of age were described using the interpretive phenomenological methods of individual interviews, written stories, and field notes.…

  7. The impact of gender and working experience on intertemporal choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Zhuang, Xintian

    2014-09-01

    Intertemporal choice has been drawing attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. In this paper, we experimentally estimate the parameters and AICc (Akaike Information Criterion with small sample correction) of intertemporal choice models (exponential, simple hyperbolic, quasi hyperbolic, and q-exponential) for senior undergraduate students and MBA students, respectively. Our results show that (1) regardless of gender or working experience, q-exponential discount model always generates minimum AICc value, and it is thus the optimal discount model; (2) gender affects the degree of inconsistency and fitness of the discount model. Comparing to female participants, male participants have a higher degree of inconsistency while their discount pattern is better explained by q-exponential discount model; (3) working experience has an interaction effect with gender. For male participants, working experience is inversely related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model. On the contrary, for female participants, working experience is positively related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model.

  8. Preferences for colorectal cancer screening strategies: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hol, L; de Bekker-Grob, E W; van Dam, L; Donkers, B; Kuipers, E J; Habbema, J D F; Steyerberg, E W; van Leerdam, M E; Essink-Bot, M L

    2010-01-01

    Background: Guidelines underline the role of individual preferences in the selection of a screening test, as insufficient evidence is available to recommend one screening test over another. We conducted a study to determine the preferences of individuals and to predict uptake for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using various screening tests. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire was distributed among naive subjects, yet to be screened, and previously screened subjects, aged 50–75 years. Subjects were asked to choose between scenarios on the basis of faecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), total colonoscopy (TC) with various test-specific screening intervals and mortality reductions, and no screening (opt-out). Results: In total, 489 out of 1498 (33%) screening-naïve subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±7 years) and 545 out of 769 (71%) previously screened subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±6 years) returned the questionnaire. The type of screening test, screening interval, and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality influenced subjects' preferences (all P<0.05). Screening-naive and previously screened subjects equally preferred 5-yearly FS and 10-yearly TC (P=0.24; P=0.11), but favoured both strategies to annual FOBT screening (all P-values <0.001) if, based on the literature, realistic risk reduction of CRC-related mortality was applied. Screening-naive and previously screened subjects were willing to undergo a 10-yearly TC instead of a 5-yearly FS to obtain an additional risk reduction of CRC-related mortality of 45% (P<0.001). Conclusion: These data provide insight into the extent by which interval and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality affect preferences for CRC screening tests. Assuming realistic test characteristics, subjects in the target population preferred endoscopic screening over FOBT screening, partly, due to the more favourable risk reduction of CRC-related mortality by endoscopy

  9. Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment with a single atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, A. G.; Khakimov, R. I.; Dall, R. G.; Truscott, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    The wave-particle dual nature of light and matter and the fact that the choice of measurement determines which one of these two seemingly incompatible behaviours we observe are examples of the counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. They are illustrated by Wheeler’s famous `delayed-choice’ experiment, recently demonstrated in a single-photon experiment. Here, we use a single ultracold metastable helium atom in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to create an atomic analogue of Wheeler’s original proposal. Our experiment confirms Bohr’s view that it does not make sense to ascribe the wave or particle behaviour to a massive particle before the measurement takes place. This result is encouraging for current work towards entanglement and Bell’s theorem tests in macroscopic systems of massive particles.

  10. Delayed choice experiments, the arrow of time, and quantum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, L. S.

    2011-11-29

    By a radical modification of statistical mechanics the measurement process of quantum mechanics can be described in terms of pure, unitary time evolution, with no wave function collapse or many-world ideas. The key notion is 'special states', rare microscopic states of a complex system. Recovering the standard probabilities requires of this theory the appearance of Cauchy-distributed noise in some measurement processes. This article treats experimental situations where such noise might be detected and correlated with the need or absence of need for special states. Included in this possibility are 'delayed choice' experiments, in which the correlation contravenes conventional ideas on causality. Background material on all topics is provided.

  11. Managing coastal area resources by stated choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2010-02-01

    In many coastal regions, oil spills can be considered as one of the most important and certainly the most noticeable forms of marine pollution. Efficient contingency management responding to oil spills on waters, which aims at minimizing pollution effects on coastal resources, turns out to be critically important. Such a decision making highly depends on the importance attributed to different coastal economic and ecological resources. Economic uses can, in principal, be addressed by standard measures such as value added. However, there is a missing of market in the real world for natural goods. Coastal resources such as waters and beach cannot be directly measured in money terms, which increases the risk of being neglected in a decision making process. This paper evaluates these natural goods of coastal environment in a hypothetical market by employing stated choice experiments. Oil spill management practice in German North Sea is used as an example. Results from a pilot survey show that during a combat process, beach and eider ducks are of key concerns for households. An environmental friendly combat option has to be a minor cost for households. Moreover, households with less children, higher monthly income and a membership of environmental organization are more likely to state that they are willing to pay for combat option to prevent coastal resources from an oil pollution. Despite that choice experiments require knowledge of designing questionnaire and statistical skills to deal with discrete choices and conducting a survey is time consumed, the results have important implications for oil spill contingency management. Overall, such a stated preference method can offer useful information for decision makers to consider coastal resources into a decision making process and can further contribute to finding a cost-effective oil preventive measure, also has a wide application potential in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).

  12. School Choice Signals: Research Review and Survey Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II

    2014-01-01

    For the past several decades, a perennial topic on surveys about education has been school choice. Interest in public opinion about choice is more than just "nice to know." The results are often used to support or oppose choice in general or specific choice initiatives under consideration or adopted by state legislatures and even school…

  13. Food transfers in capuchin monkeys: an experiment on partner choice.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Gloria; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-10-23

    Although most primates live in groups, experiments on reciprocity usually test individuals in dyads. This could hide the processes emerging in richer social settings, reducing the ecological validity of the results. We run an experiment on reciprocal food transfers testing capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in triads, so that subjects could choose to allow access to their food to either of their two partners. We tested the hypothesis that partner choice was related to a comparison of long-term social bonds with the two partners, more than to a comparison of recent food transfer events from the two partners. The results confirmed this hypothesis, thus supporting the notion that reciprocal partner preferences are based on long-term accounts of benefits that have been exchanged. PMID:22832127

  14. Food transfers in capuchin monkeys: an experiment on partner choice

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Gloria; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Although most primates live in groups, experiments on reciprocity usually test individuals in dyads. This could hide the processes emerging in richer social settings, reducing the ecological validity of the results. We run an experiment on reciprocal food transfers testing capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in triads, so that subjects could choose to allow access to their food to either of their two partners. We tested the hypothesis that partner choice was related to a comparison of long-term social bonds with the two partners, more than to a comparison of recent food transfer events from the two partners. The results confirmed this hypothesis, thus supporting the notion that reciprocal partner preferences are based on long-term accounts of benefits that have been exchanged. PMID:22832127

  15. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. PMID:27427284

  16. Determinants of College Major Choice: Identification Using an Information Experiment. Working Paper #02-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiswall, Matthew; Zafar, Basit

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of college major choice using a unique "information" experiment embedded in a survey. We first ask respondents their "self" beliefs--beliefs about their own expected earnings and other major-specific outcomes conditional on various majors, their "population" beliefs--beliefs about…

  17. The Role of Discriminatory Experiences on Hispanic Students' College Choice Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Amanda; Crisp, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of discriminatory experiences on Hispanic students' decisions concerning postsecondary enrollment. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with Hispanic students' decisions to attend either a 2- or a 4-year institution within the context of theory concerning college choice/success. Data were…

  18. The Relationship between Choice of Major and Career, Experience of University and Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcoxson, Lesley; Wynder, Monte

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on earlier findings that clear choice of major and clarity of career direction is associated with university student retention. Data on business students' experience of university were correlated with data on intention to leave for two distinct major or career groupings--students who had committed themselves to a career-related…

  19. Segmenting patients and physicians using preferences from discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Deal, Ken

    2014-01-01

    People often form groups or segments that have similar interests and needs and seek similar benefits from health providers. Health organizations need to understand whether the same health treatments, prevention programs, services, and products should be applied to everyone in the relevant population or whether different treatments need to be provided to each of several segments that are relatively homogeneous internally but heterogeneous among segments. Our objective was to explain the purposes, benefits, and methods of segmentation for health organizations, and to illustrate the process of segmenting health populations based on preference coefficients from a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE) using an example study of prevention of cyberbullying among university students. We followed a two-level procedure for investigating segmentation incorporating several methods for forming segments in Level 1 using DCE preference coefficients and testing their quality, reproducibility, and usability by health decision makers. Covariates (demographic, behavioral, lifestyle, and health state variables) were included in Level 2 to further evaluate quality and to support the scoring of large databases and developing typing tools for assigning those in the relevant population, but not in the sample, to the segments. Several segmentation solution candidates were found during the Level 1 analysis, and the relationship of the preference coefficients to the segments was investigated using predictive methods. Those segmentations were tested for their quality and reproducibility and three were found to be very close in quality. While one seemed better than others in the Level 1 analysis, another was very similar in quality and proved ultimately better in predicting segment membership using covariates in Level 2. The two segments in the final solution were profiled for attributes that would support the development and acceptance of cyberbullying prevention programs among university

  20. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  1. Personal Traits Underlying Environmental Preferences: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  2. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment and Wave-Particle Superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-08-01

    We propose a simple implementation scheme of quantum delayed-choice experiment in linear optical system without initial entanglement resource. By choosing different detecting devices, one can selectively observe the photon's different behaviors after the photon has been passed the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The scheme shows that the photon's wave behavior and particle behavior can be observed with a single experimental setup by postselection, that is, the photon can show the superposition behavior of wave and particle. Especially, we compare the wave-particle superposition behavior and the wave-particle mixture behavior in detail, and find the quantum interference effect between wave and particle behavior, which may be helpful to reveal the nature of photonessentially.

  3. User Choice: The Experience since 1998. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chris Selby; Ferrier, Fran

    Australia introduced User Choice nationally in January 1998 to develop a national training system that is more responsive to clients' needs. User Choice is based on nine principles, including the following: (1) clients can negotiate their publicly funded training needs; (2) User Choice operates in a national training market not limited by state or…

  4. Inclusion and Healthcare Choices: The Experiences of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Morag; Jarrett, Dominic; Terras, Melody

    2011-01-01

    People with learning disabilities have fewer choice opportunities than the general population. Existing research provides some insight, but the choice-making experiences of those who do not always utilise available healthcare remains under-explored. This research explored the choice-making experiences of two groups of individuals with a learning…

  5. Accounting for substitution and spatial heterogeneity in a labelled choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lizin, S; Brouwer, R; Liekens, I; Broeckx, S

    2016-10-01

    Many environmental valuation studies using stated preferences techniques are single-site studies that ignore essential spatial aspects, including possible substitution effects. In this paper substitution effects are captured explicitly in the design of a labelled choice experiment and the inclusion of different distance variables in the choice model specification. We test the effect of spatial heterogeneity on welfare estimates and transfer errors for minor and major river restoration works, and the transferability of river specific utility functions, accounting for key variables such as site visitation, spatial clustering and income. River specific utility functions appear to be transferable, resulting in low transfer errors. However, ignoring spatial heterogeneity increases transfer errors. PMID:27372251

  6. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment…

  7. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  8. Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard…

  9. Choice Experiments to Quantify Preferences for Health and Healthcare: State of the Practice.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel; Johnson, F Reed

    2016-06-01

    Stated-preference methods increasingly are used to quantify preferences in health economics, health technology assessment, benefit-risk analysis and health services research. The objective of stated-preference studies is to acquire information about trade-off preferences among treatment outcomes, prioritization of clinical decision criteria, likely uptake or adherence to healthcare products and acceptability of healthcare services or policies. A widely accepted approach to eliciting preferences is discrete-choice experiments. Patient, physician, insurant or general-public respondents choose among constructed, experimentally controlled alternatives described by decision-relevant features or attributes. Attributes can represent complete health states, sets of treatment outcomes or characteristics of a healthcare system. The observed pattern of choice reveals how different respondents or groups of respondents implicitly weigh, value and assess different characteristics of treatments, products or services. An important advantage of choice experiments is their foundation in microeconomic utility theory. This conceptual framework provides tests of internal validity, guidance for statistical analysis of latent preference structures, and testable behavioural hypotheses. Choice experiments require expertise in survey-research methods, random-utility theory, experimental design and advanced statistical analysis. This paper should be understood as an introduction to setting up a basic experiment rather than an exhaustive critique of the latest findings and procedures. Where appropriate, we have identified topics of active research where a broad consensus has not yet been established. PMID:26992386

  10. A review of the application and contribution of discrete choice experiments to inform human resources policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2009-01-01

    Although the factors influencing the shortage and maldistribution of health workers have been well-documented by cross-sectional surveys, there is less evidence on the relative determinants of health workers' job choices, or on the effects of policies designed to address these human resources problems. Recently, a few studies have adopted an innovative approach to studying the determinants of health workers' job preferences. In the absence of longitudinal datasets to analyse the decisions that health workers have actually made, authors have drawn on methods from marketing research and transport economics and used Discrete Choice Experiments to analyse stated preferences of health care providers for different job characteristics. We carried out a literature review of studies using discrete choice experiments to investigate human resources issues related to health workers, both in developed and developing countries. Several economic and health systems bibliographic databases were used, and contacts were made with practitioners in the field to identify published and grey literature. Ten studies were found that used discrete choice experiments to investigate the job preferences of health care providers. The use of discrete choice experiments techniques enabled researchers to determine the relative importance of different factors influencing health workers' choices. The studies showed that non-pecuniary incentives are significant determinants, sometimes more powerful than financial ones. The identified studies also emphasized the importance of investigating the preferences of different subgroups of health workers. Discrete choice experiments are a valuable tool for informing decision-makers on how to design strategies to address human resources problems. As they are relatively quick and cheap survey instruments, discrete choice experiments present various advantages for informing policies in developing countries, where longitudinal labour market data are seldom

  11. Free-Choice Family Learning Experiences at Telescope Observing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, M. C.; Carter, K.; Harris, C. J.

    2011-09-01

    This study examines family experiences at nighttime telescope observing events. The goal was to observe family visitors and understand how they negotiate meaning and incorporate these experiences into their family culture. In this case study of one family's telescope observing experience, the participants' motivations and agenda are described as well as ways in which they negotiated identity and family-community membership at the same time as they were involved in the construction of meaning. The analysis revealed evidence of both meaning making and identity negotiation during, and related to, the educational leisure activity of attending a nighttime telescope observing event.

  12. Reconceptualising the external validity of discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Lancsar, Emily; Swait, Joffre

    2014-10-01

    External validity is a crucial but under-researched topic when considering using discrete choice experiment (DCE) results to inform decision making in clinical, commercial or policy contexts. We present the theory and tests traditionally used to explore external validity that focus on a comparison of final outcomes and review how this traditional definition has been empirically tested in health economics and other sectors (such as transport, environment and marketing) in which DCE methods are applied. While an important component, we argue that the investigation of external validity should be much broader than a comparison of final outcomes. In doing so, we introduce a new and more comprehensive conceptualisation of external validity, closely linked to process validity, that moves us from the simple characterisation of a model as being or not being externally valid on the basis of predictive performance, to the concept that external validity should be an objective pursued from the initial conceptualisation and design of any DCE. We discuss how such a broader definition of external validity can be fruitfully used and suggest innovative ways in which it can be explored in practice. PMID:24920196

  13. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:26719101

  14. Privatizing Education and Educational Choice: Concepts, Plans, and Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Simon, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains articles by educational researchers who examine the issues surrounding educational choice in public school systems and the voucher system for private schools. They discuss when choice should be considered, methods of implementation, and the extent to which government should be involved. Descriptions and evaluations of choice…

  15. Using choice experiments to understand household tradeoffs regarding pineapple production and environmental management in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robert B; Kellon, Delanie; Leon, Ramon G; Arvai, Joseph

    2013-09-30

    Choices among environmental management alternatives involve tradeoffs where, for example, the benefits of environmental protection may be offset by economic costs or welfare losses to individual agents. Understanding individual or household-level preferences regarding these tradeoffs is not always straightforward, and it often requires an analysis of choices under alternative scenarios. A household survey was used to gather data for a choice experiment, where respondents were asked to choose among pairs of alternative management scenarios about pineapple production in Costa Rica. The experimental design consisted of six attributes that varied on between two and five attribute levels, and the experiment and accompanying survey were administered orally in Spanish. The results show that respondents are willing to make tradeoffs with respect to the management attributes in order to see an overall improvement in environmental quality. Respondents were willing to accept a moderate level of pesticide application, presumably in exchange for paying a lower cost or seeing a gain in another area, such as monitoring or soil conservation. Buffer zones were significant only in the case of large farms. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to reflect public attitudes, particularly the aspects of pineapple production that matter most to people living near pineapple plantations. The study also highlights the effectiveness of the choice experiment approach in examining household preferences about environmental management in a rural development context. PMID:23807434

  16. Recent Experience with Urban School Choice Plans. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 127.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.; Shroff, Sonali M.

    School choice plans have been widely adopted, and most urban areas have a limited choice plan of some sort. This digest presents an overview of different choice strategies by reviewing the experiences of several urban areas. Minnesota has statewide open enrollment for all students, making all public schools throughout the state open to all…

  17. Does Choose & Book fail to deliver the expected choice to patients? A survey of patients' experience of outpatient appointment booking

    PubMed Central

    Green, Judith; McDowall, Zoe; Potts, Henry WW

    2008-01-01

    Background Choose and Book is a central part of the UK Government patient choice agenda that seeks to provide patients with a choice over the time, date and place of their first outpatient appointment. This is done through the use of a computerised booking system. After a 2004 pilot study, Choose and Book was formally launched in January 2006. This is the first study of patient experience of Choose and Book since then. Methods A questionnaire survey of reported experience of choice over the time, data and place of appointment, carried out in a National Health Service hospital in London. 104 patients at their first outpatient appointment completed the questionnaire, consisting of a consecutive series of patients referred through Choose and Book and a sample referred through the conventional booking system. Results Among the Choose and Book patients, 66% (31/47; 95% CI 52 to 78%) reported not being given a choice of appointment date, 66% (31/47; 95% CI 52 to 78%) reported not being given a choice of appointment time, 86% (37/43; 95% CI 74 to 94%) reported being given a choice of fewer than four hospitals in total and 32% (15/47; 95% CI 20 to 46%) reported not being given any choice of hospital. Conclusion In this study, patients did not experience the degree of choice that Choose and Book was designed to deliver. PMID:18673533

  18. 'Mom by choice, single by life's circumstance...' Findings from a large scale survey of the experiences of single mothers by choice.

    PubMed

    Jadva, V; Badger, S; Morrissette, M; Golombok, S

    2009-12-01

    There has been a rise in recent years in the number of women choosing to have a child without the involvement of a partner. These women, often referred to as 'single mothers by choice' or 'choice mothers' differ from single mothers who find themselves parenting alone following divorce or separation. The present study collected data on the motivations and experiences of 291 single mothers by choice using online questionnaires. The findings showed that women often sought advice from others and made practical changes before becoming choice mothers. The most common method used to have a child was sperm donation with most opting for an anonymous donor. The majority felt that it was important for their child to have a male role model, and most ensured that their child had a male figure in their lives. Many choice mothers expressed some concern about their child of growing up without a father, although this did not necessarily mean that they wished to form a relationship in the future. Single mothers by choice are a distinct group of single mothers and more detailed studies are required to focus on issues that are of most relevance to them. PMID:19895361

  19. Modeling improvements in booster seat use: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Bruce, Beth S; Snowdon, Anne W; Chen, Yvonne; Kolga, Carol; Piotrowski, Caroline; Warda, Lynne; Correale, Heather; Clark, Erica; Barwick, Melanie

    2011-11-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death in children aged 1-14 years. Many children, however, are not properly restrained in safety seats that reduce serious injury and death. This study used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to study factors influencing the decision to use booster seats. Parents of 1714 children aged 4-9 years from nine Canadian provinces completed choice tasks presenting experimentally varied combinations of 15 4-level booster seat promotion attributes. Latent class analysis yielded three segments of parents. The choices of the Benefit Sensitive segment (50%) were most sensitive to the injury prevention benefits of booster seats. The choices of parents in the Context Sensitive segment (33.5%) were more likely to be influenced by installation complexity, oppositional behavior, and the prospect that their child may be teased for riding in booster seats. Parents in the High Risk segment (16.5%) were younger, less educated, and less knowledgeable about vehicle safety legislation. They anticipated fewer benefits, expected more barriers and were less likely to use booster seats. Simulations suggest that consistent enforcement coupled with advertising focusing on injury prevention and the use of booster seats by other parents would increase adoption. PMID:21819828

  20. Can decision biases improve insurance outcomes? An experiment on status quo bias in health insurance choice.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  1. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  2. Benefit–risk assessment of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sornlertlumvanich, Korn; Ngorsuraches, Surachat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the benefit–risk assessment of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) using a discrete choice experiment, based on 3 major stakeholders’ perspectives including patients, experts and policymakers in Thailand. Design A discrete choice experiment questionnaire survey in three stakeholders’ perspectives. Setting Public hospitals in Thailand. Participants A total of 353 policymakers, experts and patients. Outcomes Stakeholders’ preferences for assessment criteria (stroke reduction, myocardial infarction reduction, myalgia and hepatotoxicity). Statins’ ranking and maximum acceptable risk in all perspectives were also calculated. Results For any perspective, the most and least important criteria were the risk of hepatotoxicity and the benefit of myocardial infarction reduction, respectively. Patients and experts agreed on the order of importance for myalgia and stroke reduction, but policymakers had different order of importance in these criteria. Overall, results showed that the highest and lowest chances of being chosen were atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, respectively. Only patients’ ranking order was different from others. Maximum acceptable risk of hepatotoxicity was lower than that of myalgia, reflecting the greater concern of all perspectives to statin consequence on liver. Conclusions The results of benefit–risk assessment from every perspective were somewhat consistent. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a discrete choice experiment in the benefit–risk assessment of drugs and encouraged the engagement of multiple stakeholders in the decision-making process. PMID:26916689

  3. Which incentive package will retain regionalized health personnel in Burkina Faso: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of motivation of health workers to practice in rural areas remains a crucial problem for decision-makers, as it deprives the majority of access to health care. To solve the problem, many countries have implemented health worker retention strategies. However, the development of such strategies requires an understanding of the preferences of health workers. The objective of the study was to identify a package for attracting and retaining health workers in underserved areas. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three health regions of Burkina Faso in 2012. A discrete choice experiment was used to investigate preferences for incentive packages among health workers recruited under the regionalized policy. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers currently working in the East and Sahel regions and policy makers, and a literature review on attraction and retention in low income countries, were performed to identify the attributes and levels. These attributes were: the regionalized recruitment policy, health insurance, work equipment, housing, and specific incentive compensation. The final design resulted in 16 choice sets. A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on choice of a given option. A probit logistic regression model was then used to analyze the effect of these difference variables on choice, to identify the incentive package best suited to health workers. In total, questionnaires were administered to 315 regional health workers. Results For all participants, choice of package was strongly influenced by length of commitment under the policy and provision of housing. Sex, number of years in profession, and location also influenced the choice of package. Women are twice more likely to choose a package with free housing and the cancellation of the policy. Conclusion It is important that governments consider health worker preferences in

  4. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

  5. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  6. Sample Size Requirements for Discrete-Choice Experiments in Healthcare: a Practical Guide.

    PubMed

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Donkers, Bas; Jonker, Marcel F; Stolk, Elly A

    2015-10-01

    Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) have become a commonly used instrument in health economics and patient-preference analysis, addressing a wide range of policy questions. An important question when setting up a DCE is the size of the sample needed to answer the research question of interest. Although theory exists as to the calculation of sample size requirements for stated choice data, it does not address the issue of minimum sample size requirements in terms of the statistical power of hypothesis tests on the estimated coefficients. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to provide insight into whether and how researchers have dealt with sample size calculations for healthcare-related DCE studies; (2) to introduce and explain the required sample size for parameter estimates in DCEs; and (3) to provide a step-by-step guide for the calculation of the minimum sample size requirements for DCEs in health care. PMID:25726010

  7. How Choice Changes the Education System: A Michigan Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, David; Sykes, Gary

    1999-11-01

    In countries around the world policy makers propose that parents should exercise more control over the choice of schools that their children attend. This paper considers the ways in which the introduction of new opportunities for school choice changes the education system. It argues that choice affects the education system as a whole by introducing new actors into the system, by changing the terms of relationships among existing actors, and by creating new pressures within the system that require new responses. The nature, magnitude, and consequences of these effects cannot be predicted in advance, as they depend on a number of factors including the social and economic context. The empirical basis for this paper derives from a case study of the implementation of choice policies in the state of Michigan in the US, but the conceptual issues raised have important implications for the study of school choice wherever such policies are adopted.

  8. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas. PMID:22857606

  9. Choices and Chances: A Study of Pupils' Choices and Future Career Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryrie, A. C.; And Others

    This book is the first result of a research project involving a study of the process by which young people move through secondary school into work or advanced education. The process of subject choice which takes place at the end of the second year of the Scottish secondary system and the students' intentions for the future, at this stage, are…

  10. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  11. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A Qualitative Study of the Patterns in Stem Students' Higher Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of…

  12. Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2011-01-01

    The variation in breeding-colony size seen in populations of most colonial birds may reflect heritable choices made by individuals who are phenotypically specialized for particular social environments. Although a few studies have reported evidence for genetically based choice of group sizes in birds, we know relatively little about the extent to which animals potentially rely on experience versus innate preferences in deciding with how many conspecifics to settle at different times of their lives. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in 1997–1998 on cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska, USA, in which some individuals were reared in colonies different in size from those in which they were born. Breeding-colony sizes chosen by this cohort of birds were monitored by mark-recapture throughout their lives. A multistate mark-recapture analysis revealed that birds in their first breeding year chose colony sizes similar to those of their birth, regardless of their rearing environment, confirming a previous analysis. Beyond the first breeding year, however, cliff swallows’ colony choice was less dependent on where they were born. Birds born in small colonies and reared in large colonies showed evidence of a delayed rearing effect, with these birds overwhelmingly choosing large colonies in later years. Heritabilities suggested strong genetic effects on first-year colony choice but not in later years. Cliff swallows’ genetically based colony-size preferences their first year could be a way to ensure matching of their phenotype to an appropriate social environment as yearlings. In later years, familiarity with particular colony sites and available information on site quality may override innate group-size preferences when birds choose colonies. PMID:22247565

  13. Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?

    PubMed

    Roche, Erin A; Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2011-12-01

    The variation in breeding-colony size seen in populations of most colonial birds may reflect heritable choices made by individuals who are phenotypically specialized for particular social environments. Although a few studies have reported evidence for genetically based choice of group sizes in birds, we know relatively little about the extent to which animals potentially rely on experience versus innate preferences in deciding with how many conspecifics to settle at different times of their lives. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in 1997-1998 on cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska, USA, in which some individuals were reared in colonies different in size from those in which they were born. Breeding-colony sizes chosen by this cohort of birds were monitored by mark-recapture throughout their lives. A multistate mark-recapture analysis revealed that birds in their first breeding year chose colony sizes similar to those of their birth, regardless of their rearing environment, confirming a previous analysis. Beyond the first breeding year, however, cliff swallows' colony choice was less dependent on where they were born. Birds born in small colonies and reared in large colonies showed evidence of a delayed rearing effect, with these birds overwhelmingly choosing large colonies in later years. Heritabilities suggested strong genetic effects on first-year colony choice but not in later years. Cliff swallows' genetically based colony-size preferences their first year could be a way to ensure matching of their phenotype to an appropriate social environment as yearlings. In later years, familiarity with particular colony sites and available information on site quality may override innate group-size preferences when birds choose colonies. PMID:22247565

  14. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  15. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment with a Beam Splitter in a Quantum Superposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shi-Biao; Zhong, You-Peng; Xu, Kai; Wang, Qi-Jue; Wang, H; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Chui-Ping; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N; Han, Si-Yuan

    2015-12-31

    A quantum system can behave as a wave or as a particle, depending on the experimental arrangement. When, for example, measuring a photon using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the photon acts as a wave if the second beam splitter is inserted, but as a particle if this beam splitter is omitted. The decision of whether or not to insert this beam splitter can be made after the photon has entered the interferometer, as in Wheeler's famous delayed-choice thought experiment. In recent quantum versions of this experiment, this decision is controlled by a quantum ancilla, while the beam splitter is itself still a classical object. Here, we propose and realize a variant of the quantum delayed-choice experiment. We configure a superconducting quantum circuit as a Ramsey interferometer, where the element that acts as the first beam splitter can be put in a quantum superposition of its active and inactive states, as verified by the negative values of its Wigner function. We show that this enables the wave and particle aspects of the system to be observed with a single setup, without involving an ancilla that is not itself a part of the interferometer. We also study the transition of this quantum beam splitter from a quantum to a classical object due to decoherence, as observed by monitoring the interferometer output. PMID:26764976

  16. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment with a Beam Splitter in a Quantum Superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shi-Biao; Zhong, You-Peng; Xu, Kai; Wang, Qi-Jue; Wang, H.; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Chui-Ping; Martinis, John M.; Cleland, A. N.; Han, Si-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum system can behave as a wave or as a particle, depending on the experimental arrangement. When, for example, measuring a photon using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the photon acts as a wave if the second beam splitter is inserted, but as a particle if this beam splitter is omitted. The decision of whether or not to insert this beam splitter can be made after the photon has entered the interferometer, as in Wheeler's famous delayed-choice thought experiment. In recent quantum versions of this experiment, this decision is controlled by a quantum ancilla, while the beam splitter is itself still a classical object. Here, we propose and realize a variant of the quantum delayed-choice experiment. We configure a superconducting quantum circuit as a Ramsey interferometer, where the element that acts as the first beam splitter can be put in a quantum superposition of its active and inactive states, as verified by the negative values of its Wigner function. We show that this enables the wave and particle aspects of the system to be observed with a single setup, without involving an ancilla that is not itself a part of the interferometer. We also study the transition of this quantum beam splitter from a quantum to a classical object due to decoherence, as observed by monitoring the interferometer output.

  17. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    Background In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. Objective To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. Methods We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Results Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women’s abilities to make trade-offs. Conclusion Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting. PMID:26508842

  18. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  19. BRAND PLACEMENT AND CONSUMER CHOICE: AN IN-STORE EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior. PMID:20190939

  20. How Choice Ecology Influences Search in Decisions from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejarraga, Tomas; Hertwig, Ralph; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2012-01-01

    Research into human decision-making has often sidestepped the question of search despite its importance across a wide range of domains such as search for food, mates, allies, visual targets or information. Recently, research on decisions from experience has made progress in finding out how individual characteristics shape search for information.…

  1. Brand Placement and Consumer Choice: An in-Store Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.…

  2. Practical choices for infobutton customization: experience from four sites.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Overby, Casey L; Devine, Emily B; Hulse, Nathan C; Jing, Xia; Maviglia, Saverio M; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware links between electronic health records (EHRs) and online knowledge resources, commonly called "infobuttons" are being used increasingly as part of EHR "meaningful use" requirements. While an HL7 standard exists for specifying how the links should be constructed, there is no guidance on what links to construct. Collectively, the authors manage four infobutton systems that serve 16 institutions. The purpose of this paper is to publish our experience with linking various resources and specifying particular criteria that can be used by infobutton managers to select resources that are most relevant for a given situation. This experience can be used directly by those wishing to customize their own EHRs, for example by using the OpenInfobutton infobutton manager and its configuration tool, the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment. PMID:24551334

  3. A Qualitative Investigation of the College Choice Experiences and Reentry Expectations of U.S. American Third Culture Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston-Gonzalez, Sara J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is on U.S. third culture kids (TCKs), youth who have grown up abroad because of their parent's work, and their college choice experiences and reentry expectations. Through a background questionnaire and personal interviews with eleven students transitioning from two international secondary schools in a…

  4. "Pente" or Slope? Using Student Voices to Explore Program Choice and Experiences in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culligan, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores students' decision-making about whether to remain in an optional French immersion (FI) mathematics course in Grade 11, as well as students' subsequent experiences in their mathematics course of choice. Interview data were collected from 10 students who remained in FI mathematics and from six students who did…

  5. Extending Science beyond the Classroom Door: Learning from Students' Experiences with the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallya, Aarti; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of seventh-grade students living in high poverty areas of New York City who participated in the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) science curriculum. Data were collected from eight case study students in the form of individual interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts. Analysis of these data…

  6. Choices Between... Community Study Unit, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    Because of its geographical location, topography, and climate, South Florida has unique water problems. When the rainfall situation is combined with changing land use patterns and increasing population growth rates, the result is often water shortages in some areas and floods in others. This study unit looks at some of the reasons for the present…

  7. The evolution of mate choice: a dialogue between theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Roff, Derek A

    2015-12-01

    Research on the evolution of mate choice has followed three avenues of investigation: (1) theoretical models of the evolution of preference and the preferred trait; (2) proposed models of mate choice; and (3) experiments and observations on mate choice, both in the laboratory and with free-ranging animals. However, there has been relatively little dialogue among these three areas. Most attempts to account for observations of mate choice using theoretical mate-choice models have focused only upon a subset of particular models and have generally failed to consider the difference between probabilistic and deterministic models. In this review, I outline the underlying reasoning of the commonly cited mate-choice models and review the conclusions of the empirical investigations. I present a brief outline of how one might go about testing these models. It remains uncertain if, in general, mate-choice models can be realistically analyzed. Although it is clear that females frequently discriminate among males, data also suggest that females may typically have a very limited number of males from which to choose. The extent to which female choice under natural conditions is relatively random because of limited opportunities remains an open question for the majority of species. PMID:25906973

  8. Turkish Students' Career Choices in Engineering: Experiences from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavas, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cavas, Pinar; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    The shortfall of young people, particularly women, in the field of Science, Mathematics and Engineering (SME) has been shown in many national studies. Schreiner and Sjoberg (2007) indicated that boys outnumber girls in physics and engineering studies, while the gender balance is shifted towards the girls in studies including medicine, veterinary…

  9. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  10. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F. P.; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. Methods: German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25–30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Results: Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Conclusions: Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of

  11. Cost effective assay choice for rare disease study designs.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Desmond D; Porsch, Robert M; Cherny, Stacey S; Capra, Valeria; Merello, Elisa; De Marco, Patrizia; Sham, Pak C; Garcia-Barceló, Maria-Mercè

    2015-01-01

    High throughput assays tend to be expensive per subject. Often studies are limited not so much by the number of subjects available as by assay costs, making assay choice a critical issue. We have developed a framework for assay choice that maximises the number of true disease causing mechanisms 'seen', given limited resources. Although straightforward, some of the ramifications of our methodology run counter to received wisdom on study design. We illustrate our methodology with examples, and have built a website allowing calculation of quantities of interest to those designing rare disease studies. PMID:25648394

  12. Predicting the Influence of Demographic Differences and Schooling Experience in Adolescence on Occupational Choice in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Edward C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict occupational choices based on demographic variables and high school curriculum tracks. Based on an analysis of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data set that examined high school graduates' occupational choices in 2006, findings indicated that CTE graduates were 2.7 times more likely to…

  13. Rural clinician scarcity and job preferences of doctors and nurses in India: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Ryan, Mandy; Shroff, Zubin; Vujicic, Marko; Ramani, Sudha; Berman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable

  14. Modeling the Mental Health Practice Change Preferences of Educators: A Discrete-Choice Conjoint Experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Barwick, Melanie; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather; Ratcliffe, Jenna; Mielko, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Schools are sometimes slow to adopt evidence-based strategies for improving the mental health outcomes of students. This study used a discrete-choice conjoint experiment to model factors influencing the decision of educators to adopt strategies for improving children's mental health outcomes. A sample of 1,010 educators made choices between hypothetical mental health practice change strategies composed by systematically varying the four levels of 16 practice change attributes. Latent class analysis yielded two segments with different practice change preferences. Both segments preferred small-group workshops, conducted by engaging experts, teaching skills applicable to all students. Participants expressed little interest in Internet options. The support of colleagues, administrators, and unions exerted a strong influence on the practice change choices of both segments. The Change Ready segment, 77.1 % of the sample, was more intent on adopting new strategies to improve the mental health of students. They preferred that schools, rather than the provincial ministry of education, make practice change decisions, coaching was provided to all participants, and participants received post-training follow-up sessions. The Demand Sensitive segment (22.9 %) was less intent on practice change. They preferred that individual teachers make practice change decisions, recommended discretionary coaching, and chose no post-training follow-up support. This study emphasizes the complex social, organizational, and policy context within which educators make practice change decisions. Efforts to disseminate strategies to improve the mental health outcomes of students need to be informed by the preferences of segments of educators who are sensitive to different dimensions of the practice change process. In the absence of a broad consensus of educators, administrators, and unions, potentially successful practice changes are unlikely to be adopted. PMID:24563679

  15. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  16. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an

  17. Understanding the impact of economic evidence on clinical decision making: a discrete choice experiment in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Torbica, Aleksandra; Fattore, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the impact of cost-effectiveness information on clinical decision making using discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire administered to Italian cardiologists in June 2007 (n = 129 respondents, 1143 observations). The questionnaire asked clinicians to make choices between paired scenarios, across which three key dimensions were identified and varied: (1) quality of clinical evidence, (2) size of health gain (reduction of relative and absolute risk), and (3) economic impact (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio). A random effects probit model was used to estimate clinicians' preferences for the different dimensions, while the heterogeneity of preferences was tested in a model with interaction terms. Dominance tests were used to assess the consistency of responses. The results indicate that Italian cardiologists regard economic impact (cost-effectiveness) as an important factor in their decision making. Economic evidence is valued more highly among clinicians with a higher self-assessed level of knowledge regarding economic evaluation techniques, as well as among younger professionals (age<45). While relevant study limitations should be acknowledged, our results suggest that DCEs can be used to elicit clinicians' decision-making criteria and to inform the allocation of resources for future research in a logical manner. Italian cardiologists appear to take cost-effectiveness information into account when deciding whether to use new treatments. PMID:20207466

  18. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. PMID:27395825

  19. Discrete Choice Experiment to Evaluate Factors That Influence Preferences for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Dean A.; Diorio, Caroline; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial and fungal infections in pediatric oncology patients cause morbidity and mortality. The clinical utility of antimicrobial prophylaxis in children is uncertain and the personal utility of these agents is disputed. Objectives were to use a discrete choice experiment to: (1) describe the importance of attributes to parents and healthcare providers when deciding between use and non-use of antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis; and (2) estimate willingness-to-pay for prophylactic strategies. Methods Attributes were chances of infection, death and side effects, route of administration and cost of pharmacotherapy. Respondents were randomized to a discrete choice experiment outlining hypothetical treatment options to prevent antibacterial or antifungal infections. Each respondent was presented 16 choice tasks and was asked to choose between two unlabeled treatment options and an opt-out alternative (no prophylaxis). Results 102 parents and 60 healthcare providers participated. For the antibacterial discrete choice experiment, frequency of administration was significantly associated with utility for parents but not for healthcare providers. Increasing chances of infection, death, side effects and cost were all significantly associated with decreased utility for parents and healthcare providers in both the antibacterial and antifungal discrete choice experiment. Parental willingness-to-pay was higher than healthcare providers for both strategies. Conclusion Chances of infection, death, side effects and costs were all significantly associated with utility. Parents have higher willingness-to-pay for these strategies compared with healthcare providers. This knowledge can help to develop prophylaxis programs. PMID:23082169

  20. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. Setting A large university in the Southeastern USA. Participants Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Design Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Outcome measures Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. Results On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Conclusions Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. PMID:26353876

  1. The description-experience gap in risky choice in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Sarah R; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2016-04-01

    Risk attitudes in humans depend on the format used to present the gamble: we are more risk-averse for common gambles in the gains domain whose properties are described to us verbally than for those whose properties we learned about solely through experience. This difference, which constitutes part of the description-experience gap, is important, because it highlights the role of knowledge acquisition in decision-making. The reasons for the gap remain obscure, but could depend upon uniquely human cognitive abilities, such as those associated with language. Thus, the gap may or may not extend to nonhuman animals. For this study, rhesus monkeys performed a novel task in which the properties of some gambles were explicitly cued (described), whereas others were learned through previous choices (experienced). Our monkeys displayed a description-experience gap. Overall, monkeys were more risk-seeking for experienced than for described gambles. This difference was observed for a range of gamble probabilities (from 20% to 80% likelihood of payoff), indicating that it is not limited to low probability events. These results suggest that the description-experience gap does not depend on uniquely human cognitive abilities, such as those associated with language, and support the idea that epistemic influences on risk attitudes are evolutionarily ancient. PMID:26286883

  2. Accounting for Attribute-Level Non-Attendance in a Health Choice Experiment: Does it Matter?

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny; Hole, Arne Risa

    2015-07-01

    An extensive literature has established that it is common for respondents to ignore attributes of the alternatives within choice experiments. In most of the studies on attribute non-attendance, it is assumed that respondents consciously (or unconsciously) ignore one or more attributes of the alternatives, regardless of their levels. In this paper, we present a new line of enquiry and approach for modelling non-attendance in the context of investigating preferences for health service innovations. This approach recognises that non-attendance may not just be associated with attributes but may also apply to the attribute's levels. Our results show that respondents process each level of an attribute differently: while attending to the attribute, they ignore a subset of the attribute's levels. In such cases, the usual approach of assuming that respondents either attend to the attribute or not, irrespective of its levels, is erroneous and could lead to misguided policy recommendations. Our results indicate that allowing for attribute-level non-attendance leads to substantial improvements in the model fit and has an impact on estimated marginal willingness to pay and choice predictions. PMID:24798402

  3. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices. PMID:16442667

  4. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. PMID:22044643

  5. Evaluating the welfare effects of improved wastewater treatment using a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Ezekiel N; Mungatana, Eric D

    2013-07-15

    This paper employs the discrete choice experiment method to estimate the benefits of improved wastewater treatment programs to mitigate the impacts of water pollution in Nairobi, Kenya. Urban and peri-urban farmers who use wastewater for irrigation from Motoine to Ngong River in Nairobi were randomly selected for the study. A random parameter logit model was used to estimate the individual level willingness to pay for the wastewater treatment before reuse in irrigation. The results show that urban and peri-urban farmers are willing to pay significant monthly municipality taxes for treatment of wastewater. We find that the quality of treated wastewater, the quantity of treated wastewater and the riverine ecosystem restoration are significant factors of preference over alternative policy designs in reduction of water pollution. PMID:23583865

  6. [Choice experiment method and its application to solid waste management in Macao].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhi-shi

    2006-04-01

    Economic valuation of environmental goods or services has been becoming a research frontier and hotspot of environmental economics in the world. Choice experiment (CE) is a relatively new method that can be used to value the economic benefits of environmental goods or services. This paper reports an attempt to apply the CE method in Macao that aimed to understand Macao residents' preferences for solid waste management programs. A random sample survey of 260 respondents in Macao was conducted during the summer in 2004. Survey data was analyzed using multinomial logit models. Results from 260 in-person interviews indicate that Macao residents preferred waste segregation and recycling at source and noise reduction during waste collection and transportation. The study concludes that CE is a reliable tool in the analysis of respondents' preferences for the development of suitable solid waste management programs in Macao. PMID:16768014

  7. Bilingual Lexicon: Implications for Studies of Language Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Bilingual case study of infant acquiring Spanish and English from birth to 1;10 is used to address whether young bilinguals differentiate between their languages based on language choice. Daily diary records and weekly video recordings in the two language contexts were used to construct the child's lexicon and establish that translation…

  8. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

  9. Implementing Academic Choice: A Self-Study in Evolving Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katrina E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine how implementing a new pedagogical structure, Academic Choice, informs my understanding of my students as learners and individuals. Using a self-study methodology over the course of eight working sessions in my Kindergarten classroom, I collected multiple forms of qualitative data, including student work…

  10. Eliciting community preferences for complementary micro health insurance: a discrete choice experiment in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kwalamasa, Kassim; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-11-01

    There is a limited understanding of preferences for micro health insurance (MHI) as a strategy for moving towards universal health coverage. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), we explored community preferences for the attributes and attribute-levels of a prospective MHI scheme, aimed at filling health coverage gaps in Malawi. Through a qualitative study informed by a literature review, we identified six MHI attributes (and attribute-levels): unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, copayment levels, transportation coverage, and monthly premium per person. Qualitative data was collected from 12 focus group discussions and 8 interviews in August-September, 2012. We constructed a D-efficient design of eighteen choice-sets, each comprising two MHI choice alternatives and an opt-out. Using pictorial images, trained interviewers administered the DCE in March-May, 2013, to 814 household heads and/or their spouse(s) in two rural districts. We estimated preferences for attribute-levels and relative importance of attributes using conditional and nested logit models. The results showed that all attribute-levels except management by external NGO significantly influenced respondents' choice behavior (P<0.05). These included: enrollment as core nuclear family (odds ratio (OR)=1.1574), extended family (OR=1.1132), compared to individual; management by community committee (OR=0.9494) compared to local micro finance institution; comprehensive health service package (OR=1.4621), medium service package (OR=1.2761), compared to basic service package; no copayment (OR=1.1347), 25% copayment (OR=1.1090), compared to 50% copayment; coverage of all transport (OR=1.5841), referral and emergency transport (OR=1.2610), compared to no transport; and premium (OR=0.9994). The relative importance of attributes is ordered as: transport, health services benefits, enrollment unit, premium, copayment, and management. To maximize consumer utility and encourage

  11. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  12. Concurrent-Chains Schedules as a Method to Study Choice between Alcohol-Associated Conditioned Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive body of research using concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement has shown that choice for one of two differentially valued food-associated stimuli is dependent upon the overall temporal context in which those stimuli are embedded. The present experiments examined whether the concurrent chains procedure was useful for the study of…

  13. Prioritising patients for bariatric surgery: building public preferences from a discrete choice experiment into public policy

    PubMed Central

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Ratcliffe, Julie; Kendall, Elizabeth; Burton, Paul; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Harris, Paul; Krinks, Rachael; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To derive priority weights for access to bariatric surgery for obese adults, from the perspective of the public. Setting Australian public hospital system. Participants Adults (N=1994), reflecting the age and gender distribution of Queensland and South Australia. Primary and secondary outcome measures A discrete choice experiment in which respondents indicated which of two individuals with different characteristics should be prioritised for surgery in repeated hypothetical choices. Potential surgery recipients were described by seven key characteristics or attributes: body mass index (BMI), presence of comorbid conditions, age, family history, commitment to lifestyle change, time on the surgical wait list and chance of maintaining weight loss following surgery. A multinomial logit model was used to evaluate preferences and derive priority weights (primary analysis), with a latent class model used to explore respondent characteristics that were associated with variation in preference across the sample (see online supplementary analysis). Results A preference was observed to prioritise individuals who demonstrated a strong commitment to maintaining a healthy lifestyle as well as individuals categorised with very severe (BMI≥50 kg/m2) or (to a lesser extent) severe (BMI≥40 kg/m2) obesity, those who already have obesity-related comorbidity, with a family history of obesity, with a greater chance of maintaining weight loss or who had spent a longer time on the wait list. Lifestyle commitment was considered to be more than twice as important as any other criterion. There was little tendency to prioritise according to the age of the recipient. Respondent preferences were dependent on their BMI, previous experience with weight management surgery, current health state and education level. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of the publics’ preferences for priority setting to the context of bariatric surgery, and derives priority weights

  14. The Influence of First-Year Chemistry Students' Learning Experiences on Their Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here examined factors that influence student tertiary level chemistry enrolment choices. Students enrolled in a first-year chemistry class were surveyed, using the Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ), three times throughout their academic year: at the start of the year (n=126), the end of the first…

  15. Modelling the Preferences of Students for Alternative Assignment Designs Using the Discrete Choice Experiment Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Brendan; Flannery, Darragh; Considine, John; Doherty, Edel; Hynes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines how a discrete choice experiment (DCE) can be used to learn more about how students are willing to trade off various features of assignments such as the nature and timing of feedback and the method used to submit assignments. A DCE identifies plausible levels of the key attributes of a good or service and then presents the…

  16. Making pragmatic choices: women’s experiences of delivery care in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched the Health Extension Programme (HEP), which was intended to increase access to reproductive health care. Despite enormous effort, utilization of maternal health services remains limited, and the reasons for the low utilization of the services offered through the HEP previously have not been explored in depth. This study explores women’s experiences and perceptions regarding delivery care in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia, and enables us to make suggestions for better implementation of maternal health care services in this setting. Methods We used six focus group discussions with 51 women to explore perceptions and experiences regarding delivery care. The data were analysed by means of grounded theory. Results One core category emerged, ‘making pragmatic choices’, which connected the categories ‘aiming for safer deliveries’, ‘embedded in tradition’, and ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’. In this setting, women – aiming for safer deliveries – made choices pragmatically between the two available models of childbirth. On the one hand, choice of home delivery, represented by the category ‘embedded in tradition’, was related to their faith, the ascendancy of elderly women, the advantages of staying at home and the custom of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). On the other, institutional delivery, represented by the category ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’, and linked to how women appreciated medical resources and the support of health extension workers (HEWs) but were uncertain about the quality of care, emphasized the barriers to transportation. In Tigray women made choices pragmatically and seemed to not feel any conflict between the two available models, being supported by traditional birth attendants, HEWs and husbands in their decision-making. Representatives of the two models were not as open to collaboration as the women

  17. Quantum delayed-choice experiment in an environment with arbitrary white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueiras, J. G.; Sarthour, R. S.; Souza, A. M.; Oliveira, I. S.; Serra, R. M.; Céleri, L. C.

    2013-06-01

    The development of quantum technologies depends on the investigation of the behaviour of quantum systems in noisy environments, since complete isolation from its environment is impossible to achieve. In this paper, we show that the main features of a quantum delayed-choice experiment hold even if performed in a system with an arbitrary level of white noise. In light of our results, we analyse recent optical and NMR experiments and show that a loophole on non-locality is not fundamental.

  18. An experimental field study of weight salience and food choice.

    PubMed

    Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C; Finch, Laura E; Buss, Julia; Guardino, Christine M; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory research has found that individuals will consume more calories and make unhealthy food choices when in the presence of an overweight individual, sometimes even regardless of what that individual is eating. This study expanded these laboratory paradigms to the field to examine how weight salience influences eating in the real world. More specifically, we tested the threshold of the effect of weight salience of food choice to see if a more subtle weight cue (e.g., images) would be sufficient to affect food choice. Attendees (N = 262) at Obesity Week 2013, a weight-salient environment, viewed slideshows containing an image of an overweight individual, an image of a thin individual, or no image (text only), and then selected from complimentary snacks. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that participants who viewed the image of the overweight individual had higher odds of selecting the higher calorie snack compared to those who viewed the image of the thin individual (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.04, 3.04]), or no image (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = [1.29, 4.54]). Perceiver BMI category did not moderate the influence of image on food choice, as these results occurred regardless of participant BMI. These findings suggest that in the context of societal weight salience, weight-related cues alone may promote unhealthy eating in the general public. PMID:25698080

  19. Matching, undermatching, and overmatching in studies of choice

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1979-01-01

    Almost all of 103 sets of data from 23 different studies of choice conformed closely to the equation: log (B1/B2) = a log (r1/r2) + log b, where B1 and B2 are either numbers of responses or times spent at Alternatives 1 and 2, r1 and r2 are the rates of reinforcement obtained from Alternatives 1 and 2, and a and b are empirical constants. Although the matching relation requires the slope a to equal 1.0, the best-fitting values of a frequently deviated from this. For B1 and B2 measured as numbers of responses, a tended to fall short of 1.0 (undermatching). For B1 and B2 measured as times, a fell to both sides of 1.0, with the largest mode at about 1.0. Those experiments that produced values of a for both responses and time revealed only a rough correspondence between the two values; a was often noticeably larger for time. Statistical techniques for assessing significance of a deviation of a from 1.0 suggested that values of a between .90 and 1.11 can be considered good approximations to matching. Of the two experimenters who contributed the most data, one generally found undermatching, while the other generally found matching. The difference in results probably arises from differences in procedure. The procedural variations that lead to undermatching appear to be those that produce (a) asymmetrical pausing that favors the poorer alternative; (b) systematic temporal variation in preference that favors the poorer alternative; and (c) patterns of responding that involve changing over between alternatives or brief bouts at the alternatives. PMID:501274

  20. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A qualitative study of the patterns in STEM students' higher education choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette

    2015-06-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of students' construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students' sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students' social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students' choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students' interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense.

  1. Modeling the hospital safety partnership preferences of patients and their families: a discrete choice conjoint experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E; Hutchings, Tracy; Henderson, Jennifer; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients and their families play an important role in efforts to improve health service safety. Objective The objective of this study is to understand the safety partnership preferences of patients and their families. Method We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the safety partnership preferences of 1,084 patients or those such as parents acting on their behalf. Participants made choices between hypothetical safety partnerships composed by experimentally varying 15 four-level partnership design attributes. Results Participants preferred an approach to safety based on partnerships between patients and staff rather than a model delegating responsibility for safety to hospital staff. They valued the opportunity to participate in point of service safety partnerships, such as identity and medication double checks, that might afford an immediate risk reduction. Latent class analysis yielded two segments. Actively engaged participants (73.3%) comprised outpatients with higher education, who anticipated more benefits to safety partnerships, were more confident in their ability to contribute, and were more intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer a personal engagement strategy, valued scientific evidence, preferred a more active approach to safety education, and advocated disclosure of errors. The passively engaged segment (26.7%) anticipated fewer benefits, were less confident in their ability to contribute, and were less intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer an engagement strategy based on signage. They preferred that staff explain why they thought patients should help make care safer and decide whether errors were disclosed. Inpatients, those with immigrant backgrounds, and those with less education were more likely to be in this segment. Conclusion Health services need to communicate information regarding risks, ask about partnership preferences, create opportunities respecting individual differences, and

  2. Heterogeneous HIV Testing Preferences in an Urban Setting in Tanzania: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Brown, Derek S.; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through treatment rely on HIV testing programs that are acceptable to broad populations. Yet, testing preferences among diverse at-risk populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) to evaluate factors that influence HIV-testing preferences in a low-resource setting. Methods Using formative work, a pilot study, and pretesting, we developed a DCE survey with five attributes: distance to testing, confidentiality, testing days (weekday vs. weekend), method for obtaining the sample for testing (blood from finger or arm, oral swab), and availability of HIV medications at the testing site. Cluster-randomization and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) sampling methodology were used to enroll 486 community members, ages 18–49, in an urban setting in Northern Tanzania. Interviewer-assisted DCEs, presented to participants on iPads, were administered between September 2012 and February 2013. Results Nearly three of five males (58%) and 85% of females had previously tested for HIV; 20% of males and 37% of females had tested within the past year. In gender-specific mixed logit analyses, distance to testing was the most important attribute to respondents, followed by confidentiality and the method for obtaining the sample for the HIV test. Both unconditional assessments of preferences for each attribute and mixed logit analyses of DCE choice patterns suggest significant preference heterogeneity among participants. Preferences differed between males and females, between those who had previously tested for HIV and those who had never tested, and between those who tested in the past year and those who tested more than a year ago. Conclusion The findings suggest potentially significant benefits from tailoring HIV testing interventions to match the preferences of specific populations, including males and females and those who

  3. Preferences of overweight and obese patients for weight loss programmes: a discrete-choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mühlbacher, Axel; Bethge, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality and also appears to have an adverse effect on health-related quality of life. Though advances in obesity therapy and rehabilitation can be observed, the long-lasting outcome is dissatisfying to most of the patients and, therefore, the whole health care system. Theory and methodology The study aims to identify key attributes of coordinated weight loss programmes and elicit patients’ preferences for overweight and obesity therapy in rehabilitation programmes. A self-administered survey measuring attitudes and preferences was conducted in Germany in 2009. Discrete-choice experiment scenarios were developed using a fractional factorial design and results analysed using a random effects logit model. Results N=110 patients completed the questionnaire, 51.82% of these were male, the mean age was 53.05 years and mean body mass index was 33.54 kg/m2 (SD 7.73). A total of 823 choices could be included in the final estimation. The most important aspects for the respondents’ selection were care coordination (coefficient 1.473; SE 0.185) and individual therapy (coefficient 1.446; SE 0.188). The aspect ‘infrastructure of care’ (coefficient 0.570; SE 0.175) was less relevant. All attributes led to significant coefficients. Conclusion Patients value coordination of care and individual therapy most highly. So weight reduction therapy should enable patients to receive a structured, coordinated and interpersonal therapy that is tailored to their personal needs, behaviour and circumstances. Patients are willing to forego infrastructure quality in favour of better coordination and structure in their therapy. PMID:24179457

  4. Event-by-event simulation of a quantum delayed-choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donker, Hylke C.; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-12-01

    The quantum delayed-choice experiment of Tang et al. (2012) is simulated on the level of individual events without making reference to concepts of quantum theory or without solving a wave equation. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the quantum theoretical predictions of this experiment. The implication of the work presented in the present paper is that the experiment of Tang et al. can be explained in terms of cause-and-effect processes in an event-by-event manner.

  5. Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Coast, Joanna; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Sutton, Eileen J; Horrocks, Susan A; Vosper, A Jane; Swancutt, Dawn R; Flynn, Terry N

    2012-06-01

    Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies. PMID:21557381

  6. Understanding HIV-positive patients' preferences for healthcare services: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Elaney; Cooper, Vanessa; Miners, Alec; Llewellyn, Carrie; Pollard, Alex; Lagarde, Mylene; Sachikonye, Memory; Sabin, Caroline; Foreman, Claire; Perry, Nicky; Nixon, Eileen; Fisher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the care of HIV-positive patients, including the detection and management of comorbidities, has historically been provided in HIV specialist outpatient clinics, recent years have seen a greater involvement of non-HIV specialists and general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study is to determine whether patients would prefer to see their GP or HIV physician given general symptoms, and to understand what aspects of care influence their preferences. Methods/analysis We have developed and piloted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to better understand patients' preferences for care of non-HIV-related acute symptoms. The design of the DCE was informed by our exploratory research, including the findings of a systematic literature review and a qualitative study. Additional questionnaire items have been included to measure demographics, service use and experience of non-HIV illnesses and quality of life (EQ5D). We plan to recruit 1000 patients from 14 HIV clinics across South East England. Data will be analysed using random-effects logistic regression and latent class analysis. ORs and 95% CIs will be used to estimate the relative importance of each of the attribute levels. Latent class analysis will identify whether particular groups of people value the service attribute levels differently. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Newcastle and North Tyneside Research Ethics Committee (reference number 14/NE/1193). The results will be disseminated at national and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. A study report, written in plain English, will be made available to all participants. The Patient Advisory Group will develop a strategy for wider dissemination of the findings to patients and the public. PMID:27431895

  7. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  8. Residents' preferences for household kitchen waste source separation services in Beijing: a choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents' preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  9. Decision-Making Training for Occupational Choice and Early Turnover: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazy, Asya; Ganzach, Yoav; Davidov, Yariv

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The study seeks to examine how a short intervention, aimed at enhancing occupational choice skills, influences turnover during the early stages of organizational membership. It seeks to explore two theoretical rationales for this effect: social exchange and self-determination. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a "constructive…

  10. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons’ job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary’s provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Results: Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons’ attraction and retention in rural areas. Conclusion: A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons’ retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. PMID:26885340

  11. Willingness-To-Accept Pharmaceutical Retail Inconvenience: Evidence from a Contingent Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Keith; Stoecker, Charles; Cunningham, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Restrictions on retail purchases of pseudoephedrine are one regulatory approach to reduce the social costs of methamphetamine production and use, but may impose costs on legitimate users of nasal decongestants. This is the first study to evaluate the costs of restricting access to medications on consumer welfare. Our objective was to measure the inconvenience cost consumers place on restrictions for cold medication purchases including identification requirements, purchase limits, over-the-counter availability, prescription requirements, and the active ingredient. Methods We conducted a contingent choice experiment with Amazon Mechanical Turk workers that presented participants with randomized, hypothetical product prices and combinations of restrictions that reflect the range of public policies. We used a conditional logit model to calculate willingness-to-accept each restriction. Results Respondents’ willingness-to-accept prescription requirements was $14.17 ($9.76–$18.58) and behind-the-counter restrictions was $9.68 ($7.03–$12.33) per box of pseudoephedrine product. Participants were willing to pay $4.09 ($1.66–$6.52) per box to purchase pseudoephedrine-based products over phenylephrine-based products. Conclusions Restricting access to medicines as a means of reducing the social costs of non-medical use can imply large inconvenience costs for legitimate consumers. These results are relevant to discussions of retail access restrictions on other medications. PMID:26024444

  12. Residential preferences for river network improvement: an exploration of choice experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers. PMID:25011532

  13. Residential Preferences for River Network Improvement: An Exploration of Choice Experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.

  14. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  15. The School Choice Market in China: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast to the top-down government-designated school choice programmes in many countries, e.g. in the UK and USA in particular, school choice in the Chinese context is a bottom-up movement initiated by parents and is characterised by the payment of a substantial "choice fee" to the preferred school, and by competition by…

  16. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  17. Understanding women's choices to enroll in engineering: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eileen

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) college programs is a troublesome local, national and global phenomenon. The topic of this doctoral thesis specifically focused on the underrepresentation of women in the field of engineering and more specifically on the factors that women may perceive as chiefly motivating them to choose engineering as a college major. By not choosing to major in engineering, women forego intellectual opportunities and the financial rewards that engineering careers can provide. Their absence means that the field of engineering also suffers from the lack of contributions from a diverse workforce. Women who graduated from a specific community college's engineering program in the United States were the focus of this qualitative study. Grounded in achievement motivation theory, and in particular expectancy-value theory of academic and career choice, this research was guided by two questions: How do women perceive their academic self-efficacies and expectations for success as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? How do women perceive their subjective task values as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? This single, holistic case study with one main unit of analysis incorporated a written questionnaire, individual interviews and a focus group meeting as the three instruments used to collect data. The qualitative data, cyclically coded, shed light on the complex mechanisms of academic and career choice.

  18. The influence student placement experience can have on the employment choices of graduates: A paediatric nursing context.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Turner, Danni; Bell, Elaine; Russell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how the student placement experience may influence employment choices in the context of paediatric nursing. A qualitative research methodology was used. Data was collected using semi structured interviews at a tertiary teaching hospital. The sample group comprised of six newly qualified nurses who had completed their Bachelor of Nursing less than 12 months before the interview. They had completed at least one clinical placement at the site of data collection in their 2nd or 3rd year of undergraduate nursing studies. The main themes contributing to the student nurse experience within the context of paediatric nursing included the wish to work with children, a job being available, support during clinical placements and assistance with future career planning while on placement. The support experienced by student nurses during their clinical placement was seen to have a very positive influence on their future employment choices. Group de-briefing to support mutual understanding and sharing was seen to be a highly positive aspect of a clinical placement. Also how students were treated by clinical staff was a key factor that influenced future employment choices. PMID:26497419

  19. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a technology-based program for 2-year community college students to help prevent unhealthy weight gain. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) provide a brief background on weight-related interventions in young adults; 2) describe the study design for the CHOICES study, the conceptual model guiding the research and the CHOICES intervention; and 3) discuss implications of this research for health educators. Translation to Health Education Practice Our experiences from the CHOICES study will be useful in suggesting other theory-based models and intervention strategies that might be helpful in programs attempting to prevent unhealthy weight gain in young adults. In addition, this paper discusses important considerations for working with 2-year colleges on this type of health promotion work. PMID:24910855

  20. Temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration in Austria using a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Bliem, Markus; Getzner, Michael; Rodiga-Laßnig, Petra

    2012-07-30

    Temporal stability of values (environmental preferences) is usually considered to be an indicator of the reliability of a valuation instrument because the values can be "reproduced" by follow-up experiments. The objective of this paper is to test temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration by employing two identical choice experiments with a time difference of one year. We compared the results of two surveys carried out on the stretch of the Danube River between the Austrian capital of Vienna and the border to the Slovak Republic in 2007 and 2008. The choice experiment method considered economic costs and benefits of ecological improvements along the river, in order to value environmental resources. Using a multinomial logit and a mixed logit model for the two samples and a pooled sample, we found that preferences and willingness-to-pay estimates for program attributes are not sensitive to time. The results suggest that, in the absence of an extreme event, individual preferences are robust over a short time period. PMID:22459072

  1. A proposal to implement a quantum delayed choice experiment assisted by cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, N. G.; Avelar, A. T.; Cardoso, W. B.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a scheme with current technology to implement a quantum delayed-choice experiment in the realm of cavity QED. Our scheme uses two-level atoms interacting on and off resonantly with a single mode of a high Q cavity. At the end of the protocol, the state of the cavity returns to its ground state, allowing new sequential operations. The particle and wave behavior, which are verified in a single experimental setup, are postselected after the atomic states are selectively detected.

  2. Restrictive Food Intake As A Choice – A Paradigm for Study

    PubMed Central

    Steinglass, Joanna; Foerde, Karin; Kostro, Katrina; Shohamy, Daphna; Timothy Walsh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Inadequate intake and preference for low-calorie foods are salient behavioral features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pathological food choice have not been characterized. This study aimed to develop a new paradigm for experimentally modeling maladaptive food choice in AN. Method: Individuals with AN (n=22) and healthy controls (HC, n=20) participated in a computer-based Food Choice Task, adapted for individuals with eating disorders. Participants first rated 43 food images (including high-fat and low-fat items) for Healthiness and Tastiness; an item rated neutral on both blocks was then selected as the Reference item. On each of 42 subsequent trials participants were asked to choose between the food item presented and the Reference item. Results: The AN group was less likely to choose high-fat foods relative to HC, as evidenced both in multilevel logistic regression (z=2.59, p=0.009) and ANOVA (F(1,39)=7.80, p=0.008) analyses. Health ratings influenced choice significantly more in AN relative to HC (z=2.7, p=0.006), and were more related to Taste among AN (χ2=4.10, p=0.04). Additionally, Taste ratings declined with duration of illness(r=−0.50, p=0.02). Conclusions: The Food Choice Task captures the preference for low-fat foods among individuals with AN. The findings suggest that the experience of tastiness changes over time and may contribute to perpetuation of illness. By providing an experimental quantitative measure of food restriction, this task opens the door to new experimental investigations into the cognitive, affective and neural factors contributing to maladaptive food choices characteristic of AN. PMID:25130380

  3. Who's choosing whom? A sociological study of the specialty choices in a Danish context

    PubMed Central

    Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate if habitus, the unconscious and embodied mental structures founded early in life, can contribute to our understanding of how individuals choose a medical specialty. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using standardized open-ended interviews. In the present research, sampling was purposive, with an aim to illuminating the study objective. A sample of six juniors and three senior doctors were recruited from gynecology and obstetrics, vascular surgery and general practice via a snowball method. The interview guide and the subsequent analysis were based on Bourdieu’s sociological theory. Results Three central themes emerged, labeled as “the use of distinctions and dichotomies”, “the shaping of habitus” and “consequences of the shaping of habitus”. These represent values and preferences developed through childhood education and experiences which may contribute to explaining specialty choices. Participants distinguished between specialties by referring to dichotomous characteristics of the specialty (such as sick/healthy patients; young/elderly patients; fine/coarse surgery). Conclusions Bourdieu’s theory is useful for broadening our understanding of specialty choice, as his central concept, habitus, was found to direct the choice of specialty and constrain the number of possible specialties for the individual doctor. Research is needed to better understand how various factors affect the specialty choices of medical school graduates.

  4. Women’s preferences for inpatient and outpatient priming for labour induction: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries a high proportion of births begin as induced labours. Induction can be lengthy if cervical priming is required prior to induction. This usually occurs as an inpatient, however, an alternative is to allow women to go home after satisfactory fetal monitoring. The aim of this study was to assess the preferences of women for cervical priming for induction of labour in an outpatient or inpatient setting. Method A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted alongside a randomised trial of inpatient and outpatient cervical priming (the OPRA trial) in two maternity hospitals in South Australia. 362 participants were included, and women’s preferences for cervical priming for induction of labour were assessed. Results Women were willing to accept an extra 1.4 trips to hospital (2.4 trips total) and a total travel time of 73.3 minutes to be able to return to their own home while waiting for the priming to work. For enhanced inpatient services, women were willing to accept a total travel time of 54.7 minutes to have a private room with private bathroom while waiting for the priming to work. The overall benefit score for outpatient priming was 3.63, 3.59 for enhanced inpatient care and 2.89 for basic inpatient care, suggesting slightly greater preferences for outpatient priming. Preferences for outpatient priming increased when women could return to their own home (compared to other offsite accommodation), and decreased with more trips to hospital and longer travel time. Conclusions Our results suggest that outpatient priming was slightly more preferred than either enhanced inpatient priming or basic care; these results should be confirmed in different clinical settings. There may be merit in providing women information about both options in the future, as preferences varied according to the characteristics of the services on offer and the sociodemographic background of the woman. PMID:25073486

  5. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F.; McColl, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics? Methods We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Results Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Conclusions Cash or shopping voucher

  6. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes. PMID:24858928

  7. Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

    2012-01-01

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

  8. The reversed description-experience gap: Disentangling sources of presentation format effects in risky choice.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Henninger, Felix; Fiedler, Susann

    2016-04-01

    Previous literature has suggested that risky choice patterns in general--and probability weighting in particular--are strikingly different in experience-based as compared with description-based formats. In 2 reanalyses and 3 new experiments, we investigate differences between experience-based and description-based decisions using a parametric approach based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Once controlling for sampling biases, we consistently find a reversal of the typical description-experience gap, that is, a reduced sensitivity to probabilities and increased overweighting of small probabilities in decisions from experience as compared with decisions from descriptions. This finding supports the hypothesis that regression to the mean effects in probability estimation are a crucial source of differences between both presentation formats. Further analyses identified task specific information asymmetry prevalent in gambles involving certainty as a third source of differences. We present a novel conceptualization of multiple independent sources of bias that contribute to the description-experience gap, namely sampling biases and task specific information asymmetry on the one hand, and regression to the mean effects in probability estimation on the other hand. PMID:26974209

  9. The Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and the influence of the presenting context: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul; Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Julie; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study seeks to quantify the Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and determine if preferences differ depending on presenting circumstances. Setting Increasing presentations to emergency departments have led to overcrowding, long waiting times and suboptimal health system performance. Accordingly, new service models involving the provision of care in alternative settings and delivered by other practitioners continue to be developed. Participants A stratified sample of Australian adults (n=1838), 1382 from Queensland and 456 from South Australia, completed the survey. This included 951 females and 887 males from the 2045 people who met the screening criteria out of the 4354 people who accepted the survey invitation. Interventions A discrete choice experiment was used to elicit preferences in the context of one of four hypothetical scenarios: a possible concussion, a rash/asthma-related problem involving oneself or one's child and an anxiety-related presentation. Mixed logit regression was used to analyse the dependent variable choice and identify the relative importance of care attributes and the propensity to access care in each context. Results Results indicated a preference for treatment by an emergency physician in hospital for possible concussion and treatment by a doctor in ambulatory settings for rash/asthma-related and anxiety-related problems. Participants were consistently willing to wait longer before making trade-offs in the context of the rash/asthma-related scenario compared with when the same problem affected their child. Results suggest a clear preference for lower costs, shorter wait times and strong emphasis on quality care; however, significant preference heterogeneity was observed. Conclusions This study has increased awareness that the public's emergency care choices will differ depending on the presenting context. It has further demonstrated the importance of service quality as a determinant of

  10. Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G

    2014-12-01

    Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes. PMID:25371062

  11. The best laid plans? Women's choices, expectations and experiences in childbirth.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Claudia; Boulton, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have seen a drastic increase in the medicalization of childbirth, evidenced by increasing Caesarean section rates in many Western countries. In a rare moment of congruence, alternative health-care providers, feminist advocates for women's health and, most recently, mainstream medical service providers have all expressed serious concerns about the rise in Caesarean section rates and women's roles in medicalization. These concerns stem from divergent philosophical positions as well as differing assumptions about the causes for increasing medicalization. Drawing on this debate, and using a feminist and governmentality framing of the problem, we interviewed 22 women who have recently had children about their birthing choices, their expectations and their birth experiences. The women's narratives revealed a disjuncture between their expectations of choosing, planning and achieving as natural a birth as possible, and their lived experiences of births that did not typically go to plan. They also reveal the disciplining qualities of both natural and medical discourses about birth and choice. Furthermore, their narratives counter assumptions that women, as ideal patient consumers, are driving medicalization. PMID:23426792

  12. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  13. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  14. Study on simple reaction and choice times in patients with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Medina, Jose A; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Amador-Licona, Norma; Cardona-Torres, Luz M; Galicia-Resendiz, Delia; Diaz-Carmona, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A study on simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time in patients having diabetes is described in this paper. The study was applied to fourteen patients with type I diabetes, as well as to fourteen non-diabetic persons. The research is based on two visual signal perception experiments, both implemented on a computer based environment. The SRT experiment consisted on measuring participants' reaction times to a light change event in a simulated traffic light scenario. The choice reaction time was studied through the performance indexes (d') achieved by participants in a two alternative forced experiment, where a known visual signal is identified from two noisy images. According to the obtained results, the diabetic patients' SRTs were an average of 24% longer than the reaction time of non-diabetic persons, in the same way a significant average difference of 41% was obtained in the efficient index d' too. A positive correlation of 0.6594 between the time periods since diabetes has been diagnosed and the average SRTs of diabetic patients was obtained, also significant correlation differences between age of all experiments participants and resulting variables, SRTs and d', were observed; for instance the correlation factor between participants' ages and their average SRTs was -0.8529 for diabetic patients, meanwhile a value of -0.2905 was obtained for non-diabetic persons. The evidence suggests that the time period since diabetes has been diagnosed notably affects motor and sensorial systems maturity, and consequently conduction speed of sural and peroneal nerves. PMID:23402936

  15. Realization of an entanglement-assisted quantum delayed-choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tao; Li, Hang; Wang, Bi-Xue; Long, Gui-Lu

    2015-08-01

    The puzzling properties of quantum mechanics, i.e., wave-particle duality, entanglement, and superposition, have been dissected experimentally over the past decades. However, hidden-variable (HV) models based on three classical assumptions of wave-particle objectivity, determinism, and independence strive to explain the same experiments or even defeat quantum mechanics. Meanwhile, the steady development of quantum technologies continues to enable us to test experimentally the predictions of quantum mechanics and HV theories. We report an experimental demonstration of an entanglement-assisted quantum delayed-choice scheme using a liquid nuclear magnetic resonance quantum-information processor. This experiment is based on the recently proposed scheme [R. Ionicioiu et al., Nat. Commun. 5. 3997 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms5997], which predicted different results for quantum mechanics and HV theories. In our experiments, the intensities and the visibilities of the interference are consistent with the theoretical predictions of quantum mechanics. The results show that a contradiction with the experiments is indeed appearing when all three assumptions of the HV models are combined, though any two of those assumptions are compatible with the experiments.

  16. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods: To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results: Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the

  17. Given the Choice: A Study of the PAVE Program and School Choice in Milwaukee. Policy Study No. 183.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beales, Janet R.; Wahl, Maureen

    In response to declining student performance in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS), the Wisconsin State Legislature and the private sector each created programs to give school choice to low-income students. In 1990-91 the Legislature implemented the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). About 750 students received government-funded tuition…

  18. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    PubMed

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method. PMID:27256562

  19. Perch compliance and experience affect destination choice of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    PubMed

    Mauro, A Alexander; Jayne, C Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input. PMID:26723759

  20. The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R; Salinas, Zenia M

    2002-06-01

    Many nations promote nature-based tourism in order to promote the dual goals of nature conservation and income generation. To be most effective in providing services that facilitate achievement of these goals, decision makers will need to understand and incorporate tourist preferences for nature appreciation, infrastructure, use restrictions, and other attributes of national parks and protected areas. This paper presents the use of choice experiments as a mechanism to analyze preferences of national and international tourists in relation to the development of Barva Volcano Area in Costa Rica. In this section of the Braulio Carrillo National Park, managers are faced with an immediate need to plan for greatly increased visitation rates due to a new road, which will greatly improve access. Choice sets were developed in collaboration with park managers. A survey was conducted of 171 Costa Rican and 271 foreign tourists who visited Poás Volcano, a well-visited alternative site to Barva Volcano. Survey data was analyzed using conditional multinomial logit models. Results of the study demonstrate, that both sets of tourists preferred: (i) improved infrastructure; (ii) aerial trams with observation towers and picnic areas; (iii) more information; and (iv) low entrance fees. Foreign tourists demonstrated strong preferences for the inclusion of restrictions in the access to some trails, whereas Costa Ricans did not show any significant preference for restrictions. Marginal willingness-to-pay for greater information was estimated to be $1.54 for foreign tourists and $1.01 for Costa Rican visitors. The study concludes that choice experiments are a useful tool in the analyses of tourist preferences for the development of protected areas in developing countries. PMID:12197077

  1. Graduate Students Have an Unprecedented Range of Choices as Ph.D. Offerings in Black Studies Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cage, Mary Crystal

    1996-01-01

    Sudden growth in the number of doctoral programs in black studies is helping to legitimize the discipline in academe, and diversity of curricula is providing students with many more choices of emphasis. Programs have a wide range of focus, from the broadest, the black American experience, to the African diaspora and comparative black studies.…

  2. The Importance of Place for International Students' Choice of University: A Case Study at a Malaysian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jasvir Kaur Nachatar; Schapper, Jan; Jack, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The scholarly bias toward Western and English-speaking settings in the study of international education overlooks the experiences of international students in emerging education hubs in Asia. To redress this imbalance, this article offers insights into the crucial role of place in the study destination choices of a group of international…

  3. Women’s Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women’s preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women’s sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  4. Women's Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women's preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  5. Effects of chlordiazepoxide, food familiarization, and prior shock experience on food choice in rats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S J; McClelland, A

    1980-01-01

    Chlordiazepoxide (5, 10 mg/kg) increased the time devoted to eating familiar laboratory chow without altering the response to a range of novel, palatable foods which were also available to the food-deprived rats. Prior experience with the same range of alternative foods (food familiarization) radically changed the effect of the drug. After familiarization with these foods, chow was virtually ignored as a food choice, indicating its low relative palatability; chlordiazepoxide then prolonged the time eating the familiarized foods without significantly increasing the response to chow. These results are not consistent with an anti-food neophobia action of chordiazepoxide. They suggest instead that chlordiazepoxide enhances feeding responses related to food saliency. Footshock, delivered two days before the food choice test affected performance within the test. Its effects were opposite those of chlordiazepoxide, but they competed additively with the drug's effects. These results indicate that chlordiazepoxide's action was not simply to remove any inhibitory effect on feeding produced by fear; instead the drug promoted approach to food antagonizing any deficit in approach associated with fear. These findings are viewed as consistent with an action of chlordiazepoxide to augment the level of feeding motivation. Chlordiazepoxide (15 mg/kg) may act to overcome food neophobia. PMID:7367459

  6. Patients’ preferences for attributes related to health care services at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Adugnaw; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2015-01-01

    Background Information from the patient’s point of view is essential in policy and clinical decisions. Prioritizing what patients value, need, and prefer in various aspects of a health program can be helpful in evaluating and designing hospital health care services. Objective To examine patients’ preference for attributes related to health care services and to ascertain the relative impact of attributes at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia. Methods A stated-preference discrete choice experiment survey was performed in multistage, stratified, and systematic sampling of patients who visited the hospitals. Attributes were selected based on a literature review of the most important characteristics of hospital health care service and reviewed and validated with inputs from patients and researchers in the field. Attributes included in the study were waiting time, physician communication, nursing communication, drug availability, continuity of care, and diagnostic facilities. A random-effects probit model was used to perform the analysis. Results One thousand and five respondents who received care in the outpatient and inpatient departments participated in the study. All attributes included in the study affected the choice of hospital. Patients were willing to wait up to 3.3 hours and 2.7 hours to get full drugs in the hospital and good nursing communication, respectively. The interaction terms indicate that preferences differ with the variables sex, occupation, and type of hospital. Patients expressed clear preferences in a decreasing order of all the significant attribute levels: a lot of diagnostic facilities, full drug availability, continuity of care, good nursing communication, partial drug availability, good physician communication, and shorter waiting time for the consultation. Conclusion Different hospital care attributes had a significant and different influence on patients’ choice of hospital. The study informs about patients’ preferences

  7. Metacognition and Control of Study Choice in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

    2013-01-01

    Middle childhood may be crucial for the development of metacognitive monitoring and study control processes. The first three experiments, using different materials, showed that Grade 3 and Grade 5 children exhibited excellent metacognitive resolution when asked to make delayed judgments of learning (JOLs, using an analogue scale) or binary…

  8. Are patients willing to pay for total shoulder arthroplasty? Evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Nathan N.; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Mohammadi, Tima; Marra, Carlo A.; Vicente, Milena R.; Khakban, Amir; McKee, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is a common treatment to decrease pain and improve shoulder function in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA). In Canada, patients requiring this procedure often wait a year or more. Our objective was to determine patient preferences related to accessing TSA, specifically comparing out-of-pocket payments for treatment, travel time to hospital, the surgeon’s level of experience and wait times. Methods We administered a discrete choice experiment among patients with end-stage shoulder OA currently waiting for TSA. Respondents were presented with 14 different choice sets, each with 3 options, and they were asked to choose their preferred scenario. A conditional logit regression model was used to estimate the relative preference and willingness to pay for each attribute. Results Sixty-two respondents completed the questionnaire. Three of the 4 attributes significantly influenced treatment preferences. Respondents had a strong preference for an experienced surgeon (mean 0.89 ± standard error [SE] 0.11), while reductions in travel time (−0.07 ± 0.04) or wait time (−0.04 ± 0.01) were of less importance. Respondents were found to be strongly averse (−1.44 ± 0.18) to surgical treatment by a less experienced surgeon and to paying out-of-pocket for their surgical treatment (−0.56 ± 0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that patients waiting for TSA to treat severe shoulder OA have minimal willingness to pay for a reduction in wait time or travel time for surgery, yet will pay higher amounts for treatment by an experienced surgeon. PMID:27007091

  9. Using Tourism Free-Choice Learning Experiences to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour: The Role of Post-Visit "Action Resources"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the need for the providers of ecotourism and other free-choice environmental learning experiences to promote the adoption of environmentally sustainable actions beyond their own sites, when visitors return to their home environments. Previous research indicates that although visitors often leave such experiences with a heightened…

  10. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko; Kim, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program is to assist states and local school districts in the development of innovative strategies to expand options for students, and to encourage transfers of students from low-performing to higher-performing schools. This report presents interim findings from the National Evaluation of…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Personality and Choice of Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonge, George D.; Regan, Mary C.

    1975-01-01

    Several aspects of Holland's theory of vocational choice are examined using freshman and senior Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) and freshman Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) data for 833 men. Generally, evidence in support of Holland's theory is based on relationships which have been well established and known for a long time. (Author)

  12. CHOICE Reviews in Women's Studies, 1990-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLam, Helen, Ed.

    "CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries," a publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, provides academic librarians and faculty with concise, informed evaluations of significant recent scholarly publications--both print and electronic--in more than 40 disciplines spanning the humanities, science and technology, and…

  13. How Choice Changes the Education System: A Michigan Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David N.; Sykes, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents preliminary observations on how allowing some parents in Michigan to choose which schools their children attend affects the educational system. Asserts that the current enthusiasm for educational choice is an example of a broader effort to shift the responsibility for addressing deeply-rooted social and economic problems out of the public…

  14. Economics: Choice Making. Social Studies I. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.

    The material in this secondary teacher's manual, Economics: Choice Making, the second of three sequential units in Course I, provides a foundation upon which subsequent courses will build. Objectives are for students to grasp economic principles which serve as fundamental tools needed to analyze basic facts and institutions of modern economic…

  15. Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment: A proposal for the Bragg-regime cavity-QED implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram, Manzoor; Imran, Muhammad; Abbas, Tasawar; Islam, Rameez-ul-

    2015-04-01

    Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment highlights strange features of quantum theory such as pre-sensing of the experimental setup by the quantum object and the role of time. A recent proposal for such an experiment with an interferometer having a quantum beam splitter (QBS) [R. Ionicioiu and D. R. Terno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 230406 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.230406] and its subsequent experimental implementations through photonics and NMR have produced results including the modification in the concept of complementarity. Here we propose a matter-wave Mach-Zehnder-Bragg cavity-QED interferometric setup with final QBS engineered through a cavity field that is taken initially in the superposition of zero and one photon. The setup operates through first-order off-resonant Bragg diffraction of the neutral atoms from the cavity fields with the matter wave's particle (wave) nature marked through the absence (presence) of a photon in the final cavity. The proposal, addressing the issue through atomic de Broglie waves, can be executed within the present cavity-QED experimental scenario with appreciable success probability and fidelity.

  16. Modeling the bullying prevention program preferences of educators: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne

    2009-10-01

    We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally varied combinations of the study's attribute levels. Latent class analysis yielded three segments with different preferences. Decision Sensitive educators (31%) preferred that individual schools select bullying prevention programs. In contrast, Support Sensitive educators (51%) preferred that local school boards chose bullying prevention programs. This segment preferred more logistical and social support at every stage of the adoption, training, implementation, and long term maintenance processes. Cost Sensitive educators (16%) showed a stronger preference for programs minimizing costs, training, and implementation time demands. They felt prevention programs were less effective and that the time and space in the curriculum for bullying prevention was less adequate. They were less likely to believe that bullying prevention was their responsibility and more likely to agree that prevention was the responsibility of parents. All segments preferred programs supported by the anecdotal reports of colleagues from other schools rather than those based on scientific evidence. To ensure that the bullying prevention options available reflect the complex combination of attributes influencing real world adoption decisions, program developers need to accommodate the differing views of the Decision, Support, and Cost Sensitive segments while maximizing the support of parents and students. PMID:19455413

  17. Country Image and the Study Abroad Destination Choice of Students from Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author focuses on the issue of country image in destination choice. To examine the relationship between these two variables, the study tests whether mainland Chinese who favor a destination as their ideal first choice for study abroad have a significantly more positive view of that destination's country image than their…

  18. "For Me, Change Is Not a Choice": The Lived Experience of a Teacher Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Karrin

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the lived experience of a teacher change agent who was identified by her secondary school colleagues as someone who pursued positive changes outside her classroom. In conversations about her experiences, she shared what motivated her, the strategies she used, and the challenges she faced. Findings derived from both quantitative…

  19. Choice chamber experiments to test the attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to water of estuarine and riverine origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Nicola C.; Cowley, Paul D.; Whitfield, Alan K.; Kaiser, Horst

    2008-03-01

    Although the recruitment of larvae and juveniles of marine fishes into estuaries has been well documented, little is known about the factors governing the immigration of estuary-associated marine fishes into estuaries. Fishes have a well-developed sense of smell and it has been suggested by several workers that olfactory cues of freshwater or estuarine origin serve as stimuli, attracting larvae and juveniles of estuary-associated species into estuaries. Attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to estuary and river water from the Kowie estuarine system, South Africa, was measured using a rectangular choice chamber. In experiments, conducted during peak recruitment periods, larvae selected estuary and river water with a significantly higher frequency than sea water. This study, the first to assess the possible role of olfaction in the recruitment process of an estuary-associated marine fish species, demonstrates that larvae are able to recognise water from different origins, probably based on odour.

  20. Qualitative study of influences on food store choice

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

  1. Sexual Decision Making in the Absence of Choice: The African American Female Dating Experience

    PubMed Central

    Andrasik, Michele P.; Nguyen, Hong V.; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2016-01-01

    Although links between low mate availability and increased HIV and STI risk for African American women have been documented in the literature, we know little about the impact of limited mate choices on the quality of relationships between Black men and women and how these relationship dynamics impact risk for young Black women. We conducted a qualitative study with African American female young adults (N=12) to explore the perceived impact of structural forces on African American female young adults’ dating and sexual behavior. Participants reported (1) perceptions of Black men as untrustworthy and manipulative, (2) the limited and often negative roles for Black men in the larger Black community, and (3) heterosexual relationships in the Black community as increasingly influenced by economics and commerce. Recommendations for HIV prevention interventions that include micro and macro level approaches are discussed. PMID:27182463

  2. The effect of traffic lights and regulatory statements on the choice between complementary and conventional medicines in Australia: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Mortimer, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that complementary medicines are currently 'under-regulated' in some countries due to their potential for harm as a direct result from side-effects or interactions; from delaying more effective care; or from the economic cost of purchasing an ineffective or inappropriate treatment. The requirement of additional labelling on complementary medicine products has been suggested in Australia and may provide additional information to consumers at the point of purchase. This paper details a unique way of testing the potential effects on consumer behaviour of including either a traffic light logo or regulatory statement on labels. Using a discrete choice experiment, data were collected in 2012 in a sample of 521 Australians with either type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We find that additional labelling can affect consumer behaviour, but in unpredictable ways. The results of this experiment are informative to further the dialogue concerning possible regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25483723

  3. Frictions between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between…

  4. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  5. Reprint of "Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach".

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:27561231

  6. Weak measurement combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment and implementation in optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Ye, Ming-Yong; Song, He-Shan

    2015-12-01

    Weak measurement [Y. Aharonov, D.Z. Albert, L. Vaidman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351 (1988); C. Simon, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 040101(R) (2011)] combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment that use Controlled Hadamard gate instead of Hadamard gate in quantum networks give rise to a surprising amplification effect, i.e., counterintuitive negative amplification effect. We show that this effect is caused by the wave and particle behaviours of the system, and it can't be explained by a semiclassical wave theory [D. Suter, Phys. Rev. A 51, 45 (1995); J.C. Howell, D.J. Starling, P.B. Dixon, P.K. Vudyasetu, A.N. Jordan, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033813 (2010); N. Brunner, A. Acín, D. Collins, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 180402 (2003)] and by the statistical feature of preselection and postselection with disturbance [C. Ferrie, J. Combes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120404 (2014)], due to the entanglement of the system and the ancilla in Controlled Hadamard gate. The generation mechanism with wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics lead us to a scheme for implementation of weak measurement in optomechanical system.

  7. Valuing improvements to threatened and endangered marine species: an application of stated preference choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2011-07-01

    Non-market valuation research has produced value estimates for over forty threatened and endangered (T&E) species, including mammals, fish, birds, and crustaceans. Increasingly, Stated Preference Choice Experiments (SPCE) are utilized for valuation, as the format offers flexibility for policy analysis and may reduce certain types of response biases relative to the more traditional Contingent Valuation method. Additionally, SPCE formats can allow respondents to make trade-offs among multiple species, providing information on the distinctiveness of preferences for different T&E species. In this paper we present results of an SPCE involving three U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species: the Puget Sound Chinook salmon, the Hawaiian monk seal, and the smalltooth sawfish. We estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for improving each species' ESA listing status and statistically compare these values between the three species using a method of convolutions approach. Our results suggest that respondents have distinct preferences for the three species, and that WTP estimates differ depending on the species and the level of improvement to their ESA status. Our results should be of interest to researchers and policy-makers, as we provide value estimates for three species that have limited, if any, estimates available in the economics literature, as well as new information about the way respondents make trade-offs among three taxonomically different species. PMID:21392881

  8. Assessing Preferences for a University-Based Smoking Cessation Program in Lebanon: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Abbyad, Christine W.; Kohler, Racquel E.; Kratka, Allison K.; Oh, Leighanne; Wood, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking prevalence rates in Lebanon are among the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Few smoking cessation programs are offered in Lebanon and little is known about the preferences of Lebanese smokers for cessation treatment programs. Objective: To establish which attributes of smoking cessation programs are most important to Lebanese smokers. Methods: Smokers at the American University of Beirut were surveyed to elicit their preferences for, and tradeoffs between the attributes of a hypothetical university-based smoking cessation program. Preferences for medication type/mechanism, risk of benign side effects, availability of support, distance traveled to obtain medication, and price of complete treatment were assessed using the discrete choice experiment method. Results: The smokers’ responses (N = 191) to changes in attributes were statistically significant. Smokers were willing to make trade-offs between attributes. On average, smokers were willing to pay LBP 103,000 (USD 69) for cessation support. Respondents were willing to give up LBP 105,000 (USD 70) to avoid an additional 10% risk of minor side effects and LBP 18,000 (USD 12) to avoid an addition kilometer of travel to the nearest pharmacy. Heavy smokers were the least responsive group and had the lowest demand elasticities. Conclusions: Student smokers were willing to participate in a relatively complex exercise that weighs the advantages and disadvantages of a hypothetical smoking cessation program. Overall they were less interested in the pill form of smoking cessation treatment, but they were willing to make tradeoffs to be smoke-free. PMID:25239962

  9. An Australian discrete choice experiment to value eq-5d health states.

    PubMed

    Viney, Rosalie; Norman, Richard; Brazier, John; Cronin, Paula; King, Madeleine T; Ratcliffe, Julie; Street, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    Conventionally, generic quality-of-life health states, defined within multi-attribute utility instruments, have been valued using a Standard Gamble or a Time Trade-Off. Both are grounded in expected utility theory but impose strong assumptions about the form of the utility function. Preference elicitation tasks for both are complicated, limiting the number of health states that each respondent can value and, therefore, that can be valued overall. The usual approach has been to value a set of the possible health states and impute values for the remainder. Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) offer an attractive alternative, allowing investigation of more flexible specifications of the utility function and greater coverage of the response surface. We designed a DCE to obtain values for EQ-5D health states and implemented it in an Australia-representative online panel (n = 1,031). A range of specifications investigating non-linear preferences with respect to time and interactions between EQ-5D levels were estimated using a random-effects probit model. The results provide empirical support for a flexible utility function, including at least some two-factor interactions. We then constructed a preference index such that full health and death were valued at 1 and 0, respectively, to provide a DCE-based algorithm for Australian cost-utility analyses. PMID:23765787

  10. Parents’ preferences for vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus in the Netherlands: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To generate knowledge about potential improvements to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination information and organization strategies, we assessed how aspects of HPV vaccination are associated with parents’ preferences for their daughters’ uptake, and which trade-offs parents are willing to make between these aspects. Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among parents with a daughter aged 10–12 years. Panel mixed logit regression models were used to determine parents’ preferences for vaccination. Trade-offs were quantified between four vaccination programme aspects: degree of protection against cervical cancer, duration of protection, risk of serious side-effects, and age of vaccination. Results Total response rate was 302/983 (31%). All aspects influenced respondents’ preferences for HPV vaccination (p < 0.05). Respondents preferred vaccination at age 14 years instead of at a younger age. Respondents were willing to trade-off 11% of the degree of protection to obtain life-time protection instead of 25 years. To obtain a vaccination with a risk of serious side-effects of 1/750,000 instead of 1/150,000, respondents were willing to trade-off 21%. Conclusions Uptake may rise if the age ranges for free HPV vaccinations are broadened. Based on the trade-offs parents were willing to make, we conclude that uptake would increase if new evidence indicated outcomes are better than are currently understood, particularly for degree and duration of protection. PMID:24885861

  11. Public perceptions of coronary events risk factors: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamarneh, Yazid N; Agus, Ashley; Campbell, Danny; Crealey, Grainne E; McElnay, James C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess public perceptions of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Design Discrete choice experiment questionnaire. Setting Six provincial centres in Northern Ireland. Participants 1000 adults of the general public in Northern Ireland. Primary and secondary outcomes The general public's perception of CHD risk factors. The effect of having risk factor(s) on that perception. Results Two multinomial logit models were created. One was a basic model (no heterogeneity permitted), while the other permitted heterogeneity based on respondents’ characteristics. In both models individuals with very high cholesterol were perceived to be at the highest risk of having a coronary event. Respondents who reported having high cholesterol perceived the risk contribution of very high cholesterol to be greater than those who reported having normal cholesterol. Similar findings were observed with blood pressure and smoking. Respondents who were male and older perceived the contribution of age and gender to be lower than respondents who were female and younger. Conclusions Respondents with different risk factors perceived such factors differently. These divergent perceptions of CHD risk factors could be a barrier to behavioural change. This brings into focus the need for more tailored health promotion campaigns to tackle CHD. PMID:22952164

  12. Hawaiian Residents' Preferences for Miconia Control Program Attributes Using Conjoint Choice Experiment and Latent Class Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens ( Miconia) . Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents’ willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more (2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii.

  13. Hawaiian residents' preferences for Miconia control program attributes using conjoint choice experiment and latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens (Miconia). Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents' willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more ($2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii. PMID:20033159

  14. Modeling the Bullying Prevention Program Preferences of Educators: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally…

  15. A rapid usability assessment methodology to support the choice of clinical information systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M C; Watbled, L; Carpentier, A M; Degroisse, M; Alao, O

    2002-01-01

    We present here an adapted methodology integrating usability engineering and early evaluation procedures to support the choice of a Clinical Information System in the context of a standard Call for Tender. We illustrate the application of this methodology with a case study. We integrated a standard 'contextual task and activity analysis' into the choice process and then drew up usability recommendations for the choice of an application. We organized a one-week on-site exhibition and test for each candidate company. During the test sessions, we performed a rapid usability assessment. The final choice of the application is strongly and positively influenced by the results of the usability assessment. PMID:12463784

  16. Modeling the Information Preferences of Parents of Children with Mental Health Problems: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Deal, Ken; Rimas, Heather; Buchanan, Don H.; Gold, Michelle; Sdao-Jarvie, Katherine; Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although materials informing parents about children's mental health (CMH) problems can improve outcomes, we know relatively little about the design factors that might influence their utilization of available resources. We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the information preferences of parents seeking mental health services for 6…

  17. International Student Destination Choice: The Influence of Home Campus Experience on the Decision to Consider Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that the country and institution choices of international students are greatly influenced by recommendations they receive from others who have experience of undertaking higher education overseas. For Western universities, it is of utmost importance to satisfy their international students, who can then encourage the next…

  18. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  19. A portable system for studying discrete-trial group choice.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Tonneau, François; Cordevant, Marie-Alix

    2015-03-01

    Whether groups of people or animals behave optimally in relation to resources is an issue of interest to psychology, ecology, and economics. In behavioral ecology, the simplest model of optimal group choice is the ideal free distribution (IFD). The IFD model has been tested in humans with discrete or continuous inputs and through manual or automated procedures (e.g., Kraft, Baum, & Burge, 2002; Madden, Peden, & Yamagushi, 2002). Manual procedures tend to be time consuming, however, whereas automated procedures typically require access to a computer network. In this article, we describe a new automated system for discrete-trial tests of the IFD model. Our protocol involves a single computer connected to a digital projector (for stimulus presentation) and a network of gamepads (for registering choices). The system is comparatively inexpensive, easy to install, easy to transport, and it permits the automated collection of group data in minimal time. We show that the data generated through this protocol are comparable to those previously reported in the IFD literature. PMID:25732576

  20. The Effect of Including an Opt-Out Option in Discrete Choice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine to what extent the inclusion of an opt-out option in a DCE may have an effect on choice behaviour and therefore might influence the attribute level estimates, the relative importance of the attributes and calculated trade-offs. Methods 781 Dutch Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients completed a questionnaire containing nine choice tasks with an opt-out option and nice forced choice tasks. Mixed-logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of the five lifestyle program related attributes that were included. Willingness to pay (WTP) values were calculated and it was tested whether results differed between respondents who answered the choice tasks with an opt-out option in the first or second part of the questionnaire. Results 21.4% of the respondents always opted out. Respondents who were given the opt-out option in the first part of the questionnaire as well as lower educated respondents significantly more often opted out. For both the forced and unforced choice model, different attributes showed significant estimates, the relative importance of the attributes was equal. However, due to differences in relative importance weights, the WTP values for the PA schedule differed significantly between both datasets. Conclusions Results show differences in opting out based on the location of the opt-out option and respondents' educational level; this resulted in small differences between the forced and unforced choice model. Since respondents seem to learn from answering forced choice tasks, a dual response design might result in higher data quality compared to offering a direct opt-out option. Future research should empirically explore how choice sets should be presented to make them as easy and less complex as possible in order to reduce the proportion of respondents that opts-out due to choice task complexity. Moreover, future research should debrief respondents to examine the reasons for choosing the opt-out alternative. PMID:25365169

  1. Enacting Glasser's (1998) Choice Theory in a Grade 3 Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Choice theory identifies five psychological needs: survival, freedom, power, belonging, and fun (Glasser, 1998). There are close parallels with self-determination theory (SDT), which specifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as essential needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000). This case study examines a very successful example of choice theory…

  2. A Study of Alternatives in American Education, Vol. IV: Family Choice in Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, R. Gary; Blackman, Julie

    Originating in the Rand Corporation's evaluation of the voucher demonstration project in the Alum Rock Union School District (California), this study of family choice in schooling focuses on these questions: Are parents motivated and competent to make intelligent choices among competing educational alternatives? What kinds of schools do parents…

  3. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  4. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  5. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  6. Subgroup Analysis in Social Experiments: Measuring Program Impacts Based on Post-Treatment Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Laura R.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a methodology for analyzing the impacts of social programs on previously unexamined subgroups. The approach estimates the impact of programs on subgroups identified by a postreatment choice while maintaining the integrity of the experimental research design. (SLD)

  7. Using the choice experiment method in the design of breeding goals in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ragkos, A; Abas, Z

    2015-02-01

    Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits. PMID:25245334

  8. Mothers More Altruistic than Fathers, but Only When Bearing Responsibility Alone: Evidence from Parental Choice Experiments in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Vyrastekova, Jana; Huisman, Janine; Mosha, Idda; Smits, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts humans to be more altruistic towards genetically more closely related kin. Because fathers face uncertainty about the relation to their children, the asymmetric parental altruism hypothesis predicts mothers to provide a higher share of parental care than fathers. We tested this hypothesis using parental choice experiments in rural Tanzania, in which fathers and mothers could choose between an outcome that benefited themselves and an outcome that benefited their children. When a parent was solely responsible for the outcome, mothers chose more altruistic than fathers. However when the choice situation was changed into a coordination game in which responsibility was shared with the partner, the sex difference disappeared. Fathers then chose somewhat more altruistic, but mothers substantially less. Our findings thus partly support the asymmetric parental altruism hypothesis, but they also show that parental altruism is influenced by the context in which choices are taken. PMID:24964142

  9. Defining Continuous Improvement and Cost Minimization Possibilities through School Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2009-01-01

    Studies of existing best practices cannot determine whether the current "best" schooling practices could be even better, less costly, or more effective and/or improve at a faster rate, but we can discover a cost effective menu of schooling options and each item's minimum cost through market accountability experiments. This paper describes…

  10. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  11. Estimating the monetary value of willingness to pay for E-book reader's attributes using partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Chin-Khian

    2013-09-01

    A partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiments design was used to examine the monetary value of the willingness to pay for E-book Reader's attributes. Conjoint analysis is an efficient, cost-effective, and most widely used quantitative method in marketing research to understand consumer preferences and value trade-off. Value can be interpreted by customer or consumer as the received of multiple benefits from a price that was paid. The monetary value of willingness to pay for battery life, internal memory, external memory, screen size, text to Speech, touch screen, and converting handwriting to digital text of E-book reader were estimated in this study. Due to the significant interaction effect of the attributes with the price, the monetary values for the seven attributes were found to be different at different values of odds of purchasing versus not purchasing. The significant interactions effects were one of the main contribution of the partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment.

  12. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career. PMID:24179019

  13. Valuation of environmental improvements in a specially protected marine area: a choice experiment approach in Göcek Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Özge; Alp, Emre

    2012-11-15

    Although the Göcek Bay area was declared as a specially protected area by General Directorate of Natural Assets Protection, the region is threatened because of pollution resulting from increased boat tourism and lack of efficient policies. Extensive measures are being planned in order to protect the region. Coastal management requires the use of technical, social political and economic tools to create a comprehensive management strategy. For environmental investments, it is necessary that benefits and the costs of environmental improvements should be identified in monetary terms in order to determine the feasibility of the investments. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of the management alternatives to improve environmental quality in Göcek Bay to aid decision makers. In this study, the environmental benefits that can be obtained with improved water quality and restored marine ecosystem were calculated using the Choice Experiment Method, a non-market valuation technique. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model and the results showed that, local residents and tourists are willing to pay 18TL/month and 16.6TL/tour, respectively for improvements in water quality. For improvements in marine life, local residents are willing to pay 14.8TL/month and tourists are willing to pay 11.2TL/tour. With this study, it has been seen that the results obtained will pave the way for new policies and measures against the deterioration of the marine environment of Göcek Bay. PMID:23085470

  14. Eliciting health state utilities for Dupuytren’s contracture using a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose An internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to elicit preferences for a wide range of Dupuytren’s contracture (DC)-related health states. An algorithm was subsequently developed to convert these preferences into health state utilities that can be used to assess DC’s impact on quality of life and the value of its treatments. Methods Health state preferences for varying levels of DC hand severity were elicited via an internet survey from a sample of the UK adult population. Severity levels were defined using a combination of contractures (0, 45, or 90 degrees) in 8 proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous respondents indicated which hand was preferable in each of the 10 randomly-selected hand-pairings comparing different DC severity levels. For consistency across comparisons, anatomically precise digital hand drawings were used. To anchor preferences onto the traditional 0–1 utility scale used in health economic evaluations, unaffected hands were assigned a utility of 1.0 whereas the utility for a maximally affected hand (i.e., all 8 joints set at 90 degrees of contracture) was derived by asking respondents to indicate what combination of attributes and levels of the EQ-5D-5L profile most accurately reflects the impact of living with such hand. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate indirect utilities, then rescaled to the anchor points on the EQ-5D-5L. Results Estimated utilities based on the responses of 1,745 qualified respondents were 0.49, 0.57, and 0.63 for completely affected dominant hands, non-dominant hands, or ambidextrous hands, respectively. Utility for a dominant hand with 90-degree contracture in t h e metacarpophalangeal joints of the ring and little fingers was estimated to be 0.89. Separately, reducing the contracture of metacarpophalangeal joint for a little finger from 50 to 12

  15. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.

    PubMed

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

    2013-10-01

    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period

  16. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public’s Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public’s use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public’s relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Method A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. Results When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents’ preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Conclusion Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people’s decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to

  17. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that--for the first time--allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  18. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  19. Becoming Unionized in a Charter School: Teacher Experiences and the Promise of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montaño, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    When California legislators passed the California Charter School Act of 1992, it allowed parents the choice of sending their children to public charter schools, places where teachers would have more autonomy and where schools faced exemptions from state education codes and from collective bargaining contracts. Hope Charter School (a pseudonym;…

  20. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that – for the first time – allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  1. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: Addressing design and sampling issues

    PubMed Central

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-01-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. PMID:24908173

  2. The Role of Incomplete Information and Others' Choice in Reducing Traffic: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Angelo; Mosso, Cristina O.; Merlone, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the role of payoff information and conformity in improving network performance in a traffic dilemma known as the Braess paradox. Our goal is to understand when decisions are guided by selfish motivations or otherwise by social ones. For this purpose, we consider the manipulation of others' choice, public and private monitoring and information on distribution of choices. Data show that when social comparison was not salient, participants were more cooperative. By contrast, cooperativeness of others' choice made participants more competitive leading to traffic and collective performance decrease. The implications of these findings to the literature on social dilemmas are discussed. PMID:26903931

  3. Undergraduates talk about their choice to study physics at university: what was key to their participation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodd, Melissa; Reiss, Michael; Mujtaba, Tamjid

    2013-07-01

    Background . The research on which this article is based was commissioned because of concerns about perceived shortages of willing and able young people choosing to study physics at university. Purpose This article reports on first year physics undergraduates' narratives of why they are studying physics and uses these narratives to identify reasons for their choice. Design and method Narrative-style interviewing with a purposive sample of first year undergraduates yielded data that revealed complexities around decision making, including choice of university course. Analysis of the texts was informed by psychoanalytical notions rooted in the work of Sigmund Freud. These psychoanalytical notions were used both in generating the interview data - the undergraduate volunteer interviewees were conceptualised as 'defended subjects' - and in analysing these interviews in order to conjecture how unconscious forces might figure in young people's decision making. Results After analysing the interviews with physics undergraduates, with respect to the question 'why are they reading physics?', the claim is that identification with a key adult is an important element in an individual's participation. On the other hand, we discerned no evidence that experience of the sorts of innovation typically designed to increase physics uptake - for example 'fun projects' or competitions - had been key with respect to a desire to read physics. Conclusion Attempts to recruit more students to university to study physics should note that a young person who identifies with a significant adult associated with physics, typically a teacher or family member, is in a good position to believe that physics is a subject that is worth studying.

  4. Developing attributes and attribute-levels for a discrete choice experiment on micro health insurance in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are attribute-driven experimental techniques used to elicit stakeholders’ preferences to support the design and implementation of policy interventions. The validity of a DCE, therefore, depends on the appropriate specification of the attributes and their levels. There have been recent calls for greater rigor in implementing and reporting on the processes of developing attributes and attribute-levels for discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This paper responds to such calls by carefully reporting a systematic process of developing micro health insurance attributes and attribute-levels for the design of a DCE in rural Malawi. Methods Conceptual attributes and attribute-levels were initially derived from a literature review which informed the design of qualitative data collection tools to identify context specific attributes and attribute-levels. Qualitative data was collected in August-September 2012 from 12 focus group discussions with community residents and 8 in-depth interviews with health workers. All participants were selected according to stratified purposive sampling. The material was tape-recorded, fully transcribed, and coded by three researchers to identify context-specific attributes and attribute-levels. Expert opinion was used to scale down the attributes and levels. A pilot study confirmed the appropriateness of the selected attributes and levels for a DCE. Results First, a consensus, emerging from an individual level analysis of the qualitative transcripts, identified 10 candidate attributes. Levels were assigned to all attributes based on data from transcripts and knowledge of the Malawian context, derived from literature. Second, through further discussions with experts, four attributes were discarded based on multiple criteria. The 6 remaining attributes were: premium level, unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, transportation coverage and copayment levels. A final

  5. A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Grrishma; Uppinakudru, Gurunandan; Girwar Singh, Gaur; Bangera, Shobith; Dutt Raghavendra, Aswini; Thangavel, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person's central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction (P values <0.0001 and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. PMID:25580294

  6. How to make rural jobs more attractive to health workers. Findings from a discrete choice experiment in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise

    2011-02-01

    The geographical imbalance of the health workforce in Tanzania represents a serious problem when it comes to delivering crucial health services to a large share of the population. This study provides new quantitative information about how to make jobs in rural areas more attractive to newly educated clinical officers (COs). A unique data set stemming from a discrete choice experiment with CO finalists in Tanzania is applied. The results show that offering continuing education after a certain period of service is one of the most powerful recruitment instruments the authorities have available. Increased salaries and hardship allowances will also substantially increase recruitment in rural areas. Offers of decent housing and good infrastructure, including the provision of equipment, will increase recruitment to rural remote areas but not as much as higher wages and offers of education. Women are less responsive to pecuniary incentives and are more concerned with factors that directly allow them to do a good job, while those with parents living in a remote rural area are generally less responsive to the proposed policies. When the willingness to help other people is a strong motivating force, policies that improve the conditions for helping people appear particularly effective. PMID:20094993

  7. Healthcare Worker Preferences for Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Programs in South Africa: A Best-Worst Scaling Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Nathan N.; Roy, Lilla; O’Hara, Lyndsay M.; Spiegel, Jerry M.; Lynd, Larry D.; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Yassi, Annalee; Nophale, Letshego E.; Marra, Carlo A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa are at a high risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) due to their occupational exposures. This study aimed to systematically quantify and compare the preferred attributes of an active TB case finding program for HCWs in South Africa. Methods A Best–Worst Scaling choice experiment estimated HCW’s preferences using a random-effects conditional logit model. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to explore heterogeneity in preferences. Results “No cost”, “the assurance of confidentiality”, “no wait” and testing at the occupational health unit at one’s hospital were the most preferred attributes. LCA identified a four class model with consistent differences in preference strength. Sex, occupation, and the time since a previous TB test were statistically significant predictors of class membership. Conclusions The findings support the strengthening of occupational health units in South Africa to offer free and confidential active TB case finding programs for HCWs with minimal wait times. There is considerable variation in active TB case finding preferences amongst HCWs of different gender, occupation, and testing history. Attention to heterogeneity in preferences should optimize screening utilization of target HCW populations. PMID:26197344

  8. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  9. Recent experience modulates forebrain gene-expression in response to mate-choice cues in European starlings.

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, Keith W; Gentner, Timothy Q; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-01-01

    Mate-choice decisions can be experience dependent, but we know little about how the brain processes stimuli that release such decisions. Female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) prefer males with long-bout songs over males with short-bout songs, and show higher expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK in the auditory forebrain when exposed to long-bout songs than when exposed to short-bout songs. We exposed female starlings to a short-day photoperiod for one of three durations and then, on an increased photophase, exposed them to one week of long-bout or short-bout song experience. We then examined their IEG response to novel long-bout versus novel short-bout songs by quantifying ZENK protein in two song-processing areas: the caudo-medial hyperstriatum ventrale and the caudo-medial neostriatum. ZENK expression in both areas increased with tenure on short-day photoperiods, suggesting that short days sensitize females to song. The ZENK response bias toward long-bout songs was greater in females with long-bout experience than in females with short-bout experience, indicating that the forebrain response bias toward a preferred trait depends on recent experience with that category of trait. This surprising level of neuroplasticity is immediately relevant to the natural history and fitness of the organism, and may underlie a mechanism for optimizing mate-choice criteria amidst locally variable distributions of secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:12495492

  10. Recent experience modulates forebrain gene-expression in response to mate-choice cues in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Sockman, Keith W; Gentner, Timothy Q; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-12-01

    Mate-choice decisions can be experience dependent, but we know little about how the brain processes stimuli that release such decisions. Female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) prefer males with long-bout songs over males with short-bout songs, and show higher expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK in the auditory forebrain when exposed to long-bout songs than when exposed to short-bout songs. We exposed female starlings to a short-day photoperiod for one of three durations and then, on an increased photophase, exposed them to one week of long-bout or short-bout song experience. We then examined their IEG response to novel long-bout versus novel short-bout songs by quantifying ZENK protein in two song-processing areas: the caudo-medial hyperstriatum ventrale and the caudo-medial neostriatum. ZENK expression in both areas increased with tenure on short-day photoperiods, suggesting that short days sensitize females to song. The ZENK response bias toward long-bout songs was greater in females with long-bout experience than in females with short-bout experience, indicating that the forebrain response bias toward a preferred trait depends on recent experience with that category of trait. This surprising level of neuroplasticity is immediately relevant to the natural history and fitness of the organism, and may underlie a mechanism for optimizing mate-choice criteria amidst locally variable distributions of secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:12495492