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Sample records for cholecystectomy

  1. The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W

    2001-01-01

    Prof Dr Med Erich Mühe of Böblingen, Germany, performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy on September 12, 1985. The German Surgical Society rejected Mühe in 1986 after he reported that he had performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy, yet in 1992 he received their highest award, the German Surgical Society Anniversary Award. In 1990 in Atlanta, at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Surgeons (SAGES) Convention, Perissat, Berci, Cuschieri, Dubois, and Mouret were recognized by SAGES for performing early laparoscopic cholecystectomies, but Mühe was not. However, in 1999 he was recognized by SAGES for having performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy-SAGES invited Mühe to present the Storz Lecture. In Mühe's presentation, titled "The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy," which he gave in March 1999 in San Antonio, Texas, he described the first procedure. Finally, Mühe had received the worldwide acclaim that he deserved for his pioneering work. One purpose of this article is to trace the development of the basic instruments used in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The other purpose is to give Mühe the recognition he deserves for being the developer of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure. PMID:11304004

  2. Appraisal of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, H A; Ballinger, J F; Anderson, W J

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of three general surgeons performing 304 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in three private hospitals between October 1989 and November 1990. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy boasts two major advantages over the conventional procedure: the remarkable reduction in postoperative pain and economic benefit, largely due to the patient's early return to work. Revealing a complication rate of 2% and no deaths, this study has shown that this procedure can offer patients these advantages with a medical risk no greater than that accompanying conventional cholecystectomy. Patient safety must be paramount, and it is the responsibility of the surgical community to ensure that all surgeons receive the highest quality training and that the technique is applied appropriately. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1828140

  3. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Raymoony, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted on 100 patients with symptomatic gallbladder stones, aged 22-81 years with a mean of 51.5 years, who underwent cholecystectomy in Zarqa city, Jordan between July 1998 and July 1999. The success rate was 87% and the procedure was completed using the conventional method in 13 patients. The mean operative time was 60 minutes, complication rate was 5% and there were no deaths. The mean hospital stay was 1 day and mean time to return to work was 10 days. This study showed that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe procedure with reasonable operative time, less postoperative pain, a short hospital stay, early return to work, and a low morbidity and mortality rate. PMID:15332788

  4. Single-Site Robotic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myung Jae; Lee, So young; Lee, Sung Hwan; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Woo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to introduce an alternative technique for effective single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) using a reverse port. Proper exposure of Calot's triangle is critical for safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Current robotic surgical systems are useful for single-site cholecystectomy. However, in exposing Calot's triangle, the gallbladder is usually retracted in a medial and upward direction, resulting in a narrow triangle. This intraoperative view is a major obstacle to safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy. From October 2013 to October 2014, 55 consecutive patients underwent SSRC by a single surgeon at Yonsei University Severance Hospital. Initially, 5 patients underwent the original robotic single site cholecystectomy technique, and the remaining 50 patients underwent robotic single site cholecystectomy using our reverse port technique. There were no differences between the SSRC-O (original port) group and the SSRC-R (reverse port) group in terms of patient age (P = 0.244), body mass index (P = 0.503), and pathologic conditions of the gallbladder (P = 0.841). Total operation time (132.6 vs 99.12 min; P = 0.009), actual dissection time (51.6 vs 30.28 min; P = 0.001), and console time (84.4 vs 50.46 min; P = 0.001) were all significantly shorter in the SSRC-R group. Mean intraoperative blood loss was minimal in both groups (20 vs 12.4 mL, P = 0.467), and bile spillage occurred in 2 patients of the SSRC-R group. There was one case of laparoscopic conversion in the SSRC-R group. The reverse port technique described in this study successfully widened Calot's triangle and improved the safety of the current robotic surgical system for single-site robotic cholecystectomy. PMID:26496344

  5. The technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, A M; Branum, G D; Murray, E A; Chong, W K; Ware, R E; Kinney, T R; Pappas, T N; Meyers, W C

    1992-01-01

    Twelve children underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis during a 10-month period in one institution. The operative technique that has been described for adults was modified because of the smaller dimensions of pediatric patients. These modifications are discussed in this report, as are new alternatives for evaluating the common duct. No operative complications or conversions to open cholecystectomy occurred, and no complications after surgery were seen during an average follow-up period of 4.5 months. The benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy include decreased pain and ileus after surgery, shortened hospitalization, and improved cosmesis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and efficacious in children, and it compares favorably with traditional cholecystectomy in the pediatric age group. Images FIG. 3. PMID:1532120

  6. Cholecystectomy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadr-Azodi, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this population-based study was to describe characteristics of patients with liver cirrhosis undergoing cholecystectomy and evaluate the risk for perioperative and postoperative complications during the 30-day postoperative period. Method. All laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy procedures registered between 2006 and 2011 in the Swedish Registry for Gallstone Surgery and ERCP (GallRiks) were included. Patients with liver cirrhosis were identified by linking data to the Swedish National Patient Registry (NPR). Results. Of 62,488 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, 77 (0.12%) had cirrhosis, of which 29 patients (37.7%) had decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis were older and had more often gallstone complications at the time for surgery. Postoperative complications were registered in 13 (16.9%) patients with liver cirrhosis and in 5,738 (9.2%) patients in the noncirrhotic group (P < 0.05). Univariable analysis showed that patients with liver cirrhosis are more likely to receive postoperative blood transfusion (OR = 4.4, CI 1.08–18.0, P < 0.05) and antibiotic treatment >1 day (OR = 2.3, CI 1.11–4.84, P < 0.05) than noncirrhotic patients. Conclusion. Patients with cirrhosis undergoing cholecystectomy have a higher incidence of postoperative complications than patients without cirrhosis. However, cholecystectomy is safe and if presented with adequate indication, surgery should not be delayed due to fears of surgical complications. PMID:26788053

  7. Budd–Chiari Syndrome Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Amarapurkar, Pooja D.; Parekh, Sunil J.; Sundeep, Punamiya; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with thrombophilic disorder while undergoing intra-abdominal surgery may develop splanchnic vein thrombosis which can have dire consequences. Here we report a case of a 38-year-old female who developed acute Budd–Chiari syndrome after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She had polycythemia vera which was not diagnosed before surgery. In this report we want to highlight presurgical evaluation of routine biochemical tests and ultrasonography suggestive of myeloproliferative disorders were missed which led to the Budd–Chiari syndrome. We recommend a meticulous look at the routine evaluation done prior to cholecystectomy is essential. PMID:25755508

  8. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Hudson, H M; Hakaim, A G; Birkett, D H

    1992-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a viable and safe alternative for the treatment of symptomatic gallstones and biliary colic. As surgeons gain more experience with this procedure, contraindications become fewer and indications increase. Well-documented advantages of this approach include less patient discomfort, less surgical scarring, and earlier return to employment. Not previously discussed in the literature, however, are the additional advantages that this procedure holds for a specific subset of patients--namely, those patients that have undergone successful organ transplantation and are receiving immunosuppressive drugs. We report a case of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in such a patient. PMID:1387737

  9. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  10. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  11. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  12. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy--can conversion be predicted?

    PubMed

    Sikora, S S; Kumar, A; Saxena, R; Kapoor, V K; Kaushik, S P

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of conversion to open cholecystectomy (OC) always exists while performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study has been performed with the aim of identifying factors predicting conversion to OC. From October 1992-April 1994, LC was attempted in 150 patients and conversion to OC was required in 29 (19%) patients. Ten preoperative factors were analyzed retrospectively to identify parameters significantly correlating with conversion to OC. Preoperative factors analyzed were age, sex, duration of symptoms, BMI (Body Mass Index), past history of jaundice, previous abdominal surgery, associated medical risk factors, palpable lump on clinical examination, USG, and OCG findings. Univariate and multiple stepwise regression analysis identified male sex, USG finding of contracted/thick-walled gall bladder, and a palpable gall bladder lump on examination as significant preoperative factors predicting conversion to OC. PMID:8553679

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. PMID:9820716

  14. [Complicated course of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Dralle, H; Neu, J; Köckerling, F; Klee, F; Büchler, M W

    2015-09-01

    The case presented deals with the complicated course of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a 45-year-old female patient due to cholecystolithiasis. The patient complained that during the operation an injury to the small intestine occurred, which was only operatively treated at midday of the despite massive pain and insufficient pain treatment. The intervention was claimed to have resulted in mental and physical suffering. The case is assessed by two independent experts in the sense of a "scientifically founded comment" with respect to the decision of the arbitration board and taking the surgical standards into consideration. PMID:26315012

  15. Predicting Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Based on Clinicoradiological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Udachan, Tejaswini V; Sasnur, Prasad; Baloorkar, Ramakanth; Sindgikar, Vikram; Narasangi, Basavaraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, of all Laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 1-13% requires conversion to an open for various reasons. Thus, for surgeons it would be helpful to establish criteria that would predict difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conversion preoperatively. But there is no clear consensus among the laparoscopic surgeons regarding the parameters predicting the difficult dissection and conversion to open cholecystectomy. Aim To assess the clinical and radiological parameters for predicting the difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its conversion. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study conducted from October 2010 to October 2014. Total of 180 patients meeting the inclusion criteria undergoing LC were included in the study. Four parameters were assessed to predict the difficult LC. These parameters were: 1) Gallbladder wall thickness; 2) Pericholecystic fluid collection; 3) Number of attacks; 4) Total leucocyte count. The statistical analysis was done using Z-test. Results Out of 180 patients included in this study 126 (70%) were easy, 44 (24.44%) were difficult and 3 (5.56%) patients required conversion to open cholecystectomy. The overall conversion rate was 5.6%. The TLC>11000, more than 2 previous attacks of cholecystitis, GB wall thickness of >3mm and Pericholecystic collection were all statistically significant for predicting the difficult LC and its conversion. Conclusion The difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conversion to open surgery can be predicted preoperatively based on number of previous attacks of cholecystitis, WBC count, Gall bladder wall thickness and Pericholecystic collection. PMID:26816942

  16. Dropped gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the consequences.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Ali Riza; Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Gözalan, Ugur; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2005-04-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, gallbladder perforation has been reported, leading to bile leak and spillage of gallstones into the peritoneum. Because the consequences can be dangerous, conversion to laparotomy as an instant management for gallstone spillage is one of the topics of current discussion in laparoscopic cholesystectomy. In this article, we discussed the option of not converting to laparotomy after intraperitoneal gallstone spillage as an acceptable approach to management or not.A prospectively maintained database of 1528 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during a 10-year period at the 4th Surgical Clinic of The Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital was analyzed. Perforations resulting in gallstone spillage into the abdominal cavity were documented in 58 (3.8%) patients. Among those 58 patients seven (12%) experienced complications from retained stones. To maintain acceptable management of such patients, surgeons should inform each patient preoperatively that stones may be spilled. In the event of spillage, the patient should be informed postoperatively, and followed closely for complications. Follow-up should not waste time and money with unnecessary examinations, and it should avoid psychological trauma to the patient with a wrong diagnosis of cancer as a stone may mimic cancer radiologically. Thus the surgeon should not hesitate to record the events and inform the patient about the spillage of the stones and possible consequences. PMID:15770380

  17. Harmonic Scalpel versus Monopolar Electrocauterization in Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shunqian; Xie, Xueyi; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) using surgical electrocautery is considered to be the gold standard procedure for the treatment of uncomplicated cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the Harmonic scalpel, an advanced laparoscopic technique associated with less thermal damage in LC, when compared to electrocautery. Methods: From October 2010 through June 2013, a total of 198 patients were randomly allocated to LC with a Harmonic scalpel (experimental group, 117 patients) or conventional monopolar electrocautery (control group, 81 patients). The main outcome measures were operative time, blood loss, conversion to laparotomy, postoperative hospital stay, post-LC pain, and cost effectiveness. Results: The 2 groups were comparable with respect to baseline patient characteristics. When compared to conventional monopolar electrocautery, there were no significant reductions in the operative time, bleeding, frequency of conversion to laparotomy, and duration of postoperative recovery with the Harmonic scalpel (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using conventional monopolar electrocautery is as effective and safe as that with the Harmonic scalpel, for treating uncomplicated cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. PMID:27547026

  18. Postoperative Care of Patients Undergoing Same-Day Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Patricia; Kautz, Donald D

    2015-07-01

    Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies are common outpatient surgical procedures. After briefly discussing cholecystectomy and its indications, best practices in phase I, phase II, and phase III recovery are discussed. Typical pharmaceutical regimens for controlling pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting are summarized. By implementing best practices, nurses can prevent and recognize complications. The criteria for discharge, extended recovery, and inpatient admission are discussed, along with the required patient discharge teaching using the teach-back technique, as well as patient and family teaching needs in the immediate postoperative period. Nurses can optimize the patient's surgical experience and promote safety by implementing best practices in all phases of recovery from laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:26119606

  19. Duplicated extrahepatic bile duct identified following cholecystectomy injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoepfner, Lauren; Sweeney, Mary Katherine; White, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    Though variations of intrahepatic biliary anatomy are quite common, duplication of the extrahepatic biliary system is extremely rare and reported infrequently in the literature. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgery procedures performed. Unfortunately, iatrogenic bile duct injuries can contribute to significant morbidity including hospital readmissions, infectious complications and death. Anomalous extrahepatic biliary anatomy may be one of the factors, which increases the likelihood of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of an iatrogenic bile duct injury that occurred during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in which a duplicated extrahepatic biliary system was identified intraoperatively during the definitive operative repair. PMID:27141049

  20. Spilled gallstones mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. Although spilled gallstones are considered harmless, unretrieved gallstones can result in intra-abdominal abscess. We report a case of abscess formation due to spilled gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma on radiologic imaging. A 59-year-old male with a surgical history of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by gallstones spillage presented with a 1 mo history of constant right-sided abdominal pain and tenderness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a retroperitoneal sarcoma at the sub-hepatic space. On open exploration a 5 cm × 5 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The mass contained purulent material and gallstones. Final pathology revealed abscess formation and foreign body granuloma. Vigilance concerning the possibility of lost gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is important. If possible, every spilled gallstone during surgery should be retrieved to prevent this rare complication. PMID:27158213

  1. Spilled gallstones mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. Although spilled gallstones are considered harmless, unretrieved gallstones can result in intra-abdominal abscess. We report a case of abscess formation due to spilled gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma on radiologic imaging. A 59-year-old male with a surgical history of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by gallstones spillage presented with a 1 mo history of constant right-sided abdominal pain and tenderness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a retroperitoneal sarcoma at the sub-hepatic space. On open exploration a 5 cm × 5 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The mass contained purulent material and gallstones. Final pathology revealed abscess formation and foreign body granuloma. Vigilance concerning the possibility of lost gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is important. If possible, every spilled gallstone during surgery should be retrieved to prevent this rare complication. PMID:27158213

  2. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection.

    PubMed

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P; Mistry, Jitendra H

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques. PMID:25883450

  3. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection

    PubMed Central

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P.; Mistry, Jitendra H.

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques. PMID:25883450

  4. Ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Tiryaki, Cagri; Bayhan, Zülfü; Kargi, Ertugrul; Alponat, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the demographic and clinical parameters affecting the outcomes of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ALC) in terms of pain, nausea, anxiety level, and satisfaction of patients in a tertiary health center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALC was offered to 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Follow-up (questioning for postoperative pain or discomfort, nausea or vomiting, overall satisfaction) was done by telephone contact on the same day at 22:00 p.m. and the first day after surgery at 8: 00 a.m. and by clinical examination one week after operation. STAI I and II data were used for proceeding to the level of anxiety of patients before and/or after the operation. RESULTS: Sixty consecutive patients, with a mean age of 40.6 ± 8.1 years underwent ALC. Fifty-five (92%) patients could be sent to their homes on the same day but five patients could not be sent due to anxiety, pain, or social indications. Nausea was reported in four (6.7%) cases and not associated with any demographic or clinical features of patients. On the other hand, pain has been reported in 28 (46.7%) cases, and obesity and shorter duration of gallbladder disease were associated with the increased pain perception (P = 0.009 and 0.004, respectively). Preopereative anxiety level was significantly higher among patients who could not complete the ALC procedure (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Correct management of these possible adverse effects results in the increased satisfaction of patients and may encourage this more cost-effective and safe method of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:26917919

  5. Increased Risk of Peptic Ulcers Following a Cholecystectomy for Gallstones.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Chien; Kao, Li-Ting; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined the relationship between a cholecystectomy and the subsequent risk of peptic ulcers using a population-based database. Data for this study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 5209 patients who had undergone a cholecystectomy for gallstones and 15,627 sex- and age-matched comparison patients. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers. We found that of the 20,836 sampled patients, 2033 patients (9.76%) received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period: 674 from the study group (12.94% of the patients who underwent a cholecystectomy) and 1359 from the comparison group (8.70% of the comparison patients). The stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.34~1.64) for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy than comparison patients. Furthermore, the adjusted HRs of gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period were 1.70 and 1.71, respectively, for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy compared to comparison patients. This study demonstrated a relationship between a cholecystectomy and a subsequent diagnosis of peptic ulcers. PMID:27469240

  6. Regional Differences in Hospitalizations and Cholecystectomies for Biliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Published studies suggest that socioeconomic factors contribute to increasing cholecystectomy rates for biliary dyskinesia (BD). The aim of this study was to identify factors driving admissions and operations for BD by examining regional variability in hospitalizations and cholecystectomies for this disorder. Methods Annual hospitalizations and cholecystectomy rates for biliary diseases were assessed using the State Inpatient Databases of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality based on diagnosis codes for biliary dyskinesia, cholecystolithiasis and cholecystitis. Results Annual admissions for BD varied nearly sevenfold among different states within the United States. Hospitalizations for gallstone disease and its complication showed less variability, differing 2-fold between states. Nearly 70% of admissions for BD and about 85% of admissions for gallstone disease resulted in cholecystectomies. Higher admission rates for BD were best predicted by high overall hospitalization rates, admission rate for gallstone disease and the physician workforce within a state. Cholecystectomy rates for BD were higher in states with low population density and high rates of cholecystectomy for gallstone disease. Conclusions These data suggest that established medical practice patterns significantly contribute to the variability in admissions and operations for biliary dyskinesia. The findings also indicate that lower thresholds for operative interventions are an important determinant in the approach to this disorder. Considering the benign course of functional illnesses, the bar for surgical interventions should be raised rather than lowered; in addition active conservative treatment options should be developed for these patients. PMID:23875106

  7. Increased Risk of Peptic Ulcers Following a Cholecystectomy for Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Chien; Kao, Li-Ting; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined the relationship between a cholecystectomy and the subsequent risk of peptic ulcers using a population-based database. Data for this study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 5209 patients who had undergone a cholecystectomy for gallstones and 15,627 sex- and age-matched comparison patients. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers. We found that of the 20,836 sampled patients, 2033 patients (9.76%) received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period: 674 from the study group (12.94% of the patients who underwent a cholecystectomy) and 1359 from the comparison group (8.70% of the comparison patients). The stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.34~1.64) for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy than comparison patients. Furthermore, the adjusted HRs of gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period were 1.70 and 1.71, respectively, for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy compared to comparison patients. This study demonstrated a relationship between a cholecystectomy and a subsequent diagnosis of peptic ulcers. PMID:27469240

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life and Appropriateness of Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, José Ma; Cabriada, Jose; Aróstegui, Inmaculada; Oribe, Victor; Perdigo, Luis; Varona, Mercedes; Bilbao, Amaia

    2005-01-01

    Ojbective: To evaluate the relationship among appropriateness of the use of cholecystectomy and outcomes. Summary Background Data: The use of cholecystectomy varies widely across regions and countries. Explicit appropriateness criteria may help identify suitable candidates for this commonly performed procedure. This study evaluates the relationship among appropriateness of the use of cholecystectomy and outcomes. Methods: Prospective observational study in 6 public hospitals in Spain of all consecutive patients on waiting lists to undergo cholecystectomy for nonmalignant disease. Explicit appropriateness criteria for the use of cholecystectomy were developed by a panel of experts using the RAND appropriateness methodology and applied to recruited patients. Patients were asked to complete 2 questionnaires that measure health-related quality of life—the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI)—before the intervention and 3 months after it. Results: Patients judged as being appropriate candidates for cholecystectomy, using the panel's explicit appropriateness criteria, had greater improvements in the bodily pain, vitality, and social function domains of the SF-36 than those judged to be inappropriate candidates. They also demonstrated improvements in the GIQLI's physical impairment domain. Interventions judged as inappropriate were performed primarily among patients without symptoms of cholelithiasis. Those asymptomatic had a lower improvement in the bodily pain, social functioning, and physical summary scale of the SF-36 and in the symptomatology, physical impairment, and total score domains of the GIQLI. Conclusions: These results suggest a direct relationship between the application of explicit appropriateness criteria and better outcomes, as measured by health-related quality of life. They also indicate that patients without symptoms are not good candidates for cholecystectomy. PMID:15621998

  9. Success of Elective Cholecystectomy Treatment Plans After ED Visit

    PubMed Central

    Bingener, Juliane; Thomsen, Kristine M.; McConico, Andrea; Hess, Erik P.; Habermann, Elizabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differentiation between patients with acute cholecystitis and patients with severe biliary colic can be challenging. Patients with undiagnosed acute cholecystitis can incur repeat emergency department (ED) visits, which is resource intensive. Methods Billing records from 2000 – 2013 of all adults who visited the ED in the 30 days preceding their cholecystectomy were analyzed. Patients who were discharged from the ED and underwent elective cholecystectomy were compared to those who were discharged and returned to the ED within 30 days. T-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis were utilized as appropriate. Results From 2000 - 2013, 3138 patients (34%) presented to the ED within 30 days prior to surgery, 63% were women, mean age 51 years, and of those 1625 were directly admitted from the ED for cholecystectomy while 1513 patients left the ED to return for an elective cholecystectomy. Patients who were discharged were younger (mean age 49 vs 54 yrs, p<0.001) and had shorter ED stays (5.9 vs 7.2 hrs, p<0.001) than the patients admitted immediately. Of the discharged patients, 303 (20%) returned to the ED within 30 days to undergo urgent cholecystectomy. Compared to patients with successful elective cholecystectomy after the ED visit, those who failed the pathway were more likely to have an ASA score > 3 and were <40 or ≥60 compared to the successful group. Conclusions One in five patients failed the elective cholecystectomy pathway after ED discharge, leading to additional patient distress and use of resources. Further risk factor assessment may help design efficient care pathways. PMID:25043530

  10. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  11. Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chowbey, Pradeep; Sharma, Anil; Goswami, Amit; Afaque, Yusuf; Najma, Khoobsurat; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct. CONCLUSION: Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones. PMID:26622110

  12. Risk factors for conversion to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Gon; Moon, Ju Ik; Lee, Sang Eok; Sung, Nak Song; Chun, Ki Won; Lee, Hye Yoon; Yoon, Dae Sung; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for conversion to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) in single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) along with the proposal for procedure selection guidelines in treating patients with benign gallbladder (GB) diseases. Methods SILC was performed in 697 cases between April 2010 and July 2014. Seventeen cases (2.4%) underwent conversion to conventional LC. We compared these 2 groups and analyzed the risk factors for conversion to CLC. Results In univariate analysis, American Society of Anesthesiologist score > 3, preoperative percutaneous transhepatic GB drainage status and pathology (acute cholecystitis or GB empyema) were significant risk factors for conversion (P = 0.010, P = 0.019 and P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, pathology (acute cholecystitis or GB empyema) was significant risk factors for conversion to CLC in SILC (P < 0.001). Conclusion Although SILC is a feasible method for most patients with benign GB disease, CLC has to be considered in patients with acute cholecystitis or GB empyema because it is likely to result in inadequate visualization of the Calot's triangle and greater bleeding risk. PMID:27274505

  13. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Combined Cholecystectomy and Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongsheng; Kong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is becoming more widely used, but few combined procedures have been reported. Herein we share our experience with single-incision laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy. Methods: We reviewed data from 26 patients who underwent single-incision laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy between May 1, 2009 and June 1, 2013 at Shengjing Hospital. All the procedures were performed with conventional laparoscopic instruments placed through a single operating portal of entry created within the umbilicus. Results: All the operations were successfully completed without conversion to conventional laparoscopic or open surgery. No intraoperative complications occurred. Patients were satisfied with the therapeutic and cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy appear to be a technically feasible alternative to the standard laparoscopic procedure in simultaneous management of coexisting benign gallbladder and appendix pathologies. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:25392641

  14. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-09-21

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe. PMID:24124340

  15. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy in a pregnant patient

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Ramya Ranjan; Salgaonkar, Hrishikesh P; Bhandarkar, Deepraj S; Gupta, Tarun; Desai, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy for patients with symptomatic or complicated gallstone disease is well established. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESS-chole) is a new modality in which the entire surgery is undertaken via a transumbilical incision. We describe a 33-year-old patient who underwent a LESS-chole in the 20th week of pregnancy for gallstone disease complicated by episodes of obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis. This is the first reported case of LESS-chole performed using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The technical aspects as well as the various perioperative measures utilized to undertake this procedure safely are outlined. PMID:24250067

  16. Biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy: Optimization of endoscopic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ljubičić, Neven; Bišćanin, Alen; Pavić, Tajana; Nikolić, Marko; Budimir, Ivan; Mijić, August; Đuzel, Ana

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the results of endoscopic treatment of postoperative biliary leakage occurring after urgent cholecystectomy with a long-term follow-up. METHODS: This is an observational database study conducted in a tertiary care center. All consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for presumed postoperative biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy in the period between April 2008 and April 2013 were considered for this study. Patients with bile duct transection and biliary strictures were excluded. Biliary leakage was suspected in the case of bile appearance from either percutaneous drainage of abdominal collection or abdominal drain placed at the time of cholecystectomy. Procedural and main clinical characteristics of all consecutive patients with postoperative biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy, such as indication for cholecystectomy, etiology and type of leakage, ERC findings and post-ERC complications, were collected from our electronic database. All patients in whom the leakage was successfully treated endoscopically were followed-up after they were discharged from the hospital and the main clinical characteristics, laboratory data and common bile duct diameter were electronically recorded. RESULTS: During a five-year period, biliary leakage was recognized in 2.2% of patients who underwent urgent cholecystectomy. The median time from cholecystectomy to ERC was 6 d (interquartile range, 4-11 d). Endoscopic interventions to manage biliary leakage included biliary stent insertion with or without biliary sphincterotomy. In 23 (77%) patients after first endoscopic treatment bile flow through existing surgical drain ceased within 11 d following biliary therapeutic endoscopy (median, 4 d; interquartile range, 2-8 d). In those patients repeat ERC was not performed and the biliary stent was removed on gastroscopy. In seven (23%) patients repeat ERC was done within one to fourth week after their first ERC

  17. Transvaginal cholecystectomy vs conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Xu, Bo; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Ge, Hai-Yan; Wang, Li-Wei; Song, Zhen-Sun; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the results of transvaginal cholecystectomy (TVC) and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) for gallbladder disease. METHODS: We performed a literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, Chinese Medical Journal database and Wanfang Data for trials comparing outcomes between TVC and CLC. Data were extracted by two authors. Mean difference (MD), standardized mean difference (SMD), odds ratios and risk rate with 95%CIs were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated with the χ2 test. The fixed-effects model was used in the absence of statistically significant heterogeneity. The random-effects model was chosen when heterogeneity was found. RESULTS: There were 730 patients in nine controlled clinical trials. No significant difference was found regarding demographic characteristics (P > 0.5), including anesthetic risk score, age, body mass index, and abdominal surgical history between the TVC and CLC groups. Both groups had similar mortality, morbidity, and return to work after surgery. Patients in the TVC group had a lower pain score on postoperative day 1 (SMD: -0.957, 95%CI: -1.488 to -0.426, P < 0.001), needed less postoperative analgesic medication (SMD: -0.574, 95%CI: -0.807 to -0.341, P < 0.001) and stayed for a shorter time in hospital (MD: -1.004 d, 95%CI: -1.779 to 0.228, P = 0.011), but had longer operative time (MD: 17.307 min, 95%CI: 6.789 to 27.826, P = 0.001). TVC had no significant influence on postoperative sexual function and quality of life. Better cosmetic results and satisfaction were achieved in the TVC group. CONCLUSION: TVC is safe and effective for gallbladder disease. However, vaginal injury might occur, and further trials are needed to compare TVC with CLC. PMID:25954114

  18. Hepatic Artery Angiography and Embolization for Hemobilia Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Tony; Travis, Simon; Ettles, Duncan; Dyet, John; Sedman, Peter; Wedgewood, Kevin; Royston, Christopher

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: The effectiveness of angiography and embolization in diagnosis and treatment were assessed in a cohort of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Over a 6-year period 1513 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were carried out in our region. Nine of these patients (0.6%) developed significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 5-43 days after surgery. All underwent emergency celiac and selective right hepatic artery angiography. All were treated by coil embolization of the right hepatic artery proximal and distal to the bleeding point. Results: Pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery adjacent to cholecystectomy clips were demonstrated in all nine patients at selective right hepatic angiography. In three patients celiac axis angiography alone failed to demonstrate the pseudoaneurysm. Embolization controlled hemorrhage in all patients with no further bleeding and no further intervention. One patient developed a candidal liver abscess in the post-procedure period. All patients are alive and well at follow-up. Conclusion: Selective right hepatic angiography is vital in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Embolization offers the advantage of minimally invasive treatment in unstable patients, does not disrupt recent biliary reconstruction, allows distal as well as proximal control of the hepatic artery, and is an effective treatment for this potentially life-threatening complication.

  19. Transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy in my partner? No way!

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Tomasz; Dobrowolski, Sebastian; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Łachiński, Andrzej J.; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) transvaginal cholecystectomy is being intensively studied. A few studies have been recently published evaluating patients’ attitude towards NOTES with its individual accesses. However, the choice of a transvaginal access with its potential influence on sex life and fertility is not restricted entirely to women. The sexual partner would at least give his opinion or decide together with the woman. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of male sexual partners of potential NOTES transvaginal patients towards the surgical access. Material and methods Hundred males were asked for their opinion in a specially designed instrument. Results The general attitude of male sexual partners of potential NOTES transvaginal cholecystectomy patients is negative. With several possible problems and complications feared by the partners, they would mostly oppose or dissuade against NOTES transvaginal cholecystectomy. The cosmetic benefit seems not to justify undergoing a novelty procedure with potential complications threatening sexual life and procreation. This attitude was especially observed in young, sexually active males with high appreciation of sexual life. Conclusions Both scientific and educational efforts are required to prove safety and efficiency of NOTES transvaginal cholecystectomy beyond question. PMID:23255986

  20. ICG-loaded microbubbles for multimodal billiary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ruogu; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-12-01

    A dual-mode imaging technique has been developed for intraoperative imaging of bile ducts and real-time identification of iatrogenic injuries in cholecystectomy. The technique is based on ultrasound (US) and fluorescence (FL) imaging of a dual-mode microbubble (MB) agent comprising a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) shell and a core of Indocyanine Green. During cholecystectomy, a clinical US probe is used to localize the bile duct structure after bolus injection of dual-mode MBs. As the surrounding adipose tissue is removed and the Calot's triangle is exposed, FL imaging is used to identify the MB distribution and to determine the potential bile duct injury. The contrast-enhanced bile duct imaging technique has been demonstrated in both a surgical simulation model and an ex vivo porcine tissue model under two surgical scenarios. The first scenario simulates the correct procedure where the cystic duct is clipped. The second scenario simulates the incorrect procedure where the common bile duct is clipped, leading to consequent bile duct injury. Benchtop experiments in both the phantom and the ex vivo models show that the dual-mode imaging technique is able to identify the potential bile duct injury during cholecystectomy. A phantom system has also been established for future device calibration and surgical training in image-guided cholecystectomy. Further in vivo animal validation tests are necessary before the technique can be implemented in a clinical setting.

  1. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients with Bilharzial Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Abu Azab; Mohamed, Ibnoaf; Suliman, Fedail S

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with bilharzial portal hypertension. Methods: Patients who had gallstones and bilharzia had ultrasonographic assessment of peri-portal fibrosis, endoscopy, hemagglutination and rectal snip. Operating time, blood loss, hospital stay, time of return to work and operative mortality were recorded. Follow-up was two weeks, six weeks and six months after discharge. Results: Twenty-five out of 450 patients, who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy, suffered from bilharzial portal hypertension. Ten patients had grade 1 varices, 10 had grade 2 varices, and 5 had grade 3 esophageal varices. All patients had varying degrees of peri-portal fibrosis as shown by ultrasound. Rectal snip showed schistosoma mansoni in 5 patients, and a hemagglutination test was positive in all. Two patients had conversion to open cholecystectomy. Mean operating time was 1 hour and 15 minutes. Average blood loss was 50 cc. Mean hospital stay for 23 patients was 48 hours. Average time of return to work was 2 weeks in 23 patients and 6 weeks in the 2 patients who had conversion. Twenty-two patients benefited from the operation. There was no mortality in this series. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with bilharzial portal hypertension is feasible and has low morbidity. PMID:10917123

  2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Without Prophylactic Antibiotics: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nilay; Nandy, Mintu Mohan; Majhi, Jaganmay; Kuiri, Shibshankar; Kumar Ghosh, Pranab; Ghosh, Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the new gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Prophylactic antibiotics are used in elective surgery by the majority of surgeons, and their role in biliary tract surgery has been well established for a subpopulation of high-risk patients. This consensus has been derived from multiple studies involving biliary tract surgery before and in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But the use of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy especially in the low-risk group is now controversial and varied among the surgeons all over the world. To study the role of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in different risk groups of patients, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Surgery of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital from January 2010 to July 2011. All patients with symptomatic gallstones who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy during this period are included in this study. One hundred and two patients with symptomatic gallstones were operated on by laparoscopic technique without receiving preoperative antibiotics and studied over a period of 1.5 years. Ages ranged from 11 to 70 years (mean age of 33 years). There were 14 males (13.72 % of the patients) and 88 females (86.27 % of the patients). There was no wound infection (class I) in 99 patients, and class II type of wound infection, i.e., surgical site infection, occurred in three patients (i.e., 2.94 %) out of a total of 102 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity; Staphylococcus aureus was found in two patients and Streptococcus viridans in one patient. In all three patients, infection occurred at the umbilical port sites, detected on the 3rd and 4th postoperative days. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in low-risk patients with symptomatic gallstone disease undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative infection

  3. Role of sonography in assessing complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Kładny, Józef

    2014-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was introduced to the arsenal of surgical procedures in the middle of the 1980s, is a common alternative for conventional cholecystectomy. Its primary advantage is less invasive character which entails shorter hospitalization and faster recovery. Nevertheless, the complications of both procedures are comparable and encompass multiple organs and tissues. The paper presents ultrasound presentation of the surgical bed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and of complications associated with this procedure. In the first week following the surgery, the presence of up to 60 ml of fluid in the removed gallbladder bed should be considered normal in certain patients. The fluid will gradually absorb. In single cases, slight amounts of fluid are detected in the peritoneal cavity, which also should not be alarming. Carbon dioxide absorbs from the peritoneal cavity within two days. Ultrasound assessment of the surgical bed after cholecystectomy is inhibited by hemostatic material left during the surgery. Its presentation may mimic an abscess. In such cases, the decisive examination is magnetic resonance imaging but not computed tomography. On the other hand, rapidly accumulating fluid around the liver is an alarming symptom, particularly when there is inadequate blood supply or when peritoneum irritation symptoms develop. Depending on the suspected cause of the patient's deteriorating condition, it is essential to perform urgent computed tomography angiography, celiac angiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The character of the fluid collection may be determined by its ultrasound-guided puncture. This procedure allows for aspiration of fluid and placement of a drain. Moreover, transabdominal ultrasound examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy may contribute to the identification of: dropped stones in the right hypochondriac region, residual fragment of the gallbladder

  4. Helicobacter pylori in Cholecystectomy Specimens-Morphological and Immunohistochemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatarami; Jena, Amitabh; Gavini, Siva; Thota, Asha; Nandyala, Rukamangadha; Chowhan, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Current literature describes presence of H.pylori in various extra-gastric locations and its association with many diseases. Apart from the conventional location of gastric and duodenal mucosa, H.pylori have been isolated and cultured from gallbladder. Aim Analysis of cholecystectomy specimens to detect H.pylori by means of immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods There were a total of 118 cholecystectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology in three months duration. We have performed immunostaining for H.pylori in 45 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy specimen. Clinical and other investigational information were retrieved from the medical records department. For each case, routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using purified polyclonal Helicobacter pylori antiserum. Results Majority of the patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the presenting complaint of right hypochondrial pain. Multiple pigmented stones were present in majority (27/45) of them. Immunostain for H.pylori was positive in ten cases. Six of these cases had pigmented gall stones, two had stones not specified and in two of the cases there were no stones. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is present in gall bladder and is commonly seen in association with stones. A more detailed study of cholecystectomy cases (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic) with serological, culture and molecular data of H.pylori is desirable to study the pathogenesis of cholecystitis, its association with gall stones and other gall bladder disorders. PMID:27437221

  5. Cholecystectomy in Sweden 2000 – 2003: a nationwide study on procedures, patient characteristics, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rosenmüller, Mats; Haapamäki, Markku M; Nordin, Pär; Stenlund, Hans; Nilsson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data on characteristics of patients undergoing open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy are limited. In this register study we examined characteristics and mortality of patients who underwent cholecystectomy during hospital stay in Sweden 2000 – 2003. Methods Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for all patients undergoing cholecystectomy in Sweden from January 1st 2000 through December 31st 2003. Mortality risk was calculated as standardised mortality ratio (SMR) i.e. observed over expected deaths considering age and gender of the background population. Results During the four years of the study 43072 patients underwent cholecystectomy for benign biliary disease, 31144 (72%) using a laparoscopic technique and 11928 patients (28%) an open procedure (including conversion from laparoscopy). Patients with open cholecystectomy were older than patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (59 vs 49 years, p < 0.001), they were more likely to have been admitted to hospital during the year preceding cholecystectomy, and they had more frequently been admitted acutely for cholecystectomy (57% Vs 21%, p < 0.001). The proportion of women was lower in the open cholecystectomy group compared to the laparoscopic group (57% vs 73%, p < 0.001). Hospital stay was 7.9 (8.9) days, mean (SD), for patients with open cholecystectomy and 2.6 (3.3) days for patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, p < 0.001. SMR within 90 days of index admission was 3.89 (3.41–4.41) (mean and 95% CI), for patients with open cholecystectomy and 0.73 (0.52–1.01) for patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During this period biliary disease accounted for one third of all deaths in both groups. From 91 to 365 days after index admission, SMR for patients in the open group was 1.01 (0.87–1.16) and for patients in the laparoscopic group 0.56 (0.44–0.69). Conclusion Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed on patients having a lower mortality risk than

  6. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Dabbagh, Najmeh; Soroosh, Ahmadreza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Shojaeifard, Abolfazl; Jafari, Mehdi; Abdehgah, Ali Ghorbani; Mahmudzade, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical technique using small-diameter instruments and single-incision laparoscopy are two new options for less invasive laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). In this study, we have compared mini-LC (MLC) with single-incision LC (SILC). Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial conducted on the patients diagnosed with symptomatic cholelithiasis who underwent LC. Forty patients were randomized to two equal groups of MLC and SILC. They were compared in terms of demographic data, operation time, and surgical complications. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in two groups. Operation time in MLC was significantly shorter than that in SILC (45.1 ± 69 min vs 63.75 ± 7.57 min, P-value < 0.001). Also, the total length of the wound in SILC group was shorter than that in MLC group (P-value < 0.003). Postoperative pain scores were similar in two groups. Hospital stay was shorter in MLC (1.2 ± 0.6 days vs 1.6 ± 0.8 days, P < 0.021). There was no difference in postoperative complications in two groups. Conclusion: MLC because of less operation time is preferred than SILC. Also, by subjective measures, it was a more comfortable method compared to SILC. PMID:26958049

  7. Preemptive morphine suppository for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Mojtaba; Farsani, Daryoush Moradi; Naghibi, Khosrou; Alikiaii, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain is a major problem following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and there is no general agreement on the effective method of pain relief. Rectal morphine suppositories are one of the newly released morphine forms. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of suppository morphine with placebo on pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated to two groups according to the drug used for postoperative analgesia: Group morphine suppository (MS - 10 mg) just before induction of anesthesia And Group placebo suppository (PS) (the pills were made from cocoa butter, physically similar to the real drug). Pain intensity based on visual analog scale (VAS) and opioid consumption were assessed 30 and 60 min, and 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after arrival of the patient to the recovery room. Results: VAS scores were significantly lower in MS group (from 3.8 ± 1 to 5.3 ± 1.6) compared with PS group (from 4.9 ± 0.9 to 6.7 ± 1) from 30 min after arrival to the recovery room until 16 h postoperatively (P < 0.05). There were no additional analgesic requirements in the first 2 h after the entrance of the patient to the recovery room in MS group. The number of patients requiring pethidine was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05) in all periods except for 24 h postoperatively. Conclusion: Suppository morphine administration is more effective than placebo to reduce pain and analgesic requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27110554

  8. [Thrombophlebitis profunda in patients after conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Krasinski, Z; Gabriel, M; Oszkinis, G; Dzieciuchowicz, L; Begier-Krasinska, B

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy and in whom conversion to laparotomy was required. Using the Duplex Doppler examination, we found higher incidence of DVT in patients who required conversion than in those who did not (47 vs 58%). Prolonged prophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin should be considered in these patients. PMID:9931805

  9. TOTAL CLIPLESS CHOLECYSTECTOMY BY MEANS OF HARMONIC SEALING

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS, Almino Cardoso; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; GALVÃO-NETO, Manoel dos Passos; MARINS, Josemberg; BASTOS, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; ZUNDEL, Natan

    2015-01-01

    Background In traditional laparoscopic cholecistectomy, the cystic duct and artery are commonly closed by metallic clips just before their division. Although the placement of these clips for occluding cystic artery and duct can be considered safe, biliary leaks and bleeding may occur especially by its dislodgement. Aim To report a prospective case-series in total clipless cholecystectomy by means of harmonic shears for closure and division of the artery and cystic duct as well removal of the gallbladder from the liver. Methods Was evaluate a series of 125 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy where the sealing and division of cystic artery and duct was carried out only by harmonic shears. The intact extracted gallbladder was submitted to a reverse pressure test for assessment of the technique safety by means of CO2 insuflation. Results The most common indication for surgery was gallstones. The mean operative time was 26 min and all gallbladders were dissected intact from the liver bed. There was no mortality and the overall morbidity rate was 0.8% with no hemorrhage or leaks. The reverse pressure test showed that all specimens support at least 36-mmHg of pressure without leaking. Conclusions The harmonic shears is effective and safe in laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a sole instrument for sealing and division of the artery and cystic duct. The main advantages could be related to the safety and decreased operative time. PMID:25861071

  10. Use of CO2 laser flexible waveguides during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J.

    1992-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. Although electrosurgery devices are used by a majority of surgeons, laser technology is a valued addition to the armamentarium of the skilled laser laparoscopist. A variety of fiberoptic capable wavelengths have been applied successfully during this procedure. Use of the CO2 laser for this purpose has lagged due to difficulties encountered with free-beam and rigid waveguide dissections via the laparoscope. Recent developments in flexible waveguide technology have the potential to expand the role of the CO2 laser for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and other procedures. Twelve laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed using Luxar (Bothell, WA) flexible microwaveguides of various configurations. In each case, dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed was accomplished with acceptable speed and hemostasis. There were no complications. Shortcomings include coupling and positioning with an articulated arm and occasional clogging of some waveguide tips with debris. Modifications of this technology are suggested. Flexible waveguides make the CO2 laser a practical alternative for surgical laparoscopy.

  11. [Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using retractor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    D'Urbano, C; Fuertes Guiro, F; Sampietro, R

    1996-03-01

    The Authors present a new gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy method using an abdominal wall elevator with subcutaneous traction ("laparotenser"). Fifty patients between May 1994 and March 1995 were operated by videolaparoscopy using this new gasless method. Twenty of them were operated with Nagai's method while the laparotenser was used in the remaining thirty. The results obtained are similar to those using pneumoperitoneum. It has been observed a global reduction of costs, less postoperative pain, no influence in cardiovascular and metabolic indexes. No complications were reported during the postoperative period but two cases of conversion to laparotomy not related to the method used were needed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy without pneumoperitoneum using the subcutaneous elevator of the abdominal wall ("laparotenser") has demonstrated that it's possible to operate in a working space similar to that created by the pneumoperitoneum. After an initial period of distrust towards the laparoscopic methods without pneumoperitoneum it has been accepted that gasless methods multiply the indications to minimally invasive surgery in patients with cardiorespiratory problems considered no ideal candidates to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum. PMID:8679422

  12. Intraperitoneal hydrocortisone for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sarvestani, Amene S.; Amini, Shahram; Kalhor, Mohsen; Roshanravan, Reza; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Lebaschi, Amir Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with shorter hospital stay and less pain in comparison to open surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal hydrocortisone on pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Sixty two patients were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Patients randomly received intraperitoneal instillation of either 250 ml normal saline (n=31) or 100 mg hydrocortisone in 250 ml normal saline (n=31) before insufflation of CO2 into the peritoneum. Abdominal and shoulder pain were evaluated using VAS after surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. The patients were also followed for postoperative analgesic requirements, nausea and vomiting, and return of bowel function. Results: Sixty patients completed the study. Patients in the hydrocortisone group had significantly lower abdominal and shoulder pain scores (10.95 vs 12.95; P<0.01). The patients were similar regarding analgesic requirements in the recovery room. However, those in the hydrocortisone group required less meperidine than the saline group (151.66 (±49.9) mg vs 61.66 (±38.69) mg; P=0.00). The patients were similar with respect to return of bowel function, nausea and vomiting. No adverse reaction was observed in either group. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal administration of hydrocortisone can significantly decrease pain and analgesic requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy with no adverse effects. PMID:23717225

  13. Incidental gallbladder cancer after cholecystectomy: 1990 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Dorobisz, Karolina; Chabowski, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Wiktor; Janczak, Dawid; Patrzałek, Dariusz; Janczak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer of the gallbladder is a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. According to the literature, 30% of cases are not confirmed before surgery. Other cases are detected incidentally by histopathology. Clinical trials and meta-analyses show that incidental gallbladder cancer (iGBC) occurs in 0.19%–2.8% of patients after cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and severity of iGBC in cholecystectomy procedures performed in the surgical department at the 4th Military Teaching Hospital in Wroclaw during the years 1990–2014. Patients and methods In the years 1990–2014, a total of 7,314 cholecystectomies were performed in the surgical department because of cholecystolithiasis: 6,145 were performed using the laparoscopic approach (84.02%), 867 were performed as open surgery (11.8%), and 302 cases required conversion (5.1%). In this group, 5,214 of the patients were females (71.3%) and 2,100 were males (28.7%), with an average age of 54.7 years. Results We found 64 iGBC cases which were confirmed by histopathology. This represented 0.87% of all cases. In this group, 50 patients were females (78.1%) and 14 were males (21.8%), with an average age of 67.1 years. Of this group, 40 patients underwent a classic cholecystectomy, while 24 underwent laparoscopic procedures, out of which 13 cases ultimately required traditional surgery. The histopathology showed 15 carcinomas that were classified as G1 (23.4%), 28 were G2 (43.75%), and 21 were G3 (32.8%). Conclusion iGBC detected after a cholecystectomy due to cholecystolithiasis is a rare disease. We found iGBC in 0.87% of cases, which is on a comparable scale to the world literature. In the case of cancer, we frequently found it necessary to convert to an open surgical procedure. This cancer is more common in females and in people over 60 years of age. PMID:27540304

  14. Prospective randomized comparison of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy with new facilitating maneuver vs. conventional four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aktimur, Recep; Güzel, Kerim; Çetinkünar, Süleyman; Yıldırım, Kadir; Çolak, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the technical feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) with our new facilitative maneuver and to compare it with the gold standard four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Material and Methods: Operation time, cosmetic score and incisional hernia rates between LC (n=20) and SILC-1 (first 20 consecutive operations with the new technique) and 2 (subsequent 20 operations with the new technique) were compared. Results: The median operation time for LC, SILC-1 and SILC-2 were; 35 min (12–75), 47.5 min (30–70), and 30 min (12–80), respectively (p=0.005). The operation duration was similar in LC and SILC-2 (p=0.277) groups. Wound seroma rate was higher in SILC-1 (45%) and SILC-2 (30%) groups than LC (5%) group (p=0.010). Cosmetic score was similar between all the groups. Hernia rates were 15.8% and 5.3% in the SILC-1 and SILC-2 groups, respectively, while there was no hernia in the LC group. Conclusion: SILC with new facilitating maneuver is comparable with classical four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of ease, operation time, reproducibility and safety. Besides these advantages, the single-incision access technique must be optimized to provide comparable wound complication and postoperative hernia rates before being recommended to patients. PMID:26985165

  15. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Diagnosed by Glucose Hydrogen Breath Test in Post-cholecystectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hea Jung; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients undergoing cholecystectomy may have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of SIBO in patients with intestinal symptoms following cholecystectomy. Methods Sixty-two patients following cholecystectomy, 145 with functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs), and 30 healthy controls undergoing hydrogen (H2)-methane (CH4) glucose breath test (GBT) were included in the study. Before performing GBT, all patients were interrogated using bowel symptom questionnaire. The positivity to GBT indicating the presence of SIBO, gas types and bowel symptoms were surveyed. Results Post-cholecystectomy patients more often had SIBO as evidenced by a positive (+) GBT than those with FGID and controls (29/62, 46.8% vs 38/145, 26.2% vs 4/30, 13.3%, respectively; P = 0.010). In the gas types, the GBT (H2) + post-cholecystectomy patients was significantly higher than those in FGIDs patients (P = 0.017). Especially, positivity to fasting GBT (H2) among the GBT (H2)+ post-cholecystectomy patients was high, as diagnosed by elevated fasting H2 level. The GBT+ group had higher symptom scores of significance or tendency in abdominal discomfort, bloating, chest discomfort, early satiety, nausea, and tenesmus than those of the GBT negative group. The status of cholecystectomy was the only significant independent factor for predicting SIBO. Conclusions The SIBO with high levels of baseline H2 might be the important etiologic factor of upper GI symptoms for post-cholecystectomy patients. PMID:26351251

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: evolution, early results, and impact on nonsurgical gallstone therapies.

    PubMed

    Brandon, J C; Velez, M A; Teplick, S K; Mueller, P R; Rattner, D W; Broadwater, J R; Lang, N P; Eidt, J F

    1991-08-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a surgical technique first performed in France, has gained widespread acceptance among surgeons in the United States. The abdominal cavity is inflated by carbon dioxide, a video monitor is inserted via a laparoscope placed periumbilically, and the gallbladder is freed and removed from the liver bed by using small subcostal ports for access and dissection. Intraoperative cholangiography is routinely performed, but uncertainty exists about how best to manage choledocholithiasis. Compared with traditional cholecystectomy, initial reports describing laparoscopic cholecystectomy cite shorter recovery times because no large incisions are made, thus potentially reducing the cost and morbidity of cholecystectomy. A survey of 614 early cases supports these claims, with a reported complication rate of 1.5% and quick resumption of normal activities by patients. Because of its promise for reduced morbidity, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is challenging open cholecystectomy as the therapeutic gold standard for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Thus, the standard to which the nonsurgical gallstone therapies, such as lithotripsy and contact dissolution, will be compared may shift to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. As the laparoscopic complications are similar to those of traditional cholecystectomy, such as abscesses and bile leaks, their percutaneous treatment should not change. PMID:1830188

  17. Gallbladder Fossa Abscess Masquerading as Cholecystitis After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Paul; Fakhri, Asif; Baumgartner, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a 59-y-old woman who had undergone cholecystectomy and was subsequently found to have an abscess within the gallbladder fossa. A hepatobiliary scan using (99m)Tc-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid demonstrated the characteristic rim sign, a photopenic defect surrounded by a rim of mildly increased activity immediately adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. The rim sign was thought to be the result of reactive inflammation in the hepatic tissue adjacent to a postoperative abscess within the gallbladder fossa. PMID:26111711

  18. Endoscopic Management of Gallbladder Stones: Can We Eliminate Cholecystectomy?

    PubMed

    Yeung, Baldwin; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun

    2016-08-01

    The gold standard for the management of acute cholecystitis is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In patients that are not fit for surgery, percutaneous cholecystostomy is the standard treatment. However, the procedure is only a temporary measure for controlling gallbladder symptoms and it is frequently associated with morbidities. Recently, endoscopic options for management of acute cholecystitis have been developed. The approach avoids the need for a percutaneous drain and may allow endoscopic treatment of the gallstone. The aim of this article is to provide an overview on the current status of endoscopic management of acute cholecystitis. PMID:27372290

  19. Innovative Approach to a Frozen Calot's Triangle During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Jaisingh; Pandit, Subodh

    2015-12-01

    The laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now the "gold standard." In around 2 % of cases, there is a need to convert because of the difficult dissection encountered in the Calot's Triangle, a "frozen Calot's triangle." There is no consensus among surgeons about how to tackle this situation. To lower the conversion rate, there is a continuous attempt made to innovate. The authors present their rationale and experience in 100 difficult cases by creating a retro-gallbladder tunnel and encircling the gallbladder by a gauze for maneuvering. PMID:26884672

  20. Role of laryngeal mask airway in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Beleña, José M; Ochoa, Ernesto Josué; Núñez, Mónica; Gilsanz, Carlos; Vidal, Alfonso

    2015-11-27

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures and the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is the most common supraglottic airway device used by the anesthesiologists to manage airway during general anesthesia. Use of LMA has some advantages when compared to endotracheal intubation, such as quick and ease of placement, a lesser requirement for neuromuscular blockade and a lower incidence of postoperative morbididy. However, the use of the LMA in laparoscopy is controversial, based on a concern about increased risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The ability of these devices to provide optimal ventilation during laparoscopic procedures has been also questioned. The most important parameter to secure an adequate ventilation and oxygenation for the LMA under pneumoperitoneum condition is its seal pressure of airway. A good sealing pressure, not only state correct patient ventilation, but it reduces the potential risk of aspiration due to the better seal of airway. In addition, the LMAs incorporating a gastric access, permitting a safe anesthesia based on these commented points. We did a literature search to clarify if the use of LMA in preference to intubation provides inadequate ventilation or increase the risk of aspiration in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We found evidence stating that LMA with drain channel achieves adequate ventilation for these procedures. Limited evidence was found to consider these devices completely safe against aspiration. However, we observed that the incidence of regurgitation and aspiration associated with the use of the LMA in laparoscopic surgery is very low. PMID:26649155

  1. A portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jian; Yang, Chaoyu; Gan, Qi; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Zeshu; Chang, Shufang; Shao, Pengfei; Zhang, Shiwu; Liu, Chenhai; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we proposed a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system to prevent iatrogenic biliary injuries from occurring during cholecystectomy due to misidentification of the cystic structures. The system consisted of a light source module, a CMOS camera, a Raspberry Pi computer and a 5 inch HDMI LCD. Specifically, the light source module was composed of 690 nm and 850 nm LEDs, allowing the CMOS camera to simultaneously acquire both fluorescence and background images. The system was controlled by Raspberry Pi using Python programming with the OpenCV library under Linux. We chose Indocyanine green(ICG) as a fluorescent contrast agent and then tested fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels by our fluorescence microscopic system compared with the commercial Xenogen IVIS system. The spatial resolution of the proposed fluorescence microscopic imaging system was measured by a 1951 USAF resolution target and the dynamic response was evaluated quantitatively with an automatic displacement platform. Finally, we verified the technical feasibility of the proposed system in mouse models of bile duct, performing both correct and incorrect gallbladder resection. Our experiments showed that the proposed system can provide clear visualization of the confluence between the cystic duct and common bile duct or common hepatic duct, suggesting that this is a potential method for guiding cholecystectomy. The proposed portable system only cost a total of $300, potentially promoting its use in resource-limited settings.

  2. [Identification of gallbladder pedicle anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni D; Innocenti, Paolo; Ciani, Renzo; Zumbo, Antonella; Fonsi, Giovanni B; Bellini, Pierpaolo; De Chiara, Fabio; Fittipaldi, Domenico; Hadjiamiri, Hossein; Lamaro, Stefano; Marinoni, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely accepted nowadays as the gold standard in the treatment of cholelithiasis. This new technique was initially associated with a significant increase in morbidity, and in particular in iatrogenic biliary injuries and arterial haemorrhages, perhaps due to a lack of knowledge of the "laparoscopic anatomy" of the gallbladder pedicle. In this technique the anatomical structures are viewed on a two-dimensional video monitor, and the dissection is performed with long instruments without manual sensitivity. Therefore, the laparoscopic surgeon has to deal with new anatomical views and must be aware of the possible arterial and biliary variants. In this review we describe our technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with particular reference to manoeuvres useful for identifying the various anatomical structures at the gallbladder hilum. In our opinion, it is mandatory to avoid cutting any duct if its identity has yet to be established. For this reason, we pay great attention to the anatomical dissection of Calot's triangle, in order to accurately identify the cystic duct and the cystic artery and any other vascular or biliary structures. Routine intraoperative cholangiography may be useful for identifying the biliary anatomy. When in doubt, the surgeon should not hesitate to convert the procedure to open surgery. PMID:15287636

  3. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Natalie E; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation "clip cholelithiasis". Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  4. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Natalie E.; Mirnezami, Reza; Ziprin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation “clip cholelithiasis”. Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD) compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient's jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP. PMID:25874138

  5. Gallstone Obstructive Ileus 3 Years Post-cholecystectomy to a Patient with an Old Ileoileal Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Potsi, S; Paramythiotis, D; Michalopoulos, A; Papadopoulos, VN; Douros, V; Pantoleon, A; Foutzila-Kalogera, A; Ekonomou, I; Harlaftis, N

    2009-01-01

    The present case is one of gallstone obstructive ileus due to gallstones 3 yr after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is interesting because of the sex of the patient, the fact that ileus occurred 3 yr after cholecystectomy and that the localization of the obstruction was an old side-to-side ileoileal anastomosis due to a diverticulectomy following intussusception of Meckels' diverticulum at the age of 3. PMID:19949687

  6. An Evaluation of the Effect of Hypnosis on Postoperative Analgesia following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Joudi, Marjan; Fathi, Mehdi; Izanloo, Azra; Montazeri, Omid; Jangjoo, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hypnosis in improving the results of surgery in Iran. One hundred and twenty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into either control (standard care) or experimental (hypnosis) groups. Prior to surgery and again after surgery, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting were assessed. The results suggest that hypnosis could effectively reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and significantly reduce hospitalization time. PMID:27267679

  7. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in a Patient with Erythropoietic Protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Thomas; Bailey, Ian S

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited defect in haem synthesis causing dangerous phototoxic reactions following exposure to wavelengths of light around 400nm. It can cause catastrophic post-operative complications following open surgery, in which environment various safety measures are now routinely employed. The dangers at laparoscopy have never been discussed in the literature, and nor have any specific precautions been recommended. We describe a 35 year old woman with gallstones undergoing prophylactic laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent future cholestasis precipitating porphyric liver failure. A pre-operative trial of the cutaneous effects of the laparoscopic light source was performed to assess the potential risk of use within the peritoneal cavity. The procedure was uneventful and the patient suffered no adverse reaction. We suggest that a trial of the effects of the laparoscopic light source on the skin of EPP patients provides valid reassurance regarding the safety of the laparoscopy for short surgical procedures. PMID:24946355

  8. Sudden Death Due to Bilateral Pulmonary Thromboembolism Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kasuda, Shogo; Kudo, Risa; Yuui, Katsuya; Nakata, Masatoshi; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Cases of sudden death due to pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) following laparoscopic surgery are very rare. The risk factors for PTE include sex, operation duration, age, obesity, and underlying diseases. The development of thromboprophylaxis according to specific risk factors has contributed to the decrease in postoperative mortality. Here, we describe the case of a 50-year-old patient with sudden death due to PTE at 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The origin of the thrombi were bilateral deep vein thromboses in both the lower extremities. No severe risk factors for PTE were detected in the patient, and pneumatic compression devices were used during the surgery for thromboprophylaxis. We believe that the accumulation of minor risk factors may have contributed to the onset of PTE. Hence, a more cautious assessment of the risk factors for PTE prior to surgery is required in such cases. PMID:27356014

  9. Single-access surgery laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Mofid, Hamid; Zornig, Carsten

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to achieve an ideal cosmetic result and minimize the access trauma to the abdominal wall. The authors developed a technique to perform cholecystectomies and appendectomies with only one incision in the umbilicus. With the upcoming idea of Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) in the recent years and noticing the lack of feasibility of the technique for the daily routine beside the technique described by these authors, another development was raising the interest of the surgeons around the world. The single-access surgery through the umbilicus is a technique, that can be used in the daily routine and provides the best cosmetic results. Furthermore, injury of the abdominal wall is located at only one site, which might reduce the rate of trocar hernias and abdominal wall infections. Two 5.5-mm trocars were inserted through an incision at the upper edge of the umbilicus. After perforation of the abdominal wall with a stylet of a 5.5-mm trocar, a curved grasper was inserted, without the use of a trocar, into the abdominal cavity. The use of curved instruments facilitates better triangulation and instrument handling. No gas leakage was observed due to the nonexistence of a trocar. Dissection of the Calot' s triangle or appendix vessels can be done with standard instruments. The curved grasper allows retraction of the gallbladder or appendix. The specimen can be removed through the umbilical incision. The authors present a single-access surgery technique for cholecystectomies and appendectomies using curved instruments. The single-access surgery with parallel inserted curved instruments is feasible. No additional complications are related to this modification other than those known to be associated with laparoscopic surgery. This method offers an almost scarless surgery. Whether other advantages such as less trocar hernias, wound infections, and/or a faster recovery can be achieved, it has not yet to be proven. PMID

  10. Single-Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gall Bladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Joong Choi, Chan; Kim, Min Chan; Choi, Hong Jo; Kim, Young Hoon; Jung, Ghap Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) was introduced to improve patients' postoperative quality of life and cosmesis over the conventional approach (CLC). The purpose of this case–control study was to compare the outcome of SPLC with that of CLC in a specific disease: gall bladder (GB) polyps. Methods: Eligible for the study were all patients with GB polyps who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. The 112 patients studied (56 each for SPLC and CLC) were matched by using a propensity score that included gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, history of previous abdominal operation, and pathology outcome. To avoid selection bias caused by the surgeon's choice (often dependent on the degree of inflammation) and to investigate the efficacy of SPLC for a single disease, GB polyps, we excluded patients with acute or chronic cholecystitis. Results: Characteristics of the patients matched by a propensity score between SPLC and CLC showed no significant difference. Incidentally detected malignancy was in postoperative pathology in cases in both groups. Although operative time was shorter for SPLC, there was no significant difference in time between the 2 groups. There were 3 open conversions in the CLC group, and an additional port was used in the SPLC group. There was no difference between the groups in hospital stay and postoperative complications. Conclusion: In the management of GB polyps, the operative results of SPLC are comparable to those of CLC. We conclude that SPLC is as safe as CLC and has the potential for greater cosmetic satisfaction for patients than CLC. Further trials for objective appraisal of cosmetic outcomes are needed. PMID:26229419

  11. Comparative Changes in Tissue Oxygenation Between Laparoscopic and Open Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bablekos, George D.; Michaelides, Stylianos A.; Analitis, Antonis; Lymperi, Maria H.; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies examined the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) versus open cholecystectomy (OC) on physiological variables of the respiratory system. In this study we compared changes in arterial blood gases-related parameters between LC and OC to assess their comparative influence on gas exchange. Methods We studied 28 patients, operated under identical anesthetic protocol (LC: 18 patients, OC: 10 patients). Measurements were made on the morning before surgery (BS), the second (AS2) and the eighth (AS8) postoperative day. Studied parameters, including alveolar-arterial difference in PO2 ((A-a)DO2) and oxygen content (Oct in vol%), were statistically compared. Results On AS2 a greater increase was found in ((A-a)DO2) for the OC compared to LC (4.673 ± 0.966 kPa versus 3.773 ± 1.357 kPa, respectively). Between BS and AS2, Oct in vol% decreased from 17.55 ± 1.90 to 15.69 ± 1.88 in the LC and from 16.99 ± 2.37 to 14.62 ± 2.23 in the OC, whilst a reduction (P = 0.093) between AS2 and AS8 was also found for the open method. Besides, on AS2, SaO2% decrease was greater in OC compared to LC (P = 0.096). Conclusions On AS2, the greater increase in OC-((A-a)DO2) associated with Oct in vol% and SaO2% findings also in OC group suggest that LC might be associated with lower risk for impaired tissue oxygenation. PMID:25699119

  12. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: our experience and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    ZANGHÌ, G.; LEANZA, V.; VECCHIO, R.; MALAGUARNERA, M.; ROMANO, G.; RINZIVILLO, N.M.A.; CATANIA, V.; BASILE, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim After the revolution in the surgery of gallbladder stones represented by the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we tried a new technique that further maximize the aesthetic results and that at the same time is of easy learning for young surgeons. Patients and methods From January 2011 to December 2012 we performed at our department 320 cholecystectomy: 27 in laparotomy and 293 in laparoscopy. Of these, 88 underwent to Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS), namely the Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC), in recruited patients aged between 19–65 years; 56 patients were females and 32 were males. Results The laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the SILS methodology is a safe technique. Respect to multi-port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC), we have cosmetic advances. The pain is less in extra-umbilical sites, and the major umbilical pain can be prevented by local anaesthesia. The times are slightly longer, especially at the beginning of training, but after a few of operations it is reduced to about one hour. We didn’t found any other difference in vantage and advantage between the two technics, only a case of postoperative umbilical hernia in SILS. Conclusion We found the SILS a safe and effective technique for the cholecystectomy. PMID:26888698

  13. Cost-effectiveness of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus observation in older patients presenting with mild biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Abhishek D; Coutin, Mark D; Vargas, Gabriela M; Tamirisa, Nina P; Sheffield, Kristin M; Riall, Taylor S

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the probability threshold for recurrent symptoms at which elective cholecystectomy compared to observation in older patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is the more effective and cost-effective option. We built a decision model of elective cholecystectomy versus observation in patients >65 presenting with initial episodes of symptomatic cholelithiasis that did not require initial hospitalization or cholecystectomy. Probabilities for subsequent hospitalization, emergency cholecystectomy, and perioperative complications were based on previously published probabilities from a 5 % national sample of Medicare patients. Costs were estimated from Medicare reimbursements and from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Utilities (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) were obtained from established literature estimates. Elective cholecystectomy compared to observation in all patients was associated with lower effectiveness (-0.10 QALYs) and had an increased cost of $3,422.83 per patient at 2-year follow-up. Elective cholecystectomy became the more effective option when the likelihood for continued symptoms exceeded 45.3 %. Elective cholecystectomy was both more effective and less costly when the probability for continued symptoms exceeded 82.7 %. An individualized shared decision-making strategy based on these data can increase elective cholecystectomy rates in patients at high risk for recurrent symptoms and minimize unnecessary cholecystectomy for patients unlikely to benefit. PMID:24919433

  14. Single-Fulcrum Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Uncomplicated Gallbladder Diseases: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis with Conventional Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Choi, Sung Hoon; Lee, Woo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Single-fulcrum laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SFLC) is a variant type of single incision and multi-port technique that does not use specialized one-port devices or articulating instruments. We retrospectively compared perioperative outcomes of SFLC with those of conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). Materials and Methods Between March 2009 and December 2010, SFLC was performed in 130 patients. Among them, 105 patients with uncomplicated gallbladder disease (no inflammation or no clinical symptoms) and another 105 patients who underwent CLC were selected for this study. Results There was no open conversion. In comparison with CLC, SFLC was performed more often in young (46.4±12.2 years vs. 52.5±13.6 years, p=0.001) female patients (80/25 vs. 62/43, p=0.008). The total operation time was longer in SFLC (56.7±14.1 min vs. 47.5±17.1 min, p<0.001), but pain scores immediately after operation and at discharge time were lower for SFLC than for CLC (3.1±1.3 vs. 4.0±1.9, p<0.001, 2.0±0.9 vs. 2.4±0.8, p=0.002). Total cost was lower for SFLC than for CLC (US $ 1801±289.9 vs. US $ 2003±617.4, p=0.004). There were no differences in hospital stay or complication rates. Conclusion SFLC showed greater technical feasibility and cost benefits in treating uncomplicated benign gallbladder disease than CLC. PMID:24142653

  15. Triple, double- and single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Benzin, Mehmet Fatih; Cakir, Tugrul; Sozen, Isa; Sabuncuoglu, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Advances in laparoscopic techniques have enabled complicated intra-abdominal surgical procedures to be made with less trauma and a better cosmetic appearance. The techniques have been developed by decreasing the number of incisions in conventional laparoscopic procedures in order to increase patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to compare the results of cholecystectomies made with 3, 2 or a single incision. Method: A total of 95 cholecystectomy patients from Elbistan State Hospital and Suleyman Demirel University Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The patients were separated into 3 groups as triple incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TILC), double incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DILC) and single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC). Patients were evaluated in respect of demographic characteristics, operation time, success rate, analgesia requirement, length of hospital stay and patient satisfaction. Results: Successful procedures were completed in 40 TILC, 40 DILC and 15 SILC cases. Transfer to open cholecystectomy was not required in any case. The mean duration of operation was 71 mins (range, 55-120 mins) for SILC cases, 45 mins (range, 32-125 mins) for DILC cases and 42 mins (range, 29-96 mins) for TILC cases. The mean time for the SILC cases was statistically significantly longer than the other two groups (p < 0.000). Conclusions: At a comparable level with DILC and TILC, single incision laparosccopic cholecystectomy is a method which can be used without incurring any extra costs or requiring additional instrumentation or training and which has good cosmetic results and a low requirement for analgesia. PMID:25419372

  16. Effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on lung function: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bablekos, George D; Michaelides, Stylianos A; Analitis, Antonis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To present and integrate findings of studies investigating the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on various aspects of lung function. METHODS: We extensively reviewed literature of the past 24 years concerning the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison to the open procedure on many aspects of lung function including spirometric values, arterial blood gases, respiratory muscle performance and aspects of breathing control, by critically analyzing physiopathologic interpretations and clinically important conclusions. A total of thirty-four articles were used to extract information for the meta-analysis concerning the impact of the laparoscopic procedure on lung function and respiratory physiopathology. The quality of the literature reviewed was evaluated by the number of their citations and the total impact factor of the corresponding journals. A fixed and random effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference of studied parameters for laparoscopic (LC) and open (OC) procedures. A crude comparison of the two methods using all available information was performed testing the postoperative values expressed as percentages of the preoperative ones using the Mann-Whitney two-sample test. RESULTS: Most of the relevant studies have investigated and compared changes in spirometric parameters.The median percentage and interquartile range (IQR) of preoperative values in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow (FEF) at 25%-75% of FVC (FEF25%-75%) expressed as percentage of their preoperative values 24 h after LC and OC were respectively as follows: [77.6 (73.0, 80.0) L vs 55.4 (50.0, 64.0) L, P < 0.001; 76.0 (72.3, 81.0) L vs 52.5 (50.0, 56.7) L, P < 0.001; and 78.8 (68.8, 80.9) L/s vs 60.0 (36.1, 66.1) L/s, P = 0.005]. Concerning arterial blood gases, partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2 (kPa)] at 24 or 48 h after surgical treatment showed reductions that were significantly

  17. Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Paat-Ahi, Gerli; Aaviksoo, Ain; Świderek, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) systems deal with cholecystectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. Methods: National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a procedure of cholecystectomy. DRG classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardised case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained and compared to an index case. Results: European DRG systems vary widely: they classify cholecystectomy patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between two DRGs in Austria and Poland to nine DRGs in England). The most complex DRG is valued at four times more resource intensive than the index case in Ireland but only 1.3 times more resource intensive than the index case in Austria. Conclusion: Large variations in the classification of cholecystectomy patients raise concerns whether all systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Surgeons, hospital managers and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries’ DRG systems classify cholecystectomy patients in order to optimize their DRG systems and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. PMID:25489596

  18. Evaluation of Early versus Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Acute Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rati; Sood, K C; Agarwal, Bhupender

    2015-01-01

    Background. The role of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis with cholelithiasis is not yet established. The aim of our prospective randomized study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of early LC for acute cholecystitis and to compare the results with delayed LC. Methods. Between March 2007 to December 2008, 50 patients with diagnosis of acute cholecystitis were assigned randomly to early group, n = 25 (LC within 24 hrs of admission), and delayed group, n = 25 (initial conservative treatment followed by delayed LC, 6-8 weeks later). Results. We found in our study that the conversion rate in early LC and delayed LC was 16% and 8%, respectively, Operation time for early LC was 69.4 min versus 66.4 min for delayed LC, postoperative complications for early LC were 24% versus 8% for delayed LC, and blood loss was 159.6 mL early group versus 146.8 mL for delayed group. However early LC had significantly shorter hospital stay (4.1 days versus 8.6 days). Conclusions. Early LC for acute cholecystitis with cholelithiasis is safe and feasible, offering the additional benefit of shorter hospital stay. It should be offered to the patients with acute cholecystitis, provided that the surgery is performed within 96 hrs of acute symptoms by an experienced surgeon. PMID:25729775

  19. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  20. One, Two, or Three Ports in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Justo-Janeiro, Jaime Manuel; Vincent, Gustavo Theurel; Vázquez de Lara, Fernando; de la Rosa Paredes, René; Orozco, Eduardo Prado; Vázquez de Lara, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been compared with 3- or 4-port LC. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the 3-, 2-, and 1-port techniques. Patients were randomized into 3 groups: LC 1-port using SILS, LC 2-port using a laparoscope with a working channel, and LC 3-port using the standard ports. Pain was evaluated at recovery, 4 hours, 24 hours, day 5, and day 8, using an analog visual scale. Homogenous groups in their demographic characteristics; all confirmed gallbladder lithiasis. At recovery, there was less pain in group 1 (P = 0.002); at 4 hours pain was similar in all groups (P = 0.899); at 24 hours there was less pain in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.031); and at days 5 and 8 there was marginal (P = 0.053) and significant (P = 0.003) relevance. In terms of pain perception, LC performed through 1 port does not offer advantages when compared with 2 or 3 ports. More clinical trials are needed to confirm these data. PMID:25437581

  1. Evaluation and comparison of postoperative levels of serum bilirubin, serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase in laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus open cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Rajinder Pal; Sandhu, Karamjot; Singh, Bir; Bhatia, Gaurav; Khatri, Abhishek; Sharma, Bhanu Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) requires the creation of a pneumoperitoneum via insufflations of carbon dioxide; resulting in increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) and intraperitoneal pressure which leads to the changes in pulmonary function and hemodynamic measurements. Hypercarbia leads to visceral organ ischemia including liver and venous stasis/thromboembolism or both due to impaired flow. The present study has been undertaken to see the changes in liver function tests (LFTs) after laparoscopic/open cholecystectomy (OC), the incidences of such change, their relation to age, sex, duration of surgery and to know the clinical significances of such disturbances. Aims and objectives To compare and correlate the serum level of bilirubin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in patients who underwent LC to those who underwent OC. Materials and methods The present study was conducted in the Department of Surgery at MMIMSR, MM University, Mullana, Ambala. A total number of 200 patients diagnosed as cholelithiasis were included in the study from May 2012 to May 2014. These cases were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) consisting of 100 cases each. LC was performed in group A patients and OC was done in group B patients. Three blood samples were taken: (I) pre-operatively; (II) after 24 hours of surgery; and (III) after 72 hours of surgery for comparison of the enzyme level alterations. Results In LC patients, there were rise in the levels of serum bilirubin, AST and ALT after 24 hrs of surgery from the preoperative value and then again fall was noted (near to normal value) after 72 hrs of surgery except in that of ALP. ALP levels showed slight fall after 24 hrs of surgery and then slight rise after 72 hrs which was within the normal limit. Whereas in OC patients, there were slight variations in the liver enzymes (which were within the normal range). Conclusions Transient elevation of serum

  2. Laparoscopic drainage of abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent; Ram, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    We present a case on abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy and describe laparoscopic drainage as our choice of management. Mr M is a 75-year-old male who presented on multiple occasions to the hospital with right upper quadrant pain and fever post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He also required multiple courses of antibiotics. Subsequent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed a number of retained stone with signs of chronic inflammation. Hence, 6 months after his initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy, he proceeded to an exploratory laparoscopy. We found an abscess cavity measuring 3 × 4 cm over the anterior abdominal wall. The cavity was de-roofed, drained and washed out. The tissue culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Laparoscopic approach is optimal as the abscess cavity can be clearly identified, stones visualized and removed under direct vision. Patient does not require a laparotomy. PMID:26183574

  3. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy can strain the occurrence of trocar site hernia.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Fatih; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Otan, Emrah; Kocaaslan, Huseyin

    2014-11-16

    This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patient presenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the umbilical trocar site had been neglected during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative day five, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomy resolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with a more complicated clinical picture with an intestinal obstruction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilical trocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCP had strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergency surgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed an ischemic small bowel segment which was treated with resection and anastomosis. This report demonstrates that negligence of trocar site closure can result in very early herniation, particularly if an endoscopic intervention is required in the early postoperative period. PMID:25400872

  4. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy can strain the occurrence of trocar site hernia

    PubMed Central

    Sumer, Fatih; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Otan, Emrah; Kocaaslan, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patient presenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the umbilical trocar site had been neglected during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative day five, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomy resolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with a more complicated clinical picture with an intestinal obstruction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilical trocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCP had strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergency surgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed an ischemic small bowel segment which was treated with resection and anastomosis. This report demonstrates that negligence of trocar site closure can result in very early herniation, particularly if an endoscopic intervention is required in the early postoperative period. PMID:25400872

  5. Bowel function and irritable bowel symptoms after hysterectomy and cholecystectomy--a population based study.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, K W; Parker, D; Cripps, H

    1993-01-01

    Because unsubstantiated beliefs link hysterectomy and cholecystectomy with bowel function, this study examined all the women who had had these operations in a defined population (79 and 37 respectively, out of 1058) with respect to bowel habits, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and whole gut transit time calculated from records of three defecations. Compared with unoperated controls, women after hysterectomy were more likely to consider themselves constipated; they also strained more and admitted more often to bloating and feelings of incomplete evacuation. Their stools tended to be lumpier and, in women over 50 years, transit time was longer. When women treated by cholecystectomy were compared with women having newly discovered, asymptomatic gall stones, they more often described defecation as urgent but had no other detectable differences. In conclusion symptomatic constipation is frequent in women after hysterectomy; after cholecystectomy, bowel habit is not consistently changed but the rectum seems to be more irritable. PMID:8174964

  6. Pancreatitis of biliary origin, optimal timing of cholecystectomy (PONCHO trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After an initial attack of biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy minimizes the risk of recurrent biliary pancreatitis and other gallstone-related complications. Guidelines advocate performing cholecystectomy within 2 to 4 weeks after discharge for mild biliary pancreatitis. During this waiting period, the patient is at risk of recurrent biliary events. In current clinical practice, surgeons usually postpone cholecystectomy for 6 weeks due to a perceived risk of a more difficult dissection in the early days following pancreatitis and for logistical reasons. We hypothesize that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy minimizes the risk of recurrent biliary pancreatitis or other complications of gallstone disease in patients with mild biliary pancreatitis without increasing the difficulty of dissection and the surgical complication rate compared with interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods/Design PONCHO is a randomized controlled, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, superiority multicenter trial. Patients are randomly allocated to undergo early laparoscopic cholecystectomy, within 72 hours after randomization, or interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 25 to 30 days after randomization. During a 30-month period, 266 patients will be enrolled from 18 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint of mortality and acute re-admissions for biliary events (that is, recurrent biliary pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, symptomatic/obstructive choledocholithiasis requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography including cholangitis (with/without endoscopic sphincterotomy), and uncomplicated biliary colics) occurring within 6 months following randomization. Secondary endpoints include the individual endpoints of the composite endpoint, surgical and other complications, technical difficulty of cholecystectomy and costs. Discussion The PONCHO trial is designed to show that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  7. Preoperative assessment for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: feasibility of using spiral computed tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, A H; Inui, H; Imamura, A; Uetsuji, S; Kamiyama, Y

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the preoperative feasibility of using spiral computed tomography (SCT) after intravenous infusion cholangiography (IVC-SCT) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the aberrant or unusual anatomy of the bile duct and severe inflammation or adhesions around the gallbladder sometimes require a conversion to open surgery. METHODS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC's) were attempted on 440 patients, and preoperative IVC-SCT also was attempted in all of these patients. Using this spiral scanning technique, the bile ducts, cystic duct, and gallbladder were assessed for contour abnormalities, relative position, and filling defects. Forty-seven patients were diagnosed with having stones in their common bile duct or common hepatic duct. RESULTS: Three-hundred eighty-seven patients out of the 440 patients (88.0%) who were subjected to IVC-SCT had the length and course of their cystic duct successfully determined. Anomalous unions of the cystic duct were seen in 59 (15.2%) of 387 patients with respect to the operative findings, and 48 of 440 patients (10.9%) had severe adhesions to Calot's triangle and the surrounding tissues. In these 48 patients, 45 patients (94%) had a nonvisualized cystic duct on IVC-SCT. The preoperative assessment of the feasibility (dense adhesions obscuring Calot's triangle) of using IVC-SCT demonstrated that the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 93%, 98%, and 94%, respectively. Five patients had to be converted to open surgery, and the overall morbidity rates for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 0.9% (4 of 440). CONCLUSIONS: The most important factor in assessing the feasibility of using laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not the nonvisualized gallbladder, but the nonvisualized cystic duct on IVC-SCT. IVC-SCT may be of benefit to those patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3

  8. Natural history of asymptomatic bile duct stones at time of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Caddy, G. R.; Kirby, J.; Kirk, S. J.; Allen, M. J.; Moorehead, R. J.; Tham, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is little data on the natural history of asymptomatic bile duct stones and hence there is uncertainty on the management of asymptomatic bile duct stones discovered incidentally at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We retrospectively reviewed a group of patients who had previously underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but who did not have a pre-operative suspicion of intra-ductal stones, to determine if any biliary complications had subsequently developed. A group of patients who had no pre-operative suspicion of intra-ductal stones, but routinely underwent intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) at time of cholecystectomy, served as the control group. METHODS: A telephone questionnaire was completed by each patient's family practitioner in 59 of 79 (75%) patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the remaining 20 patients additional information was obtained from hospital records and from the central services agency (CSA). These patients had no pre-operative suspicion of bile duct stones and therefore did not undergo an IOC or ERCP. The control group (73 patients) had no pre-operative suspicion of bile duct stones but had a routine IOC performed to define the biliary anatomy. RESULTS: 59 patients were followed up for an average of 57 months (range 30-78 months) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. None of these patients developed pancreatitis, jaundice, deranged liver function tests (LFT's), or required ERCP or other biliary intervention. In the additional 20 patients where no information was available from the family practitioner, 11 patients had follow up appointments with no documentation of biliary complications or abnormal LFT's. 19 of 20 patients were traceable through the CSA and were all alive. Only 1 patient was untraceable and therefore unknown if biliary complications had developed. In the control group, 4 of 73 (6%) patients had intraductal stones detected and extracted. Thus the prevalence of asymptomatic bile duct

  9. Virtual Reality Training Versus Blended Learning of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia A.; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette M.; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Linke, Georg R.; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost-blended learning (BL) in a structured training program. Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks. Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in 2 groups stratified for sex. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trained basic skills and LC on the LAP Mentor II (Simbionix, Cleveland, OH). Each group trained 3 × 4 hours followed by a knowledge test concerning LC. Blinded raters assessed the operative performance of cadaveric porcine LC using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The LC was discontinued when it was not completed within 80 min. Students evaluated their training modality with questionnaires. The VR group completed the LC significantly faster and more often within 80 min than BL (45% v 21%, P = .02). The BL group scored higher than the VR group in the knowledge test (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 11.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). Both groups showed equal operative performance of LC in the OSATS score (49.4 ± 10.5 vs 49.7 ± 12.0, P = 0.90). Students generally liked training and felt well prepared for assisting in laparoscopic surgery. The efficiency of the training was judged higher by the VR group than by the BL group. VR and BL can both be applied for training the basics of LC. Multimodality training programs should be developed that combine the advantages of both approaches. PMID:25997044

  10. Isolated Right Segmental Hepatic Duct Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Perini, Rafael F.; Uflacker, Renan Cunningham, John T.; Selby, J. Bayne; Adams, David

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones. There is an increased incidence of bile duct injuries in LC compared with the open technique. Isolated right segmental hepatic duct injury (IRSHDI) represents a challenge not only for management but also for diagnosis. We present our experience in the management of IRSHDI, with long-term follow-up after treatment by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods. Twelve consecutive patients (9 women, mean age 48 years) were identified as having IRSHDI. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were collected for analysis. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range 2-90 months). Results. Three patients had the LC immediately converted to open surgery without repair of the biliary injury before referral. Treatments before referral included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage and surgery, isolated or in combination. The median interval from LC to referral was 32 days. Eleven patients presented with biliary leak and biloma, one with obstruction of an isolated right hepatic segment. Post-referral management of the biliary lesion used a combination of ERCP stenting, percutaneous drainage and stent placement and surgery. In 6 of 12 patients ERCP was the first procedure, and in only one case was IRSHDI identified. In 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed first and an isolated right hepatic segment was demonstrated in all. The final treatment modality was endoscopic management and/or percutaneous drainage and stenting in 6 patients, and surgery in 6. The mean follow-up was 44 months. No mortality or significant morbidity was observed. Conclusion. Successful management of IRSHDI after LC requires adequate identification of the lesion, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary. Half of the patients can be treated successfully by nonsurgical procedures.

  11. Feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikumoto, Taro; Yamagishi, Hidetsugu; Iwatate, Mineo; Sano, Yasushi; Kotaka, Masahito; Imai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for acute cholecystitis. METHODS: All patients who underwent SILC at Sano Hospital (Kobe, Japan) between January 2010 and December 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical data related to patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were collected from medical records. The parameters for assessing the safety of the procedure included operative time, volume of blood loss, achievement of the critical view of safety, use of additional trocars, conversion to laparotomy, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and duration of postoperative hospital stay. Patient backgrounds were statistically compared between those with and without conversion to laparotomy. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients underwent SILC for acute cholecystitis during the period. Preoperative endoscopic treatment was performed for suspected choledocholithiasis in 41 patients (41%). The mean time from onset of acute cholecystitis was 7.7 d. According to the Updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) for the severity of cholecystitis, 86 and 14 patients had grade I and grade II acute cholecystitis, respectively. The mean operative time was 87.4 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 80.6 mL. The critical view of safety was obtained in 89 patients (89%). Conversion laparotomy was performed in 12 patients (12%). Postoperative complications of Clavien-Dindo grade III or greater were observed in 4 patients (4%). The mean duration of postoperative hospital stay was 5.7 d. Patients converted from SILC to laparotomy tended to have higher days after onset. CONCLUSION: SILC is feasible for acute cholecystitis; in addition, early surgical intervention may reduce the risk of laparotomy conversion. PMID:26722614

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in the Anglophone Caribbean: A Multi Centre Audit of Regional Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Albert, Matthew; Singh, Yardesh; Dan, Dilip; Mohanty, Sanjib; Walrond, Maurice; Francis, Wesley; Simpson, Lindberg K.; Bonadie, Kimon O.; Dapri, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There has been no report on Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) cholecystectomy outcomes since it was first performed in the Anglophone Caribbean in 2009. Methods: A retrospective audit evaluated the clinical outcomes of SILS cholecystectomies at regional hospitals in the 17 Anglophone Caribbean countries. Any cholecystectomy using a laparoscopic approach in which all instruments were passed through one access incision was considered a SILS cholecystectomy. The following data were collected: patient demographics, indications for operation, intraoperative details, surgeon details, surgical techniques, specialized equipment, conversions, morbidity and mortality. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS 12.0. Results: There were 85 SILS cholecystectomies in women at a mean age of 37.4 ± 8.5 years with a mean BMI of 30.9 ± 2.8. There were 59 elective and 26 emergent cases. Specialized access platforms were used in the first 35 cases and reusable instruments were passed directly across fascia in the latter 50 cases. The mean operative time was 62.9 ± 17.9 minutes. There was no mortality, 2 conversions to multi-trocar laparoscopy and 5 minor complications. Ambulatory procedures were performed in 43/71 (60.6%) patients scheduled for elective operations. Conclusion: In the Caribbean setting, SILS cholecystectomy is a feasible and safe alternative to conventional multi-trocar laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease. PMID:25324700

  13. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy vs three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A large-scale retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Jiang, Ze-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ting-Cheng; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Qin, Jia-Sheng; He, Guo-Lin; Gao, Yi; Pan, Ming-Xin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To perform a large-scale retrospective comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESSC) and three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TPLC) in a single institution. METHODS: Data were collected from 366 patients undergoing LESSC between January 2005 and July 2008 and were compared with the data from 355 patients undergoing TPLC between August 2008 and November 2011 in our department. Patients with body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2, a history of major upper abdominal surgery, signs of acute cholecystitis, such as fever, right upper quadrant tenderness with or without Murphy’s sign, elevated white blood cell count, imaging findings suggestive of pericholecystic fluid, gallbladder wall thickening > 4 mm, and gallstones > 3 cm, were excluded to avoid bias. RESULTS: Altogether, 298 LESSC and 315 TPLC patients met the inclusion criteria. The groups were well matched with regard to demographic data. There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative complications (contusion: 19 vs 25 and hematoma at incision: 11 vs 19), hospital stay (mean ± SD, 1.4 ± 0.2 d vs 1.4 ± 0.7 d) and visual analogue pain score (mean ± SD, 8 h after surgery: 2.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.3 ± 1.3 and at day 1: 1.2 ± 0.4 vs 1.3 ± 1.2) between the LESSC and TPLC patients. Four patients required the addition of extra ports and 2 patients were converted to open surgery in the LESSC group, which was not significantly different when compared with TPLC patients converted to laparotomy (2 vs 2). LESSC resulted in a longer operating time (mean ± SD, 54.8 ± 11.0 min vs 33.5 ± 9.0 min), a higher incidence of intraoperative gallbladder perforation (56 vs 6) and higher operating cost (mean ± SD, 1933.7 ± 64.4 USD vs 1874.7 ± 46.2 USD) than TPLC. No significant differences in operating time (mean ± SD, 34.3 ± 6.0 min vs 32.7 ± 8.7 min) and total cost (mean ± SD, 1881.3 ± 32.8 USD vs 1876.2 ± 33.4 USD) were found when the last 100 cases in the two groups were

  14. Inflammatory response to surgical trauma in patients with minilaparotomy cholecystectomy versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomised multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Aspinen, Samuli; Kinnunen, Mari; Harju, Jukka; Juvonen, Petri; Selander, Tuomas; Holopainen, Anu; Kokki, Hannu; Pulkki, Kari; Eskelinen, Matti

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the inflammatory response to surgical trauma in minilaparotomy cholecystectomy (MC) compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Assessment of inflammatory response to surgical trauma in MC has not been addressed properly. Therefore, we investigated five interleukins (IL) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in MC versus LC group in a prospective randomised trial. Methods Initially, 106 patients with non-complicated symptomatic gallstone disease were randomised into MC (n = 56) or LC (n = 50) groups. Plasma levels of five interleukins (IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) and hs-CRP were measured at three time points; before operation (PRE), immediately after operation (POP1) and six hours after operation (POP2). The primary end-point of the study was to compare the plasma levels of five interleukins and CRP in LC versus MC group. Results The demographic variables and the surgical data were similar in the study groups. The patients in the MC group had higher elevation of the CRP mean values post-operatively (p = 0.01). However, the patients in the MC group had higher elevation of the IL-1ra mean values post-operatively, the mean pre-/post-operative IL-1ra values being 299/614 pg/ml in the MC group versus 379/439 pg/ml in the LC group (p = 0.003). There was no statistical significance in IL-6 mean values between the MC and LC groups pre- and post-operatively (POP1). However, the patients in the MC group had higher IL-6 mean values six hours post-operatively (POP2), the mean IL-6 values being 27.6 pg/ml in the MC group versus 14.8 pg/ml in the LC group (p = 0.037). In addition, the patients in the MC group had higher elevation of the IL-6 mean values post-operatively, the mean pre-/post-operative IL-6 values being 4.1/27.6 pg/ml in the MC group versus 3.8/14.8 pg/ml in the LC group (p = 0.04). There was no statistical significance in IL-8, IL-10, and IL-1β mean values between the MC and LC

  15. Cholecystectomy is associated with higher risk of early recurrence and poorer survival after curative resection for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Wang, Shu-Kang; Zhi, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Zhao-Ru; Zhang, Zong-Li; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Ye, Qing-Hai; Fan, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Although cholecystectomy has been reported to be associated with increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the association between cholecystectomy and prognosis of HCC patients underwent curative resection has never been examined. Through retrospective analysis of the data of 3933 patients underwent curative resection for HCC, we found that cholecystectomy was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients at early stage (BCLC stage 0/A) (p = 0.020, HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.59), and the 1-, 3-, 5-year RFS rates for patients at early stage were significantly worse in cholecystectomy group than in non-cholecystectomy group (80.5%, 61.8%, 52.0% vs 88.2%, 68.8%, 56.8%, p = 0.033). The early recurrence rate of cholecystectomy group was significantly higher than that of non-cholecystectomy group for patients at early stage (59/47 vs 236/333, p = 0.007), but not for patients at advanced stage (BCLC stage C) (p = 0.194). Multivariate analyses showed that cholecystectomy was an independent risk factor for early recurrence (p = 0.005, HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.13–2.03) of early stage HCC, but not for late recurrence (p = 0.959). In conclusion, cholecystectomy is an independent predictor for early recurrence and is associated with poorer RFS of early stage HCC. Removal of normal gallbladder during HCC resection may be avoided for early stage patients. PMID:27320390

  16. Cholecystectomy after breast reconstruction with a pedicled autologous tram flap. Types of surgical access.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Kostro, Justyna; Jankau, Jerzy; Bigda, Justyna; Skorek, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    The number of breast reconstruction procedures has been increasing in recent years. One of the suggested treatment methods is breast reconstruction with a pedicled skin and muscle TRAM flap (transverse rectus abdominis muscle - TRAM). Surgical incisions performed during a cholecystectomy procedure may be located in the areas significant for flap survival. The aim of this paper is to present anatomical changes in abdominal walls secondary to pedicled skin and muscle (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, which influence the planned access in cholecystectomy procedures. The authors present 2 cases of cholecystectomy performed due to cholelithiasis in female patients with a history of TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedures. The first patient underwent a traditional method of surgery 14 days after the reconstruction due to acute cholecystitis. The second patient underwent a laparoscopy due to cholelithiasis 7 years after the TRAM procedure. In both cases an abdominal ultrasound scan was performed prior to the operation, and surgical access was determined following consultation with a plastic surgeon. The patient who had undergone traditional cholecystectomy developed an infection of the postoperative wound. The wound was treated with antibiotics, vacuum therapy and skin grafting. After 7 weeks complete postoperative wound healing and correct healing of the TRAM flap were achieved. The patient who had undergone laparoscopy was discharged home on the second postoperative day without any complications. In order to plan a safe surgical access, it is necessary to know the changes in the anatomy of abdominal walls following a pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedure. PMID:25337177

  17. Impact of anesthetic technique on the stress response elicited by laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Irine; Tsaousi, Georgia G; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Logotheti, Helen; Tsantilas, Dimitrios; Vasilakos, Dimitrios G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind clinical trial was to elucidate the impact of general anesthesia alone (GA) or supplemented with epidural anesthesia (EpiGA) on surgical stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, using stress hormones, glucose, and C-reactive protein (CRP), as potential markers. Sixty-two patients scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either GA or EpiGA. Stress hormones [cortisol (COR), human growth hormone (hGH), prolactine (PRL)], glucose, and CRP were determined 1 day before surgery, intraoperatively, and upon first postoperative day (POD1). Plasma COR, hGH, PRL, and glucose levels were maximized intraoperatively in GA and EpiGA groups and reverted almost to baseline on POD1. Significant between-group differences were detected for COR and glucose either intraoperatively or postoperatively, but this was not the case for hGH. PRL was elevated in GA group only intraoperatively. Although, CRP was minimally affected intraoperatively, a notable augmentation on POD1, comparable in both groups, was recorded. These results indicate that hormonal and metabolic stress response is slightly modulated by the use of epidural block supplemented by general anesthesia, in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy cholecystectomy. Nevertheless, inflammatory reaction as assessed by CRP seems to be unaffected by the anesthesia regimen. PMID:26882921

  18. Obstructive jaundice as a complication of a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Ting-Chun; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Yang, Ching-Yao; Tien, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare, but a potentially life-threatening complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Obstructive jaundice owing to a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after LC has never been reported. We report a patient with a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after LC who presented with tarry stools, bloody drainage and obstructive jaundice. PMID:25883462

  19. Anesthetic management of a patient with myotonic dystrophy for laparoscopic cholecystectomy--a case report.

    PubMed

    El-Dawlatly, Abdelazeem; Aldohayan, Abdullah; Nawaz, Sayeed; Alshutry, Abdullah

    2008-06-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is rare disease that offers challenges to anesthesiologists. We report a case of adult patient with myotonic dystrophy who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A 48-year-old male patient, known case of MD, was presented for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Physical examination revealed, young man, calm, quite, cooperative, not in pain or distress with frontal baldness, temporal bone recession, elongated face, mild degree of ptosis and swan neck. Under complete aseptic conditions, thoracic epidural T6-7 with catheter insertion was performed while the patient was placed on left lateral side. Plain bupivacaine 0.5% 7cc was injected through the catheter. Level of analgesia tested with ice reached up to T4. Intravenous sedation was achieved with midazolam 2 mg and ketamine 50 mg. The patient was comfortably lying supine on warm heated mattress, except of bilateral shoulder pains which was relieved with midazolam and ketamine. In conclusion, regional anesthesia, spinal or epidural, is preferable in MD patients. Shoulder pains is the main intraoperative problem encountered in our patient. Therefore, studies are needed for treating shoulder pain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in a patient with MD who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under thoracic epidural analgesia. Myotonic dystrophy (M) is rare disease and represents challenges to anesthesiologists. We report a case of adult patient with myotonic dystrophy who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:18637613

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: early or delayed?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guo-Min; Bian, Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Luo, Yong-Qiang; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an important approach of treating acute cholecystitis and the timing of performing this given treatment is associated with clinical outcomes. Although several meta-analyses have been done to investigate the optimal timing of implementing this treatment, the conflicting findings from these meta-analyses still confuse decision-making. And thus, we performed this systematic review to assess discordant meta-analyses and generate conclusive findings to facilitate informed decision-making in clinical context eventually. We electronically searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE to include meta-analysis comparing early (within 7 days of the onset of symptoms) with delayed LC (at least 1 week after initial conservative treatment) for acute cholecystitis through August 2015. Two independent investigators completed all tasks including scanning and appraising eligibility, abstracting essential information using prespecified extraction form, assessing methodological quality using Oxford Levels of Evidence and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool, and assessing the reporting quality using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), as well as implementing Jadad algorithm in each step for the whole process. A heterogeneity degree of ≤50% is accepted. Seven eligible meta-analyses were included eventually. Only one was Level I of evidence and remaining studies were Level II of evidence. The AMSTAR scores varied from 8 to 11 with a median of 9. The PRISMA scores varied from 19 to 26. The most heterogeneity level fell into the desired criteria. After implementing Jadad algorithm, 2 meta-analyses with more eligible RCTs were selected based on search strategies and implication of selection. The best available evidence indicated a nonsignificant difference in mortality, bile duct injury, bile leakage, overall complications, and conversion to open surgery, but a significant

  1. Laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy: A safe and effective alternative surgical technique in “difficult cholecystectomies”

    PubMed Central

    Kulen, Fatih; Tihan, Deniz; Duman, Uğur; Bayam, Emrah; Zaim, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the “gold standard” for benign gallbladder diseases due to its advantages. In the presence of inflammation or fibrosis, the risk of bleeding and bile duct injury is increased during dissection. Laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy (LPC) is a feasible and safe method to prevent bile duct injuries and decrease the conversion (to open cholecystectomy) rates in difficult cholecystectomies where anatomical structures could not be demonstrated clearly. Material and Methods The feasibility, efficiency, and safety of LPC were investigated. The data of 80 patients with cholelithiasis who underwent LPC (n=40) and conversion cholecystectomy (CC) (n=40) were retrospectively examined. Demographic characteristics, ASA scores, operating time, drain usage, requirement for intensive care, postoperative length of hospital stay, surgical site infection, antibiotic requirement and complication rates were compared. Results The median ASA value was 1 in the CC group and 2 in the LPC group. Mean operation time was 123 minutes in the CC group, and 87.50 minutes in the LPC group. Surgical drains were used in 16 CC patients and 4 LPC patients. There was no significant difference between groups in postoperative length of intensive care unit stay (p=0.241). When surgical site infections were compared, the difference was at the limit of statistical significance (p=0.055). Early complication rates were not different (p=0.608) but none of the patients in the LPC group suffered from late complications. Conclusion LPC is an efficient and safe way to decrease the conversion rate. LPC seems to be an alternative procedure to CC with advantages of shorter operating time, lower rates of surgical site infection, shorter postoperative hospitalization and fewer complications in high-risk patients. PMID:27528821

  2. Eleven-year experience on the endoscopic treatment of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks

    PubMed Central

    Fasoulas, Kostas; Zavos, Christos; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris; Trakateli, Christina; Vasiliadis, Themistoklis; Ioannidis, Aristidis; Kountouras, Jannis; Katsinelos, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Background Bile leak is a common and serious complication of cholecystectomy with endotherapy being an established method of treatment. This retrospective study presents the 11-year experience of a referral center in endoscopic management of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks. Methods During the period between January 2000 and December 2010, records of patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected post-cholecystectomy bile leaks were reviewed for evidence of clinical presentation of bile leaks, cholangiographic findings, type of endoscopic intervention, procedural complications and post-procedure follow-up. Results Seventy-one patients with suspected post-cholecystectomy bile leak were referred for ERCP. Common bile duct (CBD) cannulation was successful in 70 patients (98.59%). Complete transection of CBD was diagnosed in 4 patients; they were treated with surgery. A leak from the cystic duct stump was demonstrated in 49 patients (74.24%), from the ducts of Luschka in 4 (6.06%), from the gallbladder bed in 2 (3.03%), from the CBD in 7 (10.61%) and from the common hepatic duct (CHD) in 4 patients (6.06%). Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) plus endoprosthesis was performed in 64 patients (96.97%). A 12-year-old girl with a leak from cystic duct stump was successfully treated with stenting without ES and one patient with leak from gallbladder bed underwent only ES. Endoscopic intervention failed to treat a leak from CHD in one patient. During the follow-up, three patients developed bile duct stricture. Two were treated endoscopically and one with hepaticojejunostomy. Conclusions ES plus large-bore straight plastic biliary stent placement is a safe and effective intervention in post-cholecystectomy bile leaks. PMID:24713781

  3. Cholecystectomy for Prevention of Recurrence after Endoscopic Clearance of Bile Duct Stones in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Myung Eun; Lee, Dong-Jun; Oh, Tak Geun; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cholecystectomy in patients with an intact gallbladder after endoscopic removal of stones from the common bile duct (CBD) remains controversial. We conducted a case-control study to determine the risk of recurrent CBD stones and the benefit of cholecystectomy for prevention of recurrence after endoscopic removal of stones from the CBD in Korean patients. Materials and Methods A total of 317 patients who underwent endoscopic CBD stone extraction between 2006 and 2012 were included. Possible risk factors for the recurrence of CBD stones including previous cholecystectomy history, bile duct diameter, stone size, number of stones, stone composition, and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum were analyzed. Results The mean duration of follow-up after CBD stone extraction was 25.4±22.0 months. A CBD diameter of 15 mm or larger [odds ratio (OR), 1.930; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.098 to 3.391; p=0.022] and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum (OR, 1.859; 95% CI, 1.014 to 3.408; p=0.045) were independent predictive factors for CBD stone recurrence. Seventeen patients (26.6%) in the recurrence group underwent elective cholecystectomy soon after endoscopic extraction of CBD stones, compared to 88 (34.8%) in the non-recurrence group; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.212). Conclusion A CBD diameter of 15 mm or larger and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum were found to be potential predictive factors for recurrence after endoscopic extraction of CBD stones. Elective cholecystectomy after clearance of CBD stones did not reduce the incidence of recurrent CBD stones in Korean patients. PMID:26632393

  4. Subtotal Cholecystectomy-"Fenestrating" vs "Reconstituting" Subtypes and the Prevention of Bile Duct Injury: Definition of the Optimal Procedure in Difficult Operative Conditions.

    PubMed

    Strasberg, Steven M; Pucci, Michael J; Brunt, L Michael; Deziel, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Less than complete cholecystectomy has been advocated for difficult operative conditions for more than 100 years. These operations are called partial or subtotal cholecystectomy, but the terms are poorly defined and do not stipulate whether a remnant gallbladder is created. This article briefly reviews the history and development of the procedures and introduces new terms to clarify the field. The term partial is discarded, and subtotal cholecystectomies are divided into "fenestrating" and "reconstituting" types. Subtotal reconstituting cholecystectomy closes off the lower end of the gallbladder, reducing the incidence of postoperative fistula, but creates a remnant gallbladder, which may result in recurrence of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy does not occlude the gallbladder, but may suture the cystic duct internally. It has a higher incidence of postoperative biliary fistula, but does not appear to be associated with recurrent cholecystolithiasis. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy has advantages but may require advanced laparoscopic skills. PMID:26521077

  5. Duodenal injury post laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Incidence, mechanism, management and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the etiopathogenesis, management and outcome of duodenal injury post laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: A Medline search was carried out for all articles in English, on duodenal injury post LC, using the search word duodenal injury and LC. The cross references in these articles were further searched, for potential articles on duodenal injury, which when found was studied. Inclusion criteria included, case reports, case series, and reviews. Articles even with lack of details with some of the parameters studied, were also analyzed. The study period included all the cases published till January 2015. The data extracted were demographic details, the nature and day of presentation, potential cause for duodenal injury, site of duodenal injury, investigations, management and outcome. The model (fixed or random effect) for meta analyses was selected, based on Q and I2 statistics. STATA software was used to draw the forest plot and to compute the overall estimate and the 95%CI for the time of detection of injury and its outcome on mortality. The association between time of detection of injury and mortality was estimated using χ2 test with Yate’s correction. Based on Kaplan Meier survival curve concept, the cumulative survival probabilities at various days of injury was estimated. RESULTS: Literature review detected 74 cases of duodenal injury, post LC. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (23-80 years) with 46% of them being males. The cause of injury was due to cautery (46%), dissection (39%) and due to retraction (14%). The injury was noted on table in 46% of the cases. The common site of injury was to the 2nd part of the duodenum with 46% above the papilla and 15% below papilla and in 31% to the 1st part of duodenum. Duodenorapphy (primary closure) was the predominant surgical intervention in 63% with 21% of these being carried out laparoscopically. Other procedures included, percutaneous drainage, tube duodenostomy, gastric resection

  6. Near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (FALCON trial): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Jacqueline; Schols, Rutger M; Luyer, Misha D; van Dam, Ronald M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J; Gobardhan, Paul D; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Bouvy, Nicole D; Stassen, Laurents P S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Misidentification of the extrahepatic bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the main cause of bile duct injury. Easier intraoperative recognition of the biliary anatomy may be accomplished by using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging after an intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG). Promising results were reported for successful intraoperative identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts compared to conventional laparoscopic imaging. However, routine use of ICG fluorescence laparoscopy has not gained wide clinical acceptance yet due to a lack of high-quality clinical data. Therefore, this multicentre randomised clinical study was designed to assess the potential added value of the NIRF imaging technique during LC. Methods and analysis A multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial will be carried out to assess the use of NIRF imaging in LC. In total, 308 patients scheduled for an elective LC will be included. These patients will be randomised into a NIRF imaging laparoscopic cholecystectomy (NIRF-LC) group and a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) group. The primary end point is time to ‘critical view of safety’ (CVS). Secondary end points are ‘time to identification of the cystic duct (CD), of the common bile duct, the transition of CD in the gallbladder and the transition of the cystic artery in the gallbladder, these all during dissection of CVS’; ‘total surgical time’; ‘intraoperative bile leakage from the gallbladder or cystic duct’; ‘bile duct injury’; ‘postoperative length of stay’, ‘complications due to the injected ICG’; ‘conversion to open cholecystectomy’; ‘postoperative complications (until 90 days postoperatively)’ and ‘cost-minimisation’. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Maastricht University Medical Center/Maastricht University; the trial has been registered at Clinical

  7. Late infective endocarditis after cholecystectomy in a patient with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cayhl, Murat; Demir, Mesut; Yaliniz, Hafize; Ulus, Tümer; Acartürk, Esmeray

    2004-12-01

    Late endocarditis after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot is rare. We describe a case of endocarditis following cholecystectomy in a 22-year old patient with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. After cholecystectomy, the patient was referred to a cardiology clinic with unexplained fever and suspicion of endocarditis. Echocardiography revealed a large mass at the basal level of interventricular septum. Endocarditis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and echocardiographic findings and antibiotic treatment was initiated immediately. Nine days later, the clinical status of the patient deteriorated and urgent surgery was performed. Patch dehiscence which mimicked a large vegetation, and multiple vegetations on the patch were found during operation. The patch was removed and ventricular septum defect was repaired with a new dacron patch. Enterobacter agglomerans was isolated in the vegetation cultures. PMID:15856630

  8. Robot assistant versus human or another robot assistant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Samraj, Kumarakrishnan; Fusai, Giuseppe; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of a robotic assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is controversial. While some trials have shown distinct advantages of a robotic assistant over a human assistant others have not, and it is unclear which robotic assistant is best. Objectives The aims of this review are to assess the benefits and harms of a robot assistant versus human assistant or versus another robot assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and to assess whether the robot can substitute the human assistant. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (until February 2012) for identifying the randomised clinical trials. Selection criteria Only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) comparing robot assistants versus human assistants in laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. Randomised clinical trials comparing different types of robot assistants were also considered for the review. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently identified the trials for inclusion and independently extracted the data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed-effect and the random-effects models based on intention- to-treat analysis, when possible, using Review Manager 5. Main results We included six trials with 560 patients. One trial involving 129 patients did not state the number of patients randomised to the two groups. In the remaining five trials 431 patients were randomised, 212 to the robot assistant group and 219 to the human assistant group. All the trials were at high risk of bias. Mortality and morbidity were reported in only one trial with 40 patients. There was no mortality or morbidity in either group. Mortality and morbidity were not reported in the remaining trials. Quality of life or the proportion of patients

  9. Thoracic combined spinal epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nandita; Dar, Mohd Reidwan; Sharma, Shikha; Mehta, Kuldeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The use of regional anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been reserved for patients who are at high-risk under general anesthesia (GA). The aim of this study was to assess whether thoracic combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia is a feasible option for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Thirty ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy received thoracic CSE anesthesia at T9-T10 or T10-T11 interspinous space using the midline approach. Two ml of isobaric levobupivacaine 0.5% with 25 μg of fentanyl was given intrathecally. Results: Surgery was conducted successfully in all except one patient. Thoracic CSE was performed at T9-T10 interspace in 25 patients and T10-T11 interspace in five patients. Paresthesia occurred in two patients (6.6%) transiently on Whitacre needle insertion that disappeared spontaneously. Dural puncture on epidural needle insertion occurred in one patient, and intrathecal placement of epidural catheter occurred in one. Ten patients (33%) complained of shoulder pain. Conversion to GA was done in one patient due to severe shoulder pain and anxiety. Hypotension occurred in 11 patients (36%) and all responded to single dose of mephenteramine 6 mg and fluid bolus. Bradycardia occurred in six patients (20%) which was managed in all with a single dose of atropine. Conclusion: Thoracic CSE anesthesia can be used effectively for ASA I and II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with significant postoperative benefits. PMID:27275054

  10. The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on inflammatory cytokines during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yılmazlar, Firdevs; Karabayırlı, Safinaz; Gözdemir, Muhammet; Usta, Burhanettin; Peker, Murat; Namuslu, Mehmet; Erdamar, Hüsamettin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate effects of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application of 10 cm H2O on the plasma levels of cytokines during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 40 patients who presented to the Department of General Surgery, Medical Faculty, Turgut Özal University, Ankara, Turkey scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy operation during a 10 month period from September 2012 to June 2013. Forty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy operation were randomly divided into 2 groups; ventilation through zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) (0 cm H2O PEEP) (n=20), and PEEP (10 cm H2O PEEP) (n=20). All patients were ventilated with 8 ml/kg TV. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL 10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were measured in the pre- and post-operatively collected samples. Results: Blood samples of 30 patients’ were analyzed for plasma cytokine levels, and 10 were excluded from the study due to hemolysis. Post-operative plasma IL-6 levels were observed to be significantly higher than the pre-operative patients (p=0.035). Post-operative plasma TGF-β1 levels in the PEEP group was found significantly higher compared with the pre-operative group levels (p=0.033). However, there were no significant differences in the pre- and post-operative plasma cytokine levels between the 2 groups. Conclusion: The application of PEEP of 10 cm H2O, which has known beneficial effect on respiratory mechanics, does not have any effect on systemic inflammatory response undergoing pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. PMID:26593173

  11. [Endoscopic cholecystectomy. Experience of the surgical team at the Saint-Charles hospital].

    PubMed

    Abousleiman, C; Husseini, H; Cherfane, M; Baaklini, J; Rouhana, G; Saad, H

    1993-01-01

    The laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been a major event in the progress of surgical techniques during the last few years and becomes more and more present every day in the surgeon's life. We present our experience with our 26 first patients. The results are similar to those already published in the literature. No procedure was converted to laparotomy. No major complications were noted. The team work is stressed upon and advised to our Lebanese colleagues. PMID:8057331

  12. One-stop cholecystectomy clinic: an application of lean thinking--can it improve the outcomes?

    PubMed

    Siddique, Khurram; Elsayed, Sameh Effat Abd; Cheema, Raza; Mirza, Shirin; Basu, Sanjoy

    2012-11-01

    Lean thinking principles were utilised to set up 'One-stop cholecystectomy clinics' at which patients underwent the surgical and the preoperative assessment during the same visit. The main aims were to reduce the number of patient hospital visits, preoperative admissions and the waiting time to surgery. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of patient visits as well as the waiting time to surgery thus highlighting that patientcare can be improved by good team working and lean management. PMID:23311022

  13. The effect of oral tizanidine on postoperative pain relief after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Talakoub, Reihanak; Abbasi, Saeed; Maghami, Elham; Zavareh, Sayyed Morteza Heidari Tabaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholecystectomy is considered as the most important and relatively common postoperative pain control often begins in recovery room by using systemic narcotics that may have some side effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of premedication with oral tizanidine on pain relief after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 70 adults of American Society of Anesthesiologist physiologic state 1 and 2 scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were studied and randomly divided in two study and control groups. Ninety minutes before the induction of anesthesia, patients received either 4 mg tizanidine (study group) orally in 50cc or the same volume of plain water as a placebo (control group). Then, the vital signs, pain intensity, duration of stay in recovery, and the analgesic consumption were measured and then compared in both groups during 24 h postoperatively. Results: There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, with respect to age, weight, gender, and duration of anesthesia and surgery between the groups (P > 0.05). The pain intensity, need for analgesic drugs (34.57 ± 8.88 mg vs. 101.86 ± 5.08 mg), and the duration of stay in recovery room (67.43 ± 1.59 min vs. 79.57 ± 5.48 min) were significantly lower in tizanidine group than that of the control group. Conclusion: Oral administration of 4 mg tizanidine before laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduces postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and consequence of the duration of stay in recovery room without any complication. PMID:26962521

  14. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Performed by Residents: A Retrospective Study on 569 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Stefano; Zetti, Giorgio; Cortese, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by residents. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 569 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Results. Duration of surgery was 84 ± 39 min for residents versus  66 ± 47 min for staff surgeons, P < 0.001. Rate of conversion was 3.2% for residents versus 2.7% for staff surgeons, P = 0.7. There was no difference in the rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications for residents (1.2% and 3.2%) versus staff surgeons (1.5% and 3.1%), P = 0.7 and P = 0.9. Postoperative hospital stay was 3.3 ± 1.8 days for residents versus  3.4 ± 3.2 days for staff surgeons, P = 0.6. One death in patients operated by residents (1/246) and one in patients operated by staff surgeons (1/323) were found, P = 0.8. No difference in the time to return to normal daily activities between residents (11.3 ± 4.2 days) and staff surgeons (10.8 ± 5.6 days) was found, P = 0.2. Shorter duration of surgery when operating the senior residents (75 ± 31 minutes) than the junior residents (87 ± 27 minutes), P = 0.003. Conclusion. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by residents is a safe procedure with results comparable to those of staff surgeons. PMID:25379566

  15. Preoperative mannitol infusion improves perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation and enhances postoperative recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Wesam F.; Mowafi, Hany A.; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi R.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Gameel, Haytham Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effect of preoperative mannitol infusion on perioperative decreased cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Forty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study conducted at Dammam Hospital of the University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2013 to June 2014. Patients received either 0.5 g/kg of 20% intravenous mannitol infusion over 10 minutes before induction of anesthesia (group M), or an equal volume of normal saline instead (group C). Primary outcome variable was rSO2. Other variables included extubation time, clinical assessment of consciousness recovery using the Modified Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S), and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for cognitive evaluation. Results: Anesthesia induction increased rSO2 in both groups. Pneumoperitoneum decreased rSO2 in group C, but not in group M. This drop in rSO2 in the group C reached its maximum 30 minutes after extubation, and was significantly less than the preinduction value. Time to extubation in group M was significantly shorter compared to group C (p=0.007). The OAAS in group M at 10 min after extubation was significantly higher compared to group C. No differences were found between the 2 groups in cognitive function as measured by MMSE score. Conclusion: Preoperative mannitol infusion maintains perioperative rSO2 during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and shortens extubation time with earlier resurgence of OAAS. PMID:26446331

  16. Predictive factors of difficult procedure in octogenarians undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    GUIDA, F.; MONACO, L.; SCHETTINO, M.; PORFIDIA, R.; IAPICCA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in very elderly patients with particular attention to the predicitive factors of difficulty. Patients and methods All patients aged ≥ 80 undergoing elective LC for lithiasis at our institution since 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2015 were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were: a) acute cholecystitis; b) biliary pancreatitis; c) biliary tract neoplasms; d) urgent procedure. Pre-, intra- and postoperative data were recorded. Results During the study period, we performed 72 LC and we enrolled 17 patients aged ≥ 80 with a M:F = 5:12. Of these, 10 patients had a “difficult” cholecystectomy. In seven cases an intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was performed. Postoperative course was regular but in two patients we had an Oddian spasm in 1st postoperative day. Female sex (p=0.03) and preoperative high level of serum amylase (p= 0.02) were significantly associated to difficult cholecystectomy in elderly patients. Conclusion LC in octogenarians is feasible and safe. However, sex and serum amylase can help the surgeon to predict a more difficult procedure in elective LC. In this group of patients an approach based on the individual risk is desirable and the patient could be referred to a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27381691

  17. Indomethacin and ketorolac given preoperatively are equally effective in reducing early postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Forse, Allan; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Butler, Patrick O.; Pace, Ronald F.

    1996-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Design A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Setting A university hospital. Patients Fifty-two patients with cholelithiasis but without known allergy to one of the study drugs, history of bleeding, peptic ulcer disease, known cardiac, lung or renal disease, abnormal liver function or use of opiates or NSAIDs within 2 weeks before operation. Patients were assigned to one of three groups, and treatment was randomized by placing the drugs in sealed, numbered envelopes. Intervention Administration of the NSAIDs ketorolac, intramuscularly, or indomethacin, rectally, before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative pain scored on a visual analogue scale and by nurse assessment, total dose of fentanyl citrate given, and nausea or emesis. Results Patients in the placebo group reported significantly more pain than either NSAID group (p < 0.05) and were reported as having significantly more pain by the nurses (p < 0.05). These patients were subsequently treated with a higher mean postoperative dose of fentanyl citrate than either NSAID group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the placebo group reported more nausea and emesis (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in any of the parameters measured between the ketorolac or indomethacin group. Conclusions The data demonstrate that the NSAIDs ketolorac and indomethacin, administered preoperatively, decrease early postoperative pain and nausea after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and are equally efficacious in producing these results. PMID:8599787

  18. Voice recognition interfaces (VRI) optimize the utilization of theatre staff and time during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    El-Shallaly, G E H; Mohammed, B; Muhtaseb, M S; Hamouda, A H; Nassar, A H M

    2005-01-01

    During laparoscopy, members of staff spend time setting up and de-activating the light source, camera and insufflator. Voice Recognition Interface (VRI) devices, such as HERMES (Stryker Europe, Montreux, Switzerland), enable the surgeon to perform and control these and other functions. They recognize the surgeon's voice and adjust the instruments in response to programmed verbal commands. The aim of this study was to evaluate HERMES with regards to the utilization of time and theatre staff during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 100 patients were randomized to either HERMES-assisted or standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three time variables were measured for performing three VRI tasks: (1) The initial setting up of the light source and camera, (2) the activation of the insufflator, and (3) the deactivation of the insufflator and light source at the end of the operation. The mean (and standard deviation) of the time in seconds required for setting up the light source and camera was 27.6 (26.9) in non-HERMES operations and 11.7 (4.7) in HERMES-assisted cases (p<0.001). Insufflation time was 19.8 (13.3) vs. 6.7 (2.5) (p<0.001), and switch-off time was 19.5 (11.8) vs. 11.8 (5.7) (p<0.001). HERMES optimized the operating time and the utilization of theatre staff during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:16754183

  19. Intravenous Versus Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis Efficacy for Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies: a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Karaca, A Serdar; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial is to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and oral antibiotic prophylaxis for cost and surgical site infection in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three hundred twenty patients were split into two groups as to include 160 patients in each, and they were evaluated in a prospective and randomized fashion. While one group was subjected to 1 g cefazolin via intravenous route during anesthesia induction, other group received 1 g cephalexin monohydrate via oral route 1 h prior to the operation. Demographic findings and operation results of the patients were compared by analyses. Our 320 patients (278 females and 42 males) received elective cholecystectomy and were followed up for a period of 6-26 months. Each group had 160 patients. Both groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and inclusion criteria. Among all, only five (1.5 %) cases demonstrated postoperative surgical site infection. Surgical site infection at postoperative period was determined in three (1.8 %) cases of intravenous prophylaxis group and two (1.2 %) cases of oral prophylaxis group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of surgical site infection. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis can be used in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy prophylaxis due to its cost-effective, reliable nature, and low surgical site infection rate. PMID:26730079

  20. Delayed biliary drainage is common in asymptomatic post-cholecystectomy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Elta, G H; Barnett, J L; Ellis, J H; Ackermann, R; Wahl, R

    1992-01-01

    A commonly used diagnostic criterion for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is delayed drainage of contrast media from the bile ducts at endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), which is defined as the persistence of contrast greater than 45 min after injection. We performed ERC in 11 asymptomatic post-cholecystectomy volunteers for the purpose of evaluating biliary drainage time. In an attempt to more accurately quantify emptying, concomitant scintigraphy was performed at the time of ERC and contrast drainage. Sufficient contrast mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid to completely fill out the intra-hepatic tree was injected (mean volume, 9 ml) and the volunteers remained in the prone position during imaging. The length of time from cholecystectomy, bile duct size, volume of contrast injected, and scintigraphic T1/2s did not correlate with drainage time at ERC. At 45 min after injection the degree of residual contrast filling was scored as: empty in three volunteers, almost empty in one, one-fourth full in 5, and one-half full in two. Therefore, 7 of the 11 asymptomatic volunteers (63%) had delayed drainage. Even if more stringent criteria for delayed drainage were used (ducts one-half filled), 2 of the 11 (18%) had abnormal drainage. The frequent occurrence of delayed drainage in these asymptomatic post-cholecystectomy volunteers challenges the validity of the 45-min delayed drainage criterion for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PMID:1511817

  1. Systemic Inflammatory Response After Natural Orifice Translumenal Surgery: Transvaginal Cholecystectomy in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Joe K. M.; Tong, Daniel K. H.; HO, David W. Y.; Luk, John; Law, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We analyzed circulating TNF-α and IL-6 to determine systemic inflammatory responses associated with transvaginal cholecystectomy in a porcine model. Methods: Six female pigs were used for a survival study after transvaginal cholecystectomy (NOTES group) using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) instruments and a single-channel endoscope. Blood was drawn preoperatively and 24 hours and 48 hours postoperatively. Four pigs were used as controls. In addition, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 2 pigs for laparoscopic control. Results: In all 6 pigs in the NOTES group, no major intraoperative complications occurred. No significant differences were found between control, laparoscopic, and NOTES groups in terms of preoperative IL-6 level (P=0.897) and at 24 hours (P=0.790), and 48 hours postoperatively (P=0.945). Similarly, there was no significant difference in mean preoperative (P=0.349) and mean day 2 postoperative TNF-α levels (P=0.11). But a significant increase in day 1 postoperative TNF-α levels in the laparoscopic group compared with that in the control and NOTES groups was observed (P=0.049). One limitation of our study is that the sample size was relatively small. Conclusion: NOTES is safe in animal models in terms of anatomical and cellular level changes with minimal systemic inflammatory host responses elicited. Further study needs to be carried out in humans before NOTES can be recommended for routine use. PMID:19366533

  2. Novel and safer endoscopic cholecystectomy using only a flexible endoscope via single port

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Chiyo, Taiga; Ayaki, Maki; Nagase, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To apply the laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery concept, we investigated whether endoscopic cholecystectomy could be performed more safely and rapidly via only 1 port or not. METHODS: Two dogs (11 and 13-mo-old female Beagle) were used in this study. Only 1 blunt port was created, and a flexible endoscope with a tip attachment was inserted between the fundus of gallbladder and liver. After local injection of saline to the gallbladder bed, resection of the gallbladder bed from the liver was performed. After complete resection of the gallbladder bed, the gallbladder was pulled up to resect its neck using the Ring-shaped thread technique. The neck of the gallbladder was cut using scissor forceps. Resected gallbladder was retrieved using endoscopic net forceps via a port. RESULTS: The operation times from general anesthetizing with sevoflurane to finishing the closure of the blunt port site were about 50 min and 60 min respectively. The resection times of gallbladder bed were about 15 min and 13 min respectively without liver injury and bleeding at all. Feed were given just after next day of operation, and they had a good appetite. Two dogs are in good health now and no complications for 1 mo after endoscopic cholecystectomy using only a flexible endoscope via one port. CONCLUSION: We are sure of great feasibility of endoscopic cholecystectomy via single port for human. PMID:27053847

  3. Role of flupirtine as a preemptive analgesic in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ghanshyam; Behera, Shailaja Shankar; Das, Saurabh Kumar; Jain, Gaurav; Choupoo, Sujali; Raj, Janak

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postsurgical pain is the leading complaint after laparoscopic cholecystectomy that may delay the postoperative recovery and hence we undertook a prospective randomized trial to analyze the role of flupirtine as a preemptive analgesic for postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing above surgery. Material and Methods: A total of 66 cases were randomly assigned to two groups to receive capsule flupirtine (200 mg) or capsule vitamin B complex administered orally, 2 h before the laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. Time to first analgesic requirement, assessment of postoperative pain in terms of visual analog score, and analgesic requirement postoperatively were measured as a primary outcome. Results: Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly prolonged in the flupirtine group as compared with the placebo group. There was significant pain reduction in early postoperative period (up to 4 h), but no changes occurred thereafter. Total analgesic requirement (including rescue analgesia) and side-effects were comparable between the groups except for higher sedation in flupirtine group. Conclusions: Flupirtine is effective as a preemptive analgesic in providing adequate pain relief during the immediate postoperative period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. However, continuation of drug therapy postoperatively could possibly delineate its optimal analgesic profile more profoundly. PMID:25948895

  4. Abnormal gallbladder nuclear ejection fraction predicts success of cholecystectomy in patients with biliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, M K; Fancher, S; Lang, N P; Eidt, J F; Broadwater, J R

    1993-12-01

    The management of patients with symptoms consistent with biliary tract disease who do not have gallstones is difficult. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 18 patients who underwent cholecystokinin cholescintigraphy at our institution to determine if this procedure was reliable in identifying patients who would benefit from cholecystectomy. All patients underwent biliary screening, and a gallbladder ejection fraction of less than or equal to 35% was considered abnormal. None of the patients had evidence of gallstones by ultrasound. There were 11 patients with abnormal ejection fractions. All 11 patients (100%) had "classic" biliary colic and underwent cholecystectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was chronic cholecystitis in every patient. All patients had complete relief of their symptoms postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 10 months. There were six patients with normal ejection fractions. Only one patient in this group had "classic" biliary colic. This patient had a gallbladder ejection fraction of 38% and endoscopic evidence of gastritis. This patient remains symptomatic despite H2 blockade. The remaining five patients had nonspecific right upper quadrant or epigastric pain. These patients had endoscopic evidence of gastritis, and symptoms were relieved with H2 blockade. The remaining patient had an indeterminate scan due to radioactivity in the duodenum overlying the gallbladder and was excluded from this analysis. Cholecystokinin cholescintigraphy is a useful test in identifying those patients with biliary dyskinesia or acalculous cholecystitis who will benefit from cholecystectomy. PMID:8273847

  5. Preoperative Very Low-Calorie Diet Reduces Technical Difficulty During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander D; Waterland, Peter W; Powell-Brett, Sarah; Super, Paul; Richardson, Martin; Bowley, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of preoperative very low-calorie diet (VLCD) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was undertaken. At the preoperative visit, all patients were advised to adhere to VLCD for 2 weeks before surgery (<800 kcal/d). Patients were judged to have complied with the VLCD if weight loss >2 kg. Technical difficulty was assessed using questionnaires. A total of 38 patients met the inclusion criteria. Difficulty of visualization and dissection of Calot's triangle in obese patients was twice that of nonobese patients (P=0.01). In 62% of procedures involving obese VLCD noncompliant patients, the surgeon experienced ≥1 area of technical difficulty, compared with 0% of procedures on obese, compliant patients (P=0.018). Difficulty of dissection of the gallbladder bed was 3 times higher in obese, noncompliant patients, compared with obese, compliant patients (P=0.07). Adherence to a 2-week preoperative VLCD may reduce technical difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in obese patients. PMID:27258913

  6. Cholecystectomy by single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS): early experience and technique standardization.

    PubMed

    Ceci, F; Di Grazia, C; Cipriani, B; Nicodemi, S; Corelli, S; Pecchia, M; Martellucci, A; Costantino, A; Stefanelli, F; Salvadori, C; Napoleoni, A; Parisella, M; Spaziani, E; Stagnitti, F

    2012-01-01

    Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) is a recent surgical technique, first described in the 1990s. Its aim is to optimize the esthetic result offered by laparoscopy by minimizing the number of abdominal incisions. Various preliminary studies have been carried out on the application of SILS, especially in cholecystectomy and appendectomy. This study evaluates the preliminary results of cholecystectomy by SILS (SILS™ Port) conducted between October 2009 and February 2011 on 21 patients (4 men and 17 women) with a mean age of 49.9 years and a mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22.8. All patients were treated by the same team, which had previously undergone six months' simulator training. There were two main selection criteria, both evaluated intraoperatively: absence of adhesions and of significant inflammatory sequelae from previous cholecystitis; and suitable distance between gallbladder and SILS access port. Conversion to traditional laparoscopy was necessary in just two cases, while an accessory trocar was introduced in another two cases. Conversion to open surgery was not necessary in any case. One case of SILS cholecystectomy was complicated by postoperative bile leakage, which was treated conservatively, as the fistula had a low output. The mean duration of hospitalization was 3.6 days. This preliminary experience led us to conclude that SILS is safe and highly satisfactory in the postoperative phase, thanks to the reduced need for painkillers and the improved esthetic result. PMID:23017290

  7. Cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with mild acute biliary pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 - 2003: a nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gallstones represent the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in Sweden. Epidemiological data concerning timing of cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with first attack of mild acute biliary pancreatitis (MABP) are scarce. Our aim was to analyse readmissions for biliary disease, cholecystectomy within one year, and mortality within 90 days of index admission for MABP. Methods Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for patients with first attack acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988-2003. Mortality was calculated as case fatality rate (CFR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR). MABP was defined as acute pancreatitis of biliary aetiology without mortality during an index stay of 10 days or shorter. Patients were analysed according to four different treatment policies: Cholecystectomy during index stay (group 1), no cholecystectomy during index stay but within 30 days of index admission (group 2), sphincterotomy but not cholecystectomy within 30 days of index admission (group 3), and neither cholecystectomy nor sphincterotomy within 30 days of index admission (group 4). Results Of 11636 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis, 8631 patients (74%) met the criteria for MABP. After exclusion of those with cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy during the year before index admission (N = 212), 8419 patients with MABP remained for analysis. Patients in group 1 and 2 were significantly younger than patients in group 3 and 4. Length of index stay differed significantly between the groups, from 4 (3-6) days, (representing median, 25 and 75 percentiles) in group 2 to 7 (5-8) days in groups 1. In group 1, 4.9% of patients were readmitted at least once for biliary disease within one year after index admission, compared to 100% in group 2, 62.5% in group 3, and 76.3% in group 4. One year after index admission, 30.8% of patients in group 3 and 47.7% of patients in group 4 had undergone cholecystectomy. SMR did not differ between the four

  8. Advantages and Disadvantages of 1-Incision, 2-Incision, 3-Incision, and 4-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Workflow Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Bartnicka, Joanna; Zietkiewicz, Agnieszka A; Kowalski, Grzegorz J

    2016-08-01

    A comparison of 1-port, 2-port, 3-port, and 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques from the point of view of workflow criteria was made to both identify specific workflow components that can cause surgical disturbances and indicate good and bad practices. As a case study, laparoscopic cholecystectomies, including manual tasks and interactions within teamwork members, were video-recorded and analyzed on the basis of specially encoded workflow information. The parameters for comparison were defined as follows: surgery time, tool and hand activeness, operator's passive work, collisions, and operator interventions. It was found that 1-port cholecystectomy is the worst technique because of nonergonomic body position, technical complexity, organizational anomalies, and operational dynamism. The differences between laparoscopic techniques are closely linked to the costs of the medical procedures. Hence, knowledge about the surgical workflow can be used for both planning surgical procedures and balancing the expenses associated with surgery. PMID:27438171

  9. Meta-analysis of laparoscopic vs open cholecystectomy in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Koch, Oliver O; Pointner, Rudolph; Granderath, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the comparative effect of laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy in elderly patients. METHODS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has induced a revolution in the treatment of gallbladder disease. Nevertheless, surgeons have been reluctant to implement the concepts of minimally invasive surgery in older patients. A systematic review of Medline was embarked on, up to June 2013. Studies which provided outcome data on patients aged 65 years or older, subjected to laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy were considered. Mortality, morbidity, cardiac and pulmonary complications were the outcome measures of treatment effect. The methodological quality of selected studies was appraised using valid assessment tools. Τhe random-effects model was applied to synthesize outcome data. RESULTS: Out of a total of 337 records, thirteen articles (2 randomized and 11 observational studies) reporting on the outcome of 101559 patients (48195 in the laparoscopic and 53364 in the open treatment group, respectively) were identified. Odds ratios (OR) were constantly in favor of laparoscopic surgery, in terms of mortality (1.0% vs 4.4%, OR = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.17-0.35, P < 0.00001), morbidity (11.5% vs 21.3%, OR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.33-0.59, P < 0.00001), cardiac (0.6% vs 1.2%, OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.38-0.80, P = 0.002) and respiratory complications (2.8% vs 5.0%, OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.51-0.60, P < 0.00001). Critical analysis of solid study data, demonstrated a trend towards improved outcomes for the laparoscopic concept, when adjusted for age and co-morbid diseases. CONCLUSION: Further high-quality evidence is necessary to draw definite conclusions, although best-available evidence supports the selective use of laparoscopy in this patient population. PMID:25516678

  10. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: intraperitoneal sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Karim; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemi Salman, Daryoush; Izadi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate irrigation versus normal saline irrigation in patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Background: Pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common complaint, especially in the abdomen, back, and shoulder region. Patients and methods: In a double blind randomized clinical trial, 150 patients were assigned to the three groups (50 patients in each group). Group A received intraperitoneal irrigation normal saline (NS). Groups B and C received irrigation sodium bicarbonate and none irrigation, respectively. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 6, 18 and 24 hours postoperatively, as well as one week after the surgery. Data analysis was performed using SPSS ver18 and chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, on-way ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Results: Patients in groups showed no significant difference in terms of age, gender, past medical history and smoking history (p>0.05). Left shoulder tip pain was significantly lower only between the sodium bicarbonate group and non-washing group at 6, 18, and 24 hours postoperatively (P=0.04, P=0.02 and P=0.009 respectively). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in right shoulder tip pain, back pain and port site incisional pain. Conclusion: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, peritoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate may reduce the intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain and is an effective method for improving the quality of life within the early recovery period. PMID:27458511

  11. Learning curve of transumbilical suture-suspension single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ming-Xin; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Cheng, Yuan; Jiang, Ze-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Kang-Hua; Liu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the learning curve of transumbilical suture-suspension single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC). METHODS: The clinical data of 180 consecutive transumbilical suture-suspension SILCs performed by a team in our department during the period from August 2009 to March 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into nine groups according to operation dates, and each group included 20 patients operated on consecutively in each time period. The surgical outcome was assessed by comparing operation time, blood loss during operation, and complications between groups in order to evaluate the improvement in technique. RESULTS: A total of 180 SILCs were successfully performed by five doctors. The average operation time was 53.58 ± 30.08 min (range: 20.00-160.00 min) and average blood loss was 12.70 ± 11.60 mL (range: 0.00-100.00 mL). None of the patients were converted to laparotomy or multi-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were no major complications such as hemorrhage or biliary system injury during surgery. Eight postoperative complications occurred mainly in the first three groups (n = 6), and included ecchymosis around the umbilical incision (n = 7) which resolved without special treatment, and one case of delayed bile leakage in group 8, which was treated by ultrasound-guided puncture and drainage. There were no differences in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications and length of postoperative hospital stay among the groups. Bonferroni’s test showed that the operation time in group 1 was significantly longer than that in the other groups (F = 7.257, P = 0.000). The majority of patients in each group were discharged within 2 d, with an average postoperative hospital stay of 1.9 ± 1.2 d. CONCLUSION: Following scientific principles and standard procedures, a team experienced in multi-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy can master the technique of SILC after 20 cases. PMID:23922478

  12. [Periods of post-anesthetic rehabilitation and anesthesia dosage for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: retrospective investigation].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective descriptive nonrandomized cohort study of 585 anesthesia cards of patients who had undergone planned laparoscopic cholecystectomy showed no effect of the patient age and sex on the length of post-anesthetic rehabilitation period. The doses of sodium thiopental, ketamine, and trimeperidine affect the length of these periods by no more than 12%. Further search for and studying of factors affecting the duration of post-anesthetic rehabilitation is required in order to improve the safety and adequacy of general anesthesia. PMID:25335384

  13. Single-port robotic cholecystectomy. Initial and pioneer experience in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schraibman, Vladimir; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Maccapani, Gabriel Naman; Macedo, Antônio Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    The technique of a single-port laparoscopy was developed over the last years as an attempt to lower surgical aggression and improve the aesthetic results of the minimally invasive surgery. A new robotic platform used with the da Vinci® Robotic System Single-Site System® (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California, United States) was recently launched on the global market and is still not documented in Brazil. The authors report on the first four robotic single-port cholecystectomies performed with this da Vinci® Robotic System in Brazil. PMID:26398360

  14. The Earliest Presenting Umbilical Port Site Hernia Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajeev; Goyal, Manav; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Port site hernia after laparoscopic surgery is a rare complication. Here we present a case of a 55-year-old female, diagnosed with an anterior abdominal wall hernia through the 10mm umbilical port, just two days after her laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The uniqueness of this case is its extremely early presentation. Patient presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction and due to prompt diagnosis and timely intervention, she underwent a successful reduction of hernia and an anatomical repair of the fascial and peritoneal defect through the midline laparotomy incision.

  15. Comparison of intra-peritoneal bupivacaine and intravenous paracetamol for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Upadya, M.; Pushpavathi, S. H.; Seetharam, Kaushik Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used for postoperative analgesia have considerable adverse effects, with paracetamol having a different mechanism of action, superior side effect profile and availability in intravenous (IV) form, this study was conducted to compare intra-peritoneal bupivacaine with IV paracetamol for postoperative analgesia following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Aim: The aim was to compare the efficacy of intra-peritoneal administration of bupivacaine 0.5% and IV acetaminophen for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: Randomized, prospective trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled for this study. Group I received 2 mg/kg of 0.5% bupivacaine as local intra-peritoneal application and Group II patients received IV 1 g paracetamol 6th hourly. Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for pain utilizing Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Visual Rating Prince Henry Scale (VRS), shoulder pain. The total number of patients requiring rescue analgesia and any side-effects were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using Students unpaired t-test. SPSS version 11.5 was used. Results: The VAS was significantly higher in Group I compared with Group II at 8th, 12th and 24th postoperative hour. At 1st and 4th postoperative hours, VAS was comparable between the two groups. Although the VRS was higher in Group I compared with Group II at 12th and 24th postoperative hour; the difference was statistically significant only at 24th postoperative hour. None of the patients in either of the groups had shoulder pain up to 8 h postoperative. The total number of patients requiring analgesics was higher in Group II than Group I at 1st postoperative hour. Conclusion: Although local anesthetic infiltration and intra-peritoneal administration of 0

  16. Single-port robotic cholecystectomy. Initial and pioneer experience in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schraibman, Vladimir; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Maccapani, Gabriel Naman; Macedo, Antônio Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    The technique of a single-port laparoscopy was developed over the last years as an attempt to lower surgical aggression and improve the aesthetic results of the minimally invasive surgery. A new robotic platform used with the da Vinci® Robotic System Single-Site System® (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California, United States) was recently launched on the global market and is still not documented in Brazil. The authors report on the first four robotic single-port cholecystectomies performed with this da Vinci® Robotic System in Brazil. PMID:26398360

  17. Difficult abdominal access in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients: our experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    Surace, Alessandra; Marola, Silvia; Benvenga, Rosa; Borello, Alessandro; Gentile, Valentina; Ferrarese, Alessia; Enrico, Stefano; Martino, Valter; Nano, Mario; Solej, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is currently the gold standard treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis. LC is actually condidered a medium complexity surgical operation. LC could be technically hard, especially if patient underwent previous surgical operation. These difficulties increase in outcome of previous operation in right upper quadrant (RUQ): in this case laparoscopic access is defined as an "hard access". We present two cases in which an unconventional access was performed: laparoscopic cholecistectomy is a safe and feasible procedure, although a careful assessment preoperative is indispensable. In particular, caution is required in both the triangulation of the trocar, which in pneumoperitoneum induction. PMID:25183639

  18. Prospective Observational Study of Single-Site Multiport Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endosurgery versus Conventional Multiport Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Critical Appraisal of a Unique Umbilical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jategaonkar, Priyadarshan Anand; Yadav, Sudeep Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This prospective observational study compares an innovative approach of Single-Site Multi-Port Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endo-surgery (SSMPPLE) cholecystectomy with the gold standard—Conventional Multi-port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (CMLC)—to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the former. Methods. In all, 646 patients were studied. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy utilized three ports inserted through three independent mini-incisions at the umbilicus. Only the day-to-day rigid laparoscopic instruments were used in all cases. The SSMPPLE cholecystectomy group had 320 patients and the CMLC group had 326 patients. The outcomes were statistically compared. Results. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy had average operative time of 43.8 min and blood loss of 9.4 mL. Their duration of hospitalization was 1.3 days (range, 1–5). Six patients (1.9%) of this group were converted to CMLC. Eleven patients had controlled gallbladder perforations at dissection. The Visual Analogue Scores for pain on postoperative days 0 and 7, the operative time, and the scar grades were significantly better for SSMPPLE than CMLC. However, umbilical sepsis and seroma outcomes were similar. We had no bile-duct injuries or port-site hernias in this study. Conclusion. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy approach complies with the principles of laparoscopic triangulation; it seems feasible and safe method of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Overall, it has a potential to emerge as an economically viable alternative to single-port surgery. PMID:24876955

  19. Radiological investigation in laparoscopic compared with conventional cholecystectomy--an early assessment.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, R F; Gibney, R G; Mealy, K; Hyland, J

    1992-04-01

    The implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for radiology were assessed by comparing imaging investigations in 48 LC and 48 conventional cholecystectomy (CC) patients. In addition, we attempted to identify findings on pre-operative ultrasound (US) which predicted operative difficulties at LC. There were no per-operative or T-tube cholangiograms in the LC patients, but otherwise the pattern of investigation was similar in both groups. Forty of the 48 CC patients underwent cholangiography (per-operative cholangiography in 36, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in two, and both in two) demonstrating calculi in eight (16.7%) cases. Only four LC patients had cholangiography (ERCP in all cases) demonstrating common bile duct (CBD) calculi in one (2.1%) case. Ultrasound failed to identify the gall-bladder with certainty in three of the five failed LC cases. Neither gall-bladder wall thickness, contraction nor calculus size on pre-operative US served as predictors of other per-operative difficulties. Our results indicate that there may be some patients with retained CBD calculi in the LC group. The role of pre-operative US in predicting operative difficulties needs further assessment in a prospective study. PMID:1395385

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is it a conscious preference among Turkish patients with symptomatic gallstones?--prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Asim; Düşünceli, Fikret; Güllüoğlu, Bahadir M; Yeğen, Cumhur; Aktan, A Ozdemir; Yalin, Rifat

    2004-10-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has the advantages of early return to full daily activity, early return to work, and better cosmetic result, as well as quickly resolving pain. Yet how this information about the procedure influences a patient's attitude toward laparocopy is not known. In this study we analyzed the factors that play role in the decision-making process of patients who choose laparoscopic surgery, and we also evaluated patients' knowledge of laparoscopy and their expectations. A questionnaire was used in evaluating 98 patients suffering from symptomatic cholelithiasis scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January 2001 and January 2002. Females constituted 81% of the study population. Most of the patients (56%) were housewives. While 45% of the patients had an educational status of primary school degree only, 14% had graduated from a university. Forty-three patients described their level of knowledge about laparoscopy as "low" (had only heard about laparoscopy). In 61% of the patients the surgeon was the sole decision maker about the type of the operation. Almost none of the patients had a preference for the time of discharge from the hospital after surgery, and only three of the actively working patients offered a time interval for return to work. From this study we concluded that most patients have inadequate information about laparoscopic surgery, that the type of operation is dictated mostly by the surgeon, and that early discharge and early return to work are not important for many patients. PMID:15573265

  1. Comparison of i-gel® and LMA Supreme® during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoong; Rim, Jong Cheol; Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Background In laparoscopic surgical procedures, many clinicians recommend supraglottic airway devices as good alternatives to intubation. We compared the i-gel® (i-gel) and LMA Supreme® (Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway, SLMA) airway devices during laparoscopic cholecystectomy regarding sealing pressure and respiratory parameters before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. Methods Following Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, 93 patients were randomly allocated into the i-gel (n = 47) or SLMA group (n = 46). Insertion time, number of insertion attempts, and fiberoptic view of glottis were recorded. Oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP), the use of airway manipulation, peak inspiratory pressure, lung compliance, and hemodynamic parameters were measured before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic data, insertion time, fiberoptic view of glottis, and the use of airway manipulation. The gastric tube insertion time was longer in the i-gel group (20.4 ± 3.9 s) than in the SLMA group (16.7 ± 1.6 s) (P < 0.001). All devices were inserted on the first attempt, excluding one case in each group. Peak inspiratory pressure, lung compliance, and OLP changed following carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in each group, but there were no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions Both the i-gel and SLMA airway devices can be comparably used in patients who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and they offer similar performance including OLP. PMID:26495055

  2. The Microbiological and Clinical Characteristics of Invasive Salmonella in Gallbladders from Cholecystectomy Patients in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dongol, Sabina; Thompson, Corinne N.; Clare, Simon; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Karkey, Abhilasha; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Khatri, Nely Shrestha; Maskey, Pukar; Poudel, Sanjay; Jaiswal, Vijay Kumar; Vaidya, Sujan; Dougan, Gordon; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder carriage of invasive Salmonella is considered fundamental in sustaining typhoid fever transmission. Bile and tissue was obtained from 1,377 individuals undergoing cholecystectomy in Kathmandu to investigate the prevalence, characteristics and relevance of invasive Salmonella in the gallbladder in an endemic area. Twenty percent of bile samples contained a Gram-negative organism, with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated from 24 and 22 individuals, respectively. Gallbladders that contained Salmonella were more likely to show evidence of acute inflammation with extensive neutrophil infiltrate than those without Salmonella, corresponding with higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte counts in the blood of Salmonella positive individuals. Antimicrobial resistance in the invasive Salmonella isolates was limited, indicating that gallbladder colonization is unlikely to be driven by antimicrobial resistance. The overall role of invasive Salmonella carriage in the gallbladder is not understood; here we show that 3.5% of individuals undergoing cholecystectomy in this setting have a high concentration of antimicrobial sensitive, invasive Salmonella in their bile. We predict that such individuals will become increasingly important if current transmission mechanisms are disturbed; prospectively identifying these individuals is, therefore, paramount for rapid local and regional elimination. PMID:23077595

  3. Detection and treatment of an aneurysma spurium of the arteria hepatica dextra after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be the dominant symptom of decompensated liver cirrhosis, varices and ulcerations in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Postoperative complications are known to lead to these bleedings. Commonly, emergency endoscopy will be performed. Here we report of a patient with extensive bleeding caused by an aneurysma spurium of the arteria hepatica dextra induced by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The condition was diagnosed by the Doppler ultrasound scan of the liver. Case presentation Initially the source of the gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by an ulcus Dieulafoy in the jejunum which was stopped by clipping. Continous bleeding was observed and traced to a rare complication of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to a gallbladder empyema. After surgical intervention the patient developed an aneurysma spurium of the arteria hepatica dextra which was in communication with the small bowel. The successful treatment was performed by embolizing the aneurysma. Conclusion The reasons for gastrointestinal bleedings are manifold. This case presents a seldom cause of a gastrointestinal bleeding due to an aneurysma of the hepatic arteria. The successful embolization was performed to ultimately stop the bleeding. PMID:23885918

  4. Risk Factors for Recurrence of Symptomatic Common Bile Duct Stones after Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Oak, Ju Hyun; Paik, Chang Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin Mo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The recurrence of CBD stone is still observed in a considerable number of patients. The study was to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of symptomatic CBD stone in patients who underwent cholecystectomy after the removal of CBD stone. Methods. The medical records of patients who underwent removal of CBD stone with subsequent cholecystectomy were reviewed. The risk factors for the recurrence of symptomatic CBD stone were compared between the recurrence and the nonrecurrence group. Results. The mean follow-up period was 40.6 months. The recurrence of symptomatic CBD stones was defined as the detection of bile duct stones no sooner than 6 months after complete clearance of CBD stones, based on symptoms or signs of biliary complication. 144 patients (68 males, 47.2%) were finally enrolled and their mean age was 59.8 (range: 26~86) years. The recurrence of CBD stone occurred in 15 patients (10.4%). The mean period until first recurrence was 25.9 months. The presence of type 1 or 2 periampullary diverticulum and multiple CBD stones were the independent risk factors. Conclusion. For the patients with type 1 or 2 periampullary diverticulum or multiple CBD stones, careful followup is needed for the risk in recurrence of symptomatic CBD stone. PMID:22991508

  5. Haemodynamic and end tidal CO₂ changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meftahuzzaman, S M; Islam, M M; Chowdhury, K K; Rickta, D; Ireen, S T; Choudhury, M R; Islam, M R; Kabir, H

    2013-07-01

    A prospective observational study was done on 50 patients to investigate the haemodynamic and end tidal CO₂ (EtCO₂) changes in healthy patients without cardiopulmonary pathology during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in head up position under standard protocol of general anaesthesia. During surgery, intra abdominal pressure was maintained at 15 mmHg by a CO₂ insufflator and minute ventilation was controlled with a constant tidal volume and fixed respiratory rate. Haemodynamic parameters, EtCO₂, SpO₂ and ECG were recorded before and after induction and positioning of the patients and at 5 minutes interval for the first 30 minutes, then 10 minutes interval for the rest of the period. Highly significant increase (p<0.001) in pulse rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure occurred at 30 minutes after insufflations and positioning of the patient. A very highly significant (p<0.001) increase in EtCO₂ from the base line was at 40 minutes after insufflations and positioning of the patients. There was no change in SpO₂ and ECG. This study supports the significant physiological changes in terms of haemodynamic and EtCO₂ during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and recommends the meticulous monitoring of these parameters during the surgery and balance the benefit of laparoscopy against the intra operative risk. PMID:23982535

  6. The Analgesic Effect of Nefopam with Fentanyl at the End of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jae Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Nefopam is a centrally acting analgesic that is used to control pain. The aim of this study was to find an appropriate dose of nefopam that demonstrates an analgesic effect when administered in continuous infusion with fentanyl at the end of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Ninety patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive analgesia with fentanyl alone (50 µg, Group 1, n = 30), or with fentanyl in combination with nefopam 20 mg (Group 2, n = 30) or in combination with nefopam 40 mg (Group 3, n = 30) at the end of surgery. Pain and side effects were evaluated at 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 12 hours after arrival in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Results Pain was statistically significantly lower in Groups 2 and 3 than in Group 1 at 10 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours after arrival in the PACU. Nausea was statistically significantly lower in Group 2 than in Groups 1 and 3 at 10 minutes after arrival in the PACU. Shivering was statistically significantly lower in Groups 2 and 3 than in Group 1 at 10 minutes after arrival in the PACU. Conclusions Nefopam is a drug that can be safely used as an analgesic after surgery, and its side effects can be reduced when fentanyl 50 µg is injected with nefopam 20 mg. PMID:24156002

  7. A comparison of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy and an alternative technique without a suspension suture

    PubMed Central

    Sülü, Barlas; Diken, Tülay; Altun, Hasan; Anuk, Turgut; Güvendi, Bülent; İlingi, Elif; Eren, Musa Sinan; Günerhan, Yusuf; Köksal, Neşet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many surgeons face difficulties during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) surgery and are forced to use an additional port. We compared the results of a technique that we developed with SILC. Material and Methods: Fifty-four patients who were diagnosed with chronic cholelithiasis were prospectively randomized and divided into two groups. An additional 5-mm port (MCAP: with an additional port using a multi-channel device through the umbilicus) was placed in the subxiphoid area instead of a transabdominal suspension suture in one group of patients. The other group was operated on with the SILC technique. The demographic and surgical data of the patients were compared. Results: The MCAP technique shortened the surgery duration by more than half (MCAP: 35.0±12.3, SILC: 79.1±27.7 min) (p<0.05). No difference was found between the two methods in terms of estimated blood loss, length of hospitalization, postoperative day 1 and 7 visual analog scale scores, need for analgesia in the postoperative period, and rate of changing to another technique due to inadequacy of the surgical technique. Conclusion: MCAP is as safe as SILC for cholecystectomy and is easier for the surgeon to perform. PMID:25931927

  8. Intra-Hepatic Spillage of Gallstones as a Late Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: MR Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ragozzino, Alfonso; Puglia, Marta; Romano, Federica; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Spillage of gallstones in the abdominal cavity may rarely occur during the course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Dropped gallstones in the peritoneal and extra-peritoneal cavity are usually asymptomatic. However, they may lead to abscess formation with an estimated incidence of about 0.3%. Common locations of the abscess are in the abdominal wall followed by the intra-abdominal cavity, usually in the sub-hepatic or retro-peritoneum inferior to the sub-hepatic space. Case Report We hereby describe an unusual case of infected spilled gallstones in the right sub-phrenic space, prospectively detected on abdominal MRI performed two years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in a patient with only a mild right-sided abdominal complaint. Conclusions This case highlights the role of MRI in suggesting the right diagnosis in cases with vague or even absent symptomatology. In our case the patient’s history together with high quality abdomen MRI allowed the correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of this rare and late onset complication, even after many years from surgery as an incidental finding in almost asymptomatic patients. PMID:27471576

  9. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more difficult after a previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jan Siert Kayitsinga; Gouma, Dirk Joan; Heisterkamp, Joos; Tromp, Ellen; van Ramshorst, Bert; Boerma, Djamila

    2013-01-01

    Background Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) followed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is generally accepted as the treatment of choice for patients with choledochocystolithiasis who are eligible for surgery. Previous studies have shown that LC after ES is associated with a high conversion rate. The aim of the present study was to assess the complexity of LC after ES compared with standard LC for symptomatic uncomplicated cholecystolithiasis. Methods The study population consisted of two patient cohorts: patients who had undergone a previous ERCP with ES for choledocholithiasis (PES) and patients with cholecystolithiasis who had no previous intervention prior to LC (NPES). Results The PES group consisted of 93 patients and the NPES group consisted of 83 consecutive patients. Patients in the PES group had higher risks for longer [more than 65 min, odds ratio (OR) = 4.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79–9.91)] and more complex [higher than 6 points, on a 0–10 scale, OR 3.12 (95% CI 1.43–6.81)] surgery. The conversion rate in the PES and NPES group (6.5% versus 2.4%, respectively) and the complication rate (12.9% versus 9.6%, respectively) were not significantly different. Discussion A laparoscopic cholecystectomy after ES is lengthier and more difficult than in uncomplicated cholelithiasis and should therefore be performed by an experienced surgeon. PMID:23374364

  10. Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed Central

    Davids, P H; Ringers, J; Rauws, E A; de Wit, L T; Huibregtse, K; van der Heyde, M N; Tytgat, G N

    1993-01-01

    This study describes the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twelve consecutive patients were studied over a one year period. In all patients the biliary tree was visualised during ERCP. Four patients had complete bile duct obstruction, seven patients had a stricture (two with concomitant leakage), and one patient had leakage from a hepatic branch. Three patients with complete obstruction, presented with a relatively prolonged symptom free, 'silent' period before diagnosis. In all four patients with complete transection, a proximal hepaticojejunostomy was performed. In one patient with a tough fibrous stricture, secondary to incorrect clip placement, passage of the guidewire was impossible, leaving surgical reconstruction as the only therapeutic option. All remaining seven patients with leakage or strictures, or both were successfully treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy only (n = 1) or sphincterotomy and subsequent stent placement (n = 6). When patients do not recover uneventfully after laparoscopic cholecystectomy even without cholestasis or jaundice, early ERCP is recommended as a safe and valuable method to detect bile duct injury and to suggest treatment. Subsequently, more than half of such patients can be treated endoscopically. Extended follow up is needed to evaluate the longterm results. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8406163

  11. Efficacy of laparoscopic transversus abdominis plane block for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Tihan, Deniz; Totoz, Tolga; Tokocin, Merve; Ercan, Gulcin; Calikoglu, Tugba Koc; Vartanoglu, Talar; Celebi, Fatih; Dandin, Ozgur; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block technique seems to offer one of the most efficient methods for a local pain control. Our aim is to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of TAP block for post-operative pain control under laparoscopic vision in elderly patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients aged more than 65 years old, who had cholecystectomy due to symptomatic cholelithiasis, were retrospectively evaluated. The patients that were operated under general anesthesia + laparoscopic TAP block and those who were operated only under only general anesthesia were compared according to their’ age and gender, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and length of stay in the hospital. Median (±interquartile range) values of post-operative 24th-hour-VAS for pain was found consecutively 2 (±1-3) in TAP block + group and 3 (±2-5) in TAP block - group. The median post-operative 24th-hour-VAS value in overall patients was three. Patients’ VAS values were higher in the TAP block – group with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001). Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found for other parameters in two groups. The laparoscopic-guided TAP block can easily be performed and has potential for lower visceral injury risk and shorter operational time. Efficacy, safety and other advantages (analgesic requirements, etc.) make it an ideal abdominal field block in elderly patients. PMID:26773187

  12. Comparative study between paracetamol and two different doses of pregabalin on postoperative pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Esmat, Ibrahim M.; Farag, Hanan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain is the primary reason for prolonged hospital stay after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study compared the effect of a single oral preoperative administration of paracetamol (1 g) with 2 different doses of pregabalin (150 or 300 mg) for attenuating postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients, aged 18-60 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists’ physical status I and II undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this randomized controlled study. Patients were divided into three groups, 25 each to receive either oral paracetamol 1 g (group I, control group) or pregabalin 150 (group II) or 300 mg (group III), 2 h before surgery. Postoperative pain was evaluated based on visual analog scale over a period of 6 h and 1st time for rescue analgesia. Postoperative sedation, hemodynamic changes, serum cortisol level, and side effects were also evaluated. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean heart rate, mean systolic blood pressure, sedation score, pain score, and delayed the first request for analgesics postoperatively in group (II) and group (III) compared to group (I) 2 h postoperatively. There was no significant difference in group (III) compared to group (II) postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative side effects was more in group (III). Conclusion: The single oral preoperative dose administration of pregabalin had significant opioid-sparing effect in the first 6 h after surgery, whereas side effects were more common with administration of pregabalin 300 mg. PMID:26543452

  13. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Calcular Cholecystitis in a Patient with Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Albarrak, Abdullah A.; Khairy, Sami; Ahmed, Alzahrani Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Management of patients who have ventriculoperitoneal shunt presenting with acute calcular cholecystitis has remained a clinical challenge. In this paper, the hospital course and the follow-up of a patient presenting with acute calcular cholecystitis and ventriculoperitoneal shunt managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy are presented followed by literature review on the management of acute calcular cholecystitis in patients who have ventriculoperitoneal shunts. PMID:26798543

  14. The use of laser lithotripsy status post cholecystostomy tube placement without interval cholecystectomy for calculous cholecystitis in a patient unfit for general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Polite, Nathan M; Brown, Roy; Braveman, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Acute cholecystitis in patients unfit for general anesthesia often initially requires cholecystectomy tube placement without cholecystectomy. The best way to definitively manage those patients with irreversible medical conditions, leaving them unable to undergo cholecystectomy, has yet to be defined. Laser lithotripsy is currently used in the management of stones of the genitourinary system. Extracorporeal shock wave cholelithotripsy has been extensively evaluated in Munich, Germany and since then, has been abandoned as an alternative treatment of cholelithiasis. This report discusses a novel approach using established cholecystocutaneous fistula tracts and laser lithotripsy to definitively treat this group of patients. PMID:24300938

  15. National survey on cholecystectomy related bile duct injury--public health and financial aspects in Belgian hospitals--1997.

    PubMed

    Van de Sande, St; Bossens, M; Parmentier, Y; Gigot, J F

    2003-04-01

    Public health and financial aspects of cholecystectomy related bile duct injury (BDI) are highlighted in a National Cholecystectomy Survey carried out through 'datamining' the Federal State Medical Records Summaries and Financial Summaries of all Belgian hospitals in 1997. All cancer diagnoses, children < or = 10 years, cholecystectomies performed as an abdominal co-procedure or patients having undergone other non-related surgery were excluded from the study. 10.595 laparoscopic (LC) and 1.033 open cholecystectomies (OC) as well as 137 secondary BDI treatments (LC/OC) were included in the survey (total 11.765). Both LC and OC groups turned out to be significantly different as to distribution of patient's age and APR-DRG severity classes. Composite criteria in terms of ICD-9-CM and billing codes were elaborated to classify: 1) primary, intra-operatively detected and treated BDI (N = 30), 2) primary delayed BDI treatments (N = 38), 3) secondary BDI treatments (N = 137), 4) non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications (N = 119), 4) uneventful laparoscopic (N = 7.476) and 5) uneventful open cholecystectomy (N = 681). Complication rates, community costs of LC and OC groups, incidence of preoperative ERCP and/or intra-operative cholangiography as well as interventions for complications were studied. Incidence of cholecystectomy related BDI was 0.37% in LC, 2.81% in OC and 0.58% overall. Average costs amounted to [symbol: see text] 1.721 for uneventful LC, [symbol: see text] 2.924 for uneventful OC, [symbol: see text] 7.250 for primary, intra-operatively detected and immediately treated BDI [symbol: see text] 9.258 for primary delayed BDI treatments, [symbol: see text] 6.076 for secondary BDI treatments and [symbol: see text] 10.363 for non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications. In conclusion BDI with cholecystectomy reveals to be a serious complication increasing the overall average cost factor ninefold if not detected intra-operatively, in which case the raise is only fourfold

  16. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Calculosis in Fibromyalgia Patients: Impact on Musculoskeletal Pain, Somatic Hyperalgesia and Central Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Raffaele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Massimini, Francesca; Tana, Claudio; Innocenti, Paolo; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia, a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain and somatic hyperalgesia from central sensitization, is very often comorbid with visceral pain conditions. In fibromyalgia patients with gallbladder calculosis, this study assessed the short and long-term impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on fibromyalgia pain symptoms. Fibromyalgia pain (VAS scale) and pain thresholds in tender points and control areas (skin, subcutis and muscle) were evaluated 1week before (basis) and 1week, 1,3,6 and 12months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fibromyalgia patients with symptomatic calculosis (n = 31) vs calculosis patients without fibromyalgia (n. 26) and at comparable time points in fibromyalgia patients not undergoing cholecystectomy, with symptomatic (n = 27) and asymptomatic (n = 28) calculosis, and no calculosis (n = 30). At basis, fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis patients presented a significant linear correlation between the number of previously experienced biliary colics and fibromyalgia pain (direct) and muscle thresholds (inverse)(p<0.0001). After cholecystectomy, fibromyalgia pain significantly increased and all thresholds significantly decreased at 1week and 1month (1-way ANOVA, p<0.01-p<0.001), the decrease in muscle thresholds correlating linearly with the peak postoperative pain at surgery site (p<0.003-p<0.0001). Fibromyalgia pain and thresholds returned to preoperative values at 3months, then pain significantly decreased and thresholds significantly increased at 6 and 12months (p<0.05-p<0.0001). Over the same 12-month period: in non-fibromyalgia patients undergoing cholecystectomy thresholds did not change; in all other fibromyalgia groups not undergoing cholecystectomy fibromyalgia pain and thresholds remained stable, except in fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis at 12months when pain significantly increased and muscle thresholds significantly decreased (p<0.05-p<0.0001). The results of the study show that biliary colics from

  17. Trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife: A pilot animal study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Shi, Hong; Swar, Gyanendra; Wang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of Natural orifice trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife in a non-survival porcine model. METHODS: Pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) cholecystectomy was performed on three non-survival pigs, by transumbilical approach, using a water-jet hybrid-knife. Under general anesthesia, the following steps detailed the procedure: (1) incision of the umbilicus followed by the passage of a double-channel flexible endsocope through an overtube into the peritoneal cavity; (2) establishment of pneumoperitoneum; (3) abdominal exploration; (4) endoscopic cholecystectomy: dissection of the gallbladder performed using water jet equipment, ligation of the cystic artery and duct conducted using nylon loops; and (5) necropsy with macroscopic evaluation. RESULTS: Transumbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully completed in the first and third pig, with minor bleedings. The dissection times were 137 and 42 min, respectively. The total operation times were 167 and 69 min, respectively. And the lengths of resected specimen were 6.5 and 6.1 cm, respectively. Instillation of the fluid into the gallbladder bed produced edematous, distended tissue making separation safe and easy. Reliable ligation using double nylon loops insured the safety of cutting between the loops. There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. Uncontrolled introperative bleeding occurred in the second case, leading to the operation failure. CONCLUSION: Pure NOTES trans-umbilical cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife appears to be feasible and safe. Further investigation of this technique with long-term follow-up in animals is needed to confirm the preliminary observation. PMID:24187461

  18. A comparative study on postoperative pain relief in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Intraperitoneal bupivacaine versus combination of bupivacaine and buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Sandeep; Garg, Kamakshi; Grewal, Anju; Kaul, Tej K.; Bose, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Context: To assess the analgesic efficacy of the combination of bupivacaine and buprenorphine in alleviating postoperative pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is comparatively advantageous as it offers less pain in the postoperative period and requires a shorter hospital stay. There are only a few studies performed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of buprenorphine and bupivacaine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: The present research is a randomized, double-blind controlled study conducted in the Department of Anaesthesiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana, Punjab after formal ethical approval from Hospital's Ethics Committee. Subjects and Methods: This study analyzed 90 adults admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After the procedure, subjects were divided into three equal groups to conduct the study. Three Groups A, B, and C had intraperitoneal instillation of the 25 ml of physiological saline (0.9% normal saline), 0.25% of bupivacaine, 0.25% bupivacaine, and 0.3 mg buprenorphine, respectively. Necessary vitals were monitored and recorded. Visual analog scale (VAS) and verbal rating scale (VRS) scores were recorded and analyzed systematically. Statistical Analysis Used: All observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: The mean pain scores were highest in Group A compared to Group B and Group C. Mean VAS and VRS scores were highest in Group C comparatively and lowest in Group A. Conclusion: Combination of buprenorphine and bupivacaine intraperitoneally is comparatively more effective in relieving postoperative pain in comparison to intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine alone for postoperative pain management after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:26957685

  19. Removal of gallstone from mesorectum after laparoscopic cholecystectomy – new indication for transanal endoscopic microsurgery technique

    PubMed Central

    Przywózka, Alicja; Zieliński, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive technique for local excision of benign and malignant neoplasms in the rectum. Indications for this technique are constantly changing and extending. The aim of this study is to describe a case of a unique and innovative application of this surgical technique. A 72-year-old patient was admitted to the Clinical Department of General and Colorectal Surgery for elective resection of a tumor located in the perianal area using the TEM surgical technique. In August 2005 the patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to symptomatic cholecystitis. From March 2011 the patient complained about ongoing sharp pain in the perianal and presacral area. Computed tomography revealed two oval areas approximately 30 mm in size to the right of the sigmoido-rectal region communicating with the colon lumen. Subsequently diverticulitis was diagnosed. The TEM technique was uniquely used to successfully remove the gallstone from the 72-year-old patient's presacral area. PMID:26865896

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acalculous cholecystitis in a neutropenic patient after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ejduk, Anna; Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Szczepanik, Andrzej B.

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (ACC) is most frequently reported in critically ill patients following sepsis, extensive injury or surgery. It is rather uncommon as a chemotherapy-induced complication, which is usually life-threatening in neutropenic patients subjected to myelosuppressive therapy. A 23-year-old patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was subjected to myelosuppressive chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, pegaspargase). After the first chemotherapy cycle the patient was neutropenic and feverish; she presented with vomiting and pain in the right epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder with wall thickening up to 14 mm. The ACC was diagnosed. Medical therapy included a broad spectrum antibiotic regimen and granulocyte-colony stimulating factors. On the second day after ACC diagnosis the patient's general condition worsened. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. The resected gallbladder showed no signs of bacterial or leukemic infiltrates. The postoperative course was uneventful. In the management of neutropenic patients with ACC surgical treatment is as important as pharmacological therapy. PMID:25337176

  1. Prior cholecystectomy predisposes to acute pancreatitis in codeine-prescribed patients.

    PubMed

    Turkmen, Serdar; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Suner, Ali; Apucu, Haci Gokhan; Ulas, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a case of drug-induced pancreatitis just after taking a pain pill including a low-dose combination of acetaminophen and codeine. Codeine-induced pancreatitis has been rarely reported, however, well-established. The proposed mechanism for codeine-induced pancreatitis is by increasing Oddi sphincter pressure. However, the clinically important point is that the codeine-induced pancreatitis is seen almost only in the cholecystectomized patients due to lacking of its reservoir capacity. Codeine is commonly used alone or in combination in pain medicine. Therefore, it is fairly important to question whether a patient underwent cholecystectomy when a physician decides to prescribe codeine-included preparations. PMID:26157656

  2. [PROPHYLAXIS OF COMPLICATIONS OF LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH THE ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Vasyhlchenko, D S; Desyateryk, V I; Sheyko, S O; Zverevych, T I

    2016-03-01

    Results of examination and surgical tratment of 56 patients, suffering chronic calculous cholecystitis with concomitant schemic heart disease, were analyzed. In all the patients a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Monitoring of cardiovascular compli- cations was estimated with the help of a Helter recording of EGG intraoperatively and in the early postoperative period. Depending on a kind of preoperative preparation done, the patients were divided on two groups: those, to whom cardioprotection using a Vasopro preparation was conducted, and those without cardioprotection. Depending on the intraoperative pneumoperitoneum regime used in every group two subgroups were delineated: in intraabdominal pressure 5-7.9 mm Hg and 8-10 mm Hg. In the patients, to whom cardioprotection was conducted and operative intervention in a carboxyperitoneum regime performed while intraabdominal pressure 5-7.9 mm Hg, a frequency of cardiovascular complications was lesser than in a control group. PMID:27514086

  3. Robotic single-site combined cholecystectomy and hysterectomy: Advantages and limits

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Nicola; Buchs, Nicolas C.; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Morel, Philippe; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Robotic single-site surgery (RSS) represents the latest innovation for clinical use of single incision surgery. Several applications have been reported in urology, general surgery and gynecology with potential application in benign cases as well as in oncology. PRESENTATION OF CASE To further explore potential applications of RSS, we present the first case reported in the literature of combined cholecystectomy and total hysterectomy using the da Vinci Si single-port platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). DISCUSSION A critical description of the procedure with potential advantages and limitations of the current platform for combined surgical procedure is provided. CONCLUSION Robotics may facilitate the widespread diffusion of single incision surgery, overcoming current laparoscopic and LESS limitations. However, the available robotic platform still has technical features that will limit its uptake amongst surgeons and further technological development is needed for a wider diffusion of single incision surgery. PMID:25460464

  4. Removal of gallstone from mesorectum after laparoscopic cholecystectomy - new indication for transanal endoscopic microsurgery technique.

    PubMed

    Szczepkowski, Marek; Przywózka, Alicja; Zieliński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive technique for local excision of benign and malignant neoplasms in the rectum. Indications for this technique are constantly changing and extending. The aim of this study is to describe a case of a unique and innovative application of this surgical technique. A 72-year-old patient was admitted to the Clinical Department of General and Colorectal Surgery for elective resection of a tumor located in the perianal area using the TEM surgical technique. In August 2005 the patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to symptomatic cholecystitis. From March 2011 the patient complained about ongoing sharp pain in the perianal and presacral area. Computed tomography revealed two oval areas approximately 30 mm in size to the right of the sigmoido-rectal region communicating with the colon lumen. Subsequently diverticulitis was diagnosed. The TEM technique was uniquely used to successfully remove the gallstone from the 72-year-old patient's presacral area. PMID:26865896

  5. Value of early cholescintigraphy in detection of biliary complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kulber, D A; Berci, G; Paz-Partlow, M; Ashok, G; Hiatt, J R

    1994-03-01

    Cholescintigraphy using technetium-99m disofenin tracer is accepted as a routine component of preoperative evaluation of the biliary tract in selected patients but is not used regularly in postoperative management. This is a retrospective analysis of the utility of the nuclide scan in 27 patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Most patients had vague postoperative symptoms such as nausea, pain, and low grade fever. Two patients developed jaundice. Seven of the 27 patients had biliary leaks, and two had common bile duct obstructions. We conclude that cholescintigraphy is a sensitive noninvasive test for the evaluation of biliary complications after LC and is a pivotal component of an algorithmic approach to postoperative complications. Because of the subtle clinical findings and the potential for delayed diagnosis of biliary complications after LC, early performance of this test will minimize patient morbidity. PMID:8116979

  6. The effect of incisional infiltration of bupivacaine upon pain and respiratory function following open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Russell, W C; Ramsay, A H; Fletcher, D R

    1993-10-01

    A controlled, prospective, double-blind trial of wound infiltration with bupivacaine in elective open cholecystectomy was performed to determine if this was an effective method of pain relief and reduced respiratory complications. Additionally, dextran was added to the bupivacaine in an attempt to prolong the effect. The solutions used were, bupivacaine alone 0.25% (n = 14), bupivacaine 0.25% with dextran 70 (n = 16) and saline (n = 16) as a control. To determine the effect of each solution, the subjects were assessed for pain perception and respiratory function before and after surgery. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale and narcotic usage, and respiratory function was assessed by spirometry, chest X-rays and arterial blood gases. The study did not demonstrate any objective improvement in either pain relief or respiratory function. This may reflect inadequate infiltration by the surgeons in the study or that infiltration should have been performed prior to incision. PMID:7506020

  7. Is it worth offering a routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy in developing countries? A Thailand case study

    PubMed Central

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Mugford, Miranda

    2005-01-01

    Objective The study aims to investigate whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a cost-effective strategy for managing gallbladder-stone disease compared to the conventional open cholecystectomy(OC) in a Thai setting. Design and Setting Using a societal perspective a cost-utility analysis was employed to measure programme cost and effectiveness of each management strategy. The costs borne by the hospital and patients were collected from Chiang Rai regional hospital while the clinical outcomes were summarised from a published systematic review of international and national literature. Incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) derived from a decision tree model. Results The results reveal that at base-case scenario the incremental cost per QALY of moving from OC to LC is 134,000 Baht under government perspective and 89,000 Baht under a societal perspective. However, the probabilities that LC outweighed OC are not greater than 95% until the ceiling ratio reaches 190,000 and 270,000 Baht per QALY using societal and government perspective respectively. Conclusion The economic evaluation results of management options for gallstone disease in Thailand differ from comparable previous studies conducted in developed countries which indicated that LC was a cost-saving strategy. Differences were due mainly to hospital costs of post operative inpatient care and value of lost working time. The LC option would be considered a cost-effective option for Thailand at a threshold of three times per capita gross domestic product recommended by the committee on the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16259625

  8. Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block on Cost of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kokulu, Serdar; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Kaçar, Emre; Bal, Ahmet; Şenay, Hasan; Üstün, Kübra Demir; Yılmaz, Sezgin; Ela, Yüksel; Sıvacı, Remziye Gül

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia is continuously increasing. However, few studies have investigated intraoperative effects of TAP block. We aimed to study the effects of TAP block in terms of cost-effectiveness and consumption of inhalation agents. Material/Methods Forty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n=20) patients received TAP block and Group 2 (n=20) patients did not receive TAP block. Standard anesthesia induction was used in all patients. For the maintenance of anesthesia, fractional inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 50% in air with desflurane was used with a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. All patients were monitored with electrocardiography and for peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ET), heart rate (HR), noninvasive mean blood pressure (MBP), and bispectral index (BIS). Bilateral TAP blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance to Group 1 patients. The BIS value was maintained at between 40 and 50 during the surgery. The Dion formula was used to calculate consumption of desflurane for each patient. Results There was no difference between the groups with respect to demographic characteristics of the patients. Duration of anesthesia, surgery time, and dosage of fentanyl were similar in the 2 groups. However, the cost and consumption of desflurane was significantly lower in Group 1. Conclusions Total anesthesia consumption was lower and the cost-effectiveness of anesthesia was better in TAP block patients with general anesthesia than in non-TAP block patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25534331

  9. Randomized Trial of Immediate Postoperative Pain Following Single-incision Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Liu, Yang; Han, Wei; Liu, Jun; Jin, Lan; Li, Jian-She; Zhang, Zhong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background: We undertook a randomized controlled trial to ascertain if single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) was more beneficial for reducing postoperative pain than traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC). Moreover, the influencing factors of SILC were analyzed. Methods: A total of 552 patients with symptomatic gallstones or polyps were allocated randomly to undergo SILC (n = 138) or TLC (n = 414). Data on postoperative pain score, operative time, complications, procedure conversion, and hospital costs were collected. After a 6-month follow-up, all data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Results: Among SILC group, 4 (2.9%) cases required conversion to TLC. Mean operative time of SILC was significantly longer than that of TLC (58.97 ± 21.56 vs. 43.38 ± 19.02 min, P < 0.001). The two groups showed no significant differences in analgesic dose, duration of hospital stay, or cost. Median pain scores were similar between the two groups 7 days after surgery, but SILC-treated patients had a significantly lower median pain score 6 h after surgery (10-point scale: 3 [2, 4] vs. 4 [3, 5], P = 0.009). Importantly, subgroup analyses of operative time for SILC showed that a longer operative time was associated with greater prevalence of pain score >5 (≥100 min: 5/7 patients vs. <40 min, 3/16 patients, P = 0.015). Conclusions: The primary benefit of SILC appears to be slightly less pain immediately after surgery. Surgeon training seems to be important because the shorter operative time for SILC may elicit less pain immediately after surgery. PMID:26668145

  10. Risk factors for prolonged operative time in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Seong Uk; Choi, In Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed 3-channel single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) in earlier period of this study and modified our method to 4-channel SILC using a snake retractor for better operative field in later period. This study has been designed to evaluate the risk factors for prolonged operative time in SILC. Methods From April 2010 to August 2014, 323 cases of 3-channel SILC (Konyang standard method [KSM] group) and 399 cases of 4-channel SILC (modified KSM [mKSM] group) using a snake retractor were performed. Results The clinical characteristics were not significantly different between KSM and mKSM group except preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) treatment (9.6% vs. 16.5%, P < 0.007). The mean operation time was longer in mKSM group than KSM group (55.8 ± 19.7 minutes vs. 51.7 ± 20.1 minutes, P = 0.006). The estimated blood loss of KSM group was more than mKSM group (24.6 ± 54.1 mL vs. 16.9 ± 27.0 mL, P = 0.013). According to the histopathologic findings, acute cholecystitis or empyema were confirmed more in mKSM group as compared with KSM group (28% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.025). In multivariate analysis, the risk factors for prolonged operation time were drainage insertion, histopathologic findings (acute cholecystitis or empyema), surgeons' technical expertise, body mass index > 30 kg/m2 as well as the 4-channel SILC. Conclusion Among patients with these risk factors, conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy could be considered as well although SILC might be safe and feasible modality for benign gallbladder disease. PMID:26576404

  11. Laparoscopic Resection of Cholecystocolic Fistula and Subtotal Cholecystectomy by Tri-Staple in a Type V Mirizzi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yetişir, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Parlak, Omer; Basaran, Basar; Yazıcıoğlu, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct (CBD). We would like to report laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (SC) and resection of cholecystocolic fistula by the help of Tri-Staple™ in a case with type V MS and cholecystocolic fistula, for first time in the literature. A 24-year-old man was admitted to emergency department with the complaint of abdominal pain, intermittent fever, jaundice, and diarrhea. Two months ago with the same complaint, ERCP was performed. Laparoscopic resection of cholecystocolic fistula and subtotal cholecystectomy were performed by the help of Tri-Staple. At the eight-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. In a patient with type V MS and cholecystocolic fistula, laparoscopic resection of cholecystocolic fistula and SC can be performed by using Tri-Staple safely. PMID:26904324

  12. Anesthetic management of a patient with Marfan syndrome and severe aortic root dilatation undergoing cholecystectomy and partial hepatic resection.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Tanmoy; Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujoy

    2013-10-01

    Due to high mortality associated with aortic dissection, anesthetic management of patients with Marfan syndrome with severe aortic root dilation is a challenging situation. We describe the anesthetic management of a patient with Marfan syndrome with severe aortic root dilation, who required major surgery like cholecystectomy with partial liver resection under general anesthesia. A 47-year-old female presented to pre-anesthetic clinic for cholecystectomy with partial hepatic resection for gall bladder carcinoma. Clinical features, transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography of thorax supported a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome with severely dilated aortic root. Aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome and severely dilated aortic root can be precipitated by major hemodynamic changes under anesthesia. Careful hemodynamic monitoring and avoidance of hemodynamic swings can prevent this life-threatening event. PMID:24348301

  13. Transvaginal/Transumbilical Hybrid—NOTES—Versus 3-Trocar Needlescopic Cholecystectomy: Short-term Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Knuth, Jürgen; Cerasani, Nicola; Sauerwald, Axel; Lefering, Rolf; Heiss, Markus Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: For cholecystectomy, both the needlescopic cholecystectomy (NC) 3-trocar technique using 2 to 3 mm trocars and the umbilical-assisted transvaginal cholecystectomy (TVC) technique have found their way into clinical routine. This study compares these 2 techniques in female patients who are in need of an elective cholecystectomy. Background: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical concept permitting scarless intra-abdominal operations through natural orifices, such as the vagina. Because of the lack of an adequately powered trial, we designed this first randomized controlled study for the comparison of TVC and NC. Methods: This prospective, randomized, nonblinded, single-center trial evaluates the safety and effectiveness of TVC (intervention), compared with NC (control) in female patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. The primary endpoint was intensity of pain until the morning of postoperative day (POD) 2. Secondary outcomes were among others intra- and postoperative complications, procedural time, amount of analgesics used, pain intensity until POD 10, duration of hospital stay, satisfaction with the aesthetic result, and quality of life on POD 10 as quantified with the Eypasch Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Results: Between February 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were randomly assigned to the interventional or control group. All patients completed follow-up. Procedural time, length of postoperative hospital stay, and the rate of intra- and postoperative complications were similar in the 2 groups. However, significant advantages were found for the transvaginal access regarding pain until POD 2, but also until POD 10 (P = 0.043 vs P = 0.010) despite significantly less use of peripheral analgesics (P = 0.019). In the TVC group, patients were significantly more satisfied with the aesthetic result (P < 0.001) and had a significantly better GIQLI (P = 0.028). Conclusions: Although comparable in terms of

  14. Evaluation of antiemetic effect of intravenous palonosetron versus intravenous ondansetron in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Laha, Baisakhi; Hazra, Avijit; Mallick, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), without active intervention, following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is unacceptably high. We evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) palonosetron in counteracting PONV during the first 24hrs following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, using ondansetron as the comparator drug. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, controlled, single blind, parallel group trial, single pre-induction IV doses of palonosetron (75mcg) or ondansetron (4mg) were administered to adult patients of either sex undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were 49 subjects per group. The pre-anesthetic regimen, anesthesia procedure and laparoscopic technique were uniform. The primary effectiveness measure was total number of PONV episodes in the 24 hrs period following end of surgery. The frequencies of individual nausea, retching and vomiting episodes, visual analog scale (VAS) score for nausea at 2, 6 and 24hrs, use of rescue antiemetic (metoclopramide), number of complete responders (no PONV or use of rescue in 24 hrs) and adverse events were secondary measures. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in primary outcome. Similarly, the frequencies of nausea, retching and vomiting episodes, when considered individually, did not show significant difference. Nausea score was comparable at all time points. With palonosetron, 14 subjects (28.6%) required rescue medication while 13 (26.5%) did so with ondansetron. The number of complete responders was 14 (28.6%) and 16 (32.7%), respectively. Adverse events were few and mild. QTc prolongation was not encountered. Conclusion: Palonosetron is comparable to ondansetron for PONV prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy when administered as single pre-induction dose. PMID:23543732

  15. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management. PMID:26924485

  16. Treatment of the iatrogenic lesion of the biliary tree secondary to laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Tropea, Alessandro; Pagano, Duilio; Biondi, Antonio; Spada, Marco; Gruttadauria, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    Surgical bile duct injury (SBDI), during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is a worldwide ongoing problem. The purpose of this study is to analyze a single center retrospective experience with this topic. From 1999 to 2012, 30 patients with diagnosis of SBDI after laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in other institute for gallbladder lithiasis and then transferred to our facility were enrolled in this analysis. We considered in the study the following parameters: classification and site of the bile duct injury, infective complications and therapeutic management according to early or late referral. Twenty four patients (80 %) had a SBDI type E1; a concomitant vascular injury was described in 3/30 (10 %) in right hepatic artery. 11 patients had HJJ as primary surgical treatment in our hospital. Surgical site infection was documented in 9/30 (30 %). The most common micro-organisms documented in SSI were E. coli with an incidence of 55.5 % of SSI. Worse infective complications were detected in the late referral group. Complex SBDI occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be early referred to advanced hepatobiliary program, for appropriate multidisciplinary management. PMID:26961379

  17. 'Single-Sitting' Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Endoscopic Removal of Common Bile Duct Stone for Cholelithiasis and Choledocholithiasis: a Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Ibrarullah, Md; Mishra, Tapas; Dash, Ambika P; Mohapatra, Devanand; Modi, M S

    2015-12-01

    'Single-sitting' laparoscopic cholecystectomy followed by endoscopic common bile duct clearance is emerging as a viable option for management of cholelithiasis and concomitant choledocholithiasis. The only disadvantage of the procedure is logistical since it requires co-ordination between two teams-the surgeons and the endoscopists. This limitation can be overcome in centres where both the procedures are performed by one team. With a considerable experience in endoscopy, we conducted a prospective study in a select group of patients to assess the feasibility of this single-sitting approach. The study included 38 patients with a radiological diagnosis of choledocholithiasis or jaundice at presentation. After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the patients were turned prone and subjected to endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram, sphincterotomy and extraction of the common bile duct stone. The procedure was successful in 33 (87 %) of patients. The mean procedure time and hospital stay were 2 h, 20 min and 2 days, respectively. None of the patients had any major complications. We conclude that in a select group of patients, single-sitting laparoscopic cholecystectomy followed by endoscopic clearance of the common bile duct stone is safe and effective. PMID:26730094

  18. Evaluation of hemodynamic changes using different intra-abdominal pressures for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Umar, Asif; Mehta, Kuldeep Singh; Mehta, Nandita

    2013-08-01

    Biliary diseases known since ages constitute major portion of digestive tract disorders world over. Among these cholelithiasis being the fore runner causing general ill health, thereby requiring surgical intervention for total cure. The study was undertaken in an attempt to compare the hemodynamic changes in patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using different intra-abdominal pressures created due to carbon dioxide insufflation. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups in which different levels of intra-abdominal pressures (8-10 mmHg,11-13 mmHg and 14 mmHg and above) were maintained. The base line parameters monitored were heart rate, non invasive blood pressur(systolic and mean)and end tidal carbon dioxide. All the parameters were monitored at various intervals i.e. Immediately during insufflation, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min after CO2 insufflation and after every 10 min if surgery exceeds 30 min, at exsufflation,10 min after CO2 exsufflation. Patients were ventilated with Pedius Drager Ventilator keeping tidal volume 8-10 ml/kg and respiratory rate 12-14 breaths/min. During surgery patients were placed in reverse Trendlenburg position (head up) at 15 °. The results obtained were evaluated statistically and analyzed. Baseline characteristics were found to be comparable. Hemodynamic variables were reported as mean and standard deviation. Statistical significance among groups was evaluated using Analysis of Variance and unpaired student t test (two tailed). Inter-group comparisons were made using Bonferroni test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. In all the three groups the mean heart rate (baseline 84.08 ± 12.50, 87.96 ± 15.73 and 86.92 ± 17.00 respectively) increased during CO2 insufflation and the rise in heart rate continued till exsufflation after which it decreased and at 10 min after exsufflation the heart rates were comparable with the baseline. The inter

  19. Morpho-functional gastric pre-and post-operative changes in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone related disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholecystectomy, gold standard treatment for gallbladder lithiasis, is closely associated with increased bile reflux into the stomach as amply demonstrated by experimental studies. The high prevalence of gallstones in the population and the consequent widespread use of surgical removal of the gallbladder require an assessment of the relationship between cholecystectomy and gastric mucosal disorders. Morphological evaluations performed on serial pre and post – surgical biopsies have provided new acquisitions about gastric damage induced by bile in the organ. Methods 62 elderly patients with gallstone related disease were recruited in a 30 months period. All patients were subjected to the most appropriate treatment (Laparoscopic cholecystectomy). The subjects had a pre-surgical evaluation with: • dyspeptic symptoms questionnaire, • gastric endoscopy with body, antrum, and fundus random biopsies, • histo-pathological analysis of samples and elaboration of bile reflux index (BRI). The same evaluation was repeated at a 6 months follow-up. Results In our series the duodeno-gastric reflux and the consensual biliary gastritis, assessed histologically with the BRI, was found in 58% of the patients after 6 months from cholecystectomy. The demonstrated bile reflux had no effect on H. pylori’s gastric colonization nor on the induction of gastric precancerous lesions. Conclusions Cholecystectomy, gold standard treatment for gallstone-related diseases, is practiced in a high percentage of patients with this condition. Such procedure, considered by many harmless, was, in our study, associated with a significant risk of developing biliary gastritis after 6 months during the postoperative period. PMID:23173777

  20. [COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE USE OF 13C-LABELED MIXED TRIGLYCERIDE AND 13C-STARCH BREATH TESTS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PANCREATITIS AFTER CHOLECYSTECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Sirchak, Ye S

    2015-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of 96 patients after cholecystectomy are provided. The higher sensitivity and informativeness of the 13C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath .test compared with 13C-starch breath test for determining functional pancreatic insufficiency in patients after cholecystectomy in early stages of its formation was set. PMID:27491156

  1. Perforin Expression in Peripheral Blood Lymphatic Cells of Patients Subjected to Laparoscopic or Open Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grbas, Harry; Mrakovčić-Šutić, Ines; Depolo, Arsen; Radošević-Stašić, Biserka

    2009-01-01

    Perforin-(P-) related characteristics of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were investigated in peripheral blood of patients subjected to open (OC; n = 23) or laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC; n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 20). Blood samples were obtained preoperatively and 24 hours after the surgeries, and the data were correlated with the intensity of cholestasis and concomitant inflammation, determined by functional hepatic tests. Postoperative differences were found to be minimal: OC decreased only the percentage of CD56+ cells, while LC decreased the fraction of CD8+P+ cells and augmented the mean fluorescence intensity of P in CD56 cells. Patients elected for OC had, however, higher preoperative numbers of total P+, CD3+P+, and CD4+P+ cells than patients elected for LC and healthy controls, while both groups of patients, preoperatively, had lower fraction of CD16+P+ and CD56+P+ cells. These changes were in high correlation with blood concentrations of CRP, AP, and ALT, emphasizing the link between the preoperative cholestasis and inflammation and P-dependent cytotoxic mechanisms. PMID:19436761

  2. Impact of Experience on Quality Outcomes in Single-incision Cholecystectomy in Children.

    PubMed

    Farach, Sandra M; Danielson, Paul D; Amankwah, Ernest K; Chandler, Nicole M

    2015-09-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has been shown to be safe in children; however, factors that impact outcomes are not well understood. We report a retrospective review of 151 patients who underwent SILC between 2009 and 2013. Regression analysis was used to determine inflection of learning curve. Patients were grouped by early cases, late cases, and late case with surgical trainees. Mean age for all patients was 15 ± 3 years (5-20.5 year), and mean weight was 66.5 ± 21.3 kg (15-117 kg). There was a decrease in operative times between the early group (n = 15) and the late group (n = 100) (75.3 vs 56.1 minutes, P < 0.05). Surgical trainees were involved in 36 cases, and their introduction did not significantly increase operative times (56.1 vs 60.4 minutes, P = NS (Non-significant)). No difference in operative times between early cases and cases with trainees was identified (75.3 vs 60.4 minutes, P = NS). The complication was 6 per cent, with no significant differences between the groups. There were five conversions (3.3%). During the adoption of SILC, significantly decreased operative times were achieved after a short learning curve, and these were maintained with surgical trainees. Our results show that SILC can be safely introduced into a pediatric surgical practice. PMID:26350657

  3. Who experiences endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease?

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sun-Hyung; Cho, Sungsin; Han, Min-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become a standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. But, some patients suffer from retained common bile duct stones after LC. The aim of this study is to analyze the predicting factors associated with subsequent postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after LC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a database of every LC performed between July 2006 and September 2012. We classify 28 patients who underwent ERCP within 6 months after LC for symptomatic gallstone disease as the ERCP group and 56 patients who underwent LC for symptomatic gallstone disease during same period paired by sex, age, underlying disease, operation history, and body mass index as the control group. To identify risk factor performing postoperative ERCP after LC, we compared admission route, preoperative biochemical liver function test, number of gall stones, gallstone size, adhesion around GB, wall thickening of GB, and existence of acute cholecystitis between the 2 groups. Results Admission route, preoperative AST, ALT, and ALP, stone size, longer operation time, and acute cholecystitis were identified as risk factors of postoperative ERCP in univariate analyses. But, longer operation time (P = 0.004) and acute cholecystitis (P = 0.048) were identified as independent risk factors of postoperative ERCP in multivariate analyses. Conclusion The patient who underwent ERCP after LC for symptomatic gallstone disease are more likely experienced longer operation time and acute cholecystitis than the patient who did not undergo ERCP after LC. PMID:27274506

  4. A cost analysis of the treatment of common bile duct stones discovered during cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Traverso, L W

    2000-12-01

    There are a variety of procedures to use once a common bile duct stone is discovered at the time of cholecystectomy. To be cost-effective, the surgeon must know how much money will be spent with each procedure chosen. Cost data is largely unavailable because costs are difficult to estimate and charge data are jealously guarded. In addition, costs are not the same at different hospitals and therefore cannot be compared. The factors that increase costs for treating bile duct stones are outlined in this report and real costs are used from one hospital to help with illustration. Surgical costs vary with the severity of the disease, the amount of operating room time required, and length of stay. These surgical costs can be avoided by choosing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, but the new costs increase almost twice that of a successful laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Knowledge of the pattern of choledocholithiasis, the varieties of treatment, the cost implications, and the outcomes of each are the subject of this report. PMID:11323767

  5. Perioperative Continuous Ropivacaine Wound Infusion in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Controlled Double-blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Fassoulaki, Argyro; Vassi, Emilia; Korkolis, Dimitrios; Zotou, Marianna

    2016-02-01

    Wound infusion with local anesthetics has been used for postoperative pain relief with variable results. This randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial examines the effect of ropivacaine infusion on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 110 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. After induction of anesthesia a 75-mm catheter was inserted subcutaneously and connected to an elastomeric pump containing either 0.75% ropivacaine (ropivacaine group) or normal saline (control group) for 24 hours postoperatively. Before skin closure, each hole was infiltrated with 2 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine or normal saline according to randomization. Pain at rest, pain during cough, and analgesic consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit and at 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Analgesic requirements and pain scores were recorded 1 and 3 months after surgery. The ropivacaine group reported less pain during cough (P=0.044) in the postanesthesia care unit (P=0.017) and 4 hours postoperatively (P=0.038). Ropivacaine wound infusion had no effect on late and chronic pain. PMID:26679680

  6. Prognostication of Learning Curve on Surgical Management of Vasculobiliary Injuries after Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Faisal Saud; Zia, Haseeb; Rafique, Muhammad Salman; Khan, Nusrat Yar; Salih, Mohammad; Hassan Shah, Najmul

    2016-01-01

    Background. Concomitant vascular injury might adversely impact outcomes after iatrogenic bile duct injury (IBDI). Whether a new HPB center should embark upon repair of complex biliary injuries with associated vascular injuries during learning curve is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine outcome of surgical management of IBDI with and without vascular injuries in a new HPB center during its learning curve. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent surgical management of IBDI at our center. A total of 39 patients were included. Patients without (Group 1) and with vascular injuries (Group 2) were compared. Outcome was defined as 90-day morbidity and mortality. Results. Median age was 39 (20–80) years. There were 10 (25.6%) vascular injuries. E2 injuries were associated significantly with high frequency of vascular injuries (66% versus 15.1%) (P = 0.01). Right hepatectomy was performed in three patients. Out of these, two had a right hepatic duct stricture and one patient had combined right arterial and portal venous injury. The number of patients who developed postoperative complications was not significantly different between the two groups (11.1% versus 23.4%) (P = 0.6). Conclusion. Learning curve is not a negative prognostic variable in the surgical management of iatrogenic vasculobiliary injuries after cholecystectomy. PMID:27525124

  7. Effects of cholecystectomy on the kinetics of primary and secondary bile acids.

    PubMed Central

    Berr, F; Stellaard, F; Pratschke, E; Paumgartner, G

    1989-01-01

    Removal of the gallbladder is thought to increase formation and pool size of secondary bile acids, mainly deoxycholic acid (DCA), by increased exposure of primary bile acids (cholic acid [CA], chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA]) to bacterial dehydroxylation in the intestine. We have tested this hypothesis by simultaneous determination of pool size and turnover of DCA, CA, and CDCA in nine women before and at various intervals after removal of a functioning gallbladder. An isotope dilution technique using marker bile acids labeled with stable isotopes (2H4-DCA, 13C-CA, 13C-CDCA) was used. After cholecystectomy, concentration and output of bile acids relative to bilirubin increased (P less than 0.02) in fasting duodenal bile and cholesterol saturation decreased by 27% (P less than 0.05) consistent with enhanced enterohepatic cycling of bile acids. Three months after removal of the gallbladder bile acid kinetics were in a new steady state: pool size and turnover of CDCA were unchanged. Synthesis of CA, the precursor of DCA, was diminished by 37% (P = 0.05), probably resulting from feedback inhibition by continuous transhepatic flux of bile acids. The fraction of CA transferred after 7 alpha-dehydroxylation to the DCA pool increased from 46 +/- 16 to 66 +/- 32% (P less than 0.05). However, this enhanced transfer did not lead to increased input or size of the DCA pool, because synthesis of the precursor CA had decreased. PMID:2708522

  8. Common Bile Duct Stones Detected After Cholecystectomy:Advancement into the Duodenum via the Percutaneous Route

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Nevzat Erdogan, Nuri; Baskol, Mevlut

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: To report our experience in the use of percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones detected in the post-cholecystectomy period. Methods: Forty-two patients in whom endoscopic cannulation and/or sphincterotomy had failed or could not be done due to several reasons underwent balloon dilatation of the ampulla of Vater and subsequent advancement of the stones via the percutaneous transhepatic route or T-tube tract. Results: The procedure was successful in 42 cases. In three patients, stones were crushed in the common bile duct and pushed as fragments into the duodenum. In all cases transient adverse effects were observed. There were no major complications. All cases were checked with ultrasonography for 6 months after the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones is an effective method of treatment with a high success rate,low complication rate and shorter hospital stay. It may serve as an alternative method in cases where endoscopic removal of stones fails.

  9. Tripartite comparison of single-incision and conventional laparoscopy in cholecystectomy: A multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    He, Guo-Lin; Jiang, Ze-Sheng; Cheng, Yuan; Lai, Qing-Bo; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Liu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Yi; Pan, Ming-Xin; Jian, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the characteristics of two single-incision methods, and conventional laparoscopy in cholecystectomy, and demonstrate the safety and feasibility. METHODS: Three hundred patients with gallstones or gallbladder polyps were admitted to two clinical centers from January 2013 to January 2014 and were randomized into three groups of 100: single-incision three-device group, X-Cone group, and conventional group. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, complications, postoperative pain, cosmetic score, length of hospitalization, and hospital costs were compared, with a follow-up duration of 1 mo. RESULTS: A total of 142 males (47%) and 158 females (53%) were enrolled in this study. The population characteristics of these three groups is no significant differences exist in terms of age, sex, body mass index and American Society of Anesthesiology (P > 0.05). In results, there were no significant differences in blood loss, length of hospitalization, postoperative complications.The operative time in X-Cone group was significantly longer than other groups.There were significant differences in postoperative pain scores and cosmetic scores at diffent times after surgery (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows that this two single-incision methods are safe and feasible. Both methods are superior to the conventional procedure in cosmetic and pain scores. PMID:25992193

  10. Combined usage with intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine reduces pain severity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Shu; Guan, Feng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain is the main obstacle for safely rapid recovery of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). In this study, we systemically evaluated the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine injected at the end of the LC. A total of 160 patients, scheduled for elective LC, were allocated into four groups. Group Sham received intraperitoneal and incisional normal saline (NS). Group IC received incisional ropivacaine and intraperitoneal NS. Group IP received incisional NS and intraperitoneal ropivacaine. Group ICP received intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ropivacaine was injected into the surgical bed through the right subcostal port and infiltrated at the four ports. Dynamic pain by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and cumulative morphine consumption at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h postoperatively, as well as incidence of side-effects over 48 h after LC was recorded. Compared with those in group Sham, the time of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, dynamic VAS score (VAS-D) 2 h and 6 h postoperatively, cumulative morphine consumption 6 h and 24 h postoperatively, and incidence of nausea and vomiting 48 h after LC in group IC and ICP were less (P<0.05). Furthermore, intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine exerts more powerful analgesic effect than single usage with intraperitoneal or incisional ropivacaine (P<0.05). No patients exhibited signs of local anesthetic toxicity. In conclusion, intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine might facilitate PACU transfer and effectively and safely reduce pain intensity after LC. PMID:26885228

  11. Management of a pseudo-aneurysm in the hepatic artery after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, M P; Battula, N; Perera, Mtpr; Marudanayagam, R; Isaac, J; Muiesan, P; Olliff, S P; Mirza, D F

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Symptomatic hepatic-artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP) after bile-duct injury (BDI) is a rare complication with a varied (but clinically urgent) presentation. Methods A prospectively maintained database of all patients with BDI at laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) referred to a tertiary specialist hepatobiliary centre between 1992 and 2011 was searched systematically to identify patients with a symptomatic HAP. Care and outcome of these patients was studied. Results Eight (6 men) of 236 patients with BDI (3.4%) with a median age of 65 (range: 54?6) years presented with symptomatic HAP. Median time of presentation of the HAP from the index LC was 31 (range: 13?16) days. Bleeding was the dominant presentation in 7 patients. One patient presented late (>2 years) with abdominal pain alone. Computed tomography angiography was the most useful investigation. Angioembolisation was successful in 7 patients. One patient died, and another patient developed liver infarction. Three patients (38%) developed biliary strictures after embolisation. Seven patients are alive and well at a median follow-up of 66 months. Conclusions Presentation of HAP is often delayed. A high index of suspicion is necessary for the diagnosis. Computed tomography angiography is the first-line investigation and selective angioembolisation can yield successful outcomes. PMID:27580308

  12. Using a standardized method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy to create a concept operation-specific checklist

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Saxon J; Perry, William; Nathanson, Leslie; Hugh, Thomas B; Hugh, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prevalences of bile duct injury (BDI) following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) remain unacceptably high. There is no standardized method for performing an LC. This study aims to describe a standardized technique for LC that will allow for the development of a concept LC checklist, the use of which, it is hoped, will decrease the prevalence of BDI. Methods A standardized method for LC was developed based on previously published expert analysis supplemented by video error analysis of operations in which BDI occurred. Established checklist methodology was then used to construct an LC-specific concept checklist. Results A five-step technique for the safe establishment of the critical view was created to guide the development of the checklist. The five steps are: (i) confirm the gallbladder lies in the hepatic principal plane and is retracted to the 10 o'clock position; (ii) confirm Hartmann's pouch is lifted up and toward the segment IV pedicle; (iii) identify Rouvière's sulcus; (iv) confirm the release of the posterior leaf of the peritoneum covering the hepatobiliary triangle, and (v) confirm the critical view with or without intraoperative cholangiography. Conclusions A standardized approach to LC would allow for the creation of an LC-specific checklist that has the potential to lower the prevalence of BDI. PMID:23961737

  13. A comparison between intravenous paracetamol plus fentanyl and intravenous fentanyl alone for postoperative analgesia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choudhuri, Anirban Hom; Uppal, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: our study compared the effect of fentanyl alone with fentanyl plus intravenous Paracetamol for analgesic efficacy, opioid sparing effects, and opioid-related side effects after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: eighty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups, who were given either an IV placebo or an IV injection of 1g paracetamol just before induction. Both groups received fentanyl during induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief every 8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. The postoperative pain relief was evaluated by a visual analog scale (VAS) and consumption of fentanyl as rescue analgesic in the postoperative period for 24 h after surgery was measured. The incidence of PONV and sedation scores was also measured in the postoperative period. Results: the mean VAS score in first and second hour after surgery was less in the group receiving IV Paracetamol (3.3±0.4* vs. 5.2±0.9; 3.1±0.4* vs. 4.3±0.3); the fentanyl consumption over first 24 h was also less in the group receiving IV paracetamol (50±14.9 vs. 150±25.8). The time requirement of first dose of rescue analgesic in the postoperative period was also significantly prolonged in the group receiving IV paracetamol (76±24.7 vs. 48±15.8). There was no difference in the sedation scores and in the incidence of PONV in the two groups. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the usefulness of intravenous paracetamol as pre-emptive analgesic in the treatment of postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25885388

  14. Comparison of hemodynamic and metabolic stress responses caused by endotracheal tube and Proseal laryngeal mask airway in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Güleç, Handan; Çakan, Türkay; Yaman, Halil; Kilinç, Aytül Şadan; Başar, Hülya

    2012-01-01

    Background: We aimed to compare hemodynamic and endocrine alterations caused by stress response due to Proseal laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube usage in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-three ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups of endotracheal tube and Proseal laryngeal mask airway. Standard general anaesthesia was performed in both groups with the same drugs in induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. After anaesthesia induction and 20 minutes after CO2 insufflations, venous blood samples were obtained for measuring adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine and cortisol levels. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded at the 1st, 5th, 15th, 30th and 45th minutes after the insertion of airway devices. Results: No statistically significant differences in age, body mass index, gender, ASA physical status, and operation time were found between the groups (p > 0.05). Changes in hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were not statistically significant when compared between and within groups (p > 0.05). Although no statistically significant differences were observed between and within groups when adrenalin, noradrenalin and dopamine values were compared, serum cortisol levels after CO2 insufflation in PLMA group were significantly lower than the ETT group (p = 0.024). When serum cortisol levels were compared within groups, cortisol levels 20 minutes after CO2 insufflation were significantly higher (46.1 (9.5-175.7) and 27.0 (8.3-119.4) in the ETT and PLMA groups, respectively) than cortisol levels after anaesthesia induction (11.3 (2.8-92.5) and 16.6 (4.4-45.4) in the ETT and PLMA groups, respectively) in both groups (p = 0.001). Conclusion: PLMA usage is a suitable, effective and safe alternative to ETT in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients with lower metabolic stress. PMID:23264788

  15. Single incision cholecystectomy using a clipless technique with LigaSure in a resource limited environment: The Bahamas experience

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Ross O.; McFarlane, Michael; Diggiss, Charles; Iferenta, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Scarless/single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a new procedure. It affords a superior cosmetic outcome when compared to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We examine the application of this technique using LigaSure via a clipless method. The present study looks at the experience of a single surgeon using this method with initial evaluation of the safety, feasibility, affordability, and benefits of this procedure. Methods Twenty-eight patients underwent transumbilical SILC at Doctors Hospital from January to December, 2014. The cohort included both emergency and elective patients. There was no difference in the preoperative work-up as indicated. To perform the operation, a 2–2.5-cm linear incision was made through the umbilicus and the single port platform utilized. A 10 mm 30-degree laparoscope, a 5 mm LigaSure and straight instruments were used to perform the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure. Results All patients except two were operated on successfully. Conversion was considered the placement of an additional epigastric/Right upper quadrant (RUQ) port. The conversion rate to standard LC was 7%. No patient was converted to open cholecystectomy. In the 28 successfully completed patients, the median duration of the operation was 38.5 min and estimated operative blood loss was 24 ml. Patients were commenced on liquid diet immediately on being fully conscious and after return to the ward with an estimated time of 6 h. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 1.4 days. Follow-up visits were conducted for all patients at 2-weeks intervals and continued for 6 weeks after surgery where possible. Two patients developed wound infections. All patients were satisfied with the good cosmetic effect of the surgery. The total satisfaction rate was 100%. Conclusions SILC is a safe and feasible technique for operating with scarless outcomes and reducing perioperative discomfort at the same time. The GelPOINTTM is a safe and feasible

  16. Systematic analysis of the safety and benefits of transvaginal hybrid-NOTES cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bulian, Dirk R; Knuth, Jurgen; Lehmann, Kai S; Sauerwald, Axel; Heiss, Markus M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate transvaginal hybrid-NOTES cholecystectomy (TVC) during its clinical establishment and compare it with the traditional laparoscopic technique (LC). METHODS: The specific problems and benefits of TVC were reviewed using a registry analysis, a comparative cohort study and a randomized clinical trial. At first, feasibility, safety and specific complications of the TVC were analyzed based on the first 488 data sets of the German NOTES Registry (GNR). Hereafter, we compared the early postoperative results of our first 50 TVC-patients with those of 50 female LC-patients matched by age, BMI and ASA classification. The same cohort was contacted an average of two years later to evaluate long-term results concerning pain and satisfaction with the aesthetic results and the overall postoperative results as well as sexual intercourse by means of two domains of the German version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-d). Consequently, we performed a randomized clinical trial comparing 20 TVC-patients with 20 needlescopic/3-trocar cholecystectomies (NC) also concerning the early postoperative results as well as pain, satisfaction and quality of life by means of the Eypasch Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) in the later course. Finally, we discussed the results in accordance with other published studies. RESULTS: The complication (3.5%) and conversion rates (4.1%) for TVC were low in the GNR and comparable to those of the LC. Access related intraoperative complications included injuries to the bladder (n = 4; 0.8%) and bowel (n = 3; 0.6%). The study cohort revealed less postoperative pain after TVC comparing to the LC-patients on the day of surgery (NRS, 1.5/10 vs 3.1/10, P = 0.003), in the morning (NRS, 1.9/10 vs 2.8/10, P = 0.047) and in the evening (NRS, 1.1/10 vs 1.8/10, P = 0.025) of postoperative day (POD) one. The randomized clinical trial consistently found less cumulative pain until POD 2 (NRS, 8/40 vs 14/40, P = 0.043), as well as until

  17. Comparative clinical study of gabapentin and pregabalin for postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rajshree; Tripathi, Manoj; Chandola, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reduction in central sensitization by gabapentinoids that include gabapentin and pregabalin may reduce acute postoperative pain. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate postoperative analgesic benefit and efficacy in patients administered with oral gabapentin or pregabalin as premedication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Settings and Design: Randomized, prospective, and comparative study. Materials and Methods: In this study, recruited patients were randomly allocated in three groups. Groups A, B, and C received 2 capsules of B complex, 3 capsules of 300 mg gabapentin each, and 2 capsules of 75 mg pregabalin, respectively, each in 30 patients of each group, 1 h before induction of anesthesia. Postoperative efficacy among these three groups was compared with respect to increase in duration of analgesia, reduction in postoperative pain scores, total postoperative requirements of analgesics and side effects. Statistical Analysis: Mean and standard deviation were calculated. Test of analysis between two groups was done by t-test and among three groups by analysis of variance, and then P value was calculated. Results: Pregabalin and gabapentin group had lower visual analog scale (VAS) score (P < 0.05), prolonged timing of first rescue analgesic (4.67 ± 14.79 vs. 158 ± 13.10 vs. 343.16 ± 9.69) min, and less opioid consumption (169.87 ± 20.32 vs. 116.13 ± 14.08 vs. 64.67 ± 16.69) mg compared to placebo group. Between the gabapentinoids, pregabalin group had lower VAS score, prolonged timing of first rescue analgesic, and less opioids consumption than the gabapentin group. Conclusion: It is concluded in this study that pregabalin group had lower VAS score, prolonged timing of first rescue analgesic, and less opioids consumption than the gabapentin group. Both gabapentinoids had better postoperative analgesic profile than placebo. PMID:27212747

  18. Virtual reality training versus blended learning of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial with laparoscopic novices.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia A; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette M; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes G; Linke, Georg R; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2015-05-01

    This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost-blended learning (BL) in a structured training program.Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks.Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in 2 groups stratified for sex. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trained basic skills and LC on the LAP Mentor II (Simbionix, Cleveland, OH). Each group trained 3 × 4 hours followed by a knowledge test concerning LC. Blinded raters assessed the operative performance of cadaveric porcine LC using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The LC was discontinued when it was not completed within 80 min. Students evaluated their training modality with questionnaires.The VR group completed the LC significantly faster and more often within 80 min than BL (45% v 21%, P = .02). The BL group scored higher than the VR group in the knowledge test (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 11.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). Both groups showed equal operative performance of LC in the OSATS score (49.4 ± 10.5 vs 49.7 ± 12.0, P = 0.90). Students generally liked training and felt well prepared for assisting in laparoscopic surgery. The efficiency of the training was judged higher by the VR group than by the BL group.VR and BL can both be applied for training the basics of LC. Multimodality training programs should be developed that combine the advantages of both approaches. PMID:25997044

  19. Comparing the efficacy of preemptive intravenous paracetamol on the reducing effect of opioid usage in cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Mustafa; Celep, Bahadır; Çiçek, Ramazan; Kalender, Hülya Üstün; Yılmaz, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine the post-operative analgesic effects of preemptive intravenous (iv) paracetamol and the amount of reduction in tramadol (Contramal®) consumption. Materials and Methods: Following local research ethics committee approval, ASAI-II, 300 patients were assigned in a randomized manner into three groups: Group I (preemptive) received iv paracetamol 1 g/100 mL 10 min before skin inscision and 100 mL of saline solution at the end of the operation, Group II (post-operative) received 100 mL of saline solution 10 min before skin inscision and iv paracetamol 1 g/100 mL at the end of the operation and Group III (placebo) received 100 mL of saline solution 10 min before skin insicision and 100 mL of saline solution at the end of the operation as well. The time to first analgesic requirement use and 24 h total analgesic consumption were recorded. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores were obtained from all patients at 15, 30, min 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after the end of the operation. Results: Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly longer in Group I and Group II, compared to Group III (P < 0.05). Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly longer in Group I compared to Group II (P < 0.05). Total analgesic consumption and postoperative VAS pain scores recorded were significantly lower in Group I and II, compared to Group III. Total analgesic consumption and postoperative VAS pain scores recorded were significantly lower in Group I compared to Group II (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, preemptive iv paracetamol provided effective and reliable pain control after cholecystectomy surgeries and reduced post-operative pain scores, the need for and use of supplementary opioids and the time to first request of analgesics. PMID:23930110

  20. Techniques of Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Better Delineation of the Bile Duct Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available. In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies. FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD–CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD–CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90 min; range, 15–165 min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 min; range, 21–205 min; P < 0.01). The signal contrast on the fluorescence images of the bile duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker. FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the “critical view of safety” during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of

  1. Comparative study of intravenously administered clonidine and magnesium sulfate on hemodynamic responses during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Nand Kishore; Verma, Anil; Agarwal, Apurva; Pandey, HD

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both magnesium and clonidine are known to inhibit catecholamine and vasopressin release and attenuate hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum. This randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study has been designed to assess which agent attenuates hemodynamic stress response to pneumoperitoneum better. Materials and Methods: 120 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into 4 groups of 30 each. Group K patients received 50 ml normal saline over a period of 15 min after induction and before pneumoperitoneum, group M patients received 50 mg/kg of magnesium sulfate in normal saline (total volume 50 ml) over same time duration. Similarly group C1 patients received 1 μg/kg clonidine and group C2 1.5 μg/kg clonidine respectively in normal saline (total volume 50 ml). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before induction (baseline value), at the end of infusions and every 5 min after pneumoperitoneum. Statistical Analysis: Paired t test was used for intra-group comparison and ANOVA for inter-group comparison. Results: Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in control group as compared to all other groups during pneumoperitoneum. On comparing patients in group M and group C1, no significant difference in systolic BP was found at any time interval. Patients in group C2 showed best control of systolic BP. As compared to group M and group C1, BP was significantly lower at 10, 30 and 40 min post pneumoperitoneum. No significant episodes of hypotension were found in any of the groups. Extubation time and time to response to verbal command like eye opening was significantly longer in group M as compared to other groups. Conclusion: Administration of magnesium sulfate or clonidine attenuates hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum. Although magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg produces hemodynamic stability comparable to clonidine 1 μg/kg, clonidine in doses of 1.5μg/kg blunts the hemodynamic response to

  2. Comparisons of Prediction Models of Quality of Life after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hon-Yi; Lee, Hao-Hsien; Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Chieh-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) outcome have used longitudinal data for more than two years. Moreover, no studies have considered group differences in factors other than outcome such as age and nonsurgical treatment. Additionally, almost all published articles agree that the essential issue of the internal validity (reproducibility) of the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models has not been adequately addressed. This study proposed to validate the use of these models for predicting quality of life (QOL) after LC and to compare the predictive capability of ANNs with that of SVM, GPR and MLR. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 400 LC patients completed the SF-36 and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index at baseline and at 2 years postoperatively. The criteria for evaluating the accuracy of the system models were mean square error (MSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). A global sensitivity analysis was also performed to assess the relative significance of input parameters in the system model and to rank the variables in order of importance. Compared to SVM, GPR and MLR models, the ANN model generally had smaller MSE and MAPE values in the training data set and test data set. Most ANN models had MAPE values ranging from 4.20% to 8.60%, and most had high prediction accuracy. The global sensitivity analysis also showed that preoperative functional status was the best parameter for predicting QOL after LC. Conclusions/Significance Compared with SVM, GPR and MLR models, the ANN model in this study was more accurate in predicting patient-reported QOL and had higher overall performance indices. Further studies of this model may consider the effect of a more detailed database that includes complications and clinical examination findings as well as more detailed outcome data. PMID:23284677

  3. Influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary function and complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Şen, Meral; Özol, Duygu; Bozer, Mikdat

    2009-12-01

    Pain and diaphragmatic dysfunction are the major reasons for postoperative pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery. Preoperative administration of analgesics helps to reduce and prevent pain. The objective of this study was first to research the rate of pulmonary complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and then analyze the influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary functions and complications. Seventy patients scheduled for elective LC were included in our double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Randomly, 35 patients received 1 g etofenamate (group 1) and 35 patients 0.9% saline (group 2) intramuscularly 1 h before surgery. All patients underwent physical examination, chest radiography, lung function tests, and pulse oxygen saturation measurements 2 h before surgery and postoperatively on day 2. Atelectasis was graded as micro, focal, segmental, or lobar. With preemptive analgesia, the need for postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group 1. In both groups mean spirometric values were reduced significantly after the operation, but the difference and proportional change according to preoperative recordings were found to be similar [29.5 vs. 31.3% reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 32.9 vs. 33.5% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for groups 1 and 2, respectively]. There was an insignificant drop in oxygen saturation rates for both groups. The overall incidence of atelectasia was similar for group 1 and 2 (30.2 vs. 29.2%). Although the degree of atelectesia was found to be more severe in the placebo group, the difference was not statistically significant. We concluded that although preemptive analgesia decreased the need for postoperative analgesia, this had no effect on pulmonary functions and pulmonary complications. PMID:19117121

  4. Dissection by Ultrasonic Energy Versus Monopolar Electrosurgical Energy in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Electrocautery remains the main energy form used during laparoscopic dissection. However, due to its risks, search is continuous for safer and more efficient forms of energy. This review assesses the effects of dissection using ultrasonic energy compared with monopolar electrocautery during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was performed. Studies included were trials that prospectively randomized adult patients with symptomatic gallstone disease to either ultrasonic or monopolar electrocautery dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Data were collected regarding the characteristics and methodological quality of each trial. Outcome measures included operating time, gallbladder perforation rate, bleeding, bile leak, conversion rate, length of hospital stay and sick leave, postoperative pain and nausea scores, and influence on systemic immune and inflammatory responses. For metaanalysis, the statistical package RevMan version 4.2 was used. For continuous data, Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effects model. For Categorical data, the Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated with 95% confidence interval using fixed effects model. Results: Seven trials were included in this review, with a total number of 695 patients randomized to 2 dissection methods: 340 in the electrocautery group and 355 in the ultrasonic group. No mortality was recorded in any of the trials. With ultrasonic dissection, operating time is significantly shorter in elective surgery (WMD −8.19, 95% CI −10.36 to −6.02, P>0.0001), acute cholecystitis (WMD −17, 95% CI −28.68 to −5.32, P=0.004), complicated cases (WMD −15, 95% CI −28.15 to −1.85, P=0.03), or if surgery was performed by trainee

  5. Nonalcoholic Wernicke's Encephalopathy Associated with Unintentional Weight Loss, Cholecystectomy, and Intractable Vomiting: The Role of Dual Thiamine and Corticosteroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Donadee, Chenell; Gomez, Leslie; Zaretskaya, Marina

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male with one month of intractable vomiting, subsequent cholecystitis status post cholecystectomy, and overall 40-pound weight loss over the last few months presented with altered mental status and seizures. MRI showed signal abnormalities involving the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, 4th ventricle, and bilateral thalami, indicative of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The patient was started on empiric IV thiamine and methylprednisolone; thiamine levels were subsequently found to be low. Infectious disease workup was negative. Within a few days of this therapy, the patient's neurological status steadily improved with increased responsiveness and communication. Repeat MRI 7 days after admission showed significant resolution of the signal abnormalities. Over the next several weeks the patient became fully conversational, cognitively intact, and increasingly ambulatory. Nonalcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy is rare; there have been reports relating it separately to vomiting and invasive surgery. In this case report, we associate it with both recurrent vomiting and minimally invasive cholecystectomy. We also discuss combinatorial therapy of thiamine and corticosteroids, which is poorly defined in the literature. Though there is no consensus-based optimal treatment of Wernicke's encephalopathy, this adds to the discussion of using dual therapy and supports that the use of empiric corticosteroids does not harm the patient. PMID:24716018

  6. [Phenotyping by total oxidative hepatic capacity in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: two categories of patients and duration of post-anesthesia rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Chuenkova, E A; Ziganshina, L E

    2013-01-01

    In patients, undergoing laparoscopy cholecystectomy, two phenotype categories were identified on the basis of the total oxidative hepatic capacity determined by antipyrine test, which differed by duration of post-anesthesia rehabilitation. The potential of antipyrine phenotyping for individualisation of anesthetics' dosing is discussed. PMID:24006615

  7. Effect of various pneumoperitoneum pressures on femoral vein hemodynamics during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankush; Dahiya, Divya; Kaman, Lileswar; Saini, Vikas; Behera, Arunanshu

    2016-06-01

    High intra-abdominal pressure and reverse Trendelenburg position during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) are risk factors for venous stasis in lower extremity. Lower limb venous stasis is one of the major pathophysiological elements involved in the development of peri-operative deep vein thrombosis. Low pressure pneumoperitoneum (7-10 mmHg) has been recommended in patients with limited cardiac, pulmonary or renal reserve. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of various pneumoperitoneum pressures on femoral vein (FV) hemodynamics during LC. A total of 50 patients undergoing elective LC were enrolled and they were prospectively randomized into two groups containing 25 patients each. In group A high pressure pneumoperitoneum (14 mmHg) and in group B low pressure pneumoperitoneum (8 mmHg) was maintained. Comparison of pre-operative and post-operative coagulation profile was done. Preoperative and intraoperative change in femoral vein diameter (FVD) (AP and LAT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and peak systolic flow (PSF) during varying pneumoperitoneum pressure was recorded in FV by ultrasound Doppler. First measurement (pre-operative) was carried out just after the induction of anesthesia before creation of pneumoperitoneum and second measurement (intra-operative) was taken just before completion of surgery with pneumoperitoneum maintained. Changes in coagulation parameters were less significant at low pressure pneumoperitoneum. There was statistical significant difference in the pre-operative and intra-operative values of FVD, CSA and PSF in both groups when analyzed independently (P = 0.00). There was no significant difference in pre-operative values of FVD, CSA and PSF (P > 0.05) among two groups but when the comparison was made between the intra-operative values, there was significant increase in FVD (AP) (P = 0.016), CSA (P = 0.00) and decrease in PSF (P = 0.00) at high pressure pneumoperitoneum. This study provides evidence of using low

  8. Anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: comparative evaluation--desflurane/sevoflurane vs. propofol.

    PubMed

    Erk, Gulcan; Erdogan, Gulay; Sahin, Fazilet; Taspinar, Vildan; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2007-10-01

    Laparoscopic techniques, have rapidly increased in popularity because of its various benefits. They are widely used in day-case surgical operations and are extensively published. However, postoperative nausea vomiting (PONV) is a commonly observed phenomenon after laparoscopic procedures. Its occurrence may increase depending on the anesthetic techniques used. Despite the fact that the use of propofol and the new low solubility inhalation anesthetics, lead to faster induction and recovery, their effects on PONV is not sufficiently known. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the effects of various anesthetic drugs on recovery characteristics and PONV. Following informed consent, 300 ASA I-III patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were investigated. Anesthesia was induced by 1.5 microgkg(-1) fentanyl, 0.03 mgkg(-1) midazolam, 1.5 mgkg(-1) propofol and 0.01 mgkg(-1) vecuronium for all patients. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane in group D (n = 100), sevoflurane in group S (n = 100) and propofol infusion in group P (n = 100), beside 50% N20/O2 ventilation. All patients were given 4 mg ondansetron and 8 mg dexamethazone iv for preventing PONV, ten minutes before the end of surgery. At the end of the operation, times for extubation, eye opening, orientation, sitting and walking, and the need of ondansetrone in post anesthetic care unit, were recorded. Also, PONV was observed and recorded as early period (first 4 hours) and late period (4-24 hours). Extubation and eye opening times were meaningfully lower in group D. However, no significant differences were observed in orientation, sitting and walking times and PONV among the three groups. All patients who had PONV were women. A correlation was found between PONV and body weight. Even though there were no statistically significant differences among the groups regarding PONV, the number of patients who had PONV in group P was lower. Early recovery time was shortest in group D, while delayed

  9. Intraperitoneal pre-insufflation of 0.125% bupivaciane with tramadol for postoperative pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Aslam; Usmani, Hammad; Khan, Mohd Mozaffar; Rizvi, Amjad Ali; Siddiqi, Mohd Masood Hussain; Aslam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a fairly high incidence of postoperative discomfort which is more of visceral origin than somatic. Studies have concluded that the instillation of local anesthetic with opioid around gall bladder bed provides more effective analgesia than either local anesthetic or opioid alone. Material and Methods: The study included 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients of age 16-65 years scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. The patients received the study drugs at the initiation of insufflation of CO2 in the intraperitoneal space by the operating surgeon under laparoscopic camera guidance over the gallbladder bed. Patients in Group T received tramadol 2 mg/kg in 30 ml normal saline, in Group B received bupivacaine 30 ml of 0.125% and in Group BT received tramadol 2 mg/kg in 30 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine intraperitoneally. Postoperative pain assessment was done at different time intervals in the first 24 h using Visual Analog Scale of 0-10 (0 = No pain, 10 = Worst pain imagined). Time to first dose of rescue analgesic and total analgesics required in the first 24 h postoperatively were also recorded. The incidence of side effects during the postoperative period was recorded. Results: Reduction in postoperative pain was elicited, at 4 and 8 h postoperatively when Group BT (bupivacaine-tramadol group) was compared with Group T (tramadol group) or Group B (bupivacaine group) (P < 0.01). There was a significantly lower requirement of analgesics during first 24 h postoperatively in Group BT compared to Group B or T but no significant difference in the intake of analgesics was noted between Groups B Group T. Time to first dose of rescue analgesic was also significantly prolonged in Group BT compared to Group B or T. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was comparable in all the study groups. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine with tramadol was a more

  10. Migration of vessel clip into the common bile duct and late formation of choledocholithiasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Francisco Javier; Dominguez, Elias; Lede, Angel; Jose, Portela; Miguel, Piñon

    2011-10-01

    Since the first silk suture material acting as a nidus for the development of subsequent common bile duct stones after cholecystectomy was described in 1897, several investigators have reported that suture materials may cause choledocholithiasis. Silk, chromic catgut, parasites, and other foreign bodies are known occasionally to form such niduses in the common bile duct. Surgical hemostatic clips have been used widely and generally are considered very safe. The first case of postcholecystectomy clip migration was reported in 1979. Its exact pathogenesis remains unknown; it generally is agreed that bile duct injuries, inappropriate clip placements, subclinical bile leak, and infections also have been postulated to contribute to clip migration. We report an unusual case in which the core of a biliary calculus in the common bile duct was found to contain a surgical clip. This case illustrates the potentially abrupt and late development of clip-related gallstones and highlights the need for long-term follow-up evaluation. PMID:21943951

  11. The Effect of Prophylactic Antibiotics on Post Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Infectious Complications: A Double-Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Darzi, Ali Asghar; Nikmanesh, Alieh; Bagherian, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most common surgeries in laparoscopic surgery. Although, it is believed that LC has low-risk for post-operative infectious complications, the use of a prophylactic antibiotic is still controversial in elective LC. Objective To determine the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on postoperative infection complications in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial, patients who were candidates for elective LC, from March 2012 to 2015, in four hospitals in Babol, Iran, were studied. Patients were allocated randomly to two groups, i.e., group C: Cefazolin (n = 182) and group P: placebo (n = 247). Group C received 1 g of Cefazolin 30 minutes before anesthesia and and then, six and 12 hours after anesthesia. Group P patients received 10 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution. Age, gender, type of gallbladder diseases (stone, polyp, or hydrops), the length of post-operative hospitalization, frequency of gallbladder rupture, the duration of surgery, and the kinds of complications associated with infections were collected for each patient in the two groups. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS version 20, using the t-test and the chi-squared test, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of gender (C versus P: 18 (9.9%) male versus 22 (9%); p = 0.74), age (C versus P: 43.75 + 13.30 years versus 40.91 + 13.05; p = 0.20), and duration of surgery (C versus P: 34.97 ± 8.25 min versus 34.11 ± 8.39; p = 0.71). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidences of post-operative infection (C versus P: 3 (1.7%) versus 5 (2%); p = 0.99) and rupture of the gallbladder (C versus P: 14 (7.8%) versus 17 (6.8%); p = 0.85). No other post-operative systemic infectious complications (e.g., sepsis, pneumonia, or urinary tract infection) were found

  12. Comparison of palanosetron with ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Jyoti; Baduni, Neha; Bansal, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a ‘big little’ problem especially after laparoscopic surgeries. Palanosetron is a new potent 5 hydroxy tryptamine 3 antagonists. In this randomized double blind clinical study we compared the effects of i.v. ondansetron and palanosetron administered at the end of surgery in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 subjects between 18–60 years with Apfel score ≥2, were randomly assigned into one of the two groups, containing 50 patients each. Group A received ondansetron 4 mg i.v. and Group B received palanosetron 0.07 5mg i.v. both as bolus before induction. The incidence of nausea, retching and vomiting, incidence of total PONV, requirement of rescue antiemetics and adverse effects were evaluated during the first 24 h following end of surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of nausea was significantly lower in patients who had received palanosetron (16%) as compared to ondansetron (24%). Need of rescue antiemetics was significantly higher in patients receiving ondansetron (32%) as compared to palanosetron (16%). The incidence of total PONV was also significantly lower in group receiving palanosetron (20%) as compared to ondansetron (50%). Among the side effects, headache was noted significantly higher with ondansetron (20%) as compared to palanosetron (6%). CONCLUSION: Palanosetron has got better anti-nausea effect, less need of rescue antiemetics, favourable side effect profile and a decrease in the incidence of total PONV as compared to ondansetron in 24 h post operative period in patients undergoing laproscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. PMID:26195878

  13. Single-site multiport combined splenectomy and cholecystectomy with conventional laparoscopic instruments: Case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Bayraktar, Baris; Bayraktar, Onur; Tosun, Salih; Bilgic, Cagri; Demiral, Gokhan; Ozturk, Erman; Yigitbasi, Rafet; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Conventional laparoscopic procedures have been used for splenic diseases and concomitant gallbladder stones, frequently in patients with hereditary spherocytosis since 1990’s. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of single-site surgery with conventional instruments in combined procedures. Presentation of case series Six consecutive patients who scheduled for combined cholecystectomy and splenectomy because of hereditary spherocytosis or autoimmune hemolytic anemia were included this study. Both procedures were performed via trans-umbilical single-site multiport approach using conventional instruments. All procedures completed successfully without conversion to open surgery or conventional laparoscopic surgery. An additional trocar was required for only one patient. The mean operation time was 190 min (150–275 min). The mean blood loss was 185 ml (70–300 ml). Median postoperative hospital stay was two days. No perioperative mortality or major complications occurred in our series. Recurrent anemia, hernia formation or wound infection was not observed during the follow-up period. Discussion Nowadays, publications are arising about laparoscopic or single site surgery for combined diseases. Surgery for combined diseases has some difficulties owing to the placement of organs and position of the patient during laparoscopic surgery. Single site laparoscopic surgery has been proposed to have better cosmetic outcome, less postoperative pain, greater patient satisfaction and faster recovery compared to standard laparoscopy. Conclusion We consider that single-site multiport laparoscopic approach for combined splenectomy and cholecystectomy is a safe and feasible technique, after gaining enough experience on single site surgery. PMID:26708949

  14. Is C-reactive protein the single most useful predictor of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy or its conversion? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jessica Mok, Kam Wa; Goh, Yan Li; Howell, Laura E.; Date, Ravindra S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Both converted and difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) have impact on operating time and training of juniors. The aim of this study is to evaluate parameters that predict difficult LC or conversion (C), and find predictive values for different cut-off points of C-reactive protein (CRP) for conversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cholecystectomies performed from January 2011 to December 2012 at NHS trust was undertaken. Association of intra-operative difficulties or conversion with the following factors was studied: Age, gender, CRP, white blood cell count (WBC), history of pancreatitis, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety one patients were analysed (222 laparoscopic, 45 difficult LC and 24 C). Only 141 patients had a recorded CRP. Median CRP was highest for patients who were converted (286.20) compared to those who had difficult LC (67.40) or LC (7.05). Those patients who did not have preoperative CRP (8/150, 5.3%) had less chance of conversion than those who had CRP (16/141, 11.34%) (P = 0.063). Patients with CRP of ≤220 (3/91, 3.2%) had significantly less chance of conversion than those with CRP >220 (13/21, 61.9%) (P < 0.001). High preoperative CRP, WBC count and ERCP, were predictors of conversion. These factors were only marginally better than CRP alone in predicting conversion. CONCLUSION: CRP can be a strong predictor of conversion of LC. Further validation of the results is needed. PMID:26917916

  15. An innovative procedure of laparoscope combined with endoscopy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor resection and cholecystectomy: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    YAN, YE; LI, FENG; GAI, YONG-HAO; LIU, QING-WEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a novel approach to laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) resection and cholecystectomy, and conducts a review of the associated literature. The novel surgical procedure was performed on one patient who was diagnosed with a GIST and cholecystic polypus. The GIST was resected using an insulation-tipped diathermic electrosurgical knife under the guide of an endoscope. Subsequently, a cholecystectomy was performed by inserting two more 5-mm trocars and instruments transumbilically, guided using an endoscope. The tumor and the gallbladder were exteriorized using a peroral approach and the incision lining of the stomach was sutured laparoscopically. The procedure was successfully performed and the patient experienced no discomfort during the 5-year follow-up. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery is feasible and would be an ideal choice for invisible abdominal scar surgery, in particular for multi-visceral resection. PMID:27073455

  16. Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of the Standards Sub-committee of the Victorian State Committee of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Cocks, J; Johnson, W; Cade, R; Collopy, B; Ewing, H; Rogerson, J; Rosengarten, D; Thompson, G; Turner, P; Wale, R

    1993-09-01

    A survey of Victorian surgeons performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was carried out. This report discusses the bile duct injuries identified in the survey. Twelve injuries were recorded, a rate of 0.2%. Three of the 12 required formal repair, the other 9 being treated by T-tube alone. Possible mechanisms of these injuries, the experience of the surgeon, the role of operative cholangiography and delays in recognition of the injury are discussed. PMID:8363476

  17. Paravertebral block using bupivacaine with/without fentanyl on postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A double-blind, randomized, control trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Heydari, Seyed Morteza; Hashemi, Seyed Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain is one of the most common complaints after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of paravertebral block using bupivacaine with/without fentanyl on postoperative pain and complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 90 patients scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were assessed in two groups: The case group received bupivacaine and fentanyl, and the control group received bupivacaine and normal saline. Primary outcomes were severity of postoperative pain at rest and during coughing. Secondary outcomes were postoperative cumulative morphine consumption and the incidence of side-effects. Results: Pain score at rest before surgery, after recovery, hour-1 and hour-6 was not significantly different between the groups. But in hour-24 cases, the pain score during coughing was significantly higher than controls. Severity of pain at rest in time points was not different between groups. The frequencies (%) of moderate pain at mentioned times in case and control groups were 64, 31, 16, 9, 0 versus 67, 16, 7, 4, and 0, respectively. Pain score during coughing was lower in controls at hour-24 in comparison with cases, but in other time points was not significant. The control group significantly received more total dose of morphine in comparison with cases group. Nausea, vomiting and hypotension were similar in groups, but pruritus was significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: Adding fentanyl to bupivacaine in paravertebral block did not significantly improve the postoperative pain and complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, further studies are needed to be done. PMID:25250301

  18. Protocol for a multicentre, prospective, population-based cohort study of variation in practice of cholecystectomy and surgical outcomes (The CholeS study)

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Ravinder S; Spreadborough, Philip; Johnstone, Marianne; Marriott, Paul; Bhangu, Aneel; Alderson, Derek; Morton, Dion G; Griffiths, Ewen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgical operations performed. Despite level one evidence supporting the role of cholecystectomy in the management of specific gallbladder diseases, practice varies between surgeons and hospitals. It is unknown whether these variations account for the differences in surgical outcomes seen in population-level retrospective data sets. This study aims to investigate surgical outcomes following acute, elective and delayed cholecystectomies in a multicentre, contemporary, prospective, population-based cohort. Methods and analysis UK and Irish hospitals performing cholecystectomies will be recruited utilising trainee-led research collaboratives. Two months of consecutive, adult patient data will be included. The primary outcome measure of all-cause 30-day readmission rate will be used in this study. Thirty-day complication rates, bile leak rate, common bile duct injury, conversion to open surgery, duration of surgery and length of stay will be measured as secondary outcomes. Prospective data on over 8000 procedures is anticipated. Individual hospitals will be surveyed to determine local policies and service provision. Variations in outcomes will be investigated using regression modelling to adjust for confounders. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval is not required for this study and has been confirmed by the online National Research Ethics Service (NRES) decision tool. This novel study will investigate how hospital-level surgical provision can affect patient outcomes, using a cross-sectional methodology. The results are essential to inform commissioning groups and implement changes within the National Health Service (NHS). Dissemination of the study protocol is primarily through the trainee-led research collaboratives and the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS). Individual centres will have access to their own results and the collective results of the study will be published

  19. Effect of Endoscopic Sphincterotomy for Suspected Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction on Pain-Related Disability Following Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Peter B.; Durkalski, Valerie; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Pauls, Qi; Fogel, Evan; Tarnasky, Paul; Aliperti, Giuseppe; Freeman, Martin; Kozarek, Richard; Jamidar, Priya; Wilcox, Mel; Serrano, Jose; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga; Elta, Grace; Mauldin, Patrick; Thornhill, Andre; Hawes, Robert; Wood-Williams, April; Orrell, Kyle; Drossman, Douglas; Robuck, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Abdominal pain after cholecystectomy is common and may be attributed to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Management often involves endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with manometry and sphincterotomy. OBJECTIVE To determine whether endoscopic sphincterotomy reduces pain and whether sphincter manometric pressure is predictive of pain relief. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Multicenter, sham-controlled, randomized trial involving 214 patients with pain after cholecystectomy without significant abnormalities on imaging or laboratory studies, and no prior sphincter treatment or pancreatitis randomly assigned (August 6, 2008-March 23, 2012) to undergo sphincterotomy or sham therapy at 7 referral medical centers. One-year follow-up was blinded. The final follow-up visit was March 21, 2013. INTERVENTIONS After ERCP, patients were randomized 2:1 to sphincterotomy (n = 141) or sham (n = 73) irrespective of manometry findings. Those randomized to sphincterotomy with elevated pancreatic sphincter pressures were randomized again (1:1) to biliary or to both biliary and pancreatic sphincterotomies. Seventy-two were entered into an observational study with conventional ERCP managemeny. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Success of treatment was defined as less than 6 days of disability due to pain in the prior 90 days both at months 9 and 12 after randomization, with no narcotic use and no further sphincter intervention. RESULTS Twenty-seven patients (37%; 95%CI, 25.9%-48.1%) in the sham treatment group vs 32 (23%; 95%CI, 15.8%-29.6%) in the sphincterotomy group experienced successful treatment (adjusted risk difference, −15.6%; 95% CI, −28.0% to −3.3%; P = .01). Of the patients with pancreatic sphincter hypertension, 14 (30%; 95% CI, 16.7%-42.9%) who underwent dual sphincterotomy and 10 (20%; 95% CI, 8.7%-30.5%) who underwent biliary sphincterotomy alone experienced successful treatment. Thirty-seven treated patients (26%; 95% CI,19%-34%) and 25 patients

  20. [Surgical treatment of iatrogenic bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: analysis of long-term results. Retrospective clinical study in 51 patients operated in the Campania region from 1991 to 2003].

    PubMed

    Conzo, Giovanni; Amato, Giuseppe; Angrisani, Luigi; Bardi, Ugo; Barone, Giovanni; Belli, Giulio; Brancaccio, Umberto; Calise, Fulvio; Caliendo, Angelo; Celsi, Salvatore; Corcione, Francesco; Cuccurullo, Diego; De Falco, Giuseppe; Delrio, Paolo; De Werra, Carlo; De Sena, Guido; Docimo, Giovanni; Esposito, Maria Grazia; Fantini, Corrado; Giardiello, Cristiano; Musella, Mario; Molino, Carlo; Muto, Crescenzo; Pennetti, Lucio; Puziello, Alessandro; Porcelli, Alberto; Rea, Roberto; Rendano, Franco; Palazzo, Antonietta; Santangelo, Michele; Santaniello, Walter; Santini, Luigi; Sperlongano, Pasquale; Stanzione, Francesco; Tartaglia, Alberto; Tricarico, Annunziato; Vincenti, Rodolfo; Lorenzo, Michele

    2005-01-01

    An higher incidence rate of iatrogenic bile duct injuries is reported in cholecystectomy performed with the laparoscopy than with the laparotomy approach. The aim of this study was to provide a multicentre report on surgical treatment and the outcome of biliary complications during and following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A questionnaire was mailed to all surgeons with experience in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the Campania region. Data were collected from January 1991 to December 2003. Each patient was requested to indicate age, gender, associated diseases, site and type of lesion, surgical experience, diagnosis, treatment and complications. Twenty-six surgeons answered the questionnaire. Fifty-one patients (36 F/15 M; mean age: 42.5 +/- 11.9, range 13-91 years) with bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reported. The most frequent lesions were main bile duct partial or total transection. The intraoperative mortality rate was 1/51 (1.9%) due to a complex biliary and vascular injury. The postoperative mortality rate of revision surgery was 5/50 (10%). T-tube positioning (n = 20) and Roux-en-Y hepato-jejunostomy (n = 20) were the procedures most frequently performed. The complication rate in patients treated with the T-tube was significantly higher than in those treated with hepatico-jejunostomy. Surgical treatment of biliary injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy was characterized by unusually high mortality and morbidity for a non-neoplastic disease. Roux-en-Y hepato-jejunostomy remains the procedure of choice for these injuries. PMID:16060179

  1. Robotic assisted Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in a post-cholecystectomy type E2 bile duct injury

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Arun; De, Sudipto; Mishra, Purak; Tiwari, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis is the treatment of choice for common hepatic duct injury type E2. It has been performed laparoscopically with the advancement of laparoscopic skill. Recently, a telemanipulative robotic surgical system was introduced, providing laparoscopic instruments with wrist-arm technology and 3-dimensional visualization of the operative field. We present a case of 36-year-old female patient who had undergone elective cholecystectomy 2 mo ago for gall stones and had a common bile duct injury during surgery. As the stricture was old and complete it could not be tackled endoscopically. We did a laparoscopic assisted adhesiolysis followed by robotic Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. No intraoperative complications or technical problems were encountered. Postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged on the 4th postoperative day. At follow-up, she is doing well without evidence of jaundice or cholangitis. This is the first reported case of robotic hepaticojejunostomy following common bile duct injury. The hybrid technique gives the patient benefit of laparoscopic adhesiolysis and robotic suturing. PMID:25684934

  2. Useful predictors of bile duct stones in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. McGill Gallstone Treatment Group.

    PubMed Central

    Barkun, A N; Barkun, J S; Fried, G M; Ghitulescu, G; Steinmetz, O; Pham, C; Meakins, J L; Goresky, C A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the most useful predictors of common bile duct (CBD) stones as diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: Prospective and retrospective collection of historical, biochemical and ultrasonographic data was used. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to determine optimal biochemical cut-off values. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression with generation of the best model identifying independent predictors of CBD stones also was employed. Prospective validation of the model was performed on an independent group of patients. RESULTS: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies were performed before LC in 106 patients, and after LC in 33. Only four of ten clinical variables evaluated independently predicted the presence of CBD stones. The optimal model predicted a 94% probability of CBD stones in a patient older than 55 years of age who presented with an elevated bilirubin (over 30 mumol/L) and positive ultrasound findings (a dilated CBD, and a CBD stone seen on ultrasound). This model was validated prospectively in a subsequent series of 49 patients in which the probability of CBD stone was only 8% when all four predictors were absent. CONCLUSIONS: The identified independent clinical predictors of a CBD stone helps select a population of symptomatic gallstone bearers who benefit most from cholangiographic assessment. PMID:7517657

  3. [Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our experience with 130 cases compared with 450 cases treated with the CO2 technique].

    PubMed

    Bossuto, E; Bonatti, L; Schieroni, R; Villata, E; Bacino, A; Galliano, R; Lorenzini, L; Borello, G; Butera, F; Massaioli, N

    2000-04-01

    Alongside the technique based on the creation of an abdominal cavity for surgery following the introduction of gas (usually CO2) into the peritoneal cavity, a new method has been developed. This involves the use of an atraumatic mechanical lifting device connected to the same abdominal wall (gasless laparoscopy). The authors report a technique that uses an inflatable cushion inserted into the abdomen through a periumbilical incision. The cushion is connected to an external motorized hydraulic jack fixed to the operating table, fitted with an electric motor and friction gear. Between May 1991 and June 1998, 580 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Since December 1995 a total of 130 patients have undergone surgery using gasless laparoscopy. Shoulder pain and pain in the upper abdominal quadrant were no longer reported; pain was present in 70% of the patients operated using the CO2 technique. There was also a marked reduction in the anesthesiological risks, above all in elderly patients with cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Surgical manoeuvres are made easier owing to the possibility of using traditional surgical instruments. Washing and continuous aspiration allow a good control of intraoperative hemostasis, and reduce the phenomenon of lens misting without the risk of losing pneumoperitoneum. Less visibility of the surgical field was reported, particularly in obese patients, above all because of the reduced diaphragmatic distension and the lack of displacement of the intestinal loops. In the authors' opinion the gasless technique is suitable above all in patients affected by cardiopulmonary disorders in whom hypercapnia might represent a significant operating risk. PMID:10859952

  4. Blood glucose estimation as an indirect assessment of modulation of neuroendocrine stress response by dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl premedication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kumkum; Maggo, Aman; Jain, Manish; Gupta, Prashant K.; Rastogi, Bhawna; Singhal, Apoorva B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anesthesia and surgery-induced neuroendocrine stress response can be modulated by appropriate premedication. The present study was designed to assess the clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl premedication for modulation of neuroendocrine stress response by analyzing the perioperative variation of blood glucose level during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Subjects and Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 adult consented patients of either sex with ASA I and II, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia and meeting the inclusion criteria, were allocated into two groups. Group D patients (n = 30) were given intravenous dexmedetomidine 1μg/kg and Group F patients (n = 30) received fentanyl 2 μg/kg, given over a 10-min period, before induction of anesthesia. Perioperative blood glucose levels were analyzed preoperatively, at 30 min after beginning of surgery, and 2.5 h after surgery. Anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. All patients were also assessed for intraoperative hemodynamic changes of heart rate and mean arterial pressure at specific timings. Results: Blood glucose concentration has shown 20% increase after surgery. The differences between groups were not statistically significant as observed by analyzing the variation of serial perioperative blood glucose estimation. Both premedicants had attenuated the hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response of pneumoperitoneum and general anesthesia. The dexmedetomidine group showed more stabilization of intraoperative hemodynamics of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate when compared to fentanyl group. Conclusion: During the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, dexmedetomidine and fentanyl, both premedicants have effectively modulated the neuroendocrine stress response of general anesthesia as assessed by analysis of perioperative blood glucose variation, but dexmedetomidine was better. PMID

  5. Prevalence of gallstones in 1,229 patients submitted to surgical laparoscopic treatment of GERD and esophageal achalasia: associated cholecystectomy was a safe procedure

    PubMed Central

    SALLUM, Rubens Antonio Aissar; PADRÃO, Eduardo Messias Hirano; SZACHNOWICZ, Sergio; SEGURO, Francisco C. B. C.; BIANCHI, Edno Tales; CECCONELLO, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between esophageal achalasia/ gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cholelithiasis is not clear. Epidemiological data are controversial due to different methodologies applied, the regional differences and the number of patients involved. Results of concomitant cholecistectomy associated to surgical treatment of both diseases regarding safety is poorly understood. Aim To analyze the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with esophageal achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux submitted to cardiomyotomy or fundoplication. Also, to evaluate the safety of concomitant cholecistectomy. Methods Retrospective analysis of 1410 patients operated from 2000 to 2013. They were divided into two groups: patients with GERD submitted to laparocopic hiatoplasty plus Nissen fundoplication and patients with esophageal achalasia to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy plus partial fundoplication. It was collected epidemiological data, specific diagnosis and subgroups, the presence or absence of gallstones, surgical procedure, operative and clinical complications and mortality. All groups/subgroups were compared. Results From 1,229 patients with GERD or esophageal achalasia, submitted to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy or fundoplication, 138 (11.43%) had cholelitiasis, occurring more in females (2.38:1) with mean age of 50,27 years old. In 604 patients with GERD, 79 (13,08%) had cholelitiasis. Lower prevalence occurred in Barrett's esophagus patients 7/105 (6.67%) (p=0.037). In 625 with esophageal achalasia, 59 (9.44%) had cholelitiasis, with no difference between chagasic and idiopathic forms (p=0.677). Complications of patients with or without cholecystectomy were similar in fundoplication and cardiomyotomy (p=0.78 and p=1.00).There was no mortality or complications related to cholecystectomy in this series. Conclusions Prevalence of cholelithiasis was higher in patients submitted to fundoplication (GERD). Patients with chagasic or idiopatic forms of achalasia had the

  6. Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction and the Formation of Adult Choledochal Cyst Following Cholecystectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong-Tian; Wang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Liang, Bin; Zeng, Jian-Ping; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-11-01

    To determine the causes underlying the formation of adult choledochal cyst.Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction is the most widely accepted theory regarding the etiology of choledochal cyst. However, choledochal cysts have been found in patients in the absence of this anomaly. Because the number of adult patients with choledochal cyst is increasing, it is important to address this controversy.Bile amylase levels in the cysts of 27 patients (8 males and 19 females) who had undergone cholecystectomy were retrospectively evaluated.The average age of the 27 patients was 45.8 ± 10.1 years and the majority (85.2%) were diagnosed with Todani type I cysts. None of the patients had dilatation of the common bile duct prior to surgery. There were 6 (22.2%) patients with anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction. However, amylase levels did not significantly differ between patients with and without this anomaly (P = 0.251). According to bile amylase levels, pancreatobiliary reflux was present in 21 (77.8%) patients. The mean amylase level significantly differed in patients with pancreatobiliary reflux (23,462 ± 11,510 IU/L) and those without (235 ± 103 IU/L) (P < 0.001). In patients with pancreatobiliary reflux, only 4 patients had anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction. That is, the majority of patients (17/21, 81%) having pancreatobiliary reflux did not have an anomalous junction of the pancreatic and biliary ducts.Since the only explanation for pancreatobiliary reflux in patients with a normal pancreaticobiliary junction is sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, we proposed that the formation of adult choledochal cyst is mainly due to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PMID:26632721

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE REASONS FOR THE REFUSAL OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH CHOLELITHIASIS: HOW TO HELP THEM IN THEIR DECISION?

    PubMed Central

    PERON, Adilson; SCHLIEMANN, Ana Laura; de ALMEIDA, Fernando Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. Aim To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. Methods To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). Results The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. Conclusion The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals. PMID:25004289

  8. Adding magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine in transversus abdominis plane block for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A single blinded randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Al-Refaey, K; Usama, EM; Al-Hefnawey, E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Use of transversus abdominis plane block (TAP) in the management of postoperative pain after the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been a common anesthetic practice. This study evaluates the effect of adding magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine in TAP block in LC regarding postoperative analgesia and analgesic consumption. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II was divided into three groups: Control group (C group, n = 30), bupivacaine group (B group, n = 30), bupivacaine magnesium group (M group, n = 30). Results: M group showed better analgesic profile in the 1st postoperative day in the form of lower mean visual analog scale score (2.8 ± 0.6 for C group, 2.1 ± 0.5 for B group, 2.2 ± 0.5 for M group, P < 0.001), longer duration of analgesia (7 ± 2.8 h for C group, 16 ± 2.5 h for B group, 19 ± 2.2 h for M group, P < 0.006), lower morphine consumption (2 ± 0.1 mg for C group, 0.9 ± 0.1 mg for B group, 0.5 ± 0.1 mg for M group, P < 0.011). There was a significant lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) (32% for C group, 6% B group, 7% M group, P < 0.004). Conclusion: Adding MgSo4 as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in TAP block; during anesthesia for LC; improved postoperative analgesia in the form of increased duration, decreased analgesic requirements and PONV. PMID:27051371

  9. One-year experience with single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a single center: without the use of inverse triangulation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yun Beom; Lee, Jung Woo; Park, Yo Han; Lim, Man Sup; Cho, Ji Woong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is generally performed with the use of inverse triangulation. In this study, we performed 3-channel or 4-channel SILC without the use of inverse triangulation. We evaluated the adequacy and feasibility of SILC using our surgical method. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our series of 309 SILCs performed between March 2014 and February 2015. Results Among 309 SILCs, male were 148 and female were 161 patients, mean age was 48.7 ± 15.3 years old and mean body mass index was 24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2. Forty patients had previously undergone abdominal surgery including 6 cases of upper abdominal surgery. SILC after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder (GB) drainage was completed in 8.7% of cases. There were 10 cases of emergency SILC. SILC was performed for noncomplicated GB including symptomatic GB stone and polyp in 66.7% of cases, acute cholecystitis in 33.3%. Overall, 96.8% of procedures were successfully completed without additional port. The reason for addition of an extra port or open conversion included technical difficulties due to severe adhesion and bleeding. The mean operating time was 60.7 ± 22.3 minutes. The overall complication rate was 4.8%: 9 patients of wound seroma, 1 case of bile leakage from GB bed, 4 cases of intra-abdominal abscess or fluid collection, and 1 case of incisional hernia were developed. There was no case of common bile duct injury. Conclusion Our surgical method of SILC without the use of inverse triangulation is safe, feasible and effective technique. PMID:26878014

  10. Comparison of Postoperative Events between Spinal Anesthesia and General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Xue; Zhou, Quan; Pan, Dao-Bo; Deng, Hui-Wei; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Guo, Hua-Jing; Huang, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.76; P = 0.006) with heterogeneity accepted (I (2) = 13%; P = 0.33), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-19.71; P = 0.02) without any heterogeneity (I (2) = 0%; P = 0.98). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia. PMID:27525282

  11. A Prospective Blinded Study Evaluating the Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound before Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in the Setting of "Positive" Intraoperative Cholangiogram during Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Anjuli K; Aggarwal, Vipul; Mishra, Girish; Conway, Jason; Evans, John A

    2016-04-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is used to identify common bile duct (CBD) stones. In patients whose IOC is suspicious for stones, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the modality of choice for stone removal. However, IOC has a false positive rate of 30 to 60 per cent, and ERCP adverse events may occur in 11 per cent of patients. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may serve as a noninvasive means of diagnosing suspected CBD stones. This study sought to assess the role of EUS in predicting the likelihood of choledocholithiasis at ERCP in patients found to have a positive IOC. This was a prospective blinded study of EUS before ERCP in patients with a positive IOC. Recruited subjects who underwent cholecystectomy and had an IOC with suspicion for obstruction were referred for ERCP within one month of their procedure. In patients with a positive IOC, EUS had a positive predictive value of 95 per cent in detecting choledocholithiasis. IOC with single or multiple filling defects more often correlated to the presence of CBD stones. At ERCP, choledocholithiasis was present in 65 per cent of patients who had an IOC suspicious for CBD stones. EUS should be used as a noninvasive method to correctly identify retained CBD stones in low-to-moderate risk patients with a positive IOC. PMID:27097628

  12. Comparison of Postoperative Events between Spinal Anesthesia and General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian-Xue; Zhou, Quan; Deng, Hui-Wei; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Guo, Hua-Jing; Huang, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.76; P = 0.006) with heterogeneity accepted (I2 = 13%; P = 0.33), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–19.71; P = 0.02) without any heterogeneity (I2 = 0%; P = 0.98). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia. PMID:27525282

  13. A randomised, single blinded trial, assessing the effect of a two week preoperative very low calorie diet on laparoscopic cholecystectomy in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Burnand, Katherine M.; Lahiri, Rajiv P.; Burr, Nicholas; Jansen van Rensburg, Lize; Lewis, Michael P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be technically challenging in the obese. The primary aim of the trial was to establish whether following a Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD) for two weeks pre-operatively reduces operation time. Secondary outcomes included perceived operative difficulty and length of hospital stay. Methods A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial of consecutive patients with symptomatic gallstones and BMI >30 kg/m2 46 patients were randomized to a VLCD or normal diet for two weeks prior to LC. Food diaries were used to document dietary intake. The primary outcome measure was operation time. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, weight change operative complications, day case rates and perceived difficulty of operation. Results The VLCD was well tolerated and had significantly greater preoperative weight loss (3.48 kg vs. 0.98 kg; p < 0.0001). Median operative time was significantly reduced by 6 min in the VLCD group (25 vs. 31 min; p = 0.0096). There were no differences in post-operative complications, length of stay, or day case rates between the groups. Dissection of Calot's triangle was deemed significantly easier in the VLCD group. Conclusion A two week VLCD prior to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in obese patients is safe, well tolerated and was shown to significantly reduce pre-operative weight and operative time. Trial registration ISRCTN: 61630192. http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN61630192 Trial registration. PMID:27154810

  14. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided abdominal field blocks versus port infiltration in laparoscopic cholecystectomies for post-operative pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ruchi; Joshi, Saurabh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Tiwari, Shashank; Sharma, Nitin; Valecha, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative pain is a major concern for day care surgeries like laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided abdominal field blocks (USAFB) with port site infiltrations for post-operative analgesia in terms of quality of pain relief, opioid consumption and patient satisfaction for day care surgeries Methods: Eighty patients presenting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups either to receive port-site infiltration of local anaesthetic (n = 40, Group A) or USAFB (n = 40, Group B group). Numeric rating scores (NRS) were measured postoperatively to primarily assess the pain severity and opioid requirements. Data were analysed using Chi-Square test/Fisher's exact test for categorical data and Mann–Whitney test/unpaired t-test for quantitative data. Results: The study group (Group B) had significantly reduced NRS and opioid consumption over 24 h. The overall fentanyl consumption in patients receiving port infiltrations was approximately twice (200 ΁ 100 μg) as compared to patients in USAFB group (120 ΁ 74 μg) (P < 0.0001). Maximum fentanyl consumption was 400 μg (Group A) and 262 μg (Group B) over 24 h and the minimum requirement was 50 μg and zero, respectively. Conclusion: Superior post-operative analgesia was observed with USAFB which may help in minimising opioid-related adverse effects and facilitating faster recovery.

  15. Comparison between general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia in attenuation of stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    Das, Writuparna; Bhattacharya, Susmita; Ghosh, Sarmila; Saha, Swarnamukul; Mallik, Suchismita; Pal, Saswati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopy though minimally invasive produces significant hemodynamic surge and neuroendocrine stress response. Though general anesthesia (GA) is the conventional technique, now-a-days, regional anesthesia has been accepted for laparoscopic diagnostic procedures, and its use is also being extended to laparoscopic surgeries. Objective: The aim was to compare the hemodynamic surge and neuroendocrine stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) under GA and spinal anesthesia (SA) in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) PS 1 patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty ASA physical status I patients, aged 18-65 years were randomly allocated into two equal groups of 15 each. Group A received GA with controlled ventilation. Patients were preoxygenated for 5 min with 100/5 oxygen, premedicated with midazolam 0.03 mg/kg intravenous (i.v), fentanyl 2 mcg/kg i.v; induction was done with thiopentone 3-5 mg/kg i.v; intubation was achieved after muscle relaxation with 0.5 mg/kg atracurium besylate i.v. Anesthesia was maintained with 1-2% sevoflurane and N2O:O2 (60:40) and intermittent i.v injection of atracurium besylate. Group B SA with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 25 μg fentanyl along with local anesthetic instillation in the subdiaphragmatic space. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, end tidal carbon-dioxide were recorded. Venous blood was collected for cortisol assay before induction and 30 min after pneumoperitoneum. All data were collected in Microsoft excel sheet and statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). All numerical data were analyzed using Student's t-test and paired t-test. Any value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean arterial pressure and mean HR and postpneumoperitoneum cortisol level were lower in group B than group A though the difference was not statistically significant in hemodynamic parameters but significant in case of cortisol. Conclusion: Spinal

  16. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sen, Oznur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur

    2016-01-01

    Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) is less frequently employed in general anesthesia. With its high and decelerating inspiratory flow, PCV has faster tidal volume delivery and different gas distribution. The same tidal volume setting, delivered by PCV versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), will result in a lower peak airway pressure and reduced risk of barotrauma. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during laparoscopic surgery could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. Forty ASA I-II patients were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 20) or VCV (Group VC, n = 20) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. General anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl was employed to all patients. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Respiratory parameters were recorded before and 30 min after pneumoperitonium. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated 30 min after pneumoperitonium and 60 min after extubation. The P-peak levels observed before (18.9 ± 3.8 versus 15 ± 2.2 cmH2O) and during (23.3 ± 3.8 versus 20.1 ± 2.9 cmH2O) pneumoperitoneum in Group VC were significantly higher. Postoperative partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) values are higher (98 ± 12 versus 86 ± 11 mmHg) in Group PC. Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) values (41.8 ± 5.4 versus 36.7 ± 3.5 mmHg) during pneumoperitonium and post-operative mean cortisol and insulin levels were higher in Group VC. When compared to VCV mode, PCV mode may improve compliance during pneumoperitoneum

  17. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: early or delayed?: Evidence from a systematic review of discordant meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Min; Bian, Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Luo, Yong-Qiang; Tian, Xu

    2016-06-01

    The laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an important approach of treating acute cholecystitis and the timing of performing this given treatment is associated with clinical outcomes. Although several meta-analyses have been done to investigate the optimal timing of implementing this treatment, the conflicting findings from these meta-analyses still confuse decision-making. And thus, we performed this systematic review to assess discordant meta-analyses and generate conclusive findings to facilitate informed decision-making in clinical context eventually. We electronically searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE to include meta-analysis comparing early (within 7 days of the onset of symptoms) with delayed LC (at least 1 week after initial conservative treatment) for acute cholecystitis through August 2015. Two independent investigators completed all tasks including scanning and appraising eligibility, abstracting essential information using prespecified extraction form, assessing methodological quality using Oxford Levels of Evidence and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool, and assessing the reporting quality using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), as well as implementing Jadad algorithm in each step for the whole process. A heterogeneity degree of ≤50% is accepted. Seven eligible meta-analyses were included eventually. Only one was Level I of evidence and remaining studies were Level II of evidence. The AMSTAR scores varied from 8 to 11 with a median of 9. The PRISMA scores varied from 19 to 26. The most heterogeneity level fell into the desired criteria. After implementing Jadad algorithm, 2 meta-analyses with more eligible RCTs were selected based on search strategies and implication of selection. The best available evidence indicated a nonsignificant difference in mortality, bile duct injury, bile leakage, overall complications, and conversion to open surgery, but a significant reduction

  18. Effect of dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and peri-operative inflammation in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    LI, YUHONG; HE, RUI; CHEN, SHUNFU; QU, YULIAN

    2015-01-01

    The use of intravenous dexmedetomidine during surgery has been shown to suppress inflammatory cytokines peri-operatively. It has also been demonstrated that dexmedetomidine may benefit cognitive function in elderly patients following surgery; however, it is not clear whether dexmedetomidine reduces postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) via the suppression of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on early POCD and inflammatory cytokines in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The study comprised 120 elderly patients undergoing selective LC, who were randomly allocated to receive either dexmedetomidine intravenously (DEX group, n=60) or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n=60). Cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores 1 day prior to surgery, 6 h following surgery and postoperatively on days 1 and 2. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also measured at these time-points. On the basis of whether the patients had POCD on the first day after surgery, patients were divided into a POCD group and a non-POCD group. Blood cytokine levels were compared between the patients with and without POCD. A total of 100 patients completed both pre- and postoperative MMSE tests. At 1 day following surgery, POCD occurred in 10/50 (20%) patients in the DEX group and in 21/50 (42%) patients in the control group (P=0.017). At 6 h following surgery, IL-1β, IL-6 and CRP levels showed significant increases (P<0.01) compared with the baseline levels in the two groups. Furthermore, in the control group, CRP levels showed a significant increase on day 1 (P<0.001) and day 2 (P=0.017) postoperatively. In the DEX group compared with the control group, IL-1β, IL-6 and CRP levels were markedly decreased at 6 h and 1 day after surgery (P<0.01). Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and CRP were significantly higher in patients who

  19. Intractable intraoperative bleeding requiring platelet transfusion during emergent cholecystectomy in a patient with dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation (with video)

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takahisa; Noda, Tomohiro; Tada, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Akira

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 76-year-old man, receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticlopidine for the past 6 years after implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent, developed a severe hypochondriac pain. After diagnosing severe acute cholecystitis by an enhanced CT, emergent laparotomy under continuation of DAPT was attempted. During the operation, intractable bleeding from the adhesiolysed liver surface was encountered, which required platelet transfusion. Subtotal cholecystectomy with abdominal drainage was performed, and the patient recovered without any postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic complications. Like the present case, the final decision should be made to perform platelet transfusion when life-threatening DAPT-induced intraoperative bleeding occurs during an emergent surgery, despite the elevated risk of stent thrombosis. PMID:23536626

  20. Effects of low dose dexmedetomidine infusion on haemodynamic stress response, sedation and post-operative analgesia requirement in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Gourishankar Reddy; Upadhyay, Mahendra R; Swadia, VN

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Dexmedetomidine is a α2 agonist with sedative, sympatholytic and analgesic properties and hence, it can be a very useful adjuvant in anaesthesia as stress response buster, sedative and analgesic. We aimed primarily to evaluate the effects of low dose dexmedetomidine infusion on haemodynamic response to critical incidences such as laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation, creation of pneumoperitoneum and extubation in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The secondary aims were to observe the effects on extubation time, sedation levels, post-operative analgesia requirements and occurrence of adverse effects. Methods: Sixty patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologists(ASA) physical grades I and II undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into three groups of 20 patients each. Group NS patients received normal saline, Group Dex 0.2 and Group Dex 0.4 patients received dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.2 mcg/kg/h and 0.4 mcg/kg/h respectively, starting 15 min before induction and continued till end of surgery. Parameters noted were pulse rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, post-operative sedation and analgesia requirements. SPSS 15.0 version software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA test for continuous variables, post-hoc test for intergroup comparison, and Chi-square test for discrete values were applied. Results: In Group NS significant haemodynamic stress response was seen following laryngoscopy, tracheal intubation, creation of pneumoperitoneum and extubation. In dexmedetomidine groups, the haemodynamic response was significantly attenuated. The results, however, were statistically better in Dex 0.4 group compared with Dex 0.2 group. Post-operative 24 hour analgesic requirements were much less in dexmedetomidine groups. No significant side effects were noted. Conclusion: Low dose dexmedetomidine infusion in the dose of 0.4 mcg/kg/h effectively attenuates haemodynamic stress response during

  1. Laparoscopic repair of Morgagni hernia and cholecystectomy in a 40-year-old male with Down's sindrome. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, P; Mazza, L; Maglione, V; Fronda, G R

    2007-06-01

    Morgagni-Larrey hernia (MH) is an unusual diaphragmatic hernia of the retrosternal region. Few cases of MH, treated laparoscopically, associated with Down's syndrome (DS) have been reported in literature. On October 2004, a DS 40-year-old male was admitted to our Department with mild abdominal pain and nausea. Hematochemical tests were within the normal range. Ultrasonography showed biliary sludge and multiple gallstones. Chest X-ray revealed a right-sided paracardiac mass that appeared as MH after a thoraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT). Four trocars were placed as a routinary cholecystectomy. Abdominal exploration confirmed the presence of a voluminous hernia through a wide diaphragmatic defect (12 cm) on the left side of the falciform ligament, containing the last 20 cm ileal loops and right colon with the third lateral of transverse. After retrograde cholecystectomy and reduction of the herniated ileo-colonic tract from multiple adherences, the defect was repaired with an interrupted 2/0 silk suture and then a running 2/0 polypropylene suture. Postoperative course was complicated by pulmonary edema but subsequently the patient was discharged without further complications and has no recurrence after 2 years. In conclusion, surgery is necessary for symptomatic MH and to prevent possible severe complications. We preferred laparoscopy for the reduced morbidity compared to laparotomy, even if in our case the postoperative course was not uneventful. There are still few comparative data about the modality of closure of the defect between primary repair with nonabsorbable suture material, in case of small defects, or continuous monofilament suture or prosthesis in case of large defects. PMID:17519846

  2. Comparison of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with bupivacaine and ropivacaine as adjuncts for postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shradha; Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Prasad, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a popular technique for post-operative analgesia in abdominal surgeries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of bupivacaine versus ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia using ultrasound-guided TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods: Sixty adults undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to receive ultrasound-guided TAP block at the end of the surgical procedure with either 0.25% bupivacaine (Group I, n = 30) or 0.375% ropivacaine (Group II, n = 30). All patients were assessed for post-operative pain and rescue analgesic consumption at 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h time points. Means for normally distributed data were compared using Student's t-test, and proportions were compared using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test whichever was applicable. Results: Patients receiving ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine (Group II) had significantly lower pain scores when compared to patients who received the block with bupivacaine (Group I) at 10 min, 30 min and 1 h. However, both the drugs were equivalent for post-operative analgesia and 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement (median [interquartile range]) (75.00 [75.00–75.00] in Group I vs. 75.00 [75.00–93.75] in Group II, P = 0.366). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine provides effective analgesia in the immediate post-operative period up to 1 h as compared to bupivacaine. However, both the drugs are similar in terms of 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement. PMID:27141110

  3. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  4. Evaluation of postoperative pain scores following ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block versus local infiltration following day surgery laparoscopic cholecystectomy-retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Vasanth Rao; Howell, Stuart; Kadam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postoperative pain for day surgery laparoscopic cholecystectomy has traditionally been managed with the surgeon infiltrating the wound with local anesthetic (LA). However, transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has recently been used, although its superiority over LA remains uncertain. The primary aim was to compare LA and TAP block pain scores and analgesia used. The secondary aim was to assess satisfaction score and cost. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was commenced after ethics committee approval and ANZ clinical trial registry (ACTRN: 12612000737831). The data were collected from the theatre database and medical records of patients presenting for day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The sample included patients who received either bilateral port site LA infiltration with 20 ml of 0.25% Bupivacaine or bilateral TAP block with 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine and fentanyl postoperative pain protocol. The patients with incomplete medical records were excluded as were those admitted to an inpatient ward. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained from the hospital record along with pain score and postsurgery analgesia use. Postoperative pain satisfaction scores were collected by telephonic interview 30-180 days postsurgery. Results: Of 51 patients analyzed, 19 were in TAP group 29 in LA group. There were no significant differences between the LA and TAP groups with respect to postoperative pain scores (P = 0.31) or patient satisfaction scores (1 and 2+) (P = 0.36). However, fentanyl consumption in the recovery room was significantly lower in TAP group (P = 0.0079.). The consumables cost were >3 times higher in the TAP when compared to LA group. Conclusion: The performance of the TAP block with respect to pain management was comparable to LA. However, LA remains more cost effective. PMID:27006547

  5. Metabolic Effects of Cholecystectomy: Gallbladder Ablation Increases Basal Metabolic Rate through G-Protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Víctor; Amigo, Ludwig; Zanlungo, Silvana; Galgani, José; Robledo, Fermín; Arrese, Marco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Bile acids (BAs) regulate energy expenditure by activating G-protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1/TGR5 by cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Cholecystectomy (XGB) increases BAs recirculation rates resulting in increased tissue exposure to BAs during the light phase of the diurnal cycle in mice. We aimed to determine: 1) the effects of XGB on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 2) the roles of TGR5 on XGB-dependent changes in BMR. Methods BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry in wild type and Tgr5 deficient (Tgr5-/-) male mice. Bile flow and BAs secretion rates were measured by surgical diversion of biliary duct. Biliary BAs and cholesterol were quantified by enzymatic methods. BAs serum concentration and specific composition was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis. Results XGB increased biliary BAs and cholesterol secretion rates, and elevated serum BAs concentration in wild type and Tgr5-/- mice during the light phase of the diurnal cycle. BMR was ~25% higher in cholecystectomized wild type mice (p <0.02), whereas no changes were detected in cholecystectomized Tgr5-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Conclusion XGB increases BMR by TGR5-dependent mechanisms in mice. PMID:25738495

  6. Benefits of maltodextrin intake 2 hours before cholecystectomy by laparotomy in respiratory function and functional capacity: a prospective randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Fabiana Vieira Breijão; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Diana Borges Dock; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Caporossi, Fernanda Stephan; Caporossi, Cervantes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the change in respiratory function and functional capacity according to the type of preoperative fasting. Methods: Randomized prospective clinical trial, with 92 female patients undergoing cholecystectomy by laparotomy with conventional or 2 hours shortened fasting. The variables measured were the peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume in the first second, forced vital capacity, dominant handgrip strength, and non-dominant handgrip strength. Evaluations were performed 2 hours before induction of anesthesia and 24 hours after the operation. Results: The two groups were similar in preoperative evaluations regarding demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as for all variables. However, postoperatively the group with shortened fasting had higher values than the group with conventional fasting for lung function tests peak expiratory flow (128.7±62.5 versus 115.7±59.9; p=0.040), forced expiratory volume in the first second (1.5±0.6 versus 1.2±0.5; p=0.040), forced vital capacity (2.3±1.1 versus 1.8±0.9; p=0.021), and for muscle function tests dominant handgrip strength (24.9±6.8 versus 18.4±7.7; p=0.001) and non-dominant handgrip strength (22.9±6.3 versus 17.0±7.8; p=0.0002). In the intragroup evaluation, there was a decrease in preoperative compared with postoperative values, except for dominant handgrip strength (25.2±6.7 versus 24.9±6.8; p=0.692), in the shortened fasting group. Conclusion: Abbreviation of preoperative fasting time with ingestion of maltodextrin solution is beneficial to pulmonary function and preserves dominant handgrip strength. PMID:26154547

  7. Effects of dexmedetomidine and clonidine as propofol adjuvants on intra-operative hemodynamics and recovery profiles in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective randomized comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Naz; Tabish, Hussain; Debdas, Saha; Bani, Hembrom P; Rajat, Choudhuri; Anjana Basu, Ghosh Dastidar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor agonists, clonidine and dexmedetomidine, are widely used as adjuvants during anesthesia for analgesic, sedative, sympatholytic, and cardiovascular stabilizing effects. Aims: We compared effects of clonidine and dexmedetomidine (as propofol adjuvants) on intra-operative hemodynamics, recovery time, and postoperative cognitive function impairment. Subjects and Methods: Forty-five American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided into three groups (n = 15). Group C patients received bolus of clonidine 3 μg/kg followed by a continuous infusion; Group D patients received dexemedetomidine 1 μg/kg and a continuous infusion; and Group P patients received a bolus of normal saline followed by an infusion. Intra-operative mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse rate (PR) were measured throughout the surgery. Bispectral index was maintained at 55 ± 5 by titrating propofol infusion rate. The time between the interruption of anesthesia and eye opening (recovery time) was measured. Cognitive function was assessed using short mental status questionnaire at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postoperatively. Results: The sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and extubation on MAP and PR were significantly reduced with the use of clonidine and dexmedetomidine (P < 0.05). The recovery was delayed (P < 0.05) with both the drug combinations and it was more pronounced with dexmedetomidine (P < 0.05). Dexmedetomidine group showed cognitive impairment in a postoperative period lasting up to an hour. Conclusions: When co-administered with propofol, both clonidine, and dexmedetomidine attenuate sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and extubation but cause delay in the recovery from anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine causes impairment of postoperative cognitive functions. PMID:26229757

  8. Stepwise approach to curative surgery using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and portal vein embolization for severe bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Honmyo, Naruhiko; Kuroda, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishiyama, Kohei; Ide, Kentaro; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Masahiro; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been recently adapted to acute cholecystitis. Major bile duct injury during LC, especially Strasberg-Bismuth classification type E, can be a critical problem sometimes requiring hepatectomy. Safety and definitive treatment without further morbidities, such as posthepatectomy liver failure, is required. Here, we report a case of severe bile duct injury treated with a stepwise approach using (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT fusion imaging to accurately estimate liver function.A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with acute cholecystitis underwent LC at another hospital and was transferred to our university hospital for persistent bile leakage on postoperative day 20. She had no jaundice or infection, although an intraperitoneal drainage tube discharged approximately 500 ml of bile per day. Recorded operation procedure showed removal of the gallbladder with a part of the common bile duct due to its misidentification, and each of the hepatic ducts and right hepatic artery was injured. Abdominal enhanced CT revealed obstructive jaundice of the left liver and arterial shunt through the hilar plate to the right liver. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed type E4 or more advanced bile duct injury according to the Bismuth-Strasberg classification. We planned a stepwise approach using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and portal vein embolization (PVE) for secure right hemihepatectomy and biliary-jejunum reconstruction and employed (99m)Tc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging to estimate future remnant liver function. The left liver function rate had changed from 26.2 % on admission to 26.3 % after PTCD and 54.5 % after PVE, while the left liver volume rate was 33.8, 33.3, and 49.6 %, respectively. The increase of liver function was higher than that of volume (28.3 vs. 15.8 %). On postoperative day 63, the curative operation, right

  9. A comparative study of the efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and Dexmedetomidine on peri-operative hemodynamics and post-operative analgesia for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Swaika, Sarbari; Parta, Nilakshi; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Bisui, Bikash; Banarjee, Sumantra Sarathi; Chattarjee, Somjit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unrelieved post-operative pain may result in the physical suffering as well as multiple physiological and the psychological consequences, which may adversely affect the peri-operative outcome and contribute to increase the length of stay in hospital. Objectives: We designed this study to evaluate the effect of IV Paracetamol and Dexmedetomidine as multimodal analgesic technique on post-operative analgesia and to reduce the consumption of the systemic opioid and its adverse effects in cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Eighty consenting, American society of Anesthesiologist-physical status-I (ASA-PS-I), female patients, aged 19-60 year was randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: Group P (n = 40) received IV 1 g Paracetamol infusion over 10 min pre-operatively and 6 hourly thereafter and Group D (n = 40) received IV Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg bolus over 10 min pre-operatively and 0.2-0.4 μg/kg/h thereafter for 24 h. Peri-operative hemodynamic variables, post-operative pain scores, and the need for rescue analgesics were recorded and compared. Results: Profiles of intra-operative hemodynamic changes were similar in both groups in respect to heart rate (HR), diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure except in the systolic blood pressure where Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced it in compare to Paracetamol (P = 0.014). Post-operatively 4th h and 24th h changes in mean HR between two groups was a statistically significant (P < 0.05). Visual analog scale scores were significantly lower in the Group P compared with Group D at 8th, 16th, and 24th h (P < 0.001). Sedation score were statistically higher in the Group D compared with the Group P at post-operative 4th, 8th, 16th, and 24th h (P < 0.006). Conclusion: Adjunctive use of both Paracetamol and Dexmedetomidine infusion reduced opioid use. However, Paracetamol peri-operatively provides adequate analgesia with the less sedation whereas Dexmedetomidine provides

  10. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Methylprednisolone, Etoricoxib and a Combination of the Two Substances to Attenuate Postoperative Pain and PONV in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Amita; Das, Pravin Kumar; Agarwal, Anil; Kumar, Sanjay; Khuba, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an outpatient procedure has accentuated the clinical importance of reducing early postoperative pain, as well as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We therefore planned to evaluate the role of a multimodal approach in attenuating these problems. Methods One hundred and twenty adult patients of ASA physical status I and II and undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients were divided into four groups of 30 each to receive methylprednisolone 125 mg intravenously or etoricoxib 120 mg orally or a combination of methylprednisolone 125 mg intravenously and etoricoxib 120 mg orally or a placebo 1 hr prior to surgery. Patients were observed for postoperative pain, fentanyl consumption, PONV, fatigue and sedation, and respiratory depression. Results were analyzed by the ANOVA, a Chi square test, the Mann Whitney U test and by Fisher's exact test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. Results Postoperative pain and fentanyl consumption were significantly reduced by methylprednisolone, etoricoxib and their combination when compared with placebo (P<0.05). The methylprednisolone + etoricoxib combination caused a significant reduction in postoperative pain and fentanyl consumption as compared to methylprednisolone or etoricoxib alone (P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the methylprednisolone and etoricoxib groups (P>0.05). The methylprednisolone and methylprednisolone + etoricoxib combination significantly reduced the incidence and severity of PONV and fatigue as well as the total number of patients requiring an antiemetic treatment compared to the placebo and etoricoxib (P<0.05). Conclusions A preoperative single-dose administration of a combination of methylprednisolone and etoricoxib reduces postoperative pain along with fentanyl consumption, PONV, antiemetic requirements and

  11. Effects of Ondansetron and Granisetron on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Adult Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bestas, Azize; Önal, Selami Ates; Bayar, Mustafa Kemal; Yildirim, Asli; Aygen, Erhan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common and potentially distressing adverse events (AEs) associated with surgery and anesthesia. In patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) without antiemetic prophylaxis, the incidence of PONV can be as high as 72%. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic antiemetic effects of ondansetron and granisetron in patients undergoing LC when these agents are administered before the end of surgery. Methods: Patients classified by the American Society of Anesthesiologist's physical status as I or II who were scheduled for elective LC were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental 5 mg/kg and fentanyl 2 μg/kg, and was maintained with isoflurane 1% to 3% in 50% oxygen and 50% nitrous oxide and fentanyl as needed. Approximately 20 to 30 minutes before the end of the surgery, the patients randomly received either IV ondansetron 100 μg/kg (group O), IV granisetron 40 μg/kg (group G), or normal saline (group P). Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined preoperatively and 24 hours postoperatively. The patients were observed for 24 hours for PONV and other possible AEs. Postoperative pain intensity was determined using a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Four-point satisfaction scores were determined at 24 hours. Results: Ninety patients (69 women, 21 men) participated in the study. Demographic characteristics and operative data (duration of surgery and anesthesia and amount of intraoperative fentanyl) were similar in the 3 groups. The only AE reported by patients during the 24-hour observation period was nonsevere headache. The number of patients experiencing headache was similar in group P, group O, and group G (10 [33%] patients, 6 [20%], and 10 [33%], respectively). No significant changes were found in presurgical and postsurgical plasma levels of ALT and

  12. Minilaparoscopy-assisted transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Geraldo José DE Souza; Leite, Rodrigo Fabiano Guedes; Abras, Gustavo Munayer; Pires, Livio José Suretti; Castro, Eduardo Godoy

    2016-01-01

    The role of laparoscopy in the modern surgery era is well established. With the prospect of being able to improve the already privileged current situation, new alternatives have been proposed, such as natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES), the method for single transumbilical access (LESS - Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery) and minilaparoscopy (MINI). The technique proposed by the authors uses a laparoscope with an operative channel like the flexible endoscope used in NOTES. All operative times are carried out through the umbilical trocar as in LESS, and assisted by a minilaparoscopy grasper. This new technic combines, and results from, the rationalization of technical particularities and synergy of these three approaches, seeking to join their advantages and minimize their disadvantages. RESUMO O papel da videolaparoscopia na era moderna da cirurgia encontra-se bem estabelecido. Com a perspectiva de ser possível melhorar a já privilegiada situação atual, novas alternativas têm sido propostas, como a cirurgia por orifícios naturais (NOTES), o método por acesso único transumbilical (LESS - Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery) e a minilaparoscopia (MINI). A técnica proposta pelos autores utiliza-se de óptica com canal de trabalho como o endoscópio flexível do NOTES, executa-se todos os tempos operatórios pelo trocarte umbilical, como no LESS, e é assistido por pinça de minilaparoscopia. Esta nova técnica combina e resulta da racionalização de particularidades técnicas e do sinergismo destas três abordagens, buscando agregar suas vantagens e minimizar as suas desvantagens. PMID:27556545

  13. Cholecystectomy: Surgical Removal of the Gallbladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a recovery room where your heart rate, breathing rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and urine output will ... are sleepiness, lowered blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate; skin rash and itching; constipation; nausea; and difficulty ...

  14. Belching After Biliary Pancreatitis and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cerkezovic, Mersiha; Tulumovic, Denijal; Umihanic, Mirnesa Muminovic

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Belching is often reported symptom. It is rarely an isolated disorder and mainly occurs within various gastroduodenal diseases. Aim: The aim is to show the great breadth of clinical symptoms of postcholecystectomy syndrome which should have a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach taking into account all aspects of patient’s life. Case report: We report a case of excessive belching within postcholecystectomy syndrome which disturbs the general psycho-physical condition of the patient, with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and social isolation, which significantly reduces the quality of his life. PMID:27147793

  15. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. PMID:27591472

  16. [Unusual evolution of a complex bile duct injury after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of laparoscopic surgery of cholelithiasis the incidence rate of bile duct injuries has increased significantly in the literature in relation to the operators' learning curve. Unknown injuries can have dramatic, immediate consequences and progress to bile peritonitis. Moreover surgical repair of external biliary fistula at the stage of bile duct dilatation requires biliodigestive anastomosis or liver resections "réglées". PMID:27279975

  17. An analytical review of vasculobiliary injury in laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Steven M; Helton, W Scott

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Biliary injuries are frequently accompanied by vascular injuries, which may worsen the bile duct injury and cause liver ischemia. We performed an analytical review with the aim of defining vasculobiliary injury and setting out the important issues in this area. Methods A literature search of relevant terms was peformed using OvidSP. Bibliographies of papers were also searched to obtain older literature. Results Vasculobiliary injury was defined as: an injury to both a bile duct and a hepatic artery and/or portal vein; the bile duct injury may be caused by operative trauma, be ischaemic in origin or both, and may or may not be accompanied by various degrees of hepatic ischaemia. Right hepatic artery (RHA) vasculobiliary injury (VBI) is the most common variant. Injury to the RHA likely extends the biliary injury to a higher level than the gross observed mechanical injury. VBI results in slow hepatic infarction in about 10% of patients. Repair of the artery is rarely possible and the overall benefit unclear. Injuries involving the portal vein or common or proper hepatic arteries are much less common, but have more serious effects including rapid infarction of the liver. Conclusions Routine arteriography is recommended in patients with a biliary injury if early repair is contemplated. Consideration should be given to delaying repair of a biliary injury in patients with occlusion of the RHA. Patients with injuries to the portal vein or proper or common hepatic should be emergently referred to tertiary care centers. PMID:21159098

  18. Effects of dexmedetomidine on perioperative monitoring parameters and recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Shirishkumar G.; Shinde, Gourish P.; Adivarekar, Swati P.; Gujar, Sandhya H.; Mandhyan, Surita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dexmedetomidine, an α2 agonist, when used as an adjuvant in general anesthesia attenuates stress response to various noxious stimuli, maintains perioperative hemodynamic stability and provides sedation without adversely affecting recovery in postoperative period. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. In Group A, dexmedetomidine was given intravenously as loading dose of 1 μg/kg over 10 min, and normal saline was given in Group B patients. After induction with propofol, in Group A, dexmedetomidine was given as infusion at a dose of 0.2–0.8 μg/kg/h. Sevoflurane was used as inhalation agent in both groups. Perioperative monitoring parameters were recorded. Postoperative sedation and recovery were assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Demographic data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. Changes in the heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic BP were analyzed using unpaired t-test and Mann–Whitney rank sum test was used to calculate “P” value wherever (Shapiro–Wilk)/normality test gave ambiguous results. Results: Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuates stress response at intubation with lesser increase in HR (86.00 ± 5.16 vs. 102.97 ± 7.07/min.), mean BP (95.78 ± 5.35 vs. 110.18 ± 5.35) as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). After pneumoperitoneum, HR was 85.07 ± 6.23 versus 107.10 ± 4.98, mean BP was 98.98 ± 10.16 versus 118.54 ± 6.27 (P < 0.05). Thus maintains intraoperative hemodynamic stability. Postoperatively, the test group showed no statistically significant difference in the extubation time (7.00 ± 0.58 vs. 6.74 ± 0.73) and response to oral commands (8.78 ± 0.72 vs. 8.66 ± 0.73) (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine attenuates various stress responses during surgery and maintains the hemodynamic stability when used as an adjuvant in general anesthesia and dexmedetomidine does not delay recovery. PMID:27212761

  19. [Spontaneous internal bilio-digestive fistula after cholecystectomy. A clinical report].

    PubMed

    Corsale, C; Martini, A; Corsale, I

    1990-09-30

    The paper describes a case of spontaneous biliodigestive fistula in a cholecystectomized patient. Following a review of other published reports, the etiopathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the case are discussed. PMID:2287474

  20. An atypical presentation of intrahepatic perforated cholecystitis: a modern indication to open cholecystectomy. Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrahepatic gallbladder perforation with chronic liver abscess formation was anecdotically reported in the literature. The aim of this work is to report a case of intrahepatic gallbladder perforation and its atypical clinical presentation. Case presentation A 62-year-old male patient came to our observation; his medical history showed intermittent fever up to 39-40°C of about 2 weeks and anorexia, with an overall weight loss of about 12 Kg. Physical examination of the abdomen was negative. An ultrasound of the liver and an abdominal CT angiogram detected a disomogeneous hypoechoic-hypodense area in the 5th segment of the liver. Differential diagnosis between hepatic abscess or gallbladder cancer remained open. A surgical exploration was planned. After laparoscopic exploration, a conversion to open procedure with an atypical resection of the 5th hepatic segment was performed. Histologic examination of the specimen showed an intrahepatic chronic perforation of the gallbladder with intrahepatic abscess. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, 18 cases have been reported in the literature as a Niemeier type I perforation. Clinical presentation, even in its extreme rarity, is more often acute. Differential diagnosis between gallbladder cancer versus liver abscess remains controversial. Open approach is mandatory in such cases. PMID:24468118

  1. Management of acute cholecystitis in UK hospitals: time for a change.

    PubMed

    Cameron, I C; Chadwick, C; Phillips, J; Johnson, A G

    2004-05-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis is safe, cost effective, and leads to less time off work compared with delayed surgery. This study was designed to assess current practice in the management of acute cholecystitis in the UK. A postal questionnaire was sent to 440 consultant general surgeons to ascertain their current management of patients with acute cholecystitis. Replies were received from 308 consultants who were involved in treating patients with acute cholecystitis of whom 18 transferred these patients on to another team for further management the day after admission. Thirty two consultants (11%) routinely treated patients by early cholecystectomy, with limiting factors stated to be the availability of surgical staff, theatre space, and radiological investigations. The remaining consultants (n = 258) routinely manage their patients conservatively with intravenous antibiotics and allow the inflammation to resolve before undertaking cholecystectomy at a later date. Indications for undertaking early cholecystectomy during the first admission by this latter group included the presence of spreading peritonitis due to bile leak, empyema, and unexpected space on theatre list. The commonest method for both elective and early cholecystectomy is laparoscopic, but the percentage of consultants using an open method rises from 8% in the elective situation to 47% for urgent early cholecystectomy. Despite evidence which strongly advocates early cholecystectomy, this practice is routinely carried out by only 11% of consultants in the UK at present. PMID:15138321

  2. Cholelithiasis and the risk of liver cancer: results from cohort studies of 134,546 Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Yu, Chang; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy have been proposed as risk factors for liver cancer, but findings have been inconsistent. We assessed this association using data from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies. Methods History of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy were reported at baseline and follow-up interviews and liver cancer diagnoses were ascertained from the Shanghai Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics Unit. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated after adjustment for potential confounders. Results A history of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy was reported by 9.5% and 3.6% of participants at baseline, respectively. After a total of 859,882 person-years of follow-up for women and 391,093 for men, incident liver cancer was detected in 160 women and 252 men. A positive association was observed between a history of cholelithiasis or cholecystectomy and liver cancer in men (aHR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.07) and women (aHR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.26). Similar results were observed for cholelithiasis only, but cholecystectomy did not reach statistical significance. There was no strong evidence for detection bias of liver cancer due to cholelithiasis or cholecystectomy. Conclusion Our study suggests that cholelithiasis and possibly cholecystectomy may increase the risk of liver cancer. PMID:24574318

  3. Impact of Type of Surgery on Survival Outcome in Patients With Early Gallbladder Cancer in the Era of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jin-Young; Heo, Jin Seok; Han, Youngmin; Chang, Jihoon; Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Lee, Kyoungbun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic surgery has been widely accepted as a feasible and safe treatment modality in many cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. However, most guidelines on gallbladder cancer (GBC) regard laparoscopic surgery as a contraindication, even for early GBC. This study aims to evaluate and compare recent surgical outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery for T1(a,b) GBC and to determine the optimal surgical strategy for T1 GBC. The study enrolled 197 patients with histopathologically proven T1 GBC and no history of other cancers who underwent surgery from 2000 to 2014 at 3 major tertiary referral hospitals with specialized biliary-pancreas pathologists and optimal pathologic handling protocols. Median follow-up was 56 months. The effects of depth of invasion and type of surgery on disease-specific survival and recurrence patterns were investigated. Of the 197 patients, 116 (58.9%) underwent simple cholecystectomy, including 31 (15.7%) who underwent open cholecystectomy and 85 (43.1%) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The remaining 81 (41.1%) patients underwent extended cholecystectomy. Five-year disease-specific survival rates were similar in patients who underwent simple and extended cholecystectomy (96.7% vs 100%, P = 0.483), as well as being similar in patients in the simple cholecystectomy group who underwent open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (100% vs 97.6%, P = 0.543). Type of surgery had no effect on recurrence patterns. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for T1 gallbladder cancer can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open surgery. Considering less blood loss and shorter hospital stay with better cosmetic outcome, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be justified as a standard treatment for T1b as well as T1a gallbladder cancer when done by well-experienced surgeons based on exact pathologic diagnosis. PMID:27258495

  4. Impact of Type of Surgery on Survival Outcome in Patients With Early Gallbladder Cancer in the Era of Minimally Invasive Surgery: Oncologic Safety of Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jin-Young; Heo, Jin Seok; Han, Youngmin; Chang, Jihoon; Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Lee, Kyoungbun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has been widely accepted as a feasible and safe treatment modality in many cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. However, most guidelines on gallbladder cancer (GBC) regard laparoscopic surgery as a contraindication, even for early GBC. This study aims to evaluate and compare recent surgical outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery for T1(a,b) GBC and to determine the optimal surgical strategy for T1 GBC.The study enrolled 197 patients with histopathologically proven T1 GBC and no history of other cancers who underwent surgery from 2000 to 2014 at 3 major tertiary referral hospitals with specialized biliary-pancreas pathologists and optimal pathologic handling protocols. Median follow-up was 56 months. The effects of depth of invasion and type of surgery on disease-specific survival and recurrence patterns were investigated.Of the 197 patients, 116 (58.9%) underwent simple cholecystectomy, including 31 (15.7%) who underwent open cholecystectomy and 85 (43.1%) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The remaining 81 (41.1%) patients underwent extended cholecystectomy. Five-year disease-specific survival rates were similar in patients who underwent simple and extended cholecystectomy (96.7% vs 100%, P = 0.483), as well as being similar in patients in the simple cholecystectomy group who underwent open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (100% vs 97.6%, P = 0.543). Type of surgery had no effect on recurrence patterns.Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for T1 gallbladder cancer can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open surgery. Considering less blood loss and shorter hospital stay with better cosmetic outcome, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be justified as a standard treatment for T1b as well as T1a gallbladder cancer when done by well-experienced surgeons based on exact pathologic diagnosis. PMID:27258495

  5. Right thoracoabdominal stab injury penetrating the liver and gallbladder: case report and lessons in penetrating knife wounds to the chest and abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Ewen A; Mohamed, Ahmed; Ball, Chris S

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a patient who suffered a penetrating knife injury to the right thoracoabdominal region which penetrated through the liver and both sides of the gallbladder. This injury was treated successfully by laparotomy and cholecystectomy. PMID:22778183

  6. Definitions of Digestive Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the excitability of neurons and resulting in heightened perception of signals from the gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystectomy Surgical ... has on quality of life, including the individual's perception of his or her illness. Health-related quality ...

  7. Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... done instead). Gallbladder cancers are sometimes found by accident after a person has a cholecystectomy for another ... Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gallbladder Cancer Talking With ...

  8. Spilled Gallstone: Late Presentation.

    PubMed

    Ibrarullah, Mohammad; Modi, M S

    2015-12-01

    Spilled gallstone, in a female patient, presented with an abscess 2 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Computerized tomography scan of the abscess cavity containing the spilled stone that clinched the diagnosis has been presented. PMID:26730104

  9. Utilisation of Clinical Networks to Facilitate Elective Surgical Workload; A Preliminary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burke, T; Waters, P; Waldron, R M; Joyce, K; Khan, I; Khan, W; Kerin, M; Barry, K

    2015-01-01

    Clinical networks have potential to increase elective surgical workload for benign conditions in non-cancer centres. The aims of this study were to determine outcomes for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our unit and to evaluate early experience in managing benign surgical workload referred from the tertiary centre within our clinical network. An analysis of cholecystectomies performed at Mayo General Hospital was conducted (2003-2013). A review of elective procedures more recently referred from Galway University Hospital (GUH) waiting lists was also conducted. 1937 consecutive cholecystectomies were performed with an overall laparoscopic conversion rate of 1.7% (33/1875). The total major complication rate was 0.93% (18/1937). 151 selected procedures originating from GUH have been performed since December 2013 without adverse events. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed in significant volume in the general hospital environment. This and other appropriate benign surgical procedures may be performed outside of tertiary units according to network agreements. PMID:26817285

  10. Gallbladder removal - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical techniques, in which narrow instruments, including a camera, are introduced into the abdomen through small puncture ... straightforward, laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be used. A laparoscopic camera is inserted into the abdomen near the umbilicus ( ...

  11. A Case of Amyloidosis Presenting as Chronic Cholecystitis, Misdiagnosed as Polymyalgia Rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Um, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyoun Ah; Jung, Jin Hee; Cho, Hundo; Kang, Joon Koo

    2016-07-25

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease defined by extracellular deposits of amorphous fibrillar proteins, derived from aggregations of misfolded proteins. Localization of amyloidosis in the gallbladder is uncommon; only eight cases have been reported. We describe a case of amyloidosis diagnosed by cholecystectomy, which possibly also affected the liver and kidney. The patient was misdiagnosed with polymyalgia rheumatica, but after a cholecystectomy to treat chronic cholecystitis, we ultimately diagnosed him with amyloidosis. We review amyloidosis with gallbladder involvement in the literature. PMID:27443625

  12. Towards scar-free surgery: An analysis of the increasing complexity from laparoscopic surgery to NOTES

    PubMed Central

    Chellali, Amine; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.; Jones, Daniel B.; Romanelli, John; Miller, Amie; Rattner, David; Roberts, Kurt E.; Cao, Caroline G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background NOTES is an emerging technique for performing surgical procedures, such as cholecystectomy. Debate about its real benefit over the traditional laparoscopic technique is on-going. There have been several clinical studies comparing NOTES to conventional laparoscopic surgery. However, no work has been done to compare these techniques from a Human Factors perspective. This study presents a systematic analysis describing and comparing different existing NOTES methods to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Videos of endoscopic/laparoscopic views from fifteen live cholecystectomies were analyzed to conduct a detailed task analysis of the NOTES technique. A hierarchical task analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and several hybrid transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomies was performed and validated by expert surgeons. To identify similarities and differences between these techniques, their hierarchical decomposition trees were compared. Finally, a timeline analysis was conducted to compare the steps and substeps. Results At least three variations of the NOTES technique were used for cholecystectomy. Differences between the observed techniques at the substep level of hierarchy and on the instruments being used were found. The timeline analysis showed an increase in time to perform some surgical steps and substeps in NOTES compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Conclusion As pure NOTES is extremely difficult given the current state of development in instrumentation design, most surgeons utilize different hybrid methods – combination of endoscopic and laparoscopic instruments/optics. Results of our hierarchical task analysis yielded an identification of three different hybrid methods to perform cholecystectomy with significant variability amongst them. The varying degrees to which laparoscopic instruments are utilized to assist in NOTES methods appear to introduce different technical issues and additional tasks leading to an increase in the surgical time. The

  13. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Spilled Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Narendra; Kumar, Hemanth; Verma, GR

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old woman who presented with a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the right anterior abdominal wall, 1 year after open cholecystectomy for gallbladder perforation. Surgical exploration revealed pigmented gallstones along with pus in the abdominal wall and gallbladder fossa. Intraoperative spillage of gallstones is common during both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but, in rare cases, can lead to serious complications including necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall. PMID:27144208

  14. Defining a Therapeutic Program for Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Patients with Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Vincenzo; Lapolla, Francesco; Di Lascia, Alessandra; Giambavicchio, Libero Luca

    2014-01-01

    AIM To define a therapeutic program for mild-moderate acute pancreatitis (AP), often recurrent, which at the end of the diagnostic process remains of undefined etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period 2011–2012, we observed 64 cases of AP: 52 mild-moderate, 12 severe; biliary 39, biliary in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis 5, unexplained recurrent 20. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the 20 cases of unexplained AP showed 6 patients with biliary sludge, 4 microlithiasis, 4 sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and 6 cases that remained undefined. RESULTS Among 20 patients with recurrent, unexplained AP at initial etiological assessment, we performed 10 video laparo cholecystectomies (VLCs), 2 open cholecystectomies and 4 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/endoscopic sphincterotomies (ERCP/ES) in patients who had undergone previous cholecystectomy; 4 patients refused surgery. Among these 20 patients, 6 had AP that remained unexplained after second-level imaging investigations. For these patients, 4 VLCs and 2 ERCP/ES were performed. Follow-up after six months was negative for further recurrence. CONCLUSION The recurrence of unexplained acute pancreatitis could be treated with empirical cholecystectomy and/or ERCP/ES in cases of previous cholecystectomy. PMID:24833943

  15. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder in childhood: A systematic review of the literature and an additional case report

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Filippo; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Magne, Miguel Garcia; Salemme, Marianna; Cheli, Maurizio; Boroni, Giovanni; Alberti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment in children with adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder (AMG). METHODS: AMG is a degenerative disease characterized by a proliferation of the mucosal epithelium which deeply invaginates and extends into the thickened muscular layer of the gallbladder, causing intramural diverticula. Although AMG is found in up to 5% of cholecystectomy specimens in adult populations, this condition in childhood is extremely uncommon. Authors provide a detailed systematic review of the pediatric literature according to PRISMA guidelines, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic assessment. An additional case of AMG is also presented. RESULTS: Five studies were finally enclosed, encompassing 5 children with AMG. Analysis was extended to our additional 11-year-old patient, who presented diffuse AMG and pancreatic acinar metaplasia of the gallbladder mucosa and was successfully managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean age at presentation was 7.2 years. Unspecific abdominal pain was the commonest symptom. Abdominal ultrasound was performed on all patients, with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%. Five patients underwent cholecystectomy, and at follow-up were asymptomatic. In the remaining patient, completely asymptomatic at diagnosis, a conservative approach with monthly monitoring via ultrasonography was undertaken. CONCLUSION: Considering the remote but possible degeneration leading to cancer and the feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy even in small children, evidence suggests that elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy represent the treatment of choice. Pre-operative evaluation of the extrahepatic biliary tree anatomy with cholangio-MRI is strongly recommended. PMID:27170933

  16. Complicated Gallstones after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sioka, Eleni; Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Zachari, Eleni; Katsogridaki, Georgia; Tzovaras, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. The natural history of gallstone formation after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), the incidence of symptomatic gallstones, and timing of cholecystectomy are not well established. Methods. A retrospective review of prospectively collected database of 150 patients that underwent LSG was reviewed. Results. Preoperatively, gallbladder disease was identified in 32 of the patients (23.2%). Postoperatively, eight of 138 patients (5.8%) became symptomatic. Namely, three of 23 patients (13%) who had evident cholelithiasis preoperatively developed complicated cholelithiasis. From the cohort of patients without preoperative cholelithiasis, five of 106 patients (4.7%) experienced complicated gallstones after LSG. Total cumulative incidence of complicated gallstones was 4.7% (95% CI: 1.3–8.1%). The gallbladder disease-free survival rate was 92.2% at 2 years. No patient underwent cholecystectomy earlier than 9 months or later than 23 months indicating the post-LSG effect. Conclusion. A significant proportion of bariatric patients compared to the general population became symptomatic and soon developed complications after LSG, thus early cholecystectomy is warranted. Routine concomitant cholecystectomy could be considered because the proportion of patients who developed complications especially those with potentially significant morbidities is high and the time to develop complications is short and because of the real technical difficulties during subsequent cholecystectomy. PMID:25105023

  17. Epidemiology, management, and economic evaluation of screening of gallstone disease among type 2 diabetics: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lujie; Peng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Fu-Li; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of gallstone disease (GSD) is crucial to manage this condition when organizing screening and preventive strategies and identifying the appropriated clinical therapies. Although cholecystectomy still be the gold standard treatment for patients with symptomatic GSD, expectant management could be viewed as a valid therapeutic method for this disorder. If early treatment of GSD decreases the morbidity or avoids further cholecystectomy, it may save clinical care costs in later disease periods sufficiently to offset the screening and early treatment costs. In addition, whether routine screening for GSD is worthwhile depends on whether patients are willing to pay the ultrasonography screening cost that would reduce the risk of cholecystectomy. In this review we discuss the epidemiology, management, and economic evaluation of screening of GSD among type 2 diabetics. PMID:26244151

  18. [Treatment of acute cholecystitis in a third-trimester pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Eller, Asger; Shim, Susy; Sigvardt, Louise; Rask, Peter; Nielsen, Michael Festersen

    2016-04-18

    This case report describes a 35-year-old female with acute cholecystitis 36 weeks into her pregnancy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was assessed not to be possible. An ultrasonic guided percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage was performed resulting in immediate pain relief. The patient was discharged two days later, and the drain sat in place until a caesarian section was per--formed. A post-surgery cholangiography demonstrated stones in the gall bladder but no stones in the common bile duct. An uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy was carried out three months after surgery. The case report demonstrates that percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage is a safe procedure to be considered in women with cholecystitis in which cholecystectomy is not possible or assumed to be associated with an unacceptable high risk. PMID:27094635

  19. Mirizzi's syndrome – results from a large western experience

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, D.; Rahman, S. H.; Toogood, G. J.; Prasad, K. R.; Lodge, J. P. A.; Guillou, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. This paper reports a series of patients with Mirizzi's syndrome (MS) who were managed at our institution over an 11-year (1994–2005) period. Methods. Retrospective case note study of patients with a definitive or possible diagnosis of MS stated in radiology reports were identified using the hospital's radiology computer coding system. Results. 33 patients were identified with a median age of diagnosis of 70 (35–90) years and male to female ratio of 15:18. Liver function tests were deranged in all patients. Pre-operative radiological diagnosis was achieved in 28 patients: ultrasound scan (n = 4), computer tomography (n = 3), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (n = 10) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (n = 11). Five patients were diagnosed intra-operatively. Type I MS was reported in 27 patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was attempted in 18 patients with 6 being converted to open cholecystectomy. Six patients had biliary stent insertion only and 3 were conservatively managed. Six patients had type II MS, 4 were treated with open cholecystectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, 1 underwent an open subtotal cholecystectomy with fistula closure and 1 had percutaneous biliary stent insertion only. The median follow-up period was 2 (1–7) months (n = 18). 10 patients are currently under follow-up. Overall morbidity was 27% (n = 8) and mortality was 7% (n = 2). Conclusion. Pre-operative diagnosis of MS can be achieved using MRCP. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for type I MS is a safe option and type II MS can be treated with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy or subtotal cholecystectomy with fistula closure. PMID:18333104

  20. Comparison of treatment costs of laparoscopic and open surgery

    PubMed Central

    Piskorz, Łukasz; Koptas, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopy has been a standard procedure in most medical centres providing surgical services for many years. Both the range and number of laparoscopic procedures performed are constantly increasing. Over the last decade, laparoscopic procedures have been successfully applied both in emergency and oncological surgery. However, treatment costs have become a more important factor in choosing between open or laparoscopic procedures. Aim To present the total real costs of open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, appendectomy and sigmoidectomy. Material and methods Between 1 May 2010 and 30 March 2015 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, and in the Department of General Surgery of the Saint John of God Hospital, Lodz, doctors performed 1404 cholecystectomies, 392 appendectomies and 88 sigmoidectomies. A total of 97% of the cholecystectomy procedures were laparoscopic and 3% were open. Similarly, 22% of total appendectomies were laparoscopic and 78% were open, while 9% of sigmoidectomies were laparoscopic and 91% open. Results The requirement for single-use equipment in laparoscopic procedures increases the expense. However, after adding up all other costs, surprisingly, differences between the costs of laparoscopic and open procedures ranged from 451 PLN/€ 114 for laparoscopic operations to 611 PLN/€ 153 for open operations. Conclusions Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, considered the standard surgery for treating gallbladder diseases, is cheaper than open cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic appendectomy and sigmoidectomy are safe methods of minimally invasive surgery, slightly more expensive than open operations. Of all the analyzed procedures, one-day laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most profitable. The costs of both laparoscopic and open sigmoidectomy are greatly underestimated in Poland. PMID:26649092

  1. Septate gallbladder in the laparoscopic era

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nitin R; Joshipura, Vismit P; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P; Soni, Harshad N

    2008-01-01

    The anatomy facing a surgeon during cholecystectomy is challenging as it involves complex relationship between the gallbladder, hepatic artery and extra-hepatic billiary tree. We report a case of septate gall bladder which was successfully treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this paper, we also discuss the embryology and characteristics of this rare anomaly. Lack of awareness, non-specific symptoms, signs and inadequacy of imaging methods are possible reasons for the reported problem of overlooking of this entity. Complete identification and removal of gallbladder is mandatory, as a remnant may result in recurrence of symptoms or stones. PMID:19547674

  2. Spilled Gallstones Mimicking Peritoneal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Loan, William; Carey, Declan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Spillage of bile and gallstones due to accidental perforation of the gallbladder wall is often encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although spilled stones were once considered harmless, there is increasing evidence that they can result in septic or other potential complications. Case Report: We report a case of spilled gallstones mimicking peritoneal metastases on radiological investigations; diagnosis was confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy. Conclusion: Every effort should be made to retrieve spilled gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. When all the stones cannot be retrieved, it should be documented in the patient's medical records to avoid delay in the diagnosis of late complications. Diagnostic laparoscopy is useful when the radiological investigations are inconclusive. PMID:19366546

  3. Surgical management of acute pancreatitis in Italy: lessons from a prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    De Rai, Paolo; Zerbi, Alessandro; Castoldi, Laura; Bassi, Claudio; Frulloni, Luca; Uomo, Generoso; Gabbrielli, Armando; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Cavallini, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis in Italy and to assess compliance with international guidelines. Methods A series of 1173 patients in 56 hospitals were prospectively enrolled and their data analysed. Results Twenty-nine patients with severe pancreatitis underwent surgical intervention. Necrosectomy was performed in 26 patients, associated with postoperative lavage in 70% of cases. A feeding jejunostomy was added in 37% of cases. Mortality was 21%. Of the patients with mild pancreatitis, 714 patients with a biliary aetiology were evaluated. Prophylactic treatment of relapses was carried out in 212 patients (36%) by cholecystectomy and in 161 using a laparoscopic approach. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was associated with cholecystectomy in 83 patients (39%). Forty-seven patients (22%) were treated at a second admission, with a median delay of 31 days from the onset of pancreatitis. Eighteen patients with severe pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy 37.9 days after the first admission. There were no deaths. Discussion The results indicate poor compliance with published guidelines. In severe pancreatitis, early surgical intervention is frequently performed and enteral feeding is seldom used. Only a small number of patients with mild biliary pancreatitis undergo definitive treatment (i.e. cholecystectomy) within 4 weeks of the onset of pancreatitis. PMID:20961367

  4. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by tropical eosinophilic lung disease: a case in Gabon].

    PubMed

    Chani, M; Iken, M; Eljahiri, Y; Nzenze, J R; Mion, G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 28-year-old woman in whom acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following cholecystectomy led to the discovery of eosinophilic lung disease. Outcome was favorable after oxygenotherapy and medical treatment using ivermectin and corticosteroids. The case shows that hypereosinophilic syndrome can be the underlying cause of ARDS. PMID:21695880

  5. The Cystic Vein: The Significance of a Forgotten Anatomic Landmark

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    The cystic vein, a portion of biliary anatomy whose insignificance in open gallbladder surgery led to its being relegated to mythology, has been rediscovered by the magnified view of laparoscopic surgery. Its presence is an important anatomic feature that helps distinguish between cystic duct and common hepatic duct, thus diminishing the risk of inadvertent bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9876684

  6. The cystic vein: the significance of a forgotten anatomic landmark.

    PubMed

    Fine, A

    1997-01-01

    The cystic vein, a portion of biliary anatomy whose insignificance in open gallbladder surgery led to its being relegated to mythology, has been rediscovered by the magnified view of laparoscopic surgery. Its presence is an important anatomic feature that helps distinguish between cystic duct and common hepatic duct, thus diminishing the risk of inadvertent bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9876684

  7. Evaluation and management of functional biliary pain in patients with an intact gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Dibaise, John K

    2009-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of suspected functional biliary pain in patients with an intact gallbladder remains contentious. Major issues include the lack of a clear definition of what constitutes biliary pain, a poor understanding of its natural history and pathophysiology, and the all too common scenario of the patient who has persistent pain despite surgical removal of the gallbladder. As a consequence, symptoms alone have generally been considered to be unreliable in the diagnosis of gallbladder dysfunction, and this has led to a search for a reliable test to help confirm a clinical suspicion of gallbladder dysfunction prior to the definitive treatment, cholecystectomy. At present, cholecystokinin-cholescintigraphy with a calculation of the gallbladder ejection fraction is the most commonly used test; however, its utility in predicting symptom outcome after cholecystectomy has been questioned. The use of cholecystokinin-cholescintigraphy to determine the appropriateness for cholecystectomy appears to be most useful when performed using a slow infusion of cholecystokinin in a well-selected patient population. However, for reasons explained herein, consideration of cholecystectomy on the basis of high clinical suspicion after adequate follow-up with trials of pharmacological therapies and exclusion of other disease entities, together with counseling the patient on postoperative expectations, may be a reasonable alternative. PMID:19485811

  8. Duplication of the Gallbladder. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Desolneux, G.; Mucci, S.; Lebigot, J.; Arnaud, J. P.; Hamy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gallbladder duplication is a rare anatomic malformation, which can now be detected by preoperative imaging study. We report a case of a symptomatic duplicated gallbladder, successfully treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This anomaly is important to know for surgeons because of associated anatomical variations of main bile duct and hepatic artery and increased risk of common bile duct injury. PMID:19997514

  9. Preoperative diagnosis of double gallbladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Buluş, Hakan; Koyuncu, Ahmet; Coşkun, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system. There are no specific symptoms for diagnosis. We present the case of a double gallbladder, which was diagnosed preoperatively. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed successfully. We discuss that the preoperative diagnosis of this anomaly is especially important to prevent possible surgical complications and repeated laparotomies. PMID:22706748

  10. Extracorporeal abdominal massage may help prevent recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Naohito; Hamaya, Sae; Tatsuta, Miwa; Nakatsu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective, but recurrent bile duct stones are a common late complication. Because there are still no effective therapies for preventing this complication, some patients have experienced bile duct stone recurrence many times. We describe herein a method of abdominal massage to treat patients with prior cholecystectomy who have experienced recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:27540575

  11. Congenital duplex gallbladder and biliary mucocele associated with partial hepatic cholestasis and cholelithiasis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Katharine S.; Brisson, Brigitte A.; Defarges, Alice M.N.; Oblak, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute onset of vomiting. Exploratory laparotomy identified a duplex gallbladder and left cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed biliary mucocele and hepatic cholestasis. While rare, biliary mucoceles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for feline extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. PMID:22942442

  12. The Lateral Position Improved Airway Patency in Anesthetized Patient With Burn-Induced Cervico-Mento-Sternal Scar Contracture

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Young-Chang P.; Kawanishi, Jun; Sakakima, Yoshikazu; Ohmoto, Koichi; Ito, Akihiro; Maruyama, Yuki; Ikemoto, Tatsunori

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman with burn-induced cervico-mento-sternal scar contracture was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During inhalational induction of sevoflurane, her airway patency deteriorated. The right lateral position and assist ventilation using a breathing bag dramatically improved her airway patency. PMID:27252906

  13. Point of Care 3D Ultrasound for Various Applications: A Pilot Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Appendicitis; Evidence of Cholecystectomy; Gallstones; Pregnancy, Ectopic; Aortic Aneurysm; Kidney Stones; Intrauterine Pregnancy; Diverticulitis; Abdominal Injuries; Tumors; Pancreatitis; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intraabdominal Infections; Intestinal Diseases; Pregnancy; Vascular Disease; Uterine Fibroids; Ovarian Cysts; Uterine Abnominalies; Bladder Abnominalies; Testicular Abnominalies; Polyps

  14. The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery and LapVR evaluation metrics may not correlate with operative performance in a novice cohort

    PubMed Central

    Steigerwald, Sarah N.; Park, Jason; Hardy, Krista M.; Gillman, Lawrence; Vergis, Ashley S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable resources have been invested in both low- and high-fidelity simulators in surgical training. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS, low-fidelity box trainer) and LapVR (high-fidelity virtual reality) training systems correlate with operative performance on the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) global rating scale using a porcine cholecystectomy model in a novice surgical group with minimal laparoscopic experience. Methods Fourteen postgraduate year 1 surgical residents with minimal laparoscopic experience performed tasks from the FLS program and the LapVR simulator as well as a live porcine laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Performance was evaluated using standardized FLS metrics, automatic computer evaluations, and a validated global rating scale. Results Overall, FLS score did not show an association with GOALS global rating scale score on the porcine cholecystectomy. None of the five LapVR task scores were significantly associated with GOALS score on the porcine cholecystectomy. Conclusions Neither the low-fidelity box trainer or the high-fidelity virtual simulator demonstrated significant correlation with GOALS operative scores. These findings offer caution against the use of these modalities for brief assessments of novice surgical trainees, especially for predictive or selection purposes. PMID:26641071

  15. Cholecystocutaneous fistula containing multiple gallstones in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Fabbi, Martina; Volta, Antonella; Quintavalla, Fausto; Zubin, Elena; Manfredi, Sabrina; Martini, Filippo M.; Mantovani, Luciana; Tribaudino, Mario; Gnudi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old dog was presented with a history of an open lesion on the right thoracic wall, discharging honey-like fluid and small stones. Ultrasonography and computed tomographic fistulography identified a cholecystocutaneous fistula; cholecystectomy was curative. Veterinarians should consider this disease in patients with long-term discharging lesions on the right thoracic or abdominal wall. PMID:25477544

  16. [Correspondence of intraabdominal pressure programmed by CO2 insufflator to pressure measured in bladder and stomach during laparoscopic operation].

    PubMed

    Mazur, A P; Lisun, Iu B

    2006-09-01

    There are presented the results of intraabdominal pressure measuring in 75 patients, to whom elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Intraabdominal pressure was measured using direct and indirect methods in bladder and stomach. The results of measuring, using direct and indirect methods, are similar. PMID:17269390

  17. Unusual presentation of carcinoid tumor as acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Saxton, C.R.

    1983-07-01

    The patient described had signs, symptoms, and laboratory data consistent with acute cholecystitis. A sonogram also suggested cholecystitis, and the gallbladder was not displayed by nuclear imaging. Cholecystectomy revealed the absence of stones but showed carcinoid tumor metastatic to the gallbladder.

  18. Bile Duct Injury-from Injury to Repair: an Analysis of Management and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Nayeem, Mohammed; Sharma, Barjesh Chander; Patil, Nilesh

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in speciality care, mortality and morbidity remain the most important issues in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries. We analysed the peri-operative management of post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries to assess their outcomes. Of 150 patients with post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries, 13 patients who presented with strictured hepaticojejunostomy were excluded from the analysis. The records of the remaining 137 patients were analysed for type of presentation, management and follow-up. Of 137 injuries, 88 were open and 49 were laparoscopic. Various presentations include acute bile duct injury (n = 5), bile collection (n = 45), external biliary fistula (n = 46) and stricture (n = 41). After initial management, three patients died (sepsis, n = 2; pseudoaneurysmal bleed, n = 1). Of 107 patients who underwent definitive repair, three died (portal hypertension, n = 2; sepsis, n = 1). At median follow-up of 30 months, 100 patients had good outcome (grade A, B), and only 4 had bad outcome (grade C, D) as per McDonald grading. Peritonitis and sepsis in the early phase and portal hypertension and cirrhosis in the late phase are the main causes of mortality in patients sustaining bile duct injury during cholecystectomy. Successful management in a specialist hepatobiliary centre can limit the morbidity in more than 90 % cases. PMID:26730060

  19. High Rates of Recurrent Biliary Tract Obstruction in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Martha O.; Casella, James F.; Strouse, John J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) have an increased risk of cholelithiasis from bilirubin stones. Symptomatic biliary tract disease (BTD) includes acute and chronic cholecystitis, obstruction of the common bile duct (CBD), cholangitis, and gallstone pancreatitis. Cholecystectomy is the main treatment strategy for symptomatic patients; however, the prevalence of recurrent BTD following cholecystectomy has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe the recurrence of BTD after cholecystectomy and characterize risk factors for recurrent disease. PROCEDURE We identified patients <22 years of age who presented to the Johns Hopkins Children Center with symptomatic BTD from July 1993 to June 2008. RESULTS We identified 56 patients with a total of 76 episodes of symptomatic BTD (median age at first event 15.9, range 4.6 to 21.5 years). Eleven of the 56 patients (19.6%) had at least one episode of recurrent symptomatic BTD (median follow-up of 5.3 years). Baseline characteristics were similar between the patients with a single episode of BTD and those with recurrent BTD. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that recurrent BTD is a frequent complication of SCD (20% by age 4 years) and often presents as CBD obstruction by stone, despite cholecystectomy. In our cohort, recurrence was not associated with age at first episode, baseline total bilirubin, gender, or genotype of SCD. PMID:23255346

  20. Oral cholecystography in contemporary gallstone imaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Maglinte, D D; Torres, W E; Laufer, I

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of nonoperative alternatives to elective cholecystectomy in the management of gallstones has resurrected use of oral cholecystography (OCG). This article reviews basic principles involved in the proper performance of OCG and interpretation of the resulting images. The role of OCG in the current management of gallstones is discussed. PMID:1984325

  1. Laparoscopic management of a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with calculus cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Loizides, Sofronis; Ali, Asad; Newton, Richard; Singh, Krishna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery is very rare. In the majority of cases it has been reported as a post-operative complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, however it has also been associated with the presence of acute cholecystitis or pancreatitis. When these pseudoaneurysms rupture they can lead to intraperitoneal bleeding, haemobilia and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Radiological as well as open surgical approaches have been described for control of this rare pathology. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the laparoscopic surgical management of an incidental, unruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient presenting with acute cholecystitis. DISCUSSION Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare entity and as such there is no consensus on the clinical management of this condition. A variety of treatment strategies have been reported in the literature including radiological selective embolisation and coiling, open cholecystectomy with ligation of the aneurysm, or a two-step approach involving radiological management of the pseudoaneurysm followed by an elective cholecystectomy. CONCLUSION In this report we have demonstrated that laparoscopic management of a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible and safe. This avoids multiple invasive procedures and decreases morbidity associated with open surgery. PMID:26291047

  2. Eosinophilic Cystitis with Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001

  3. Single-port laparoscopy: Considerations in children

    PubMed Central

    Ponsky, Todd A; Krpata, David M

    2011-01-01

    As the quest to minimize scars from surgery continues, innovative methods of surgery, including single-port surgery, have come to the forefront. Here, we review considerations for surgery in children with particular attention to appendectomy and cholecystectomy. We discuss the future technologies that will aid in single-port surgery and how they apply to the paediatric population. PMID:21197252

  4. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for clinical management of intra-abdominal diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu; Chiu, Philip W Y; Reddy, Nagewasher; Ho, Khek-Yu; Kitano, Seigo; Seo, Dong Wan; Tajiri, Hisao

    2013-11-01

    Clinical research on natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been increasingly reported over the past 5 years and more than 1200 patients have received various NOTES procedures. The present article reviews the clinical practice of NOTES for the treatment of intra-abdominal diseases, and was carried out through systematic search with specific keywords in major databases for NOTES-related clinical literature. The last date of the search was 15 August, 2012. Transvaginal cholecystectomy is the commonest NOTES procedure reported, and its clinical feasibility and safety was established through prospective case series and randomized trials. There is a regional difference in NOTES development with the majority of NOTES fromCaucasian countries being transvaginal cholecystectomy and most reports from Asian countries being NOTES-related procedures. Safe closure of gastrointestinal access remains challenging, and novel endoscopic instruments are essential to enhance future development of NOTES. PMID:23967798

  5. Percutaneous cystic duct stent placement in the treatment of acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Comin, Jules M; Cade, Richard J; Little, Andrew F

    2010-10-01

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is well established as a temporising treatment option in selected patients presenting with acute cholecystitis. However, some patients who undergo cholecystostomy will have persistent discharge, which precludes catheter removal, or may not be medically suitable for future cholecystectomy. In these circumstances, percutaneous cystic duct stenting isa novel treatment option. It may delay or avoid the need for cholecystectomy, and thereby provide definitive treatment in a subset of patients who have acute cholecystitis and a high anaesthetic risk or limited life expectancy. Current application has been limited largely to patients with pre-existing malignant common bile duct strictures, but there is potential for the application to be broadened to include other subsets of patients. In this paper, we describe the technique used for percutaneous cystic duct stenting in a patient and report on its effectiveness. We also explore the technical considerations and consider the application of the procedure on other groups of patients. PMID:20976992

  6. Vascular variations of liver and gallbladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Soumya Kodimajalu

    2013-01-01

    Vascular variations in and around the porta hepatis are common. A sound knowledge of possible variations at these sites is vital for surgeons during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and surgical resection of the liver lobes. We report the case of several variations of the hepatic and cystic arteries in which, the common hepatic artery trifurcated into the gastroduodenal, right hepatic, and left hepatic arteries. The right gastric artery arose from the left hepatic artery and divided into a left and a right branch. The left branch entered the liver through the porta hepatis, while the right branch passed behind the common hepatic duct into the Calot's triangle, provided 2 branches to the gallbladder, and continued to supply the right hepatic lobe. Ligation of the right branch of the right hepatic artery in Calot's triangle during cholecystectomy could cause avascular necrosis of the liver segments it supplies. PMID:24179698

  7. Gallstone ileus, clinical presentation, diagnostic and treatment approach

    PubMed Central

    Nuño-Guzmán, Carlos M; Marín-Contreras, María Eugenia; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Corona, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a mechanical intestinal obstruction due to gallstone impaction within the gastrointestinal tract. Less than 1% of cases of intestinal obstruction are derived from this etiology. The symptoms and signs of gallstone ileus are mostly nonspecific. This entity has been observed with a higher frequency among the elderly, the majority of which have concomitant medical illness. Cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases should be considered as they may affect the prognosis. Surgical relief of gastrointestinal obstruction remains the mainstay of operative treatment. The current surgical procedures are: (1) simple enterolithotomy; (2) enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula closure (one-stage procedure); and (3) enterolithotomy with cholecystectomy performed later (two-stage procedure). Bowel resection is necessary in certain cases after enterolithotomy is performed. Large prospective laparoscopic and endoscopic trials are expected. PMID:26843914

  8. A single-institution review of the absorbable clips used in laparoscopic colorectal and gallbladder surgery: feasibility, safety, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Feroci, Francesco; Lenzi, Elisa; Kröning, Katrin C; Scatizzi, Marco

    2011-06-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to examine the safety and effectiveness of polymeric absorbable clips in laparoscopic gallbladder and colorectal surgery. The prospectively maintained database review included all patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colorectal resection at the institution between November 2004 and December 2009. In each patient, absorbable clips were used as the only system of vascular and cystic duct ligation. Of the 911 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria, 664 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 247 underwent laparoscopic colonic resection. No intra-operative or post-operative bleeding related to absorbable clip use occurred in either procedure. No bile duct injuries or cystic duct leakages were observed. There were no peri-operative deaths with either procedure. In this experience, absorbable clips demonstrated easy handling and high reliability. They provided safe hemostasis and permitted complete and adequate oncologic resection. PMID:21394536

  9. [Effectiveness of panzytrat--modern physiological enzyme preparation in complex therapy of pancreatic exocrine secretory insufficiency in cholelithiasis].

    PubMed

    Petukhov, V A; Mironov, A V; Semenov, Zh S; Ustinov, F S

    2009-01-01

    In the article the analysis of the survey with 102 patients with gallstone disease involved, 68 of whom underwent cholecystectomy and 34 were treated conservatively, is made. The content of fecal elastase 1 in stool was estimated for diagnostics of exocrine enzyme insufficiency of pancreas by immune-enzyme analysis. It was stated that 90% of patients possess secondary exocrine insufficiency of pancreas in case of gallstone disease. It is the result of complex metabolic liver abnormalities, portal and mesenterial haemodynamics, dysbiosis of large intestine which are the components of a syndrom of maldigestion and appear during gallstone disease progressing long time before hospitalization. Cholecystectomy doesn't eliminate enzyme insufficiency of pancreas. The effectiveness of using new physiological enzymatic drug Panzytrat in a complex therapy of a syndrom of maldigestion in case of gallstone disease is shown. PMID:19551960

  10. Role of sincalide cholescintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with acalculus gallbladder disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pickleman, J.; Peiss, R.L.; Henkin, R.; Salo, B.; Nagel, P.

    1985-06-01

    Thirty-six patients with biliary colic and normal oral cholecystograms, upper gastrointestinal tract roentgenograms, and results of gallbladder ultrasonography underwent sincalide-stimulated biliary excretion scanning. Nineteen of these patients subsequently underwent cholecystectomies. Gallbladder ejection fractions (EFs) ranged from 0% to 88% (mean, 38%) and nine of 19 patients had exact pain reproduction with sincalide. All patients except one (EF, 35%) were cured of their symptoms. However, five patients were also cured who had a normal EF (greater than 50%). Histologically, 11 gallbladders showed chronic cholecystitis and eight were normal. The authors conclude that the sincalide biliary excretion scan is a useful test to study this group of patients. In patients with a decreased EF, cholecystectomy can be recommended with a high probability of symptom relief. In patients with normal EFs, clinical judgment is required, as some of these patients (five of five in this series) may still benefit from operation.

  11. Evaluation of the role of prostaglandins E and F in acalculous gallbladder disease

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Y.G.; Kaminski, D.L.; Thomas, L.

    1986-03-01

    Prostaglandins have been shown to play a role in gallbladder disease. This study was performed to evaluate prostaglandin E and F production by human gallbladder mucosal cells and muscle tissue from patients undergoing cholecystectomy for acalculous gallbladder disease. These results were compared to values produced by gall bladders removed from patients with no known gallbladder disease. Five patient underwent cholecystectomy for acute and five for chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Gallbladder mucosal cells were separated from muscle wall by submucosal injection of EDTA and shaking in tissue culture media. Prostaglandin levels were measured in mucosal cell and muscle tissue homogenate by radioimmunoassay (ng/mg homogenate protein). Homogenate prostaglandin E concentrations were significantly increased in mucosa and muscle tissue in gall bladders from patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Chronic acalculous gallbladder disease was not associated with changes in prostaglandin formation when compared to values produced by gall bladders from asymptomatic patients. Acute acalculous cholecystitis may be a prostaglandin mediated disorder.

  12. PIPIDA scintigraphy for cholecystitis: false positives in alcoholism and total parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, W.P.; Gibbs, P.; Rudd, T.G.; Mack, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    A review of gallbladder scintigraphy in patients with potentially compromised hepatobiliary function revealed two groups in whom cholecystitis might be mistakenly diagnosed. In 200 consecutive hospitalized patients studied with technetium-99m-PIPIDA for acute cholecystitis or cholestasis, there were 41 alcoholics and 17 patients on total parenteral nutrition. In 60% of the alcoholics and 92% of those on parenteral nutrition, absent or delayed visualization of the gallbladder occurred without physical or clinical evidence of cholecystitis. A cholecystagogue, sincalide, did not prevent the false-positive features which presumably are due to altered bile flow kinetics related to alcoholism and parenteral nutrition. Four patients on parenteral nutrition undergoing cholecystectomy for suspected cholecystitis had normal gallbladders filled with jellylike viscous thick bile. A positive (nonvisualized or delayed visualized) gallbladder PIPIDA scintigram in these two populations should not be interpreted as indicating a need for cholecystectomy.

  13. Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Updates from the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Mohammad; Romagnuolo, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) has long been a controversial topic, starting with whether it even exists, as a sphincterotomy-responsive entity to treat, for either: (1) post-cholecystectomy abdominal pain and/or (2) idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis (IRAP). Many of its aspects had required further research to better prove or refute its existence and to provide proper recommendations for physicians to diagnose and treat this condition. Fortunately, there has been major advancement in our knowledge in several areas over the past few years. New studies on challenging the classification, exploring alternative diagnostic methods, and quantifying the role of sphincterotomy in treatment of SOD for post-cholecystectomy pain and for IRAP were recently published, including a randomized trial in each of the two areas. The goal of this paper is to review recent literature on selected important questions and to summarize the results of major trials in this field. PMID:26143628

  14. Calot's triangle.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Sala; Pierre, Sacha; Ellis, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Calot's triangle is an anatomical landmark of special value in cholecystectomy. First described by Jean-François Calot as an "isosceles" triangle in his doctoral thesis in 1891, this anatomical space requires careful dissection before the ligation and division of the cystic artery and cystic duct during cholecystectomy. The modern definition of the boundaries of Calot's triangle varies from Calot's original description, although the exact timing of this change is not entirely clear. The structures within Calot's triangle and their anatomical relationships can present the surgeon with difficulties, particularly when anatomical variations are encountered. Sound knowledge of the normal anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract and vasculature, as well as understanding of congenital variation, is thus essential in the prevention of iatrogenic injury. The authors describe the normal anatomy of Calot's triangle and common anatomical anomalies. The incidence of structural injury is discussed, and new techniques in surgery for enhancing the visualisation of Calot's triangle are reviewed. © . PMID:23519829

  15. Metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder: report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giannini, I; Cutrignelli, D A; Resta, L; Gentile, A; Vincenti, L

    2016-08-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive and highly metastatic cancers. The most common sites of distant metastases are soft tissues, lung, liver, skin and brain, whereas only few patients develop gastrointestinal metastases. Metastatic involvement of the gallbladder is rare and more often part of a widespread disease than a solitary lesion. The "gold-standard" treatment of metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder remains unclear. We report two cases of patients with past history of cutaneous melanoma who developed visceral metastases. The first patient was asymptomatic and had a widespread disease with metastatic involvement of both the spleen and the gallbladder. The second patient had an isolated metastasis of the gallbladder and complained of upper abdominal pain. The chosen treatment was open cholecystectomy (and splenectomy) in the first case and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the second. A review of the literature is provided. PMID:25929736

  16. Implications of decreasing surgical lengths of stay.

    PubMed

    Board, N; Caplan, G

    2000-01-01

    A recent study at the Prince of Wales Hospital (PoW) compared health outcomes and user satisfaction for conventional clinical pathways with a shortened pathway incorporating day of surgery admission (DOSA), early discharge and post acute care domiciliary visits for two high volume, elective surgical procedures (herniorrhaphy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy). This paper quantifies cost differences between the control and intervention groups for nursing salaries and wages, other ward costs, pathology and imaging. The study verified and measured the lower resource use that accompanies a significant reduction in length of stay (LOS). Costs of pre- and post-operative domiciliary visits were calculated and offset against savings generated by the re-engineered clinical pathway. Average costs per separation were at least $239 (herniorrhaphy) and $265 (laparoscopic cholecystectomy) lower for those on the DOSA pathway with domiciliary post acute care. PMID:11010580

  17. Delayed phlegmon with gallstone fragments masquerading as soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Laura F.; Bateni, Cyrus P.; Bishop, John W.; Canter, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Complications from lost gallstones after cholecystectomy are rare but varied from simple perihepatic abscess to empyema and expectoration of gallstones. Gallstone complications have been reported in nearly every organ system, although reports of malignant masquerade of retained gallstones are few. We present the case of an 87-year-old woman with a flank soft tissue tumor 4 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The initial clinical, radiographic and biopsy findings were consistent with soft tissue sarcoma (STS), but careful review of her case in multidisciplinary conference raised the suspicion for retained gallstones rather than STS. The patient was treated with incisional biopsy/drainage of the mass, and gallstones were retrieved. The patient recovered completely without an extensive resectional procedure, emphasizing the importance of multidisciplinary sarcoma care to optimize outcomes for potential sarcoma patients. PMID:27333918

  18. Laparoscopic management of cholecystocolic fistula

    PubMed Central

    CONDE, Lauro Massaud; TAVARES, Pedro Monnerat; QUINTES, Jorge Luiz Delduque; CHERMONT, Ronny Queiroz; PEREZ, Mario Castro Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cholecystocolic fistula is a rare complication of gallbladder disease. Its clinical presentation is variable and nonspecific, and the diagnosis is made, mostly, incidentally during intraoperative maneuver. Cholecystectomy with closure of the fistula is considered the treatment of choice for the condition, with an increasingly reproducible tendency to the use of laparoscopy. Aim To describe the laparoscopic approach for cholecystocolic fistula and ratify its feasibility even with the unavailability of more specific instruments. Technique After dissection of the communication and section of the gallbladder fundus, the fistula is externalized by an appropriate trocar and sutured manually. Colonic segment is reintroduced into the cavity and cholecystectomy is performed avoiding the conversion procedure to open surgery. Conclusion Laparoscopy for resolution of cholecystocolic fistula isn't only feasible, but also offers a shorter stay at hospital and a milder postoperative period when compared to laparotomy. PMID:25626940

  19. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426

  20. Intraoperative cholangiography and bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Costi, R; Roncoroni, L

    2006-01-01

    We are not in agreement with the opinion that the credit for excellent results after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is to be attributed to the routine performing of intraoperative cholangiography. We performed 2538 laparoscopic cholecystectomies without routine intraoperative cholangiography and we obtained very low rate and severity of common bile duct injuries: there was a total of four common bile duct injuries (0.16%), in no case was the injury a major transaction, and injuries were detected intraoperatively and easily repaired with a T-tube. Cholangiography could prevent bile duct transaction, but that it is not necessary for intraoperative cholangiography to be routinely performed for this purpose. It is sufficient for intraoperative cholangiography to be performed whenever the surgeon is in doubt as to the biliary anatomy or common bile duct clearance, and that when dissection of the cholecystic peduncle proves difficult he does not hesitate to convert to open access. PMID:16333543

  1. [Cystohepatic ducts. Surgical problems and review of the literature. About 10 operated cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Boutboul, R; Le Treut, Y P; Pau, C; Rodde, J M; Bricot, R

    1982-05-01

    The authors are reporting 10 cases of operated cystohepatic ducts. In each case there is a unic duct, leading five times in the gallbladder, and once in the cystic duct. In 8 cases this abnormality was shown intraoperatively. In 2 cases the diagnosis was only given during the surgical procedure, when a fistulography was performed. In one case it was necessary to reoperate. In four cases during the cholecystectomy we had to ligate the cystohepatic duct. In order to argue these cases, a literature review was done: 42 cases were found. The ligation of a cystohepatic duct is in most cases without consequences. the different ways of restoration are studied when large ducts are found. The best treatment of such an abnormality seems to be an anterograde cholecystectomy associated to a systematic drainage of the gallbladder region. PMID:7107732

  2. Successful Treatment of Persistent Postcholecystectomy Bile Leak Using Percutaneous Cystic Duct Coiling

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay; Beckley, Akin; Fabre, Anna; Bellows, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed operations worldwide. Cystic duct is the most common site of bile leak after cholecystectomy. The treatment of choice is usually conservative. Using sufficient percutaneous drainage of the biloma cavity and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and/or stenting, the cure rate of bile leaks is greater than 90%. In very rare cases, all of these measures remain unsuccessful. We report a technique for the successful treatment of persistent cystic duct leak. After failed ERCP and stenting, bile leak was treated by coiling the cystic duct through a drain tract. This technique is safe and effective and helps avoid the morbidity of reoperation. PMID:26798539

  3. Chronic cutaneous chest wall fistula and gallstone empyema due to retained gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Gaster, Richard S; Berger, Aaron J; Ahmadi-Kashani, Mastaneh; Shrager, Joseph B; Lee, Gordon K

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with a persistent pleural effusion and painful abscess in the right lower chest wall 6 months following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patient subsequently developed a chronic cutaneous chest wall fistula requiring a large resection and complex closure. The complication was likely secondary to intraoperative spillage of gallstones. While previous reports describe gallstone spillage in the abdominal cavity as benign, this case illustrates that stones left in the abdominal cavity can potentially lead to significant morbidity. Therefore, stones should be diligently removed from the abdominal cavity when spillage occurs. In addition, it is important that operative notes reflect the occurrence of stone spillage so stones may be suspected when a patient presents with an abdominal or thoracic infection following a cholecystectomy. PMID:25123567

  4. Gallbladder disease in children.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, David H; Harmon, Carroll M

    2016-08-01

    Biliary disease in children has changed over the past few decades, with a marked rise in incidence-perhaps most related to the parallel rise in pediatric obesity-as well as a rise in cholecystectomy rates. In addition to stone disease (cholelithiasis), acalculous causes of gallbladder pain such as biliary dyskinesia, also appear to be on the rise and present diagnostic and treatment conundrums to surgeons. PMID:27521713

  5. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): implications for anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently evolved as a novel approach for abdominal surgery with great potential to further improve the advantages of laparoscopy over laparotomy. The first patients undergoing NOTES cholecystectomy or appendectomy reported no or only minimal pain, required no narcotic analgesics, and were discharged early from the hospital and immediately resumed daily activities. If this is confirmed by randomized controlled clinical trials, what are the potential implications for anesthesia? PMID:20948698

  6. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for extraction of a round worm.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, G S; Singh, C Arunkumar; Lokendra, K; Singh, L Deban

    2006-01-01

    A 35 years old lady presented with fever, biliary colic, mild jaundice, indigestion and flatulence. The upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed cholecystitis with sludge and a round worm in the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and exploration of the bile duct for the removal of round worm was performed. The post-operative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged fit on the 4th post-operative day. PMID:17542295

  7. Gallstone spillage caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Chul; Park, Mi-Suk; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    There are occasional incidences of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and there have been frequent reports on such a topic in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports about spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis. Here, we report the radiologic findings of spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis in a 55-year-old man. PMID:17907301

  8. Isolated gallbladder injury in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy. PMID:22690293

  9. Isolated Gallbladder Injury in a Case of Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy. PMID:22690293

  10. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy. PMID:715684

  11. Ondansetron-droperidol combination vs. ondansetron or droperidol monotherapy in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Angelidi, Maria; Pandazi, Aggeliki; Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N.; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I.; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this study we investigated comparatively the efficacy of combination therapy with ondansetron plus droperidol versus monotherapy with each agent alone in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and methods One hundred twenty-seven patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were included in the study, and assigned to one of the following three groups according to the antiemetic drug given intravenously at the end of the surgery: droperidol 1.25 mg in group D, ondansetron 4 mg in group O, and a combination of droperidol and ondansetron at the doses mentioned above in group D + O. Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and doses of given rescue antiemetics were recorded during the first postoperative day. The total drug cost per patient spent for postoperative nausea and vomiting management (including prophylactic antiemetics plus rescue postoperative antiemetics) was calculated. Results Combination therapy significantly reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting at 30 min, 3 h and 6 h after surgery compared with group D (p < 0.01 for all time points) and O (p < 0.01 at 30 min, p < 0.05 at 3 h) and required less rescue antiemetic treatment (p < 0.01). Total antiemetic cost analyses revealed no significant differences among the three groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Pretreatment with ondansetron plus droperidol is more effective than monotherapy in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without increasing the cost comparatively. PMID:25995753

  12. Magnetic resonance cholangiographic evaluation of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct variations

    PubMed Central

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Arora, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Biliary anatomy and its common and uncommon variations are of considerable clinical significance when performing living donor transplantation, radiological interventions in hepatobiliary system, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and liver resection (hepatectomy, segmentectomy). Because of increasing trend found in the number of liver transplant surgeries being performed, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has become the modality of choice for noninvasive evaluation of abnormalities of the biliary tract. The purpose of this study is to describe the anatomic variations of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree. PMID:27081220

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystostomy tube-guided hepatotomy and cholecystolithotomy: alternative strategy for treatment of severe chronic cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Horesh, N; Gutman, M; Rosin, D

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be a challenging procedure in gallbladders with chronic disease. We describe a patient with chronic cholecystitis and difficult visualisation of the gallbladder at surgery who underwent laparoscopic hepatotomy along the drainage tube of the cholecystostomy. In this way, the gallbladder was identified to avoid non-visualisation of ductal anatomy. This exceptional solution should be added to the surgical options if anatomical recognition is difficult and complete removal of the gallbladder is too risky. PMID:26985702

  14. The Progression of Cholelithiasis to Gallstone Ileus: Do Large Gallstones Warrant Surgery?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael H; Mullen, Matthew G; Friel, Charles M

    2016-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, classically occurring in patients with recurrent cholecystitis. The incidence of biliary enteric fistula and gallstone ileus in patients with large, asymptomatic gallstones is not known. We report a case of gallstone ileus, which occurred in the setting of a large, asymptomatic gallstone. This case suggests that large gallstones may warrant cholecystectomy, even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:26857589

  15. [Tuberculosis of the pancreas, an anatomoclinical case].

    PubMed

    Henríquez, M; Trejo, C; Ojeda, M; Benavides, A

    1992-10-01

    A 49 year old "mapuche" male patient was operated on and tuberculosis of the gallbladder was found. Later on, he developed evidence of meningeal and pulmonary involvement and elevated pancreatic enzyme levels. In spite of appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy, the patient died. Autopsy revealed multiorgan involvement with pancreatic tuberculosis and areas of steatonecrosis. Immune deficiency related to the previous cholecystectomy may have facilitated the severe dissemination of the disease observed in this patient. PMID:1341779

  16. T-tube bridging for the management of biliary tree injuries

    PubMed Central

    Olmez, Aydemir; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Itik, Veyis; Kotan, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Injuries of the biliary tree, which mainly occur as a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, are a potentially life threatening cause of high morbidity and mortality. The reported frequency of biliary injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is from 0.5–0.8%. Such injuries may sometimes become too complicated for surgical repair. Presented here is the case of a patient with a major bile duct injury for whom bile duct continuity was achieved using a T-tube. Case Report: A 53-year-old man, who developed bile duct injury following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in another center for cholelithiasis, was referred to our clinic. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed in the early postoperative period. However, ensuing anastomotic leakage prompted undoing of the hepaticojejunostomy followed by placement of a T-tube by which bile duct continuity was achieved. Conclusions: For injuries with tissue loss requiring external drainage, T-tube bridging offers a feasible option in that it provides bile duct continuity with biliary flow into the duodenum, as well as achieving external drainage, thus alleviating the need for further definitive surgery. PMID:23569540

  17. Effects of Low-Flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Pulmonary Functions in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Doger, Cihan; Kahveci, Kadriye; Ornek, Dilsen; But, Abdulkadir; Aksoy, Mustafa; Gokcinar, Derya; Katar, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary functions in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to two study groups: high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group H, n = 30) and low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group L, n = 30). The fresh gas flow rate was of 4 L/min in high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group and 1 L/min in low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 2, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of HR, MABP, SpO2, and ETCO2. Pulmonary function test results were similar in both groups at all measurement times. Conclusions. The effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary functions are comparable to high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27413741

  18. Preoperative carbohydrate nutrition reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to preoperative fasting

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Neslihan; Çekmen, Nedim; Bilgin, Ferruh; Erten, Ela; Özhan, Mehmet Özhan; Coşar, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate drink 400 mL given 2 h before the surgery with preoperative overnight fasting on the gastric pH and residual volume, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and antiemetic consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials And Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Randomized, prospective, controlled study, Gulhane Medical Faculty and Guven Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Pre-operative carbohydrate drink group (group C, n = 20) and preoperative fasting group (group F, n = 20). Group C was given a 400 mL carbohydrate drink 2 h before to the surgery. The patients of group F were fasted 8 h before the surgery. Both groups were operated under general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics. Results: Hemodynamic parameters, demographic data, gastric acidity and residual volumes were similar for both groups. No complications were observed. PONV and antiemetic consumption was lower in group C compared to group F (P = 0.001). Patient's satisfaction was higher in group C (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that pre-operative carbohydrate drink may be used safely and also improves patient's satisfaction and comfort in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24497851

  19. Successful laparoscopic management of duplicate gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al Rawahi, Aziza; Al Azri, Yahya; Al Jabri, Salah; Alfadli, Abdulrazaq; Al Aghbari, Suad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. Recognition of this anomaly and its various types is important since it can complicate a simple hepatobiliary surgical procedure. Presentation of case We report a case of a 42 year old female who presented a 6 year history of intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Her basic blood investigations including liver function tests were normal. Pre-operative imaging revealed a cystic lesion communicating with biliary tree representing duplicated gallbladder. She subsequently underwent successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The operative challenges were more than those anticipated at the usual laparoscopic gallbladder procedures. After six months follow up the patient remained asymptomatic. Discussion Preoperative diagnosis plays a crucial role in planning surgery, and preventing possible biliary injuries or re-operation if accessory gallbladder has been overlooked during initial surgery. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is the imaging modality of choice for suspected duplicate gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for duplicate gallbladder is a challenging operation and should be performed with meticulous dissection of the cysto-hepatic triangle. Conclusion Gallbladder anomalies should be anticipated in the presence of a cystic lesion reported around the gallbladder. The laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains feasible for intervention and should be done by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon. PMID:27002289

  20. Biliary events and an increased risk of new onset irritable bowel syndrome: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Meredythe A; Locke, G Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Schleck, Cathy D; Peterson, Judy; Talley, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective data are lacking to determine if IBS a risk factor for cholecystectomy, or if biliary disease and cholecystectomy predisposes to the development of IBS. Methods Validated symptom surveys sent to cohorts of Olmsted County, MN, (1988–1994) with follow-up in 2003. Medical histories were reviewed to determine any “biliary events” (defined by gallstones or cholecystectomy). Analyses examined: 1) time to a biliary event post initial survey and separately, 2) risk of IBS (Rome II) in those with vs. without a prior biliary event. Results 1908 eligible subjects mailed a follow-up survey. For aim 1) of the 726 without IBS at initial survey, 44 (6.1%) had biliary events during follow up, in contrast to 5 of 93 (5.4%) with IBS at initial survey (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.3-2.1). For aim 2) of the 59 subjects with a biliary event at initial survey, 10 (17%) reported new IBS on the follow-up survey, while in 682 without a biliary event up to 1.5 years prior to the second survey, 58 (8.5%) reported IBS on follow-up (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.6, p=0.03). Conclusion There is an increased risk of new IBS in community subjects who have been diagnosed as having a biliary event. PMID:19086237

  1. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Cozacov, Yaniv; Subhas, Gokulakkrishna; Jacobs, Michael; Parikh, Janak

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using the main gallbladder for liver traction and doing a dome down technique for the accessory gallbladder, we were able to perform the double cholecystectomy with intra-operative cholangiogram laparoscopically. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 27-year-old male for biliary colic. Prior imaging with computer tomography-scan and ultrasound did not show a duplicated gallbladder. Intraoperatively after ligation of cystic artery and duct an additional structure was seen on its medial aspect. Intraoperative cholangiogram confirmed the patency of intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary ducts. Subsequent dissection around this structure revealed a second gallbladder with cystic duct (H-type). Pathological analysis confirmed the presence of two gallbladders with features of chronic cholecystitis. It is important to use cholangiogram to identify structural anomalies and avoid complications. PMID:26730286

  2. The role of 99mtechnetium-labelled hepato imino diacetic acid (HIDA) scan in the management of biliary pain

    PubMed Central

    Riyad, K.; Chalmers, C.R.; Aldouri, A.; Fraser, S.; Menon, K.; Robinson, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To assess the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the basis of an abnormal provocative 99mtechnetium-labelled hepato imino diacetic acid (HIDA) scan for patients with typical biliary pain and normal trans-abdominal ultrasound (TUS) scan. Patients and methods. Prospective data were collected for 1201 consecutive patients with typical biliary symptoms. Patients who were found to have a normal TUS and upper GI endoscopy subsequently underwent cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan). Patients with an abnormal HIDA scan, i.e.<40% ejection fraction with Sincalide® (cholecystokinin octapeptide) – were offered cholecystectomy. Symptoms and histology were reviewed postoperatively. Results. In all, 48/1201 (4%) patients with typical biliary symptoms had a normal ultrasound and endoscopy; 35/48 patients had an abnormal provocative HIDA scan and all underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Histology in all cases revealed chronic cholecystitis and 18 patients had sludge or microlithiasis within the gallbladder. At 6-week follow-up, 31 of the 35 patients were completely asymptomatic or improved. Furthermore, 79% of patients remained symptom-free or improved at a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range 4–70). Conclusions. HIDA scan is a useful clinical tool as an adjunct to the diagnosis and management of patients who present with typical biliary pain and a normal TUS scan. PMID:18333226

  3. Use of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether for the Treatment of Refractory Intrahepatic Biliary Strictures and Bile Casts: A Modern Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gregory; Malayaman, Saninuj N.; Green, Michael Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a prevalent problem in the United States with 14% or more adults affected. Definitive treatment of cholelithiasis is cholecystectomy. When cholecystectomy yields minimal resolution treatment options include expectant management of asymptomatic gallstones or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. We present a case of intrahepatic biliary casts where surgical option was not possible, interventional radiology was unsuccessful, and methyl tert-butyl ether was used to dissolve the biliary obstruction. Dissolution therapy of gallstones was first reported in 1722 when Vollisnieri used turpentine in vitro. While diethyl ether has excellent solubilizing capacity, its low boiling point limited its use surgically as it vaporizes immediately. Diethyl ether can expand 120-fold during warming to body temperature after injection into the biliary system making it impractical for routine use. The use of dissolution is out of favor due to the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Epidemiological studies have shown the general population should have minimal concerns from passive exposure. Dissolution using MTBE remains a viable option if surgical or endoscopic options are not available. However, because of risks involved to both the patient and the staff, careful multidisciplinary team approach must be undertaken to minimize the risks and provide the best possible care to the patient. PMID:26236535

  4. Diagnosis and management of bile stone disease and its complications.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Anneline; Arvanitakis, Marianna

    2016-03-01

    Bile stone disease is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological diseases with a considerable geographical and ethnic variation. Bile stones can be classified according their origin, their localization and their biochemical structure. Development and clinical expression depend on a complex interaction between congenital and acquired risk factors. Indeed, bile stones can be either asymptomatic, or cause biliary colic or complications such as acute cholecystitis, jaundice, cholangitis and acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging techniques and correct identification of symptomatic gallstone patients is essential before cholecystectomy. Transabdominal ultrasonography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gallstones. However, endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intraoperative cholangiography may also play a role in the diagnosis of bile stones. Management includes prevention measures against modifiable risk factors. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis are common indications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stone extraction is the gold standard for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. Timing of ERCP and cholecystectomy are of critical importance in the management. Lithotripsy modalities are generally reserved for patients with technically difficult CBD stone removal. Percutaneous access combined with lithotripsy may be helpful for complicated intrahepatic stones. PMID:26771377

  5. Effects of Low-Flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Pulmonary Functions in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Cihan; Kahveci, Kadriye; Ornek, Dilsen; But, Abdulkadir; Aksoy, Mustafa; Gokcinar, Derya; Katar, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary functions in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to two study groups: high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group H, n = 30) and low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group L, n = 30). The fresh gas flow rate was of 4 L/min in high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group and 1 L/min in low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 2, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of HR, MABP, SpO2, and ETCO2. Pulmonary function test results were similar in both groups at all measurement times. Conclusions. The effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary functions are comparable to high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27413741

  6. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) required cholecystectomy for both acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis suggesting chemical cholecystitis. To evaluate the incidence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients receiving HAIC, the authors performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA or PIPIDA on eight patients receiving HAIC through an indwelling hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid (trademark) pump. In 7 of 8 patients, there was non-visualization of the gall bladder throughout the hepatobiliary study. In the eighth patient, the gall bladder visualized at 2 hr. One patient with non-visualization of the gall bladder at 4 hr developed acute symptoms requiring cholecystectomy which showed acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholethiasis. There was prominent sclerosis which was thought to be due to chemical cholecystitis as well as cholelithiasis. In all 10 patients, no evidence of cholecystitis had been observed during the surgical placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump. The hepatobiliary scintigraphic finding of gall bladder dysfunction in all eight patients studied is most likely due to chemical cholecystitis from HAIC. This series suggests that chemical cholecystitis is common during HAIC and can be identified by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The authors consider elective cholecystectomy during the operative placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump.

  7. Use of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether for the Treatment of Refractory Intrahepatic Biliary Strictures and Bile Casts: A Modern Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gregory; Malayaman, Saninuj N; Green, Michael Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a prevalent problem in the United States with 14% or more adults affected. Definitive treatment of cholelithiasis is cholecystectomy. When cholecystectomy yields minimal resolution treatment options include expectant management of asymptomatic gallstones or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. We present a case of intrahepatic biliary casts where surgical option was not possible, interventional radiology was unsuccessful, and methyl tert-butyl ether was used to dissolve the biliary obstruction. Dissolution therapy of gallstones was first reported in 1722 when Vollisnieri used turpentine in vitro. While diethyl ether has excellent solubilizing capacity, its low boiling point limited its use surgically as it vaporizes immediately. Diethyl ether can expand 120-fold during warming to body temperature after injection into the biliary system making it impractical for routine use. The use of dissolution is out of favor due to the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Epidemiological studies have shown the general population should have minimal concerns from passive exposure. Dissolution using MTBE remains a viable option if surgical or endoscopic options are not available. However, because of risks involved to both the patient and the staff, careful multidisciplinary team approach must be undertaken to minimize the risks and provide the best possible care to the patient. PMID:26236535

  8. Pyoderma gangrenosum in an abdominal surgical site: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kenichi; Takamori, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Ozaki, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Katsuhiro; Doi, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon, ulcerative skin disease that is often associated with systemic diseases. Herein, we report a development of PG in a surgical site after cholecystectomy that was difficult to discriminate from surgical site infection. The patient was a 74-year-old man who had previously been diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned under diagnosis of cholecystolithiasis, but we converted to open cholecystectomy. The surgical wound was partially erythematous 4 days after surgery. In spite of opening the wound, cleansing it with sterile saline, and administration of antibiotics, inflammation spread with erosion. The clinical manifestations and histopathologic features of biopsy specimen indicated that diagnosis of PG associated with MDS was most likely. Administration of glucocorticoids made a rapid response of skin inflammation. The differential diagnosis of postoperative wound healing complications that were unresponsive to conventional wound local care and antibiotic therapy should include PG, especially in patients with systemic diseases such as MDS. PMID:26943446

  9. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  10. Effect of statin use on outcome of symptomatic cholelithiasis: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Statins can modify bile cholesterol and, thus, the formation of gallstones. We examined whether statin use also modifies the severity of symptomatic gallstone disease and its treatment. Methods A total of 1,140 consecutive patients with symptomatic gallstone disease were recruited during 2008-2010 at Kuopio university hospital, Finland. Case-control analysis matched the patients using (n = 272) or not using (n = 272) statins by age and sex. The baseline characteristics of the patients, need and type of surgical treatment, duration of operation, perioperative bleeding, postoperative complications and overall mortality rate were compared statistically between the study groups. Results Morbidity and subsequent polypharmacy occurred more frequently among the patients with statins compared to the patients without statins. There were no significant differences between the statin users and non-users regarding surgical treatment (open vs. laparoscopic cholecystectomy). The mean operation time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 10% shorter for the patients with statin use than for the patients without. In addition, there was a non-significant tendency for statin users to bleed less during laparoscopic operations than the non-users. There were no differences in other procedure-related parameters (e.g., operation urgency, conversions, choledochotomies, complications and mortality) in patients with or without statins. Conclusions Compared to no treatment, statin treatment was associated with a shorter operation time for laparoscopy cholecystectomy. Other surgical outcome parameters were similar in patients with or without statins, although statin users had more polypharmacy and circulatory illnesses than non-users. PMID:24993977

  11. Temporary Trans-jejunal Hepatic Duct Stenting in Roux-en-y Hepaticojejunostomy for Reconstruction of Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh Fazeli, Mohammad; Kazemeini, Ali Reza; Jafarian, Ali; Bashashati, Mohammad; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile Duct Injuries (BDI) during cholecystectomy are now being recognized as major health problems. Objectives Herein, we present our experience with handling major BDIs and report long-term outcome of hepaticojejunostomies followed by trans-jejunal hepatic duct stenting performed to reconstruct extra-hepatic biliary tracts. Materials and Methods In this case series, we prospectively collected data of 22 patients, who underwent first time biliary reconstruction through Roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy followed by hepatic duct stenting using a trans-jejunal bifurcated 6F tube drain. The long-term outcome was assessed and defined as excellent (asymptomatic, normal liver enzymes and bilirubin levels), good (asymptomatic, mild abnormality in liver enzyme and bilirubin levels), poor (symptomatic, abnormal liver enzymes and bilirubin level) and failure (requiring reoperation). Results A total of 22 patients including four males (18.1%) and 18 females (81.8%) were evaluated. The mean age was 42.71 (range: 23 - 74) years. Twelve patients had undergone open cholecystectomy (54.5%) and the rest had a history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The mean interval between the primary operation and reconstruction was 92.71 days. The mean follow-up period after biliary reconstruction was 42.33 (range: 1 - 96) months. No instance of anastomotic leakage or stenosis, biliary sepsis, thromboembolic event, or respiratory infection was noted in the long-term follow-up. The outcome was excellent in all patients. No case with poor or failure of result was noticed. Conclusions Although a devastating complication iatrogenic major bile duct injuries can be corrected surgically with a high rate of success. Temporary trans-jejunal stenting of the hepatic ducts can help in maintaining the integrity of anastomosis without stenosis or biliary sepsis. PMID:27626003

  12. Variation in hospital resource use and cost among surgical procedures using topical absorbable hemostats

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Derek; Meckley, Lisa M; Miyasato, Gavin; Lim, Sangtaeck; Riebman, Jerome B; Kocharian, Richard; Scaife, Jillian G; Rao, Yajing; Corral, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjunctive hemostats are used to assist with the control of intraoperative bleeding. The most common types are flowables, gelatins, thrombins, and oxidized regenerated celluloses (ORCs). In the US, Surgicel® products are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved ORCs. Objective To compare the outcomes of health care resource utilization (HRU) and costs associated with using ORCs compared to other adjunctive hemostats (OAHs are defined as flowables, gelatins, and topical thrombins) for surgical procedures in the US inpatient setting. Patients and methods A retrospective, US-based cohort study was conducted using hospital inpatient discharges from the 2011–2012 calendar years in the Premier Healthcare Database. Patients with either an ORC or an OAH who underwent a cardiovascular procedure (valve surgery and/or coronary artery bypass graft surgery), carotid endarterectomy, cholecystectomy, or hysterectomy were included. Propensity score matching was used to create comparable groups of ORC and OAH patients. Clinical, economic, and HRU outcomes were compared. Results The propensity score matching created balanced patient cohorts for cardiovascular procedure (22,718 patients), carotid endarterectomy (10,890 patients), cholecystectomy (6,090 patients), and hysterectomy (9,348 patients). In all procedures, hemostatic agent costs were 28%–56% lower for ORCs, and mean hemostat units per discharge were 16%–41% lower for ORCs compared to OAHs. Length of stay and total procedure costs for patients treated with ORCs were lower for carotid endarterectomy patients (0.3 days and US$700) and for cholecystectomy patients (1 day and US$3,350) (all P<0.001). Conclusion Costs and HRU for patients treated with ORCs were lower than or similar to patients treated with OAHs. Proper selection of the appropriate hemostatic agents has the potential to influence clinical outcomes and treatment costs. PMID:26604807

  13. Asymptomatic Cholelithiasis in Children With Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Currò, Giuseppe; Meo, Anna; Ippolito, Daniela; Pusiol, Anna; Cucinotta, Eugenio

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background Data: Our study aimed to evaluate the role of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and asymptomatic cholelithiasis and, furthermore, to determine whether the outcome is related to the operation timing. Methods: The records of 30 children with SCD diagnosed with cholelithiasis from June 1995 to September 2005 were retraspectively reviewed. All 30 children were asymptomatic at the time of the first visit, and an elective LC was proposed to all of them. The operation was accepted in the period of study by 16 children and refused by 14. During medical observation, 10 of the 14 children who refused surgery were admitted for severe biliary colics. Acute cholecystitis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in 3 cases and in 1 case choledocholithiasis, ultrasonographically suspected, was confirmed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and treated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All children, emergency admitted, underwent LC after the onset of symptoms. The patients were divided up into 2 groups (A: asymptomatic; B: symptomatic) depending on clinical presentation and operation timing and the respective outcomes were compared. Results: Elective LC in asymptomatic children (group A) is safe with no major complications reported. During medical observation in children who refused elective surgery (group B), 6 biliary colics, 3 acute cholecystitis, and 1 choledocholithiasis were observed. Three sickle cell crises occurred in symptomatic children during biliary colics. The correlation between cholecystectomy performed in asymptomatic children (group A) and cholecystectomy performed in symptomatic children (group B) showed significant differences in the outcome. Morbidity rate and postoperative stay increased when children with SCD underwent emergency LC. Conclusions: Elective LC should be the gold standard in children with SCD and asymptomatic cholelithiasis to prevent

  14. "Ultra-rapid" sequential treatment in cholecystocholedocholithiasis: alternative same-day approach to laparoendoscopic rendezvous.

    PubMed

    Borreca, Dario; Bona, Alberto; Bellomo, Maria Paola; Borasi, Andrea; De Paolis, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    There is still no consensus about timing of laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the treatment of cholecystocholedocholithiasis. The aim of our retrospective study is to analyze the optimal timing of surgical treatment in patients presenting concurrent choledocholithiasis, choosing to perform a sequential endoscopic plus surgical approach, introducing a same-day two-stage alternative. All cases of cholecystocholedocholithiasis occurred between January 2007 and December 2014 in "Gradenigo" Hospital (Turin-Italy) were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups, based on the timing of cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and compared. Out of 2233 cholecystectomies performed in the mentioned time interval, have been identified 93 patients that fulfill the selection criteria. 36 patients were treated with a same-day approach, while 29 within first 72 h and 28 with delayed surgery. The overall length of stay was significantly lower in patients that were treated with a same-day approach (4.7 days), compared with other groups (p = 0.001), while no significant differences were found in terms of length of surgical intervention, intraoperative complications and conversions to open procedure, postoperative stay, morbidity and mortality. Patients treated with delayed surgery had a 18 % recurrency rate of biliary events, with an odds ratio of 14.13 (p = 0.018). Same-day two-stage approach should be performed in suitable patients at the index admission, reducing overall risks, improving the patients' quality-of-life, preventing recurrency, leading to a significant cost abatement; furthermore, this approach allows same outcomes of laparoendoscopic rendezvous, avoiding technical and organizational troubles. PMID:26659267

  15. Patterns and natural history of radiographically defined osteoarthritis in a registry of women

    SciTech Connect

    Cerhan, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied the natural history of osteoarthritis (OA) in a registry of female radium dial painters who had longitudinal radiographic examinations. Radiographs of the hands, spine, pelvis, knees and feet were graded for OA using the method of Kellgren and Lawrence. The prevalence of OA in this study was consistent with other population-based studies of OA in white women. A full body OA score was defined as the summation of the number of joints with OA. Higher full body OA score was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, after controlling for age and year of birth. Variables cross-sectionally associated with the full body OA score included increasing age; later year of birth; increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure; increasing uric acid level; a history of diabetes, cholecystectomy, or cardiovascular disease; and being a current drinker of alcohol or being a current smoker. The authors described that natural history of OA for individual joints, joint groups, and the full body. The authors found that progression of OA was common, but not universal. Every joint group studied also displayed some amount of regression, although the authors could not conclude how much of the regression was real versus measurement error. The authors found that, in general, joints with a baseline OA grade of one to four were more likely to progress to a higher grade compared to joints with a grade of zero at baseline. Finally, the authors described predictors of followup OA status and predictors of change from baseline to followup for the full body. Predictors of greater change (to more OA) included increasing age, a history of cholecystectomy, having ever drank alcohol, and not having ever smoked. Predictors of a higher followup OA status included increasing age, increasing baseline full body OA score, a history of cholecystectomy, being a current drinker, and having never smoked.

  16. Anesthetic implications of laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy aims to minimize the trauma of any interventional process but still achieve a satisfactory therapeutic result. The development of "critical pathways," rapid mobilization and early feeding have contributed towards the goal of shorter hospital stay. This concept has been extended to include laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hernia repair. Reports have been published confirming the safety of same day discharge for the majority of patients. However, we would caution against overenthusiastic ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the rational but unproven assumption that early discharge will lead to occasional delays in diagnosis and management of postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications of laparoscopic surgery are mostly due to traumatic injuries sustained during blind trocar insertion and physiologic changes associated with patient positioning and pneumoperitoneum creation. General anesthesia and controlled ventilation comprise the accepted anesthetic technique to reduce the increase in PaCO2. Investigators have recently documented the cardiorespiratory compromise associated with upper abdominal laparoscopic surgery, and particular emphasis is placed on careful perioperative monitoring of ASA III-IV patients during insufflation. Setting limits on the inflationary pressure is advised in these patients. Anesthesiologists must maintain a high index of suspicion for complications such as gas embolism, extraperitoneal insufflation and surgical emphysema, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Postoperative nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing symptoms after laparoscopic surgery. A highly potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, has proven to be an effective oral and IV prophylaxis against postoperative emesis in preliminary studies. Opioids remain an important component of the anesthesia technique, although the introduction of newer potent NSAIDs may diminish their use. A preoperative

  17. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Tiwary, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB) and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs. PMID:26166971

  18. [Ampulloma of Vater's papilla--case report].

    PubMed

    Smejkal, P; Smejkal, M

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss, based on a case-report, the diagnostic problems of malignities of the pancreas and ampulla of Vater. In the same patient they found an interesting complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCHE). It was a female patient who had LCHE four years previously where an ampulloma of the ampulla of Vater was diagnosed with invasion into the pancreas and a suspect secondary in the lower lobe of the right lung. On operation a pulmonary abscess was detected from a retained concrement. Duodenopancreatectomy which was performed did not reveal any tumour in the pancreatic area. PMID:11881293

  19. [Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery: historical and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Shiroshita, Hidefumi; Inomata, Masafumi; Kitano, Seigo

    2013-11-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has gained much attention worldwide since the first report of transgastric peritoneoscopy in a porcine model in 2004. In this review, we summarize and highlight the current status and future directions of NOTES. Thousands of human NOTES procedures have been performed. The most common procedures are cholecystectomy and appendectomy, mainly performed through transvaginal access in a hybrid fashion with laparoscopic assistance, and the general complication rate is acceptable. Although much work is still needed to refine the techniques for NOTES, the development of NOTES has the potential to create a paradigm shift in minimally invasive surgery. PMID:24358724

  20. Eye-gaze driven surgical workflow segmentation.

    PubMed

    James, A; Vieira, D; Lo, B; Darzi, A; Yang, G Z

    2007-01-01

    In today's climate of clinical governance there is growing pressure on surgeons to demonstrate their competence, improve standards and reduce surgical errors. This paper presents a study on developing a novel eye-gaze driven technique for surgical assessment and workflow recovery. The proposed technique investigates the use of a Parallel Layer Perceptor (PLP) to automate the recognition of a key surgical step in a porcine laparoscopic cholecystectomy model. The classifier is eye-gaze contingent but combined with image based visual feature detection for improved system performance. Experimental results show that by fusing image instrument likelihood measures, an overall classification accuracy of 75% is achieved. PMID:18044559

  1. Sufficiency of clinical literature on the appropriate uses of six medical and surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Fink, A; Brook, R H; Kosecoff, J; Chassin, M R; Solomon, D H

    1987-11-01

    We reviewed the English-language clinical literature on carotid endarterectomy, cholecystectomy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, coronary angiography and coronary artery bypass graft procedure to identify the appropriateness of using these procedures in 1981. Most of the 803 relevant articles and textbooks were published after 1975; about 10% of the 571 research studies were randomized, controlled trials, while two thirds were retrospective studies. Incomplete or contradictory information was available on the indications for and efficacy of using the procedures; almost no data were available on costs and use; data on complications failed to specify patients' symptoms or the relationship between complications and reasons for doing the procedure. PMID:3501201

  2. Usefulness of sugammadex in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Shimauchi, Tsukasa; Yamaura, Ken; Sugibe, Sayaka; Hoka, Sumio

    2014-09-01

    A 54-year-old patient with Becker muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia. Muscle relaxation was induced by rocuronium (0.4 mg/kg body weight) under train-of-four (TOF) ratio monitoring. The TOF ratio was 0 at intubation, and 0.2 at the end of surgery. Residual muscle relaxant activity was successfully reversed by sugammadex (2 mg/kg body weight) without any hemodynamic adverse effects (TOF ratio 1.0 at extubation). The clinical and hemodynamic findings suggest that sugammadex can be safely used in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25199695

  3. Chryseomonas luteola from Bile Culture in an Adult Male with Severe Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha S; Salunke, Parul P; Parikh, Harshal R; Baveja, Sujata M

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old male was admitted in this hospital with severe jaundice, who had open cholecystectomy done 2 months ago. ERCP was performed and bile was sent for culture. It grew Chryseomonas luteola in pure culture. He underwent hepaticojejunostomy after 1 month. Total bilirubin improved gradually. His condition was stable on discharge. Prompt diagnosis of non-fermenters is required, as some of them are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Clinicians have to be made aware of the pathogenic role of C. luteola and its resistance to ampicillin and cephalosporins. PMID:21814406

  4. Combined Undifferentiated and Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Gallbladder Appearing as Two Separate Lesions: A Case Report with Radiological-Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Won; Baek, Seung Yon; Sung, Sun Hee

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a rare case of incidentally detected combined undifferentiated and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gallbladder. An incidental gallbladder malignancy was revealed on abdominal ultrasound and multi-detector computed tomography in a 54-year-old man. A short distance from the main polypoid hypoechoic mass at the fundus of the gallbladder, focal wall thickening was noted with prominently increased power Doppler flow. Extended cholecystectomy was performed, and histology confirmed the main polypoid mass as undifferentiated carcinoma and the separate nodule as neuroendocrine carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting two separate lesions of combined gallbladder carcinomas by radiological features. PMID:26622929

  5. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  6. Two cases of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture due to acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Shogo; Arahata, Kyouko; Itou, Asako; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kimura, Kayoko; Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Jiro; Fujiyama, Yoshiki; Takigawa, Yutaka; Matsui, Junichi

    2016-09-01

    A cystic artery aneurysm is a rare cause of hemobilia. Herein, we report two cases of acute cholecystitis with a ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. Two patients (a 69-year-old man and an 83-year-old man) were admitted to our hospital because of acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed for both patients. After a few days of PTGBD, gallbladder hemorrhage was observed. Abdominal angiography showed cystic artery aneurysm. A transcatheter arterial embolization was therefore performed, followed by an open cholecystectomy. PMID:27593367

  7. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  8. Suspected anaphylactic reaction associated with sugammadex: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Hwa; Ok, Si Young; Park, Sun Young; Cho, Ana; Han, Yoo Mi; Jun, Mi Roung

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction 2 min after the administration of sugammadex. He manifested erythematous wheals on the entire body, dyspnea, hypotension, and tachycardia. These symptoms disappeared after the administration of epinephrine. The patient recovered and was discharged at postoperative day 5 without any complications. After 7 weeks, we performed a skin prick test, and there was a weakly positive reaction for sugammadex. This case is suspected anaphylaxis associated with sugammadex, and we need to be aware that the use of sugammadex is associated with a serious risk of anaphylaxis. PMID:27482323

  9. [Ultrasound-guided cutaneous intercostal branches nerves block: A good analgesic alternative for gallbladder open surgery].

    PubMed

    Fernández Martín, M T; López Álvarez, S; Mozo Herrera, G; Platero Burgos, J J

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard treatment for gallbladder diseases. However, there are still some patients for whom conversion to open surgery is required. This surgery can produce significant post-operative pain. Opioids drugs have traditionally been used to treat this pain, but side effects have led to seeking alternatives (plexus, nerve or fascia blocks or wound). The cases are presented of 4 patients subjected to ultrasound-guided intercostal branches blocks in the mid-axillary line from T6 to T12 with levobupivacaine as an analgesic alternative in open surgery of gallbladder, with satisfactory results. PMID:25896736

  10. Acute ischemic cholecystitis after transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Bülent; Battal, Bilal; Ören, Nisa Cem; Üstünsöz, Bahri; Yağci, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely used treatment choice for hepatocellular cancer. DC Bead microspheres are a new embolic material for TACE that doxorubicin can be loaded to. The tumor response rate of this well-tolerated treatment was changed between 60% and 81.8%. We report a case of ischemic cholecystitis after TACE with drug-eluting beads (DEB) that required cholecystectomy. The possibility of cholecystitis is always remembered during TACE-DEB for tumors in segment IV and/or V. Although selective catheterization is related with a lower risk for ischemic cholecystitis, the anatomic and vascular variability in patients with malignancy may lead to some unexpected conditions. PMID:23154025

  11. Gallstone Disease is Associated with Increased Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Constance E.; Everhart, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Gallstones are common and contribute to morbidity and health-care costs, but their effects on mortality are unclear. We examined whether gallstone disease was associated with overall and cause-specific mortalities in a prospective national population-based sample. Methods We analyzed data from 14,228 participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20–74 years old) who underwent gallbladder ultrasonography from 1988 to 1994. Gallstone disease was defined as ultrasound-documented gallstones or evidence of cholecystectomy. The underlying cause of death was identified from death certificates collected through 2006 (mean follow up=14.3 years). Mortality hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, to adjust for multiple demographic and cardiovascular-disease risk factors. Results The prevalence of gallstones was 7.1% and of cholecystectomy was 5.3%. During a follow-up period of 18 years or more, the cumulative mortality was 16.5% from all causes (2,389 deaths), 6.7% from cardiovascular disease (886 deaths), and 4.9% from cancer (651 deaths). Participants with gallstone disease had higher all-cause mortality in age-adjusted (HR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–1.5) and multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.5). A similar increase was observed for cardiovascular disease mortality (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2–1.7) and cancer mortality (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.98–1.8). Individuals with gallstones had a similar increase in risk of death as those with cholecystectomy (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.92–1.4). Conclusions In the U.S. population, persons with gallstone disease have increased mortality, overall, and mortalities from cardiovascular disease and cancer. This relationship was found for both ultrasound-diagnosed gallstones and cholecystectomy. PMID:21075109

  12. [Case of gallbladder cancer in which the surface structure of gallbladder was clarified using the endoscopic double contrast cholecystography].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hideki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Iwao, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Koji; Usio, Jun; Sato, Masashi; Ishino, Atsushi; Nagata, Yuki; Kawase, Tomoya; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Morimoto, Seiko; Takamori, Shigeru; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2009-05-01

    A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a gallbladder tumor by detected ultrasonography (US). On endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and abdominal CT, we diagnosed the Is+IIa+IIb-like ss lesion invasive gallbladder cancer, but endoscopic double contrast cholecystography suggested IIa+IIb-like ss invasive gallbladder cancer because the lesion had the same granular membrane a other cancer membrane and cholecystectomy was carried out. The pathologic diagnosis was IIa+IIb-like ss invasive gallbladder cancer. PMID:19420873

  13. Cystic artery bleeding due to blunt gallbladder injury: computed tomography findings and treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Osada, Hisato; Ohno, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Wataru; Okada, Takemichi; Nakada, Kei; Honda, Norinari

    2010-02-01

    Blunt gallbladder injury is rare, and bleeding from the cystic artery due to blunt trauma is even rarer. We report herein a case of extraluminal bleeding of the gallbladder in a patient following blunt abdominal trauma. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed pericholecystic fluid and extravasation of contrast material in the subcapsular liver space adjacent to the gallbladder. Abdominal digital subtraction angiography revealed pseudoaneurysm originating from a branch of the cystic artery. Successful treatment was achieved using selective transcatheter embolization, and cholecystectomy was not required. PMID:20182852

  14. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopy surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Pinto, João; Lima, Estevão; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Rolanda, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery started spreading worldwide in 1987, when the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Meanwhile, improvement of endoscopic equipment and instruments allowed gastroenterologists to attempt more aggressive endoluminal interventions, even beyond the wall barrier. The first transgastric peritoneoscopy, in 2004, brought to light the concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). The idea of incisionless surgery is attractive and has become a new goal for both surgeons and other people interested in this field of investigation. The authors present a review of all developments concerning NOTES, including animal studies and human experience. PMID:21987621

  15. Isolated cystic duct cyst with associated stones in a 4-month-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Joong Kee; Kim, Hyejin; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Isolated cystic duct cysts are rare entities, with few cases having been reported. We present the case of a 4-month-old male patient presenting with abdominal pain and vomiting. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed an isolated cystic duct cyst with associated stones. The patient underwent open cholecystectomy with complete cyst excision and cystic duct transection; there were no postoperative complications. While lesions like the one described herein are extremely rare, they should be included as a separate category in classifications of choledochal cysts.

  16. Anaphylactoid reaction to intraoperative cholangiogram. Report of a case, review of literature, and guidelines for prevention.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, A H; Bush, W H; Horvath, K D

    2001-10-01

    Anaphylactoid (pseudoallergic, idiosyncratic) reactions are a well recognized but uncommon consequence to radiographic contrast media. Most reported reactions are to intravascular injections, but systemic reactions to nonvascular injections of radiographic contrast also are well documented. Reactions to nonvascular radiographic contrast media have been reported during or after instillation of radiographic contrast into a multitude of nonvascular body compartments, but not with intraoperative cholangiogram. We describe a case of a systemic anaphylactoid reaction caused by intraoperative cholangiogram during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We then discuss the clinical presentation, suspected etiology, and treatment of these idiosyncratic reactions as well as established guidelines for prevention in patients at risk. PMID:11727111

  17. [Ascariasis of the gallbladder. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gómez, N A; Ortíz, O; León, C J; Iñíguez, S

    1992-01-01

    Two patients who complained of a clinical picture compatible with cholelithiasis; and in whom the diagnosis of ascariasis of the gallbladder was made sonographically, are reported. In the first patient, cholecystectomy was curative and corroborated the presence of the roundworm. In the second patient, piperazine citrate was given. A second sonogram performed after therapy showed no roundworm within the gallbladder; and the patient remains asymptomatic until now. The usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gallbladder ascariasis, and during surveillance in those patients who are managed with medical therapy only, is emphasized. PMID:1300850

  18. Acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.S.; Wilk, P.J.; Weissmann, H.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Gliedman, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    Sixty-eight patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis were reviewed. The results of history and physical examinations were usually nondiagnostic. IDA cholescintigraphy (93 per cent accuracy rate) was the only reliable diagnostic modality. The results of oral cholecystography, intravenous cholangiography and ultrasonography were considerably less reliable. One-half of the patients had gangrenous cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy was the preferred operation with an over-all mortality of 9 per cent. IDA cholescintigraphy is an important new modality for the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis which, in the past, has often been difficult to diagnose.

  19. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.V.

    1985-05-01

    Hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy is used in the treatment of certain selected hepatic tumors, especially metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon. Chemical cholecystitis has been recognized recently as a complication of hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. The authors performed hepatobiliary scans on ten patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. All ten patients had abnormal hepatobiliary scintigraphy. They present case reports of three patients with abnormal hepatobiliary scans who have required cholecystectomy for symptoms of chemical cholecystitis to illustrate the clinical, scintigraphic, and pathologic findings in these patients.

  20. Septic Shock Due to Biliary Stones in a Postcholecystectomy Patient.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Mohammad Feroz; Khan, Muhammad Faisal; Khursheed, Moazzum

    2015-10-01

    Septic shock leading to multi-organ failure is not uncommon. Early diagnosis to confirm the source is the distinctive attribute of sepsis management guidelines. Cholangitis as the source of sepsis can become a diagnostic dilemma in patients who have had cholecystectomy in the past. CT abdomen should be the investigation of choice in this group of patients. This report describes two postcholecystectomy patients who presented with septic shock secondary to biliary stones. The source of septic shock in both patients were biliary stones was confirmed with abdominal CT. Ultrasound abdomen failed to report biliary stones in these patients. Both improved on percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. PMID:26522207

  1. Outcomes of surgery under Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Klingman, David; Pine, Penelope L.; Simon, James

    1990-01-01

    In this study, health outcomes during the 6-month period following surgery are examined for all Medicaid recipients in Michigan and Georgia who underwent selected surgical procedures between July 1, 1981, and June 30, 1982. Readmissions were somewhat more prevalent in both States for hysterectomy, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, and myringotomy. On almost all measures in both States, levels of post-surgical utilization, expenditure, and complications were higher among females, older patients, Supplemental Security Income enrollees, and those with higher levels of presurgical utilization and longer and more costly surgical stays. The results further demonstrate the utility of claims data in monitoring outcomes of surgery. PMID:10170577

  2. Ultrasound as the initial dignostic study in patients with suspected gallstones.

    PubMed

    Stone, K S; Scholten, D J; Dean, R E

    1980-08-01

    The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of ultrasound versus oral cholecystography (OCG) in the preoperative diagnosis of gallstones was studied in 144 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The 89 per cent accuracy of ultrasound was similar to the 92 per cent achieved with OCG. However, ultrasound was found to have a lower false-positive rate and a greater sensitivity with far fewer indeterminate studies than OCG. A high rate of nonvisualization diminished the usefulness of OCG as a first-line test. Because of a greater sensitivity less tendency for false-positive results, and a moninvasive nature, ultrasound should be the initial diagnostic study of choice in patients with suspected gallstones. PMID:7406352

  3. Acute liver function decompensation in a patient with sickle cell disease managed with exchange transfusion and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Ona, Mel A.; Changela, Kinesh; Sadanandan, Swayamprabha; Jelin, Abraham; Anand, Sury; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis is a relatively uncommon complication of homozygous sickle cell anemia, which may lead to acute hepatic failure and death. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion is used as salvage therapy in life threatening situations. We describe a case of a 16-year-old female with homozygous sickle cell anemia who presented to the emergency room with fatigue, malaise, dark urine, lower back pain, scleral icterus and jaundice. She was found to have marked hyperbilirubinemia, which persisted after exchange transfusion. Because of the concomitant presence of gallstones and choledocholithiasis, the patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopic cholecystectomy followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and sphincterotomy. PMID:25177368

  4. History of biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Spirou, Yannos; Yannos, Spirou; Petrou, Athanasios; Athanasios, Petrou; Christoforides, Christos; Christos, Christoforides; Felekouras, Evangelos; Evangelos, Felekouras

    2013-05-01

    Since ancient times biliary surgery has been one of the major interests of doctors and other scientists around the world. From the ancient Greeks and Egyptians to the greatest scientists of modern times biliary surgery has advanced remarkably. Especially during the last century huge progress has been made in this field. Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been developed and combined with general anesthesia and antisepsis that have made biliary surgery particularly safe for every patient and have made cholecystectomy one of the most common operations in the world today. PMID:23430002

  5. [A Case of Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer with a Complete Response to S-1 Alternate-Day Administration].

    PubMed

    Eto, Ryuichi; Nakatsu, Hiroki; Ozasa, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman underwent a cholecystectomy for gallbladder cancer. Seven months later, an abdominal CT scan showed multiple liver and lymph node metastases. Treatment with S-1 was started at a dose of 100 mg/day, but was changed to alternate-day administration because of diarrhea. Metastatic lesions showed a complete response after 7 months of chemotherapy. S-1 alternate-day therapy could be maintained without any severe adverse events. This method can be managed safely and with certainty in an elderly patient and it has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of recurrent gallbladder cancer. PMID:26809537

  6. Cholelithoptysis and pleural empyema.

    PubMed

    Chopra, P; Killorn, P; Mehran, R J

    1999-07-01

    We report a case of delayed cholelithoptysis and pleural empyema caused by gallstone spillage at the time of laparoscopic cholecystecomy. An occult subphrenic abscess developed, and the patient became symptomatic only after trans-diaphragmatic penetration occurred. This resulted in expectoration of bile, gallstones, and pus. Spontaneous decompression of the empyema occurred because of a peritoneo-pleuro-bronchial fistula. This is the first case of such managed nonoperatively and provides support for the importance of intraoperative retrieval of spilled gallstones at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:10421159

  7. [Imaging in the diagnosis and the staging of gallbladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Vialle, R; Velasco, S; Milin, S; Bricot, V; Richer, J-P; Levillain, P-M; Tasu, J-P

    2008-11-01

    Most of gallbladder tumors are benign. Adenoma, cholesterol polyps, or adenomyomatosis are most frequently typical on ultrasonographic images. All symptomatic lesions must be considered as indications for surgery. It may be difficult to identify precancerous or malignant lesion. Polyps over 1cm are indication for preventive cholecystectomy. In case of suspicious polyp or suspicious wall thickening, endoscopic ultrasonography can be helpful to evaluate local tumoral spread and eliminate differential diagnosis. Unfortunately, diagnosis of gallbladder cancer is often late, when surgical resection can't be curative. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations are then useful for local and metastatic staging. PMID:18954953

  8. [Leptospirosis with necro-haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a Boxer puppy].

    PubMed

    Steil, D; Quandt, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Sie, J M; Löhr, C V; Teifke, J P

    2014-01-01

    A Boxer puppy from the island of Rügen, which was properly vaccinated according to its age, was presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis with acute renal failure, hepatic damage, and jaundice was confirmed by seroconversion (increased titre to 1 : 800 in a non-vaccine serogroup 4 weeks after disease onset). Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and sonographic results. After an initial improvement, the puppy's condition deteriorated and cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis indicated a haemorrhagic necrotizing cholecystitis. PMID:25423604

  9. Continuing Medical Education, Maintenance of Certification, and Physician Reentry

    PubMed Central

    Luchtefeld, Martin; Kerwel, Therese G.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing medical education serves a central role in the licensure and certification for practicing physicians. This chapter explores the different modalities that constitute CME along with their effectiveness, including simulation and best education practices. The evolution to maintenance of certification and the requirements for both the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery are delineated. Further progress in the education of practicing surgeons is evidenced through the introduction of laparoscopic colectomy and the improvements made from the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Finally, reentry of physicians into practice following a voluntary leave of absence, a new and challenging issue for surgeons, is also discussed. PMID:23997673

  10. Effects of pinaverium bromide on Oddi's sphincter.

    PubMed

    DiSomma, C; Reboa, G; Patrone, M G; Mortola, G P; Sala, G; Ciampini, M

    1986-01-01

    Twelve to 15 days after cholecystectomy, endocholedochal pressure was measured in ten patients before and one hour after oral administration of 15 mg of pinaverium bromide (six patients) or placebo. The mean endocholedochal pressure was 7.1 +/- 0.25 mmHg before and 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmHg after pinaverium (P less than 0.01), and 7.0 +/- 0.2 and 6.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg in the placebo-treated patients. The results suggest that pinaverium bromide has a specific effect on the common bile duct and probably on Oddi's sphincter. PMID:3815457

  11. Incidental Gallbladder Cancer Visualized From Posttreatment 131I Whole-Body Scan.

    PubMed

    Anongpornjossakul, Yoch; Utamakul, Chirawat; Chamroonrat, Wichana; Kositwattanarerk, Arpakorn; Thamnirat, Kanungnij; Sritara, Chanika

    2016-03-01

    A 72-year-old woman with papillary thyroid cancer post-total thyroidectomy was referred for post-I treatment whole-body scan. Images revealed focal uptake within the gallbladder. Cholecystectomy was subsequently performed, and the pathology report showed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Given a history of papillary thyroid cancer, the iodine uptake was reasonably explained as metastasis; however, gallbladder metastasis was extremely infrequent. Literature described the incidental radioiodine retention in the gallbladder as false-positive findings, which can be normal variants or benign hepatobiliary conditions. Primary gallbladder malignancy could be counted for another possibility despite controversial mechanism of uptake. PMID:26447377

  12. CT Findings of Foreign Body Reaction to a Retained Endoloop Ligature Plastic Tube Mimicking Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Hong; Kang, Chae Hoon; Choi, Soo-Jung; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Shin, Dong Rock

    2016-01-01

    Many hospitals experience one or more retained surgical instrument events with risk of patient morbidity and medicolegal problems. Identification of retained surgical instrument is important. The radiologists should be familiar with imaging finding of retained surgical instrument. In a 62-year-old female with a retained plastic tube, localized peritoneal infiltration around air-containing tubular structure mimicked acute appendicitis on abdomen computed tomography (CT), one year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reported CT findings of foreign body reaction related to retained Endoloop ligature plastic tube mimicking acute appendicitis. PMID:27390545

  13. CT Findings of Foreign Body Reaction to a Retained Endoloop Ligature Plastic Tube Mimicking Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chae Hoon; Choi, Soo-Jung; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Shin, Dong Rock

    2016-01-01

    Many hospitals experience one or more retained surgical instrument events with risk of patient morbidity and medicolegal problems. Identification of retained surgical instrument is important. The radiologists should be familiar with imaging finding of retained surgical instrument. In a 62-year-old female with a retained plastic tube, localized peritoneal infiltration around air-containing tubular structure mimicked acute appendicitis on abdomen computed tomography (CT), one year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reported CT findings of foreign body reaction related to retained Endoloop ligature plastic tube mimicking acute appendicitis. PMID:27390545

  14. Henoch-Schönlein purpura complicated by acalculous cholecystitis and intussusception, and following recurrence with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Güler, Ekrem; Çetinkaya, Ahmet; Karakaya, Ali Erdal; Göksügür, Yalçın; Katı, Ömer; Güler, Ahmet Gökhan; Davutoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common childhood systemic vasculitis. Gastro-intestinal involvement occurs in two-thirds of patients. The characteristic skin lesions generally precede abdominal symptoms or present concurrently. A 7-year-old boy presented with intussusception and acalculous cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy. Two weeks later he was re-admitted with features typical of HSP which responded to corticosteroids. Eleven months later he presented with abdominal pain and recurrence of HSP and, at laparotomy, there was acute appendicitis. This is the first case of a child presenting with HSP complicated by acalculous cholecystitis. PMID:27077617

  15. First case reported of Bouveret´s syndrome associated to duodenal and biliary perforation to retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Vieiro Medina, María Victoria; Gómez Sanz, Ramón; Bra Insa, Eneida; Domínguez Sánchez, Iván; de la Fuente Bartolomé, Marta; Díaz Pérez, David; Anisa Nutu, Oana; de la Cruz Vigo, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 69 year old woman with a history of cholecystitis, who consulted for severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal CT showed duodenal obstruction caused by a gallstone, cholecystoduodenal fistula and pneumobilia, what is known as Bouveret's syndrome, a rare form of gallstone ileus. Additionally, she presented free duodenal and vesicular perforation to retroperitoneum at the same level of the cholecystoduodenal transit point. The patient underwent a difficult cholecystectomy, enterolithotomy, repair of the duodenal defect, extensive washing and drainage of the retroperitoneum. The postoperative course was uneventful except for a laparotomy infection. PMID:27322706

  16. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5-1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  17. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Rosario; MacFadyen, Bruce V

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has become the procedure of choice in the management of choledocholithiasis in several laparoscopic centers. The increasing interest for this laparoscopic approach is due to the development of instrumentation and technique, allowing the procedure to be performed safely, and it is also the result of the revised role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which has been questioned because of its cost, risk of complications and effectiveness. Many surgeons, however, are still not familiar with this technique. In this article we discuss the technique and results of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Both the laparoscopic transcystic approach and choledochotomy are discussed, together with the results given in the literature. When one considers the costs, morbidity, mortality and the time required before the patient can return to work, it would appear that laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration is more favorable than open surgery or laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative or postoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. However, the technique requires advanced laparoscopic skills, including suturing, knot tying, the use of a choledochoscope, guidewire, dilators and balloon stone extractor. Although laparoscopic common bile duct exploration appears to be the most cost-effective method to treat common bile duct stones, it should be emphasized that this procedure is very challenging, and it should be performed by well-trained laparoscopic surgeons with experience in biliary surgery. PMID:11981684

  18. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of afferent loop syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sivelli, R.; Farinon, A.M.; Sianesi, M.; Percudani, M.; Ugolotti, G.; Calbiani, B.

    1984-08-01

    A study of 118 patients, operated on with Billroth II gastrectomy for peptic disease and affected by postgastrectomy syndromes, was carried out. Fifty patients were investigated by means of technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning. In 18 patients, in whom an afferent loop syndrome was clinically suspected, hepatobiliary scanning demonstrated an altered afferent loop emptying in 8 and atonic distension of the gallbladder without afferent loop motility changes in 10. Among the patients in the first group, four were treated with a biliary diversion surgical procedure and in the second group, two patients underwent cholecystectomy. Our findings indicate that biliary vomiting, right upper abdominal pain pyrosis, and biliary diarrhea in Billroth II gastrectomized patients are not always pathognomonic symptoms of afferent loop syndrome. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning represents the only diagnostic means of afferent loop syndrome definition. A differential diagnosis of abnormal afferent loop emptying and gallbladder dyskinesia is necessary for the management planning of these patients, and furthermore, when a surgical treatment is required, biliary diversion with Roux-Y anastomosis or Braun's biliary diversion seems the treatment of choice for afferent loop syndrome, whereas cholecystectomy represents the best procedure for atonic distension of the gallbladder.

  19. [The future of gastrointestinal therapeutic endoscopy: NOTES].

    PubMed

    Dray, X; Marteau, P

    2009-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) allows access into the peritoneal cavity with a flexible endoscope, through the wall of the digestive or urogenital tracts. NOTES can be combined to laparoscopic surgery in so-called < hybrid > techniques. In the absence of any incision of the abdominal wall, NOTES procedures provide perfect cosmetic results, with virtually no risk of parietal complications, and with decreased postoperative pain. NOTES could particularly benefit to overweight patients and to patients receiving intensive or palliative care. Most NOTES studies have been performed on animal models, with great interest for both transgastric and transpelvic approaches. Successful NOTES peritoneoscopy, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, tubal ligation, gastrojejunal anastomosis, cholecystectomy, splenectomy, nephrectomy, and abdominal-wall hernia repair have been described. In human studies, the transvaginal route is preferred. NOTES clinical research focuses on low-morbidity procedures, such as cholecystectomy, appendectomy, and peritoneoscopy. Indirect benefits are expected from this research, with possible technological innovations in the field of endoscopic instrumentation (including sutures, anastomosis, traction and triangulation). Overall, NOTES is believed to make evolve both interventional endoscopy and minimally invasive surgery. PMID:19683406

  20. [Minilaparoscopic surgery : alternative or supplement to single-port surgery?].

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, L; Lorenz, D

    2011-05-01

    In recent years scarless surgery (axillo-bilateral-breast aproach [ABBA], natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery [NOTES], single-port surgery) has gained importance in order to improve postoperative outcome in laparoscopic surgery. As part of this effort minilaparoscopic surgery might be a suitable alternative concerning cosmetic outcome without implementing a completely new technique. Due to the definition minilaparoscopic surgery is based on instruments which reduce the total length of trocar incisions to less than 2.5 cm. Nevertheless the total number of incisions is similar to conventional laparoscopic techniques. Most recent indications for minilaparoscopic surgery are cholecystectomy, appendectomy, hernia and colorectal surgery. This article describes the technical aspects and feasibility of minilaparoscopic cholecystectomy and transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair (TAPP).While the trocar positions remain in the original setting the laparoscopic surgeon benefits from experience gained in conventional laparoscopic surgery. Although the cosmetic outcome is not comparable to single-port surgery, in the author's opinion minilaparoscopic surgery is a useful alternative in scarless surgery due to the fact that it is easy to adapt without establishing a completely new technique. PMID:21424297

  1. [Low-flow xenon anesthesia in surgical patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Rashchupkin, A B; Burov, N E

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of central hemodynamics in 60 patients with essential hypertension during low flow anesthesia with xenon and nitrous oxide is carried out. The main group consisted of 30 patients, 22 male and 8 female, in the median age of 45.9 +/- 23 years. 22 patients out of those had 2nd stage essential hypertension, while the other 8 had 3rd stage. The control group consisted of 30 patients, 20 male and 10 female, in the median age of 45.1 + 1.3 years. 4 patients had 3rd stage essential hypertension, 26 patients had 2nd stage. The both groups were clinically comparable by the character and severity of the main disease, the carried out surgery (open cholecystectomy) and the qualification of surgeons. Results of the research showed, that low flow monoanesthesia with xenon abruptly eradicated the unfavourable consequences of induction of anesthesia (3-5 mg/kg of sodium thiopental or 2-2.5 mg/kg of propofol) and had a positive effect on the parameters of central hemodynamics of patients with essential hypertension. Xenon anesthesia, compared to nitrous oxide, rapidly stabilized the parameters of blood pressure and heart rate and can be recommended as a method of choice in patients with essential hypertension and compromised myocarium. Nitrous oxide with bolus of regular fentanyl doses doesn't reliable anesthesiological protection during open cholecystectomy and shows signs of toxicity. PMID:21692217

  2. Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: An Update (with Special Reference to Indian Scenario).

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, G S

    2014-04-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, being already declared as gold standard technique, laparoscopic surgery has advanced far and wide, touching almost every corner of the abdomen. This advancement has gradually expanded to colorectal surgery which is done for malignant diseases as well. However, laparoscopic colorectal surgery has not been accepted as quickly as was laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This is because of its steep learning curve, concerns with oncological outcomes, lack of randomized control trials (RCTs) and initial reports on high port site recurrences which occurred after curative resections. But all these initial concerns have been overcome by doing a series of RCTs globally, in the past decade, that revealed that laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignant disease offered short term benefits without compromising on oncological principles of radicality of resection, tumour resection margins and completeness of lymph node harvesting as compared to those of open surgery. Favourable post-operative results with respect to less blood loss, less pain, lesser surgical site infections, lesser requirement of analgesics, early return of bowel function and shorter hospital stay in patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resections were obtained in studies done on individual series, including those done in India and more recently, in large trials. An update on recent studies done on laparoscopic colorectal surgery by reviewing many RCTs and individual series, including our experiences, was made, to support the advantages of this procedure which were obtained when it was carried out by skilled hands. PMID:24959478

  3. Therapeutic advances: Single incision laparoscopic hepatopancreatobiliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Stephen Kin Yong; Lee, Kai Yin

    2014-01-01

    Single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is proposed to be a step towards minimizing the invasiveness of surgery, and has since gained popularity in several surgical sub-specialties including hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. SPLS has since been applied to cholecystectomy, liver resection as well as pancreatectomy for a multitude of pathologies. Benefits of SPLS over conventional multi-incision laparoscopic surgery include improved cosmesis and potentially post-operative pain at specific time periods and extra-umbilical sites. However, it is also associated with longer operating time, increased rate of complications, and increased rate of port-site hernia. There is no significant difference between length of hospital stay. SPLS has a significant learning curve that affects operating time, rate of conversion and rate of complications. In this article, we review the literature on SPLS in hepatobiliary surgery - cholecystectomy, hepatectomy and pancreatectomy, and offer tips on overcoming potential technical obstacles and minimizing the complications when performing SPLS - surgeon position, position of port and instruments, instrument crossing position, standard hand grip vs reverse hand grip, snooker cue guide position, prevention of incisional hernia. SPLS is a promising direction in laparoscopic surgery, and we recommend step-wise progression of applications of SPLS to various hepatopancreatobiliary surgeries to ensure safe adoption of the surgical technique. PMID:25339820

  4. Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Njeze, Gabriel E

    2013-01-01

    Gallstone disease is a worldwide medical problem, but the incidence rates show substantial geographical variation, with the lowest rates reported in African populations. Publications in English language on gallstones which were obtained from reprint requests and PubMed database formed the basis for this paper. Data extracted from these sources included authors, country, year of publication, age and sex of patients, pathogenesis, risk factors for development of gallstones, racial distribution, presenting symptoms, complications and treatment. Gallstones occur worldwide, however it is commonest among North American Indians and Hispanics but low in Asian and African populations. High biliary protein and lipid concentrations are risk factors for the formation of gallstones, while gallbladder sludge is thought to be the usual precursor of gallstones. Biliary calcium concentration plays a part in bilirubin precipitation and gallstone calcification. Treatment of gallstones should be reserved for those with symptomatic disease, while prophylactic cholecystectomy is recommended for specific groups like children, those with sickle cell disease and those undergoing weight-loss surgical treatments. Treatment should be undertaken for a little percentage of patients with gallstones, as majority of those who harbor them never develop symptoms. The group that should undergo cholecystectomy include those with symptomatic gallstones, sickle cell disease patients with gall stones, and patients with morbid obesity who are undergoing laparotomy for other reasons. PMID:24497751

  5. Does ultrasonography accurately diagnose acute cholecystitis? Improving diagnostic accuracy based on a review at a regional hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hamish; Marsh, Ian; Doyle, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common diseases requiring emergency surgery. Ultrasonography is an accurate test for cholelithiasis but has a high false-negative rate for acute cholecystitis. The Murphy sign and laboratory tests performed independently are also not particularly accurate. This study was designed to review the accuracy of ultrasonography for diagnosing acute cholecystitis in a regional hospital. Methods We studied all emergency cholecystectomies performed over a 1-year period. All imaging studies were reviewed by a single radiologist, and all pathology was reviewed by a single pathologist. The reviewers were blinded to each other’s results. Results A total of 107 patients required an emergency cholecystectomy in the study period; 83 of them underwent ultrasonography. Interradiologist agreement was 92% for ultrasonography. For cholelithiasis, ultrasonography had 100% sensitivity, 18% specificity, 81% positive predictive value (PPV) and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). For acute cholecystitis, it had 54% sensitivity, 81% specificity, 85% PPV and 47% NPV. All patients had chronic cholecystitis and 67% had acute cholecystitis on histology. When combined with positive Murphy sign and elevated neutrophil count, an ultrasound showing cholelithiasis or acute cholecystitis yielded a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 62%, PPV of 80% and NPV of 53% for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Ultrasonography alone has a high rate of false-negative studies for acute cholecystitis. However, a higher rate of accurate diagnosis can be achieved using a triad of positive Murphy sign, elevated neutrophil count and an ultrasound showing cholelithiasis or cholecystitis. PMID:24869607

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PREOPERATIVE ULTRASONOGRAPHY REPORTS WITH INTRAOPERATIVE SURGICAL FINDINGS IN CHOLELITHIASIS

    PubMed Central

    KREIMER, Flávio; CUNHA, Daniel José Dias; FERREIRA, Carolina Cavalcanti Gonçalves; RODRIGUES, Thais Menezes; FULCO, Lucas Gomes de Morais; GODOY, Eduardo Sávio Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely used for cholelithiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography often precedes this operation and can prove diagnosis, as well as helps in showing possible complications during the perioperative period. Aim: Evaluate the description of variables of gallbladder and bile ducts present in reports of preoperative abdominal ultrasonography in cholelithiasis comparing with surgical findings. Methods: Were studied 91 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy with previous abdominal ultrasonography. Variables such as identification and amount of gallstones involved were evaluated, both in preoperative ultrasonography and during surgery to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, concordance and positive and negative predictive values. Results: The reports did not mention diameter of vesicular light (98.9%), organ distension (62.6%), gallstone sizes (58.2%), wall thickness (41.8%) and evaluation of the common bile duct (39.6%). Ultrasound had high values for sensitivity, consistency and positive predictive value for identifying the presence/absence of gallstones: 98.8%, 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. As for the amount of stones, ultrasonography showed agreement in 82.7%, negative predictive value in 89.1% and specificity in 87.7%, with lower values for sensitivity (68.2%) and positive predictive value (65.2%). Conclusions: The ultrasound reports were flawed in standardization. Significant percentage of them did not have variables that could predict perioperative complications and surgical conversion. PMID:27120735

  7. A Phrygian Cap

    PubMed Central

    van Kamp, Marie-Janne S.; Bouman, Donald E.; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Klaase, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    A Phrygian cap is a congenital anomaly of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. It can simulate a mass in the liver during hepatobiliary imaging and is sometimes mistaken for pathology. A Phrygian cap, however, has no pathological significance and normally causes no symptoms. A case will be presented where a Phrygian cap was found by coincidence during surgery. The patient was operated for colon cancer with liver metastasis in segment V. He underwent a simultaneous right hemicolectomy and wedge resection of the liver lesion. During perioperative inspection, a gallbladder with a folded fundus was seen. This deformity was, in retrospective, detected on the preoperative MRI scan. The patient underwent cholecystectomy to make the wedge resection easier to perform. Otherwise, cholecystectomy for a Phrygian cap is only indicated in case of symptoms. Radiographic imaging can be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, there is no recent literature about the Phrygian cap and its imaging aspects. Nowadays, multiphase MRI, or multiphase CT in case of MRI contraindication, are the first choices of hepatobiliary imaging. PMID:24019768

  8. Genetics and epidemiology of gallbladder disease in New World native peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, K M; Ferrell, R E; Hanis, C L; Styne, P N

    1984-01-01

    Native peoples of the New World, including Amerindians and admixed Latin Americans such as Mexican-Americans, are highly susceptible to diseases of the gallbladder. These include cholesterol cholelithiasis (gallstones) and its complications, as well as cancer of the gallbladder. Although there is clearly some necessary dietary or other environmental risk factor involved, the pattern of disease prevalence is geographically associated with the distribution of genes of aboriginal Amerindian origin, and levels of risk generally correspond to the degree of Amerindian admixture. This pattern differs from that generally associated with Westernization, which suggests a gene-environment interaction, and that within an admixed population there is a subset whose risk is underestimated when admixture is ignored. The risk that an individual of a susceptible New World genotype will undergo a cholecystectomy by age 85 can approach 40% in Mexican-American females, and their risk of gallbladder cancer can reach several percent. These are heretofore unrecognized levels of risk, especially of the latter, because previous studies have not accounted for admixture or for the loss of at-risk individuals due to cholecystectomy. A genetic susceptibility may, thus, be as "carcinogenic" in New World peoples as any known major environmental exposure; yet, while the risk has a genetic basis, its expression as gallbladder cancer is so delayed as to lead only very rarely to multiply-affected families. Estimates in this paper are derived in part from two studies of Mexican-Americans in Starr County and Laredo, Texas. PMID:6517051

  9. Litigious consequences of open and laparoscopic biliary surgical mishaps.

    PubMed

    Chandler, J G; Voyles, C R; Floore, T L; Bartholomew, L A

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred six injuries or complications coincident to 296 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were analyzed for the nature and extent of injuries and litigious outcomes that followed. The data were drawn from 31 member companies of the Physician Insurers Association of America, a trade association that initiated the study. The outcomes were compared to 261 contemporaneous open cholecystectomy claims. Biliary tract injuries were the most common, accounting for almost two thirds of all injuries. The spectrum of cases, originally selected for indemnity potential, reflected relative incidences in the medical literature. Laparoscopic injuries were significantly more severe, more likely to result in indemnity, and more apt to involve higher mean +/- standard deviation dollar values (160 dollars +/- 154 x 10(3)) to surviving claimants than injuries resulting from open procedures (106 dollars +/- 122 x 10(3), P = 0.01). Injury recognition at the time of the original procedure had no discernible mitigating effect because 80% of recognized injuries required an additional operative procedure. Risk-aversive behavior should include paying particular attention to placement of the first port, more liberal use of the Hasson technique, placement of all other ports under direct vision, elimination of intraoperative anatomic uncertainty, programmed inspection of the abdomen before withdrawing the laparoscope, and acquiring sufficient knowledge of electrosurgical principles to ensure the safe use of this potentially dangerous modality. PMID:9834340

  10. Pathogenesis and Management of Hepatolithiasis: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Gourav; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Barwad, Adarsh; Pottakkat, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Hepatolithiasis or primary intrahepatic stones are prevalent in the Far-East countries such as Korea, Japan and Taiwan. It has been associated with helminthiasis, bacterial infections, environmental and dietary factors. Despite high prevalence of helminthiasis like ascariasis, poor environmental condition and low protein diet, India and Middle-East countries have a low incidence of hepatolithiasis. We report two cases of hepatolithiasis associated with bacterial infections and were surgically managed. The first case is a 45-year-old female presenting with upper abdominal pain and fever. She had multiple calculi in intrahepatic biliary radicles, common bile duct, common hepatic duct and gall bladder. She was managed by cholecystectomy, left lateral liver sectionectomy, choledochoscopy assisted stone clearance of the residual liver and Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy. The second case is a 60-year-old female presenting with epigastric pain and fever and past history of cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. She had multiple right and left intrahepatic calculi and managed by left lateral liver sectionectomy with excision of CBD and Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy. Both the cases showed growth of bacteria in the culture of the intraoperatively collected bile. PMID:27134934

  11. Health Information: What Can Mobile Phone Assessments Add?

    PubMed Central

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients’ health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures. In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires. The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients. The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23209453

  12. Comparative efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine, clonidine, and tramadol in postanesthesia shivering

    PubMed Central

    Sahi, Shikha; Singh, Mirley Rupinder; Katyal, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postanesthesia shivering continues to be a major challenge in the perioperative care. We compared the efficacy of tramadol, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine in preventing postoperative shivering and its potential adverse effects in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 received clonidine 2 μg/kg, Group 2 received tramadol 1 mg/kg, Group 3 received dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg all intravenous diluted in NS to 5 ml, and Group 4 received NS intravenous 5 ml. Parameters analysed included postoperative blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, respiratory rate (RR), arterial saturation, and tympanic membrane temperature. Patients were observed for shivering episodes, sedation, pain, respiratory depression, nausea, and vomiting. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post-hoc comparison, Chi-square test and Bonferroni post-hoc comparison test were performed using SPSS (Statistical analysis by Statistical Package of Social Sciences of Microsoft Windows) Statistics (version 16.0). Results: The incidence of shivering was 10, 3.3, 13.3 and 40% in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Patients who were given tramadol had significantly less shivering than patients in clonidine and dexmedetomidine groups (P < 0.01). Conclusion: All the three drugs were effective in preventing postoperative shivering. However, tramadol has been found to be more efficacious in preventing postoperative shivering. PMID:27275057

  13. Percutaneous Cholecystostomy for Patients with Acute Cholecystitis and an Increased Surgical Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Overhagen, Hans van; Meyers, Hjalmar; Tilanus, Hugo W.; Jeekel, Johannes; Lameris, Johan S.

    1996-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate percutaneous cholecystostomy in patients with acute cholecystitis and an increased surgical risk. Methods: Thirty-three patients with acute cholecystitis (calculous, n= 22; acalculous, n= 11) underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy by means of a transhepatic (n= 21) or transperitoneal (n= 12) access route. Clinical and laboratory parameters were retrospectively studied to determine the benefit from cholecystostomy. Results: All procedures were technically successful. Twenty-two (67%) patients improved clinically within 48 hr; showing a significant decrease in body temperature (n= 13), normalization of the white blood cell count (n= 3), or both (n= 6). There were 6 (18%) minor/moderate complications (transhepatic access, n= 3; transperitoneal access, n= 3). Further treatment for patients with calculous cholecystitis was cholecystectomy (n= 9) and percutaneous and endoscopic stone removal (n= 8). Further treatment for patients with acalculous cholecystitis was cholecystectomy (n= 2) and gallbladder ablation (n= 2). There were 4 deaths (12%) either in hospital or within 30 days of drainage; none of the deaths was procedure-related. Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with acute cholecystitis. For most patients with acalculous cholecystitis percutaneous cholecystostomy may be considered a definitive therapy. In calculous disease this treatment is often only temporizing and a definitive surgical, endoscopic, or radiologic treatment becomes necessary.

  14. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5–1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  15. Dieulafoy lesion of the gallbladder presenting with bleeding and a pseudo-mirizzi syndrome: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Stanes, Aaron; Mackay, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal bleeding can have significant morbidity and mortality. Pathological processes that cause it are diverse, and timely investigation and management are vital. Dieulafoy lesions are a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding and here we describe a case of a gallbladder dieulafoy lesion causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Presentation of case Recently discharged from hospital following an open anterior resection and loop ileostomy for diverticular disease, an 84-year-old female re-presented with lower abdominal pain associated with jaundice and lymphocytosis. Imaging demonstrated two possible rectal stump collections (treated with antibiotics), and heterogeneous material in the gallbladder. The patient deteriorated, developing melena, coffee ground vomitus and right upper quadrant pain. Investigation sourced the bleeding to the gallbladder that resolved following cholecystectomy, and histopathology was consistent with a dieulafoy lesion. The patient made a full recovery. Discussion Dieulafoy lesions have rarely been reported in the gallbladder, and as such can be an occult source of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. It should be considered where gastrointestinal bleeding accompanies jaundice and abdominal pain. Conclusion This case highlights that dieulafoy lesions can occur in the gallbladder. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding can occur within the gallbladder, and a gallbladder dieulafoy lesion should be considered as a potential cause of such, especially when a source has not been identified on endoscopy. It also demonstrates the effectiveness of cholecystectomy as a definitive management strategy. PMID:26878358

  16. Deconstructing the "July Effect" in Operative Outcomes: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ammara A; Bliss, Lindsay A; Cameron, Danielle B; Tseng, Jennifer F; Kent, Tara S

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between hospital teaching status, failure to rescue, and time of year in select gastrointestinal operations. Procedure codes for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, colectomy, and pancreatectomy were queried from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2004-2011). Failure to rescue was defined as inpatient mortality when ≥1 complication. A total of 2,777,267 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 2,519,903 colectomies, and 129,619 pancreatectomies were performed. Teaching hospitals had increased overall rates of failure to rescue compared to non-teaching hospitals, 10.0 vs. 9.5 % (p = 0.0187), particularly between May and August. There was greater inter-month variability in non-teaching hospitals amongst individual operations. On multivariable analysis, July was not predictive of increased odds of failure to rescue. Teaching status, hospital characteristics, and patient demographics were associated with increased odds of failure to rescue. Although teaching hospitals have a higher overall failure to rescue rate amongst the selected gastrointestinal operations, odds of failure to rescue are not increased in the month of July. Non-teaching hospitals tend to exhibit more monthly variation in failure to rescue rates, and hospital/patient demographics are predictive of failure to rescue. Further investigation targeted at identifying drivers of temporal variation is warranted to optimize patient outcomes. PMID:26932502

  17. Early modification of sickle cell disease clinical course by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 gene promoter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rute; Morais, Anabela; Dias, Alexandra; Soares, Isabel; Rolão, Cristiana; Ducla-Soares, J L; Braga, Lígia; Seixas, Teresa; Nunes, Baltazar; Olim, Gabriel; Romão, Luísa; Lavinha, João; Faustino, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Elevated erythrocyte destruction in sickle cell disease (SCD) results in chronic hyperbilirubinaemia and, in a subset of patients, cholelithiasis occurs. We investigated whether the (TA)n promoter polymorphism in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 gene (UGT1A1) may modify bilirubin metabolism, influencing bilirubinaemia, predisposition to cholelithiasis and subsequent cholecystectomy, in a group of 153 young SCD patients (mean age 12.0 +/- 9.0 years) predominantly of Bantu beta S haplotype. The concomitant effect of alpha thalassaemia was also analysed. Among the several UGT1A1 genotypes found, the most frequent were the (TA)6/(TA)6 (n = 37), (TA)6/(TA)7 (n = 60) and (TA)7/(TA)7 (n = 29). These groups of patients did not significantly differ in age, gender ratio and haemoglobin, foetal haemoglobin and reticulocyte levels. On the other hand, total bilirubin levels were significantly different between groups, with an increased (TA) repeat number being associated with higher bilirubinaemia. Furthermore, both cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy were more frequent in groups with higher (TA) repeat number, although the former association was not statistically significant. None of the mentioned parameters is statistically different within UGT1A1 groups with the presence of alpha thalassaemia. Thus, the UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism may represent an important nonglobin genetic modifier of Bantu SCD patients' clinical manifestations, even at a young age. PMID:18392554

  18. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Primary gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors are extremely rare, representing 0.2% of all neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis is incidental in most cases. Case presentation We describe the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the evaluation of a gallbladder polyp that had been incidentally detected by ultasonography. Histologically, his lesion was composed of monomorphic cells that contained small round nuclei and that were organized in small nodular, trabecular, and acinar structures. His cells were positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, and a diagnosis of "typical" carcinoid of the gallbladder was made. His post-operative computerized axial tomography, 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy, and hormone-specific marker results were negative. He is disease-free 45 months after surgical treatment. Conclusions Characteristic pathological findings of the gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors predict the prognosis. Whereas classical carcinoids of the gallbladder only rarely have a metastatic or invasive phenotype, the "atypical" variants are more aggressive and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Given the difficulty in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions in the pre-surgical setting, we tend to consider each polypoid-like lesion of the gallbladder to be a high-risk lesion if it is larger than 1 cm and, as a result, to emphasize the need for cholecystectomy in all cases, relying on the pathological and immunohistochemistry analyses for the final diagnosis. PMID:21801379

  19. “Protective Premedication”: A Comparative Study of Acetaminophen, Gabapentin and Combination of Acetaminophen with Gabapentin for Post-Operative Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Syal, Kartik; Goma, Mandeep; Dogra, Ravi K; Ohri, Anil; Gupta, Ashok K; Goel, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background: We carried out a study to evaluate the effects of protective premedication with Acetaminophen, Gabapentin and combination of Acetaminophen with Gabapentin on post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing open cholecys-tectomy under general anesthesia. Patients & Methods: The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized and controlled manner in 120 consenting patients of either sex belonging to ASA physical status grade I and II, between the age groups of 20 to 50 years, weighing between 40 to 65 kg and undergoing elective surgery (open cholecystectomy) under general anesthesia. The patients were divided into 4 groups: 1: placebo, 2: Acetaminophen 1000 mg, 3: 1200 mg Gabapentin, 4: Acetaminphen 1000 mg plus 1200 mg Gabapentin. The drugs were given two hours before induction. Time, number and total amount of rescue analgesic (tramadol) and VAS score at rest and on movement. Side effects like any episode of nausea/vomiting and level of sedation were noted. Results: Premedication with antihyperalgesic and analgesic agents helps to decrease postoperative pain scores. Gabapentin premedication is effective for providing better postoperative pain relief with lower and delayed requirements of rescue analgesics, but causes more episodes of nausea and vomiting and higher levels of sedation. PMID:21547185

  20. Gossypiboma causing mechanical intestinal obstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Akin; Akkucuk, Seckin; Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Karcioglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Gossypiboma (GP) is a term used to express the mass resulting from forgotten cotton sponge in operations. Rarely, a transmural migration may occur into the gastrointestinal lumen without creating any defect by GP. Laparotomy or endoscopic removal may be required, by the way it can be taken out of the body itself by intestinal ways. In this study, we reported a case of mechanical intestinal obstruction causing GP. Case. The fifty-one-year-old female patient admitted to the emergency department with the complaints of mechanical intestinal obstruction and had a history of open cholecystectomy 20 years ago. There were the findings of intestinal obstruction in abdominal plain radiography and computerized tomography. The sponge that obstructed the lumen completely 40 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve was identified in the laparotomy with the diagnosis of brid ileus. The small intestine was closed over double-fold after removal of sponge. Transmural migration of abdominal-remained sponge was thought to be occurred without creating a defect after cholecystectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was discharged without having any problems at 4th day of hospitalization. Conclusion. Although it is a rare situation in routine clinical practice, GP should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the patients who had a diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction, and laparotomy was applied before. As GP may lead to situations which cause mortality, all precautions should be taken to prevent it. PMID:23133784

  1. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: differentiation from associated gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, R V Raghavendra; Kumar, Ashok; Sikora, Sadiq S; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2005-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a destructive form of chronic cholecystitis. In some patients it coexists with gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) and is often difficult to differentiate between the two. Present study was performed with an aim to identify differentiating features of XGC and those of XGC with associated Gall bladder carcinoma (XGC ass. GBC). A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 4800 cholecystectomies performed from January 1988 to December 2003 was carried out. On histopathology 453 cholecystectomy specimens revealed XGC. These patients were divided into two groups, those with associated GBC (n=26) and those without GBC (n=427). Clinical, radiological and operative findings were compared in these two groups. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The incidence of associated GBC in present series was 6%. XGC patients with associated GBC, at presentation were older than those with XGC alone and there was male preponderance. XGC patients with associated GBC were more likely to present with anorexia, weight loss, palpable lump and jaundice. Gall stones were present in majority of patients in both the groups. GB wall thickening, GB mass, enlarged abdominal lymph nodes may be found on imaging in both the groups but more so in patients with associated GBC. Both preoperative FNAC and peroperative FNAC/imprint cytology failed to reveal the associated GBC with XGC in some patients. PMID:15974235

  2. Clinical indications and accuracy of gray scale ultrasonography in the patient with suspected biliary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Prian, G W; Norton, L W; Eule, J; Eiseman, B

    1977-12-01

    One hundred patients with suspected biliary tract disease underwent gray scale cholecystosonography (GSCS) and had diagnostic confirmation by oral cholecystogram (OCG) and/or operation. Ultrasonography demonstrated the gallbladder in 94 of the 100 patients; 2 patients had had previous cholecystectomy and 3 of the 4 remaining patients had documented stones with no confirmation of a nonvisualizing OCG in the other patient. Among the 88 patients with OCG, GSCS findings correlated in 91 per cent (2 per cent false-positive; 7 per cent false-negative). Among the 43 operative patients, GSCS was proven correct in 91 per cent (no false positive; 9 per cent false-negative). Of 12 patients with jaundice GSCS correlated with operative findings in 75 per cent (no false-positive; 25 per cent false-negative). Diagnostic errors occurred in patients with very small biliary calculi, particularly when a single stone was impacted in the cystic duct. Failure to identify the gallbladder with ultrasound signifies probable cholelithiasis in the patient without previous cholecystectomy. On the basis of this experience, we conclude that (1) GSCS is most useful when jaundice or acute illness precludes conventional studies; (2) GSCS provides an inexpensive, quick, accurate means of diagnosing cholelithiasis with a very high specificity (97 per cent) and moderate sensitivity (88 per cent); and (3) GSCS is the optimal diagnostic procedure for evaluating the biliary tract in the acutely ill, jaundiced, vomiting, allergic, and/or pregnant patient. PMID:596532

  3. Surgical management of acute cholecystitis. Results of a nation-wide survey among Spanish surgeons.

    PubMed

    Badia, Josep M; Nve, Esther; Jimeno, Jaime; Guirao, Xavier; Figueras, Joan; Arias-Díaz, Javier

    2014-10-01

    There is a wide variability in the management of acute cholecystitis. A survey among the members of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) analyzed the preferences of Spanish surgeons for its surgical management. The majority of the 771 responders didn't declare any subspecialty (41.6%), 21% were HPB surgeons, followed by colorectal and upper-GI specialities. Early cholecystectomy during the first admission is the preferred method of management of 92.3% of surgeons, but only 42.7% succeed in adopting this practice. The most frequent reasons for changing their preferred practice were: Patients not fit for surgery (43.6%) and lack of availability of emergency operating room (35.2%). A total of 88.9% perform surgery laparoscopically. The majority of AEC surgeons advise index admission cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, although only half of them succeed in its actual implementation. There is room for improvement in the management of acute cholecystitis in Spanish hospitals. PMID:24857607

  4. Miniinvasive surgical management of cholelithiasis for elderly and senile patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gurgenidze, M; Kiladze, M; Beriashvili, Z

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze outcomes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and minilaparotomy cholecystectomy (MC) for gallstone disease and determine the algorithm of treatment for elderly and senile patients according to the age, severity of disease and comorbid conditions. This is a multicenter retrospective review of 906 elderly and senile patients who underwent LC or MC between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2008. The patients were categorized into LC (444) and MC (462) groups. When preoperative examination data were not reliable, we performed abdominal wall lifting with the retractors to visualise abdominal cavity with laparoscope during minilaparotomy. There were statistically significant differences in mean operating time (82 and 60 minutes in LC and MC, respectively) (р<0.001), mean duration of usage of non-narcotic analgesics postoperatively in elderly patients (1.5 and 1.1 days in LC and MC, respectively) (р<0.001), intraoperative complications (11 LC and 2 MC cases) (p=0.02), postoperative complications in senile patients (36 LC and 22 MC cases) (p=0.039) and in mean hospital stay for elderly patients (1.7 and 1.3 days in LC and MC, respectively) (p=0.025). MC is an attractive alternative of LC, especially for elderly and senile patients, with their high incidence of acute cholecystitis. MC is effective, safe and optimal operative procedure. Especially, it is important for countries with lower economic capacity. PMID:23863204

  5. Conversion of Percutaneous Cholecystostomy to Internal Transmural Gallbladder Drainage Using an Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided, Lumen-Apposing Metal Stent.

    PubMed

    Law, Ryan; Grimm, Ian S; Stavas, Joseph M; Baron, Todd H

    2016-03-01

    Patients with acute cholecystitis sometimes require placement of percutaneous cholecystostomy catheters, either as a bridge to surgery or as primary therapy. In patients who cannot undergo surgery, subsequent removal of the catheter can lead to recurrence of cholecystitis, whereas leaving the drain in place can cause adverse events. We investigated internalization of percutaneous cholecystostomy drainage catheters, using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided placement of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) as an alternative treatment strategy. Seven patients (median age, 57 years; 6 men) underwent EUS-guided cholecystoenterostomy for internalization of gallbladder drainage with EUS-guided placement of a 10- or 15-mm LAMS. All had initially been treated with placement of a percutaneous cholecystostomy catheter for cholecystitis and were later deemed unfit for cholecystectomy. Technical success was achieved in all patients in 1 endoscopic session, with subsequent removal of all percutaneous drains. Two patients required placement of self-expandable metal stents within the LAMS to successfully bridge the gallbladder and gastrointestinal lumen. No adverse events occurred after a median follow-up of 2.5 months. EUS-guided cholecystoenterostomy using a LAMS is therefore a viable option for internal gallbladder drainage in patients who have a percutaneous cholecystostomy catheter and are poor candidates for cholecystectomy. PMID:26528802

  6. Pathogenesis and Management of Hepatolithiasis: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Dey, Biswajit; Kaushal, Gourav; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Barwad, Adarsh; Pottakkat, Biju

    2016-03-01

    Hepatolithiasis or primary intrahepatic stones are prevalent in the Far-East countries such as Korea, Japan and Taiwan. It has been associated with helminthiasis, bacterial infections, environmental and dietary factors. Despite high prevalence of helminthiasis like ascariasis, poor environmental condition and low protein diet, India and Middle-East countries have a low incidence of hepatolithiasis. We report two cases of hepatolithiasis associated with bacterial infections and were surgically managed. The first case is a 45-year-old female presenting with upper abdominal pain and fever. She had multiple calculi in intrahepatic biliary radicles, common bile duct, common hepatic duct and gall bladder. She was managed by cholecystectomy, left lateral liver sectionectomy, choledochoscopy assisted stone clearance of the residual liver and Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy. The second case is a 60-year-old female presenting with epigastric pain and fever and past history of cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. She had multiple right and left intrahepatic calculi and managed by left lateral liver sectionectomy with excision of CBD and Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy. Both the cases showed growth of bacteria in the culture of the intraoperatively collected bile. PMID:27134934

  7. Management of general surgical problems after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jones, M T; Menkis, A H; Kostuk, W J; McKenzie, F N

    1988-07-01

    Over a 6-year period at the University Hospital in London, Ont., 101 patients underwent heart transplantation and 5 heart-lung transplantation. The authors review the general surgical problems identified from the charts of 13 of these patients. In the early postoperative period (within 30 days), laparotomy was required for pancreatitis (one), perforated peptic ulcer (two), cholecystectomy (one), pancreatic cyst (one) and appendicitis (one). In addition, a spontaneous colocutaneous fistula and spontaneous pneumoperitoneum occurred; both were managed conservatively. Later, three patients required cholecystectomy; one underwent a below-knee and a Symes amputation for dry gangrene and one surgical correction of a lymphocele. The incidence of surgical problems (13%) indicates an increased susceptibility in this group of patients. Four of the 13 patients died. Pancreatitis is a well-recognized complication of cardiac surgery; it is frequently associated with a normal or only slightly elevated serum amylase level, making a definitive diagnosis without laparotomy almost impossible. Persistence of abdominal signs should signal the need for exploratory surgery. During the early postoperative period and in the absence of multiorgan failure, immediate operation for an acute abdomen is usually successful. Despite the additional risk, cardiac transplantation does not preclude later surgery, but immunosuppression must be continued and carefully monitored. PMID:3292032

  8. Hepatocellular progenitor cell tumor of the gallbladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, Indira; Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2005-06-01

    A 75-year-old man presented to his physician with weakness, anorexia, and constant right upper quadrant pain. He underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was converted to an open cholecystectomy due to presumed adhesions. Direct examination of the liver was negative for masses or lesions. A CT scan was negative for masses or nodules. The gallbladder was 8.5 x 2.5 cm(2), with a diffusely thick wall measuring 2.5 cm. Microscopic examination showed a monomorphic tumor consisting of cells with increased nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and occasional nucleoli, infiltrating the entire gallbladder uniformly. The tumor cells that reacted to antibodies directed against HepPar1, CAM 5.2, CK19 and scattered cells were immunoreactive for CD117, CD34, and CD56. This immunohistochemical profile suggested a 'hepatocellular progenitor cell tumor of the gall bladder'. This report is, to our knowledge, the first such case of a tumor of this cell type reported in the gallbladder. In addition, we present a review of the literature. PMID:15696116

  9. Sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and its relationship with duodenal-biliary reflux, plasma motilin and serum gastrin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Wang, Bing; Su, Yang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Wang, Hao-Lin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenal-biliary reflux by measuring the radioactivity of Tc99m-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) in the bile and whether the patients with duodenal-biliary reflux have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, by measuring the level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients. Finally to if there is close relationship among sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, duodenal-biliary reflux and gastrointestinal peptides. METHODS: Forty-five patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy were divided into reflux group and control group. The level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients and of 12 healthy volunteers were measured by radioimmunoassay. Thirty-four were selected randomly to undergo choledochoscope manometry. Sphincter of Oddi basal pressure (SOBP), amplitude (SOCA), frequency of contractions (SOF), duration of contractions (SOD), duodenal pressure (DP) and common bile duct pressure (CBDP) were scored and analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen (35.6%) patients were detected to have duodenal-biliary reflux. SOBP, SOCA and CBDP in the reflux group were much lower than the control group (t = 5.254, 3.438 and 3.527, P < 0.001). SOD of the reflux group was shorter than the control group (t = 2.049, P < 0.05). The level of serum gastrin and plasma motilin of the reflux group was much lower than the control group (t = -2.230 and -2.235, P < 0.05). There was positive correlation between the level of plasma motilin and SOBP and between the level of serum gastrin and SOBP and CBDP. CONCLUSION: About 35.9% of the patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenal-biliary reflux. Most of them have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and the decreased level of plasma motilin and serum gastrin. The disorder of gastrointestinal hormone secretion may result in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. There is a close relationship between sphincter of Oddi

  10. Simultaneous hemodynamic and echocardiographic changes during abdominal gas insufflation.

    PubMed

    Myre, K; Buanes, T; Smith, G; Stokland, O

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular changes during CO2 pneumoperitoneum. We performed simultaneous hemodynamic recordings and transesophageal echocardiographic measurements of possible alterations in cardiac dimensions. Seven patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were investigated. With an intraabdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg, mean arterial pressure increased from 75 to 93 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Despite the increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) from 10 (9.5-12) to 17 (16-19.9) mm Hg (p < 0.05), left ventricular end-diastolic area index (EDAI) did not change significantly. The cardiac index remained unchanged. Thus abdominal gas insufflation substantially alters the PCWP/EDAI relation. During pneumoperitoneum, left ventricular filling pressure, estimated by PCWP, cannot be used as an indicator of left ventricular dilation. PMID:9348623

  11. Gallstones: new insights into an old story

    PubMed Central

    Tiderington, Evan; Lee, Sum P.; Ko, Cynthia W.

    2016-01-01

    Gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, are common in Western populations and may cause symptoms such as biliary colic or complications such as acute cholecystitis or gallstone pancreatitis. Recent studies have allowed for a better understanding of the risk of symptoms or complications in patients with gallstones. In addition, newer data suggest an association of gallstones with overall mortality, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal cancers, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Knowledge of appropriate indications and timing of cholecystectomy, particularly for mild biliary pancreatitis, has gradually accumulated. Lastly, there are exciting possibilities for novel agents to treat or prevent cholesterol stone disease. This review covers new advances in our understanding of the natural history, clinical associations, and management of gallstone disease. PMID:27508070

  12. Technique of laparoscopic posterior truncal vagotomy and anterior seromyotomy using endoscopic esophogeal transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David M.; Tortella, Bartholomew J.; Dolan, William V.; Pennino, Ralph P.; Treat, Michael R.

    1993-05-01

    The unprecedented rapid and successful adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has prompted the evaluation of converting other standard open surgical procedures to a laparoscopic technique. A wide variety of laparoscopic acid reduction procedures have been successfully accomplished by groups in this country and abroad. Our group reviewed the literature on the many types of open peptic ulcer operations, as well as the ones performed laparoscopically. We elected to perfect the technique of posterior truncal vagotomy and anterior seromyotomy (PTVAS). After extensive animal laboratory work, we performed PTVAS on four patients with documented recurrent peptic ulcer disease. We describe our technique as it evolved and in particular note the usefulness of endoscopic esophageal transillumination. In addition, we report our results and discuss their implications.

  13. Novel challenges of multi-society investigator-initiated studies: a paradigm shift for technique and technology evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Hawes, Robert H; Rattner, David W; Kochman, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of innovative techniques and novel technologies into clinical practice is a challenge that confronts all aspects of healthcare delivery. Upheaval from shrinking research funding and declining healthcare reimbursements now forces patients, doctors, hospitals, payers, regulators, and even health systems into conflict as new therapies struggle to find a place in the therapeutic armamentarium. The escalating costs of healthcare force all parties to consider both the medical risks/benefits as well as the economic efficiency of proposed tools and therapies. We highlight these challenges by examining the process of initiating and conducting a "society-as-investigator" clinical trial to assess the safety of the natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to cholecystectomy in the context of the issues that confront technology diffusion today. PMID:23754451

  14. Laparoendoscopic single-site concomitant surgery for gallstones and a giant ovarian teratoma.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Akihisa; Osuga, Yutaka; Sakurabashi, Ayako; Hisatomi, Shinya; Kaneko, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Yano, Tetsu; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kozuma, Shiro

    2013-08-01

    Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) technique has gained popularity in several fields of surgery. Our patient had multiple gallstones and a left ovarian mature cystic teratoma 12 cm in diameter. She underwent concomitant laparoscopic cholecystectomy and adnectomy using LESS technique. Using a transient gasless technique resulted in the extraction of a giant ovarian tumor through the umbilical incision with no leakage into the abdominal cavity. Concomitant LESS surgery is feasible and has many benefits both for patients and doctors - cosmetics, possibly less pain, avoidance of multiple surgeries and cost-effectiveness. LESS technique is also useful for extracting a giant tumor with the transient gasless technique. This novel method might be applied to the removal of a tumor suspicious for malignancy. PMID:23879416

  15. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  16. Transvaginal endoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eung Jin; Jeong, Gui Ae; Jung, Jun Chul; Cho, Gyu Seok; Lim, Chul Wan; Kim, Hyung Chul; Song, Ok Pyung

    2010-12-01

    Since Kalloo and colleagues first reported the feasibility and safety of a peroral transgastric approach in the porcine model in 2004, various groups have reported more complex natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures, such as the cholecystectomy, splenectomy and liver biopsy, in the porcine model. Natural orifice access to the abdominal cavity, such as transgastric, transvesical, transcolonic, and transvaginal, has been described. Although a novel, minimally invasive approach to the abdominal cavity is a peroral endoscopic transgastric approach, there are still some challenging issues, such as the risk of infection and leakage, and the method of gastric closure. Hybrid-NOTES is an ideal first step in humans. Human hybrid transvaginal access has been used for years by many surgeons for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Here, we report a transvaginal flexible endoscopic appendectomy, with a 5-mm umbilical port using ultrasonic scissors in a 74-year-old woman with acute appendicitis. PMID:21221245

  17. NOTES in Europe: summary of the working group reports of the 2012 EURO-NOTES meeting.

    PubMed

    Meining, A; Spaun, G; Fernández-Esparrach, G; Arezzo, A; Wilhelm, D; Martinek, J; Spicak, J; Feussner, H; Fuchs, K H; Hucl, T; Meisner, S; Neuhaus, H

    2013-01-01

    The sixth EURO-NOTES workshop (4 - 6 October 2012, Prague, Czech Republic) focused on enabling intensive scientific dialogue and interaction between surgeons, gastroenterologists, and engineers/industry representatives and discussion of the state of the practice and development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in Europe. In accordance with previous meetings, five working groups were formed. In 2012, emphasis was put on specific indications for NOTES and interventional endoscopy. Each group was assigned an important indication related to ongoing research in NOTES and interventional endoscopy: cholecystectomy and appendectomy, therapy of colorectal diseases, therapy of adenocarcinoma and neoplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract, treating obesity, and new therapeutic approaches for achalasia. This review summarizes consensus statements of the working groups. PMID:23446668

  18. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  19. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: new minimally invasive surgery come of age.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Huang, Ren-Xiang; Qiu, Zheng-Jun

    2011-10-21

    Although in the past two decades, laparoscopic surgery, considered as a great revolution in the minimally invasive surgery field, has undergone major development worldwide, another dramatic surgical revolution has quietly appeared in recent years. Ever since Kalloo's first report on transgastric peritoneoscopy in a porcine model in 2004, interest in a new surgical procedure named natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has blossomed worldwide. Considering that a NOTES procedure could theoretically avoid any abdominal incision, operation-related pain and scarring, many surgeons and endoscopists have been enthusiastic in their study of this new technique. In recent years, several NOTES studies have been carried out on porcine models and even on humans, including transvaginal cholecystectomy, transgastric appendectomy, transvaginal appendectomy, and transvesical peritoneoscopy. So what is the current situation of NOTES and how many challenges do we still face? This review discusses the current research progress in NOTES. PMID:22110263

  20. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of roundworms in gallbladder and common bile duct. Report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Gomez, N A; Leon, C J; Ortiz, O

    1993-01-01

    Four patients who complained of symptoms and signs compatible with biliary tract disease and in whom the diagnosis of gallbladder (three cases) and common bile duct ascariasis (one case) was made sonographically are reported. In two patients with gallbladder ascariasis, cholecystectomy corroborated the presence of the round-worms, and was curative. The third patient was a pregnant woman (32nd gestational week) who took piperazine citrate, and a second sonogram performed 29 days later was completely normal. The fourth patient with common bile duct ascariasis underwent choledochotomy with extraction of one ascaris lumbricoides from the common duct, and a T tube was left in place for 15 days. All patients received antiparasitics and had a favorable outcome. Ultrasonography is an important noninvasive diagnostic procedure in the work-up of these patients, who usually describe a clinical picture suggesting gallstone disease: this is especially true in the presence of pregnancy. PMID:8351609

  1. Gallbladder lymphoma in a miniature dachshund.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Nao; Shibata, Sanae; Sakai, Hiroki; Konno, Hiroaki; Takashima, Satoshi; Kawabe, Mifumi; Mori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Washizu, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old, miniature dachshund was referred for examination and treatment of persistent anorexia, deep yellow-coloured urine and leucocytosis. The clinical sign of jaundice, results from a serum biochemistry profile and ultrasonographic images suggested a biliary tract obstruction. A cholecystectomy was performed to remove the obstruction. Histopathological assessment of the resected gallbladder and partial common bile duct indicated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twelve days after the initial operation, a second procedure was performed due to bile leakage into the abdominal cavity. Chemotherapy was administered twice after the second operation but discontinued, because the dog showed adverse effects. The dog is still alive 24 months after the surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of canine gallbladder lymphoma. PMID:25311915

  2. [Effect of anesthesia with xenon and nitrous oxide with fentanyl on dynamics of cellular immunity and cytokines].

    PubMed

    Kitiashvili, I Z; Burov, N E; Freĭdlin, I S; Khrykova, E V

    2006-01-01

    Immunological parameters were studied at randomization in 60 surgical patients during the similar operation--cholecystectomy made under combined endotracheal low-flow general anesthesia using N2O:O2+fentanyl in 32 patients and Xe:O2 in 28 patients. The time course of changes in cellular immunity and cytokines was closely related to the type of an anesthetic. Unlike N2O:O2+fentanyl, Xe did not show such a marked proinflammatory activity, exerted a mild normalizing effect on leuko- and lymphopoiesis, had an immunostimulating activity, and reduced the frequency of postoperative inflammatory complications and the length of stay at hospital. The differences in the action of the anesthetics were due to the fact that Xe had a greater narcotic potential, a protective action on neuroendocrine function, and no toxicity. Xe is indicated to patients with baseline immunodeficiency. PMID:16758935

  3. First detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with Sarcocystis infection in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza

    2014-06-01

    Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide. PMID:24827104

  4. [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association].

    PubMed

    Brevet, Marie; Brehant, Olivier; Dumont, Frédéric; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Chatelain, Denis

    2007-04-01

    We report one case of adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder in a 57 year-old woman with Gardner's syndrome presenting with cholangitis. On gross examination the gallbladder contained two calculi and numerous flat or polypoid adenomas less than 1 cm in size. On microscopic examination, the adenomas showed low and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Only 10 cases of gallbladder adenomas have been reported in the literature in patients presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Cholecystectomy is usually performed for cholecystitis or cholangitis. These adenomatous gallbladder lesions are discovered late, often when the patient is older than 40. Pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomas is still unclear. It is difficult to assess the risk of malignancy: only 6 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinomas have been reported in patients with FAP. PMID:17483782

  5. Barriers to wider adoption of mobile telerobotic surgery: engineering, clinical and business challenges.

    PubMed

    Moses, Gerald R; Doarn, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    A portable robotic telesurgery network could remove the geographic disparity of surgical care and provide expert surgical support for first responders to traumatic injury. This is particularly relevant to battlefield medicine where surgical intervention is currently not available to the most perilous fighting circumstances. Similar utility applies to the peacetime healthcare mission. The authors identify the potential advantage to healthcare from a mobile robotic telesurgery system and specify barriers to the employability and acceptance of such a system. The proposed research roadmap will describe a portable telesurgery system that represe government/industrial recognition and reward for excellent care provided by quality surgeons. The provision of expert surgical care improves the outcomes of surgical intervention by reducing errors. For example, during the common procedure of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, distributed telesurgical care could normalize surgical performance and limit major variance of surgeon outliers; such as reducing common bile duct injury to the very low rate seen with operation by proficient surgeons. PMID:18391310

  6. Biliary tract injuries after lap cholecystectomy—types, surgical intervention and timing

    PubMed Central

    Bozali, Ferdi; Vamvakerou, Vasileia; Markou, Markos; Memet Chasan, Zeinep Tzoutze; Efraimidou, Eleni; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct lesions, including leaks and strictures, are immanent complications of open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Endoscopic procedures have gained increasing potential as the treatment of choice in the management of postoperative bile duct injuries. Bile duct injury (BDI) is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication of LC. Several series have described a 0.5% to 0.6% incidence of BDI during LC. Early recognition and an adequate multidisciplinary approach are the cornerstones for the optimal final outcome. Suboptimal management of injuries often leads to more extensive damage to the biliary tree and its vasculature. Early referral to a tertiary care center with experienced hepatobiliary surgeons and skilled interventional radiologists would appear to be necessary to assure optimal results. PMID:27275476

  7. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. The Roswell Park experience.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Y N; Douglass, H O; Nava, H R; Driscoll, D L; Tartarian, G

    1989-01-01

    The median survival, from diagnosis, of patients with cancer of the gallbladder is 6 months. Our purpose in reviewing our experience was to identify factors, either in patient characteristics or treatment, that influence this statistic. In 22 years 71 cases of gallbladder carcinoma were referred to Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Most had a cholecystectomy that revealed an unsuspected neoplasm, before referral. Mean age was 62 years and 75% were female. Symptoms, signs, and laboratory and imaging studies were uniformly unhelpful in determining the diagnosis. Early diagnosis at a stage amenable to surgical excision remains the sole salvation. Patients who receive chemotherapy did better than those who did not, but this is probably a reflection of patient selection. Newer treatment modalities are urgently needed. PMID:2589888

  8. Successful treatment of gallbladder mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) carcinomas rarely occur in the gallbladder. Here we reported a case of giant gallbladder unresectable mass with local liver invasion and omentum metastasis, which proved to be neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) by biopsy, received successful radical operation after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plus somatostatin treatment. The patient showed good response as the neoplasm diminished dramatically and showed clear margin after 6 courses of treatment. A radical operation including cholecystectomy, hepatic wedge resection of the gallbladder fossa segment and lymph node of group 8a and 8p resection was performed successfully. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed neuroendocrine carcinoma mixed with adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder wall. Followed up showed no evidence of recurrence after 7 months of the operation. We suggest that neo-adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial to gallbladder mixed neuroendocrine carcinomas in an advanced stage which could also be advantageous to NEC of other organs. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2731892837743787 PMID:23186166

  9. Backscattered electron imaging and windowless energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis: a new technique for gallstone analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, H.S.; Lillemoe, K.D.; Magnuson, T.H.; Frasca, P.; Pitt, H.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with or without conventional energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis is currently used to identify gallstone microstructure and inorganic composition. Organic calcium salts are among many biliary constituents thought to have a role in gallstone nidation and growth. However, current analytical techniques which identify these salts are destructive and compromise gallstone microstructural data. We have developed a new technique for gallstone analysis which provides simultaneous structural and compositional identification of calcium salts within gallstones. Backscattered electron imaging is used to localize calcium within cholesterol at minimum concentrations of 0.01%. Windowless energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis produces elemental spectra of gallstone calcium salts which are qualitatively and quantitatively different. These combined techniques provide simultaneous structural and compositional information obtained from intact gallstone cross-sections and have been used to identify calcium salts in gallstones obtained at cholecystectomy from 106 patients.

  10. Laparoscopic cancer surgery. Lessons from gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wade, T P; Comitalo, J B; Andrus, C H; Goodwin, M N; Kaminski, D L

    1994-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) may inhibit the discovery of unsuspected gallbladder cancer, and the effect of LC on the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is unknown. We present two cases of unsuspected gallbladder cancer removed laparoscopically and report the discovery of peritoneal tumor implantation at the umbilical port site 21 days after LC. Although gallbladder carcinoma flow cytometry has been reported to be of prognostic value by Japanese investigators, this technique did not distinguish herein between an invasive adenocarcinoma and carcinoma in situ. A cellular doubling time of 56 h was calculated from one tumor. When unsuspected invasive gallbladder cancer is found after LC, laparoscopic port sites should be inspected at reoperation and, at a minimum, the port site through which the gallbladder was removed should be widely excised. This demonstration of cancer recurrence in laparoscopic port sites may limit the application of laparoscopy to elective cancer resection. PMID:8059312

  11. [A case of acute cholecystitis after colonoscopy].

    PubMed

    Yun, Jung Ho; Jeong, Woo Jin; Chang, Woo Sung; Jo, Min Hyeong; Park, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Young Don; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-25

    A 43-year-old man, who received total gastrectomy five years ago for advanced gastric cancer, underwent a screening colonoscopy and abdominal CT scan. Abdominal CT scan revealed no abnormal findings. Colonoscopy revealed polyps at the rectum, which were removed by polypectomy. The patient did not complain of abdominal pain or discomfort throughout the procedure. But, he developed right upper quadrant abdominal pain on the next day after colonoscopy. Abdominal CT scan revealed the distended gallbladder with mild wall thickening and suspicious sandy stones or sludge in the gallbladder. The patient underwent an open cholecystectomy. Pathology was compatible with acute cholecystitis. We should be aware of and consider cholecystitis in the differential diagnosis for patients with abdominal pain after colonoscopy. PMID:23354349

  12. [Scarless surgery: a vision becoming reality?].

    PubMed

    Lamm, Sebastian H; Zerz, Andreas; Steinemann, Daniel C

    2016-04-13

    As minimal invasive abdominal surgery became established in the last decades, further minimization of the surgical access is in the focus now. Although laparoscopic instruments and camera systems become diminished in size there is still a need for a minilaparotomy for extraction and anastomosis of organs. NOTES (Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery) aims to avoid this minilaparotomy. Consequently, laparoscopic-assisted procedures become pure laparoscopic surgery. The transvaginal access is the most common performed NOTES procedure. The acceptance in women is high. The feasibility of NOTES cholecystectomy is scientifically proofed. The procedure is associated with less pain than the common four-port laparoscopic surgery and does not interfere with the sexual well-being. There are no access-related infections; the abdominal wound infection and incisional hernia rate are low. In left sided colonic resection the transrectal access makes NOTES available for both genders. PMID:27078729

  13. [Lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver].

    PubMed

    Valdivielso Córtazar, E; Yáñez López, J A; Yáñez Gónzalez-Dopeso, L; Diz-Lois Palomares, M; González Conde, B; Alonso Aguirre, P

    We present the case of a middle-aged woman with antecedents of cholecystectomy and several episodes of resi-dual coledocolitiasis resolved endoscopically. She attended Emergency Services due to a new clinical picture of abdo-minal pain and alteration of hepatic enzymes. Image tests showed lesions that suggested hepatic abscesses without ruling out a malign origin. Given this doubt it was decided to carry out a thick needle biopsy obtaining a diagnosis of an inflammatory pseudotumour of the liver related to IgG4-related disease. This is an infrequent entity but must be taken into consideration because - unlike malign pathology, which is the main differential diagnosis - its behaviour is benign, with a good evolution with medical treatment. That is why a suitable diagnosis is vital to avoid aggressive, diagnostic-therapeutic procedures. PMID:27599958

  14. A rare case of fulminant hemobilia resulting from gallstone erosion of the right hepatic artery.

    PubMed

    Jee, S L; Lim, K F; Krishnan, R

    2014-08-01

    Hemobilia is a rare but potentially lethal condition. The commonest cause of hemobilia is trauma, accounting up to 85% of all cases. Hemobilia caused by gallstones is very rare. Most of the cases of hemobilia are either managed conservatively or treated by embolization. Surgery is indicated only when there is an associated surgical condition or when embolization fails. We report a case of a 72-year-old patient with massive hemobilia caused by gallstone erosion to the adjacent artery, diagnosed intraoperatively. The complication was successfully managed by cholecystectomy and repair of the bleeding vessel. This case highlights the importance that hemobilia should be suspected in patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Although rare, massive hemobilia can be life threatening, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a high index of suspicion and timely intervention are important. PMID:25500850

  15. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Edmond SK; Wong, Chris LP; Lai, Kristi TW; Chan, Edmond CH; Yam, WC; Chan, Angus CW

    2005-01-01

    Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases. PMID:16029488

  16. Splenic artery aneurysm presenting as a submucosal gastric lesion: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Jenny; Honein, Khalil; Abboud, Bassam

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting the rare case of splenic artery aneurysm of 4 cm of diameter presenting as a sub mucosal lesion on gastro-duodenal endoscopy. This aneurysm was treated by endovascular coil embolization and stent graft implantation. The procedure was uneventful. On day 1, the patient presented an acute severe epigastric pain and cardiovascular arrest. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed an active leak of the intravenous contrast dye in the peritoneum from the splenic aneurysm. We performed an emergent resection of the aneurysm, and peritoneal lavage. Postoperatively, hemorrhagic choc was refractory to large volumes replacement, and intravenous vaso-active drugs. On day 2, he presented massive hematochezia. We performed a total colectomy with splenectomy and cholecystectomy for ischemic colitis, with spleen and gallbladder infarction. Despite vaso-active drugs and aggressive treatment with Factor VIIa, the patient died after uncontrolled disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:27499832

  17. Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Guillaumot, P; Hernandez, J; Ragetly, G

    2014-09-01

    A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1 year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. PMID:25168742

  18. Scene/object classification using multispectral data fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, Thomas J.; Lazofson, Laurence E.; Choe, Howard C.; Chovan, John D.

    1994-06-01

    Near-simultaneous, multispectral, coregistered imagery of ground target and background signatures were collected over a full diurnal cycle in visible, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrally filtered wavebands using Battelle's portable sensor suite. The imagery data were processed using classical statistical algorithms, artificial neural networks and data clustering techniques to classify objects in the imaged scenes. Imagery collected at different times throughout the day were employed to verify algorithm robustness with respect to temporal variations of spectral signatures. In addition, several multispectral sensor fusion medical imaging applications were explored including imaging of subcutaneous vasculature, retinal angiography, and endoscopic cholecystectomy. Work is also being performed to advance the state of the art using differential absorption lidar as an active remote sensing technique for spectrally detecting, identifying, and tracking hazardous emissions. These investigations support a wide variety of multispectral signature discrimination applications including the concepts of automated target search, landing zone detection, enhanced medical imaging, and chemical/biological agent tracking.

  19. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yetışır, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, H. Zafer; Polat, Yılmaz; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Aygar, Muhittin; Ciftciler, A. Erdinc; Parlak, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. PMID:27293947

  20. Gallbladder herniation into the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Numata, Koji; Kunishi, Yosuke; Kurakami, Yuichi; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Osaragi, Tomohiko; Yoneyama, Katsuya; Kasahara, Akio; Yamamoto, Yuuji; Yukawa, Norio; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of gallbladder hernia into the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow. The patient was a 90-year-old woman, admitted to hospital with obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography (CT) showed a left-deviated and remarkably enlarged gallbladder dragging the liver, and a dilated intrahepatic bile duct. The deviated gallbladder was thought to compress the common bile duct, causing the obstruction. Laparoscopic examination revealed gallbladder herniation into the lesser sac without a floating gallbladder; thus, we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Herniation of the gallbladder is the rarest of all internal hernias and most reported cases have involved a floating gallbladder. The case we report here is therefore considered especially unusual. PMID:23338597

  1. Limy bile syndrome complicated by obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takamitsu; Kato, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Nobuhide; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    Limy bile syndrome is a rare condition in which the gallbladder is filled with a paste-like radiopaque material. The presence of limy bile in the common bile duct is rare. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain and jaundice. Plain abdominal radiography on admission showed a radiopaque material in the gallbladder. Computed tomography also showed that the gallbladder and the common bile duct were filled with a radiopaque material. The patient had never received any cholecystographic contrast agents. As a result, a diagnosis of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, which includes limy bile, was made. We herein report the process by which limy bile syndrome, complicated by obstructive jaundice, was successfully treated through combined treatment via endoscopic sphincterotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:20480840

  2. Enhanced visualization of the bile duct via parallel white light and indocyanine green fluorescence laparoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demos, Stavros G.; Urayama, Shiro

    2014-03-01

    Despite best efforts, bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a major potential complication. Precise detection method of extrahepatic bile duct during laparoscopic procedures would minimize the risk of injury. Towards this goal, we have developed a compact imaging instrumentation designed to enable simultaneous acquisition of conventional white color and NIR fluorescence endoscopic/laparoscopic imaging using ICG as contrast agent. The capabilities of this system, which offers optimized sensitivity and functionality, are demonstrated for the detection of the bile duct in an animal model. This design could also provide a low-cost real-time surgical navigation capability to enhance the efficacy of a variety of other image-guided minimally invasive procedures.

  3. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in a patient with situs inversus totalis: an ergonomic consideration.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kenny P

    2006-06-01

    We report a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a patient with situs inversus totalis. The 65-year-old man was previously diagnosed with situs inversus totalis and presented with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease inadequately controlled by medications. The laparoscopic procedure was performed with 5 ports placed in a mirror-image configuration and with the patient in the lithotomy position. Few technical difficulties were encountered during the operation. The position of the primary surgeon, working between the lower limbs of the patient, was considered critical to the success of this case. In situs inversus totalis, this position provides the least visual disorientation from the reversed abdominal organs. We recommend this position for all upper abdominal laparoscopic procedures in patients with situs inversus totalis, including laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:16796439

  4. [The future of "NOTES"].

    PubMed

    Maffei, Massimo; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2008-09-01

    In 2003, the first peroral appendectomy was carried out in a human subject. In order to prevent the premature adoption in clinical practice of the so-called "Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery" (NOTES), a rational framework for its development was proposed in 2005. After animal experimentation, further abdominal interventions were carried out in humans (example: cholecystectomy) through the mouth, vagina, or in a combined approach. The main advantage of NOTES compared to laparoscopic surgery is, from the patient viewpoint, the absence of body scar, but other benefits (example: less pain and costs) could prove to be significant. It is impossible to predict whether or not NOTES will enter in routine clinical practice, but it will generate significant improvements for digestive endoscopy. PMID:18831409

  5. [A successful case with TS-1+CDDP chemotherapy for recurrent gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Takeshi; Ootsuka, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Shigeharu; Shida, Takashi; Nomura, Satoru; Kin, Mirei; Takahashi, Makoto; Komatsu, Teisuke

    2014-11-01

    A 64-year-old woman underwent cholecystectomy for treatment of cholecystolithiasis in January 2005. Pathological examination rendered a diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma. Wedge resection of the liver and dissection of the lymph nodes was performed. No tumor cells in either the liver nodule or lymph nodes were found during pathological examination. At 4 years after surgery, paraaortic lymph node recurrence was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). Gemcitabine was administered once weekly for the first 3 weeks in a monthly cycle, but the tumor continued to increase in size. Gemcitabine was then switched to TS-1, after which it was changed to cisplatin because of continued tumor growth. After 35 courses of chemotherapy, CT showed the disappearance of the paraaortic lymph node, and the patient achieved a complete response. She is currently free of disease at 9 years after surgery. PMID:25731243

  6. Early skin and challenge testing after rocuronium anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Schulberg, E M; Webb, A R; Kolawole, H

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of early skin and challenge testing in a patient following severe anaphylaxis to rocuronium. The patient presented for semi-elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed anaphylaxis with severe cardiovascular collapse after induction of anaesthesia. Surgery was cancelled but was considered necessary before the recommended four to six weeks for formal allergy testing. Limited skin and challenge testing was performed to rocuronium and cisatracurium while the patient was in the intensive care unit to identify a safe neuromuscular blocking drug for subsequent early surgery. The subsequent surgery, 48 hours after the initial reaction, was uneventful. The case highlights the difficulties when anaesthetising patients with recent anaphylaxis who have not yet had formal allergy testing and presents a potential management strategy involving early skin testing. PMID:27246945

  7. Interpleural block - part 1.

    PubMed

    Dravid, R M; Paul, R E

    2007-10-01

    Interpleural blockade is effective in treating unilateral surgical and nonsurgical pain from the chest and upper abdomen in both the acute and chronic settings. It has been shown to provide safe, high-quality analgesia after cholecystectomy, thoracotomy, renal and breast surgery, and for certain invasive radiological procedures of the renal and hepatobiliary systems. It has also been used successfully in the treatment of pain from multiple rib fractures, herpes zoster, complex regional pain syndromes, thoracic and abdominal cancer, and pancreatitis. The technique is simple to learn and has both few contra-indications and a low incidence of complications. In the first of two reviews, the authors cover the history, taxonomy and anatomical considerations, the spread of local anaesthetic, and the mechanism of action, physiological, pharmacological and technical considerations in the performance of the block. PMID:17845657

  8. Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haskaraca, Mehmet Fatih; Ozsoy, Mustafa; Ozsan, Ismail; Kurt, Kamile

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is characterized by the ability of diffuse metastases. Since the first report of an isolated malignant melanoma case of the gallbladder, it is already controversial whether isolated cases are metastatic or primary tumors. A 49-year-old woman appealed to the emergency unit because of abdominal pain. Ultrasonography revealed increased thickness of the gallbladder wall and a lesion with surrounding fluid sized 12 mm without acoustic shadow, which arose from the gallbladder wall and was consistent with a polyp. Histopathologic evaluation of the surgical specimen after laparoscopic cholecystectomy revealed malign epithelial tumor consisting of atypical cells with large eosinophilic cytoplasm and dense melanin pigment within the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. As no other focus was identified as a result of the evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. In this paper, we aimed to define our treatment modality for a case with isolated malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. PMID:23094182

  9. Unusual case of a lung abscess.

    PubMed

    Musa, Duduzile; Godbole, Gauri; Chiodini, Peter L; Phillips, Russell

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a short history of pleuritic chest pain on the background of a 2-month history of fever, chills, 10-kg weight loss and cough with brown sputum after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She had persistent eosinophilia and was diagnosed with a lung abscess as seen on chest x-ray. She did not respond to standard intravenous broad spectrum antibacterial medication and her chest CT scan showed a moderate pleural collection in continuity with the abscess. She also underwent bronchoscopy, the microscopy of the bronchial washings revealing eggs of the trematode Fasciola. The bacterial and fungal cultures of the washings were sterile. She had visited Turkey in the previous year but did not remember consuming any watercress or aquatic plants. She was successfully treated with two doses of the antiparasitic agent triclabendazole. Ectopic Fasciola can be a rare cause of a lung abscess. PMID:23595175

  10. A rare case of Mirizzi syndrome due to pure calcium carbonate stones (Limy Bile).

    PubMed

    Gilani, Nooman; Hanif, Muhammad Farooq; Karasek, Veronika

    2016-06-01

    We report the first case of Mirizzi syndrome in a patient who presented with biliary obstruction caused by pure calcium carbonate stones. A 61 years old male with history of portal vein thrombosis presented with rash, nausea and jaundice. An ultrasound of biliary tree showed gallstones with dilatation of hepatic duct and intrahepatic biliary tree. There was suspicion of a stone in proximal CBD. CT scan showed an opaque gallbladder with dense radio-opaque material in its lumen. An ERCP was then performed revealing external common hepatic duct obstruction at the neck of the gallbladder. A plastic biliary stent was placed across the obstruction, followed by a cholecystectomy. Resected gallbladder specimen revealed thick whitish paste like material, and formed stones filling the gallbladder lumen. Laboratory testing showed this material to be composed of 100% calcium carbonate crystals. PMID:27339582

  11. The DKA that wasn't: a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis due to empagliflozin.

    PubMed

    Candelario, Nellowe; Wykretowicz, Jedrzej

    2016-07-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) inhibitor is a relatively new medication used to treat diabetes. At present, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has only approved three medications (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) in this drug class for the management of Type 2 diabetes. In May 2015, the FDA issued a warning of ketoacidosis with use of this drug class. Risk factors for the development of ketoacidosis among patients who take SGLT-2 inhibitors include decrease carbohydrate intake/starvation, acute illness and decrease in insulin dose. When identified, immediate cessation of the medication and administration of glucose must be done, and in some instances, starting an insulin drip might be necessary. We present a case of a patient with diabetes mellitus being on empagliflozin (SGLT-2 antagonist) who was admitted for acute cholecystitis. The hospital course was complicated by euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis after being kept nothing per orem before a contemplated cholecystectomy. PMID:27471597

  12. The DKA that wasn't: a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis due to empagliflozin

    PubMed Central

    Candelario, Nellowe; Wykretowicz, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) inhibitor is a relatively new medication used to treat diabetes. At present, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has only approved three medications (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) in this drug class for the management of Type 2 diabetes. In May 2015, the FDA issued a warning of ketoacidosis with use of this drug class. Risk factors for the development of ketoacidosis among patients who take SGLT-2 inhibitors include decrease carbohydrate intake/starvation, acute illness and decrease in insulin dose. When identified, immediate cessation of the medication and administration of glucose must be done, and in some instances, starting an insulin drip might be necessary. We present a case of a patient with diabetes mellitus being on empagliflozin (SGLT-2 antagonist) who was admitted for acute cholecystitis. The hospital course was complicated by euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis after being kept nothing per orem before a contemplated cholecystectomy. PMID:27471597

  13. [Up-to=date view on medical documentation in surgical clinic].

    PubMed

    Kriger, A G; Nechipaĭ, A M; Fedorov, A V; Glushkov, P S

    2000-01-01

    Computer variants of the fragments of clinical records were developed. They represent the parts: "Title-page", "Examination of surgical patient in the admission department", "Protocol of laparoscopic cholecystectomy". During modelling of the intellectual contents of the modules the principle of the formalized protocol was used, which has been realized with use of a context-depending menu. According to the authors opinion, newly developed programs provide objective and correct reflection of any clinical and surgical situation, use of standardized terminology and classifications, save the surgeons the trouble of "scribbling" and decrease time-consuming registration of medical records, provide specialized information, prevent possible diagnostic and technical errors, and give physicians, legal defence. PMID:10684200

  14. HEPATOBILIARY ASCARIASIS COMPLICATED BY PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Muhammad; Sheikh, Ali Sibtain Farooq; Khan, Asim; Mustafa, Saqib; Shah, Imran Ali; Hameed, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the commonest organism causing soil-transmitted helminth infection. It is particularly common in poor sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, involvement of the gallbladder by Ascaris is a rare entity. A lady presented to us with long-standing history of vague abdominal symptoms suggesting dyspepsia. Ultrasound showed a tube like structure invading the biliary channels. Serum amylase was elevated and the patient was managed conservatively, as for acute pancreatitis. She improved clinically, but subsequent imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed worm in the gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done and Ascaris lumbricoides was removed. Ascaris infestation is an important differential diagnosis of patients with upper abdominal symptoms and screening with stool examination and ultrasound is warranted in high-risk population. PMID:26411145

  15. Management of gallbladder duplication using a single-site robotic-assisted approach: a case study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Melanie Adams; Kaplin, Aviva Wallace; Kushnir, Leon; Montero-Pearson, Per

    2016-06-01

    Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. Here, we describe a 29-year-old female who presents with classic symptoms of biliary colic. A duplicated gallbladder was recognized on preoperative ultrasound. This case report reviews a single-site robotic-assisted cholecystectomy with a cystic duct duplication. The patient underwent the surgery without complication. Due to the aberrant anatomy of the cystic triangle, it was decided to mobilize the gallbladder in a dome-down fashion. True gallbladder duplication can be categorized according to cystic duct orientation based on Boyden's classification. Preoperative diagnosis is essential to prevent surgical complications. A laparoscopic approach can be carried out safely in the hands of a skilled surgeon. This case report shows that the robotic-assisted surgical approach is a viable and safe alternative. PMID:27039190

  16. Eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture: a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Daniel; Naseem, Zainab; Mustaev, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Although the most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones, other conditions may present as acute cholecystitis. We describe a case of eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture. A 36-year-old woman initially had generalised abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed eosinophilic ascites and necrotic nodules on the posterior abdominal wall. She was treated with anthelminthics on presumption of toxacara infection based on borderline positivity of serological tests. She later presented with acute cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy and choledocotomy. Day 9 T-tube cholangiogram showed irregular narrowing of the distal common bile duct. The patient's symptoms were improved with steroids and the T-tube was subsequently removed. PMID:27222280

  17. Pyloric gland adenoma of gallbladder—reports of two cases and a brief review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Qin, Haixia; Raza, Anwar; Saukel, George W.; Solomon, Naveenraj; Michelotti, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Adenomas of the gallbladder are uncommon benign epithelial neoplasms. Rarely, they can give rise to gallbladder cancer, which is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, carrying a poor prognosis and decreased survival. Here we report the case histories of two patients, 40-year-old and 53-year-old males who presented with >1 cm gallbladder polyps, which were detected and confirmed using various imaging studies. Cholecystectomy was performed on both patients and the subsequent pathologic exam revealed 1.2 and 1.6 cm polyps in the lumen. Histopathologically, both polyps showed features reminiscent of “pyloric” gland type of adenoma. The differences between the two cases in regard to histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics will be discussed. We will also briefly review the latest nomenclature on such low-grade polypoid gallbladder entities. PMID:27034818

  18. Ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jihyoung

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cyst of gallbladder is a very rare benign cystic lesion. A 39-year-old woman was referred to our hospital after abdominal ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion of gallbladder. On abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, a unilocular cystic lesion was found at right upper quadrant with attachment to the gallbladder neck. The gallbladder with cystic lesion was resected through laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cystic lesion revealed a unilocular cyst with ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium and abundant goblet cells. Pathologic examination is essential to distinguish from other cystic lesions of the gallbladder and avoid unnecessary additional treatment. In the current case report, we presented the clinico-pathologic findings of the ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder and review of literature. PMID:27212997

  19. Early diagnosis of common bile duct obstruction using cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplun, L.; Weissmann, H.S.; Rosenblatt, R.R.; Freeman, L.M.

    1985-11-01

    The technetium Tc 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid cholescintigram is an extremely accurate examination for detecting early obstruction of the common bile duct in acutely ill patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis or possible obstruction days to years after cholecystectomy. The examination accurately detected common bile duct obstruction in 63 of 65 patients in these two diagnostic categories. Sonographic evaluations in 43 of these patients failed to reveal ductal dilatation or other abnormality in 26 cases, and was nondiagnostic because of overlying bowel gas in two cases. The success of the radionuclide examination is attributed to its ability to detect functional impedance to bile flow hours to days before anatomic ductal dilatation occurs, and occasionally even before the alkaline phosphatase level and other liver chemistry values suggest the presence of an obstruction.

  20. Granulomatous Lithiasic Cholecystitis in Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder granulomas are exceedingly rare, reported in association with tuberculosis or sarcoidosis. Here we report a case of gallbladder granulomatous cholecystitis occurring in the context of sarcoidosis. A 70-years old man presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The medical history revealed sarcoidosis diagnosed more than 20-years previously. 2-years previously the patient showed renal lithiasis, hypercalcemia and, increased angiotensin converting enzyme. The imaging features suggested thoraco-abdominal sarcoidosis. Prednisone was given at 1.2 mg/kg/day initially, than decreased, being at 2.5 mg/day at present. The ultrasound examination showed gallbladder lithiasis. A cholecystectomy was performed. Microscopy showed subacute and chronic cholecystitis with several epithelioid and giant cell granulomas some of them perineural. In conclusion, we report a case of granulomatous cholecystitis occurring in the course of treated sarcoidosis. The perineural location of granulomas may give further insights into the pathogenesis of gallbladder dysmotility. PMID:27162601

  1. Percutaneous Removal of Retained Calculi from the Abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, S.J.; Martin, D.F.

    2003-02-15

    With rising pressure placed on health service resources minimally invasive techniques requiring only short hospital admissions are increasing in importance. We describe the techniques used to remove calculi from the peritoneal cavity which had been retained after surgery and continued to cause clinical problems. In both cases described the calculi lay within abscess cavities associated with fistulous tracks to the skin. The fistulae were dilated to allow passage of therapeutic radiologic and endoscopic equipment enabling manipulation and subsequent extraction of the stones. In both cases removal of the calculi allowed complete resolution of the fistulae and the patients made a full clinical recovery. Removal of gallstones which have escaped into the peritoneum at laparoscopic cholecystectomy leading to sepsis has been described; we describe the novel management of a patient in whom extraction had already been attempted, at another hospital, without success. Removal of an appendicolith, described herein another patient, does not appear to have been reported previously.

  2. Management of Bile Duct Injury at Various Stages of Presentation: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Ibrarullah, Md; Sankar, S; Sreenivasan, K; Gavini, S R K

    2015-04-01

    The clinical presentation, management and outcome of all patients with bile duct injury who presented to our tertiary care centre at various stages after cholecystectomy were analyzed. The patients were categorized into three groups: group A-patients in whom the injury was detected during cholecystectomy, group B-patients who presented within 2 weeks of cholecystectomy and group C-patients who presented after 2 weeks of cholecystectomy. Our team acted as rescue surgeons and performed 'on-table' repair for injuries occurring in another unit or in another hospital. Strasberg classification of bile duct injury was followed. In group A, partial and complete transections were managed by repair over T-tube and high hepaticojejunostomy, respectively. Patients in group B underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram and/or magnetic resonance cholangiogram to evaluate the biliary tree. Those with intact common bile duct underwent endoscopic papillotomy and stenting in addition to drainage of intra-abdominal collection when present. For those with complete transection, early repair was considered if there was no sepsis. In presence of intra-abdominal sepsis an attempt was made to create controlled external biliary fistula. This was followed by hepatico jejunostomy at least after 3 months. Group C patients underwent hepaticojejunostomy at least 6 weeks after the injury. The outcome was graded into three categories: grade A-no clinical symptoms, normal LFT; grade B-no clinical symptoms, mild derangement of LFT or occasional episodes of pain or fever; grade C-pain, cholangitis and abnormal LFT; grade D-surgical revision or dilatation required. Fifty nine patients were included in the study and the distribution was group A-six patients, group B-33 patients and group C-20 patients. In group A, one patient with complete transection of the right hepatic duct (type C) and partial injury to left hepatic duct (LHD) underwent right hepaticojejunostomy and repair of the LHD over

  3. Patients may not recall disclosure of risk of death: implications for informed consent.

    PubMed

    Wade, T C

    1990-07-01

    This study examined the issue of rational decision-making involved in the 'patient need' standard of informed consent. A majority of elective cholecystectomy patients (90% of 144) correctly identified their risk of death on a multiple choice questionnaire after preoperative counselling, but before surgery. However, many of those patients who answered correctly (54%) reported that they were not informed about the risk of death when questioned again after discharge. An attempt to discriminate patients who reported being informed from those who did not using measures of preoperative pain, emotional distress and medication was not successful. Faced with an inability to obtain informed consent from some patients, coupled with legal liability for failing to do so, surgeons are advised to obtain consent in writing, to provide comprehensive, multi-media counselling, and to be particularly conscientious with confused patients and those with complications. PMID:2398803

  4. Accessory liver lobe of the gallbladder in adults.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    The accessory liver lobe (ALL) of the gallbladder wall is rare, mentioned by Meckel since 1822. We present two cases of ALL occurring in two adult women. The ALLs were diagnosed at microscopic examination of cholecystectomy specimens for lithiasic cholecystitis and were located at the gallbladder body level. They measured 0.5 and 1.1 cm and were pediculated from the gallbladder serosa. Luschka duct complexes were seen in the adjacent subserosa in one of the cases. The main clinical relevance of ALL of the gallbladder resides in the differential diagnosis with a lymph node and in the risk of peroperative hemorragia or bile leakage by sectioning of the connecting blood vessels and/or bile duct. Intraparietal ALL may interfere with dysmotility, possibly resulting in bile stagnation and stone formation. PMID:27147442

  5. [The relationship between the effectiveness and specific features of the early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasis].

    PubMed

    Poddubnaia, O A; Marsheva, S I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasis is to prevent the further progression of the disease and reduce the risk of development of post-cholecystectomy disorders. The combined treatment including the use of low-mineralized mineral waters, magnetic, laser, and EHF-therapy makes it possible to significantly improve the parameters of interest due to the marked improve mentor normalization of the clinical and laboratory characteristics, the increase of adaptive capabilities, and the correction of the psycho-emotional and vegetative status of the patients. Taken together, the peculiarities of the combined rehabilitative treatment of the patients with cholelithiasis during the early postoperative period account for its high clinical effectiveness amounting to 94.7%. The results of the study give reason to recommend the application of the proposed technology for the rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with cholelithiasis. PMID:25876427

  6. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a rare initial manifestation.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Valdano; Pedro, Gertrudes Maria; Cordeiro, Lemuel Bornelli; de Miranda, Sandra Maria da Rocha Neto

    2016-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a very rare gastrointestinal manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus and becomes rarer as an initial manifestation. There are only two cases reported. The authors report a 20-year-old black woman that presented acute acalculous cholecystitis revealed by abdominal computed tomography. During hospitalization, she was diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus. Conservative treatment with antibiotics was performed with complete remission of the symptoms. Corticosteroid was started in ambulatory. Cholecystectomy has been the treatment of choice in acute acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient responded well to conservative treatment, and surgery was not required. This case is unique in the way that corticosteroid was started in ambulatory care. We should not forget that the acute acalculous cholecystitis can be the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus although its occurrence is very rare. Conservative treatment should be considered. Abdominal computed tomography was a determinant exam for better assessment of acute acalculous cholecystitis. PMID:27267533

  7. Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern.

    PubMed Central

    Moossa, A R; Easter, D W; Van Sonnenberg, E; Casola, G; D'Agostino, H

    1992-01-01

    The authors report six patients who had injuries to their common hepatic bile duct at laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 16-month period. Five of the six complications could be attributed to laser injuries during dissection in the region of Calot's triangle. The authors discuss the possible mechanism of these injuries, their perioperative management, and the methods of surgical reconstruction. The follow-up period ranges from 3 months to 21 months. Liver function parameters and isotope biliary excretion scans are back to normal in all six patients. The potential hazards of laparoscopic surgery demand that extraordinary care be used not only during the actual surgical procedure, but also in the preoperative decision concerning the dissection method to be employed. Images FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. PMID:1531914

  8. Gallstones: a comparison of real-time ultrasonography and cholecystography with surgical correlation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, E W; Hallgren, S E; Duran, L

    1987-08-01

    Real-time ultrasonography is more accurate and technically more efficient than gray scale ultrasonography in establishing the diagnosis of cholecystolithiasis. In prospective studies accuracy may be as high as 96%, and reflects the use of specific sonographic diagnostic criteria. Retrospective studies, however, reveal a lower accuracy rate of 90%, suggesting that practicing radiologists are not ready to accept these restricting criteria. On the other hand, oral cholecystography (OCG) is well tolerated and gives a reproducible, reliable result independent of technical expertise. It is 96% accurate in detecting the presence of gallstones and carries a sensitivity of .97. Both studies are prone to overinterpretation, which skews specificity and adversely affects diagnostic accuracy. In this retrospective review of 234 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy, real-time ultrasound was 90% accurate with a sensitivity of .96 in determining the presence of cholecystolithiasis. Oral cholecystography was 95% accurate with a sensitivity of .97. PMID:3303363

  9. [Diagnostic methods of gallstones--plain radiogram and contrast examination of biliary system].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, T

    1993-07-01

    There is a wide spectrum of diagnostic imaging modalities to evaluate the biliary system, such as plain radiogram, echogram (US), oral cholecystogram (OCG), intravenous cholangiogram (DIC), CT, MRI, and RI scintigram. Since the late 1970's US, non-invasive and easily available, is the first choice of examination when gallstones are suspected because of achievement of detailed resolution. OCG or DIC is rarely performed for gallstones. However, it was not until the advent of various measures of treatment for gallstones, other than cholecystectomy, such as dissolution therapy or extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones, that contrast examination of the biliary system has been re-utilized to evaluate the characteristics, number and size of gallstones, and patency of cystic duct, which are important data. The indications and significance of plain and contrast examinations for gallstone disease is discussed. PMID:8366591

  10. Role of oral cholecystography, real-time ultrasound, and CT in evaluation of gallstones and gallbladder function.

    PubMed

    Marzio, L; Innocenti, P; Genovesi, N; Di Felice, F; Napolitano, A M; Contantini, R; Di Giandomenico, E

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of oral cholecystography (OCG), real-time ultrasound (RUS), and computed tomography (CT) to detect gallstones and to analyze their size, number, and composition was tested preoperatively in 37 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Gallbladder response to a standard meal was also evaluated by OCG and RUS. Gallstones were analyzed chemically for calcium, cholesterol, and bilirubin content. The results show that RUS is the most valuable test for detecting gallstones and is similar to OCG in measuring their size and number, whereas CT underestimates the stone size. Gallbladder function in terms of contractibility can be evaluated by RUS and OCG, but RUS provides useful information even if the gallbladder is not opacified at OCG. CT is more accurate than OCG in detecting the presence of calcium, and CT attenuation numbers are positively correlated with calcium content of the stone (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01). PMID:1612312

  11. Oral cholecystography vs gallbladder sonography: a prospective, blinded reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, D W; Wolfman, N T; Ott, D J; Watson, N E; Chen, Y M; Dale, W J

    1988-07-01

    In a prospective, blinded study of 205 patients, oral cholecystography (OCG) and sonography were compared in terms of how well each screened patients for gallbladder diseases. Among 23 patients who had pathologic confirmation of the diagnosis at cholecystectomy, OCG correctly diagnosed 20 cases (87%) while sonography diagnosed 18 (78%). Among 54 patients with an abnormal OCG and/or sonogram, OCG detected 47 (87%) while sonography detected 44 (81%). These small differences in detection rates were not statistically significant. On the basis of these results, we cannot conclude that either sonography or OCG has a diagnostic advantage in screening patients for gallbladder disease. The large numbers of false-negative examinations found on both sonography and OCG suggest that in a patient with persistent symptoms, the alternative study should be performed if the first examination is negative. PMID:3287868

  12. Adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder: the NUH experience.

    PubMed

    Chan-Wilde, C; Chew, R; Foong, W C; Wee, A

    1990-05-01

    Adenomyomatosis (AD) is a degenerative disorder of the gall bladder wall which can be complicated by chronic inflammation and calculi. The true incidence of this disorder in South East Asians is not known. Nine Chinese patients with AD were discovered amongst 200 consecutive right upper quadrant ultrasound examinations. Four of them had cholecystectomy and were diagnosed as cholecystitis by the pathologist. Adenomyomatosis can be suspected on ultrasonography, but should be confirmed by oral cholecystography (OCG). There is great disparity in the ultrasound, OCG, surgical and histopathological diagnosis of this condition. This may be due to the fact that only complicated cases of AD come to surgery, where the presence of chronic cholecystitis or calculi detracts from recognising or overshadows the presence of AD. It is not known whether uncomplicated AD has any clinical significance and whether it, if given sufficient time, will lead to inflammation of the gall bladder. PMID:2203297

  13. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct: A Rare Presentation of Gall Stones Disease

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumara, Edippuli Arachchige Don; Somathilaka, Upul; Huruggamuwa, Milinda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of gall stones. Very few cases of bile duct perforation have been reported in adults. It is rarely suspected or correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old female presented at the surgical emergency with 3 days' history of severe upper abdominal pain with distension and repeated episodes of vomiting, as she had evidence of generalized peritonitis and underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A single 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm free perforation was present on the anterolateral surface of the common bile duct at the junction of cystic duct. A cholecystectomy and the CBD exploration were performed. Conclusion. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct is a rare but important presentation of gall stones in adults. Therefore, awareness of the clinical presentation, expert ultrasound examination, and surgery are important aspects in the management. PMID:27433361

  14. Giant gallstone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Pablo; Becerra, Valentina; Aguilar, Christian; Modragon, Itziar; Cooper, David K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is a high incidence of gallstones in the Chilean population. Presentation of case We report on a 57-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Abdominal ultrasound indicated acute cholecystitis and a single, extremely large pear-shaped gallstone (16.8 cm long, and 7.8 cm at its widest point and 4.1 cm at its narrowest point). Its fresh weight (at operation) was 278.0 g and, after 4 years, its dry weight was 259.5 g. Emergency classical cholecystectomy was carried out successfully. Discussion and Conclusion We have been unable to find a report of a larger gallstone in the English or Spanish language medical literature. PMID:22096735

  15. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. The Roswell Park experience.

    PubMed

    Silk, Y N; Douglass, H O; Nava, H R; Driscoll, D L; Tartarian, G

    1989-12-01

    The median survival, from diagnosis, of patients with cancer of the gallbladder is 6 months. Our purpose in reviewing our experience was to identify factors, either in patient characteristics or treatment, that influence this statistic. In 22 years 71 cases of gallbladder carcinoma were referred to Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Most had a cholecystectomy that revealed an unsuspected neoplasm, before referral. Mean age was 62 years and 75% were female. Symptoms, signs, and laboratory and imaging studies were uniformly unhelpful in determining the diagnosis. Early diagnosis at a stage amenable to surgical excision remains the sole salvation. Patients who receive chemotherapy did better than those who did not, but this is probably a reflection of patient selection. Newer treatment modalities are urgently needed. PMID:2589888

  16. Laparoscopic excision of abdominal wall desmoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed; Al-Zahrani, Hana; Ewies, Tarek

    2016-02-01

    Open surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for desmoid tumors. Laparoscopic resection is rarely used and not well described in the literature. We report a case of a single, 35-year-old woman who presented with palpable abdominal wall desmoid tumor. The patient had had laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years earlier, and the tumor was at the insertion site of the right upper quadrant trocar. The diagnosis was made by a Tru-Cut biopsy at another institution, after the lesion had increased in size and caused increased discomfort. The patient underwent successful laparoscopic resection of the tumor. This report aimed to promote laparoscopic resection of abdominal wall desmoid tumors, whenever feasible, and describe the laparoscopic technique. We believe this is the second case of laparoscopic excision of desmoid tumor reported in the English-language literature. PMID:26781534

  17. Splenic artery aneurysm presenting as a submucosal gastric lesion: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tannoury, Jenny; Honein, Khalil; Abboud, Bassam

    2016-07-25

    We are reporting the rare case of splenic artery aneurysm of 4 cm of diameter presenting as a sub mucosal lesion on gastro-duodenal endoscopy. This aneurysm was treated by endovascular coil embolization and stent graft implantation. The procedure was uneventful. On day 1, the patient presented an acute severe epigastric pain and cardiovascular arrest. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed an active leak of the intravenous contrast dye in the peritoneum from the splenic aneurysm. We performed an emergent resection of the aneurysm, and peritoneal lavage. Postoperatively, hemorrhagic choc was refractory to large volumes replacement, and intravenous vaso-active drugs. On day 2, he presented massive hematochezia. We performed a total colectomy with splenectomy and cholecystectomy for ischemic colitis, with spleen and gallbladder infarction. Despite vaso-active drugs and aggressive treatment with Factor VIIa, the patient died after uncontrolled disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:27499832

  18. 2016 WSES guidelines on acute calculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Ansaloni, L; Pisano, M; Coccolini, F; Peitzmann, A B; Fingerhut, A; Catena, F; Agresta, F; Allegri, A; Bailey, I; Balogh, Z J; Bendinelli, C; Biffl, W; Bonavina, L; Borzellino, G; Brunetti, F; Burlew, C C; Camapanelli, G; Campanile, F C; Ceresoli, M; Chiara, O; Civil, I; Coimbra, R; De Moya, M; Di Saverio, S; Fraga, G P; Gupta, S; Kashuk, J; Kelly, M D; Koka, V; Jeekel, H; Latifi, R; Leppaniemi, A; Maier, R V; Marzi, I; Moore, F; Piazzalunga, D; Sakakushev, B; Sartelli, M; Scalea, T; Stahel, P F; Taviloglu, K; Tugnoli, G; Uraneus, S; Velmahos, G C; Wani, I; Weber, D G; Viale, P; Sugrue, M; Ivatury, R; Kluger, Y; Gurusamy, K S; Moore, E E

    2016-01-01

    Acute calculus cholecystitis is a very common disease with several area of uncertainty. The World Society of Emergency Surgery developed extensive guidelines in order to cover grey areas. The diagnostic criteria, the antimicrobial therapy, the evaluation of associated common bile duct stones, the identification of "high risk" patients, the surgical timing, the type of surgery, and the alternatives to surgery are discussed. Moreover the algorithm is proposed: as soon as diagnosis is made and after the evaluation of choledocholitiasis risk, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be offered to all patients exception of those with high risk of morbidity or mortality. These Guidelines must be considered as an adjunctive tool for decision but they are not substitute of the clinical judgement for the individual patient. PMID:27307785

  19. Predicate argument structure frames for modeling information in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Melton, Genevieve B

    2013-01-01

    The rich information about surgical procedures contained in operative notes is a valuable data source for improving the clinical evidence base and clinical research. In this study, we propose a set of Predicate Argument Structure (PAS) frames for surgical action verbs to assist in the creation of an information extraction (IE) system to automatically extract details about the techniques, equipment, and operative steps from operative notes. We created PropBank style PAS frames for the 30 top surgical action verbs based on examination of randomly selected sample sentences from 3,000 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy notes. To assess completeness of the PAS frames to represent usage of same action verbs, we evaluated the PAS frames created on sample sentences from operative notes of 6 other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. Our results showed that the PAS frames created with one type of surgery can successfully denote the usage of the same verbs in operative notes of broader surgical categories. PMID:23920664

  20. A novel heterozygous mutation in the ATP6V0A4 gene encoding the V-ATPase a4 subunit in an adult patient with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Kaneko, Shuzo; Mori, Takayasu; Okado, Tomokazu; Uchida, Shinichi; Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2016-06-01

    A 40-year-old Japanese man who had a medical history of hypokalemic periodic paralysis 4 months prior was hospitalized to undergo a cholecystectomy. Hypokalemia, nephrocalcinosis and alkaluria suggesting distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) were detected, but metabolic acidosis was not evident. An ammonium chloride/furosemide-fludrocortisone/bicarbonate loading test demonstrated a remarkable disability in urinary H(+) excretion. A novel heterozygous mutation in the ATP6V0A4 gene encoding the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) a4 subunit p.S544L was detected. Among cases of V-ATPase a4 mutations, this is the first case in which a heterozygous mutation developed to an incomplete or latent form of dRTA. PMID:27274828