Sample records for choroid plexus cyst

  1. Neuroendoscopic Removal of Large Choroid Plexus Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Ho; Ko, Jun Kyeong; Choi, Byeong Gwan; Cha, Seung Heon; Song, Geun Seong; Choi, Chang Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) are the most commom neuroepithelial cysts, occuring in more than 50% of some autopsy series. They are typically small and asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally in older patients, usually in the trigone of the lateral ventricle. Symptomatic CPCs (usually exceptionally large, 2-8 cm) are rare. The authors report a case of large symptomatic choroid plexus cyst, located in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle in a 26-yr-old man who presented with headache and vomiting. The patient underwent endoscopic removal through a burr hole placed 3 cm from the midline and just behind the hair line. The histological examination of the cyst wall was consistent with choroid epithelium. Despite of postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and catheter infection, he discharged home without neurologic deficits. The endoscopic fenestration rather than excision should be considered as the first surgical procedure because the goal of treatment is shrinkage of the cyst until normal cerebrospinal fluid flow is restored. PMID:15832013

  2. Diagnosis and surgical resection of a choroid plexus cyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Brewer, D M; Cerda-Gonzalez, S; Dewey, C W; Coates, J R

    2010-03-01

    A three-year-old neutered male toy fox terrier presented for a Chiari-like malformation. No neurological deficits were found on examination, although diffuse cervical, thoracolumbar and head pain were present. A mass within the fourth ventricle was apparent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The lesion was hyperintense to brain parenchyma on T2-weighted images, hypointense on T1-weighted images and there was strong, homogeneous contrast enhancement. The cystic mass was removed through a suboccipital craniectomy. Histopathology was consistent with a choroid plexus cyst. The dog recovered well from the procedure and was clinically normal three months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge this is the first description of the appearance of a choroid plexus cyst on MRI in a dog and of its surgical removal. Although they are an uncommon finding, choroid plexus cysts should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mass lesions within the fourth ventricle. PMID:20070492

  3. Risk of Chromosome Abnormalities in the Presence of Bilateral or Unilateral Choroid Plexus Cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artúr Beke; Emese Barakonyi; Zorán Belics; József G. Joó; Ákos Csaba; Csaba Papp; Zoltán Papp

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the rate of chromosome abnormalities in cases of uni- and bilateral choroid plexus cysts (CPCs). Methods: A total of 10,875 ultrasound (US) examinations were performed in the second trimester, and 435 cases with CPC (4%) were found. After genetic counseling, 45 patients decided not to undergo karyotyping. The authors performed a chromosome analysis in 390 cases of

  4. Choroid plexus cyst of the third ventricle presenting as acute triventriculomegaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Kariyattil; Dilip Panikar

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Cystic lesions in and around the third ventricle have been known to cause intermittent and acute obstruction of the foramen\\u000a of Monroe with rapid onset symptoms. Most of these lesions are seen on routine investigations, whereas some are not so obvious\\u000a resulting in mistaken diagnosis. Symptomatic choroids plexus cysts have only been infrequently reported, predominantly in\\u000a the lateral ventricle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case

  5. Choroid Plexus Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Kongkham; James T. Rutka

    \\u000a Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are rare, primary brain tumors arising from the neuroepithelium of the choroid plexus. Although\\u000a they may be found in patients of any age, the vast majority occur in the pediatric population. Up to 70% of these neoplasms\\u000a occur in children, with over half arising in children under 2 years of age [39]. The annual incidence for

  6. Thyroxine transport in choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, P.W.; Aldred, A.R.; Menting, J.G.; Marley, P.D.; Sawyer, W.H.; Schreiber, G.

    1987-10-15

    The role of the choroid plexus in thyroid hormone transport between body and brain, suggested by strong synthesis and secretion of transthyretin in this tissue, was investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. Rat choroid plexus pieces incubated in vitro were found to accumulate thyroid hormones from surrounding medium in a non-saturable process. At equilibrium, the ratio of thyroid hormone concentration in choroid plexus pieces to that in medium decreased upon increasing the concentration of transthyretin in the medium. Fluorescence quenching of fluorophores located at different depths in liposome membranes showed maximal hormone accumulation in the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. Partition coefficients of thyroxine and triiodothyronine between lipid and aqueous phase were about 20,000. After intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones, choroid plexus and parts of the brain steadily accumulated /sup 125/I-thyroxine, but not (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine, for many hours. The accumulation of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in choroid plexus preceded that in brain. The amount of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in non-brain tissues and the (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine content of all tissues decreased steadily beginning immediately after injection. A model is proposed for thyroxine transport from the bloodstream into cerebrospinal fluid based on partitioning of thyroxine between choroid plexus and surrounding fluids and binding of thyroxine to transthyretin newly synthesized and secreted by choroid plexus.

  7. Choroid plexus: biology and pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Paulus

    2010-01-01

    The choroid plexus is an epithelial–endothelial vascular convolute within the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain.\\u000a It consists of epithelial cells, fenestrated blood vessels, and the stroma, dependent on various physiological or pathological\\u000a conditions, which may contain fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, granulocytes or other infiltrates, and a rich extracellular\\u000a matrix. The choroid plexus is mainly involved in the production of

  8. Epithelial Pathways in Choroid Plexus Electrolyte Transport

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Helle Damkier (Aarhus University Anatomy)

    2010-08-01

    A stable intraventricular milieu is crucial for maintaining normal neuronal function. The choroid plexus epithelium produces the cerebrospinal fluid and in doing so influences the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid of the brain. Here, we review the molecular pathways involved in transport of the electrolytes Na+, K+, ClÂ?, and HCO across the choroid plexus epithelium.

  9. Choroid plexus blood flow: evidence for dopaminergic influence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Townsend; Douglas M. Ziedonis; Robert M. Bryan; Robert W. Brennan; Robert B. Page

    1984-01-01

    Choroid plexus blood flow was measured in adult female sheep using the radioactive microsphere technique. The response of choroid plexus, renal and cortical blood flow to the infusion of dopamine (11 sheep), haloperidol (7 sheep) and propranolol (6 sheep) were compared. Choroid plexus and renal blood flow significantly increased after dopamine infusion (55% and 49% respectively). Choroid plexus and renal

  10. Choroid Plexus Papilloma of the Cerebellopontine Angle

    PubMed Central

    Panizza, B. J.; Jackson, A.; Ramsden, R. T.; Lye, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    We report a case of a transdural choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle in a 23-year-old woman. Choroid plexus papillomas are rare intracranial tumors, usually occurring intraventricularly. Those found in the cerebellopontine angle are uncommon and almost always subdural. The investigation, treatment, and follow-up are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p156-cFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170859

  11. Choroid plexus papilloma with a hyperdiploid karyotype

    SciTech Connect

    Roland, B.; Pinto, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    An 11-month-old male underwent surgery for a choroid plexus neoplasm, which on histologic examination was diagnosed as a benign papilloma. Chromosome analysis showed a karyotype of 55,XY,+7+7,+8,+9,+12,+12,+15,+20,+21 in all 20 metaphases analyzed. This is only the third benign choroid plexus papilloma that has been karyotyped, with the others being normal and hypodiploid (33 chromosomes). Three malignant choroid plexus carcinomas have also been analyzed, two with normal karyotypes and one hypodiploid (34 - 35 chromosomes). The two hypoidiploid neoplasms lack chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 13, 14, 17 and 18. Since the chromosomes that are lost in the hypodiploid neoplasms are different from the chromosomes gained in our tumor, it appears that the dosage of specific chromosomes is important in the origin of choroid plexus neoplasms. Benign choroid plexus papillomas can be difficult to differentiate from choroid plexus carcinomas. With the data available so far, it does not appear that cytogenetics can assist in making the diagnosis.

  12. The structure of the choroid plexus and the physiology of the choroid plexus epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran B. Redzic; Malcolm B. Segal

    2004-01-01

    The choroid plexuses (CPs) are leaf-like highly vascular structures laying in the ventricles. The main function of choroid plexuses is the production of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although CPs have a unique distribution of ion transporters\\/channels, the mechanism of CSF production is similar to the production of fluids in other epithelia and is based on energy released from ATP hydrolysis,

  13. Functional and genetic analysis of choroid plexus development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Hannah E.; Parupalli, Chaithanyarani; Ju, Bensheng; Taylor, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The choroid plexus, an epithelial-based structure localized in the brain ventricle, is the major component of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus produces the cerebrospinal fluid and regulates the components of the cerebrospinal fluid. Abnormal choroid plexus function is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation in the choroid plexus epithelium, and hydrocephaly. In this study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system to understand the genetic components of choroid plexus development. We generated an enhancer trap line, Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the choroid plexus epithelium. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescent tracers, we demonstrated that the zebrafish choroid plexus possesses brain barrier properties such as tight junctions and transporter activity. Thus, we have established zebrafish as a functionally relevant model to study choroid plexus development. Using an unbiased approach, we performed a forward genetic dissection of the choroid plexus to identify genes essential for its formation and function. Using Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, we isolated 10 recessive mutant lines with choroid plexus abnormalities, which were grouped into five classes based on GFP intensity, epithelial localization, and overall choroid plexus morphology. We also mapped the mutation for two mutant lines to chromosomes 4 and 21, respectively. The mutants generated in this study can be used to elucidate specific genes and signaling pathways essential for choroid plexus development, function, and/or maintenance and will provide important insights into how these genetic mutations contribute to disease. PMID:25426018

  14. Oncocytic transformation of choroid plexus epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Kepes

    1983-01-01

    In a 27-year-old woman who died of Leigh's disease, adult form, autopsy revealed in addition to the usual morphological changes of that condition, marked oncocytic transformation of choroid plexus epithelium in all cerebral ventricles: the cytoplasm of epithelial cells was enlarged, eosinophilic, and filled with fine granules. By electron microscopy the granules were granules. By electron microscopy the granules were

  15. Oncocytic choroid plexus carcinoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Sav, A; Scheithauer, B W; Mazzola, C A; Ketterling, S R P; Thompson, S J; Reilly, M H

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we report an unusual choroid plexus carcinoma with extensive oncocytic transformation. A 13-month-old girl presented with acute lethargy which quickly progressed to coma. A CT scan of the head revealed impending herniation due to hemorrhage within an intracranial tumor. An MRI scan showed a large, partly cystic and highly vascular left lateral ventricular mass. A near total resection was achieved. Microsections revealed a WHO Grade III choroid plexus carcinoma with extensive oncocyti c transformation. A minor portion of the moderately to poorly differentiated tumor exhibited classical microscopic features of choroid plexus carcinoma, including marked nuclear atypia, brisk mitotic activity (78/10 HPF), a high MIB-1 labeling index (44%) and zones of necrosis. In contrast, the large, eosinophilic, cytologically malignant but granular-appearing oncocytes comprising the majority of the lesion showed scant (1/10 HPF) mitotic activity and only a low MIB-1 labeling index (5%). A subsequent recurrence at 1 year consisted entirely of non-oncocytic tumor. Choroid plexus carcinoma with oncocytic transformation has not been previously reported. The remarkable extent of this alteration and its clinical significance remains to be determined. PMID:20040328

  16. Choroid plexus transport: gene deletion studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the use of transporter knockout (KO) animals to evaluate transporter function at the choroid plexus (the blood-CSF barrier; BCSFB). Compared to the blood-brain barrier, there have been few such studies on choroid plexus (CP) function. These have primarily focused on Pept2 (an oligopeptide transporter), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, Oat3 (an organic anion transporter), Svct2 (an ascorbic acid transporter), transthyretin, ion transporters, and ion and water channels. This review focuses on the knowledge gained from such studies, both with respect to specific transporters and in general to the role of the CP and its impact on brain parenchyma. It also discusses the pros and cons of using KO animals in such studies and the technical approaches that can be used. PMID:22053861

  17. Choroid plexus in developmental and evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Brent Roy; Korzh, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary is present at the level of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. As one of the sources of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) plays an important role during brain development and function. Its formation has been studied largely in mammalian species. Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo. At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation. Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives. PMID:25452709

  18. Vectorial Ligand Transport Through Mammalian Choroid Plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reynold Spector; Conrad E. Johanson

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been substantial progress in understanding vectorial ligand transport through rodent and human\\u000a choroid plexus (CP), the locus of the blood-CSF interface. In this Review, we enumerate the experimental data required to\\u000a establish vectorial transport through CP and describe transporters involved in vectorial transport across CP. We also note\\u000a how these transporters differ from those

  19. Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kaneko; T. Iwaki; T. Matsushima; M. Fukui

    1991-01-01

    Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with

  20. Regulation of Zinc Transport in the Choroid Plexus 

    E-print Network

    Aquino, Mayra

    2014-07-21

    The choroid plexus epithelium forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, but also accumulates and transports nutritive minerals, such as zinc, into and out of the cerebrospinal fluid. The goal of this thesis was to analyze interdependent...

  1. Choroid plexus carcinoma in adults: an extremely rare case

    PubMed Central

    Ozdogan, Selcuk; Gergin, Yusuf Emrah; Gergin, Sinem; Senol, Ozgur; Tiryaki, Mehmet; Tatarli, Necati; Hicdonmez, Tufan

    2015-01-01

    Choroid plexus tumors are rare intraventricular papillary neoplasms derived from choroid plexus epithelium, which account for approximately 2% to 4% of intracranial tumors in children and 0.5% in adults. Almost all choroid plexus carcinomas are seen in children and are extremely rare in adults. Headache, diplopia, and ataxia are the most common symptoms usually caused by mechanical obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow followed by hydrocephalus, regardless of tumor location. We present an illustrative case with 73 years old male patient who was consulted with headache to our neurosurgery department. In cranial computed tomography, there was a mass in 4th ventricle and we confirmed the mass with magnetic resonance imaging. After surgery had been performed, pathology specimen was diagnosed as choroid plexus carcinoma which was rarely seen in this age group.

  2. Regulation of Zinc Transport in the Choroid Plexus

    E-print Network

    Aquino, Mayra

    2014-07-21

    The choroid plexus epithelium forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, but also accumulates and transports nutritive minerals, such as zinc, into and out of the cerebrospinal fluid. The goal of this thesis was to analyze interdependent...

  3. Water and solute secretion by the choroid plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeppe Praetorius

    2007-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides mechanical and chemical protection of the brain and spinal cord. This review focusses\\u000a on the contribution of the choroid plexus epithelium to the water and salt homeostasis of the CSF, i.e. the secretory processes\\u000a involved in CSF formation. The choroid plexus epithelium is situated in the ventricular system and is believed to be the major

  4. Placental lactogen binding sites in the pregnant rabbit choroid plexus.

    PubMed Central

    Mangurian, L P; Lewis, R; Walsh, R J

    1994-01-01

    Prolactin has direct effects on the CNS. The highest concentration of prolactin receptors resides within the choroid plexus where they probably function to transport prolactin from blood into CSF. Another member of the lactogen family of hormones, placental lactogen (PL), also affects CNS activity and may similarly employ the cerebroventricular system as an intermediary. In order to determine whether the choroid plexus was a PL target tissue, in vitro autoradiography was used to identify specific PL binding sites in the choroid plexus of pregnant New Zealand White rabbits. Frozen brain sections were incubated in a medium containing 125I human PL (hPL) alone (total binding) or with a 500-fold excess of unlabelled hPL (nonspecific binding). The specificity of the binding was assessed with unlabelled human growth hormone (hGH) and ovine luteinising hormone (oLH). An intense autoradiographic reaction occurred over the choroid plexus of tissue sections incubated with 125I hPL alone. Excess unlabelled hPL and hGH, which is lactogenic in the rabbit, caused a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the binding of radiolabelled hPL to the choroid plexus. In contrast, unlabelled oLH had no effect on radiolabelled hPL binding to this tissue. The results support a role for the choroid plexus in the interactions between PL and the CNS. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8014133

  5. The structure of the choroid plexus and the physiology of the choroid plexus epithelium.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B; Segal, Malcolm B

    2004-10-14

    The choroid plexuses (CPs) are leaf-like highly vascular structures laying in the ventricles. The main function of choroid plexuses is the production of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although CPs have a unique distribution of ion transporters/channels, the mechanism of CSF production is similar to the production of fluids in other epithelia and is based on energy released from ATP hydrolysis, which drives unidirectional flux of ions accompanied by movement of water by osmosis. The CPs have an important role in the homeostasis of nutrients in the CSF since the kinetic parameters of glucose and amino acid (AA) transport across the CPs are the main reason for the low concentration of these molecules in the CSF. The CPs appear to be source of CSF-borne hormones and growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II), vasopressin (VP) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). The CPs also synthesise the thyroid transporting protein transthyretin and transferrin and can chelate heavy metals. PMID:15381330

  6. Expression of cell adhesion molecules in canine choroid plexus tumors

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, Naoki; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; MATSUNAGA, Satoru; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Choroid plexus tumor (CPT) is a primary intracranial neoplasm of the choroid plexus epithelium in the central nervous system. In the current World Health Organization classification, CPT is classified into two categories; choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) and carcinoma (CPC). In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemical expressions of N-cadherin, E-cadherin and ?-catenin in 5 canine CPT cases (1 disseminated CPC, 2 CPCs and 2 CPPs). One CPP case was positive for N-cadherin and ?-catenin, but negative for E-cadherin. The disseminated CPC case was positive for E-cadherin and ?-catenin, but negative for N-cadherin. The other cases were positive for the three molecules examined. These results suggest that loss of the N-cadherin expression might associate with the spreading of CPC cells. PMID:25373880

  7. The neural milieu of the developing choroid plexus: neural stem cells, neurons and innervation

    PubMed Central

    Prasongchean, Weerapong; Vernay, Bertrand; Asgarian, Zeinab; Jannatul, Nahin; Ferretti, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in brain homeostasis both pre and postnatally. In vitro studies have suggested that cells from adult choroid plexus have stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Our initial aim was to investigate whether such a cell population is present in vivo during development of the choroid plexus, focusing mainly on the chick choroid plexus. Cells expressing neural markers were indeed present in the choroid plexus of chick and also those of rodent and human embryos, both within their epithelium and mesenchyme. ß3-tubulin-positive cells with neuronal morphology could be detected as early as at E8 in chick choroid plexus and their morphological complexity increased with development. Whole mount immunochemistry demonstrated the presence of neurons throughout choroid plexus development and they appeared to be mainly catecholaminergic, as indicated by tyrosine-hydroxylase reactivity. The presence of cells co-labeling for BrdU and the neuroblast marker, doublecortin, in organotypic choroid plexus cultures supported the hypothesis that neurogenesis can occur from neural precursors within the developing choroid plexus. Furthermore, we found that extrinsic innervation is present in the developing choroid plexus, unlike previously suggested. Altogether, our data are consistent with the presence of neural progenitors within the choroid plexus, suggest that at least some of the choroid plexus neurons are born locally, and show for the first time that choroid plexus innervation occurs prenatally. Hence, we propose the existence of a complex neural regulatory network within the developing choroid plexus that may play a crucial role in modulating its function during development as well as throughout life. PMID:25873856

  8. Focal glial differentiation and oncocytic transformation in choroid plexus papilloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bonnin; L. E. Colon; R. B. Morawetz

    1987-01-01

    The histiopathological features of a choroid plexus papilloma in a 27-year-old male are described. The tumor displayed marked oncocytic transformation and glial differentiation of the epithelium in areas in which there was also marked sclerosis of the fibrovascular cores. Non-membrane-bound bodies of intermediate filaments characterized ultrastructurally the cells with glial differentiation.

  9. Fgf2 is expressed in human and murine embryonic choroid plexus and affects choroid plexus epithelial cell behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Sarah; Swetloff, Adam; Wade, Angela M; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Ferretti, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Background Although fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling plays crucial roles in several developing and mature tissues, little information is currently available on expression of Fgf2 during early choroid plexus development and whether Fgf2 directly affects the behaviour of the choroid plexus epithelium (CPe). The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of Fgf2 in rodent and human developing CPe and possible function of Fgf2, using in vitro models. The application of Fgf2 to brain in vivo can affect the whole tissue, making it difficult to assess specific responses of the CPe. Methods Expression of Fgf2 was studied by immunohistochemistry in rodent and human embryonic choroid plexus. Effects of Fgf2 on growth, secretion, aggregation and gene expression was investigated using rodent CPe vesicles, a three-dimensional polarized culture model that closely mimics CPe properties in vivo, and rodent CPe monolayer cultures. Results Fgf2 was present early in development of the choroid plexus both in mouse and human, suggesting the importance of this ligand in Fgf signalling in the developing choroid plexus. Parallel analysis of Fgf2 expression and cell proliferation during CP development suggests that Fgf2 is not involved in CPe proliferation in vivo. Consistent with this observation is the failure of Fgf2 to increase proliferation in the tri-dimensional vesicle culture model. The CPe however, can respond to Fgf2 treatment, as the diameter of CPe vesicles is significantly increased by treatment with this growth factor. We show that this is due to an increase in cell aggregation during vesicle formation rather than increased secretion into the vesicle lumen. Finally, Fgf2 regulates expression of the CPe-associated transcription factors, Foxj1 and E2f5, whereas transthyretin, a marker of secretory activity, is not affected by Fgf2 treatment. Conclusion Fgf2 expression early in the development of both human and rodent choroid plexus, and its ability to modulate behaviour and gene expression in CPe, supports the view that Fgf signalling plays a role in the maintenance of integrity and function of this specialized epithelium, and that this role is conserved between rodents and humans. PMID:19114013

  10. Aquaporin1 in the choroid plexuses of developing mammalian brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Johansson; K. M. Dziegielewska; M. D. Habgood; K. Møllgård; A. Potter; M. Schuliga; N. R. Saunders

    2005-01-01

    The normal brain develops within a well-controlled stable internal “milieu” protected by specialised mechanisms referred to\\u000a collectively as blood–brain barriers. A fundamental feature of this environment is the control of water flow in and out of\\u000a the developing brain. Because of limited vascularisation of the immature brain, choroid plexuses, via the cerebrospinal fluid,\\u000a have been proposed as the main route

  11. Kearns–Sayre syndrome: oncocytic transformation of choroid plexus epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurenai Tanji; Eric A Schon; Salvatore DiMauro; Eduardo Bonilla

    2000-01-01

    Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a sporadic multisystem disorder due to a defect of oxidative phosphorylation and associated with clonally-expanded rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions (?-mtDNAs) and\\/or duplications (dup-mtDNAs). To gain further insight into the pathogenesis of CNS dysfunction in KSS, we studied the choroid plexus from two autoptic cases using in situ hybridization (ISH) of mtDNA, and immunohistochemistry to

  12. Oncocytic variant of choroid plexus papilloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Z. Stefanko; V. D. Vuzevski

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of oncocytic plexus papilloma are presented which were in the fourth ventricle and cerebello-pontine angle in women aged 70 and 63 years, respectively. The cytoplasm of the transformed tumor cells was enlarged, eosinophilic, and granular; and it was characterized ultrastructurally by innumerable mitochondria. Most of them had lamellar cristae, a clear matrix, and contained dense granules. These ‘oncocytes’

  13. Studies on the human choroid plexus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B

    2013-01-01

    The role of human choroid plexus (CP) epithelium in the transport of solutes between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid and/or in secretion processes may be studied by employing several experimental approaches. There are a number of in vitro techniques for human CP epithelium (CPE) and all have limitations that do not exclude them a priori, but that should be carefully taken into consideration. Developmental and morphological studies have been largely performed on human choroid plexus samples of either embryonic or post-mortem origin. Functional uptake studies may be performed on pathologically unaltered CP samples obtained during surgical removal of choroid plexus tumors. This approach can be used to explore transport processes mainly across the apical side of the CPE, but cannot be used to study vectorial transport across the CPE. Also, these samples have limited viability. A monolayer of CPE in culture, grown on permeable supports, provides the best available tool to study transport processes or polarized secretion by the CP, but thus far only limited attempts to culture these cells have been published and they mainly include data from neoplastic CPE. A study that used a human papilloma-derived cell line in culture showed that it forms a monolayer with barrier properties, although the cells express pleomorphic and neoplastic features and lack contact inhibition. Other cell cultures express some CPE markers but do not develop tight junctions/barrier properties. This article reviews the main characteristics and limitations of available in vitro methods to study human CPE, which could help researchers choose an appropriate experimental approach for a particular study. PMID:23391221

  14. Studies on the human choroid plexus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of human choroid plexus (CP) epithelium in the transport of solutes between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid and/or in secretion processes may be studied by employing several experimental approaches. There are a number of in vitro techniques for human CP epithelium (CPE) and all have limitations that do not exclude them a priori, but that should be carefully taken into consideration. Developmental and morphological studies have been largely performed on human choroid plexus samples of either embryonic or post-mortem origin. Functional uptake studies may be performed on pathologically unaltered CP samples obtained during surgical removal of choroid plexus tumors. This approach can be used to explore transport processes mainly across the apical side of the CPE, but cannot be used to study vectorial transport across the CPE. Also, these samples have limited viability. A monolayer of CPE in culture, grown on permeable supports, provides the best available tool to study transport processes or polarized secretion by the CP, but thus far only limited attempts to culture these cells have been published and they mainly include data from neoplastic CPE. A study that used a human papilloma-derived cell line in culture showed that it forms a monolayer with barrier properties, although the cells express pleomorphic and neoplastic features and lack contact inhibition. Other cell cultures express some CPE markers but do not develop tight junctions/barrier properties. This article reviews the main characteristics and limitations of available in vitro methods to study human CPE, which could help researchers choose an appropriate experimental approach for a particular study. PMID:23391221

  15. Establishment and characterization of an immortalized Z310 choroidal epithelial cell line from murine choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Qiuqu

    2014-01-01

    The choroid plexus plays a wide range of roles in brain development, maturation, aging process, endocrine regulation, and pathogenesis of certain neurodegenerative diseases. To facilitate in vitro study, we have used a gene transfection technique to immortalize murine choroidal epithelial cells. A viral plasmid (pSV3neo) was inserted into the host genome of primary choroidal epithelia by calcium phosphate precipitation. The transfected epithelial cells, i.e., Z310 cells, that survived from cytotoxic selection expressed SV40 large-T antigen throughout the life span, suggesting a successful gene transfection. The cells displayed the same polygonal epithelial morphology as the starting cells by light microscopy. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrate the presence of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine transport protein known to be exclusively produced by the choroidal epithelia in the CNS, in both transfected and starting cells. Western blot analyses further confirm the production and secretion of TTR by these cells. The mRNAs encoding transferrin receptor (TfR) were identified by Northern blot analyses. The cells grow at a steady rate, currently in the 110th passage with a population doubling time of 20–22 h in the established culture. When Z310 cells were cultured onto a Trans-well apparatus, the cells formed an epithelial monolayer similar to primary choroidal cells, possessing features such as an uneven fluid level between inner and outer chambers and an electrical resistance approximately 150–200 ?-cm2. These results indicate that immortalized Z310 cells possess the characteristics of choroidal epithelia and may have the potential for application in blood-CSF barrier (BCB) research. PMID:12470873

  16. Host immunoglobulin G and complement deposits in the choroid plexus during spontaneous immune complex disease.

    PubMed

    Lampert, P W; Oldstone, M B

    1973-04-27

    Hybrid (NZB x W)F(1) mice spontaneously develop antibodies to nuclear antigens (ANA) and DNA (ADNA) and are an animal model of human systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunofluorescent and electron microscopic observations of the choroid plexus and renal glomeruli of (NZB x W)F(1) mice reveal deposits of host immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the third complement component which appear shortly after the development of ANA and ADNA in the circulation. Additionally, enhancement of ADNA responses accelerates the appearance and severity of IgG deposits in the choroid plexus. The choroid plexus may be a favored site for the deposition of immune complexes and the neuropsychiatric findings in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and some patients with acute or chronic infections may be related in part to immune complex disease of the choroid plexus. PMID:4267048

  17. The Pro-Antioxidant Role of Zinc Supplementation in Cadmium-Treated Choroid Plexus

    E-print Network

    Francis Stuart, Samantha D.

    2014-05-06

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal with no known physiological function in higher order animals. Previous studies in primary cultures of neonatal rat choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells indicated Cd induced oxidative stress and stimulated apical...

  18. Choroid Plexus Size in Young Children with Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Griffiths; Susan Blaser; Mitra B. Boodram; Derek Armstrong; Derek Harwood-Nash

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the size of the choroid plexus in young children with unilateral and bilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome. METHODS: Subjects included 15 children 4 years old or younger with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Eleven cases were unilateral and four were bilateral. Unilateral or bilateral involvement was determined by the distribution of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement on MR images. The diameters of the choroid

  19. Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Y; Iwaki, T; Matsushima, T; Fukui, M

    1991-01-01

    Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with Ricinus communis (RCA-I). Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Limax flavus (LFA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), while Arachis hypoaea (PNA) stained them only after the removal of sialic acid. Human fetal choroid plexus cells at 8 weeks gestation already showed the same lectin-binding patterns as adult ones. All CPNs were stained by RCA-I and Con A in a similar manner as the normal choroid plexus cells. Although seven CPNs were positive for LFA, two CPCs were not stained by LFA, which bound to sialic acid. Two LFA-positive CPPs were stained by PNA before the removal of sialic acid. Moreover, unlike the normal choroid plexus cells, Ulex europaeus-, Glycine maximus- and Dolichos biflorus-binding sites often appeared, and WGA-binding sites of three CPNs remained even after sialic acid removal. In conclusion, the glycosialylation in normal choroid plexus cells was completed during the early embryonic stage. The lectin-binding patterns of CPNs were heterogenous in each case. The alternation of the glycosialylation and/or acquisition of binding sites for some lectins was sometimes observed through a neoplastic transformation. PMID:1927268

  20. Choroid plexus-derived Otx2 homeoprotein constrains adult cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Spatazza, Julien; Lee, Henry HC; Di Nardo, Ariel A; Tibaldi, Lorenzo; Joliot, Alain; Hensch, Takao K; Prochiantz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Brain plasticity is often restricted to critical periods in early life. Here, we show that a key regulator of this process in visual cortex, Otx2 homeoprotein, is synthesized and secreted globally from the choroid plexus. Consequently, Otx2 is maintained in selected GABA cells unexpectedly throughout the mature forebrain. Genetic disruption of choroid-expressedOtx2 impacts these distant circuits and in primary visual cortex reopens binocular plasticity to restore vision in amblyopic mice. The potential to regulate adult cortical plasticity through the choroid plexus underscores the importance of this structure in brain physiology and offers novel therapeutic approaches to recovery from neurodevelopmental disorders more broadly. PMID:23770240

  1. In vivo Analysis of Choroid Plexus Morphogenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Steven H.; Ye, Zhang-Rui; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Background The choroid plexus (ChP), a component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and as a result plays a role in (i) protecting and nurturing the brain as well as (ii) in coordinating neuronal migration during neurodevelopment. Until now ChP development was not analyzed in living vertebrates due to technical problems. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the formation of the fourth ventricle ChP of zebrafish in the GFP-tagged enhancer trap transgenic line SqET33-E20 (Gateways) by a combination of in vivo imaging, histology and mutant analysis. This process includes the formation of the tela choroidea (TC), the recruitment of cells from rhombic lips and, finally, the coalescence of TC resulting in formation of ChP. In Notch-deficient mib mutants the first phase of this process is affected with premature GFP expression, deficient cell recruitment into TC and abnormal patterning of ChP. In Hedgehog-deficient smu mutants the second phase of the ChP morphogenesis lacks cell recruitment and TC cells undergo apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of ChP in vivo revealing a role of Notch and Hedgehog signalling pathways during different developmental phases of this process. PMID:18769618

  2. Development of the lateral ventricular choroid plexus in a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Choroid plexus epithelial cells are the site of blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and regulate molecular transfer between the two compartments. Their mitotic activity in the adult is low. During development, the pattern of growth and timing of acquisition of functional properties of plexus epithelium are not known. Methods Numbers and size of choroid plexus epithelial cells and their nuclei were counted and measured in the lateral ventricular plexus from the first day of its appearance until adulthood. Newborn Monodelphis pups were injected with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at postnatal day 3 (P3), P4 and P5. Additional animals were injected at P63, P64 and P65. BrdU-immunopositive nuclei were counted and their position mapped in the plexus structure at different ages after injections. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry with antibodies to plasma protein identified post-mitotic cells involved in protein transfer. Results Numbers of choroid plexus epithelial cells increased 10-fold between the time of birth and adulthood. In newborn pups each consecutive injection of BrdU labelled 20-40 of epithelial cells counted. After 3 injections, numbers of BrdU positive cells remained constant for at least 2 months. BrdU injections at an older age (P63, P64, P65) resulted in a smaller number of labelled plexus cells. Numbers of plexus cells immunopositive for both BrdU and plasma protein increased with age indicating that protein transferring properties are acquired post mitotically. Labelled nuclei were only detected on the dorsal arm of the plexus as it grows from the neuroependyma, moving along the structure in a 'conveyor belt' like fashion. Conclusions The present study established that lateral ventricular choroid plexus epithelial cells are born on the dorsal side of the structure only. Cells born in the first few days after choroid plexus differentiation from the neuroependyma remain present even two months later. Protein-transferring properties are acquired post-mitotically and relatively early in plexus development. PMID:20920364

  3. Substance P: Localization, concentration and release in cerebral arteries, choroid plexus and dura mater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Edvinsson; S. Rosendal-Helgesen; R. Uddman

    1983-01-01

    Substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) was studied by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay in the cerebral arteries, choroid plexus and dura mater of the guinea-pig, rabbit, cat and man. The highest concentrations were found in cerebral blood vessels: 6.1±2.3 pmol\\/g (guinea-pig), 9.0±1.1 pmol\\/g (rabbit), 7.1±0.4 pmol\\/g (cat), and 2.4±0.9 pmol\\/g (man). Lower levels were obtained in the choroid plexus and dura mater. The

  4. The p75 neurotrophin receptor localization in blood-CSF barrier: expression in choroid plexus epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Spuch; Eva Carro

    2011-01-01

    Background  The presence of neurotrophins and their receptors Trk family has been reported in the choroid plexus. High levels of Nerve\\u000a Growth Factor (NGF), Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and TrkB receptor were detected, while nothing was know about p75 neurotrophin\\u000a receptor (p75NTR) in the choroid plexus epithelial cells. In neurons, p75NTR receptor has a dual function: promoting survival\\u000a together with TrkA in response

  5. TRANSPORT OF l-[125I]THYROXINE BY IN SITU PERFUSED OVINE CHOROID PLEXUS: INHIBITION BY LEAD EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Deane, Rashid; Redzic, Zoran; Preston, Jane E.; Segal, Malcolm B.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure hinders brain development in children by mechanisms that remain unknown. Previous evidence shows that sequestration of Pb in the choroid plexus lowers the production and secretion of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine (T4) transport protein, from the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study was undertaken to characterize the uptake kinetics of T4 by the choroid plexus and to determine if in vivo Pb exposure altered the T4 uptake in an in situ perfused ovine choroid plexus model. Sheep received ip injections of Pb acetate (20 mg Pb/kg) or Na acetate (as the controls) every 48 h for a period of 16 d. The [125I]T4 uptake was determined by a paired-tracer perfusion method using 0.5?Ci [125I]T4 and 2 ? Ci [14C]mannitol at various concentrations of unlabeled T4 (trace to 20 ?M). The flux of [125I]T4 into the choroid plexus followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the maximum flux (Vmax) of 56.6 nmol/min/g and half-saturation constant (Km) of 10.7 ?mol/L, suggesting an evident saturable influx of T4 into the choroid epithelium. In vivo Pb exposure in these sheep resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus and hippocampus. Pb treatment diminished the Vmax by 63.7% of control, but did not alter Km. The maximal cellular uptake (Umax) and net uptake (Unet) in Pb-treated animals were 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, lower than those of control. Exposure to Pb, however, did not significantly change the flow rate through the choroid plexus. Data suggest that the choroid plexus may serve as a significant site for T4 transport into the CSF, and Pb exposure may hinder the influx of T4 from the blood into the choroid plexus. PMID:12712631

  6. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Samantha J.; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C.; D'Souza, Damian G.; Darras, Veerle M.; Van Herck, Stijn L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

  7. The kinetics of hypoxanthine transport across the perfused choroid plexus of the sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran B Redzic; Jovana M Gasic; Malcolm B Segal; Ivanka D Markovic; Aleksandra J Isakovic; Miodrag Lj Rakic; Sarah A Thomas; Ljubisa M Rakic

    2002-01-01

    The uptake of principal salvageable nucleobase hypoxanthine was investigated across the basolateral membrane of the sheep choroid plexus (CP) perfused in situ. The results suggest that hypoxanthine uptake was Na+-independent, which means that transport system on the basolateral membrane can mediate the transport in both directions. Although the unlabelled nucleosides adenosine and inosine markedly reduce the transport it seems that

  8. Presentation of a choroid plexus papilloma mimicking an extradural haematoma after a head injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Murphy; Joan P. Grieve; Simon R. Stapleton

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Choroid plexus papillomas are rare, benign tumours of childhood. They usually present with subacute symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) commonly due to overproduction of CSF. Less common presentations include focal neurological deficits and epilepsy. Case report. This is the first reported case of any intracranial tumour mimicking a traumatic extradural haematoma in presentation.

  9. Differential expression of the alternatively spliced forms of prosaposin mRNAs in rat choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shouichiro; Saito, Kyoko; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    Prosaposin has two distinct profiles. One is a precursor form that is processed into saposins thus promoting lysosomal sphingolipid hydrolase function, whereas the other is an intact form that is not processed into saposins but is abundant in certain tissues and secretory fluids, including the cerebrospinal fluid. In rats, alternative splicing in the prosaposin gene generates mRNAs with and without a 9-base insertion (Pro+9 and Pro+0 mRNAs, respectively). Pro+9 mRNA is reported to be preferentially expressed in tissues in which the intact form of prosaposin dominates, whereas Pro+0 mRNA is preferentially expressed in tissues in which the precursor dominates. The expression patterns of Pro+9 and Pro+0 mRNAs in the rat choroid plexus are examined in the present study. The specificities of 36-mer oligonucleotide probes used to detect the 9-base insertion by in situ hybridization were demonstrated by dot-blot hybridization. Next, these probes were used for in situ hybridization, which showed predominant expression of Pro+0 mRNA and weak expression of Pro+9 mRNA in the choroid plexus. These expression patterns were confirmed by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction with AlwI restriction enzyme treatment. Expression of the intact form of prosaposin in the choroid plexus was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Because the choroid plexus is responsible for the generation of cerebrospinal fluid containing the intact form of prosaposin, the present study raises the possibility that Pro+0 mRNA is related to the intact form in the choroid plexus and that the alternatively spliced forms of mRNAs do not simply correspond to the precursor and intact forms of prosaposin. PMID:24414178

  10. In vivo autoradiographic analysis of prolactin binding in brain and choroid plexus of the domestic ring dove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Buntin; Raymond J. Walsh

    1988-01-01

    Summary The binding of intravenously administered prolactin to choroid plexus and brain tissue was determined radioautographically in the ring dove, a species that exhibits prolactin-induced alterations in brain function. An intense autoradiographic reaction was detected over the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus 5 min after the intravenous injection of 125I-ovine prolactin. A significant reaction was also observed over the

  11. Chronic Hypernatremia Increases the Expression of Vasopressin and Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels in the Rat Choroid Plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Insung Chung; Adam Chodobski

    2006-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium is one of the extrahypothalamic sources of arginine vasopressin (AVP). However, it is unclear whether the regulation of choroidal AVP synthesis in response to pathophysiological stimuli, such as hyperosmotic stress, is similar to that observed in the hypothalamus. In the present study, rats chronically implanted with cisterna magna cannulas, enabling the collection of cerebrospinal fluid

  12. Differential expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM), neural CAM and epithelial cadherin in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Figarella-Branger; Hubert Lepidi; Christian Poncet; Danielle Gambarelli; Nicole Bianco; Geneviève Rougon; Jean-François Pellissier

    1995-01-01

    A series of frozen specimens of 18 ependymomas and 7 choroid plexus tumors were examined for their expression of cell adhesion molecules, such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), its polysialylated isoforms (PSA NCAM), and epithelial (E-) cadherin, and of intermediate filament proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cytokeratin, using various monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Normal choroid

  13. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 20 choroid plexus tumors: their histological diversity and the expression of markers useful for differentiation from metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ikota, Hayato; Tanaka, Yuko; Yokoo, Hideaki; Nakazato, Yoichi

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the clinicopathological features and the histological diversity of choroid plexus tumors and to examine the expression of immunohistochemical markers that are useful for their differentiation from metastatic cancer. Twenty cases were collected, including 11 choroid plexus papillomas, 5 choroid plexus adenomas, 1 atypical choroid plexus papilloma, and 3 choroid plexus carcinomas. The choroid plexus papillomas showed various parenchymal and stromal changes: focal solid growth, oncocytic alterations, melanin deposition, calcification, ossification, and xanthogranulomatous reactions. The choroid plexus tumors showed the following cytokeratin (CK) 7 and 20 staining patterns: CK7(+)/CK20(+) (11/19 cases), CK7(+)/CK20(-) (7/19 cases), CK7(-)/CK20(-) (1/19 cases), and CK7(-)/CK20(+) (0/19 cases). Positivity for CK5/6 and thyroid transcription factor-1 was found in 3 of 18 and 1 of 19 cases, respectively. All cases were negative for the estrogen receptor (0/18 cases). The choroid plexus tumors showed various CK7/CK20 staining patterns, and the staining of CK7 and CK20 in most CK7(+)/CK20(+) and CK7(+)/CK20(-) cases was focal, in contrast to that observed in carcinomas. Therefore, nondiffuse staining of CK, rather than the CK7/CK20 panel itself, is important for discriminating between a choroid plexus tumor and metastatic cancer. PMID:21394517

  14. Choroid plexus papilloma of the third ventricle: A rare infantile brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Mohindra, Sandeep; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Das, Ashim; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2013-01-01

    Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) represents an uncommon pediatric brain tumor with an overall incidence less than 1% of all intracranial tumors. Most of these tumors occur in the lateral ventricles in neonates. Third ventricular location is uncommon, limited to a few case reports. These highly vascular tumors retain the physiological function of choroid plexus and thus lead to overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), besides obstructing the CSF pathway. Imaging is fairly sensitive and specific in affording the diagnosis of this tumor. Surgical approaches differ according to the site of tumor and aim is complete removal of tumor. We present an interesting report of an infant who presented to our department for cranial sonography that lead to suspicion of this tumor, later confirmed by other imaging modalities and histopathology. PMID:24470825

  15. Developmental changes in the transcriptome of the rat choroid plexus in relation to neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The choroid plexuses are the interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the ventricular spaces of the central nervous system. The tight junctions linking adjacent cells of the choroidal epithelium create a physical barrier to paracellular movement of molecules. Multispecific efflux transporters as well as drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes functioning in these cells contribute to a metabolic barrier. These barrier properties reflect a neuroprotective function of the choroid plexus. The choroid plexuses develop early during embryogenesis and provide pivotal control of the internal environment throughout development when the brain is especially vulnerable to toxic insults. Perinatal injuries like hypoxia and trauma, and exposure to drugs or toxic xenobiotics can have serious consequences on neurogenesis and long-term development. The present study describes the developmental expression pattern of genes involved in the neuroprotective functions of the blood–CSF barrier. Methods The transcriptome of rat lateral ventricular choroid plexuses isolated from fifteen-day-old embryos, nineteen-day old fetuses, two-day old pups, and adults was analyzed by a combination of Affymetrix microarrays, Illumina RNA-Sequencing, and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Genes coding for proteins involved in junction formation are expressed early during development. Overall perinatal expression levels of genes involved in drug metabolism and antioxidant mechanisms are similar to, or higher than levels measured in adults. A similar developmental pattern was observed for multispecific efflux transporter genes of the Abc and Slc superfamilies. Expression of all these genes was more variable in choroid plexus from fifteen-day-old embryos. A large panel of transcription factors involved in the xenobiotic- or cell stress-mediated induction of detoxifying enzymes and transporters is also expressed throughout development. Conclusions This transcriptomic analysis suggests relatively well–established neuroprotective mechanisms at the blood-CSF barrier throughout development of the rat. The expression of many transcription factors early in development raises the possibility of additional protection for the vulnerable developing brain, should the fetus or newborn be exposed to drugs or other xenobiotics. PMID:23915922

  16. Decreased binding of growth hormone in the rat hypothalamus and choroid plexus following morphine treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Zhu Zhai; Zhennan Lai; Rustam Yukhananov; Paul Roos; Fed Nyberg

    1995-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously infused with morphine through subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps over a period of 5 days. The binding of rat growth hormone (rGH) to specific sites in choroid plexus, cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus and striatum was determined. It was found that in the acute phase of morphine administration the density of growth hormone-binding sites was significantly decreased in

  17. Expression of junctional proteins in choroid plexus epithelial cell lines: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Crissey L Pascale; Andrew N Pfeffer; Cassaundra Coulter; Adam Chodobski

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in using choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines to study the properties of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Currently, there are three major CP-derived cell lines available. Z310 and TR-CSFB3, two immortalized cell lines carrying the simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene, were derived from rat CP epithelium, whereas the CPC-2 cell line was

  18. Histopathology of Trypanosoma ( Trypanozoon ) evansi infection in Bandicoot rat. II. Brain and choroid plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debjani Biswas; Amalesh Choudhury; Kamales Kumar Misra

    2010-01-01

    Bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, received intraperitoneal inoculation of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi flagellates and showed acute disease, leading to death during the 2nd peak of parasitaemia [14th day post infection (pi)]. Damage in brain and choroid plexus of the infected bandicoot is studied on the 5th, 8th, 12th and 14th day post inoculation. Sign of histopathological changes in the brain and

  19. Choroid Plexus and Aquaporin1: A Novel Explanation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Longatti; L. Basaldella; E. Orvieto; A. Fiorindi; A. Carteri

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporins are selective water channel proteins that play a central role in the homeostasis of human body water. The choroid plexus (CP) is considered to be the main cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-producing structure. In this study, six specimens of normal human CP obtained during surgery were analyzed by immunohistochemistry techniques for aquaporin-1 (AQP1) expression and distribution. Intense, uniformly distributed AQP1 immunostaining

  20. Transport of cefodizime, a novel third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, in isolated rat choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Nohjoh, T.; Suzuki, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sugiyama, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1989-07-01

    To characterize the transport system by which cephalosporin antibiotics are accumulated by the choroid plexus, kinetic analysis of cefodizime transport was performed. Accumulation of cefodizime was against an electrochemical potential gradient via a saturable process (Km = 470 microM, Vmax = 174 nmol/ml of tissue per min) that was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (KCN and 2,4-dinitrophenol), hypothermia, a sulfhydryl reagent (p-hydroxymer-curibenzoic acid) and anion transport inhibitors (probenecid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene -2,2'-disulfonic acid). Accumulation of cefodizime was inhibited competitively by benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of aproximately 100 microM. Cefodizime inhibited competitively the accumulation of benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of approximately 500 microM. Kinetic analysis using 16 kinds of beta-lactam antibiotics also supported the view (1) that the transport system of cefodizime is shared by benzylpenicillin and (2) that these beta-lactam antibiotics are transported via a common transport system. These findings indicate that the major transport system of cephalosporin antibiotics in the rat choroid plexus is via a carrier-mediated active anion transport process. The affinity of beta-lactam antibiotics for this transport system in the choroid plexus may be a major factor in determining their pharmacokinetics in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  1. Transport of L-[125I]thyroxine by in situ perfused ovine choroid plexus: inhibition by lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Deane, Rashid; Redzic, Zoran; Preston, Jane E; Segal, Malcolm B

    2003-03-14

    Lead (Pb) exposure hinders brain development in children by mechanisms that remain unknown. Previous evidence shows that sequestration of Pb in the choroid plexus lowers the production and secretion of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine (T4) transport protein, from the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study was undertaken to characterize the uptake kinetics of T4 by the choroid plexus and to determine if in vivo Pb exposure altered the T4 uptake in an in situ perfused ovine choroid plexus model. Sheep received i.p. injections of Pb acetate (20 mg Pb/kg) or Na acetate (as the controls) every 48 h for a period of 16 d. The [125I]T4 uptake was determined by a paired-tracer perfusion method using 0.5 microCi [125I]T4 and 2 microCi [14C]mannitol at various concentrations of unlabeled T4 (trace to 20 microM). The flux of [125I]T4 into the choroid plexus followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the maximum flux (Vmax) of 56.6 nmol/min/g and half-saturation constant (Km) of 10.7 mumol/L, suggesting an evident saturable influx of T4 into the choroid epithelium. In vivo Pb exposure in these sheep resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus and hippocampus. Pb treatment diminished the Vmax by 63.7% of control, but did not alter Km. The maximal cellular uptake (Umax) and net uptake (Unet) in Pb-treated animals were 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, lower than those of control. Exposure to Pb, however, did not significantly change the flow rate through the choroid plexus. Data suggest that the choroid plexus may serve as a significant site for T4 transport into the CSF, and Pb exposure may hinder the influx of T4 from the blood into the choroid plexus. PMID:12712631

  2. Bobble-head doll syndrome and drop attacks in a child with a cystic choroid plexus papilloma of the third ventricle. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pollack, I F; Schor, N F; Martinez, A J; Towbin, R

    1995-10-01

    The authors report an unusual case of a 2-year-old boy with a 3-month history of episodic rightward anterolateral head tilt and large-amplitude positional anteroposterior head bobbing reminiscent of bobble-head doll syndrome. This child experienced a sudden onset of drop attacks and then, within several hours, deep coma. The causative lesion was a contrast-enhancing, partially cystic third ventricular mass, which ultimately obstructed the aqueduct, producing profound obstructive hydrocephalus. An emergency ventriculostomy and endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum was performed. Four days later, the tumor was completely resected by a transcallosal-transforaminal approach. The lesion was freely mobile within the third ventricle and contained a large cyst within its posterior pole; following drainage of the cyst, the lesion was easily delivered through the foramen of Monro. The histopathological diagnosis was choroid plexus papilloma. The child's neurological deficits, head tilt, and head bobbing resolved immediately after operation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this represents the first well-documented report of bobble-head doll syndrome and drop attacks secondary to a choroid plexus papilloma. The highly mobile nature of the cystic lesion presumably led to its intermittent impaction within the foramen of Monro and/or proximal aqueduct; this produced the intermittent head tilt and bobble-head symptoms and, ultimately, resulted in acute obstruction of the aqueduct, causing the child's precipitous neurological decline. PMID:7674025

  3. Cellular Specificity of the Blood–CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Liddelow, Shane A.; Dzi?gielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Whish, Sophie C.; Noor, Natassya M.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Traweger, Andreas; Bauer, Hannelore; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Saunders, Norman R.

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood–CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood–CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub-population of specialised choroid plexus epithelial cells. PMID:25211495

  4. Transport of L-[ 125 I]Thyroxine bY iN Situ Perfused Ovine Choroid Plexus: Inhibition by Lead Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zheng; Rashid Deane; Zoran Redzic; Jane Preston; Malcolm Segal

    2003-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure hinders brain development in children by mechanisms that remain unknown. Previous evidence shows that sequestration of Pb in the choroid plexus lowers the production and secretion of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine (T 4 ) transport protein, from the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study was undertaken to characterize the uptake kinetics of T 4

  5. Somatic mosaicism in Menkes disease suggests choroid plexus-mediated copper transport to the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Donsante, Anthony; Johnson, Paul; Jansen, Laura A; Kaler, Stephen G

    2010-10-01

    The primary mechanism of copper transport to the brain is unknown, although this process is drastically impaired in Menkes disease, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in an evolutionarily conserved copper transporter, ATP7A. Potential central nervous system entry routes for copper include brain capillary endothelial cells that originate from mesodermal angioblasts and form the blood-brain barrier, and the choroid plexuses, which derive from embryonic ectoderm, and form the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. We exploited a rare (and first reported) example of somatic mosaicism for an ATP7A mutation to shed light on questions about copper transport into the developing brain. In a 20-month-old Menkes disease patient evaluated before copper treatment, blood copper, and catecholamine concentrations were normal, whereas levels in cerebrospinal fluid were abnormal and consistent with his neurologically severe phenotype. We documented disparate levels of mosaicism for an ATP7A missense mutation, P1001L, in tissues derived from different embryonic origins; allele quantitation showed P1001L in approximately 27% of DNA samples from blood cells (mesoderm-derived) and 88% from cultured fibroblasts (ectoderm-derived). These findings imply that the P1001L mutation in the patient preceded formation of the three primary embryonic lineages at gastrulation, with the ectoderm layer ultimately harboring a higher percentage of mutation-bearing cells than mesoderm or endoderm. Since choroid plexus epithelia are derived from neuroectoderm, and brain capillary endothelial cells from mesodermal angioblasts, the clinical and biochemical findings in this infant support a critical role for the blood-CSF barrier (choroid plexus epithelia) in copper entry to the developing brain. PMID:20799318

  6. The role of the choroid plexus in neutrophil invasion after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Strazielle, Nathalie; Zink, Brian J.; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Chodobski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently results in neuroinflammation, which includes the invasion of neutrophils. After TBI, neutrophils infiltrate the choroid plexus (CP), a site of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB), and accumulate in the CSF space near the injury, from where these inflammatory cells may migrate to brain parenchyma. We have hypothesized that the CP functions as an entry point for neutrophils to invade the injured brain. Using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI in rats and an in vitro model of the BCSFB, we show that the CP produces CXC chemokines, such as cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 or CXCL1, CINC-2? or CXCL3, and CINC-3 or CXCL2. These chemokines are secreted both apically and basolaterally from choroidal epithelium, a prerequisite for neutrophil migration across epithelial barriers. Consistent with these findings, we also provide electron microscopic evidence that neutrophils infiltrate the choroidal stroma and subsequently reach the intercellular space between choroidal epithelial cells. This is the first detailed analysis of the BCSFB function related to neutrophil trafficking. Our observations support the role of this barrier in post-traumatic neutrophil invasion. PMID:19471279

  7. Development and functions of the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system.

    PubMed

    Lun, Melody P; Monuki, Edwin S; Lehtinen, Maria K

    2015-08-01

    The choroid plexus (ChP) is the principal source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which has accepted roles as a fluid cushion and a sink for nervous system waste in vertebrates. Various animal models have provided insights into how the ChP-CSF system develops and matures. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new, active roles for this dynamic system in the regulation of neural stem cells, critical periods and the overall health of the nervous system. Together, these findings have brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of brain development and health, and have stimulated new initiatives for the treatment of neurological disease. PMID:26174708

  8. The characteristics of nucleobase transport and metabolism by the perfused sheep choroid plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran B Redzic; Malcolm B Segal; Jovana M Gasic; Ivanka D Markovic; Vanesa P Vojvodic; Aleksandra Isakovic; Sarah A Thomas; Ljubisa M Rakic

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of nucleobases was investigated across the basolateral membrane of the sheep choroid plexus perfused in situ. The maximal uptake (Umax) for hypoxanthine and adenine, was 35.51±1.50% and 30.71±0.49% and for guanine, thymine and uracil was 12.00±0.53%, 13.07±0.48% and 12.30±0.55%, respectively with a negligible backflux, except for that of thymine (35.11±5.37% of the Umax). HPLC analysis revealed that the

  9. Expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in human choroid plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran B Redzic; Slava A Malatiali; Danica Grujicic; Aleksandra J Isakovic

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) 1-3 and human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs) 1-3 in the human choroid plexus (hCP) play a role in the homeostasis of adenosine and other naturally occurring nucleosides in the brain; in addition, hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 mediate membrane transport of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that could be used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine

  10. Synchrotron radiation dichromographic imaging of the extra- and intracranial arterial circulations and choroid plexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenstein, E.

    2002-05-01

    This communication proposes the use of synchrotron radiation based k-edge dichromographic imaging for the simultaneous study of the extracranial and intracranial arterial circulations following a single peripheral intravenous injection of a contrast agent. This approach can provide images of the vertebral arteries, the common, external and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries, during a single scanning procedure, lasting only a few seconds, requiring an X-ray exposure on the order of about 30 mGy/image. The method has specific advantages for the evaluation of the perfusion of the choroid plexus.

  11. Oxidative stress damage and oxidative stress responses in the choroid plexus in Alzheimer’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ester Perez-Gracia; Rosa Blanco; Margarita Carmona; Eva Carro; Isidro Ferrer

    2009-01-01

    Choroid plexus homogenates from 27 cases with Alzheimer disease-related pathology (AD), stages I\\/0 (n = 5), III–IV\\/0-B (n = 15) and V–VI\\/B-C (n = 7) and 3 age-matched controls (no clinical symptoms, no neuropathological lesions) were processed for gel electrophoresis\\u000a and western blotting for oxidation markers carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and N-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL). Increased CEL and CML expression was seen in AD cases stages IVB, and V–VI\\/B-C when

  12. The kinetics of tiazofurin uptake by the isolated perfused choroid plexus of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Z B; Segal, M B; Gasic, J M; Markovic, I D; Isakovic, A; Rakic, L M

    2000-04-01

    Tiazofurin (TZF-beta-D-ribofuronosyl thiazole-4-carboxamide, NSC-286193) is a synthetic nucleoside analog with potent antitumor activity. Isolated choroid plexuses (CP) of sheep were perfused in situ and the uptake of [3H]-tiazofurin was determined in relation to the recovery of [14C]-mannitol by means of the paired indicator dilution technique. The maximal uptake of tiazofurin was 8.29 +/- 0.84% and was shown to be both carrier-mediated, sodium-dependent and inhibited by adenosine which suggests that it uses the carrier for endogenous nucleosides. However, the total tiazofurin uptake into the choroid plexus was negligible (0.93 +/- 1.97%) as a result of a high backflux, indicating that tiazofurin is not trapped within the cells of the CP to any significant degree. The kinetics for the uptake into the CP were more favorable than for its passage across the blood-brain barrier with a Km of 7.71 +/- 1.42 microM, a Vmax of 1.30 +/- 0.05 microM/min/g and a negligible constant of a free diffusion (Kd) which suggests that the CP/CSF route may act as an alternative pathway into the brain. PMID:10893696

  13. A? immunization worsens iron deposits in the choroid plexus and cerebral microbleeds

    PubMed Central

    Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Dorieux, Olène; Trouche, Stéphanie G.; Boutajangout, Allal; Kraska, Audrey; Fontès, Pascaline; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Mestre-Francés, Nadine; Dhenain, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Anti-A? immunotherapy provides potential benefits in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Nevertheless, strategies based on A?1-42 peptide induced encephalomyelitis and possible microhemorrhages. These outcomes were not expected from studies performed in rodents. It is critical to determine if other animal models better predict side effects of immunotherapies. Mouse lemur primates can develop amyloidosis with aging. Here we used old lemurs to study immunotherapy based on A?1-42 or A?-derivative (K6A?1-30). We followed anti-A?40 IgG and IgM responses as well as A? levels in plasma. In-vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology were used to evaluate amyloidosis, neuroinflammation, vasogenic edema, microhemorrhages, and brain iron deposits. The animals responded mainly to the A?1-42 immunogen. This treatment induced immune response and increased A? levels in plasma but also microhemorrhages and iron deposits in the choroid plexus. A complementary study of untreated lemurs showed iron accumulation in the choroid plexus with normal aging. Worsening of iron accumulation is thus a potential side effect of A?-immunization at prodromal stages of Alzheimer’s disease, and should be monitored in clinical trials. PMID:23796662

  14. Amyloid beta immunization worsens iron deposits in the choroid plexus and cerebral microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Dorieux, Olène; Trouche, Stéphanie G; Boutajangout, Allal; Kraska, Audrey; Fontès, Pascaline; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Sigurdsson, Einar M; Mestre-Francés, Nadine; Dhenain, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Anti-amyloid beta (A?) immunotherapy provides potential benefits in Alzheimer's disease patients. Nevertheless, strategies based on A?1-42 peptide induced encephalomyelitis and possible microhemorrhages. These outcomes were not expected from studies performed in rodents. It is critical to determine if other animal models better predict side effects of immunotherapies. Mouse lemur primates can develop amyloidosis with aging. Here we used old lemurs to study immunotherapy based on A?1-42 or A?-derivative (K6A?1-30). We followed anti-A?40 immunoglobulin G and M responses and A? levels in plasma. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology were used to evaluate amyloidosis, neuroinflammation, vasogenic edema, microhemorrhages, and brain iron deposits. The animals responded mainly to the A?1-42 immunogen. This treatment induced immune response and increased A? levels in plasma and also microhemorrhages and iron deposits in the choroid plexus. A complementary study of untreated lemurs showed iron accumulation in the choroid plexus with normal aging. Worsening of iron accumulation is thus a potential side effect of A?-immunization at prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease, and should be monitored in clinical trials. PMID:23796662

  15. Cilia in the choroid plexus: their roles in hydrocephalus and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Keishi; Takeda, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are whip-like projections that are widely conserved in eukaryotes and function as a motile propeller and/or sensory platform to detect various extracellular stimuli. In vertebrates, cilia are ubiquitously found in most cells, showing structural and functional diversities depending on the cell type. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of cilia in choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs). CPECs form one or two dozen non-motile 9+0 cilia, which display transient acquisition of motility during development. Genetic malfunction of cilia can lead to failure of multiple organs including the brain. Especially, several groups have demonstrated that the defects in CPEC cilia cause the communicating form of hydrocephalus. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hydrocephalus, we have previously demonstrated that the cilia possess an NPFF receptor for autocrine signaling to regulate transepithelial fluid transport. In this perspective, we also discuss the potential involvement of cilia in the other aspects of choroid plexus functions, such as the regulation of brain development and neuroinflammation. PMID:25729351

  16. Posterior fossa tumor with distinct choroid plexus papilloma and ependymoma components.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chunyu; Stephens, Bradley H; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Dahiya, Sonika

    2015-05-01

    Synchronous occurrence of multiple primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors of different histological types is uncommon in patients without radiation history or genetic syndrome association. We herein report a sporadic case of posterior fossa tumor with synchronous choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) and ependymoma (EP) components. A 7-year-old girl with no significant past or familial medical history presented with 2 years of migraine type headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic mass with a mural enhancing nodule centered within the cerebellar vermis. The patient underwent gross total resection of the tumor. Histologic examination showed a tumor with two distinct components. The predominant component demonstrated classic morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of choroid plexus papilloma CPP, WHO grade I. However, there were a few discrete foci, where tumor cells showed architectural, cytological, and immunohistochemical features characteristic of an ependymoma, WHO grade II. In addition, there was exuberant piloid gliosis secondary to infiltration of the CPP component into the adjacent brain parenchyma. Followup brain imaging at 14 months after surgery showed no evidence of residual or recurrent tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous CPP and EP in the posterior fossa. PMID:25601059

  17. The characteristics of nucleobase transport and metabolism by the perfused sheep choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Z B; Segal, M B; Gasic, J M; Markovic, I D; Vojvodic, V P; Isakovic, A; Thomas, S A; Rakic, L M

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of nucleobases was investigated across the basolateral membrane of the sheep choroid plexus perfused in situ. The maximal uptake (U(max)) for hypoxanthine and adenine, was 35.51+/-1.50% and 30.71+/-0.49% and for guanine, thymine and uracil was 12.00+/-0.53%, 13.07+/-0.48% and 12.30+/-0.55%, respectively with a negligible backflux, except for that of thymine (35.11+/-5.37% of the U(max)). HPLC analysis revealed that the purine nucleobase hypoxanthine and the pyrimidine nucleobase thymine can pass intact through the choroid plexus and enter the cerebrospinal fluid CSF so the lack of backflux for hypoxanthine was not a result of metabolic trapping in the cell. Competition studies revealed that hypoxanthine, adenine and thymine shared the same transport system, while guanine and uracil were transported by a separate mechanism and that nucleosides can partially share the same transporter. HPLC analysis of sheep CSF collected in vivo revealed only two nucleobases were present adenine and hypoxanthine; with an R(CSF/Plasma) 0.19+/-0.02 and 3.43+/-0.20, respectively. Xanthine and urate, the final products of purine catabolism, could not be detected in the CSF even in trace amounts. These results suggest that the activity of xanthine oxidase in the brain of the sheep is very low so the metabolic degradation of purines is carried out only as far as hypoxanthine which then accumulates in the CSF. In conclusion, the presence of saturable transport systems for nucleobases at the basolateral membrane of the choroidal epithelium was demonstrated, which could be important for the distribution of the salvageable nucleobases, adenine and hypoxanthine in the central nervous system. PMID:11146053

  18. Increased Selenoprotein P in Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain

    PubMed Central

    Rueli, Rachel H.L.H.; Parubrub, Arlene C.; Dewing, Andrea S.T.; Hashimoto, Ann C.; Bellinger, Miyoko T.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Uyehara-Lock, Jane H.; White, Lon R.; Berry, Marla J.; Bellinger, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have elevated brain levels of the selenium transporter selenoprotein P (Sepp1). We investigated if this elevation results from increased release of Sepp1 from the choroid plexus (CP). Sepp1 is significantly increased in CP from AD brains in comparison to non-AD brains. Sepp1 localizes to the trans-Golgi network within CP epithelia, where it is processed for secretion. The cerebrospinal fluid from AD subjects also contains increased levels Sepp1 in comparison to non-AD subjects. These findings suggest that AD pathology induces increased levels of Sepp1 within CP epithelia for release into the cerebrospinal fluid to ultimately increase brain selenium. PMID:25298198

  19. Macrophages and dendritic cells in the rat meninges and choroid plexus: three-dimensional localisation by environmental scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. McMenamin; Rosamund J. Wealthall; Marie Deverall; Stephanie J. Cooper; Brendan Griffin

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation provides novel information on the topographical distribution of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in normal meninges and choroid plexus of the rat central nervous system (CNS). Whole-mounts of meninges and choroid plexus of Lewis rats were incubated with various anti-leucocyte monoclonal antibodies and either visualised with gold-conjugated secondary antibody followed by silver enhancement and subsequent examination by

  20. KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Roepke, Torsten K.; Kanda, Vikram A.; Purtell, Kerry; King, Elizabeth C.; Lerner, Daniel J.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for normal function and mechanical protection of the CNS. The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms currently not fully understood. Previously, the heteromeric KCNQ1-KCNE2 K+ channel was functionally linked to epithelial processes including gastric acid secretion and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Here, using Kcne2?/? tissue as a negative control, we found cerebral expression of KCNE2 to be markedly enriched in the CPe apical membrane, where we also discovered expression of KCNQ1. Targeted Kcne2 gene deletion in C57B6 mice increased CPe outward K+ current 2-fold. The Kcne2 deletion-enhanced portion of the current was inhibited by XE991 (10 ?M) and margatoxin (10 ?M) but not by dendrotoxin (100 nM), indicating that it arose from augmentation of KCNQ subfamily and KCNA3 but not KCNA1 K+ channel activity. Kcne2 deletion in C57B6 mice also altered the polarity of CPe KCNQ1 and KCNA3 trafficking, hyperpolarized the CPe membrane by 9 ± 2 mV, and increased CSF [Cl?] by 14% compared with wild-type mice. These findings constitute the first report of CPe dysfunction caused by cation channel gene disruption and suggest that KCNE2 influences blood-CSF anion flux by regulating KCNQ1 and KCNA3 in the CPe.—Roepke, T. K., Kanda, V. A., Purtell, K., King, E. C., Lerner, D. J., Abbott, G. W. KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium. PMID:21859894

  1. Choroid Plexus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Neurofibroma Neuronal & Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain ... Neurofibroma Neuronal & Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain ...

  2. Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliane Kläs; Hartwig Wolburg; Tetsuya Terasaki; Gert Fricker; Valeska Reichel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. METHODS: For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional

  3. Kinetics of nucleoside uptake by the basolateral side of the sheep choroid plexus epithelium perfused in situ.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Ivanka; Segal, Malcolm; Djuricic, Bogdan; Redzic, Zoran

    2008-03-01

    Sheep choroid plexus epithelium expresses equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) 1 and 2 and concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 at the transcript level. This study aimed to explore the kinetics and functional role of these transporters at the basolateral side of the sheep choroid plexus epithelium perfused in situ. The cellular uptake of [(3)H]adenosine and [(3)H]uridine was insensitive to 1 microm nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), and the uptake of [(3)H]adenosine was reduced significantly when 10 microm NBTI was present in low-Na(+) Ringer solution. This might suggest that ENT2, a transporter sensitive to micromolar NBTI, is functionally active at the basolateral side of the choroid plexus epithelium while ENT1, a transporter sensitive to nanomolar NBTI, is not active. When low-Na(+) Ringer solution was used for the in situ perfusion, the Na(+) concentration in the venous effluent decreased to 14 mm; under these conditions the maximal uptake (U(max)) of [(3)H]adenosine and [(3)H]uridine did not change significantly when compared with the U(max) obtained when Ringer solution that contained 145 mm Na(+) was used. Kinetic analysis revealed apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m,app)) for cellular uptake of [(3)H]adenosine, [(3)H]inosine and [(3)H]thymidine of 1.2 +/- 0.2, 15.7 +/- 2.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.9 microm, respectively. The HPLC and HPLC-fluorometric analysis of the sheep plasma and cerebrospinal fluid revealed nanomolar concentrations of adenosine and thymidine and micromolar levels of inosine and nucleobases. Considering the estimated K(m,app) values, it appears that under normal conditions inosine is the more important nucleoside substrate for uptake by the basolateral membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium than other nucleosides. PMID:18039975

  4. Age-related changes in choroid plexus and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier function in the sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Chen; N. A. Kassem; Z. B. Redzic; C. P. C. Chen; M. B. Segal; J. E. Preston

    2009-01-01

    Dysfunction of the choroid plexuses (CPs) and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) might contribute to age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. We used the CPs from young (1–2 years), middle-aged (3–6 years) and old (7–10 years) sheep to explore effects of aging on various aspects of CP and BCSFB functions. Total protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was significantly higher

  5. Traumatic brain injury and recovery mechanisms: peptide modulation of periventricular neurogenic regions by the choroid plexus–CSF nexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad Johanson; Edward Stopa; Andrew Baird; Hari Sharma

    2011-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI), severe disruptions occur in the choroid plexus (CP)–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nexus that\\u000a destabilize the nearby hippocampal and subventricular neurogenic regions. Following invasive and non-invasive injuries to\\u000a cortex, several adverse sequelae harm the brain interior: (i) structural damage to CP epithelium that opens the blood–CSF\\u000a barrier (BCSFB) to protein, (ii) altered CSF dynamics and intracranial pressure

  6. Expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in human choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) 1-3 and human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs) 1-3 in the human choroid plexus (hCP) play a role in the homeostasis of adenosine and other naturally occurring nucleosides in the brain; in addition, hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 mediate membrane transport of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that could be used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine and 2'3'-dideoxyinosine. This study aimed to explore the expression levels and functional activities of hENTs 1-3 and hCNTs 1-3 in human choroid plexus. Methods Freshly-isolated pieces of lateral ventricle hCP, removed for various clinical reasons during neurosurgery, were obtained under Local Ethics Committee approval. Quantification of mRNAs that encoded hENTs and hCNTs was performed by the hydrolysis probes-based reverse transcription real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); for each gene of interest and for 18 S ribosomal RNA, which was an endogenous control, the efficiency of PCR reaction (E) and the quantification cycle (Cq) were calculated. The uptake of [3H]inosine by the choroid plexus pieces was investigated to explore the functional activity of hENTs and hCNTs in the hCP. Results RT-qPCR revealed that the mRNA encoding the intracellularly located transporter hENT3 was the most abundant, with E-Cq value being only about 40 fold less that the E-Cq value for 18 S ribosomal RNA; mRNAs encoding hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 were much less abundant than mRNA for the hENT3, while mRNAs encoding hCNT1 and hCNT2 were of very low abundance and not detectable. Uptake of [3H]inosine by the CP samples was linear and consisted of an Na+-dependent component, which was probably mediated by hCNT3, and Na+-independent component, mediated by hENTs. The latter component was not sensitive to inhibition by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), when used at a concentration of 0.5 ?M, a finding that excluded the involvement of hENT1, but it was very substantially inhibited by 10 ?M NBMPR, a finding that suggested the involvement of hENT2 in uptake. Conclusion Transcripts for hENT1-3 and hCNT3 were detected in human CP; mRNA for hENT3, an intracellularly located nucleoside transporter, was the most abundant. Human CP took up radiolabelled inosine by both concentrative and equilibrative processes. Concentrative uptake was probably mediated by hCNT3; the equilibrative uptake was mediated only by hENT2. The hENT1 transport activity was absent, which could suggest either that this protein was absent in the CP cells or that it was confined to the basolateral side of the CP epithelium. PMID:20150980

  7. Cotransport of sodium and chloride by the adult mammalian choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, C.E.; Sweeney, S.M.; Parmelee, J.T.; Epstein, M.H. (Brown Univ./Rhode Island Hospital, Providence (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid formation stems primarily from the transport of Na and Cl in choroid plexus (CP). To characterize properties and modulation of choroidal transporters, we tested diuretics and other agents for ability to alter ion transport in vitro. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were the source of CPs preincubated with drug for 20 min and then transferred to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) medium containing 22Na or 36Cl with (3H)mannitol (extracellular correction). Complete base-line curves were established for cellular uptake of Na and Cl at 37 degrees C. The half-maximal uptake occurred at 12 s, so it was used to assess drug effects on rate of transport (nmol Na or Cl/mg CP). Bumetanide (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) decreased uptake of Na and Cl with maximal inhibition (up to 45%) at 10(-5) M. Another cotransport inhibitor, furosemide (10(-4) M), reduced transport of Na by 25% and Cl by 33%. However, acetazolamide (10(-4) M) and atriopeptin III (10(-7) M) significantly lowered uptake of Na (but not Cl), suggesting effect(s) other than on cotransport. The disulfonic stilbene 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS; 10(-4) M), known to inhibit Cl-HCO3 exchange, substantially reduced the transport of 36Cl. Bumetanide plus DIDS (both 10(-4) M) caused additive inhibition of 90% of Cl uptake, which provides strong evidence for the existence of both cotransport and antiport Cl carriers. Overall, this in vitro analysis, uncomplicated by variables of blood flow and neural tone, indicates the presence in rat CP of the cotransport of Na and Cl in addition to the established Na-H and Cl-HCO3 exchangers.

  8. A balanced view of choroid plexus structure and function: Focus on adult humans.

    PubMed

    Spector, Reynold; Keep, Richard F; Robert Snodgrass, S; Smith, Quentin R; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-05-01

    Recently tremendous progress has been made in studying choroid plexus (CP) physiology and pathophysiology; and correcting several misconceptions about the CP. Specifically, the details of how CP, a locus of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), secretes and purifies CSF, generates intracranial pressure (ICP), maintains CSF ion homeostasis, and provides micronutrients, proteins and hormones for neuronal and glial development, maintenance and function, are being understood on a molecular level. Unequivocal evidence that the CP secretory epithelium is the predominant supplier of CSF for the ventricles comes from multiple lines: uptake kinetics of tracer (22)Na and (36)Cl penetration from blood to CSF, autoradiographic mapping of rapid (22)Na and (36)Cl permeation (high permeability coefficients) into the cerebroventricles, CSF sampling from several different in vivo and in vitro CP preparations, CP hyperplasia that increases CSF formation and ICP; and in vitro analysis of CP ability to transport molecules (with expected directionality) and actively secrete fluid against an hydrostatic fluid column. Furthermore, clinical support for this CP-CSF model comes from neurosurgical procedures to remove lateral ventricle CPs in hydrocephalic children to reduce CSF formation, thereby relieving elevated ICP. In terms of micronutrient transport, ascorbic acid, folate and other essential factors are transported by specific (cloned) carriers across CP into ventricular CSF, from which they penetrate across the ependyma and pia mater deeply into the brain to support its viability and function. Without these choroidal functions, severe neurological disease and even death can occur. In terms of efflux or clearance transport, the active carriers (many of which have been cloned and expressed) in the CP basolateral and apical membranes perform regulatory removal of some metabolites (e.g. choline) and certain drugs (e.g. antibiotics like penicillin) from CSF, thus reducing agents such as penicillin to sub-therapeutic levels. Altogether, these multiple transport and secretory functions in CP support CSF homeostasis and fluid dynamics essential for brain function. PMID:25747036

  9. The choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system: from development to aging.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B; Preston, Jane E; Duncan, John A; Chodobski, Adam; Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The function of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the tissue that secretes it, the choroid plexus (CP), has traditionally been thought of as both providing physical protection to the brain through buoyancy and facilitating the removal of brain metabolites through the bulk drainage of CSF. More recent studies suggest, however, that the CP-CSF system plays a much more active role in the development, homeostasis, and repair of the central nervous system (CNS). The highly specialized choroidal tissue synthesizes trophic and angiogenic factors, chemorepellents, and carrier proteins, and is strategically positioned within the ventricular cavities to supply the CNS with these biologically active substances. Through polarized transport systems and receptor-mediated transcytosis across the choroidal epithelium, the CP, a part of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), controls the entry of nutrients, such as amino acids and nucleosides, and peptide hormones, such as leptin and prolactin, from the periphery into the brain. The CP also plays an important role in the clearance of toxins and drugs. During CNS development, CP-derived growth factors, such as members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and retinoic acid, play an important role in controlling the patterning of neuronal differentiation in various brain regions. In the adult CNS, the CP appears to be critically involved in neuronal repair processes and the restoration of the brain microenvironment after traumatic and ischemic brain injury. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the CP acts as a nursery for neuronal and astrocytic progenitor cells. The advancement of our knowledge of the neuroprotective capabilities of the CP may therefore facilitate the development of novel therapies for ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. In the later stages of life, the CP-CSF axis shows a decline in all aspects of its function, including CSF secretion and protein synthesis, which may in themselves increase the risk for development of late-life diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease. The understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the dysfunction of the CP-CSF system in the elderly may help discover the treatments needed to reverse the negative effects of aging that lead to global CNS failure. PMID:16344101

  10. Structural defects in cilia of the choroid plexus, subfornical organ and ventricular ependyma are associated with ventriculomegaly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydrocephalus is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple etiologies that are not yet fully understood. Animal models have implicated dysfunctional cilia of the ependyma and choroid plexus in the development of the disorder. In this report, we sought to determine the origin of the ventriculomegaly in four Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) mutant mouse strains as models of a ciliopathy. Methods Evans Blue dye was injected into the lateral ventricle of wild- type and BBS mutant mice to determine whether obstruction of intra- or extra-ventricular CSF flow contributed to ventriculomegaly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the ultrastructure of the choroid plexus, subfornical organ (SFO), subcommisural organ (SCO), and ventricular ependyma to evaluate their ultrastructure and the morphology of their primary and motile cilia. Results and discussion No obstruction of intra- or extra-ventricular CSF flow was observed, implying a communicating form of hydrocephalus in BBS mutant mice. TEM analyses of the mutants showed no evidence of choroidal papillomas or breakdown of the blood:CSF barrier. In contrast, structural defects were observed in a subpopulation of cilia lining the choroid plexus, SFO, and ventricular ependyma. These included disruptions of the microtubular structure of the axoneme and the presence of electron-dense vesicular-like material along the ciliary shaft and at the tips of cilia. Conclusions Abnormalities in cilia structure and function have the potential to influence ciliary intraflagellar transport (IFT), cilia maintenance, protein trafficking, and regulation of CSF production. Ciliary structural defects are the only consistent pathological features associated with CSF-related structures in BBS mutant mice. These defects are observed from an early age, and may contribute to the underlying pathophysiology of ventriculomegaly. PMID:23046663

  11. Expression of HNF4alpha in the human and rat choroid plexus – Implications for drug transport across the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier

    PubMed Central

    Niehof, Monika; Borlak, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background The choroid plexus consists of highly differentiated epithelium and functions as a barrier at the interface of the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF). This tissue may therefore determine the bioavailability and transport of drugs to the brain. Little is known about the expression of drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (DME) and of drug transporters in the human choroid plexus. Notably, the transcription factor and zinc finger protein HNF4alpha is a master regulator of DMEs and of drug transporters. As of today its activity in the blood-CSF barrier is unknown. Here we report our efforts in determining HNF4alpha activity in the regulation of ABC transporters in the human and rat choroid plexus. Results We report expression of HNF4alpha by qRT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry and evidence transcript expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCC1-6 in choroid plexus. Additionally, HNF4alpha DNA binding activity at regulatory sequences of ABCB4 and ABCC1 was determined by EMSA bandshift assays with a specific antibody. We then performed siRNA mediated functional knock down of HNF4alpha in Caco-2 cells and found ABCC1 gene expression to be repressed in cell culture experiments. Conclusion Our study evidences activity of HNF4alpha in human and rat choroid plexus. This transcription factor targets DMEs and drug transporters and may well determine availability of drugs at the blood-CSF barrier. PMID:19575803

  12. Cerebral nitric oxide represses choroid plexus NF?B-dependent gateway activity for leukocyte trafficking.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Kuti; Kertser, Alexander; Porat, Ziv; Schwartz, Michal

    2015-07-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is evident in brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders and is often associated with excessive nitric oxide (NO) production within the central nervous system (CNS). Under such conditions, increased NO levels are observed at the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial layer that forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) and serves as a selective gateway for leukocyte entry to the CNS in homeostasis and following injury. Here, we hypothesized that elevated cerebral NO levels interfere with CP gateway activity. We found that induction of leukocyte trafficking determinants by the CP and sequential leukocyte entry to the CSF are dependent on the CP epithelial NF?B/p65 signaling pathway, which was inhibited upon exposure to NO. Examining the CP in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD-Tg) revealed impaired ability to mount an NF?B/p65-dependent response. Systemic administration of an NO scavenger in AD-Tg mice alleviated NF?B/p65 suppression at the CP and augmented its gateway activity. Together, our findings identify cerebral NO as a negative regulator of CP gateway activity for immune cell trafficking to the CNS. PMID:25940071

  13. The path from the choroid plexus to the subventricular zone: go with the flow!

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Ana Mendanha; Marques, Fernanda; Novais, Ashley; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, João Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In adult mammals, under physiological conditions, neurogenesis, the process of generating new functional neurons from precursor cells, occurs mainly in two brain areas: the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the brain lateral ventricles. Taking into account the location of the SVZ and the cytoarchitecture of this periventricular neural progenitor cell niche, namely the fact that the slow dividing primary progenitor cells (type B cells) of the SVZ extend an apical primary cilium toward the brain ventricular space which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it becomes likely that the composition of the CSF can modulate both self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of SVZ neural stem cells. The major site of CSF synthesis is the choroid plexus (CP); quite surprisingly, however, it is still largely unknown the contribution of molecules specifically secreted by the adult CP as modulators of the SVZ adult neurogenesis. This is even more relevant in light of recent evidence showing the ability of the CP to adapt its transcriptome and secretome to various physiologic and pathologic stimuli. By giving particular emphasizes to growth factors and axonal guidance molecules we will illustrate how CP-born molecules might play an important role in the SVZ niche cell population dynamics. PMID:22907990

  14. The resolution of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration: leukocyte recruitment via the choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Michal; Baruch, Kuti

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is an integral part of the body's physiological repair mechanism, unless it remains unresolved and becomes pathological, as evident in the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Based on studies from outside the central nervous system (CNS), it is now understood that the resolution of inflammation is an active process, which is dependent on well-orchestrated innate and adaptive immune responses. Due to the immunologically privileged status of the CNS, such resolution mechanism has been mostly ignored. Here, we discuss resolution of neuroinflammation as a process that depends on a network of immune cells operating in a tightly regulated sequence, involving the brain's choroid plexus (CP), a unique neuro-immunological interface, positioned to integrate signals it receives from the CNS parenchyma with signals coming from circulating immune cells, and to function as an on-alert gate for selective recruitment of inflammation-resolving leukocytes to the inflamed CNS parenchyma. Finally, we propose that functional dysregulation of the CP reflects a common underlying mechanism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and can thus serve as a potential novel target for therapy. PMID:24357543

  15. Polarized distribution of nucleoside transporters in rat brain endothelial and choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B; Biringer, Jean; Barnes, Kay; Baldwin, Stephen A; Al-Sarraf, Hameed; Nicola, Pieris A; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E; Barrand, Margery A; Hladky, Stephen B

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated mRNA expression and protein localization of equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs, CNTs) in primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and rat choroid plexus epithelial cells (RCPEC). Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that RBEC and RCPEC contained mRNA for rENT1, rENT2 and rCNT2 and for rENT1, rENT2, rCNT2 and rCNT3, respectively. Immunoblotting of membrane fractions of RBEC, fresh RCPEC and primary cultures of RCPEC revealed the presence of rENT1, rENT2 and rCNT2 proteins in all samples. Measurement of [14C]adenosine uptake into cells grown as monolayers on permeable plastic supports revealed a polarized distribution of Na+-dependent adenosine uptake in that CNT activity was associated exclusively in membranes of RBEC facing the lower chamber (which corresponds to the surface facing the interstitial fluid in situ) and in membranes of RCPEC facing the upper chamber (which corresponds to the surface facing the cerebrospinal fluid in situ). In both RBEC and RCPEC, adenosine uptake from the opposite chambers was Na+-independent and partially inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine, indicating the presence of the equilibrative sensitive transporter rENT1. PMID:16111480

  16. The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, peptide histidine isoleucine and neuropeptide Y modulate [3H]noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves in the choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, C; Kannisto, P; Lindvall-Axelsson, M; Owman, C; Rosengren, E

    1990-06-01

    The neurotransmitter peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are located in nerve fibers supplying the pig choroid plexus, which receives an abundant sympathetic innervation. We characterized the release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) from this tissue elicited by electrical field stimulation and studied the effects of the above-mentioned peptides on this release. The release of [3H]NA was found to be almost exclusively of neurogenic origin, despite there being a marked non-neuronal uptake of [3H]NA into the epithelium of the choroid plexus. NPY significantly decreased the release of [3H]NA by approximately 10% while VIP and PHI enhanced release by up to 25 and 35%, respectively, indicating a possible synergistic role of the two latter peptides and NA in the choroid plexus. PMID:2384133

  17. The kinetics of hypoxanthine transport across the perfused choroid plexus of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B; Gasic, Jovana M; Segal, Malcolm B; Markovic, Ivanka D; Isakovic, Aleksandra J; Rakic, Miodrag Lj; Thomas, Sarah A; Rakic, Ljubisa M

    2002-01-25

    The uptake of principal salvageable nucleobase hypoxanthine was investigated across the basolateral membrane of the sheep choroid plexus (CP) perfused in situ. The results suggest that hypoxanthine uptake was Na+-independent, which means that transport system on the basolateral membrane can mediate the transport in both directions. Although the unlabelled nucleosides adenosine and inosine markedly reduce the transport it seems that this inhibition was due to nucleoside degradation into nucleobases in the cells, since non-metabolised nucleoside analogue NBTI did not inhibit the transport. The presence of adenine also inhibits hypoxanthine uptake while the addition of the pyrimidines does not show any effect, so it seems that the transport of purine nucleobases through basolateral membrane is mediated via a common transporter which is different from the nucleoside transporters. The inclusion of allopurinol in the perfusion fluid did not change the value and general shape of the curve for the uptake which suggest that degradation of hypoxanthine into xanthine and uric acid does not occur in the CP. The capacity of the CP basolateral membrane to transport hypoxanthine is high (90.63+/-3.79 nM/min/g) and close to the values obtained for some essential amino acids by the CP and blood-brain barrier, while the free diffusion is negligible. The derived value of Km (20.72+/-2.42 microM) is higher than the concentration of hypoxanthine in the sheep plasma (15.61+/-2.28 microM) but less than a half of the concentration in the CSF, which indicates that the transport system at basolateral membrane mostly mediates the efflux of hypoxanthine from the cerebrospinal fluid in vivo. PMID:11792365

  18. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions. PMID:24391755

  19. The Impact of Radiotherapy Fields in the Treatment of Patients With Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, Ali [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Wolff, Johannes E. [Department of Pediatrics, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To perform a comprehensive literature review and analysis of cases dealing with choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) to determine the optimal radiotherapy (RT) treatment field. Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1979 to 2008 was performed, yielding 33 articles with 56 patients who had available data regarding RT treatment field. The median age at diagnosis was 2.7 years (range, 1 month-53 years). Of 54 patients with data regarding type of surgery, 21 (38.9%) had complete resection. Chemotherapy was delivered to 27 (48%) as part of initial therapy. The RT treatment volume was the craniospinal axis in 38 (68%), whole brain in 9 (16%), and tumor/tumor bed in 9 (16%). Median follow-up for surviving patients was 40 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 59.5% and 37.2%, respectively. Complete resection (p = 0.035) and use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI; p = 0.025) were found to positively affect PFS. The 5-year PFS for patients who had CSI vs. whole brain and tumor/tumor bed RT were 44.2% and 15.3%. For the 19 patients who relapsed, 9 (47%) had a recurrence in the RT field, 6 (32%) had a recurrence outside the RT field, and 4 (21%) had a recurrence inside and outside the irradiated field. Conclusion: Patients with CPC who received CSI had better PFS compared with those receiving less than CSI. This study supports the use of CSI in the multimodality management of patients with CPC.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor II messenger ribonucleic acids are synthesized in the choroid plexus of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, M.A.; Brooks, P.J.; Van Wyk, J.J.; Lund, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrating the presence of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their receptors in the brain suggest a role of the IGFs in the central nervous system. IGF-II has been implicated as the predominant IGF in brain of mature animals based on studies of immunoreactive peptide and of IGF-II mRNAs. To obtain information about the sites of synthesis of IGF-II in adult rat brain, a /sup 32/P-labeled 31 base long synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary in sequence to trailer peptide coding sequences in rat IGF-II mRNA (IGF-II 31 mer) was hybridized with coronal sections of fixed rat brain. The IGF-II 31 mer showed specific hybridization with the choroid plexus throughout rat brain, whereas in other brain regions, structures or cells, hybridization was not discernibly above background. These findings suggest that the choroid plexus is a primary site of synthesis of IGF-II, a probable source of IGF-II in cerebrospinal fluid, and a potential source of IGF-II for actions on target cells within the adult rat brain.

  1. Ossified choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle: elucidation of the mechanism of osteogenesis in benign brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Erin; Awadallah, Amad; Murakami, Shunichi; Cohen, Mark L; Cohen, Alan R

    2013-07-01

    True ossification within benign brain tumors is rare, and the molecular mechanism for this process is poorly understood. The authors report a case of ossified choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) and analyze it to help elucidate the underlying molecular basis of osteogenesis in benign brain tumors. A 21-year-old man presented with headache and depression that progressed over years. Computed tomography, MRI, and angiography demonstrated a large heavily calcified fourth ventricular tumor with a vascular blush and no hydrocephalus. The tumor was resected and was found to be an ossified CPP. Immunohistochemical staining for VEGF, Sox2, BMP-2, osterix, osteopontin, and osteocalcin was performed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of bone formation. The tumor was extensively ossified with mature bone trabeculae. Immunostaining for VEGF was positive. Additional staining showed the presence of osteocalcin in this ossified tumor but not in samples of nonossified CPPs collected from other patients. Staining for osterix and osteopontin was equivocally positive in the ossified CPP but also in the nonossified CPPs examined. The presence of osteocalcin in the ossified CPP demonstrates that there is true bone formation rather than simple calcification. Its appearance within cells around the trabeculae suggests the presence of osteoblasts. The presence of osterix suggests that a pluripotent cell, or one that is already partially differentiated, may be differentiated into an osteoblast through this pathway. This represents the first systematic immunohistochemical analysis of osteogenesis within choroid plexus tumors. PMID:23641963

  2. The embryonic blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function before the formation of the fetal choroid plexus: role in cerebrospinal fluid formation and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, David; Parvas, Maryam; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has attracted interest as an active signaling milieu that regulates brain development, homeostasis, and course disease. CSF is a nutrient-rich fluid, which also contains growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS). CSF constitution is controlled tightly and constituent concentrations are maintained narrow, depending on developmental stage. From fetal stages to adult life, CSF is produced mainly by the choroid plexus. The development and functional activities of the choroid plexus, and other blood-brain barrier systems in adults, have been extensively analyzed. However, the study of CSF production and homeostasis in embryos from the closure of the anterior neuropore, when the brain cavities become physiologically sealed, to the formation of the functional fetal choroid plexus has been largely neglected. This developmental stage is characterized by tightly controlled morphological and cellular events in the anterior part of the CNS, such as rapid brain anlagen growth and initiation of primary neurogenesis in the neural progenitor cells lining the cavities, events which are driven by specific molecules contained within the embryonic CSF. In this article, we review the existing literature on formation and function of the temporary embryonic blood-CSF barrier, from closure of the anterior neuropore to the formation of functional fetal choroid plexuses, with regard to crucial roles that embryonic CSF plays in neural development. PMID:25165045

  3. Uneven distribution of nucleoside transporters and intracellular enzymatic degradation prevent transport of intact [14C] adenosine across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium as a monolayer in primary culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran B Redzic; Aleksandra J Isakovic; Sonja T Misirlic Dencic; Dusan Popadic; Malcolm B Segal

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efflux transport of adenosine across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium might contribute to the homeostasis of this neuromodulator in the extracellular fluids of the brain. The aim of this study was to explore adenosine transport across sheep CP epithelial cell monolayers in primary culture. METHODS: To explore transport of adenosine across the CP epithelium, we have developed a method

  4. The characteristics of basolateral nucleoside transport in the perfused sheep choroid plexus and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition on these processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran B Redži?; Malcolm B Segal; Ivanka D Markovi?; Jovana M Gaši?; Vanesa Vidovi?; Ljubiša M Raki?

    1997-01-01

    The single pass paired dilution technique was used to measure the uptake of nucleosides across the basolateral face of the isolated in situ perfused sheep choroid plexus (CP). The uptake of labelled adenosine and guanosine into the CP was large (?35%) whereas that of thymidine was less (?15%). The addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled adenosine to the perfusate inhibited the

  5. Electron-Microscopic Studies on the Pathogenesis of Exencephaly and Cranioschisis Induced in the Rat after Neural Tube Closure: Role of the Neuroepithelium and Choroid Plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Padmanabhan

    1990-01-01

    Exencephaly was induced in Wistar rat fetuses by the administration of a single dose of cyclophosphamide (15 mg\\/kg) in saline after neural tube closure. The neuroepithelium (NE) and the choroid plexus were studied electron-microscopically in sections taken from a few hours after treatment to day 19 of gestation. The reduction in polyribosomes and condensation of the nucleus and cytoplasm were

  6. Malignancy-Associated Vessel Tortuosity: A Computer-Assisted, MRA Study of Choroid Plexus Carcinoma in Genetically Engineered Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bullitt, Elizabeth; Wolthusen, P. Anne; Brubaker, Lauren; Lin, Weili; Zeng, Donglin; Van Dyke, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ability to assess tumor malignancy and to monitor treatment response non-invasively would be of value to both clinicians and animal investigators. This report describes the MR imaging characteristics of a genetically engineered mouse model of choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) during tumor growth and progression to malignancy. We assess the ability of vessel tortuosity measurements, as calculated from high-resolution MRA images, to detect emerging CPC cancers. Methods MR images were analyzed of 9 healthy mice and of 20 CPC mice with precancerous choroid dysplasia or with cancer over a wide range of sizes. Two vessel tortuosity measures and a measure of vessel density (vessel count) were calculated from MRA images. Malignancy assessment was based upon a statistical analysis of vessel tortuosity, using an equation derived from an earlier study of human brain tumor patients. Results Choroid dysplasia was correctly judged non-malignant. On the basis of vessel count, neo-angiogenesis could not be detected until cancers were full-blown and had reached a volume of approximately 80mm3. Vessel tortuosity measurements, however, correctly identified emerging malignancy in lesions larger than 0.3mm3. Conclusion This report provides the first description of in vivo, MR imaging characteristics of genetically engineered CPC mice during the progression from dysplasia to cancer. Vessel tortuosity measurements offer promise of correctly defining even tiny tumors as malignant. PMID:16552004

  7. A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, John F.; Thomas, Monzy; Patterson, Tucker A.; George, Nysia I.; Runnells, Jeffrey A.; Levi, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    This video presentation was created to show a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures, not residing within the brain proper, that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis. The tissue harvested is suitable for biochemical and physiological analysis, and the MAV has been shown to be sensitive to damage produced by amphetamine and hyperthermia 1,2. As well, the major and minor cerebral vasculatures harvested in MAV are of potentially high interest when investigating concussive types of head trauma. The MAV dissected in this presentation consists of the pial and some of the arachnoid membrane (less dura) of the meninges and the major and minor cerebral surface vasculature. The choroid plexus dissected is the structure that resides in the lateral ventricles as described by Oldfield and McKinley3,4,5,6. The methods used for harvesting these two tissues also facilitate the harvesting of regional cortical tissue devoid of meninges and larger cerebral surface vasculature, and is compatible with harvesting other brain tissues such as striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, etc. The dissection of the two tissues takes from 5 to 10 min total. The gene expression levels for the dissected MAV and choroid plexus, as shown and described in this presentation can be found at GSE23093 (MAV) and GSE29733 (choroid plexus) at the NCBI GEO repository. This data has been, and is being, used to help further understand the functioning of the MAV and choroid plexus and how neurotoxic events such as severe hyperthermia and AMPH adversely affect their function. PMID:23183685

  8. Cross-Species Genomics Identifies TAF12, NFYC, and RAD54L as Choroid Plexus Carcinoma Oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yiai; Merino, Diana; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Gupta, Kirti; Wang, Yong-Dong; Finkelstein, David; Dalton, James; Ellison, David W; Ma, Xiaotu; Zhang, Jinghui; Malkin, David; Gilbertson, Richard J

    2015-05-11

    Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs) are poorly understood and frequently lethal brain tumors with few treatment options. Using a mouse model of the disease and a large cohort of human CPCs, we performed a cross-species, genome-wide search for oncogenes within syntenic regions of chromosome gain. TAF12, NFYC, and RAD54L co-located on human chromosome 1p32-35.3 and mouse chromosome 4qD1-D3 were identified as oncogenes that are gained in tumors in both species and required for disease initiation and progression. TAF12 and NFYC are transcription factors that regulate the epigenome, whereas RAD54L plays a central role in DNA repair. Our data identify a group of concurrently gained oncogenes that cooperate in the formation of CPC and reveal potential avenues for therapy. PMID:25965574

  9. Expression of junctional proteins in choroid plexus epithelial cell lines: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Pascale, Crissey L; Pfeffer, Andrew N; Coulter, Cassaundra; Chodobski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in using choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines to study the properties of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Currently, there are three major CP-derived cell lines available. Z310 and TR-CSFB3, two immortalized cell lines carrying the simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene, were derived from rat CP epithelium, whereas the CPC-2 cell line was derived from human CP carcinoma. Although these cell lines have previously been used in various functional studies, the expression of adherens junction (AJ) and tight junction (TJ) proteins in these epithelial cells has not been systematically studied. Accordingly, in the present study, we sought to characterize the expression of these junctional proteins in these three cell lines. Methods The cells were grown in six-well cell culture plates. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry were used to characterize the expression of AJ and TJ proteins in the CP cell lines. Results Z310 and TR-CSFB3 cells expressed a TJ protein, occludin, and its cytosolic binding partner, zonula occludens 1, as well as an AJ protein, E-cadherin, and ?-catenin, a cytoplasmic protein that interacts with E-cadherin. However, the expression of occludin and E-cadherin in TR-CSFB3 cells at both the mRNA and protein level was weaker than that found in Z301 cells. The immunocytochemical analysis also demonstrated that the staining pattern for these junctional proteins in TR-CSFB3 cells was discontinuous and the staining intensity was weaker than that observed in Z310 cells. The message for claudin 1 and claudin 2 was expressed at low levels in TR-CSFB3 cells and these cells were weakly immunopositive for claudin 1. In comparison, the message for these TJ proteins could not be detected in Z310 cells. CPC-2 cells expressed occludin, which was localized to areas of cell-cell contact, but the staining pattern for this TJ protein was found to be variable and irregular. Although CPC-2 cells expressed mRNA for claudin 1, claudin 2, and claudin 11, only claudin 1 was expressed at the protein level and it was localized to the nuclei rather than to areas of cell-cell contact. An AJ protein, E-cadherin, was also found to be mislocalized in CPC-2 cells, even though its cytosolic binding partner, ?-catenin, was restricted to areas of cell-cell contact, as in normal CP. Conclusion The three CP cell lines analyzed in this study vary considerably with regard to the expression of AJ and TJ proteins, which is likely reflected by different barrier properties of these in vitro models of BCSFB. PMID:18162136

  10. Native serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are expressed as homodimers on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Herrick-Davis, Katharine; Grinde, Ellinor; Lindsley, Tara; Teitler, Milt; Mancia, Filippo; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E

    2015-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a prominent class of plasma membrane proteins that regulate physiologic responses to a wide variety of stimuli and therapeutic agents. Although GPCR oligomerization has been studied extensively in recombinant cells, it remains uncertain whether native receptors expressed in their natural cellular environment are monomers, dimers, or oligomers. The goal of this study was to determine the monomer/oligomer status of a native GPCR endogenously expressed in its natural cellular environment. Native 5-HT2C receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells were evaluated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH). An anti-5-HT2C fragment antigen binding protein was used to label native 5-HT2C receptors. A known monomeric receptor (CD-86) served as a control for decoding the oligomer status of native 5-HT2C receptors by molecular brightness analysis. FCS with PCH revealed molecular brightness values for native 5-HT2C receptors equivalent to the molecular brightness of a homodimer. 5-HT2C receptors displayed a diffusion coefficient of 5 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s and were expressed at 32 receptors/?m(2) on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells. The functional significance and signaling capabilities of the homodimer were investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells using agonists that bind in a wash-resistant manner to one or both protomers of the homodimer. Whereas agonist binding to one protomer resulted in G protein activation, maximal stimulation required occupancy of both protomers. This study is the first to demonstrate the homodimeric structure of 5-HT2C receptors endogenously expressed in their native cellular environment, and identifies the homodimer as a functional signaling unit. PMID:25609374

  11. Choroid plexus dysfunction impairs beta-amyloid clearance in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Johanson, Conrad E; Carmona-Calero, Emilia María; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; Brito-Armas, José Miguel; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castro-Fuentes, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Compromised secretory function of choroid plexus (CP) and defective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production, along with accumulation of beta-amyloid (A?) peptides at the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), contribute to complications of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD triple transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) at 16 month-old mimics critical hallmarks of the human disease: ?-amyloid (A?) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) with a temporal- and regional- specific profile. Currently, little is known about transport and metabolic responses by CP to the disrupted homeostasis of CNS A? in AD. This study analyzed the effects of highly-expressed AD-linked human transgenes (APP, PS1 and tau) on lateral ventricle CP function. Confocal imaging and immunohistochemistry revealed an increase only of A?42 isoform in epithelial cytosol and in stroma surrounding choroidal capillaries; this buildup may reflect insufficient clearance transport from CSF to blood. Still, there was increased expression, presumably compensatory, of the choroidal A? transporters: the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE). A thickening of the epithelial basal membrane and greater collagen-IV deposition occurred around capillaries in CP, probably curtailing solute exchanges. Moreover, there was attenuated expression of epithelial aquaporin-1 and transthyretin (TTR) protein compared to Non-Tg mice. Collectively these findings indicate CP dysfunction hypothetically linked to increasing A? burden resulting in less efficient ion transport, concurrently with reduced production of CSF (less sink action on brain A?) and diminished secretion of TTR (less neuroprotection against cortical A? toxicity). The putative effects of a disabled CP-CSF system on CNS functions are discussed in the context of AD. PMID:25705176

  12. Morphine-induced prolactin release precedes a down-regulation of prolactin receptors in the male rat choroid plexus and hypothalamus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhennan Lai; Qingzhu Zhai; Zhurong Liu; Paul Roos; Fred Nyberg

    1995-01-01

    In previous studies we provided evidence for changes in prolactin (PRL) receptor levels in the male rat brain after continuously infusing morphine using subcutanously implanted miniosmotic pumps. In this work we have studied the binding of PRL in the male rat brain following morphine administration by both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections. The binding in the choroid plexus and

  13. Choroid Plexus Epithelial Expression of MDR1 P Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein Contribute to the Blood-Cerebrospinal-Fluid Drug-Permeability Barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vallabhaneni V. Rao; Julie L. Dahlheimer; Mark E. Bardgett; Abraham Z. Snyder; Rick A. Finch; Alan C. Sartorelli; David Piwnica-Worms

    1999-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier and a blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier function together to isolate the brain from circulating drugs, toxins, and xenobiotics. The blood-CSF drug-permeability barrier is localized to the epithelium of the choroid plexus (CP). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating drug permeability across the CP epithelium are defined poorly. Herein, we describe a drug-permeability barrier in human and rodent CP mediated

  14. Traumatic brain injury and recovery mechanisms: peptide modulation of periventricular neurogenic regions by the choroid plexus–CSF nexus

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Edward; Baird, Andrew; Sharma, Hari

    2010-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI), severe disruptions occur in the choroid plexus (CP)–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nexus that destabilize the nearby hippocampal and subventricular neurogenic regions. Following invasive and non-invasive injuries to cortex, several adverse sequelae harm the brain interior: (i) structural damage to CP epithelium that opens the blood–CSF barrier (BCSFB) to protein, (ii) altered CSF dynamics and intracranial pressure (ICP), (iii) augmentation of leukocyte traffic across CP into the CSF–brain, (iv) reduction in CSF sink action and clearance of debris from ventricles, and (v) less efficient provision of micronutritional and hormonal support for the CNS. However, gradual post-TBI restitution of the injured CP epithelium and ependyma, and CSF homeostatic mechanisms, help to restore subventricular/subgranular neurogenesis and the cognitive abilities diminished by CNS damage. Recovery from TBI is faciltated by upregulated choroidal/ependymal growth factors and neurotrophins, and their secretion into ventricular CSF. There, by an endocrine-like mechanism, CSF bulk flow convects the neuropeptides to target cells in injured cortex for aiding repair processes; and to neurogenic niches for enhancing conversion of stem cells to new neurons. In the recovery from TBI and associated ischemia, the modulating neuropeptides include FGF2, EGF, VEGF, NGF, IGF, GDNF, BDNF, and PACAP. Homeostatic correction of TBI-induced neuropathology can be accelerated or amplified by exogenously boosting the CSF concentration of these growth factors and neurotrophins. Such intraventricular supplementation via the CSF route promotes neural restoration through enhanced neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuroprotective effects. CSF translational research presents opportunities that involve CP and ependymal manipulations to expedite recovery from TBI. PMID:20936524

  15. Traumatic brain injury and recovery mechanisms: peptide modulation of periventricular neurogenic regions by the choroid plexus-CSF nexus.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Conrad; Stopa, Edward; Baird, Andrew; Sharma, Hari

    2011-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI), severe disruptions occur in the choroid plexus (CP)-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nexus that destabilize the nearby hippocampal and subventricular neurogenic regions. Following invasive and non-invasive injuries to cortex, several adverse sequelae harm the brain interior: (i) structural damage to CP epithelium that opens the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) to protein, (ii) altered CSF dynamics and intracranial pressure (ICP), (iii) augmentation of leukocyte traffic across CP into the CSF-brain, (iv) reduction in CSF sink action and clearance of debris from ventricles, and (v) less efficient provision of micronutritional and hormonal support for the CNS. However, gradual post-TBI restitution of the injured CP epithelium and ependyma, and CSF homeostatic mechanisms, help to restore subventricular/subgranular neurogenesis and the cognitive abilities diminished by CNS damage. Recovery from TBI is facilitated by upregulated choroidal/ependymal growth factors and neurotrophins, and their secretion into ventricular CSF. There, by an endocrine-like mechanism, CSF bulk flow convects the neuropeptides to target cells in injured cortex for aiding repair processes; and to neurogenic niches for enhancing conversion of stem cells to new neurons. In the recovery from TBI and associated ischemia, the modulating neuropeptides include FGF2, EGF, VEGF, NGF, IGF, GDNF, BDNF, and PACAP. Homeostatic correction of TBI-induced neuropathology can be accelerated or amplified by exogenously boosting the CSF concentration of these growth factors and neurotrophins. Such intraventricular supplementation via the CSF route promotes neural restoration through enhanced neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuroprotective effects. CSF translational research presents opportunities that involve CP and ependymal manipulations to expedite recovery from TBI. PMID:20936524

  16. Saturable uptake of [125I]L-triiodothyronine at the basolateral (blood) and apical (cerebrospinal fluid) sides of the isolated perfused sheep choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Preston, J E; Segal, M B

    1992-10-01

    The uptake of 125I-labelled L-triiodothyronine (T3) was measured on the blood side of the isolated perfused choroid plexus of the sheep using steady-state and single-circulation paired tracer techniques. The steady-state uptake of T3 was 33.5% (perfusion fluid protein content was 0.05 g.dl-1) which could be reduced to 9.4% in the presence of 500 microM unlabelled T3 showing partial saturation. The CSF to blood steady-state [125I]T3 measurements gave plasma/CSF ratio, R%, of 24.6 +/- 4.8% which was reduced to 9.8 +/- 2.1% in the presence of 500 microM unlabelled T3 in the mock CSF. The transport of T3 across the blood face of the choroid plexus and the CSF to blood transport, failed to show sodium dependence. Using the single circulation paired tracer technique, the initial uptake in less than 60 s, Umax of [125I]T3 was 50.4 +/- 3.9% relative to the extracellular marker [3H]D-mannitol. However, when 250 microM unlabelled T3 was present, Umax was reduced by 66%, although further significant inhibition at higher concentrations was not observed. Uptake of T3 at the blood side of the choroid plexus was partially saturated in the presence of unlabelled reverse T3 and DT3, suggesting little uptake stereospecificity. Unlabelled thyroxine (T4) and the amino acid analogues cycloleucine (aminocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid) and BCH (beta-2-aminobicyclo-[2,2.1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid) each reduced [125I]T3 uptake significantly, but not to the same degree as T3 stereoisomers. The neutral amino acids alanine and phenylalanine, had no effect on uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1450924

  17. Multiple isoforms of the tumor protein p73 are expressed in the adult human telencephalon and choroid plexus and present in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Pueyo Morlans, Mercedes; Suarez Sola, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Delgado, Francisco J; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustin; Marin, Maria C; Meyer, Gundela

    2006-04-01

    p73, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor, codes for full-length transactivating (TA) and N-terminally truncated (DeltaN) isoforms, with pro- and anti-apoptotic activities, respectively. We examined the expression of the main p73 isoforms in adult human and mouse telencephalon and choroid plexus by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections, and immunoblotting (IB) of tissue extracts and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using antibodies against different protein domains. Cortical neurons expressed TAp73 predominantly in the cytoplasm and DeltaNp73 mainly in the nucleus, with partial overlap in the cytoplasm. Highest expression was found in the hippocampus. IB showed an array of TAp73 variants in adult human cortex and hippocampus. IB of human choroid plexus and CSF using TAp73-specific antibodies revealed the presence of a approximately 90-kDa protein whose molecular weight was reduced after N-deglycosylation, suggesting that glycosylated TAp73 is exported into the CSF. In the mouse, high expression of TAp73 was also detected in the subcommissural organ (SCO), an ependymal gland absent in adult humans. TAp73 colocalized with anti-fibra-Reissner-antibody (AFRU), which is a marker of Reissner's fiber, the secreted SCO product. p73-deficient mice had generalized cortical hypoplasia and hydrocephalus; in addition, we observed a dramatic size reduction of the choroid plexus. However, the SCOs were apparently unaltered and continued to secrete Reissner's fiber. Our findings point to complex and widespread p73 activities in the maintenance of adult cortical neurons and in brain homeostasis. TAp73 in the CSF may play important roles in the maintenance of the adult ventricular wall as well as in the development of the proliferating neuroepithelium. PMID:16630058

  18. Molecularly and temporally separable lineages comprise the hindbrain roof plate and contribute differentially to the choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Nina L.; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Both hindbrain roof plate epithelium (hRPe) and choroid plexus epithelium (hCPe) produce morphogens and growth factors essential for proper hindbrain development. Despite their importance, little is known about how these essential structures develop. Recent genetic fate maps indicate that hRPe and hCPe descend from the same pool of dorsal neuroectodermal progenitor cells of the rhombic lip. A linear developmental progression has been assumed, with the rhombic lip producing nonmitotic hRPe, and seemingly uniform hRPe transforming into hCPe. Here we show that hRPe is not uniform but rather is comprised of three spatiotemporal fields, differing in organization, proliferative state, order of emergence from the rhombic lip, and molecular profile of either the constituent hRPe cells themselves and/or their parental progenitors. Only two fields contribute to hCPe. We also show an hCPe contribution directly by the rhombic lip at late embryonic stages when hRPe is no longer present; indeed the production interval for hCPe by the rhombic lip is surprisingly extensive. Further, we show that the hCPe lineage appears unique among the varied rhombic lip-derived lineages in its proliferative response to constitutively active Notch1 signaling. Collectively, these findings provide a new platform for investigating hRPe and hCPe as neural organizing centers and provide support for the model that they are themselves patterned structures, likely capable of influencing neural development along multiple spatial and temporal axes. PMID:17728348

  19. Age-related changes in choroid plexus and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, R L; Kassem, N A; Redzic, Z B; Chen, C P C; Segal, M B; Preston, J E

    2009-04-01

    Dysfunction of the choroid plexuses (CPs) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) might contribute to age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. We used the CPs from young (1-2 years), middle-aged (3-6 years) and old (7-10 years) sheep to explore effects of aging on various aspects of CP and BCSFB functions. Total protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was significantly higher in old compared to young sheep and CSF secretion by the CP perfused in situ was significantly lower in both old and middle-aged when compared to young sheep, which correlated with reduced (22)Na(+) uptake and efflux by the CP. Steady-state extractions of a low and medium size molecular weight extracellular space marker, (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-polyethylene glycol, respectively, were significantly higher in CPs from old compared to young animals; however, there was no significant difference in steady-state extraction of a high molecular weight marker, (125)I-bovine serum albumin. This indicates increased passive BCSFB permeability for small and medium sized molecules in old sheep. CP redox activity was significantly lower in the old animals as assessed by the MTT assay, however, there was no significant difference in ATP content and energy charge of the CP with age suggesting adequate baseline energy reserve capacity. These data indicate that normal aging processes alter protein content in the CSF, CSF secretion, integrity of the BCSFB and Na(+) flux in the epithelial layer, which could impact on CSF homeostasis and turnover. PMID:19133323

  20. Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and visualized by electron microscopy. Results The expression of known ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporter and solute carrier (Slc) genes in CP was confirmed by qPCR. Primary cells and cell lines showed similar, but overall lower expression of Abc transporters and absent Slc expression when compared to intact tissue. Consistent with this Mrp1, Mrp4 and P-gp protein levels were higher in intact CP compared to cell lines. Functionality of P-gp and Mrp1 was confirmed by Calcein-AM and CMFDA uptake assays and studies using [3H]bis-POM-PMEA as a substrate indicated Mrp4 function. Cell lines showed low or absent TJ protein expression. After treatment of cell lines with corticosteroids, RNA expression of claudin1, 2 and 11 and occludin was elevated, as well as claudin1 and occludin protein expression. TJ formation was further investigated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and only rarely observed. Increases in TJ particles with steroid treatment were not accompanied by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Conclusion Taken together, immortalized cell lines may be a tool to study transport processes mediated by P-gp, Mrp1 or Mrp4, but overall expression of transport proteins and TJ formation do not reflect the situation in intact CP tissue. PMID:20704740

  1. A case report of a choroid plexus carcinoma spontaneously occurring in the right lateral ventricle of a 14-week-old, female Donryu rat.

    PubMed

    Shimomoto, Takasumi; Yoshida, Midori; Takahashi, Masakazu; Uematsu, Fumiyuki; Maekawa, Akihiko; Nakae, Dai

    2004-01-01

    We encountered a brain tumor arising in the right lateral ventricle of a 14-week-old, female Donryu rat and investigated its histological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Macroscopically, the tumor appeared as a grayish mass with a size of 10 mm in diameter, present in front of the right hemicerebrum and well circumscribed on the cut surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be a hypercellular mass occupying the front part of the right lateral ventricle and expanding into the area in front of the hemicerebrum, continuing to the ependymal area at its edge. The tumor was constituted by columnar- or pleomorphic-shaped, highly atypical cells of epithelial origin surrounding fibrovascular cores as single or multiple cell layers. Growth was papillary with high proliferating activity. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells proved positive for cytokeratin but negative for vimentin, S100 protein or glial fibrillary acidic protein, a profile characteristic for the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, whereas the ependymal cells were found to be positive for all 4 items. In conclusion, the present tumor was diagnosed as a rat choroid plexus carcinoma, only the third such case to be reported in the world literature, with particular features. PMID:15200166

  2. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope immunodominance in the control of choroid plexus tumors in simian virus 40 large T antigen transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Schell, T D; Mylin, L M; Georgoff, I; Teresky, A K; Levine, A J; Tevethia, S S

    1999-07-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (Tag) is a virus-encoded oncoprotein which is the target of a strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. Three immunodominant H-2(b)-restricted epitopes, designated epitopes I, II/III, and IV, have been defined. We investigated whether induction of CTLs directed against these Tag epitopes might control Tag-induced tumors in SV11(+) (H-2(b)) mice. SV11(+) mice develop spontaneous tumors of the choroid plexus due to expression of SV40 Tag as a transgene. We demonstrate that SV11(+) mice are functionally tolerant to the immunodominant Tag CTL epitopes. CTLs specific for the H-2Kb-restricted Tag epitope IV were induced in SV11(+) mice following adoptive transfer with unprimed C57BL/6 spleen cells and immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing either full-length Tag or the H-2Kb-restricted epitope IV as a minigene. In addition, irradiation of SV11(+) mice prior to adoptive transfer with unprimed C57BL/6 spleen cells led to the priming of epitope IV-specific CTLs by the endogenous Tag. Induction of epitope IV-specific CTLs in SV11(+) mice by either approach correlated with increased life span and control of the choroid plexus tumor progression, indicating that CTLs specific for the immunodominant Tag epitope IV control the progressive growth of spontaneous tumors induced by this DNA virus oncogene in transgenic mice. PMID:10364350

  3. Transport of [ 14C]hypoxanthine by sheep choroid plexus epithelium as a monolayer in primary culture: Na +-dependent and Na +-independent uptake by the apical membrane and rapid intracellular metabolic conversion to nucleotides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra J. Isakovic; Sonja Misirlic Dencic; Malcolm B. Segal; Zoran B. Redzic

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxanthine is the main product of purine metabolic degradation and previous studies have revealed that it is present in the sheep CSF and plasma in micromolar concentrations. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transport of this molecule across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) as a monolayer in primary culture, to explore the mechanism of uptake by

  4. The distributional nexus of choroid plexus to cerebrospinal fluid, ependyma and brain: toxicologic/pathologic phenomena, periventricular destabilization, and lesion spread.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Conrad; Stopa, Edward; McMillan, Paul; Roth, Daniel; Funk, Juergen; Krinke, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Bordering the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are epithelial cells of choroid plexus (CP), ependyma and circumventricular organs (CVOs) that contain homeostatic transporters for mediating secretion/reabsorption. The distributional pathway ("nexus") of CP-CSF-ependyma-brain furnishes peptides, hormones, and micronutrients to periventricular regions. In disease/toxicity, this nexus becomes a conduit for infectious and xenobiotic agents. The sleeping sickness trypanosome (a protozoan) disrupts CP and downstream CSF-brain. Piperamide is anti-trypanosomic but distorts CP epithelial ultrastructure by engendering hydropic vacuoles; this reflects phospholipidosis and altered lysosomal metabolism. CP swelling by vacuolation may occlude CSF flow. Toxic drug tools delineate injuries to choroidal compartments: cyclophosphamide (vasculature), methylcellulose (interstitium), and piperazine (epithelium). Structurally perturbed CP allows solutes to penetrate the ventricles. There, CSF-borne pathogens and xenobiotics may permeate the ependyma to harm neurogenic stem cell niches. Amoscanate, an anti-helmintic, potently injures rodent ependyma. Ependymal/brain regions near CP are vulnerable to CSF-borne toxicants; this proximity factor links regional barrier breakdown to nearby periventricular pathology. Diverse diseases (e.g., African sleeping sickness, multiple sclerosis) take early root in choroidal, circumventricular, or perivascular loci. Toxicokinetics informs on pathogen, anti-parasitic agent, and auto-antibody distribution along the CSF nexus. CVOs are susceptible to plasma-borne toxicants/pathogens. Countering the physico-chemical and pathogenic insults to the homeostasis-mediating ventricle-bordering cells sustains brain health and fluid balance. PMID:21189316

  5. Na+ dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Henriette L.; Nguyen, An T.; Pedersen, Fredrik D.; Damkier, Helle H.

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na+ dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed. PMID:24155723

  6. Encapsulated living choroid plexus cells: potential long-term treatments for central nervous system disease and trauma.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S J M; Geaney, M S; Lin, H; Muzina, M; Anal, A K; Elliott, R B; Tan, P L J

    2009-12-01

    In neurodegenerative disease and in acute brain injury, there is often local up-regulation of neurotrophin production close to the site of the lesion. Treatment by direct injection of neurotrophins and growth factors close to these lesion sites has repeatedly been demonstrated to improve recovery. It has therefore been proposed that transplanting viable neurotrophin-producing cells close to the trauma lesion, or site of degenerative disease, might provide a novel means for continuous delivery of these molecules directly to the site of injury or to a degenerative region. The aim of this paper is to summarize recent published information and present new experimental data that indicate that long-lasting therapeutic implants of choroid plexus (CP) neuroepithelium may be used to treat brain disease. CP produces and secretes numerous biologically active neurotrophic factors (NT). New gene microarray and proteomics data presented here indicate that many other anti-oxidant, anti-toxin and neuronal support proteins are also produced and secreted by CP cells. In the healthy brain, these circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid through the brain and spinal cord, maintaining neuronal networks and associated cells. Recent publications describe how transplanted CP cells and tissue, either free or in an immunoprotected encapsulated form, can effectively deliver therapeutic molecules when placed near the lesion or site of degenerative disease in animal models. Using simple techniques, CP neuroepithelial cell clusters in suspension culture were very durable, remaining viable for 6 months or more in vitro. The cell culture conditions had little effect on the wide range and activity of genes expressed and proteins secreted. Recently, completed experiments show that implanting CP within alginate-poly-ornithine capsules effectively protected these xenogeneic cells from the host immune system and allowed their survival for 6 months or more in the brains of rats, causing no adverse effects. Previously reported evidence demonstrated that CP cells support the survival and differentiation of neuronal cells in vitro and effectively treat acute brain injury and disease in rodents and non-human primates in vivo. The accumulated preclinical data together with the long-term survival of implanted encapsulated cells in vivo provide a sound base for the investigation of these treatments for chronic inherited and established neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:19850973

  7. The characteristics of basolateral nucleoside transport in the perfused sheep choroid plexus and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition on these processes.

    PubMed

    Redzi?, Z B; Segal, M B; Markovi?, I D; Gasi?, J M; Vidovi?, V; Raki?, L M

    1997-08-29

    The single pass paired dilution technique was used to measure the uptake of nucleosides across the basolateral face of the isolated in situ perfused sheep choroid plexus (CP). The uptake of labelled adenosine and guanosine into the CP was large (approximately 35%) whereas that of thymidine was less (approximately 15%). The addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled adenosine to the perfusate inhibited the uptake of labelled adenosine by 66%, guanosine by 100% and that of thymidine by 50%, whereas the addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled thymidine caused complete self-inhibition. The backflux of adenosine was very small which may indicate a high rate of cellular metabolism or a flux into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled adenosine did not alter the backflux of adenosine, but increased that of guanosine and thymidine. The entry of radioactivity derived from adenosine across the apical side of the CP cells into the newly formed CSF was determined as a 'CSF uptake index' relative to [14C]butanol and found to be about 25%; however, HPLC analysis revealed that the majority of this activity was hypoxanthine, and not adenosine. The complete inhibition of nitric oxide synthase caused a significant reduction in adenosine uptake into the CP and an increase in backflux for this molecule. It would appear that the uptake for adenosine by the CP is governed by the rate of cellular metabolism and not by the rate of transport into the cells of the choroid plexus whereas for guanosine and thymidine, transport is of greater importance. PMID:9365012

  8. ?-Secretase binding sites in aged and Alzheimer’s disease human cerebrum: The choroid plexus as a putative origin of CSF A?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Xue, Zhi-Qin; Deng, Si-Hao; Kun, Xiong; Luo, Xue-Gang; Patrylo, Peter R.; Rose, Gregory M.; Cai, Huaibin; Struble, Robert G.; Cai, Yan; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides, cleavage products of ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase-1 (BACE1) and ?-secretase, is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ?-Secretase inhibition is a therapeutical anti-A? approach, although less is clear about the change of the enzyme’s activity in AD brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A? peptides are considered to derive from brain parenchyma, thus may serve as biomarkers for assessing cerebral amyloidosis and anti-A? efficacy. The present study compared active ?-secretase binding sites with A? deposition in aged and AD human cerebrum, and explored a possibility of A? production and secretion by the choroid plexus (CP). Specific binding density of [3H]-L-685,458, a radiolabeled high affinity ?-secretase inhibitor, in the temporal neocortex and hippocampal formation was similar for AD and control cases with comparable ages and postmortem delays. The CP in postmortem samples exhibited exceptionally high [3H]-L-685,458 binding density, with the estimated maximal binding sites (Bmax) reduced in the AD relative to control groups. Surgically resected human CP exhibited APP, BACE1 and presenilin-1 immunoreactivity, and ?-site APP cleavage enzymatic activity. In primary culture, human CP cells also expressed these amyloidogenic proteins but released A?40 and A?42 into the medium. These results suggest that ?-secretase activity appears not altered in the cerebrum in AD related to aged control, nor correlated with regional amyloid plaque pathology. The choroid plexus appears to represent a novel non-neuronal source in the brain that may contribute A? into cerebrospinal fluid, probably at reduced levels in AD. PMID:23432732

  9. Age-dependent increase of brain copper levels and expressions of copper regulatory proteins in the subventricular zone and choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Sherleen; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Our recent data suggest a high accumulation of copper (Cu) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the wall of brain ventricles. Anatomically, SVZ is in direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is secreted by a neighboring tissue choroid plexus (CP). Changes in Cu regulatory gene expressions in the SVZ and CP as the function of aging may determine Cu levels in the CSF and SVZ. This study was designed to investigate the associations between age, Cu levels, and Cu regulatory genes in SVZ and plexus. The SVZ and CP were dissected from brains of 3-week, 10-week, or 9-month old male rats. Analyses by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the SVZ of adult and old animals contained the highest Cu level compared with other tested brain regions. Significantly positive correlations between age and Cu levels in SVZ and plexus were observed; the SVZ Cu level of old animals was 7.5- and 5.8-fold higher than those of young and adult rats (p < 0.01), respectively. Quantitation by qPCR of the transcriptional expressions of Cu regulatory proteins showed that the SVZ expressed the highest level of Cu storage protein metallothioneins (MTs), while the CP expressed the high level of Cu transporter protein Ctr1. Noticeably, Cu levels in the SVZ were positively associated with type B slow proliferating cell marker Gfap (p < 0.05), but inversely associated with type A proliferating neuroblast marker Dcx (p < 0.05) and type C transit amplifying progenitor marker Nestin (p < 0.01). Dmt1 had significant positive correlations with age and Cu levels in the plexus (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that Cu levels in all tested brain regions are increased as the function of age. The SVZ shows a different expression pattern of Cu-regulatory genes from the CP. The age-related increase of MTs and decrease of Ctr1 may contribute to the high Cu level in this neurogenesis active brain region. PMID:26106293

  10. Uneven distribution of nucleoside transporters and intracellular enzymatic degradation prevent transport of intact [14C] adenosine across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium as a monolayer in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Redzic, Zoran B; Isakovic, Aleksandra J; Misirlic Dencic, Sonja T; Popadic, Dusan; Segal, Malcolm B

    2006-01-01

    Background Efflux transport of adenosine across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium might contribute to the homeostasis of this neuromodulator in the extracellular fluids of the brain. The aim of this study was to explore adenosine transport across sheep CP epithelial cell monolayers in primary culture. Methods To explore transport of adenosine across the CP epithelium, we have developed a method for primary culture of the sheep choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPEC) on plastic permeable supports and analysed [14C] adenosine transport across this cellular layer, [14C] adenosine metabolism inside the cells, and cellular uptake of [14C] adenosine from either of the chambers. The primary cell culture consisted of an enriched epithelial cell fraction from the sheep fourth ventricle CP and was grown on laminin-precoated filter inserts. Results and conclusion CPEC grew as monolayers forming typical polygonal islands, reaching optical confluence on the third day after the seeding. Transepithelial electrical resistance increased over the time after seeding up to 85 ± 9 ? cm2 at day 8, while permeability towards [14C] sucrose, a marker of paracellular diffusion, simultaneously decreased. These cells expressed some features typical of the CPEC in situ, including three nucleoside transporters at the transcript level that normally mediate adenosine transport across cellular membranes. The estimated permeability of these monolayers towards [14C] adenosine was low and the same order of magnitude as for the markers of paracellular diffusion. However, inhibition of the intracellular enzymes, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase, led to a significant increase in transcellular permeability, indicating that intracellular phosphorylation into nucleotides might be a reason for the low transcellular permeability. HPLC analysis with simultaneous detection of radioactivity revealed that [14C] radioactivity which appeared in the acceptor chamber after the incubation of CPEC monolayers with [14C] adenosine in the donor chamber was mostly present as [14C] hypoxanthine, a product of adenosine metabolic degradation. Therefore, it appears that CPEC in primary cultures act as an enzymatic barrier towards adenosine. Cellular uptake studies revealed that concentrative uptake of [14C] adenosine was confined only to the side of these cells facing the upper or apical chamber, indicating uneven distribution of nucleoside transporters. PMID:16571111

  11. The antiepileptic drugs phenobarbital and carbamazepine reduce transport of methotrexate in rat choroid plexus by down-regulation of the reduced folate carrier.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Lakoma, Cathleen; Schäfer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2011-10-01

    Intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) has been associated with severe neurotoxicity. Because carrier-associated removal of MTX from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into blood remains undefined, we determined the expression and function of MTX transporters in rat choroid plexus (CP). MTX neurotoxicity usually manifests as seizures requiring therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as phenobarbital (PB). Because we have demonstrated that PB reduces activity of MTX influx carrier reduced folate carrier (Rfc1) in liver, we investigated the influence of the AEDs PB, carbamazepine (CBZ), or gabapentin on Rfc1-mediated MTX transport in CP. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed similar expression of the MTX influx carrier Rfc1 and organic anion transporter 3 or efflux transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) in rat CP tissue and choroidal epithelial Z310 cells. Confocal microscopy revealed subcellular localization of Rfc1 and Bcrp at the apical and of Mrp1 at the basolateral CP membrane. Uptake, efflux, and inhibition studies indicated MTX transport activity of Rfc1, Mrp1, and Bcrp. PB and CBZ but not gabapentin significantly inhibited Rfc1-mediated uptake of MTX in CP cells. Studies on the regulatory mechanism showed that PB significantly inhibited Rfc1 translation but did not alter carrier gene expression. Altogether, removal of intrathecal MTX across the blood-CSF barrier may be achieved through Rfc1-mediated uptake from the CSF followed by MTX extrusion into blood, particularly via Mrp1. Antiepileptic treatment with PB or CBZ causes post-transcriptional down-regulation of Rfc1 activity in CP. This mechanism may result in enhanced MTX toxicity in patients with cancer who are receiving intrathecal MTX chemotherapy by reduced CSF clearance of the drug. PMID:21737571

  12. Impaired Monoamine and Organic Cation Uptake in Choroid Plexus in Mice with Targeted Disruption of the Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter (Slc29a4) Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Haichuan; Wang, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and protects the brain from circulating metabolites, drugs, and toxins. The plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT, SLC29A4) is a new polyspecific organic cation transporter that transports a wide variety of organic cations including biogenic amines, cationic drugs, and neurotoxins. PMAT is known to be expressed in the CP, but its specific role in CP transport of organic cations has not been clearly defined. Here we showed that PMAT transcript is highly expressed in human and mouse CPs, whereas transcripts of other functionally related transporters are minimally expressed in the CPs. Immunofluorescence staining further revealed that PMAT protein is localized to the apical (CSF-facing) membrane of the CP epithelium, consistent with a role of transporting organic cations from the CSF into CP epithelial cells. To further evaluate the role of PMAT in the CP, mice with targeted deletion of the Slc29a4 gene were generated and validated. Although Pmat?/? mice showed no overt abnormalities, the uptake of monoamines and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium was significantly reduced in CP tissues isolated from the knock-out mice. Together, our data demonstrated that PMAT is a major transporter for CP uptake of bioactive amines and xenobiotic cations. By removing its substrates from the CSF, PMAT may play an important role in protecting the brain from cationic neurotoxins and other potentially toxic organic cations. PMID:23255610

  13. ATP7A gene addition to the choroid plexus results in long-term rescue of the lethal copper transport defect in a Menkes disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Zerfas, Patricia M; Brinster, Lauren R; Sullivan, Patricia; Goldstein, David S; Prohaska, Joseph; Centeno, Jose A; Rushing, Elisabeth; Kaler, Stephen G

    2011-12-01

    Menkes disease is a lethal infantile neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in a P-type ATPase, ATP7A. Currently available treatment (daily subcutaneous copper injections) is not entirely effective in the majority of affected individuals. The mottled-brindled (mo-br) mouse recapitulates the Menkes phenotype, including abnormal copper transport to the brain owing to mutation in the murine homolog, Atp7a, and dies by 14 days of age. We documented that mo-br mice on C57BL/6 background were not rescued by peripheral copper administration, and used this model to evaluate brain-directed therapies. Neonatal mo-br mice received lateral ventricle injections of either adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) harboring a reduced-size human ATP7A (rsATP7A) complementary DNA (cDNA), copper chloride, or both. AAV5-rsATP7A showed selective transduction of choroid plexus epithelia and AAV5-rsATP7A plus copper combination treatment rescued mo-br mice; 86% survived to weaning (21 days), median survival increased to 43 days, 37% lived beyond 100 days, and 22% survived to the study end point (300 days). This synergistic treatment effect correlated with increased brain copper levels, enhanced activity of dopamine-?-hydroxylase, a copper-dependent enzyme, and correction of brain pathology. Our findings provide the first definitive evidence that gene therapy may have clinical utility in the treatment of Menkes disease. PMID:21878905

  14. ATP7A Gene Addition to the Choroid Plexus Results in Long-term Rescue of the Lethal Copper Transport Defect in a Menkes Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Zerfas, Patricia M; Brinster, Lauren R; Sullivan, Patricia; Goldstein, David S; Prohaska, Joseph; Centeno, Jose A; Rushing, Elisabeth; Kaler, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    Menkes disease is a lethal infantile neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in a P-type ATPase, ATP7A. Currently available treatment (daily subcutaneous copper injections) is not entirely effective in the majority of affected individuals. The mottled-brindled (mo-br) mouse recapitulates the Menkes phenotype, including abnormal copper transport to the brain owing to mutation in the murine homolog, Atp7a, and dies by 14 days of age. We documented that mo-br mice on C57BL/6 background were not rescued by peripheral copper administration, and used this model to evaluate brain-directed therapies. Neonatal mo-br mice received lateral ventricle injections of either adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) harboring a reduced-size human ATP7A (rsATP7A) complementary DNA (cDNA), copper chloride, or both. AAV5-rsATP7A showed selective transduction of choroid plexus epithelia and AAV5-rsATP7A plus copper combination treatment rescued mo-br mice; 86% survived to weaning (21 days), median survival increased to 43 days, 37% lived beyond 100 days, and 22% survived to the study end point (300 days). This synergistic treatment effect correlated with increased brain copper levels, enhanced activity of dopamine-?-hydroxylase, a copper-dependent enzyme, and correction of brain pathology. Our findings provide the first definitive evidence that gene therapy may have clinical utility in the treatment of Menkes disease. PMID:21878905

  15. Encapsulated Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Actively Protect Against Intrahippocampal A?-induced Long-Term Memory Dysfunction; Upregulation of Effective Neurogenesis with the Abrogated Apoptosis and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Aliaghaei, Abbas; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-07-01

    Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) as a secretory epithelium are responsible for the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Beyond this classical tenet, CPECs also synthesize and release many neurotrophic factors such as antioxidants into the CSF, participating in brain homeostasis. In this study, CPECs were isolated from rat's brain and encapsulated in alginate microcapsules. Firstly, functional properties of alginate microcapsules and encapsulated CPECs were examined in vitro. Following, micro-encapsulated CPECs were grafted into rats' brains that were pretreated with A?. The in vivo studies include western blotting against Caspase-3 and Terminal-Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling test that were performed to detect apoptosis in brain tissues. The in vivo part also included immunohistochemistry against Iba-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Brdu to detect microglial migration, gliosis, and neurogenesis, respectively. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in hippocampi also was measured, and the memory was assessed by shuttle box apparatus. Our data suggest that transplantation of encapsulated CPECs resulted in a significant decrease in apoptosis, reduced migration microglia, diminished gliosis, increased neurogenesis, and improved long-term memory as well as upregulated antioxidant activity. Since microencapsulated CPECs do not need immunosuppression following implantation, and also we showed their neuroprotective effects against A? toxicity and oxidative stress, this may be a suitable candidate for cell therapy in neurological disorders. PMID:25634726

  16. Lead-Induced Accumulation of ?-Amyloid in the Choroid Plexus: Role of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Protein-1 and Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Mamta; Zhang, Yanshu; Shi, Yunzhou; Cheng, Jixin; Du, Yansheng; Zheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP), constituting the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, has the capacity to remove beta-amyloid (A?) from the cerebrospinal fluid. Our previous work indicates that exposure to lead (Pb) results in A? accumulation in the CP by decreasing the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 (LRP1), a protein involved in the transport and clearance of A?. The current study was designed to explore the relationship between A? accumulation, protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and LRP1 status in the CP following Pb exposure. Confocal microscopy revealed that LRP1 was primarily localized in the cytosol of the CP in control rats and migrated distinctly towards the apical surface and the microvilli following acute Pb exposure (27 mg Pb/kg, ip, 24 hr). Co-immunostaining revealed a co-localization of both PKC-? and LRP1 in the cytosol of control rats, with a distinct relocalization of both towards the apical membrane following Pb exposure. Preincubation of the tissues with PKC-? inhibitor rottlerin (2 µM) prior to Pb exposure in vitro, resulted in abolishing the Pb-induced relocalization of LRP1 to the apical surface. Importantly, a significant elevation in intracellular A? levels (p<0.01) was observed in the cytosol of the CP following Pb exposure, which was abolished following preincubation with rottlerin. In addition, rottlerin caused a relocalization of A? from the cytosol to the nucleus in both Pb-treated and control CP tissues. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed a strong protein-protein interaction between LRP1 and PKC-? in the CP. These studies suggest that Pb exposure disrupts A? homeostasis at the CP, owing partly to a Pb-induced relocalization of LRP1 via PKC-?. PMID:20488202

  17. Thyroxine (T4) transfer from CSF to choroid plexus and ventricular brain regions in rabbit: contributory role of P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nouhad A; Deane, Rashid; Segal, Malcolm B; Chen, RuoLi; Preston, Jane E

    2007-11-21

    This study investigated the transfer of T4 from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the choroid plexuses (CP) and ventricular brain regions, and the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (oatps). During in vivo ventriculo-cisternal (V-C) perfusion in the anesthetized rabbit (meditomidine hydrochloride 0.5 mg kg(-1), pentobarbitone 10 mg kg(-1) i.v.), 125I-T4 was perfused continuously into ventricular CSF with reference molecules 14C-mannitol and blue dextran. Over 2 h, 36.9+/-4.6% 125I-T4 was recovered in cisternal CSF. Addition of P-gp substrate verapamil increased CSF 125I-T4 recovery to 51.4+/-2.8%, although mrp1 and oatp substrates had no significant effect. In brain, 125I-T4 showed greatest accumulation in the CP (1.52+/-0.31 ml g(-1)), followed by ventricular regions (caudate putamen, ependyma, hippocampus, 0.05-0.14 ml g(-1)). At the CP, verapamil and probenecid (but not indomethacin) significantly increased 125I-T4 accumulation, implicating a role for P-gp and oatps. Of other brain regions, all three drugs increased accumulation in caudate putamen 3-5 times, and indomethacin and probenecid increased accumulation in ependyma 4-5 times. The role of P-gp was investigated further in isolated incubated CPs using 5 microg/ml C219 anti-P-gp antibody. Both 125I-T4 and 3H-cyclosporin accumulation increased by 80%, suggesting that P-gp is functional in the CP and has a role in removal of T4. Combined with the in vivo results, these studies suggest that P-gp provides a local homeostatic mechanism, maintaining CSF T4 levels. We conclude that P-gp and oatps contribute to the transfer of 125I-T4 between the CSF, CP and brain, hence regulating 125I-T4 availability in CSF. PMID:17915195

  18. Stereotactic Radiosurgical Treatment of Brain Metastases to the Choroid Plexus;Renal cell cancer; Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA); Graded prognostic assessment (GPA); Survival and outcomes; Gamma knife

    SciTech Connect

    Siomin, Vitaly [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lin, Jennifer L. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Marko, Nicholas F., E-mail: markon@ccf.org [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Barnett, Gene H.; Toms, Steven A. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chao, Samuel T. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Neurological and Taussig Cancer Institutes, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Navaratne, Kapila [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Neurological and Taussig Cancer Institutes, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Weil, Robert J. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Choroid plexus metastases (CPM) are uncommon lesions. Consequently, optimal management of CPM is uncertain. We summarize our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of CPM. Methods and Materials: Sixteen consecutive patients with presumed CPM treated with SRS between 1997 and 2007 were examined. Twelve were men with a median age at diagnosis of CPM of 61.9 {+-} 9.9 years; 14 had metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). All patients had controlled primary disease at the time of treatment for CPM. Four patients with RCC and 1 with non-small-cell lung cancer had undergone whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) previously and 2 had received SRS to other brain metastases. The disease-free interval from the primary diagnosis to CPM diagnosis averaged 39.3 {+-} 46.2 months (range, 1.0-156.3). Five patients were asymptomatic; of the remaining 11, none had symptoms related to CPM. All presented with a single CPM. Results: Average maximum diameter of the CPMs was 2.0 {+-} 1.0 cm (range, 0.9-4.1 cm); mean volume was 2.4 {+-} 2.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-9.3). Median SRS dose was 24 Gy to the 53% isodose line (range, 14-24 Gy). Survival after SRS to the CPM was 25.3 {+-} 23.4 months (range, 3.2-101.6). Patients in Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) class I (n = 10) had improved survival compared to those in class II (n = 6), as did those with better GPA scores. There were no local failures. After SRS, 1 patient underwent WBRT, 3 patients had one, and another had two subsequent SRS treatments to other brain lesions. Of the 14 patients who have died, 11 succumbed to systemic disease progression, 2 to progressive, multifocal central nervous system disease, and 1 to systemic disease with concurrent, stable central nervous system disease. There were no complications related to SRS. Conclusions: Most CPMs are associated with RCC. SRS represents a safe and viable treatment option as primary modality for these metastases, with excellent outcomes.

  19. Gene expression-based comparison of the human secretory neuroepithelia of the brain choroid plexus and the ocular ciliary body: potential implications for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The neuroepithelia of the choroid plexus (CP) in the brain and the ciliary body (CB) of the eye have common embryological origins and share similar micro-structure and functions. The CP epithelium (CPE) and the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) of the CB produce the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the aqueous humor (AH) respectively. Production and outflow of the CSF determine the intracranial pressure (ICP); production and outflow of the AH determine the intraocular pressure (IOP). Together, the IOP and ICP determine the translaminar pressure on the optic disc which may be involved in the pathophysiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The aim of this study was to compare the molecular machinery of the secretory neuroepithelia of the CP and CB (CPE versus NPE) and to determine their potential role in POAG. Methods We compared the transcriptomes and functional annotations of healthy human CPE and NPE. Microarray and bioinformatic studies were performed using an Agilent platform and the Ingenuity Knowledge Database (IPA). Results Based on gene expression profiles, we found many similar functions for the CPE and NPE including molecular transport, neurological disease processes, and immunological functions. With commonly-used selection criteria (fold-change?>?2.5, p-value??5, p-value?

  20. Giant Ependymal Cyst of the Temporal Horn – An Unusual Presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay J. Pawar; Rewati Raman Sharma; Ashok K. Mahapatra; Ebenezer J. Dev

    2001-01-01

    Primary benign cystic lesions in the brain are uncommon. However, extracerebral cysts like arachnoid cyst, epidermoid cyst and craniopharyngiomas are fairly common lesions. Also, colloid cyst in the third ventricle, dermoid cyst and endodermal cyst in the extracerebral location are not uncommon. On the contrary, intraventricular ependymal and choroidal cysts in the intraventricular location are infrequent. Surgical intervention is warranted

  1. Transport of [14C]hypoxanthine by sheep choroid plexus epithelium as a monolayer in primary culture: Na+-dependent and Na+-independent uptake by the apical membrane and rapid intracellular metabolic conversion to nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Isakovic, Aleksandra J; Dencic, Sonja Misirlic; Segal, Malcolm B; Redzic, Zoran B

    2008-01-31

    Hypoxanthine is the main product of purine metabolic degradation and previous studies have revealed that it is present in the sheep CSF and plasma in micromolar concentrations. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transport of this molecule across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) as a monolayer in primary culture, to explore the mechanism of uptake by the apical side of the CPE and investigate the metabolic changes inside the cell. The estimated permeability of the CPE monolayer for [14C]hypoxanthine, [14C]adenine and [14C]guanine was low and comparable to the permeability towards the extracellular space markers. The study of [14C]hypoxanthine uptake by the CPE revealed two components: Na+-dependent and Na+-independent, the latter being partially mediated by the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2. HPLC with simultaneous detection of radioactivity revealed that the majority of [14C]hypoxanthine inside the CPE is metabolised into [14C]nucleotides and [14C]inosine. The remaining intact [14C]hypoxanthine was transported across the opposite, basolateral side of CPE and appeared in the lower chamber buffer together with [14C]inosine. These findings indicate two possible roles of hypoxanthine uptake from the CSF by the CP epithelium in vivo: to provide material for nucleotide synthesis through the salvage pathways in the CPE, as well as to transfer excess hypoxanthine from CSF to blood. PMID:18164814

  2. Brachial plexus

    MedlinePLUS

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These ... Damage to the brachial plexus nerves can cause muscle and sensation problems that are often associated with pain in the same area. Symptoms may ...

  3. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Brachial ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of ...

  4. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Videos Infographics Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Brachial Plexus Injury Email to a friend * required fields From * ... to name and customize your collection. DESCRIPTION The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that come from ...

  5. Brachial plexus (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that originate from the neck region and branch off to give rise ... movement in the upper limb. Injuries to the brachial plexus are common and can be debilitating. If the ...

  6. Serpiginous choroiditis and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Hossein; Rao, Narsing A

    2012-01-01

    Serpiginous choroiditis (SC) is a posterior uveitis displaying a geographic pattern of choroiditis, extending from the juxtapapillary choroid and intermittently spreading centrifugally. The choroiditis involves the overlying retinal pigment epithelium, and the outer retina. This intraocular inflammation typically involves both eyes in otherwise healthy, middle-aged individuals with no familial or ethnic predilection. Pathogenesis is unclear; however, based on limited histopathologic studies, favorable response to immunosuppressive agents, and the absence of association with systemic or local infectious or noninfectious diseases, an organ-specific autoimmune inflammation seems likely to be the underlying process. Patients, particularly from tuberculosis-endemic regions, may present with fundus changes simulating SC, but show evidence of active tuberculosis and/or the presence of mycobacterial DNA in the aqueous humor. This has been referred to as serpiginous-like choroiditis, but we prefer the description multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC). We present the distinguishing features of SC and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis simulating SC. The distinction is crucial to avoid unnecessarily treating SC with antimicrobial agents. Advances in diagnostic and imaging modalities can help differentiate SC from MSC. Novel local and systemic treatment approaches improve the outcome and preserve vision in SC. PMID:23541041

  7. Unknown syndrome: peculiar face, severe hypodontia of permanent teeth, and precocious choroid calcifications.

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, R; Fusilli, P

    1998-01-01

    We describe a mother and her twin daughters affected with severe hypodontia of the permanent teeth, precocious calcification of the choroid plexus, and minor digital anomalies. The presence of inner telecanthus, broad and flattened nasal bridge, mild ocular proptosis, small nose with anteverted nostrils, and slight microretrognathia gives them an unusual appearance. All three affected persons are of normal intelligence. Images PMID:9610812

  8. THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL CHOROID

    PubMed Central

    Nickla, Debora L.; Wallman, Josh

    2010-01-01

    The choroid of the eye is primarily a vascular structure supplying the outer retina. It has several unusual features: It contains large membrane-lined lacunae, which, at least in birds, function as part of the lymphatic drainage of the eye and which can change their volume dramatically, thereby changing the thickness of the choroid as much as four-fold over a few days (much less in primates). It contains non-vascular smooth muscle cells, especially behind the fovea, the contraction of which may thin the choroid, thereby opposing the thickening caused by expansion of the lacunae. It has intrinsic choroidal neurons, also mostly behind the central retina, which may control these muscles and may modulate choroidal blood-flow as well. These neurons receive sympathetic, parasympathetic and nitrergic innervation. The choroid has several functions: Its vasculature is the major supply for the outer retina; impairment of the flow of oxygen from choroid to retina may cause Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The choroidal blood flow, which is as great as in any other organ, may also cool and warm the retina. In addition to its vascular functions, the choroid contains secretory cells, probably involved in modulation of vascularization and in growth of the sclera. Finally, the dramatic changes in choroidal thickness move the retina forward and back, bringing the photoreceptors into the plane of focus, a function demonstrated by the thinning of the choroid that occurs when the focal plane is moved back by the wearing of negative lenses, and, conversely, by the thickening that occurs when positive lenses are worn. In addition to focusing the eye, more slowly than accommodation and more quickly than emmetropization, we argue that the choroidal thickness changes also are correlated with changes in the growth of the sclera, and hence of the eye. Because transient increases in choroidal thickness are followed by a prolonged decrease in synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules and a slowing of ocular elongation, and attempts to decouple the choroidal and scleral changes have largely failed, it seems that the thickening of the choroid may be mechanistically linked to the scleral synthesis of macromolecules, and thus may play an important role in the homeostatic control of eye growth, and, consequently, in the etiology of myopia and hyperopia. PMID:20044062

  9. The Brachial Plexus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Samuel J Schwarzlose (Amarillo College Biology)

    2010-08-20

    This project is designed to instruct students on the basic anatomy and physiology of the brachial plexus. Through exercises such as matching, coloring and labeling, students are introduced to the brachial plexus and its role in controlling the cutaneous sensation and movement of the upper limbs.

  10. Tarlov Cysts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the cysts observed by MRI cause no symptoms. Tarlov cysts may become symptomatic following shock, trauma, or exertion that causes the ... which thrives in an alkaline environment, can cause Tarlov cysts to become symptomatic. Making the body less alkaline, through diet or ...

  11. Sebaceous cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sebaceous cyst is a closed sac under the skin filled with a cheese-like or oily material. ... cysts most often arise from swollen hair follicles. Skin trauma can also cause a cyst to form. A sac of cells is created ...

  12. Oral Cysts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a sac or pouch that forms under the skin or in bone. The cyst can be empty or contain fluid. A cyst ... is found in surface layers, such as the skin and the lining of the mouth. Cysts may form when epithelium cells move into deeper ...

  13. Scleral buckle hemorrhagic cyst masquerading as an orbital tumor

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David RP; Chin, Eric K; Boldt, H Culver; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 41-year-old man who was referred for evaluation of a choroidal tumor with a remote history of scleral buckle placement for traumatic retinal detachment. Ocular imaging, echography, and magnetic resonance imaging could not rule out a neoplastic process so the patient was taken for surgical exploration where a hemorrhagic cyst was discovered. This is the first case in the literature of a silicone scleral buckle–associated hemorrhagic cyst presenting as orbital mass. PMID:25709397

  14. Epidermoid Cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    ... material composed of keratin, a protein component of skin, hair, and nails. Epidermoid cysts form when the top layer of skin (epidermis) ... on the face, neck, scalp, or trunk. A cyst appears as a dome-shaped, skin-colored growth that usually moves when touched and ...

  15. Ganglion Cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lump that forms below the surface of the skin. Ganglion cysts are among the most common benign soft-tissue ... certain way, it should move freely underneath the skin. Sometimes the surgeon will shine a light through the cyst or remove a small amount of fluid from ...

  16. Hepatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Kaul; Friedenberg; Rothstein

    2000-12-01

    Treatment of hepatic cysts should be considered only for those patients who are symptomatic. For simple cysts, percutaneous aspiration invariably leads to recurrence; laparoscopic deroofing is usually curative. Open deroofing (fenestration) should be reserved for cysts inaccessible by laparoscopy. Percutaneous instillation of sclerosing agents (ethanol, iophendylate, minocycline) into nonbiliary and nonparasitic cysts is an alternative therapeutic option in certain cases. Due to increased morbidity, hepatic resection should be reserved for polycystic liver disease, diffuse hepatic involvement, or recurrence after a deroofing procedure. Patients with congenital fibropolycystic disorders (eg, congenital hepatic fibrosis) with evidence of hepatic decompensation, should be considered for liver transplantation. For hepatic hydatid cysts, simple cystectomy or the PAIR (puncture, aspirate, inject, and reaspirate) technique with albendazole treatment have been shown to be equally successful. In the case of alveolar echinococcosis, hepatic resection and liver transplantation are the only effective modalities for localized and extensive hepatic disease, respectively. PMID:11096603

  17. [Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy].

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, Mitsuko

    2012-03-01

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is characterized by a branching vascular network with polypoidal lesions under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In Japan, it is classified as a specific form of exudative age-related macular degeneration. However, several issues which we investigated regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of PCV remain unresolved. We investigated the pathogenesis, clinical findings and treatment of PCV. 1. Indocyanine green angiographic findings. There were two different patterns on indocyanine green angiograms. In the first pattern, both feeder and draining vessels were visible and network vessels showed characteristic findings of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Points of focal dilatation on marginal vessels were comprised of polypoidal lesions. In the second pattern, neither feeder nor draining vessels were visible and there were few network vessels. The points of deformation of network vessels appeared to be polypoidal lesions. The former represents a deformation of CNV, i.e. polypoidal CNV; the latter is thought to result from abnormalities of the choroidal vessels, i.e. PCV in the strict sense. 2. Pathological findings of PCV in the strict sense. The histopathological characteristics of PCV in the strict sense, which had been eliminated by vitrectomy, were dilatation and hyalinization of vessels, massive exudative changes in blood plasma, basement membrane-like deposits and scant granulomatous tissue. These vessels were located beneath Bruch's membrane. The findings indicate that PCV in the strict sense arises from hyalinized arteriolosclerosis of choroidal vessels. 3. Optical coherence tomographic findings. A break was found in the high reflective line which revealed Bruch's membrane. Low reflective tissue was observed at the break corresponding to a feeder vessel. The high reflective line which corresponded to the retinal pigment epithelium was uneven, and highly elevated portions of the RPE corresponded to thick network vessels and polypoidal lesions. Feeder vessels are thought to invade via Bruch's membrane to form network vessels and polypoidal lesions at the termini of the network vessels, both of which push the RPE upward. Therefore, polypoidal CNV is thought to represent a deformation of the CNV under the RPE. In PCV in the strict sense, an irregular thickened line with highly reflective substances adhering to the lower portion of it, curved downward corresponding to the site at which the network vessel filling began. A dimple in the RPE was observed which paralleled the curve of the line. The RPE was pushed upward, corresponding to the network vessels. Judging from the results of histopathological studies, abnormal vessels may be pushed up the RPE secondary to an increase in intravascular pressure due to the presence of several dilated vessels and by massive exudation from these vessels within the choroid at network vessels. The dimple in the RPE might be attributable to intra-choroidal pressure being decreased at the point at which network vessel filling began. 4. Genetic findings. There were significant differences in all distributions of ARMS 2 (A69S) between the polypoidal CNV and control groups. In contrast, the distribution of ARMS 2 (A69S) did not differ between the PCV in the strict sense group and the control group. The ARMS 2 (A69S) gene is closely related to age-related macular degeneration. Polypoidal CNV was thought to be associated with age-related macular degeneration. 5. Treatment of subfoveal PCV. Mean visual acuity improved 1 year after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Good visual acuity, small lesion size of the network of vessels with polypoidal lesions, and the absence of subfoveal polypoidal lesions were pre-PDT predictors that corresponded to the improvement in vision. However, mean visual acuity had decreased to a level similar to that prior to PDT at 2 and 3 years after treatment. In PCV in the strict sense, the branching vascular network persisted after PDT, and polypoidal lesions frequently recurred at the termini. The branching vascular network someti

  18. Genistein attenuates choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Satoshi; Noda, Kousuke; Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Inafuku, Saori; Dong, Yoko; Fukuhara, Junichi; Dong, Zhenyu; Ando, Ryo; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Ishida, Susumu

    2014-11-01

    Genistein is a dietary-derived flavonoid abundantly present in soybeans and known to possess various biological effects including anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenic activity. To investigate the effects of genistein on intraocular neovascularization, we used an animal model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Male C57BL/6J mice were treated in accordance with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation. The animals were fed a mixture diet containing 0.5% genistein or a control diet ad libitum for 7 days before laser photocoagulation and the treatment was continued until the end of the study. Seven days after laser injury, the size of CNV lesions was quantified. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid complex was also harvested 1 or 3 days after laser injury and the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression levels of Ets-1 and F4/80 were examined by real-time PCR. A significant decrease in CNV size was observed in animals treated with genistein (15441.9±1511.8 ?m(2)) compared to control mice (21074.0±1940.7?m(2), P<.05). Genistein significantly reduced the protein level of MCP-1, ICAM-1, and MMP-9 in the RPE-choroid complex (P<.05). In addition, genistein suppressed the expression levels of Ets-1 and F4/80 (P<.05). The current data indicate the anti-angiogenic property of genistein during CNV formation. PMID:25113565

  19. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in childhood.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the thickness of the invivo peripapillary choroid have been documented in a range of ocular conditions in adults; however, choroidal thickness in the peripapillary region of children has not been examined in detail. This study therefore aimed to investigate the thickness of the peripapillary choroid and the overlying retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in a population of normal children with a range of refractive errors. Ninety-three children (37 myopes and 56 non-myopes) aged between 11 and 16 years, had measurements of peripapillary choroidal and RNFL thickness derived from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images (EDI-OCT, Heidelberg Spectralis). The average thickness was determined in a series of five 0.25 mm width concentric annuli (each divided into 8 equal sized 45° sectors) centred on the optic nerve head boundary, accounting for individual ocular magnification factors and the disc-fovea angle. Significant variations in peripapillary choroidal thickness were found to occur with both annulus location (p < 0.001) and sector position (p < 0.001) in this population of children. The innermost annulus (closest to the edge of the optic disc) exhibited the thinnest choroid (mean 77 ± 16 ?m) and the outermost annulus, the thickest choroid (191 ± 52 ?m). The choroid was thinnest inferior to the optic nerve head (139 ± 38 ?m) and was thickest in the superior temporal sector (157 ± 40 ?m). Significant differences in the distribution of choroidal thickness were also associated with myopia, with myopic children having significantly thinner choroids in the inner and outer annuli of the nasal and temporal sectors respectively (p < 0.001). RNFL thickness also varied significantly with annulus location and sector (p < 0.001), and showed differences in thickness distribution associated with refractive error. This study establishes the normal variations in the thickness of the peripapillary choroid with radial distance and azimuthal angle from the optic nerve head boundary. A significant thinning of the peripapillary choroid associated with myopia in childhood was also observed in both nasal and temporal regions. The changes in peripapillary RNFL and choroidal thickness associated with refractive error are consistent with a redistribution of these tissues occurring with myopic axial elongation in childhood. PMID:25749004

  20. A case of choroidal melanocytoma mimicking a choroidal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Syed Shoeb; Lad, Lalit; Ghani, Shuaibah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old young girl was seen by us with complaints of progressive, painless decreasing vision in one eye for the last 4 years. No other supporting history could be elucidated. On examination, a large choroidal mass was found. Since the features were suggestive of malignant melanoma of the choroid, an enucleation of the eye was performed. Subsequently, histopathological examination of the enucleated eye revealed findings consistent with melanocytoma of the choroid. This case is unique in that the patient was of relatively young age and the tumor was huge compared to previous such reports.

  1. [Choroidal tuberculosis: reports of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Baha Ali, T; Benhaddou, R; Hajj, I; Khoumiri, R; Guelzim, H; Moutaouakil, A

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infection with a high incidence in Morocco. Ocular involvement is rare. We report three cases of choroidal tuberculosis. Case no 1: A 24-year-old female with tuberculous meningitis, multifocal choroiditis in the right eye and choroidal granuloma in the left eye. Case no 2: A 22-year-old female with multifocal tuberculosis. The ocular examination showed a choroidal granuloma. Case no 3: A 25-year-old male with HIV infection and miliary tuberculosis. Ocular involvement consisted in a choroidal granuloma. Ocular involvement in tuberculosis is uncommon. Choroidal granuloma is a characteristic manifestation. PMID:20108570

  2. Biliary cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, P D

    1975-01-01

    This review brings the total number of biliary cysts reported in the world literature to 955. Eighty-one per cent of patients are females and 61% were discovered before age ten. The classical triad of right upper quadrant pain, right upper quandrant mass, and juandice is present in 38% of cases. The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged from less than one week to more than 40 years. The etiology is multifaceted and evidence of the existence of both acquired and congenital cysts is presented. The most useful diagnostic tool is fiberoptic endoscopy with retrograde contrast injection of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. The incidence of biliary carcinoma in patients with biliary cysts is found to be 2.5%; 24 cases have been reported. Considerable controversy has existed concerning the best operative procedure for biliary cysts; no treatment or medical treatment yielding a 97% mortality rate. In an analysis of 235 patients presented since 1968 with an average followup of 5.2 years, the best procedure appears to be excision with either choledochocholedocostomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The operative mortality for all procedures is now 3 to 4%. PMID:1103760

  3. Rathke's cleft cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Ringel; Orville T. Bailey

    1972-01-01

    A 29 year old female with a chiasmal syndrome secondary to a Rathke's cleft cyst is described. The histology and pathogenesis of these rare cysts are discussed, contrasting them with other hypophysial cysts.

  4. Adrenal Cyst Presenting as Hepatic Hydatid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Abdulla; Nagaraj, Veena; Mustafa, Mohmmed B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although adrenal cysts are uncommon, the incidence rate is increasing with the advances in radiological technologies. The incidental detection of adrenal cysts nowadays has become more frequent as a result of the increase usage of high quality imaging modalities. Adrenal cysts originate from the adrenal gland and can be classified into either true or pseudocyst. Presentation of Case. In this report, we described an adrenal cyst of endothelial type, in a 30-year-old lady who was mistakenly diagnosed to have a hydatid cyst both clinically and by imaging. Discussion. Although adrenal cysts are uncommon, the incidence rate is increasing with the frequent use of various high quality radiological technologies. Adrenal cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis when dealing with upper abdominal cysts. The size of the adrenal cyst can vary from a few millimeters up to 50?cm in diameter. Most of the adrenal cysts are unilateral, while 8%–15% of those cysts do present bilaterally. The majority of cases are diagnosed between the 3rd and 5th decades. Conclusion. Although most of the adrenal cysts are benign in nature, surgical excision is advisable especially when the cysts are greater than 5?cm in diameter and in the case of suspecting malignancy. PMID:23607035

  5. Ovarian Cysts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses the types of ovarian cysts, their causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. It also reviews the anatomy of the female reproductive system. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  6. [Anatomical studies of the plexus ophthalmicus and plexus orbitalis medialis in sheep].

    PubMed

    Gadzhev, S; Gudev, Kh

    1982-01-01

    Studied were the structure and the blood supply of plexus ophthalmicus and plexus orbitalis medialis in twenty newborn lambs and in ewes and rams aged up to eight years, employing the methods of preparation and corosion. It was found that sheep had well developed intraorbital venous plexuses. Plexus ophthalmicus was found to be formed by branches of the supraorbital and the external dorsal eye vein as well as by veins coming from the eye orbit and the accessory organs of the eye. It was said to have a cone-shaped form, 3 to 4 cm long, and with a dia at the base of about 2 cm. The veins that formed the plexus were found to be located radially and in a circular way, having a varying length and forming loops of different shape. Rete mirabile venosum ophthalmicum initiated from the dorsal wall of the plexus, embracing the arterial network--rete mirabile ophthalmicum. There was in the medial eye angle a well developed plexus orbitalis medialis connected with plexus ophthalmicus. The latter was found to be connected with plexus venosus cavernosus, the winglike plexus, and the maxillary vein. In newborn lambs plexus ophthalmicus and plexus orbitalis medialis were completely developed. It is believed that the venous plexuses have a collecting, distributing, and hemodynamic function with regard to the blood in the eye region, and particularly with regard to both rete mirabile ophthalmicum and rete mirabile epidurale rostrale. PMID:7170770

  7. Choroid Melanoma – A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sourya; Dulani, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Uveal tract encomprise melanomas of the iris, ciliary body and the choroid. The choroid melanomas are more frequent to occur in comparison to iris and ciliary body melanomas. Choroid melanoma though rare, is the most common occurring intraocular malignancy amongst the adults. Incidence of occurrence of choroid melanoma is around 20 per million cases per year globally. The uveal tract pigment producing melanocytes are the origin for the melanoma in the eye. Melanomas tend to commonly arise from sixth decade of age with increasing incidence with progressive age. We present a rare case choroidal melanoma, in a 65-year-old adult, who presented with three months history of headache and gradual dimunision of vision, his investigations revealed clinical diagnosis of choroid melanoma , an enucleation was carried.

  8. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chhablani, Jay; Barteselli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography. PMID:26139797

  9. Choroidal melanomas in Hispanic patients.

    PubMed

    Hudson, H L; Valluri, S; Rao, N A

    1994-07-15

    The initial clinical manifestation and subsequent pathologic characteristics of choroidal melanomas were reviewed in 20 enucleated eyes of Hispanic patients identified between 1974 and 1992. We compared them to 125 choroidal melanomas of randomly selected white patients identified over the same time period. At the time of diagnosis and at subsequent enucleation, the Hispanic patients were younger (P = .002) than the white patients. Eye pain (P = .016), red eye (P = .0002), and tearing (P = .012) were reported more commonly by the Hispanic patients, and on clinical examination the intraocular pressure was higher (P = .001) and more rubeosis iridis was noted (P < .0001) in the Hispanic patients than in the white patients. The tumors of the Hispanic patients were larger in their greatest base dimension (P = .003), and were heavily pigmented compared with those of the white patients (P = .0001). A trend toward less inflammation within the tumor and toward more epithelioid cell type was noted in the Hispanic patients. PMID:8023876

  10. [Management tactics in brachial plexus injuries].

    PubMed

    Harat, M; Radek, A

    1993-01-01

    The authors present their own experience in the management of brachial plexus injuries. Conservative treatment as well as the results of surgical brachial plexus repair are described. Clinical material includes 114 patients operated on the last 9 years. The principles of qualification of the patients for surgery, various surgical procedures employed and outcomes are analysed. The authors' experience in the management of brachial plexus injuries is compared with the other found in the literature. The approach to the management of brachial plexus injuries is suggested and recommended. PMID:8164778

  11. Vascular tumors of the choroid and retina

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid can be seen occasionally. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed. PMID:25827544

  12. Schistosomotic choroiditis. II. Report of first case.

    PubMed Central

    Pittella, J. E.; Oréfice, F.

    1985-01-01

    The first case of granulomatous choroiditis produced by Schistosoma mansoni with histological confirmation is reported. The patient had the hepatosplenic and cardiopulmonary forms of the disease and presented with cerebral schistosomiasis. The funduscopic aspects of the lesion and the possible pathways taken by the parasite to reach the choroid are discussed. Images PMID:3994947

  13. Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Lai, P H; Ho, J T; Lin, S L; Hsu, S S; Chen, C; Yeh, L R; Pan, H B

    2004-03-01

    We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. PMID:14991257

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. S. Chan; Anahi Perlas; Regan Rawson; Olusegun Odukoya

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated state-of-the-art ultrasound technology for supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks in 40 outpatients. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injec- tion. The block technique we describe

  15. [Thoracic duct cyst].

    PubMed

    Manasterski, J; Szmeja, Z; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Turczuk-Bier?a, I

    1999-01-01

    Patient aged 48 with the cyst of the cervical part of thoracic duct was described. Cyst appeared as the result of inflammation. Histopathological examination excluded the cystic lymphangioma. PMID:10689924

  16. Esophageal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

  17. Beware the Tarlov cyst.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

  18. Congenital pancreatic cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo T. Fernandes; S. Douglas Hixson; Robert S. Hollabaugh; Olga P. Edwards; Thomas F. Boulden; Monford D. Custer

    1989-01-01

    True congenital pancreatic cysts are extremely rare, with less than 20 cases reported in the literature. A 3-month-old infant with a giant congenital cyst of the pancreas is reported. The cyst, located in the head and body of the pancreas, was diagnosed by ultrasound and completely excised. The clinical presentation and treatment of this anomaly are discussed.

  19. An intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Kobza; Erwin Oechslin; Rolf Jenni

    2003-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts arise from an abnormal budding of the ventral diverticulum of the foregut or the tracheobronchial tree during embryogenesis. Rarely they develop within the pericardium. Symptoms of intrapericardial bronchogenic cysts such as chest pain, shortness of breath and arrhythmias can vary according to the location of the cyst, its size and compression of heart and vessels. In this case

  20. Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.

  1. Foveolar Choroidal Hemodynamics in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa S. Schocket; Allison J. Brucker; Rachel M. Niknam; Juan E. Grunwald; Joan DuPont; Alexander J. Brucker

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We studied the choroidal circulation in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) to assess whether choroidal\\u000a hemodynamic abnormalities may exist in PDR. Methods: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients with PDR and high-risk characteristics for visual loss were included in this study. Mean duration\\u000a of diabetes was 20 9 years (mean SD), hemoglobin A1c was 8.9 2.3%, and blood glucose

  2. A respiratory epithelial choristomatous cyst of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Newton, C; Dutton, J J; Klintworth, G K

    1985-12-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with a 19-year history of unilateral, intermittently painful, slowly progressive proptosis. Clinical examination disclosed decreased orbital resiliency and choroidal folds in the posterior pole. Orbital echography revealed an acoustically empty cystic lesion superotemporally. Computerized tomography demonstrated bony molding of the adjacent lateral orbital wall. At operation, a discrete, well-encapsulated mass was found adherent to the periorbita behind the lacrimal gland and extending into the muscle cone. There was no connection with the bony orbit. Histological examination disclosed the well-encapsulated cyst to be lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells and filled with mucoid debris. We postulate that the cyst arose from respiratory epithelium sequestered during the intrauterine development of the paranasal sinuses. PMID:4088630

  3. The Pro-Antioxidant Role of Zinc Supplementation in Cadmium-Treated Choroid Plexus 

    E-print Network

    Francis Stuart, Samantha D.

    2014-05-06

    choline transport, and suggested zinc (Zn) supplementation might abate both oxidative stress and modulation of transport. The objective of this thesis was to elucidate how Zn, a nutritive mineral normally accumulated by CP, attenuated oxidative stress. I...

  4. Expression of facilitative glucose transporter in rat liver and choroid plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Hacker; B. Thorens; R. Grobholz

    1991-01-01

    Two isoforms of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), namely the erythroid\\/brain-type GLUT 1 and the liver-type GLUT 2, were demonstrated in native cryostat sections of normal rat liver and brain by immunofluorescence and a very sensitive immunoalkaline phosphatase reaction. Fixation with 0.1% alcoholic periodic acid resulted in an excellent localization of GLUT 2 in liver and GLUT 1 in brain. GLUT

  5. The role of choroid plexus in IVIG-induced beta-amyloid clearance.

    PubMed

    Gu, H; Zhong, Z; Jiang, W; Du, E; Dodel, R; Liu, J; Farlow, M R; Zheng, W; Du, Y

    2014-06-13

    We have shown that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains anti-A? autoantibodies and IVIG could induce beta amyloid (A?) efflux from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood in both Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. However, the molecular mechanism underlying IVIG-induced A? efflux remains unclear. In this study, we used amyloid precursor protein (A?PP) transgenic mice to investigate if the IVIG could induce efflux of A? from the brain and whether low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), a hypothetic A? transporter in blood-CSF barrier (BCB); could mediate this clearance process. We currently provide strong evidence to demonstrate that IVIG could reduce brain A? levels by pulling A? into the blood system in A?PP transgenic mice. In the mechanistic study, IVIG could induce A? efflux through the in vitro BCB membrane formed by cultured BCB epithelial cells. Both receptor-associated protein (RAP; a functional inhibitor of LRP1), and LRP1 siRNA were able to significantly inhibit the A? efflux. Should A? prove to be the underlying cause of AD, our results strongly suggest that IVIG could be beneficial in the therapy for AD by inducing efflux of A? from the brain through the LRP1 in the BCB. PMID:24747018

  6. Ion channel diversity, channel expression and function in the choroid plexuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D Millar; Jason IE Bruce; Peter D Brown

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the diversity of ion channel form and function has increased enormously over the last 25 years. The initial impetus in channel discovery came with the introduction of the patch clamp method in 1981. Functional data from patch clamp experiments have subsequently been augmented by molecular studies which have determined channel structures. Thus the introduction of patch clamp methods

  7. Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. PMID:25674524

  8. Neurinomas of the brachial plexus: case report.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Gallinaro, L S; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Prece, V; Illuminati, G

    1999-01-01

    Neurinomas, also referred to as neurilemmomas and schwannomas, are rare benign tumours of the peripheral nerves, a low proportion of which arise from the brachial plexus. Authors report a case of an ancient schwannoma arising from the brachial plexus. The tumour, usually asymptomatic, may cause sensory radicular symptoms, or rarely motor deficits in the involved arm. Enucleation of the tumour from the nerve without damage to any of the fascicles is the correct treatment. PMID:10710825

  9. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu

    2013-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy. PMID:24294463

  10. Choroidal thickness changes with photodynamic therapy for a diffuse choroidal hemangioma in Sturge–Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cacciamani, Andrea; Scarinci, Fabio; Parravano, Mariacristina; Giorno, Paola; Varano, Monica

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) changes associated with visual function following photodynamic therapy (PDT) for a diffuse choroidal hemangioma in Sturge–Weber syndrome. We report a case of Sturge–Weber syndrome and symptomatic serous retinal detachment (SRD) with diffuse choroidal hemangioma treated with PDT. Visual acuity (VA), macular sensitivity measured by means of MP1 microperimeter (Nidek Technologies, Padova, Italy), retinal and CT, measured by means of enhanced depth optical coherence tomography (EDI–OCT, Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) were analyzed at baseline, 3 and 12 months follow-up.After the PDT VA and macular sensitivity improved.The OCT examination showed the resolution of SRD. The choroid was measured after PDT using EDI–OCT. At baseline, the subfoveal CT showed a progressive thickness reduction from 251 to 83 lm during follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CT changes after PDT for a diffuse choroidal hemangioma in Sturge–Weber syndrome in a longterm follow-up. The CT measurement represents a potential parameter to better follow choroidal hemangiomas and their response to treatment. However,the long-term choroidal changes should be carefully taken into account. PMID:24658736

  11. EXTRAPULMONARY HYDATID CYST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazim Besirli; Caner Arslan; Hasan Tüzün; Kamil Kaynak

    A 30-year-old man with a history of hepatic hydatid cyst was admitted with a mass lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Surgical intervention and subsequent pathological and microbiologic investigations revealed the mass to be a hydatid cyst located on the descending aorta in the posterior mediastinum and not invading the lung parenchyma. Albendazole treatment was added. No recurrence was seen in

  12. Pilonidal cyst resection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pilonidal cyst). A track that grows under the skin away from the hair follicle (pilonidal sinus). ... hospital. Local anesthesia is used to numb the skin. A cut is made to expose the cyst. Fluid and pus are drained, and the hair ...

  13. Multiple intracranial enterogenous cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T J Walls; D P Purohit; W S Aji; I S Schofield; D D Barwick

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 40-year-old woman with increasing ataxia is described. Although the clinical presentation and evoked response studies raised the possibility of multiple sclerosis, further investigation revealed multiple cystic intracranial lesions. Surgical excision of one of the lesions relieved the patient's symptoms. Histological examination revealed that this was an enterogenous cyst. Although single cysts of this type have rarely

  14. Lavalette et al. IL-1 and choroidal neovascularization Interleukin-1 inhibition prevents choroidal neovascularization and does not exacerbate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lavalette et al. IL-1 and choroidal neovascularization 1 Interleukin-1 inhibition prevents choroidal neovascularization and does not exacerbate photoreceptor degeneration Sophie Lavalette1.ajpath.2011.01.013 #12;Lavalette et al. IL-1 and choroidal neovascularization 2 Abstract : The pro

  15. Dermoid cysts in caribou.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Neimanis, A; Beckmen, K B

    2009-04-01

    Subcutaneous dermoid cysts were identified in eight wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from widely dispersed locations in northern Canada and in one wild caribou from Alaska. The dermoid cysts from Canadian caribou were found among 557 diagnostic specimens that had been detected by hunters and submitted by resource officers and biologists between 1 January 1966 and 15 May 2007. All of the cysts were located in the cervical region, and five of nine cysts were found in the throat area. All of the animals for which the age was known were adult; males and females were equally represented. Dermoid cysts were not diagnosed in any of 1,108 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 293 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 174 elk (Cervus elaphus), or 529 moose (Alces alces) examined during the same period at the Canadian laboratory. PMID:19395761

  16. Dermatoglyphs and brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Svetislav; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Milici?, Jasna; Prolosci?, Tajana Polovina

    2006-09-01

    Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a handicap quite commonly encountered in daily routine. Although birth trauma is considered to be the major cause of the defect, it has been observed that PBPP occurs only in some infants born under identical or nearly identical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of genetic predisposition for PBPP. It is well known that digito-palmar dermatoglyphs can be used to determine hereditary roots of some diseases. Thus, we found it meaningful to do a study analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs in this disease as well, conducting it on 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP. The control group was composed of fingerprints obtained from 400 adult and phenotypically healthy subjects (200 males and 200 females) from the Zagreb area. The results of multivariate and univariate analysis of variance have shown statistically significant differences between the groups observed. In spite of lower percentage of accurately classified female subjects by discriminant analysis, the results of quantitative analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs appeared to suggest a genetic predisposition for the occurrence of PBPP. PMID:17058524

  17. Focal Choroidal Excavation in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mohammad Riazi; Esfahani, Hamid Riazi; Mahmoudi, Alireza; Johari, Mohammad Karim

    2015-01-01

    Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) was first reported as a choroidal posteriorly excavated zone without any scleral change. Choroidal excavation also divided into conforming and nonconforming type. Numerous reports demonstrated association between FCE and other disease such as choroidal neovascularization and central serous choroidoretinopathy. Here, we report a rare case of FCE in a patient with Best disease. The patient was diagnosed by spectoral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second report of choroidal excavation in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

  18. Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Duggins; J. G. McLeod; J. D. Pollard; L. Davies; F. Yang; E. O. Thompson; J. R. Soper

    1999-01-01

    Summary MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without

  19. Learn the Brachial Plexus in Five Minutes or Less

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Learn the Brachial Plexus in Five Minutes or Less By Daniel S. Romm, M.D. Chief, Physical Medicine view of the Department of Veterans Affairs of the U.S. Government. #12;The brachial plexus contains the diagram of the brachial plexus. #12;Draw two headless arrows to the right. #12;Add a headless arrow

  20. Upper trunk brachial plexus injuries in contact sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Clancy; Robert L. Brand; John A. Bergfield

    1977-01-01

    Cervical nerve pinch syndrome, a neura praxia of the brachial plexus, is a common occurrence in contact football. The incidence at two universities was approximately 49%. The more serious injury, brachial plexus ax onotmesis, has received little attention in the literature. We are reporting 13 cases of brachial plexus axonotmesis. Ten were docu mented by electromyography. All involved the upper

  1. Management of adult choledochal cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

    1981-01-01

    A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

  2. Bronchogenic cyst in the abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinjiro Sumiyoshi; Shuji Shimizu; Munetomo Enjoji; Akinori Iwashita; Katsuhiko Kawakami

    1985-01-01

    A bronchogenic cyst was found in the abdomen, in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the superior pancreatic body. The cyst was unilocular and contained about 100 ml pale yellow mucinous fluid. Microscopic examination revealed a pseudostratified columnar ciliated or cuboidal epithelium, seromucous glands, smooth muscle and cartilage, the distinctive features of bronchogenic cysts. This aberrant location of the cyst is explicable

  3. Tarlov Cyst and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

  4. Clinical Features of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy and Visual Outcomes in the Absence of Classic Choroidal Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seijo Yamaoka; Annabelle A. Okada; Michitaka Sugahara; Tetsuo Hida

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: To report on the clinical features of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and to delineate visual outcomes in the absence of classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: Records were retrospectively reviewed of 233 eyes of 215 patients diagnosed with ‘definite’ PCV using Japanese criteria. Results: Of patients with definite PCV, 72.1% were men and 91.6% had unilateral disease. A history of

  5. Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Finger, P. T.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated: one for rubeotic glaucoma, and one for uveitic glaucoma. Though six patients have died, only one death was due to metastatic choroidal melanoma (39 months after treatment). Clinical observations suggest that the addition of microwave heating to plaque radiation therapy of choroidal melanoma has been well tolerated. There has been a 97.7% local control rate (with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months). We have reduced the minimum tumour radiation dose (apex dose) to levels used for thermoradiotherapy of cutaneous melanomas (50 Gy/5000 rad). Within the range of this follow-up period no adverse effects which might preclude the use of this microwave heat delivery system for treatment of choroidal melanoma have been noted. Images PMID:1622949

  6. Splenic cyst during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Varban, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Splenic cyst during pregnancy is rare and may result in spontaneous rupture during the third trimester, which increases perinatal morality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a 27-year-old healthy Caucasian female who presented at 18 weeks gestation with left flank pain, early satiety and weight loss. Imaging studies demonstrated a large complex multiloculated splenic cyst. The patient underwent a successful laparoscopic splenectomy and delivered a healthy child at term without complication. DISCUSSION Spontaneous rupture of a splenic cyst during the third trimester incurs a perinatal mortality rate as high as 70%. Surgical management includes open or laparoscopic splenectomy or fenestration and preservation of the spleen. CONCLUSION Laparoscopic splenectomy during the second trimester appears to be safe and offers definitive management of a large symptomatic splenic cyst during pregnancy. PMID:24794024

  7. Branchial cleft cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    ... form from fluid drained from a sinus. The cyst or sinus can become infected. ... Small pits, lumps, or skin tags at either side of the neck or just below the collarbone Fluid drainage from a pit on the neck

  8. [Cysts of the hepatoid glands].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1995-01-01

    Cysts are specific rounded closed structures characteristic of some hepatoid glands. They never occur in other cutaneous glands of mammals. The cysts of the circumanal hepatoid glands of the dog and polar fox, the violet gland of the polar and common red fox, and the groin pouches of three species of gazelles were studied. The cyst is enclosed in a cellular wall saturated with glycogen. The amorphous content of the cyst is rich in hydrophobic lipids and it also contains protein. The cysts of the dog and gazelle contain also carboxylated mucopolysaccharides. The amorphous masses of the cyst are surrounded by concentric fibers rich in sulfated mucopolysaccharides. It was shown, using the circumanal glands of adult male dogs, that cysts are permanently formed from single secretory cells capable of synthesizing hydrophobic lipids before their destruction. During the involution of the hepatoid cysts (circumanal glands of an old female dog), whole acini and glandular lobes transform into cysts. PMID:7894314

  9. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. El-Bahy; A. Kotb; A. Galal; A. EL-Hakim

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts (RICDC) is a rare phenomenon. The mechanism of rupture, pathophysiology of fat in the\\u000a ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, possible complications, and proper management of such conditions are proposed on the basis\\u000a of a review of the literature and experience with two cases of ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts (One was in the pineal\\u000a region, while another

  10. Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

    2014-12-01

    Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

  11. The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Mejías, Wigberto; Jiménez, Luis B.

    2010-01-01

    Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

  12. The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Mejías, Wigberto; Jiménez, Luis B; García-Arrarás, José E

    2010-05-01

    Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

  13. Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Sarah; Karavitaki, Niki; Ansorge, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Rathke's cleft cysts are benign sellar and suprasellar lesions arising from epithelial remnants of Rathke's pouch with a peak incidence at 30-50 years of age. The majority are between 10 and 20mm in diameter and contain mucoid or gelatinous material encapsulated in a thin cyst wall of simple or pseudostratified cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Symptomatic cases are rare, but incidental lesions are found in 11% of unselected postmortem cases. The pathogenesis of these lesions is uncertain, but they may occasionally share histopathologic features with (papillary) craniopharyngiomas. The most common presenting symptoms include headaches, visual disturbance, and pituitary hormone abnormalities. MRI reveals well-demarcated homogenous lesions with variable intensity that is highly dependent on cyst contents, which can range from clear, CSF-like fluid to thick, mucoid material. Treatment is almost invariably surgical with the aim of draining the cyst contents and removing the surrounding capsule. The recurrence rate is uncertain due to a lack of studies with long follow-up periods, but risk factors associated with increased likelihood of recurrence include cyst size, presence of squamous metaplasia of the cyst wall, incomplete resection or intraoperative CSF leak, and the need for an abdominal fat graft or sellar packing. PMID:25248592

  14. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment. PMID:20069645

  15. Protein Transport to Choroid and Retina following Periocular Injection: Theoretical and Experimental Study

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    (choroidal neovascularization) and diabetic retinopathy (retinal neovascularization). Antiangiogenic agents retinal and choroidal neovascularization. The identification of this molecular target has led to several fragment that binds VEGF has been shown to provide benefit in pa- tients with choroidal neovascularization

  16. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting as a Choroidal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Taro; Izumi, Yasumori; Takeshita, Hayato; Kawahara, Chieko; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kurohama, Hirokazu; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Inamoto, Miwako; Kase, Keiichi; Ito, Masahiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyosi

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) sometimes involves the eye orbit; however, choroidal involvements in GPA had been rarely reported. We report a rare case presenting with a choroidal mass in an 83-year-old Japanese woman who presented with left eye pain. Diagnostic biopsy revealed necrotizing vasculitis with infiltrates of inflammatory cells. Diagnosis was localized granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Combined treatments with corticosteroid plus azathioprine resolved the choroidal mass region. Although treatment with corticosteroid and immunosuppressive agents improves the prognosis of the disease, ocular morbidity is still well recognized. Clinicians should consider a differential diagnosis of GPA in patients with inflammatory choroidal tumors. PMID:25949841

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding gyrate atrophy? acids ; ammonia ; atrophy ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; carboxylate ; cell ; choroid ; ...

  18. Symptomatic Rathke cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weiying; You, Chao; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; Chen, Haifeng; Liu, Jiagang; Zhou, Peizhi; Liu, Yi; Cai, Bowen

    2012-04-01

    Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are uncommon intrasellar lesions. Although their clinical manifestations, radiological features and treatment are frequently reported, controversy remains as a result of their rarity. We reviewed the preoperative clinical manifestations, neurological examination findings, visual acuity and fields, endocrinological function, radiographic study findings, surgical and pathological records, and prognosis of 45 patients with RCC (21 males, 24 females, average age: 47 years) admitted to our department between January 2002 and January 2011. The most common clinical manifestations included headaches, and visual and hormonal disturbances. Most RCC were intrasellar with a suprasellar extension. The most common MRI patterns were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, isointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and hyperintense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Aspiration and biopsy of the cyst wall were performed in most patients. Most patients experienced improved headaches and visual disturbance, but the hormonal disturbance rarely returned to normal, especially in those patients with a serious preoperative hormonal disturbance. The recurrence rate was 14%, which was associated with the extent of cyst removal, inflammation and rim enhancement, as well as the surgical approach. Aspiration and biopsy of the cyst wall still seems to be an effective treatment for most RCC for its low morbidity and good prognosis. Conservative treatment and close follow-up may be suitable for small cysts with subtle clinical manifestations. PMID:22336224

  19. Current perspectives of herpesviral retinitis and choroiditis.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, H N; Priya, K; Biswas, J

    2004-10-01

    Vision-threatening viral retinitis are primarily caused by members of the herpesvirus family. The biology and molecular characterization of herpesviruses, clinical presentations of retinopathies, pathology and pathogenesis including the host responses, epidemiology and the laboratory methods of aetiological diagnosis of these diseases are described. Clinical syndromes are acute retinal necrosis (ARN), progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, multifocal choroiditis and serpiginous choroiditis besides other viral retinopathies. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) retinitis is more common in immunocompetent persons while varicella zoster virus (VZV) affects both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients equally. CMV retinitis is most common among patients with AIDS. The currently employed laboratory methods of antigen detection, virus isolation and antibody detection by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) have low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the value of diagnosis due to its high clinical sensitivity and absolute specificity in detection of herpesviruses in intraocular specimens. PMID:16295367

  20. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Tarlov

    1970-01-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue.

  1. Ovarian cysts in the newborn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Hengster; Gesine Menardi

    1992-01-01

    Due to prenatal and perinatally performed real-time sonography, ovarian cysts are more frequently detected than before, but patients are still treated mainly after development of symptoms. We report the clinical courses of seven babies with large cysts who were asymptomatic or presented with abdominal distension, incarcerated hernia, or vomiting. The cysts were unechogenic and 3–8 cm in size with torsion

  2. Octreotide Inhibits Choroidal Neovascularization in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Qu; Shuihua Zhang; Xiaoyi Xu; Hong Wang; Jinghai Li; Fang Zhou; Fengcai Wei

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Octreotide exhibits anti-angiogenic activity in animal models of retinopathy of prematurity and in clinical cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we tested the applicability of using octreotide for inhibiting experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats. Methods: Of 15 adult rats used, 3 served as non-laser-treated controls. CNV was induced in the right eye of the remaining 12

  3. Increased macular choroidal blood flow velocity and decreased choroidal thickness with regression of punctate inner choroidopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in choroidal circulation hemodynamics during the course of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate changes in choroidal blood flow velocity by using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) in patients with PIC. Case presentation This PIC patient was initially treated with systemic corticosteroids for 4 months. LSFG measurements were taken 10 consecutive times before treatment and at 1, 3, 12, 20 and 23 months after the initiation of therapy. The mean blur rate (MBR), a quantitative index of relative blood flow velocity, was calculated using LSFG in three regions: Circles 1, 2 and 3 were set at the fovea, a lesion site, and an area of normal-appearing retina, respectively. The PIC lesions scarred after treatment along with improvements in visual function and outer retinal morphology. When the changing rate of macular flow over the 12-month follow-up period was compared with the MBR before treatment (100%), an increase of 16–37%, 24–49% and 15–18% was detected in Circles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At the time of PIC recurrence after 20 months, the MBR decreased temporarily but subsequently increased after retreatment with systemic corticosteroids. This trend was accompanied by a decrease in choroidal thickness at the lesion site after retreatment. Conclusions Macular choroidal blood flow velocity increased and choroidal thickness decreased concurrently with regression of PIC. The present findings suggest that inflammation-related impairments in choroidal circulation may relate to the pathogenesis of PIC, extending over a wider area in the posterior pole than the PIC lesions per se. PMID:24885365

  4. Bilateral brachial plexus compressive neuropathy (crutch palsy).

    PubMed

    Raikin, S; Froimson, M I

    1997-01-01

    Brachial plexus compressive neuropathy following the use of axillary crutches (crutch palsy) is a rare but well-recognized entity. Most reported cases involve the posterior cord of the brachial plexus in children and have resolved spontaneously within 8-12 weeks. We recently treated a 36-year-old man who was using axillary crutches for mobilization after a supracondylar femoral fracture. Bilateral posterior cord (predominantly radial nerve) compressive neuropathy subsequently developed, with lesser involvement of the ulnar and median nerves. The patient had little to no improvement clinically 8 weeks after the estimated onset of the palsy, and an electromyogram at that time confirmed the presence of a severe axonotmesis lesion of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves bilaterally. The patient was treated with static cock-up wrist splinting and discontinuation of the axillary crutches. Return of sensory and motor function was delayed but occurred within 9 months. PMID:9057152

  5. Horner's Syndrome after Superficial Cervical Plexus Block.

    PubMed

    Flores, Stefan; Riguzzi, Christine; Herring, Andrew A; Nagdev, Arun

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are becoming more essential for the management of acute pain in the emergency department (ED). With increased block frequency comes unexpected complications that require prompt recognition and treatment. The superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) has been recently described as a method for ED management of clavicle fracture pain. Horner's syndrome (HS) is a rare and self-limiting complication of regional anesthesia in neck region such as brachial and cervical plexus blocks. Herein we describe the first reported case of a HS after an ultrasound-guided SCPB performed in the ED and discuss the complex anatomy of the neck that contributes to the occurrence of this complication. PMID:25987922

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of cyst fluid amphiregulin in pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate tests to diagnose adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia among mucinous pancreatic cysts are clinically needed. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of amphiregulin (AREG) as a pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker to differentiate non-mucinous, benign mucinous, and malignant mucinous cysts. Methods A single-center retrospective study to evaluate AREG levels in pancreatic cyst fluid by ELISA from 33 patients with a histological gold standard was performed. Results Among the cyst fluid samples, the median (IQR) AREG levels for non-mucinous (n = 6), benign mucinous (n = 15), and cancerous cysts (n = 15) were 85 pg/ml (47-168), 63 pg/ml (30-847), and 986 pg/ml (417-3160), respectively. A significant difference between benign mucinous and malignant mucinous cysts was observed (p = 0.025). AREG levels greater than 300 pg/ml possessed a diagnostic accuracy for cancer or high-grade dysplasia of 78% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%). Conclusion Cyst fluid AREG levels are significantly higher in cancerous and high-grade dysplastic cysts compared to benign mucinous cysts. Thus AREG exhibits potential clinical utility in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. PMID:22333441

  7. Choroidal Proteins Involved in Cerebrospinal Fluid Production may be Potential Drug Targets for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wostyn, Peter; Audenaert, Kurt; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is known to be the most common form of dementia in the elderly. It is clinically characterized by impairment of cognitive functions, as well as changes in personality, behavioral disturbances and an impaired ability to perform activities of daily living. To date, there are no effective ways to cure or reverse the disease. Genetic studies of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease cases revealed causative mutations in the genes encoding ?-amyloid precursor protein and the ?-secretase-complex components presenilin-1 and presenilin-2, supporting an important role of ?-amyloid in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Compromised function of the choroid plexus and defective cerebrospinal fluid production and turnover, with diminished clearance of ?-amyloid, may play an important role in late-onset forms of Alzheimer’s disease. If reduced cerebrospinal fluid turnover is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, then therapeutic strategies to improve cerebrospinal fluid flow are reasonable. However, the role of deficient cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in Alzheimer’s disease and the relevance of choroidal proteins as potential therapeutic targets to enhance cerebrospinal fluid turnover have received relatively little research attention. In this paper, we discuss several choroidal proteins, such as Na+-K+ ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporin 1, that may be targets for pharmacological up-regulation of cerebrospinal fluid formation. The search for potentially beneficial drugs useful to ameliorate Alzheimer’s disease by facilitating cerebrospinal fluid production and turnover may be an important area for future research. However, the ultimate utility of such modulators in the management of Alzheimer’s disease remains to be determined. Here, we hypothesize that caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive drug in the world, may be an attractive therapeutic candidate for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease since long-term caffeine consumption may augment cerebrospinal fluid production. Other potential mechanisms of cognitive protection by caffeine have been suggested by recent studies. PMID:21487536

  8. Dramatic response of choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal osteoma to the intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Ahmadieh; Nasser Vafi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  To report the dramatic response of juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with choroidal osteoma to a single\\u000a intravitreal injection of bevacizumab.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A 19-year-old female presented with decreased visual acuity and metamorphopsia in her right eye. Best corrected visual acuity\\u000a assessment, ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and high-resolution\\u000a computed tomography (CT) scan of the orbit was

  9. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  10. Epidural Venous Plexus Engorgement: What Lies Beneath?

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Fuldem Yildirim

    2015-01-01

    Epidural venous plexus engorgement may occur due to several conditions that prevent the normal venous circulation. Inferior vena cava agenesis is a very rare cause of epidural venous enlargement. We present a case with a very thin inferior vena cava and left iliac vein agenesis who presented with back pain due to epidural vein engorgement and lacked other venous problems such as deep vein thrombosis. PMID:25722912

  11. Qualitative dermatoglyphic traits in brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Svetislav; Milici?, Jasna; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Prolosci?, Tajana Polovina

    2007-12-01

    It has been considered for many years that the cause of perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is excessive lateral traction applied to the fetal head at delivery, in association with anterior shoulder dystocia, but this do not explain all cases of brachial plexus palsy. The incidence found in several family members could be suggestive for inheritance with variable expression. The aim of this study was to prove early found confirmations of genetic predisposition for PBPP In the previous studies, the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis showed some differences in digito-palmar dermatoglyphs between patients with PBPP and healthy controls. Now this qualitative analysis will try to determine hereditary of those diseases. We analyzed digito-palmar dermatoglyphics from 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP and 400 phenotypically healthy adults (200 males and 200 females) from Zagreb area as control group. The results of Chi-square test showed statistically significant differences for frequencies of patterns on fingers in females between the groups observed. Statistically significant differences were found on palms in III and IV interdigital areas in both males and females and in thenar and I interdigital area only in females. As it was found in previous researches on quantitative dermatoglyphic traits, more differences are found between females with PBPP and control group, than between males. The fact, that the main presumed cause of PBPP is obstetrical trauma, it could be associated with congenital variability in formation of brachial plexus. PMID:18217462

  12. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    K?sao?lu, Abdullah; Özo?ul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimo?lu, Berhan; Ayd?nl?, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies. PMID:25917590

  13. Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.

    PubMed

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

    2009-12-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

  14. Posterior choroidal leiomyoma: a rare case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Yu; Lin, Jui-Wei; Yang, I-Hui; Kuo, Hsi-Kung

    2015-06-01

    We report a literature review and detailed evaluation of a rare case of posterior choroidal leiomyoma to emphasize the importance of differentiating this from other choroidal tumors. A 30-year-old male presented with variable blurred vision in his right eye secondary to a choroidal tumor. Clinical examinations were performed including fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, B scans, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Preoperative examination revealed a suspected choroidal melanoma and enucleation was performed. However, a definitive diagnosis of choroidal leiomyoma was made following postoperative pathological light microscopy and immunohistochemical studies. Published case reports were collected and the common characteristics and distinctive features were compared with the current case. Posterior choroidal leiomyoma was summarized from the literature, and beneficial information for diagnosis and treatment was obtained. In conclusion, posterior choroidal leiomyoma is rare and should be differentiated from amelanotic melanomas. Despite the benign nature, an explanation regarding the rare incidence and difficult diagnosis of posterior choroidal leiomyoma must be provided to patients, prior to enucleation or detrimental treatment. PMID:25907891

  15. Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Fundus Perimetry After Surgery for Choroidal Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Loewenstein; Janet S Sunness; Neil M Bressler; Marta J Marsh; Eugene de Juan

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Submacular surgery is under investigation for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, and other causes. The aims of this study were to determine whether the macular area from which choroidal neovascularization was removed surgically remained functional and whether there was any qualitative difference between eyes with different disease conditions or between

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in choroidal neovascularization in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianjin Yi; Nahoko Ogata; Masayuki Komada; Chikako Yamamoto; Kanji Takahashi; Koichiro Omori; Masanobu Uyama

    1997-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization is largely unknown. We investigated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats.Methods: Intense krypton laser photocoagulation was applied to the posterior poles of the eyes of pigmented rats to induce CNV, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography and histopathology. The eyeballs were enucleated 1, 3, 7, 14 and

  17. The choroidal circulation assessed by laser-targeted angiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuya Hirata; Hirokazu Nishiwaki

    2006-01-01

    The choroid plays an important role in supplying nutrients to and removing waste products from the outer region of the retina. Abnormal choroidal blood flow can disrupt normal retinal function and lead to alterations in visual function. Visualization of the choriocapillaris in vivo is a great challenge to understanding its normal physiology and involvement in the disease process. Laser-targeted angiography

  18. Do the suprasellar neurenteric cyst, the Rathke cleft cyst and the colloid cyst constitute a same entity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Graziani; H. Dufour; D. Figarella-Branger; A. Donnet; P. Bouillot; F. Grisoli

    1995-01-01

    Summary Two cases of entirely suprasellar cysts are reported. Total surgical removal was performed in both cases. Pathological and immunohistochemical profiles were consistent with neurenteric cysts, Rathke's cleft cysts or colloid cysts and was also in keeping with an endodermal origin. It is now admitted that these three kinds of cysts share similar histological and immunohistological features. We propose an

  19. Rathke's cleft cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nakasu; T. Isozumi; S. Nakasu; J. Handa

    1990-01-01

    Summary Three patients with histologically proved Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) scan. Thirteen cases reported in the previous literature were also reviewed to evaluate the MRI features of RCCs and to compare them with CT features.

  20. Symptomatic Rathke cleft cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiying Zhong; Chao You; Shu Jiang; Siqing Huang; Haifeng Chen; Jiagang Liu; Peizhi Zhou; Yi Liu; Bowen Cai

    Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are uncommon intrasellar lesions. Although their clinical manifestations, radiological features and treatment are frequently reported, controversy remains as a result of their rarity. We reviewed the preoperative clinical manifestations, neurological examination findings, visual acuity and fields, endocrinological functions, radiographic study findings, surgical and pathological records, and prognoses of 45 patients with RCC (21 males, 24 females,

  1. Renal Cysts and Urinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; Darcy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Renal cysts are a common imaging finding. Although most cysts never have symptoms, some cause pain, collecting system compression, hematuria, hypertension, and secondary infection. The mere presence of a cyst is not an indication for intervention, but treatment may be indicated in symptomatic patients or those with secondary obstruction. Urinomas generally are a contained collection of urine outside of the normal pathways where urine travels. As such, urinomas can arise anywhere from the upper abdomen down into the low pelvis and have a variety of etiologies. Ureteral obstruction with forniceal rupture and trauma (blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic) are the most common causes of urinomas. When urinomas arise spontaneously, the likely cause varies with the patient's age. Blunt or penetrating trauma can cause perinephric urinomas by two mechanisms—direct disruption of the pelvis or collecting system or by degeneration of nonviable tissue. These urinomas are often perinephric, but can also occur in a subcapsular location. This review will discuss diagnosis, classification, and treatment of renal cysts and urinomas. PMID:23204636

  2. Tumors and cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chuang; D. Harwood-Nash

    1986-01-01

    “Congenital” tumors that cause hydrocephalus early in life are large masses and can easily be detected by ultrasound. CT is better for differentiating among the diverse types of mass lesions and is performed after screening by ultrasound. In our experience, ultrasound has proved successful for visulalizing all of the intracranial cysts except those in the temporal fossa. Most patients with

  3. Hatch-a-Cyst

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-18

    What is the optimal environment for hatching brine shrimp? Using a scaffold, learners design and conduct experiments testing the effect of a single abiotic factor on brine shrimp cyst hatch rate. Pool results from the group to determine the optimal environment for hatching these resilient organisms.

  4. Blood Flow MRI of the Human Retina/Choroid during Rest and Isometric Exercise

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Retina Blood Flow MRI of the Human Retina/Choroid during Rest and Isometric Exercise Yi Zhang,1. To investigate blood flow (BF) in the human retina/ choroid during rest and handgrip isometric exercise using/choroid during rest and isometric exercise. Retina/choroid BF increases during brief handgrip exercise

  5. Long-term outcomes of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Takahashi, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the outcomes of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with choroidal osteoma. Methods Retrospective consecutive case series. Three eyes of three patients were studied. All patients were treated with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for CNV associated with choroidal osteoma. Best-corrected visual acuity, central foveal thickness, tumor thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and subretinal pigmentation around the CNV were evaluated. Results The mean number of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab was 2.0 (range 1–3). The mean follow-up time was 56.0 months (range 25–99 months). The mean LogMAR visual acuity worsened from 0.1 to 0.6. LogMAR visual acuity loss of 0.7 or worse occurred in two of three eyes. CNV was located in the subfoveal area in two eyes, and CNV was located in the juxtafoveal area in one eye. The mean central foveal thickness decreased from 407 ?m to 251 ?m. The mean tumor thickness decreased from 709 ?m to 608 ?m. All eyes had subretinal pigmentation around the CNV. Conclusion Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for subfoveal CNV associated with decalcified choroidal osteoma resulted in poor visual acuity. PMID:25784788

  6. Case report of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Yang; Xuejun Wang; Yu Mao; Wenying Liu

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid cyst develops in retroperitoneal space without accompanied lesion in other organs is defined as primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. It is extremely rare though hydatid cyst may affect every organ in human body. A 15years old boy presented with a giant retroperitoneal cyst and hydatid cyst was suspected. Thorough examination did not revealed lesions in liver, lung, kidney or other

  7. Associated factors in 1611 cases of brachial plexus injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M Gilbert; Thomas S Nesbitt; Beate Danielsen

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors associated with brachial plexus injury in a large population.Methods: A computerized data set containing records from hospital discharge summaries of mothers and infants and birth certificates was examined. The deliveries took place in more than 300 civilian acute care hospitals in California between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1995. Cases of brachial plexus injury

  8. Three-dimensional MR imaging of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Maria Isabel; Gariani, Joanna; Delattre, Benedicte A; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Lovblad, Karl; Becker, Minerva

    2015-04-01

    Pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus often result in serious and disabling complications. With the increasing availability and use of new and powerful MRI sequences and coils, understanding and assessment of the complex anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus have been greatly facilitated. These new technical developments have led to an improved assessment of brachial plexus lesions, thereby improving patient care. In this article we describe various MRI techniques for the evaluation of the brachial plexus obtained at 1.5 T and 3 T, and we explain differences and similarities between sequences and protocols performed on MRI equipment from different vendors. The main characteristics of pathologic conditions affecting the brachial plexus are discussed and illustrated, as well as their differential diagnoses, with an emphasis on key imaging findings and relevance for patient management. Pitfalls related to suboptimal technique and image interpretation are also addressed. PMID:25764238

  9. Choroid Development and Feasibility of Choroidal Imaging in the Preterm and Term Infants Utilizing SD-OCT

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Tomas A.; O'Connell, Rachelle V.; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Farsiu, Sina; Cabrera, Michelle T.; Maldonado, Ramiro S.; Tran-Viet, Du; Freedman, Sharon F.; Wallace, David K.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether choroidal imaging is feasible in preterm and term infants using an 840-nm portable spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system without the use of enhanced-depth imaging techniques and to assess choroidal development by comparing choroidal thickness of preterm infants, term infants, and adults. Methods. SD-OCT images were obtained from 86 preterm infants, 59 term infants, and nine adults using a portable SD-OCT system plus nine adults using a tabletop system. An unprocessed image across the macula from one randomly selected eye of each participant was selected for determination of whether the choroidal-scleral junction (CSJ) could be visualized and for measurement of choroidal thickness. Results. Subfoveal CSJ was visualized in 96% of young-preterm infants (imaged from 30–36 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA]); 78% of term-aged preterm infants (imaged from 37–42 weeks PMA); 49% of term infants; and 39% of adult subjects. Racial pigmentation did not affect CSJ visibility in young-preterm infants (P = 0.57). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in young-preterm infants, term-aged preterm infants, term infants, and adults was 176 ± 53 ?m, 289 ± 92 ?m, 329 ± 66 ?m, and 258 ± 66 ?m, respectively, and these were all statistically significantly different from one another except term-aged preterms to adults. Conclusions. Infant choroid can be imaged with a portable SD-OCT system without enhanced depth imaging. Melanin in the RPE and choroid does not hinder outer choroidal imaging in young-preterm infants without advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In preterm infants, choroidal thickness increased with age but was thinner when compared to term infants suggesting delayed development due to ROP. PMID:23652488

  10. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  11. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    PubMed

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. PMID:25866380

  12. Effects of muscarinic agents on chick choroids in intact eyes and eyecups: evidence for a muscarinic mechanism in choroidal thinning

    PubMed Central

    Nickla, Debora L; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wallman, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In chicks, ocular growth inhibition is associated with choroidal thickening and growth stimulation with choroidal thinning, suggesting a mechanistic link between the two responses. Because muscarinic antagonists inhibit the development of myopia in animal models by a non-accommodative mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that agonists would stimulate eye growth and thin the choroid. We also hypothesized that the effective growth-inhibiting antagonists would thicken the choroid. Methods Chicks, age 12–16 days, were used. In vivo: Agonists: Single intravitreal injections (20 µL) of oxotremorine (oxo), pilocarpine (pilo), carbachol (carb), or arecaidine (arec) were given to otherwise untreated eyes. A-scan ultrasonography was done prior to injections, and at 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. Antagonists: — 10D lenses were worn on one eye for 4 days. Atropine (atro), pirenzepine (pirz), oxyphenonium (oxy) or dicyclomine (dicy) were injected (20 µL) daily into lens-wearing eyes; saline injections were done as controls. Ultrasonography was done on d1 and on d4; on d4 measurements were done before and 3 h after injections. In vitro Paired eyecups of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroid and sclera were made from 1-week old chicks. All drugs except atropine were tested on one eyecup, its pair in plain medium. Choroidal thickness was measured at various times over 48 h. Results Agonists: In vivo, oxotremorine caused an increase in the rate of axial elongation (drug vs saline: 24–72 h: 338 µm vs 250 µrn; p < 0.001). All except pilocarpine caused choroidal thinning by 24 h (oxo, carb and arec vs saline: ?25, ?35 and ?46 µm vs 3 µm). In vitro, all agonists thinned choroids by 24 h (oxo: ?6 vs 111 µm; pilo: 45 vs 212 µm; carb: ?58 vs 65 µm; arec: 47 vs 139 µm; p < 0.05). Antagonists: Atropine, pirenzepine and oxyphenonium inhibited the development of myopia in negative lens-wearing eyes, and also caused choroidal thickening (drug vs saline: 42, 80, 88 vs 10 µm per 3 h). In vitro, pirenzepine thickened choroids by 3 h (77 vs 2 µm, p < 0.01). Conclusions Muscarinic agonists caused choroidal thinning in intact eyes and eyecups, supporting a role for acetylcholine in the choroidal response to hyperopic defocus or form deprivation. Only oxotremorine stimulated eye growth, which is inconsistent with a muscarinic receptor mechanism for antagonist-induced eye growth inhibition. The dissociation between choroidal thinning and ocular growth stimulation for the other agonists in vivo suggest separate pathways for the two. PMID:23662958

  13. Are Arachnoid Cysts Localized Hydrocephali?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Gon Kim; Dong-Seok Kim; Joong-Uhn Choi

    2010-01-01

    We report 2 cases of arachnoid cysts related to a head trauma. The first case involved a 1-year-old girl who developed an arachnoid cyst 7 months after suffering a head trauma due to a motor vehicle accident, and the second case involved a 1-year-old boy whose arachnoid cyst was first noted 2 months subsequent to his premature birth. We present

  14. Intrasphenoidal rathke cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Megdiche-Bazarbacha, H; Ben Hammouda, K; Aicha, A B; Sebai, R; Belghith, L; Khaldi, M; Touibi, S

    2006-05-01

    Symptomatic Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are reported in the sellar and suprasellar regions, but no case of sphenoidal RCC has been reported. We report a case of sphenoidal RCC in a 41-year-old man. The lesion was revealed by headaches and diplopia. Symptoms disappeared transiently after a spontaneous rhinorrhea but relapsed 4 months later. MR imaging showed a cystic sphenoidal lesion, isointense on T1-weighted images (WI) with peripheral gadolinium enhancement and hyperintense on T2 WI. The patient underwent surgery through a transrhinoseptal approach. The wall of the sphenoid sinus was paper-thin. The cyst contained a motor-oil-like fluid and communicated widely with the nasal fossa. Its wall was partially extracted. Symptoms and signs ceased after surgery. MR imaging performed 1 year later showed the disappearance of the sphenoidal cyst. Embryological origin of RCCs is discussed. The hypothesis of a continuum between the different epithelial cystic lesions of the sellar and parasellar region is discussed. Imaging has an important impact on the diagnosis; nevertheless, the specific characterization remains difficult. PMID:16687551

  15. Ovarian cysts in prepubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Pienkowski, C; Cartault, A; Carfagna, L; Ernoult, P; Vial, J; Lemasson, F; Le Mandat, A; Galinier, P; Tauber, M

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of follicles is perfectly physiological during childhood, their diameter generally does not exceed 10 mm. Ovarian cyst in childhood is well defined for a fluid image >20 mm. Generally mild and asymptomatic, ovarian cysts are fluid formations usually discovered incidentally by ultrasound. Some are hormonally active and cause the development of sexual characteristics. The natural history of functional cysts is eventual regression, and persistence is suggestive of organic tumor. The onset of pain is a sign of complication, and an abrupt sharp pain with vomiting is suggestive of ovarian torsion, in which case surgical intervention is urgent. In all cases, the diagnosis is based on pelvic ultrasound. MRI and tumor marker assays are required to determine the nature of an organic cyst before proceeding to surgery. These cysts may appear functional from the fetal period onward and will require management from the first days of life. Certain endocrine disorders such as precocious puberty, hypothyroidism, and aromatase deficiency cause functional cysts in girls. Recurrent bleeding is due to hormonally active cysts and suggests McCune-Albright syndrome. Although the persistence of a cyst suggests a neoplasm, a fluid character indicates benignity. Imagery is a useful aid in the diagnosis of epithelial tumors (cystadenomas) or teratoma (dermoid cyst). PMID:22846524

  16. Photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; van den Bergh, Hubert; Sickenberg, Michel; Koh, Adrian H C

    2013-11-01

    The first effective therapy for exudative macular degeneration (AMD) was Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Diagnosis of the disease was to a large extent by fluorescein angiography (FA). Distinguishing between the leaky choroidal neovessels (CNV) associated with exudative AMD, and the polypoidal structures associated with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV) is not always easy using FA alone. The switch to Indocyanine Green angiography helped to pinpoint PCV, and thus to study the efficacy of photodynamic therapy of this particular form of retinal disease, which is more frequently encountered among pigmented individuals. The results appear to be quite promising, and in the year following treatment only a small fraction of the patients had to be retreated. Alternatively, treating PCV with repeated intravitreal VEGF blocking agents was not as successful as it was in the treatment of wet AMD. However, combining PDT-induced angio-occlusion of the polypoidal lesions with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy was shown to be quite effective, and the combination of PDT with an anti-angiogenic agent as well as a steroid, in a triple therapy, was recently also shown to be a quite promising option. In the present article we review the data on PDT of PCV, including combination therapies and alternative treatments. We also report on similarities and differences between AMD and PCV. PMID:24140257

  17. Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts (MLC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... new treatments for the disease. Are there other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC)? Other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC) include: ...

  18. Widespread choroidal thickening and abnormal midperipheral fundus autofluorescence characterize exudative age-related macular degeneration with choroidal vascular hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tan, Xue; Obata, Ryo; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical findings that characterize exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (CVH). Design Retrospective comparative study. Participants Forty-eight consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of Tokyo University Hospital between May 2013 and July 2013. Methods The presence or absence of CVH was determined with indocyanine green angiography performed at the latest visit. When CVH was observed, the eye was categorized as CVH(+) AMD, otherwise it was categorized as CVH(-) AMD. Using high-penetration optical coherence tomography, we measured choroidal thickness at the fovea and at four midperipheral areas (mean choroidal thickness at points on 6- and 9-papilla diameter circles superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea). Ultrawide field retinal imaging was used to investigate abnormalities in midperipheral fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Choroidal thickness and the proportion of FAF abnormalities were compared between the CVH(+) AMD and CVH(?) AMD eyes and between eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and typical AMD. Multiple regression analysis was used to control for treatment history and other characteristics. Results CVH was observed in 17 cases. Choroidal thickness was higher in the CVH(+) AMD eyes than in the CVH(?) AMD eyes at the fovea (325 ?m versus 229 ?m, respectively; P=0.0010, t-test), superior point (277 ?m versus 215 ?m, respectively; P=0.0021, t-test), inferior point (225 ?m versus 161 ?m, respectively; P=0.0002, t-test), and nasal point (202 ?m versus 165 ?m, respectively; P=0.042, t-test). The significance was maintained after controlling for possible confounders. The choroid was thicker at the fovea and at the inferior point in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy than in typical AMD. The rate of midperipheral FAF abnormality was significantly higher in the CVH(+) AMD eyes than in the CVH(?) AMD eyes (82% versus 48%, respectively; P=0.031). Conclusion AMD with CVH is associated with widespread choroidal thickening and peripheral FAF abnormalities. PMID:25709392

  19. Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Al Kahtani, Eman; Zegarra, Hernando; Anand, Rajiv; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sisk, Robert A.; Mirza, Salman; Tuncer, Samuray; Navea Tejerina, Amparo; Mataix, Jorge; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Pulido, Jose S.; Guthoff, Rainer; Goebel, Winfried; Roh, Young Jung; Banker, Alay S.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Martinez, Isabel Alonso; Morris, Rodney; Panday, Neeraj; Min, Park Jung; Mercé, Emilie; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Massoud, Vicky; Ghazi, Nicola G.

    2014-01-01

    We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n = 15; P = 0.001), 105.3 microns at 1 year (n = 10; P = 0.03), and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n = 7; P = 0.08). BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n = 26; P < 0.001), 2.8 lines (n = 20; P = 0.01) at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n = 13; P = 0.049) at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma. PMID:25147732

  20. Electroacupuncture attenuates neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shenyu; Tang, Hailiang; Zhou, Junming; Gu, Yudong

    2014-01-01

    Electroacupuncture has traditionally been used to treat pain, but its effect on pain following brachial plexus injury is still unknown. In this study, rat models of an avulsion injury to the left brachial plexus root (associated with upper-limb chronic neuropathic pain) were given electroacupuncture stimulation at bilateral Quchi (LI11), Hegu (LI04), Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34). After electroacupuncture therapy, chronic neuropathic pain in the rats’ upper limbs was significantly attenuated. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression of ?-endorphins in the arcuate nucleus was significantly increased after therapy. Thus, experimental findings indicate that electroacupuncture can attenuate neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury through upregulating ?-endorphin expression. PMID:25221593

  1. Automatic measurements of choroidal thickness in EDI-OCT images.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Baskaran, Mani; Tun, Tin Aung; Aung, Tin

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-definition cross-sectional images of the choroid in vivo, and hence is used in many clinical studies. However, measurement of choroidal thickness depends on the manual labeling, which is tedious and subjective of inter-observer differences. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate algorithm that could measure the choroidal thickness automatically. The lower boundary of the choroid is detected by searching the biggest gradient value above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the upper boundary is formed by finding the shortest path of the graph formed by valley pixels using dynamic programming. The average of Dice's Coefficient on 10 EDI-OCT images is 94.3%, which shows good consistency of the algorithm with the manual labeling. The processing time for each image is about 2 seconds. PMID:23367140

  2. Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography

    E-print Network

    Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar

    We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a ...

  3. Sector iris hemangioma in association with diffuse choroidal hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Shields, Carol L; Atalay, Hatice Tuba; Wuthisiri, Wadakarn; Levin, Alex V; Lally, Sara E; Shields, Jerry A

    2015-02-01

    Two patients referred for iris lesions were found to have sector hemangioma of the iris stroma in contiguity with diffuse choroidal hemangioma. Neither patient had other manifestations of Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25727597

  4. Cerebral arachnoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, M. J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The case histories of 14 children are described in which hydrocephalus was found on investigation to be associated with a cyst of the posterior fossa or subarachnoid cisterns. The neuroradiological and histological findings are described. The cysts are considered to be developmental in origin. Their recognition and management are discussed. Images PMID:5315217

  5. Laparoscopic Treatment of Splenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Presented here is a case report of laparoscopic fenestration of a symptomatic, nonparasitic splenic cyst. Technical aspects of the procedure are discussed along with a review of the literature. The laparoscopic approach to splenic cysts offers many advantages over traditional open procedures and may be the treatment of choice for this rare clinical problem. PMID:11719977

  6. Schistosomotic choroiditis. I. Funduscopic changes and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Oréfice, F.; Simal, C. J.; Pittella, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of biomicroscopy and funduscopy on five patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. Fluorescein angioretinography was performed on two patients. All cases showed yellowish white multiple billateral nodules of various sizes, located in the choroidal plane. The nature and differential diagnosis of these nodules is discussed, and the suggestion is made that they represent cases of schistosomotic nodular choroiditis. Images PMID:3994946

  7. Automatic segmentation of choroidal thickness in optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Caneiro, David; Read, Scott A.; Collins, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of choroidal thickness from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human choroid is an important clinical and research task, since it provides valuable information regarding the eye’s normal anatomy and physiology, and changes associated with various eye diseases and the development of refractive error. Due to the time consuming and subjective nature of manual image analysis, there is a need for the development of reliable objective automated methods of image segmentation to derive choroidal thickness measures. However, the detection of the two boundaries which delineate the choroid is a complicated and challenging task, in particular the detection of the outer choroidal boundary, due to a number of issues including: (i) the vascular ocular tissue is non-uniform and rich in non-homogeneous features, and (ii) the boundary can have a low contrast. In this paper, an automatic segmentation technique based on graph-search theory is presented to segment the inner choroidal boundary (ICB) and the outer choroidal boundary (OCB) to obtain the choroid thickness profile from OCT images. Before the segmentation, the B-scan is pre-processed to enhance the two boundaries of interest and to minimize the artifacts produced by surrounding features. The algorithm to detect the ICB is based on a simple edge filter and a directional weighted map penalty, while the algorithm to detect the OCB is based on OCT image enhancement and a dual brightness probability gradient. The method was tested on a large data set of images from a pediatric (1083 B-scans) and an adult (90 B-scans) population, which were previously manually segmented by an experienced observer. The results demonstrate the proposed method provides robust detection of the boundaries of interest and is a useful tool to extract clinical data. PMID:24409381

  8. Solitary choroidal mass as the presenting sign in systemic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Olk, R. J.; Lipmann, M. J.; Cundiff, H. C.; Daniels, J.

    1983-01-01

    A solitary choroidal mass with an overlying neurosensory retinal detachment was seen in an otherwise healthy 25-year-old Caucasian female. Ocular and general physical examinations, serum chemistry, and pathological examination of a lymph node biopsy confirmed sarcoidosis as the cause for the choroidal mass. Treatment with systemic steroids resulted in resolution of the lesion and return of normal visual acuity. Images PMID:6671099

  9. Computer modeling of transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-06-01

    Thermal effects of visible and near-infrared laser pulses were modeled in order to guide future pre-clinical and clinical studies for transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal neovascularization. A finite-difference, thermophysical model of the native fundus was developed, and contributions were added to consider the effects of incident visible and near-infrared laser irradiation, natural pigment heterogeneity, an absorptive CNV complex, as well as subretinal and sub-RPE blood. Calculations were performed with and without choroidal convective cooling.

  10. Retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faik Gelisken; Werner Inhoffen; Michael Partsch; Ulrike Schneider; Ingrid Kreissig

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization.METHODS: Case report. A 74-year-old woman with exudative age-related macular degeneration and classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization RE underwent photodynamic therapy with verteporfin.RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography RE disclosed a retinal pigment epithelial tear in the area of photodynamic therapy.CONCLUSION: This case presents the first report

  11. Foveolar Choroidal Blood Flow in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan E. Grunwald; Seenu M. Hariprasad; Joan DuPont; Maureen G. Maguire; Stuart L. Fine; Alexander J. Brucker; Albert M. Maguire; Allen C. Ho

    METHODS. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to assess relative choroidal blood velocity (CfoBVcl~), volume (CM?Vo)), and flow (CbBFlow) in the center of the fovea. Measurements were obtained in 20 eyes of 20 subjects with 10 or more large drusen, visual acuity of 20\\/32 or better, and no evidence of choroidal neovascularization. Findings obtained in these subjects were compared with those

  12. Bilateral choroidal neovascularization after pegylated interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Pir Salim; Memon, Abdul Sami

    2015-04-01

    A30-year-old male presented with gradual decrease in vision in his both eyes after the use of interferon alpha for his hepatitis-C. Ocular examination of patient included, Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA), fundus photographs, Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). His BCVAwas recorded as 6/18 in the right eye and 6/12 in the left eye. The anterior segments were unremarkable, with normal intraocular Pressure (IOP) in his both eyes. Both fundi revealed the presence of bilateral Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV), confirmed on FFAand OCT. To the best of authors' knowledge, simultaneous presence of CNV in both eyes is not reported in the literature. PMID:25933463

  13. Molecular characterization of rabbit phospholipid transfer protein: choroid plexus and ependyma synthesize high levels of phospholipid transfer protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Gander; Philipp Eller; Susanne Kaser; Igor Theurl; Doris Walter; Teresa Sauper; Andreas Ritsch; Josef R. Patsch; Bernhard Föger

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) plays an important role in plasma lipoprotein metabolism. However, PLTP is expressed in a wide range of tissues suggesting ad- ditional local functions. To analyze the tissue distribution of PLTP in an animal with high-level expression of the struc- turally and functionally related CETP, we have cloned the full-length cDNA of rabbit PLTP (1,796 bp). Rabbit

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in tanycytes, subcommissural organ and choroid plexus in the rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Nishibori; Naoki Nakaya; Shuji Mori; Kiyomi Saeki

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the immunohistochemical localization of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the rat brain. In addition to epithelial ependymal cells lining the ventricular wall, tanycytes in the basomedial hypothalamus were heavily immunostained. The immunoreactive processes of tanycytes made contacts to sinusoidal capillaries and reached the pial surface forming an immuno-positive structure at the floor of the hypothalamus. Other

  15. The Adhesion GPCR GPR125 is specifically expressed in the choroid plexus and is upregulated following brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Pickering; Maria Hägglund; Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Fernanda Marques; Joana A Palha; Linn Waller; Adam Chodobski; Robert Fredriksson; Malin C Lagerström; Helgi B Schiöth

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GPR125 belongs to the family of Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). A single copy of GPR125 was found in many vertebrate genomes. We also identified a Drosophila sequence, DmCG15744, which shares a common ancestor with the entire Group III of Adhesion GPCRs, and also contains Ig, LRR and HBD domains which were observed in mammalian GPR125. RESULTS: We found

  16. [Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].

    PubMed

    Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

  17. Aberrent Thoracic Duct Cyst in Postrior Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Park, Seonng Yong; Choi, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic duct cysts in the upper portion of the diaphragm are mostly found in the neck and are rarely found in the mediastinum. Thoracic duct cysts should be differentiated from other mediastinal tumors or cysts, and surgical treatment is required to avoid the development of chylothorax if the cyst ruptures. Herein, we report the case of a patient with a thoracic cyst located just above the diaphragm that was treated with surgical resection.

  18. Recurrent Bronchogenic Cyst After Surgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Reynolds, Jordan; Machuzak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies that are often solitary and rarely multiple. Most bronchogenic cysts are asymptomatic, and symptoms when present are usually the result of compression by the cyst on the surrounding structures. Case Report We report a case of recurrent bronchogenic cyst following a partial resection treated with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Conclusion EBUS-TBNA can provide instant decompression of the cyst and relieves the pressure on the surrounding structures.

  19. Eruption cysts: A series of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Preeti; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Chachra, Sanjay; Advani, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Eruption cysts are benign cysts that appear on the mucosa of a tooth shortly before its eruption. They may disappear by themselves but if they hurt, bleed or are infected they may require surgical treatment to expose the tooth and drain the contents. Here we present 2 case reports of eruption cysts presenting with different chief complaint. The treatment included incising the eruption cyst and draining the contents of the cyst. PMID:23559935

  20. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts.

    PubMed

    Tarlov, I M

    1970-12-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. PMID:5531903

  1. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Tarlov, I. M.

    1970-01-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

  2. Treatment option for arachnoid cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyu-Won Shim; Yoon-Ho Lee; Eun-Kyung Park; Young-Seok Park; Joong-Uhn Choi; Dong-Seok Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective  The objective of this study is to establish which treatment is the best operative intervention for arachnoid cyst.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We reviewed a series of 209 cases with arachnoid cysts focusing on the effectiveness and safety. The cysts were treated with\\u000a several surgical procedures including open surgery for fenestration, endoscopic fenestration, or cystoperitoneal shunting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Follow-up imaging studies showed that 176

  3. MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo William on retinal homeostasis with age and on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. Methods: The distribution, et al. (2012) MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization

  4. Proton Beam Irradiation Using a Light-Field Technique for the Treatment of Choroidal Hemangiomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Paul Chan; Yoshihiro Yonekawa; Dimitra Skondra; John E. Munzenrider; J. Michael Collier; Evangelos S. Gragoudas; Ivana K. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: To describe the clinical outcomes of patients with circumscribed and diffuse choroidal hemangiomas treated by proton beam irradiation using a nonsurgical light-field technique. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on a series of 19 patients (19 eyes) with choroidal hemangiomas treated with proton beam therapy between July 1988 and August 2005. Choroidal hemangiomas were treated with proton beam

  5. Management of Rathke's cleft cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burak Sade; Steffen Albrecht; Peter Assimakopoulos; Jean-Lorrain Vézina; Gérard Mohr

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundIncidental diagnosis of Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) has increased due to the improvements in imaging techniques; however, symptomatic cases are rare and accurate preoperative diagnosis can be difficult.

  6. Thermoablation of Liver Metastases: Efficacy of Temporary Celiac Plexus Block

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, A.N., E-mail: alexander.beck@charite.de; Schaefer, M.; Werk, M.; Pech, M.; Wieners, G.; Cho, C.; Ricke, J. [Universitaets Medicin Berlin, Charite, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2005-05-15

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of celiac plexus block during thermoablation of liver metastases. Methods. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent thermoablation therapy of liver tumors by laser-induced thermotherapy. Twenty-nine patients received a temporary celiac plexus block, 26 patients acted as control group. In both groups fentanyl and midazolam were administered intravenously upon request of the patient. The duration of the intervention, consumption of opiates, and individual pain sensations were documented. Results. No complications resulting from the celiac plexus block were recorded. Celiac plexus block significantly reduced the amount of pain medication used during thermoablation therapy of liver tumors (with block, 2.45 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight; without block, 3.58 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight, p < 0.05; midazolam consumption was not reduced) in patients with metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule. For metastases farther away from the capsule no significant differences in opiate consumption were seen. Celiac plexus block reduced the time for thermoablation significantly (178 min versus 147 min, p < 0.05) no matter how far the metastases were from the liver capsule. Average time needed to set the block was 12 min (range 9-15 min); additional costs for the block were marginal. As expected (as pain medications were given according to individual patients' needs) pain indices did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion. In patients with liver metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule, celiac plexus block reduces the amount of opiates necessary, simplifying patient monitoring. In addition celiac plexus block reduces intervention time, with positive effects on overall workflow for all patients.

  7. MRI of axillary brachial plexus blocks

    PubMed Central

    Kjelstrup, Trygve; Hol, Per K.; Courivaud, Frédéric; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Røkkum, Magne; Klaastad, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Axillary plexus blocks are usually guided by ultrasound, but alternative methods may be used when ultrasound equipment is lacking. For a nonultrasound-guided axillary block, the need for three injections has been questioned. OBJECTIVES Could differences in block success between single, double and triple deposits methods be explained by differences in local anaesthetic distribution as observed by MRI? DESIGN A blinded and randomised controlled study. SETTING Conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2009 to 2011. PATIENTS Forty-five ASA 1 to 2 patients scheduled for surgery were randomised to three equally sized groups. All patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Patients in the single-deposit group had an injection through a catheter parallel to the median nerve. In the double-deposit group the patients received a transarterial block. In the triple-deposit group the injections of the two other groups were combined. Upon completion of local anaesthetic injection the patients were scanned by MRI, before clinical block assessment. The distribution of local anaesthetic was scored by its closeness to terminal nerves and cords of the brachial plexus, as seen by MRI. The clinical effect was scored by the degree of sensory block in terminal nerve innervation areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensory block effect and MRI distribution pattern. RESULTS The triple-deposit method had a higher success rate (100%) than the single-deposit method (67%) and the double-deposit method (67%) in blocking all cutaneous nerves distal to the elbow (P?=?0.04). The patients in the triple-deposit group most often had the best MRI scores. For any nerve or cord, at least one of the single-deposit or double-deposit groups had a similarly high MRI score as the triple-deposit group. CONCLUSION Distal to the elbow, the triple-deposit method had the highest sensory block success rate. This could be explained to some extent by analysis of the magnetic resonance images. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01033006. PMID:25051144

  8. Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst

    PubMed Central

    Brish, Adam; Payan, Hushong M.

    1972-01-01

    A case is presented of an intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst at the L4–5 level. The clinical picture suggested a herniated nucleus pulposus at this level. A myelogram revealed a round lesion almost completely obstructing the flow of Pantopaque at the L4–5 level. A ganglion cyst with a haemorrhage into it and the surrounding tissue was removed, and surgery was followed by complete recovery. Images PMID:4647850

  9. Chocolate cysts from ovarian follicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smita Jain; Maureen E Dalton

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the development of chocolate cysts by serial transvaginal ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles.Design: Retrospective study.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, United Kingdom.Patient(s): We reviewed case notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopy for diathermy to endometriosis\\/ovarian diathermy\\/aspiration of ovarian cysts from 1989 to 1998. Twelve women with histories of infertility and proven chocolate

  10. Expression of the c-kit receptor in choroidal melanomas.

    PubMed

    Mouriaux, Frédéric; Kherrouche, Zoulika; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Demailly, François-Xavier; Labalette, Pierre; Saule, Simon

    2003-04-01

    The KIT gene encodes c-kit, a transmembrane receptor that has tyrosine kinase activity and plays a role in haematopoiesis, gametogenesis and melanogenesis. The c-kit protein is found in normal cutaneous and choroidal melanocytes, and there is evidence that expression is lost in melanoma. Expression of c-kit was analysed in 57 paraffin-embedded sections of choroidal melanoma specimens and three choroidal melanoma cell lines using immunochemistry and Western blotting. Of the tumour specimens, 75% stained positively for c-kit with a membrane pattern of reactivity. Of the six patients who underwent proton beam therapy before enucleation, five tumours exhibited no c-kit immunoreactivity and the other tumour demonstrated weak staining. Of the three melanoma cell lines used, c-kit expression was observed in only one. No correlations between c-kit positivity and parameters such as cell type, largest macroscopic tumour dimension, scleral invasion or pigmentation were observed. In contrast, a significant positive association was found between c-kit staining and mitotic activity (P = 0.02). However, c-kit expression did not significantly influence survival when evaluated by univariate analysis. In conclusion, c-kit is expressed in most choroidal melanoma tumours. Further analysis should provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the molecular and cellular changes in choroidal melanomas. PMID:12690299

  11. Choroidal venous pulsations at an arterio-venous crossing in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Akiko; Sameshima, Munefumi; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that pulsations in abnormal vessels are observed on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in half of patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), although the mechanism of the pulsation is unknown. In this study, we report a case of PCV showing venous pulsations at an arterio-venous (A-V) crossing, and discuss a possible mechanism of polypoidal vessel formation and pulsations in PCV. A 66-year-old female presented with a reddish-orange elevated lesion and serous retinal detachment in the macula of her left eye, and was diagnosed as PCV. She was treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and followed-up through routine examinations, including ICG angiography. ICG angiography at presentation showed a branching vascular network and choroidal venules with dye leakage (polypoidal vessels) in the left eye. Pulsations, supposedly of venous origin, were observed at an A-V crossing in the abnormal vessels. Within 3 months after PDT, the polypoidal vessel ceased to leak and the pulsations vanished. The reddish-orange lesion gradually decreased in size with complete disappearance of retinal detachment. This study suggests that an unusual compression at an A-V crossing may make a venule polypoidal, and fluctuations of blood flow and pressure in the venule may cause pulsatile movements of the vessel wall. PMID:24082779

  12. Inhibitory effects of triamcinolone acetonide on bFGF-induced migration and tube formation in choroidal microvascular endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-sheng Wang; Ulrike Friedrichs; Wolfram Eichler; Stephan Hoffmann; Peter Wiedemann

    2002-01-01

    Background: Angiostatic drugs might provide desirable modulation of choroidal angiogenesis-related diseases, including histoplasmosis and the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration. However, the precise effects of this class of compounds in the choroidal neovascularization are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), an angiostatic steroid, on choroidal angiogenesis in vitro. Methods: Bovine choroidal

  13. Celiac plexus block in the management of chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Rana, Maunak V; Candido, Kenneth D; Raja, Omar; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2014-02-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a devastating problem for patients and providers, due to the difficulty of effectively treating the entity. Both benign and malignant conditions can lead to chronic abdominal pain. Precision in diagnosis is required before effective treatment can be instituted. Celiac Plexus Block is an interventional technique utilized for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the treatment of abdominovisceral pain. The richly innervated plexus provides sensory input about pathologic processes in the liver, pancreas, spleen, omentum, alimentary tract to the mid-transverse colon, adrenal glands, and kidney. Chronic pancreatitis and chronic pain from pancreatic cancer have been treated with celiac plexus block to theoretically decrease the side effects of opioid medications and to enhance analgesia from medications. Historically, the block was performed by palpation and identification of bony and soft tissue anatomy; currently, various imaging modalities are at the disposal of the interventionalist for the treatment of pain. Fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT) guidance and endoscopic ultrasound assistance may be utilized to aid the practitioner in performing the blockade of the celiac plexus. The choice of radiographic technology depends on the specialty of the interventionalist, with gastroenterologists favoring endoscopic ultrasound and interventional pain physicians and radiologists preferring CT guidance. A review is presented describing the indications, technical aspects, and agents utilized to block the celiac plexus in patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain. PMID:24414338

  14. Diagnosis and Monitoring of Choroidal Osteoma through Multimodal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Empeslidis, Theodoros; Imrani, Usman; Mushtaq, Fizza; Fotiou, Pandelis; Kumar, Periyasami; Banerjee, Somnath; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T.

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female with a 6-month history of decreased visual acuity and metamorphopsia in the left eye is reported. The fundus of the left eye revealed a well defined lesion in the macula region. Diagnosis of choroidal osteoma was established using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICG), and B-scan ultrasonography. Subretinal fluid (SRF) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachment were noted in the absence of obvious classic choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). The patient was followed up for over 13 months without any treatment in the interim and the lesion was noted to have enlarged but visual acuity and SRF had remained stable. We report an interesting case where subretinal fluid was noted in the absence of evident choroidal neovascularisation and provide an example of the imaging modalities application in the era of “optical biopsy.” PMID:25276141

  15. [Radiation therapy in simultaneous choroidal and brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Conill, C; Jorcano, S; Planas, I; Marruecos, J; Casas, F; Fontenla, J R

    2005-09-01

    Choroidal metastases from lung cancer can be the initial clinical manifestation of metastasic disease, although they generally coexist with at least two more metastasic sites. The most common symptom is decreased vision, however 20% of brain metastases can present with visual alterations. A differential diagnosis within brain metastases and/or choroidal is necessary. We present the case of a patient with lung cancer and decreased vision who was diagnosed as simultaneous choroidal and brain metastases. Radiation therapy (20Gy/5fractions) significantly improves decreased vision. This case shows that, although life expectancy of patients with metastasic lung cancer is short, an adequate diagnosis and treatment, can improve the quality of life of those patients. PMID:16386076

  16. Mini-invasive robot-assisted surgery of the brachial plexus: a case of intraneural perineurioma.

    PubMed

    Lequint, Thierry; Naito, Kiyohito; Chaigne, Dominique; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Brachial plexus surgery requires extensive incisions. They are esthetically unsightly and compromise the quality of recovery after nerve repair surgery. We present a new approach to brachial plexus surgery using mini-invasive robot-assisted surgery to perform a biopsy of an intraneural perineurioma of the right brachial plexus in a 12-year-old girl. PMID:22638873

  17. Brachial plexus lesions in patients with cancer: 100 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kori, S.H.; Foley, K.M.; Posner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    In patients with cancer, brachial plexus signs are usually caused by tumor infiltration or injury from radiation therapy (RT). We analyzed 100 cases of brachial plexopathy to determine which clinical criteria helped differentiate tumor from radiation injury. Seventy-eight patients had tumor and 22 had radiation injury. Severe pain occurred in 80% of tumor patients but in only 19% of patients with radiation injury. The lower trunk was involved in 72% of the tumors. Seventy-eight percent of the radiation injuries affected the upper plexus (C5-6). Horner syndrome was more common in tumor, and lymphedema in radiation injury. The time from RT to onset of plexus symptoms, and the dose of RT, also differed.

  18. A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

    2007-08-01

    Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations. PMID:17688070

  19. Cysts of the neuraxis of endodermal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, I R; Gilbert, J J

    1991-01-01

    Five colloid cysts of the third ventricle were compared with two spinal enterogenous cysts to examine the hypothesis that these entities have the same origin from primitive endodermal tissue. All the lesions showed cuboidal and columnar epithelium with mucus containing goblet cells and cilia. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, EMA and CEA was positive in all the colloid cyst and enterogenous cyst epithelium. S-100 was focally positive in three of the colloid and one of the enterogenous cysts while vimentin and GFAP were negative in both. The anatomical distribution of both colloid and enterogenous cysts is reviewed. An illustrative case of an identical cyst within the fourth ventricle is presented. This suggests that the similarities between colloid and enterogenous cysts and the presence of identical lesions along the neuroaxis indicate that these structures are derived from primitive foregut endoderm. Images PMID:1895117

  20. Giant petroclival endodermal cyst with xanthogranulomatous changes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Eun; Seol, Ho Jun; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Endodermal cyst is a rare developmental cyst of the CNS, such as a Rathke cleft and colloid cyst lined by columnar epithelium of presumed endodermal origin. Intracranial endodermal cysts are rare, and most are found in the posterior fossa. The authors report a case of petroclival endodermal cyst with extensive bone destruction. A 12-year-old boy presented with transient facial weakness and headache. Imaging revealed a 3 × 3 × 4-cm, partial rim, enhanced cystic lesion in the petroclival area that was isointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense in T2-weighted imaging. The cyst wall was partially removed and the cyst was obliterated using a lateral approach. Histological examination revealed ciliated, simple-to-pseudostratified cuboidal epithelium with a basement membrane that was consistent with an endodermal cyst, with the rare finding of xanthogranulomatous changes. PMID:23848288

  1. Ethanol sclerosis of a mediastinal cyst.

    PubMed

    Malde, H M; Kedar, R P; Chadda, D J

    1993-08-01

    The authors report a mediastinal cyst treated by aspiration and ethanol sclerosis, which were performed under ultrasonographic guidance. Mediastinoscopy and thoracotomy were thus avoided. One year later there had been no recurrence of the cyst or any symptoms. PMID:8348365

  2. Hydatid cyst of the cardiac interventricular septum.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Syed Nadir; Burhan, Hira; Khan, Ghufranullah

    2015-03-01

    Hydatid cysts of the cardiac interventricular septum are rare and present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman who was successfully treated with cyst excision and capitonnage. PMID:24887895

  3. A case report on a nasolabial cyst presenting with a nasolacrimal sac cyst.

    PubMed

    Zengin, A Z; Unal-Erzurumlu, Z; Karl?, R

    2015-01-01

    Nasolabial cysts are rare, nonodontogenic soft tissue developmental cysts that occur in the maxillary lip and nasal alar regions. Patients with this type of cyst generally presents with an asymptomatic soft swelling that may obliterate the nasolabial fold, elevate the nasal ala or the floor of the nose and fill the labial vestibule intraorally. The exact origin of nasolabial cysts is uncertain. The seed theory suggests that these cysts develop from a misplaced epithelium of the nasolacrimal duct because of their similar location and histologic appearance. This report aimed to present a case of nasolabial cyst presenting with a nasolacrimal sac cyst. PMID:26096251

  4. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  5. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  6. Percutaneous treatment of hydatid cysts (Echinococcus Granulosus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moncef Gargouri; Nejet Ben Amor; Ferid Ben Chehida; Azza Hammou; Hassen A. Gharbi; Mohamed Ben Cheikh; Hefdi Kchouk; Kamel Ayachi; Jean Yves Golvan

    1990-01-01

    A new method called PAIR (Puncture-Aspiration of cyst contents—Injection of hypertonic saline solution—Reaspiration) was used\\u000a as a percutaneous treatment of hydatid cysts. In 37 patients, 120 cysts were punctured. All patients had not been considered\\u000a surgical candidates. The cysts were localized in the liver, peritoneum, spleen, kidneys, muscles, and bones. In 70% of patients,\\u000a good results were obtained. Recurrence occurred

  7. Supratentorial neurenteric cyst mimicking hydatid cyst: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Shah, Gaurang

    2013-01-01

    Neurenteric (NE) cysts are uncommon congenital cysts of endodermal origin. These cysts are commonly encountered in the posterior fossa surrounding the brain stem structures. We present a case of pathologically proven supratentorial NE cyst that mimicked a hydatid cyst in its clinical presentation and imaging appearance. Including this pathology in the differential diagnosis of supratentorial cystic lesions is important due to the differences in medical and surgical management. PMID:24251235

  8. Epithelial cysts of the spleen: A minireview

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R; Patrike, Swapna

    2014-01-01

    Primary splenic epithelial cyst is an unusual event in everyday surgical practice with about 800 cases reported until date in the English literature. Splenic cysts may be parasitic or non-parasitic in origin. Nonparasitic cysts are either primary or secondary. Primary cysts are also called true, congenital, epidermoid or epithelial cysts. Primary splenic cysts account for 10% of all benign non-parasitic splenic cysts and are the most frequent type of splenic cysts in children. Usually, splenic cysts are asymptomatic and can be found incidentally during imaging techniques or on laprotomy. The symptoms are related to the size of cysts. When they assume large sizes, they may present with fullness in the left abdomen, local or referred pain, symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures (like nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhoea) or rarely thrombocytopenia, and occasionally complications such as infection, rupture and/or haemorrhage. The preoperative diagnosis of primary splenic cysts can be ascertained by ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, although the wide use of USG today has led to an increase in the incidence of splenic cysts by 1%. However, careful histopathological evaluation along with immunostaining for presence of epithelial lining is mandatory to arrive at the diagnosis. The treatment has changed drastically from total splenectomy in the past to splenic preservation methods recently. PMID:25320525

  9. Quantitation of Giardia cysts by membrane filtration.

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, J J; Pacha, R E; Clark, G W

    1983-01-01

    A method of fixing and staining Giardia cysts on a membrane filter is reported. This procedure appears to be a reliable method for the recovery and detection of cysts and also for the determination of cyst densities. Evaluation and possible applications of the technique are described. Images PMID:6195183

  10. Retrorectal cyst-hamartoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ipekci, E; Yildirim, M; Sahin, T; Postaci, H

    2008-01-01

    Retrorectal cyst-hamartoma is a relatively rare disease. Total excision of the cyst is indicated to prevent infection and malign proliferation. We present a case of retrorectal cyst-hamartoma in a 55-year-old woman that was successfully treated by complete surgical excision. PMID:19241935

  11. Symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst with amyloid stroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Concha; B P Hamilton; J C Millan; J D McQueen

    1975-01-01

    A patient with panhypopituitarism and visual field defects due to a Rathke's cleft cyst is presented. These cysts are commonly found in random pituitaries examined at necropsy, but rarely produce symptoms. Subtle endocrine deficiencies, however, may now be uncovered more frequently with modern diagnostic techniques. An unusual and unreported feature of this cyst was an apudamyloid stroma. This would imply

  12. Rathke's cleft cyst presenting as pituitary apoplexy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay J. Pawar; Rewati Raman Sharma; Ebenezer Dev; Rama Verma Devadas

    2002-01-01

    Sellar lesions mainly constitute pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas and benign cysts. Rathke's pouch cyst is a developmental sellar and\\/or suprasellar cystic lesion lined by a single layer of ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium, which rarely be comes symptomatic. The authors present an interesting case of intrasellar Rathke's pouch cyst, with a presenting feature of acute pituitary apoplexy. This was a 19

  13. Atypical Rathke's Cleft Cyst Associated with Ossification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Nakasu; Satoshi Nakasu; Masayuki Nakajima; Ryuta Itoh; Masayuki Matsuda

    Summary: We report a case of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst with ossification. CT scans showed curvilinear calcifi- cation on the wall of the cyst. MR images revealed a cystic sellar lesion with a nodular solid mass extending to the floor of the third ventricle. This case shows that calcifica- tion of the suprasellar cyst does not always suggest cran- iopharyngioma.

  14. Epithelial cysts of the spleen: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge Ingle, Chitra R; Patrike, Swapna

    2014-10-14

    Primary splenic epithelial cyst is an unusual event in everyday surgical practice with about 800 cases reported until date in the English literature. Splenic cysts may be parasitic or non-parasitic in origin. Nonparasitic cysts are either primary or secondary. Primary cysts are also called true, congenital, epidermoid or epithelial cysts. Primary splenic cysts account for 10% of all benign non-parasitic splenic cysts and are the most frequent type of splenic cysts in children. Usually, splenic cysts are asymptomatic and can be found incidentally during imaging techniques or on laparotomy. The symptoms are related to the size of cysts. When they assume large sizes, they may present with fullness in the left abdomen, local or referred pain, symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures (like nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhoea) or rarely thrombocytopenia, and occasionally complications such as infection, rupture and/or haemorrhage. The preoperative diagnosis of primary splenic cysts can be ascertained by ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, although the wide use of USG today has led to an increase in the incidence of splenic cysts by 1%. However, careful histopathological evaluation along with immunostaining for presence of epithelial lining is mandatory to arrive at the diagnosis. The treatment has changed drastically from total splenectomy in the past to splenic preservation methods recently. PMID:25320525

  15. [Primary calcified mediastinal hydatid cyst producing compression].

    PubMed

    Benzarti, M; Jerray, M; Khirouni, S; Souissi, J; Ommezzine, N; Mezghenni, S; Hayouni, A; Garrouche, A; Klabi, N

    1997-01-01

    A mediastinal hydatid cyst is rare (< 0.1% of hydatidosis). It most frequently progresses to calcification rather than a pulmonary hydatid cyst because there is no relationship to ventilation. We report a case of calcified mediastinal hydatid cyst which was confirmed on histological examinations from the operative specimen, in an agricultural worker of 58 who presented with a homolateral paralysed diaphragm. PMID:9082506

  16. [Late manifestation of radiation injury to the plexus brachialis and plexus lumbosacralis].

    PubMed

    Strub, M; Fuhr, P; Kappos, L

    2000-10-01

    Radiotherapy of breast cancer, cervical cancer, testicular tumours and lymphoma is one of the most effective therapy options. Damage to the nervous system, in particular the brachial and lumbar plexus, is rare and typically leads to development of progressive sensory disturbances and motor weakness after years-long latency. We present two cases exemplifying the diagnostic problems in differentiating between radiation-induced injury and recurrence of the primary tumour. A clinical course with sensorimotor symptoms and signs progressing over months, electomyographic recording of myokymic discharges, and absence of a space-occupying mass suggest late-onset radiation-induced plexopathy. The literature on pathogenesis and incidence of radiation-induced plexopathy is reviewed. PMID:11059032

  17. Effect of Sympathetic Denervation on Rabbit Choroidal Blood Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-I Chou; Da-Wen Lu; Jiann-Torng Chen

    2002-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate the existence of sympathetic innervation and compare the effect of unilateral or bilateral superior cervical sympathectomy on albino rabbit choroidal blood flow (CBF) during changes in perfusion pressure (PP). Forty albino rabbits weighing between 2.0 and 3.0 kg were randomly divided into three groups. The bilateral sympathectomy group (group S) included 10 rabbits (20 eyes)

  18. Choroidal melanoma in children: be aware of risks.

    PubMed

    Sivalingam, Meera D; Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Shields, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a case of choroidal melanoma in a 13-year-old girl treated with plaque brachytherapy. Uveal melanoma is reported in all age groups but tends to manifest itself in adults more often than children. Childhood (< 20 years) uveal melanoma represents 1% of all cases. Clinical features and treatment options in childhood melanoma are discussed. PMID:25490240

  19. Choroidal melanoma with oculodermal melanocytosis in Hispanic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Infante de German-Ribon; Arun D Singh; J. Fernando Arevalo; William Driebe; Thomas Eskin

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe three Hispanic patients with oculodermal melanocytosis and uveal melanoma.METHOD: Case series.RESULTS: Three Hispanic patients with oculodermal melanocytosis and uveal melanoma underwent enucleation. The diagnosis of choroidal melanoma was confirmed by histopathologic examination.CONCLUSION: In the Hispanic population, uveal melanoma can occur in the presence of oculodermal melanocytosis.

  20. Interocular Symmetry in Macular Choroidal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddad, Christiane; El Chaar, Lama; Noureddin, Baha'

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report interocular differences in choroidal thickness in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate findings with biometric data. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study included 91 (182 eyes) healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye exam and axial length measurement, high definition macular scans were performed using SD-OCT. Two observers manually measured the choroidal thickness at the foveal center and at 1500?µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Interocular differences were computed; correlations with age, gender, refractive error, and axial length were performed. Results. Mean age was 10.40 ± 3.17 years; mean axial length and refractive error values were similar between fellow eyes. There was excellent correlation between the two observers' measurements. No significant interocular differences were observed at any location. There was only a trend for right eyes to have higher values in all thicknesses, except the superior thickness. Most of the choroidal thickness measurements correlated positively with spherical equivalent but not with axial length, age, or gender. Conclusion. Choroidal thickness measurements in children as performed using SD-OCT revealed a high level of interobserver agreement and consistent interocular symmetry. Values correlated positively with spherical equivalent refraction. PMID:25525509

  1. Suppression of choroidal neovascularization by Endostar in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Ye, Panpan; Su, Zhaoan; Lin, Kana; He, Fengying; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is common in various retinal and choroidal diseases, and may result in severe and irreversible loss of vision. Our previous studies suggested that Endostar, a novel recombinant endostatin, is able to inhibit the proliferation and migration of choroid?retinal endothelial cells. To further evaluate the effect of Endostar on the formation of CNV in vivo, a rat model of laser?induced CNV was constructed and Endostar or phosphate?buffered saline treatment was administered intravitreally every other day. Using fluorescein angiography (FA), reduced CNV incidence and leakage grade was observed in the Endostar group. In addition, CNV area and maximal thickness were prominently reduced in the Endostar group measured by choroid flat mounts and sections. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia?inducible factor 1? and chemokine C?X?C motif ligand 1 were markedly reduced in the Endostar group as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and downregulation of VEGF was also verified by western blot analysis at the protein level. This study demonstrates that Endostar suppressed CNV in a rat model, which may be largely mediated by the downregulation of VEGF and other angiogenic molecules. PMID:25544023

  2. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in experimental choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuro Ishibashi; Yasuaki Hata; Hiroshi Yoshikawa; Kazunori Nakagawa; Katsuo Sueishi; Hajime Inomata

    1997-01-01

    • Background: Although the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a common pathologic feature of a number of different eye diseases, its pathological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in CNV using an experimental primate model. • Method: CNV was induced by intense laser photocoagulation in four monkey eyes. Single eyes were

  3. VEGF Is Major Stimulator in Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nohoon Kwak; Naoyuki Okamoto; Jeanette M. Wood; Peter A. Campochiaro

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is upregulated by hypoxia and is a major stimulatory factor for retinal neovascularization in ischemic retinopathies such as diabetic retinop- athy. This study sought to determine if VEGF is a stimulatory factor in a murine model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

  4. TABLE 2. Age-related Macular Degeneration Choroidal Resistance Changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. Kiel; San Antonio

    have proposed that the patho- genesis of AMD is initiated by obstruction of the vortex veins caused by increased scleral rigidity, with the conse- quent rise in upstream intravascular pressure altering the Starling equilibrium for fluid exchange, diminishing met- abolic waste removal by the choroid, and promoting the accumulation of basal laminar deposits. In support of this hypothesis, Friedman et

  5. Pigment Epithelium Endoscopic Laser Surgery for Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank H. J. Koch; Hugo Quiroz-Mercado; Lars-Olof Hattenbach; Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo; Itamr Yesurun; Albert Augustin; K. Peter Luloh; Christian Ohrloff

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To present a new concept and technique for subretinal surgery. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were included in this study. Nine patients were operated on in Mexico City by one surgeon, 15 patients in Frankfurt by another surgeon. The retina at the posterior pole was detached and subretinal thermal photocoagulation of the CNVs

  6. Subconjunctival Administration of Bucillamine Suppresses Choroidal Neovascularization in Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Yanagi; Yasuhiro Tamaki; Ryo Obata; Kimimasa Muranaka; Noriko Homma; Hidehito Matsuoka; Hidetoshi Mano

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Bucillamine is an antirheumatic drug with antiangio- genic properties that is currently used in clinical practice. Because bucillamine inhibits the production of VEGF, it is possible that this drug may inhibit choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Thus, the effect of bucillamine on the eyes of rats with experimental CNV was investigated in vivo by subconjunctival injection or oral intake. METHODS. CNV

  7. Low-Dose Proton Beam Therapy for Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangiomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Frau; Frank Rumen; George Noel; Sabine Delacroix; Jean-Louis Habrand

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pro- ton beam therapy for complicated circumscribed cho- roidal hemangiomas. Methods: The study was a retrospective nonrandom- ized investigation. Seventeen consecutive patients, re- ferred to the Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, France, for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma associated with serous retinal detachment were studied. Each eye re- ceived a total dose of 20 cobalt gray

  8. Choroidal observations in posterior scleritis using high-penetration optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Uchihori, Hiroaki; Nakai, Kei; Ikuno, Yasushi; Gomi, Fumi; Hashida, Noriyasu; Jo, Yukari; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the choroidal morphologic changes in two patients with posterior scleritis. We used high-penetration optical coherence tomography (HP-OCT) in vivo with a long-wavelength light source (1,060 nm) to view the choroidal changes. In patient 1 with unilateral scleritis, the subfoveal choroidal thickness of the right eye was 418 ?m with a serous retinal detachment (SRD) at the initial visit. The treatment regimen was prednisolone 30 mg/day, and the posterior scleritis resolved. Follow-up HP-OCT showed the following choroidal thicknesses-266 ?m on day 27 with no SRD, 245 ?m on day 69, and 200 ?m on day 216. In patient 2 with bilateral scleritis, the subfoveal choroidal thickness of the left eye was 279 ?m at the initial visit. The inflammation was more severe in the left eye compared to the right eye on day 99. The choroidal thickness again increased markedly with recurrent disease in the left eye despite treatment. The posterior scleritis resolved with treatment. Follow-up HP-OCT showed the following choroidal thicknesses of the left eye--321 ?m on day 99, 257 ?m on day 176, and 228 ?m on day 358. Significant choroidal changes underlie posterior scleritis. HP-OCT can show these deep choroidal pathologies in patients with posterior uveitis. The choroidal thickness recovers following treatment. PMID:24398712

  9. Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  10. Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  11. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Gurgel, Alberto Costa; de Souza Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Samila Neres; de Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Oliveira, Hanieri Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning. PMID:26180645

  12. Myenteric plexus neuropathy in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dieler; J. M. Schröder

    1989-01-01

    The myenteric plexus and intramuscular nerve bundles in the circular muscle layer of the pylorus from 37 children with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) obtained at pyloromyotomy were studied by light and electron microscopy and compared to six control cases without clinical evidence of IHPS. In certain IHPS cases degenerative alterations of the axons predominated. The axonal changes consisted of

  13. Pain, muscle spasms and twitching fingers following brachial plexus avulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Alberto Pagni; Sergio Canavero

    1993-01-01

    Three patients who, following partial brachial plexus avulsion, experienced pain, involuntary finger twitching and muscular spasms are reported. Two exhibited cutaneous trigger zones, stimulation of which exacerbated their pain; changes in emotional tone aggravated both the pain and the spasms. Pain would appear to be due not only to deafferentation and scarring of the dorsal horn, but also to an

  14. A Two Trunked Brachial Plexus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Rajan Kumar; Sharma, Ravi Kant; Shree, Bhagya

    2013-01-01

    The brachial plexus is a major and a complicated plexus at the root of the neck. It is formed by the ventral primary rami of the C5, C6, C7, C8 and the T1 spinal nerves. During the routine under graduate dissection of the right upper limb of an adult female cadaver, a variant pattern of a two trunked brachial plexus was encountered. The upper trunk was formed by the fusion of the C5 and the C6 roots. The C7 root, instead of continuing as the middle trunk, joined with the roots of C8 and T1 to form the lower trunk. On the left side, the usual pattern of the brachial plexus was seen. The knowledge on such variations are of interest to anatomists, clinicians, anesthesiologists and especially, to surgeons. These are of immense importance during surgical explorations of the axilla and the arm region and also during nerve blocks. It also helps the clinicians in getting a proper understanding of some previously unexplained clinical symptoms. Further, the ontogeny and the phylogeny of this entity have been discussed in detail. PMID:23730651

  15. Ultrasonographic Findings of the Axillary Part of the Brachial Plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Retzl; Stephan Kapral; Manfred Greher; Walter Mauritz

    2001-01-01

    In this prospective study we sought to determine ana- tomic variations of the main brachial plexus nerves in the axilla and upper arm via high-resolution ultra- sonography (US) examination. Positions of nerves were studied via US in three sectional levels of the upper arm in 69 healthy volunteers (31 men and 38 women, me- dian age 28 yr). Analysis was

  16. Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade for the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbers, G. M.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Rijken, R. A. J.; Kerkkamp, H. E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSD) is a neurogenic pain syndrome characterized by pain, vasomotor and dystrophic changes, and often motor impairments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of brachial plexus blockade with local anaesthetic drugs as a treatment for this condition. Three patients responded well; three did not. (DB)

  17. Comparison of two neurostimulation techniques for axillary brachial plexus blockade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Coventry; K. F. Barker; M. Thomson

    2001-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind study compared two techniques of axillary brachial plexus block using a peripheral nerve stimulator. Both groups received initial musculo- cutaneous nerve block followed by either a single injection on median nerve stimulation (group 1) or a double injection divided between median and radial nerves (group 2). All 60 patients received a total of 30 ml of

  18. Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

    2006-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

  19. A case of symptomatic Rathke's cyst

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Vismay Dinesh; Thakore, Nilay Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Rathke's cleft cyst is a benign growth found on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a fluid-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathke's pouch does not develop properly, and ranges in size from 2 to 40?mm in diameter. Asymptomatic cysts are common, detected during autopsies of 2–26% of individuals who have died of unrelated causes. Symptomatic cysts are rare and only approximately 150 cases have been reported. Females are twice as likely as males to have a cyst. Symptomatic cysts can trigger visual disturbances, pituitary dysfunction and headaches. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old female patient who presented with complains of visual disturbances, headache and amenorrhoea. On investigations, MRI of brain revealed findings suggestive of Rathke's cleft cyst. PMID:23355555

  20. Radiological study of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts.

    PubMed

    Oka, H; Kawano, N; Suwa, T; Yada, K; Kan, S; Kameya, T

    1994-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between radiological findings and the nature of the cyst fluid and histological findings of six Rathke's cleft cysts. The results show that the majority (five of six cases) of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts exhibit no enlargement of the sella turcica on plain x-rays, which may be helpful in differentiating cystic pituitary adenoma in the radiological diagnostic process. Three cases with large cysts showing high-intensity T1-weighted magnetic resonance images harbored abundances of cholesterol crystal and hemosiderin pigment in the cyst walls. The high signal intensity in magnetic resonance images of Rathke's cleft cysts may be explained by hemorrhage and a deposition of cholesterol crystal and may be considered in certain cases of Rathke's cleft cyst, especially when they are large. PMID:7808605

  1. Cysts in rabbit foetal brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. P. Joosten; A. Hoekstra; J. A. G. Geelen; T. D. Yih

    1981-01-01

    Reports have appeared in the literature on brain cysts in rabbit foetuses. This paper reports on investigations carried out to assess whether “cystic dilatation” is a malformation or an artefact. The results show that “cystic dilatation” arises by splitting of the pia-arachnoid membrane leading to a space between the skull and the neural tissue which is lined by the pial

  2. Real-time in vivo micromorphology and histopathology of choroidal osteoma using enhanced depth imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rameez; Anantharaman, Giridhar; Rajesh, Bindu; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a usually unilateral benign tumor of the choroid composed of mature bone. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image osteoma for several years. With the advent of enhanced depth imaging (EDI) feature of spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), better visualization of the morphology of choroidal lesions has been possible. Herein we present a case of choroidal osteoma in a 45-year-old woman, wherein in vivo morphology of the choroidal osteoma had been visualized using EDI technique of SD-OCT before and after performing photodynamic therapy. EDI OCT has proven to be a valuable noninvasive imaging modality, almost comparable to histopathological examination, for diagnosing choroidal osteomas and for providing an insight into the in vivo micromorphological changes occurring during the course of the disease. PMID:26139810

  3. Jugular Vein Insufficiency and Choroidal Neovascularization in Moderate Myopia: A New Unknown Factor of Additional Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Cristiano; Novelli, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    To date, choroidal blood flow reduction in highly myopic eyes appears to be related to the development of choroidal neovascularization secondary to local reduction of arterial flow. Instead, no evidence of choroidal neovascularization was found in subjects with low or moderate myopia. The authors' aim has been to encourage new studies regarding the potential role of chronic retinal venous congestion in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization. In December 2011, a 54-year-old woman with moderate bilateral myopia had a sudden block upon swallowing while she was eating. Subsequently (January 2013) metamorphopsia in the left eye revealed macular degeneration with choroidal neovascularization. The related echo-color Doppler study of the neck veins, performed in November 2014, showed an atypical left jugular insufficiency associated with homolateral hypertension of the superior ophthalmic veins. This singular case highlights the necessity to further investigate the potential role of chronic alterations of intra- and extracranial venous drainage in the disruption of choroidal flow in myopic patients.

  4. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    PubMed

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. PMID:24698357

  5. Complete Disappearance of Choroidal Metastasis from Lung Adenocarcinoma Treated with Bevacizumab and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Antoun, Joelle; Schakal, Alexandre; Nasr, Elie; Sahyoun, Marwan; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Choroidal metastasis from lung cancer is uncommon. We report a case of choroidal metastasis as an inaugural manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma, successfully treated by docetaxel, cisplatinum, and intravenous bevacizumab as an antiangiogenesis therapy. A complete remission was obtained after 4 cycles and maintained after six cycles. This case report demonstrates the importance of the systemic bevacizumab and chemotherapy in the treatment of choroidal metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the lung.

  6. Movement of Fluorescein and Its Glucuronide Across Retinal Pigment Epithelium-Choroid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Koyano; Makoto Araie; Shuichiro Eguchi

    Purpose. To characterize movement of fluorescein and its glucuronide across the blood-retinal barrier. Methods. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid preparations from New Zealand albino rabbit were sealed in an Ussing-type chamber in a stabilized condition for 3 hr, where move- ment of fluorescein and fluorescein glucuronide across the RPE-choroid was studied under a short circuit condition. Results. The outward (vitreous-choroid) permeability

  7. Investigation of occult choroidal neovascularization at low-light level: clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ciamberlini, Claudio; Guarnieri, Vittorio; Poggi, Pasquale; Panzardi, G.; Donati, M. C.; Faraldi, F.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a double TV camera system incorporated in a standard fundus camera for imaging the choroidal vascular network with very low intensity infrared light. The equipment was employed to perform indocyanine green (ICG) choroidal angiography in several chorioretinal pathologies with particular interest in age related macular degeneration (AMD). An evaluation and comparison of fluorescein and ICG angiograms is carried out for the diagnosis, localization, and laser treatment evaluation of choroidal neovascularizations (CNV).

  8. Surgical removal of non-age-related subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Eckstein; John A Wells; Bill Aylward; Zdenek Gregor

    1998-01-01

    Purpose To assess anatomical and visual results following the surgical removal of nonage-related subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes.Methods A retrospective study was carried out of 31 consecutive patients undergoing vitrectomy, parafoveal retinotomy and removal of subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes that were either idiopathic or associated with multifocal choroiditis, high myopia, trauma or angioid streaks.Results Visual acuity improved or remained the same

  9. Detection of tenascin-C in surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Nicolò; Felice Cardillo Piccolino; Luciano Zardi; Alfonso Giovannini; Cesare Mariotti

    2000-01-01

    · Background: Increase of tenascin-C (TN-C) expression has been found in pathologic tissues in which angiogenesis occurs. The aim of this study was to investigate TN-C expression in human choroidal neovascularization (CNV). · Methods: Ten choroidal neovascular membranes were surgically removed from 10 patients with age- related macular degeneration (n=6) and multifocal choroiditis (n=4). All membranes underwent immunohistochemical evaluation using

  10. Annular choroidal detachment in a patient with Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriaki Yamamoto; Kengo Naito

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundVogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease is one of the diseases that show choroidal detachment. However, there are few reports about VKH disease associated with annular choroidal detachment. In this study, we describe an unusual case of VKH disease with an annular choroidal detachment and absence of a serous retinal detachment.MethodsThe study was an interventional case report. A 59-year-old Japanese woman presented with

  11. Indocyanine green angiographic findings in diffuse choroidal hemangioma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Wen; Dezheng Wu

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) features in one case of diffuse choroidal hemangioma associated with Sturge-Weber\\u000a syndrome. Methods: Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA) and ICGA were performed in a patient with diffuse choroidal hemangioma\\u000a associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Results: The diffuse choroidal hemangioma was not identified by FA. ICGA revealed that the vascular tissue of the diffuse

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising from an Epidermal Cyst: When a Cyst Is Not a Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Jia Li; Altamura, Davide; Ratynska, Marzena; Verdolini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Malignant degeneration within epidermal cysts is very rare. However, these lesions may not be recognised clinically, and histological examination plays an important role in arriving at a correct diagnosis. Hence, we believe that benign-looking cystic lesions with a history of progressive growth should be surgically excised and submitted for histopathological assessment.

  13. Complex renal cysts associated with crizotinib treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Patrick; Bartlett, Cynthia H; Solomon, Benjamin J; Tassell, Vanessa; Shaw, Alice T; de Pas, Tommaso; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Tanaka, Kaoru; Tan, Weiwei; Tang, Yiyun; Wilner, Keith D; Safferman, Allan; Han, Ji-Youn

    2015-01-01

    An apparent causal association between crizotinib treatment and renal cyst development emerged during clinical trials in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Serious adverse event (SAE) reports of renal cysts from a safety database of 1375 patients from four clinical trials were reviewed. A blinded, retrospective, independent radiologic review (IRR) was performed using scans from patients on study for ?6 months in three clinical trials; risk factors for renal cyst development were assessed. Among 17 patients with renal cysts reported as SAEs, evidence of invasion into adjacent structures was noted in seven patients, with no evidence of malignancy found. These patients generally did not require dose reductions, none required permanent crizotinib discontinuation due to this AE, and most continued treatment with clinical benefit. In the blinded IRR, among 255 crizotinib-treated patients, 22%, 3%, and 2% had preexisting simple cysts, complex cysts, or both, respectively. At the 6-month tumor assessment, 9% of all patients had acquired new cysts, and 2% of patients with preexisting cysts had developed new cysts and enlargements (>50%) of preexisting simple cysts. Asians appeared to have an increased risk of developing new cysts on treatment; Koreans in particular had 5.18 times higher odds of developing cysts than non-Asians (95% confidence interval, 1.51–17.78; P = 0.05). Crizotinib treatment appears to be associated with an increased risk of development and progression of renal cysts in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. While close monitoring is recommended, dosing modification was not generally necessary, allowing patients to remain on crizotinib treatment. PMID:25756473

  14. Combined photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F Spaide; John Sorenson; Leandro Maranan

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo examine combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

  15. Changes in axial length and choroidal thickness after intraocular pressure reduction resulting from trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Shinichi; Ikuno, Yasushi; Uematsu, Sato; Morimoto, Yuko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Otori, Yasumasa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in axial length and choroidal thickness after trabeculectomy. Patients and methods Fourteen patients under 80 years of age with glaucoma, were enrolled. The choroid was imaged using prototypical high-penetration optic coherence tomography (OCT) and the thickness was measured. Axial length, choroidal thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured bilaterally at 3 pm 1 day before and 6 days after trabeculectomy. The choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and four other locations (2 mm superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal to the center of the optic nerve head). Results The IOP and axial length significantly decreased in eyes that underwent trabeculectomy (P < 0.0001 for the IOP; P < 0.001 for axial length comparisons). The mean choroidal thicknesses significantly increased in eyes that underwent trabeculectomy compared to preoperatively (P < 0.0001 for the fovea; P < 0.01 for four locations around the optic disc). The mean magnitude of change in IOP was correlated positively with the mean magnitude of change in axial length, but not correlated with the mean magnitude of change in choroidal thickness at the fovea that underwent trabeculectomy. The sum of the axial length and subfoveal choroidal thickness in eyes decreased significantly postoperatively (P < 0.05). Conclusion The axial length shortened, the choroid thickened, and the sum of the axial length and subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased with IOP reduction early after trabeculectomy. PMID:23807833

  16. Idiopathic Choroidal Neovascularization in a 23-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Lashay, Alireza; Saeedi Anari, Ghasem; Abdi, Fatemeh; Kermanshahani, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    A 23-year-old girl presented with blurred vision in her left eye since 2 months ago. Her past medical history was unremarkable. On presentation, her left best corrected visual acuity was 20/80. Anterior segment exam was unremarkable. Posterior segment exam showed an ill-defined green gray elevation in the fovea with surrounding subretinal fluid. The right eye exam was normal. Fluorescein Angiography and Optic Coherence Tomography of the left eye was compatible with Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV). PMID:26161712

  17. Late onset of subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation following cerebral radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul-Jabbar Ghauri; Mohammed Musadiq; Ying Sha; Samer Elsherbiny

    2010-01-01

    A report of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) associated with radiation retinopathy. A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 4-week history of sudden loss of central vision in the left eye, 8.5 years following radical radiotherapy for left tempero-parietal anaplastic astrocytoma. His visual acuity was 6\\/6 in the right eye and 6\\/60 in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy of the left eye showed

  18. Choroid Sprouting Assay: An Ex Vivo Model of Microvascular Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhuo; Friedlander, Mollie; Hurst, Christian G.; Cui, Zhenghao; Pei, Dorothy T.; Evans, Lucy P.; Juan, Aimee M.; Tahir, Houda; Duhamel, François; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chemtob, Sylvain; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Smith, Lois E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis of the microvasculature is central to the etiology of many diseases including proliferative retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and cancer. A mouse model of microvascular angiogenesis would be very valuable and enable access to a wide range of genetically manipulated tissues that closely approximate small blood vessel growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro are widely used, however, isolating pure vascular murine endothelial cells is technically challenging. A microvascular mouse explant model that is robust, quantitative and can be reproduced without difficulty would overcome these limitations. Here we characterized and optimized for reproducibility an organotypic microvascular angiogenesis mouse and rat model from the choroid, a microvascular bed in the posterior of eye. The choroidal tissues from C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice and Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and incubated in Matrigel. Vascular sprouting was comparable between choroid samples obtained from different animals of the same genetic background. The sprouting area, normalized to controls, was highly reproducible between independent experiments. We developed a semi-automated macro in ImageJ software to allow for more efficient quantification of sprouting area. Isolated choroid explants responded to manipulation of the external environment while maintaining the local interactions of endothelial cells with neighboring cells, including pericytes and macrophages as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. This reproducible ex vivo angiogenesis assay can be used to evaluate angiogenic potential of pharmacologic compounds on microvessels and can take advantage of genetically manipulated mouse tissue for microvascular disease research. PMID:23922736

  19. Pseudohypopyon of orange pigment overlying a stable choroidal nevus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masood Naseripour; Carol L Shields; Jerry A Shields; David R Guyer

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of orange pigment pseudohypopyon overlying a choroidal nevus.METHODS: Observational case report. A 45-year-old man presented with best-corrected visual acuity of 20\\/25 and metamorphopsia in the right eye secondary to localized subfoveal fluid. The detachment displayed a peculiar appearance of layered orange pigment, like a pseudohypopyon in its inferior aspect. Closer inspection revealed an underlying

  20. MMP-2 and MMP-9 synergize in promoting choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Lambert; Ben Wielockx; Carine Munaut; Catherine Galopin; Maud Jost; Takeshi Itoh; Zena Werb; Andrew Baker; Claude Libert; Hans-Willi Krell; Jean-Michel Foidart; Agnès Noël; Jean-Marie Rakic

    2003-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 are increased in human choroidal neovascularization (CNV) occurring during the exudative most aggressive form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but their precise role and potential interactions remain unclear. To address the question of MMP-2 and MMP-9 functions, mice deficient in the expression of MMP- 2 (MMP-2 KO), MMP-9 (MMP-9 KO), and both MMP-2 and

  1. Computer modeling of transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. Berger

    2001-01-01

    Thermal effects of visible and near-infrared laser pulses were modeled in order to guide future pre-clinical and clinical studies for transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal neovascularization. A finite-difference, thermophysical model of the native fundus was developed, and contributions were added to consider the effects of incident visible and near-infrared laser irradiation, natural pigment heterogeneity, an absorptive CNV complex, as well as

  2. Choroidal Coloboma in a Case of Tay-Sachs Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nasreen Raees; Kumar, Vivek; Gogia, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Coloboma as an ocular finding has been documented in various syndromes. Here we have a case of infantile Tay-Sachs disease associated with unilateral choroidal coloboma. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been documented in the literature. Whether such an association is a matter of chance or signifies the involvement of ganglioside metabolism in ocular embryogenesis remains to be elucidated. PMID:25295204

  3. Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization: clinical and angiographic examples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth; Joan Miller; Michel Sickenberg; Arnd Bunse; Horst Laqua; Evangelos Gragoudas; Leonidas Zografos; Reginald Birngruber; Hubert van den Bergh; Andrew Strong; Ulrike Manjuris; Mario Fsadni; Bertrand Piguet; Neil M. Bressler

    1998-01-01

    Background: Conventional photocoagulation of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is often accompanied by visual\\u000a loss due to thermal damage to adjacent retinal structures. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) allows vascular occlusion by selective\\u000a photochemical destruction of vascular endothelial cells only. In a pilot study we evaluated the use of PDT in CNV. Methods:\\u000a In a clinical phase I\\/II trial, patients with subfoveal CNV

  4. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy and Neovascularized Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Yannuzzi; Doric W. K. Wong; Baldo Scassellati Sforzolini; Mauro Goldbaum; Kong C. Tang; Richard F. Spaide; K. Bailey Freund; Jason S. Slakter; David R. Guyer; John A. Sorenson; Yale Fisher; David Maberley; Dennis A. Orlock

    1999-01-01

    Results: Choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD was diagnosed in 154 (92.2%) of 167 patients; 13 (7.8%) patients had PCV. The patients affected by PCV were younger than those with AMD (P = .01). Peripapillary cho- roidal neovascularization was seen in 3 (1.9%) of 154 pa- tients with AMD and 3 (23.1%) of 13 patients with PCV (P = .006). Significant

  5. Optical coherence tomography findings following photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam H Rogers; Adam Martidis; Paul B Greenberg; Carmen A Puliafito

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) classification system that monitors the response of eyes treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) from age-related macular degeneration (AMD).DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series.METHODS: Ninety eyes (88 patients) with AMD and predominantly classic subfoveal CNV treated with PDT using verteporfin were identified by a laser log and

  6. Photochemical Thrombosis Of Retinal And Choroidal Vessels Using Rose Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mary Lou; Winward, Kirk; Watson, Brant D.; Hernandez, Eleut

    1989-09-01

    Rose bengal is an effective photosensitizing agent which interacts with argon green light to induce photochemical thrombosis of irradiated vessels. We used focal, low energy irradiation to occlude retinal and choroidal vessels in both albino and pigmented rabbits. Immediately after intravenous injection of rose bengal at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/kg, irradiation was performed via a slit lamp-delivered argon green laser (514.5 nm) with the aid of fundus contact lens. In 11 eyes, arteries were treated with 50-100 interrupted bursts of 75u spot size at 0.2 sec and 40-100 mW (9 choroidal vessels, serous elevation of the retina, and disc neovascularization. In eight eyes choroidal vessels were irradiated with 10-20 mW, 15-60 sec, 500u spot size (31 choroidal vessels. There was minimal damage to surrounding tissue. Control eyes in all three groups irradiated utilizing the same parameters, but without rose bengal, demonstrated no evidence of thermal injury.

  7. Photodynamic therapy of choroidal hemangioma: two case reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Barbazetto; Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth

    2000-01-01

    Background: Photocoagulation, cryotherapy and radiotherapy have been used to treat angiomatous lesions. Depending on the location of\\u000a the angioma, these treatments can cause additional, significant functional damage. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) however, allows\\u000a a selective occlusion of vascular lesions without damaging adjacent retinal structures.?\\u000a Methods: Two patients with isolated choroidal hemangiomas involving the posterior pole were treated with PDT. Treatments were

  8. [Tarlov's cyst: definition, etiopathogenesis, propaedeutic and treatment].

    PubMed

    De Sá, Márcia Cristina; D'Angelo, Carla Tereza; Da Ros Malacarne, Guilherme; Neto, Pedro; Pagura, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov's cyst or perineurial cyst is disease on portion of the posterior nerve root in lumbo-sacral region. The lack of knowledge of physicians around the world about Tarlov's cyst as to their nature, significance and treatment also with differential diagnostics to radiculopathy in legs. With review of literature discuss about definition, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic investigation and treatment clinic and/or surgery. The pathogenesis Tarlov's cyst remains unclear; several cases have history of the trauma, old hemorrhage, congenital and iatrogenic. Cysts provoke low back pain, sacral radiculopathy, dyspareunia, urinary incontence. The magnetic resonance imaging is now the gold standard to diagnose cysts. The treatment is clinic or surgery depending neurologics finding and neuroimage. PMID:18625096

  9. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  10. Haemorrhagic rupture of hepatic simple cysts.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tiarah; Bakker, Ilsalien S; Penninga, Luit; Nellensteijn, David R

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhagic rupture is a life-threatening complication of a hepatic simple cyst. A 63-year-old man presented with severe acute abdominal pain and a massive haemoperitoneum resulting from haemorrhagic rupture of a large hepatic cyst. The haemorrhagic rupture was aggravated by an overdose of vitamin K-antagonist treatment. CT scans revealed a large hepatic simple cyst. The patient was successfully treated conservatively with resuscitation, transfusion therapy and administration of coagulation agents. To date, there is no clear evidence regarding optimal treatment of haemorrhagic hepatic cyst rupture. The risk of recurrent bleeding from the haemorrhagic hepatic simple cyst, and the need for final treatment to avoid rebleeding either by percutaneous sclerotherapy, endovascular embolisation, surgical cyst resection, or surgical deroofing, is discussed. PMID:25697302

  11. Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2014-01-01

    Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monali; Kale, Hemant; Ranginwala, Amena; Patel, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst of jaws with a relative frequency between 0.012 and 1.3%. GOC is very rare and only 111 cases have been documented in the English literature so far. Generally, this cyst is encountered in the anterior areas of the mandible and is more common with a wide age range, the mean age being 49.5 years and has a tendency to recur. GOC is often misdiagnosed because of its overlapping histopathological features with that of other odontogenic cysts such as lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) or botryoid cyst and central low-grade Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histopathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of GOC is challenging for pathologist. Here, we present a case of GOC in a 40 year old male patient in left mandibular region that crossed the midline. PMID:24959044

  13. Pituitary adenoma and concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Noh, S J; Ahn, J Y; Lee, K S; Kim, S H

    2007-12-01

    Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts have a shared ancestry, they rarely occur simultaneously. Only 32 reports involving a pituitary adenoma and a concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst were identified upon review of the literature. Most initial presenting complaints include hormonal symptoms, visual disturbances, and headache. Next to growth hormone, Prolactin was the most commonly hypersecreted pituitary hormone. Rathke's cleft cysts show variable position, size, and signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we report a patient with a growth hormone- secreting pituitary adenoma associated with a Rathke's cleft cyst. The mass contained two different signal intensities on MRI. The lesion was successfully removed assisted by intraoperative MRI, when the presence of both lesions was confirmed. When a non-enhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated on imaging in a patient with a pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered. PMID:17914599

  14. Surgical treatment of sacral perineural cyst--case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Miki, Takanori; Miyaji, Yuki; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yamaura, Ikuya; Natsume, Shigeatsu; Yoshida, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with persistent penis and scrotum pain due to S-2 and S-3 radiculopathy caused by a sacral perineural cyst. The cyst was treated with microsurgical partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication, together with closure of the point through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowed from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity. His pain resolved without recurrence of the cyst or complications. Symptomatic perineural cysts are quite rare. Surgical closure of the point through which CSF flows from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity is the most important intervention for symptomatic perineural cysts. If the source of CSF leakage cannot be detected, placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt should be considered in addition to partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication. PMID:22198114

  15. A Comparison of Two Techniques for Cervical Plexus Blockade: Evaluation of Efficacy and Systemic Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Merle; J. X. Mazoit; P. Desgranges; K. Abhay; S. Rezaiguia; G. Dhonneur; P. Duvaldestin

    1999-01-01

    We compared two techniques of cervical plexus block- ade (CPB) for carotid endarterectomy. Cervical plexus nerve block was performed with a combination of bu- pivacaine and lidocaine, with injections at the C2-C3, C3-C4, and C4 -C5 transverse processes in 11 patients (classical CPB) or with a single injection after localiza- tion of the cervical plexus with a nerve stimulator in

  16. Traumatic bone cyst of mandible.

    PubMed

    Surej Kumar, L K; Kurien, Nikhil; Thaha, Khaleel Ahamed

    2015-06-01

    The traumatic bone cyst, an uncommon lesion of the jaws, belongs to the category of 'pseudocyst' owing to its lack of a lining epithelial membrane. It is an asymptomatic lesion, which is often diagnosed accidentally during routine radiological examination commonly present in the posterior mandible as a unilocular radiolucency with scalloping borders. The exact etiopathogenesis of the lesion is still debated, though the role of trauma is often associated. Here we report a rare case of traumatic bone cyst in the anterior mandible, in a 16-year-old female patient with a previous history of trauma to chin; diagnosed and treated successfully in our surgical unit. The case is discussed in relation to its clinical presentation, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis. PMID:26028875

  17. Tarlov cysts: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2012-04-01

    Perineural cysts are common and usually detected incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. Treatment is indicated only when the cyst is symptomatic. We report one such patients presented with cauda equina syndrome and another with low back pain with claudication. They underwent excision and duraplasty; both motor and sensory fibres were carefully separated from the cyst wall using a nerve root retractor and penfield. There was no nerve root damage or neural deficit. Symptoms were relieved postoperatively. PMID:22535818

  18. Subdiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst masquerading as an \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasim Hedayati; Dan X. Cai; Christopher R. McHenry

    2003-01-01

    A subdiaphragmatic, retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst arising from the stomach is reported in a patient who was referred for\\u000a evaluation of what was thought to be an adrenal tumor. To our knowledge, less than 20 cases of retroperitoneal bronchogenic\\u000a cyst have been reported in the English literature. A bronchogenic cyst may be indistinguishable from an adrenal tumor and,\\u000a although rare, should

  19. Reoperation for failed shoulder reconstruction following brachial plexus birth injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various approaches have been developed to treat the progressive shoulder deformity in patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Reconstructive surgery for this condition consists of complex procedures with a risk for failure. Case presentations This is a retrospective case review of the outcome in eight cases referred to us for reoperation for failed shoulder reconstructions. In each case, we describe the initial attempt(s) at surgical correction, the underlying causes of failure, and the procedures performed to rectify the problem. Results were assessed using pre- and post-operative Mallet shoulder scores. All eight patients realized improvement in shoulder function from reoperation. Conclusions This case review identifies several aspects of reconstructive shoulder surgery for brachial plexus birth injury that may cause failure of the index procedure(s) and outlines critical steps in the evaluation and execution of shoulder reconstruction. PMID:23883413

  20. Horner’s Syndrome after Superficial Cervical Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Stefan; Riguzzi, Christine; Herring, Andrew A.; Nagdev, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are becoming more essential for the management of acute pain in the emergency department (ED). With increased block frequency comes unexpected complications that require prompt recognition and treatment. The superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) has been recently described as a method for ED management of clavicle fracture pain. Horner’s syndrome (HS) is a rare and self-limiting complication of regional anesthesia in neck region such as brachial and cervical plexus blocks. Herein we describe the first reported case of a HS after an ultrasound-guided SCPB performed in the ED and discuss the complex anatomy of the neck that contributes to the occurrence of this complication. PMID:25987922

  1. CT of the brachial plexus in patients with cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cascino, T.L.; Kori, S.; Krol, G.; Foley, K.M.

    1983-12-01

    To assess the usefulness of CT, we reviewed 51 patients with clinically diagnosed brachial plexopathy who were seen between 1977 and 1981. The established etiology was metastatic tumor in 46 and radiation fibrosis in 5. CT was abnormal in 89% of tumor patients. Myelography, bone scan, and plain cervical spine radiographs were less useful. In four of five patients with radiation fibrosis, CT showed distortion of normal tissue planes without a discrete mass, but was not always distinguishable from tumor infiltration. CT of the brachial plexus provides the best two-dimensional view of tumor infiltration and detects bony changes earlier than standard radiographs. CT is a useful guide for surgical exploration of the brachial plexus, but does not differentiate tumor infiltration from radiation fibrosis.

  2. Safe method of supraclavicular brachial-plexus anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki Yamano

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Using the needle direction we devised, we applied brachial-plexus anesthesia in the supraclavicular approach originated by\\u000a Kulenkampff to 561 patients 6 to 85 years of age. In this method, 20 ml of anesthetic was enough to obtain more than 95% anesthetic\\u000a effect without any complications such as pneumothorax. Moreover, by using a long-acting drug (bupivacaine), we could get an\\u000a effect

  3. Breast cysts in adolescents – diagnostics, monitoring, treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowska, Anna; Grajewska-Ferens, Magdalena; Brzewski, Micha?

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: The aim of the paper was the US evaluation of hormonal disorders and treatment results in adolescent girls and boys with breast cysts. Material/Methods: In the years 2001–2009, US examination of the breast was performed in 427 children aged 10–18 years, with clinically suspected breast pathologies. The indications for US examination typically included pain, breast swelling and a palpable tumor. The US examination was performed using a 7–12 MHz linear transducer. Results: Breast cysts were found in 42 children: 36 adolescent girls and 6 boys with gynecomastia. Infected cysts were found in 35 children. The cysts ranged in size from 5 mm to 30 mm. In 5 of the girls, large cysts were treated by an incision and drainage, and in all the children with infected cysts, antibiotic therapy was used. Hormonal disorders were found in 30 girls. A follow-up examination was performed, and the observation time varied from 1/12 to 2 years. The cysts disappeared completely in 30 children. Hormonal therapy was introduced in 5 girls. Conclusions: Breast cysts found in US examinations are indications for check-up examinations including endocrinological diagnostics and, if the cyst is persistent, possibly for hormonal treatment. PMID:22802812

  4. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery of Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Zachary S; Husain, Qasim; Kanumuri, Vivek V; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2015-01-01

    Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are benign lesions that originate from remnants of Rathke's pouch. They can compress adjacent structures causing visual loss and endocrine dysfunction. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) has gained popularity in the surgical management of pituitary and parasellar tumors. However, postoperative cyst recurrence and endocrine dysfunction are still major concerns. A retrospective chart review was performed on 11 patients who underwent a purely EETA. Subtotal resection of the cyst wall with drainage of the intracystic contents followed by obliteration of the cyst with a fat graft was performed in all patients. Two patients underwent repeated surgeries for symptomatic cyst recurrence. One patient ultimately underwent extracapsular removal of the entire cyst wall because of multiple recurrences after simple drainage. There were no incidences of new permanent hypopituitarism, visual deficits, or postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. All patients reported an improvement of initial preoperative symptoms. A non-aggressive strategy of partial cyst wall removal and simple drainage of cyst contents via EETA is a viable approach for surgical treatment of RCC with a low rate of postoperative endocrine and visual complications. A more aggressive strategy of extracapsular removal of the cyst wall may be indicated in patients with repeated recurrence. PMID:25284127

  5. Association of spondylarthropathies with lumbar synovial cysts.

    PubMed

    Finckh, A; Gerster, J; So, A K

    2003-02-01

    Intraspinal synovial cysts presenting with lower back pain and radiculopathy are well known but rare. They are associated with facet joint arthopathy, generally degenerative in nature. Spinal synovial cysts have not been described in spondyloarthropathies (SpA). We report a case of a 66-year-old man with a chronic undifferentiated SpA who presented with severe weakness of both legs. A centrally located spinal cyst was encountered on MRI and led to excision of a highly inflammatory synovial cyst. This association may not be fortuitous and be related to inflammation of the facet joint in SpA. PMID:12605323

  6. Serge Camelo, William Raoul, Sophie Lavalette et al. Delta-like 4 inhibits choroidal neovascularization despite opposing effects on vascular

    E-print Network

    opposing effects in choroidal neovascularization Serge Camelo 1, 2, 3 # , William Raoul 4, 5, 6, # , Sophie 208 words Inflammatory neovascularization, such as choroidal neovascularization (CNV), occurSerge Camelo, William Raoul, Sophie Lavalette et al. 1 Delta-like 4 inhibits choroidal

  7. [A new approach for studying the retinal and choroidal circulation].

    PubMed

    Yoneya, Shin

    2004-12-01

    One advantage of advanced computer technology is the high throughput with which the retinal and the choroidal circulation can be evaluated from new aspects. To study the choroidal circulation, we first reevaluated indocyanine green video angiography to improve the visualization of indocyanine green (ICG) images, then applied computer technology to analyze images obtained by an ICG video camera system. We also developed a new instrument to measure oxygen saturation levels in the fundus using spectral retinal imaging technology. I. Choroidal circulation. 1. Reevaluation of ICG video camera system: For this purpose, the bio-chemical nature of ICG was studied. 1) Spectral absorption of ICG: The peak absorption of ICG in distilled water was 780 nm as measured with a spectrophotometer. Its maximum absorption shifted from 780 nm to 805 nm after gradually mixing ICG with human serum protein. Conjugation time of ICG as well as fluorescein sodium with human serum protein was then measured by a stopped flowmeter. It was found that fluorescein sodium conjugated with human serum protein within a few milliseconds, while ICG required more than 600 seconds before equilibrium of the binding was reached. From these observations, we developed a new ICG video system with dual light sources; one, a 780 nm diode laser for the early dye filling phase, and the other, a 805 nm diode laser for the later phase of ICG angiography. 2) Binding properties of ICG in human blood: Blood samples were obtained from three healthy volunteers after intravenous administration of ICG. The resulting plasma samples were fractionated by agarose gel immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel DISC electrophoresis. The electrophoretic pattern obtained by each method was observed with an ICG fundus video system. We also studied the affinity of ICG for lipids that are common molecular components of lipoproteins such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Four kinds of ICG solutions mixed with phospholipid, free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, and triacrylglycerol were observed with the ICG fundus video system. Both electrophoretic studies showed that ICG bound intensely to HDL and moderately to LDL, and only the solution with phospholipid fluoresced brightly when observed with the ICG fundus video system. 2. Residual fundus ICG fluorescence: Residual fundus fluorescence observed in the late phase of ICG angiography may be delineated differently in normal subjects and in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). We performed ICG angiography on 8 normal subjects aged below 36 years (8 eyes), 9 normal subjects aged above 62 years (9 eyes), and 21 patients with ARMD aged 50 to 88 years (37 eyes). The intensity and pattern of fluorescence from angiograms obtained in the ultra-late phase, 24 hours after dye injection, was recorded and analyzed. In the ultra-late phase, 95% of ARMD eyes with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) showed geographic hypofluorescent lesions. These hypofluorescent lesions occurred in 73% of ARMD eyes without CN, while age-matched normal subjects had no hypofluorescent lesions. The mean intensity of fluorescence in the normal elder subject group was significantly higher than that seen in the normal younger subject group. These findings may reflect aging change and bio-distribution of lipid on the Bruch-RPE complex. 3. The early dye filling pattern of the choroid: We performed ICG angiography on 10 healthy young volunteers aged 22 to 26 years (23.4+/-1.3; mean+/-standard deviation) using an improved ICG video camera system. ICG (50 mg) dissolved in 2 ml in distilled water was injected through the antecubital vein. Although the choroidal dye filling varied among subjects, it always began in the macular area. In the 10 subjects, initial dye filling had two patterns: reticular (n=8) and flush (n=2). The choroidal circulation filled completely before the retinal circulation did. Bright fluorescence in the macula and fast blood flow may be correlated with ample blood volume and abundant blood vessels in the

  8. Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-09-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

  9. Two Cases of Symptomatic Perineural Cysts (Tarlov Cysts) in One Family: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

  10. Combination of Clinical Factors Predictive of Growth of Small Choroidal Melanocytic Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol L. Shields; Jacqueline Cater; Jerry A. Shields; Arun D. Singh; Maria Carmen; M. Santos; Cynthia Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To better define the effect of individual risk factors and combinations thereof on the growth of small choroidal melanocytic tumors. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: Clinical practice of ocular oncology. Patients: The study included 1287 patients with small suspicious choroidal melanocytic tumors, measuring 3 mm or less in thickness, managed with observation. Results: On multivariate analysis, the clinical risk factors

  11. Automated three-dimensional choroidal vessel segmentation of 3D 1060 nm OCT retinal data.

    PubMed

    Kaji?, Vedran; Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Glittenberg, Carl; Kraus, Martin F; Honegger, Joachim; Othara, Richu; Binder, Susanne; Fujimoto, James G; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A fully automated, robust vessel segmentation algorithm has been developed for choroidal OCT, employing multiscale 3D edge filtering and projection of "probability cones" to determine the vessel "core", even in the tomograms with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Based on the ideal vessel response after registration and multiscale filtering, with computed depth related SNR, the vessel core estimate is dilated to quantify the full vessel diameter. As a consequence, various statistics can be computed using the 3D choroidal vessel information, such as ratios of inner (smaller) to outer (larger) choroidal vessels or the absolute/relative volume of choroid vessels. Choroidal vessel quantification can be displayed in various forms, focused and averaged within a special region of interest, or analyzed as the function of image depth. In this way, the proposed algorithm enables unique visualization of choroidal watershed zones, as well as the vessel size reduction when investigating the choroid from the sclera towards the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an automatic choroidal vessel segmentation algorithm is successfully applied to 1060 nm 3D OCT of healthy and diseased eyes. PMID:23304653

  12. Clinicopathological correlation in exudative age related macular degeneration: histological differentiation between classic and occult choroidal neovascularisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B A Lafaut; K U Bartz-Schmidt; C Vanden Broecke; S Aisenbrey; J J De Laey; K Heimann

    2000-01-01

    AIMSTo analyse the histopathology of classic and occult choroidal neovascular membrane surgical specimens in age related macular degeneration.METHODS35 membranes, from a consecutive series of surgically removed choroidal neovascular membranes in age related macular degeneration, were classified as classic or occult following the guidelines of the Macular Photocoagulation Study. Membranes with classic as well as occult components were considered as mixed

  13. Clinicopathologic correlations of surgically excised type 1 and type 2 submacular choroidal neovascular membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HansE Grossniklaus; J. DonaldM Gass

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate the histologic and clinical classification of type 1 (subretinal pigment epithelium) and type 2 (subsensory retina) choroidal neovascularization.Methods: Ten eyes of 10 patients with surgically excised choroidal neovascularization that were routinely processed and could be histologically classified as having a type 1 or type 2 configuration were studied. The patients were clinically classified as having type 1

  14. In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterhuber, Angelika; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Sattmann, H.; Chavez-Pirson, A.; Drexler, W.

    2005-05-01

    For the first time in vivo retinal imaging has been performed with a new compact, low noise Yb-based ASE source operating in the 1 ?m range (NP Photonics, ?c = 1040 nm, ?? = 50 nm, Pout = 30 mW) at the dispersion minimum of water with ~7 ?m axial resolution. OCT tomograms acquired at 800 nm are compared to those achieved at 1040 nm showing about 200 ?m deeper penetration into the choroid below the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal OCT at longer wavelengths significantly improves the visualization of the retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillaris/choroids interface and superficial choroidal layers as well as reduces the scattering through turbid media and therefore might provide a better diagnosis tool for early stages of retinal pathologies such as age related macular degeneration which is accompanied by choroidal neovascularization, i.e., extensive growth of new blood vessels in the choroid and retina.

  15. Sonographic diagnosis of subungual intraosseous epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Arora, Arundeep; Srivastava, Deep; Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Vijay; Kotwal, P P

    2013-01-01

    Intraosseous epidermoid cyst is an uncommon subungual mass. We report the sonographic findings in a case of intraosseous epidermoid cyst, which showed the characteristic whorled pattern of layers, previously described in other locations and unequivocally clinched the diagnosis in favor of this benign etiology and guided the management to phalangeal-sparing surgery. PMID:23878060

  16. Rathke's cleft cyst associated with hypophysitis: MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Daikokuya; Y. Inoue; Y. Nemoto; T. Tashiro; M. Shakudo; K. Ohata

    2000-01-01

    We report a symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst associated with hypophysitis in a 61-year-old woman. We demonstrate the MRI features\\u000a and discuss the pathophysiology. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of a Rathke's cleft cyst shrinking\\u000a after high-dose steroid therapy.

  17. Rathke's cleft cyst presenting as sphenoid sinusitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nader; S. Frenkiel; G. Mohr; L. Jacques; D. Tampieri; S. Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Rathke's cleft cysts are developmental abnormalities of the craniopharyngeal duct composed of retained stratified ciliated cuboidal cells of the respiratory type. Incidentally found in the pars intermedia in 13% to 33% of routine autopsies, they are discovered in growing numbers on CT and MRI scans. From 1991 to 1999, 9 cases of Rathke's cleft cysts were encountered by the senior

  18. Immunohistochemical study of Rathke's cleft cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ikeda; T. Yoshimoto; J. Suzuki

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was made of ten cases of asymptomatic and three cases of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst. The cysts in the asymptomatic cases had monolayer columnar or cuboidal epithelium. Within the epithelium, cells which were positive for at least one of the pituitary hormones were found. The rate of positive reactions for these six pituitary hormones was between 70%

  19. Preoperative diagnosis of Rathke's cleft cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhide Ito; Katsuo Shoin; Wen-Zen Hwang; Hiroaki Oonishi; Takeshi Hasegawa; Shinjiro Yamamoto

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of Rathke's cleft cyst are presented. The cysts showed as high-density lesions on plain CT with slight enhancement with contrast medium. They appeared as a hyperintense mass in the T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Preoperative diagnosis is very important because different sellar cystic lesions require different treatment.

  20. Laparoscopic excision of splenic hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, K

    2001-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the spleen is a rare condition. The standard treatment is open total or partial splenectomy. Recently hand assisted laparoscopic total splenectomy for splenic hydatid cyst has been reported. A case is described of splenic hydatid cyst in a 45 year old man that was excised laparoscopically; the related literature is reviewed.???Keywords: hydatid disease; spleen; laparoscopy; Jordan PMID:11222831

  1. Inflammatory Nevus Comedonicus with Epidermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Namrata; Pandhi, Deepika; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    We present here a case of inflammatory nevus comedonicus (NC) in a young male distributed along the Blaschko's lines only over the right lower limb and associated with epidermoid cysts. The case was unique in terms of isolated involvement of lower limb and the rare association of epidermoid cyst. PMID:25071281

  2. Epidermoid Cyst of Orbit in a Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Canan, Handan; Bal, Nebil; Törer, Birgin; Çetinkaya-Çakmak, Bilin; Gülcan, Hande

    2015-01-01

    A 3-day-old male newborn presented with a severe proptosis of the left eye leading to exposure keratopathy. He underwent debulking of the cyst and biopsy of the tumour and received the pathological diagnosis of epidermoid cyst of orbit. Clinicopathological features of this rare disease are discussed.

  3. Sacral Perineural Cyst Accompanying Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2009-01-01

    Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

  4. Choledochal Cysts : A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Mahendra S.; Vora, Hasmukh B.; Giriyappa, Venugopal H.

    2012-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are cystic dilation of extrahepatic duct, intrahepatic duct, or both that may result in significant morbidity and mortality, unless identified early and managed appropriately. The incidence is common in Asian population compared with western counterpart with more than two third of the cases in Asia being reported from Japan. The traditional anatomic classification system is under debate with more focus on etiopathogenesis and other aspects of choledochal cysts. Even though categorized under the same roof, choledochal cysts vary with respect to their natural course, complications, and management. In this review, with the available literature on choledochal cysts, we discuss different views about the etiopathogenesis along with the natural course, complications, diagnosis, and surgical approach for choledochal cysts, which also explains why the traditional classification is questioned by some authors. PMID:22824764

  5. Primary cervical hydatid cyst: a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease, a parasitic infection is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It has serious impact on health and economy especially in countries where it is endemic. It occurs frequently in liver and lung. The disease is chronic and cyst can localize in different organs. A hydatid cyst occurrence in the head and neck is extremely rare. To know the distribution of disease can help in its control and prevention. We report a case of primary cervical hydatid cyst in 20 year old female. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose hydatid cyst in rare locations like this. Hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of benign swellings of head and neck region, so that it can be managed during surgery to prevent acute anaphylaxis. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915595218376646 PMID:23157817

  6. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Mehmet; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transurethral resection (TUR) or transurethral incision with endoscopic urethrotomy (Dik et al., 1996; Terris, 1995). Holmium: YAG laser was employed for the marsupialization of the cyst wall in midline prostatic cyst treatment for the first time in the present study. Symptoms, treatment, and follow-up are presented in this paper.

  7. Hydatid cyst: unusual presentation as 'breast lump'.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Nishat; Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Maheshwari, Veena; Singh, Geetika

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid cyst in the breast is rare. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the breast in a 30-year-old Indian rural woman who presented with a lump in her left breast. MRI findings showed a cystic lesion in the breast. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with hydatid cyst with surrounding adherent pericystic breast tissue showing fibrocollagenisation and inflammatory response. ELISA for echinococcal antigen was also found to be positive. This case emphasises that preoperative diagnosis of hydatid cyst in the breast is difficult and often missed as the breast is a rare site of echinococcal infection and clinical and imaging findings are wide and non-specific. Cytological diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration may not always be possible. Therefore, hydatid cyst in the breast should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lump and histopathological confirmation is necessary for early and appropriate treatment. PMID:24729121

  8. The Brachial Plexus: Development and Assessment of a Computer Based Learning Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas J. Gould

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of multimedia technology to simplify study of the brachial plexus. A combination of newly-rendered illustrations, animations, explanatory text, and a set of printable sample questions were combined into a program to provide a tutorial for the brachial plexus. One aspect of the program is an animation showing the devel-

  9. Penile erectile dysfunction after brachial plexus root avulsion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Guo; Qin, Bengang; Jiang, Li; Huang, Xijun; Lu, Qinsen; Zhang, Dechun; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai; Zheng, Jianwen; Li, Xuejia; Gu, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that some male patients suffering from brachial plexus injury, particularly brachial plexus root avulsion, show erectile dysfunction to varying degrees. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the erectile function after establishing brachial plexus root avulsion models with or without spinal cord injury in rats. After these models were established, we administered apomorphine (via a subcutaneous injection in the neck) to observe changes in erectile function. Rats subjected to simple brachial plexus root avulsion or those subjected to brachial plexus root avulsion combined with spinal cord injury had significantly fewer erections than those subjected to the sham operation. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase did not change in brachial plexus root avulsion rats. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly decreased in brachial plexus root avulsion + spinal cord injury rats. These findings suggest that a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis may play a role in erectile dysfunction caused by the combination of brachial plexus root avulsion and spinal cord injury. PMID:25422647

  10. Tramadol Added to Mepivacaine Prolongs the Duration of an Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Kapral; Gabriele Gollmann; Barbara Waltl; Rudolf Likar; Robert N. Sladen; Christian Weinstabl; Franz Lehofer

    1999-01-01

    Tramadol is an analgesic drug that is antagonized by a2-adrenoceptor antagonists, as well as opioid antago- nists. We hypothesized that tramadol might produce effects on an axillary brachial plexus blockade similar to those of clonidine. We designed a prospective, con- trolled, double-blinded study to assess the impact of tramadol added to mepivacaine on the duration of an axillary brachial plexus

  11. Arachnoid Cyst in Oculomotor Cistern

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyun; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

    2013-01-01

    Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor cistern, precise evaluation with proper MRI sequence should be performed to rule out tumorous condition and prevent injury of the oculomotor nerve. PMID:24043981

  12. Tailoring the management of nonparasitic liver cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, I J; McKinley, A J; Currie, E J; Holmes, P; Garden, O J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal management of symptomatic non-parasitic liver cysts. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Management options for symptomatic nonparasitic liver cysts lack substantiation through comparative studies with respect to safety and long-term effectiveness. METHODS: A retrospective review of the surgical management of patients with hepatic cysts between October 1988 and August 1997 was undertaken to determine morbidity rates and to assess long-term recurrence. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (35 women, 3 men) underwent 48 operations for symptomatic hepatic cysts of mean diameter 12 cm, with a mean follow-up of 41 months. Twenty-three patients had simple cysts, and 15 patients had polycystic liver disease (PCLD). The symptomatic recurrence rates after laparoscopic or open deroofing for simple cysts were 8% and 29%, and for PCLD 71% and 20%, respectively. There were no symptomatic recurrences after 14 hepatic resections. There were no perisurgical deaths; however, morbidity rates were significant after laparoscopic deroofing, open deroofing, and hepatic resection (25%, 36%, and 50%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Selection of patients with truly symptomatic hepatic cysts is crucial before considering interventional techniques. For simple cysts, radical laparoscopic deroofing is usually curative; open deroofing should be reserved for cysts inaccessible by laparoscopy. The latter technique is well tolerated; however, long-term symptom control is unpredictable in patients with PCLD. Hepatic resection for PCLD provides satisfactory long-term symptom control but has an appreciable morbidity rate. Although laparoscopic and open deroofing procedures are less reliable in the long term for solitary cysts, they might be useful steps before embarking on this major procedure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9712560

  13. Review of 244 cases of ovarian cysts

    PubMed Central

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S.; Bukhari, Yasir A.; Hachim, Estabrq G. Al; Ashour, Ghazal S.; Amer, Afnan A.; Shaikhoon, Mohammed M.; Khojah, Mohammed I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review cases of ovarian cysts managed at a University Hospital, and to identify the factors necessitating the use of laparotomy over laparoscopy. Methods: We carried out a retrospective chart review of all cases of ovarian cysts diagnosed and managed at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 2010 and August 2014. All data collected from medical record charts, patents details, clinical presentations, ovarian cysts description, and pathology type were recorded, and management by laparoscopy or laparotomy was identified. Ethical approval was obtained from ethical hospital committee. Results: There were 244 cases of ovarian cysts during the study period. The age ranged from 3 months to 77 years of age. The parity from 0-6. The height range from 37-180 cm. The weight range from 3-161 kg, and calculated body mass index ranged from 12-47. Out of 244 patients diagnosed, 165 were married (67.4%). Of those, only 16 patients were pregnant (6.6%). The most common presentation was abdominal pain in 142 patients (58.2%). Only 79.9% were ovarian cysts, and 17.5% were either para-ovarian or retroperitoneal. The right ovaries were affected in 63.1%, and only 18.9% were bilateral. The types of ovarian cysts included functional cysts 33.2%, benign cyst-adenoma 19.3%, and dermoid cysts 12.3%. Conclusion: Factors associated with laparotomy management rather than laparoscopy included older age >35, single, pregnant, or patients presenting with abdominal pain, and more than one cyst. PMID:26108588

  14. Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Choi, WooJhon; Mohler, Kathrin J; Potsaid, Benjamin; Lu, Chen D; Liu, Jonathan J; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Duker, Jay S; Huber, Robert; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a 400 kHz A-scan rate is developed for three-dimensional ultrahigh speed imaging of the posterior eye. OCT angiography is used to image three-dimensional vascular structure without the need for exogenous fluorophores by detecting erythrocyte motion contrast between OCT intensity cross-sectional images acquired rapidly and repeatedly from the same location on the retina. En face OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature are visualized by acquiring cross-sectional OCT angiograms volumetrically via raster scanning and segmenting the three-dimensional angiographic data at multiple depths below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fine microvasculature of the choriocapillaris, as well as tightly packed networks of feeding arterioles and draining venules, can be visualized at different en face depths. Panoramic ultra-wide field stitched OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris spanning ?32 mm on the retina show distinct vascular structures at different fundus locations. Isolated smaller fields at the central fovea and ?6 mm nasal to the fovea at the depths of the choriocapillaris and Sattler's layer show vasculature structures consistent with established architectural morphology from histological and electron micrograph corrosion casting studies. Choriocapillaris imaging was performed in eight healthy volunteers with OCT angiograms successfully acquired from all subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ultrahigh speed OCT for in vivo dye-free choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature imaging, in addition to conventional structural imaging. PMID:24349078

  15. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. Methods To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH) data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D) computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. Results The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP). All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. Conclusion The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical operations by its relative position to the lumbar plexus. 3D reconstructions of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data provide a virtual morphological basis for anterior lumbar surgery. PMID:21492461

  16. Intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis®) for the treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lazaros Konstantinidis; Irmela Mantel; Jean-Antoine C. Pournaras; Leonidas Zografos; Aude Ambresin

    2009-01-01

    Background  Macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most vision-threatening complications of myopia, which can lead to\\u000a severe vision loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab in the treatment\\u000a of myopic CNV.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective, consecutive, interventional study of patients with subfoveal or juxtafoveal CNV secondary to pathologic\\u000a myopia (PM)

  17. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rufino M. Silva; João Figueira; M. Luz Cachulo; Liliane Duarte; José R. Faria de Abreu; J. G. Cunha-Vaz

    2005-01-01

    Background  We evaluated, in a nonrandomised, institutional, prospective study, the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin\\u000a in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and subfoveal exudation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective clinical and angiographic study was done in 40 consecutive eyes with PCV treated with PDT using masked best-corrected\\u000a visual acuity (VA) and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographic features

  18. [The "globulomaxillary cyst" a specific entity or a myth?].

    PubMed

    Häring, Philipp; Filippi, Andreas; Bornstein, Michael M; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Buser, Daniel; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The following review investigates the term and concept of the globulomaxillary cyst as a correct clinico-pathological diagnosis to describe a so-called fissural cyst said to be caused by epithelial entrapment between the nasal and maxillary process. After analyzing the available literature it has to be concluded that neither from an embryologic nor from a clinical or pathohistological standpoint the term globulomaxillary cyst represents a real entity by itself. Therefore, globulomaxillary cysts have to be diagnosed alternatively after a thorough clinical, radiological and histological examination as other odontogenic cysts like dentigerous cysts or odontogenic keratocysts, odontogenic tumors like ameloblastoma, central giant cell tumors, solitary bone cysts, etc. PMID:16708524

  19. Finger movement at birth in brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Benyahia, Mohamed; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the finger movement at birth is a better predictor of the brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing pre-surgical records of 87 patients with residual obstetric brachial plexus palsy in study 1. Posterior subluxation of the humeral head (PHHA), and glenoid retroversion were measured from computed tomography or Magnetic resonance imaging, and correlated with the finger movement at birth. The study 2 consisted of 141 obstetric brachial plexus injury patients, who underwent primary surgeries and/or secondary surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Information regarding finger movement was obtained from the patient’s parent or guardian during the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 9 (10.3%) patients who lacked finger movement at birth had a PHHA > 40%, and glenoid retroversion < -12°, whereas only 1 patient (1.1%) with finger movement had a PHHA > 40%, and retroversion < -8° in study 1. The improvement in glenohumeral deformity (PHHA, 31.8% ± 14.3%; and glenoid retroversion 22.0° ± 15.0°) was significantly higher in patients, who have not had any primary surgeries and had finger movement at birth (group 1), when compared to those patients, who had primary surgeries (nerve and muscle surgeries), and lacked finger movement at birth (group 2), (PHHA 10.7% ± 15.8%; Version -8.0° ± 8.4°, P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively) in study 2. No finger movement at birth was observed in 55% of the patients in this study group. CONCLUSION: Posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion measurements indicated significantly severe shoulder deformities in children with finger movement at birth, in comparison with those lacked finger movement. However, the improvement after triangle tilt surgery was higher in patients who had finger movement at birth. PMID:23362472

  20. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: electrodiagnostical study and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Toupchizadeh, V; Abdavi, Y; Barzegar, M; Eftekharsadat, B; Tabrizi, I

    2010-12-15

    Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy (OBPP) is a complication of difficult delivery and resulted from excessive traction on the brachial plexus during delivery. Erb palsy, klumpke paralysis and panplexus palsy reported in 46, 0.6 and 20% of patients, respectively. Unilateral injury is more common than bilateral injury. Risk factors include macrosomia, multiparity, prior delivery of a child with OBPP, breech delivery shoulder dystocia, vacium and forceps assisted delivery and excessive maternal weight gain. The recovery rate is usually reported to be between 80 and 90%. We evaluated 42 children with OBPP. Out of them, we could follow only 28 cases during two years. Poor to moderate recovery occurred in 13 cases. Good to complete (expected) recovery occurred in 15 cases. Most of the patients were females. Right side palsy was more prevalent than left side palsy. Vaginal delivery without forceps was the most mode of delivery. Vertex was the most common presentation. Most of the patients were term. The mean weight of the birth was 3.8 kg. Erb palsy and pan-plexus palsy consisted of 71.4 and 28.6% of lesions. In patients with Erb palsy, there were preganglionic palsy in 3 (15.8%) and postganglionic palsy in 16 (84.2%) cases, while all the patients with panplexus palsy had postganglionic palsy. All patients with complete recovery (9 of 15) had Erb palsy and postganglionic lesion. Erb palsy was present in 71.4% and panplexus palsy was present in 28.6% of cases. Also, 23.8% of cases had preganglionic and 76.2% of cases had postganglionic injures. PMID:21313897

  1. Imaging of the non-traumatic brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, X; Ledoux, J-B; Brun, A-L; Beigelman, C

    2013-10-01

    The first line imaging of the non-traumatic brachial plexus is by MRI. Knowledge of the anatomy and commonest variants is essential. Three Tesla imaging offers the possibility of 3D isotropic sequences with excellent spatial and contrast enhancement resolutions, which leads to time saving and quality boosting. The most commonly seen conditions are benign tumor lesions and radiation damage. Gadolinium is required to assess inflammatory or tumour plexopathy. MRI data should be correlated with FDG-PET if tumor recurrence is suspected. PMID:23891030

  2. Postirradiation lesions of the brachial plexus. Results of surgical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    LeQuang, C.

    1989-02-01

    In a series of 103 cases of postirradiation lesions of the brachial plexus operated on between 1978 and 1986--of which 60 patients have been reviewed with a follow up from 2 to 9 years--the surgical results are analyzed according to an anatomic classification, a clinical classification, and the surgical procedures. We conclude that the radiation plexitis should be treated surgically and at the earliest possible time after the onset of paresthesias. Also, the surgical procedure which gives the best results is neurolysis with pedicled omentoplasty.

  3. Ultrasound guidance improves success rate of axillary brachial plexus block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. S. Chan; Anahi Perlas; Colin J. L. McCartney; Richard Brull; Daquan Xu; Sherif Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this study is to determine if real time ultrasound guidance improves the success rate of axillary brachial\\u000a plexus blockade.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients undergoing elective hand surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Axillary blocks were performed using\\u000a three motor response endpoints in the nerve stimulator (NS) Group, real-time ultrasound guidance in the ultrasound (US) Group\\u000a and combined

  4. Dendritic outgrowth of myenteric plexus neurons in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, M W; Romanchuk, G; Flowe, K

    1992-04-01

    Myenteric plexus neurons derived from neonatal guinea pigs, when exposed to serum, demonstrated a characteristic pattern of growth, including a proliferating outgrowth zone of glial cells, peripheral extension of dendritic processes, and progressive dendritic growth. Serum effects upon dendritic growth, measured morphometrically, was strongly dose- and temporally dependent. Dendritic density was increased 10-fold (120 hr) by the addition of 6% serum, while mean dendritic length was increased 3-fold. Development of cholinergic function was reflected by release of [3H]ACh in response to cholecystokinin octapeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (10(-10) and 10(-8) M). PMID:1593870

  5. Evaluation of peripapillary choroidal thickness in patients with normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To compare peripapillary choroidal thickness measurements between normal and normal-tension glaucoma eyes. Methods Cross-sectional comparative study. 50 normal and 52 normal-tension glaucoma subjects were enrolled in the study. Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and enhanced depth imaging. After obtaining circular B-scans around the disc, choroidal thicknesses were calculated based on the exported segmentation values. Visual fields were measured using automated perimetry. Difference in peripapillary choroidal thickness between the normal subjects and the patients with normal-tension glaucoma was analyzed. Results There were no significant differences in age, axial length, or refraction between the two groups. Peripapillary choroidal thickness was inversely correlated with age in both the normal (r = ?0.287, P = 0.04) and normal and normal-tension glaucoma (r = ?0.322, P = 0.02) groups. Peripapillary choroidal thickness of inferonasal (125 vs 148??m, P < 0.05), inferior (101 vs 122??m, P < 0.05), or inferotemporal (100 vs 127??m, P < 0.05) regions were significantly thinner in the normal-tension glaucoma group as compared to normal subjects. Superior visual hemifield defect was significantly worse than inferior visual hemifield defect in normal and normal-tension glaucoma patients. Conclusion As compared to normal subjects, peripapillary choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in the normal and normal-tension glaucoma patients, at least in some locations. PMID:22839368

  6. Pancreatic cyst fluid analysis--a review.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Gupta, Vikas; Guha, Sushovan; Gheonea, Dan Ionu?; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-06-01

    An increased number of pancreatic cysts are being diagnosed due to the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and molecular analysis of these cystic lesions have led to their better detection and characterization. The aim of this review is to assess the value of cyst fluid analysis for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions, in view of the recent progresses of molecular analysis methods. Pancreatic cysts can be either simple (retention) cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms, while these are further subdivided into serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). EUS is now being used to investigate cystic pancreatic lesions, particularly by means of EUS guided cyst aspiration and sampling of the cyst wall or septa, as well as mural nodules. Cyst fluid can be further studied after aspiration in order to analyze cytology, viscosity, extracellular mucin, other tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9,CA 15-3, Ca 72-4, etc.), enzymes (amylase, lipase), as well as DNA analysis of DNA quality/content or mutational analysis to study allelic imbalance/LOH (loss of heterozygosity) and K-ras mutations. After careful review of the published studies, a conclusion was reached that the use of tumor and molecular markers in conjunction with multimodality detection methods such as CT, MR and EUS-FNA allows risk stratification, while being also cost-effective. PMID:21725515

  7. Lumbar discal cyst causing bilateral radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hyung-Jun, Kwak; Dae-Yong, Kim; Tae-Ho, Kim; Ho-Sang, Park; Jae-Sung, Kim; Jae-Won, Jang; Jung-Kil, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Background: Discal cyst is a rare lesion that can result in clinical symptoms typical of disc herniation manifesting as a unilateral single nerve root lesion. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of discal cyst resulting in bilateral radiculopathy. Case Description: A 48-year-old female presented with bilateral sciatica and neurogenic claudication for 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extradural cystic lesion compressing the ventral aspect of the thecal sac at the level of the L3-L4 intervertebral disc. The lesion showed low and high signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. Total excision of the cyst was achieved after a left hemipartial laminectomy of L3, and an obvious communication with the disc space was found. Bilateral sciatica was immediately resolved after surgery, and was sustained at the two-year follow-up. The histological diagnosis was consistent with a discal cyst. Conclusions: Although a discal cyst is extremely rare, the possibility of a discal cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with radiculopathy, particularly when encountering any extradural mass lesion ventral to the thecal sac. Surgical resection is the most employed therapeutic method for symptomatic lumbar discal cysts. PMID:21427789

  8. Surgery for bronchogenic cysts: always easy?

    PubMed

    Granato, Felice; Voltolini, Luca; Ghiribelli, Claudia; Luzzi, Luca; Tenconi, Sara; Gotti, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    A few cases of major complications after surgery for bronchogenic cyst have been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the complicated and unusual cases among 30 consecutive patients with bronchogenic cysts treated surgically at our institution between 1975 and 2007. There were 3 cases of mediastinal bronchogenic cyst characterized by significant surgical complications or very unusual pathological findings. The operations were performed through a thoracotomy in 25 patients, and by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in 5. Two patients suffered iatrogenic injury of the contralateral main bronchus during excision of a mediastinal cyst; in one of them, late development of foreign body granuloma was related to migration towards the bronchial wall of cyanoacrylate used to reinforce suturing of the bronchial tear. Histological examination of one resected specimen showed a large-cell anaplastic carcinoma arising from the wall of a mediastinal bronchogenic cyst. Bronchogenic cysts should be excised before they become symptomatic or infected, which leads to more difficult surgery and complications. The small risk of developing malignancy within a bronchogenic cyst also justifies early intervention. PMID:19917786

  9. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  10. Lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S. K.; Sundar, I. Vijay; Sharma, Vinod; Goel, Ravishankar S.

    2012-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine that can present with neurological symptoms or be discovered accidentally. Intradural location of such cysts especially in the lumbosacral region is relatively rare. The association of such cysts with other congenital anomalies such as tethered cord lends evidence to the developmental origin of arachnoid cysts. We report a case of lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord in a 6-year-old male child and discuss the etiopathogenesis and management options. PMID:24082689

  11. Management of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianqiang; Sun, Yongdong; Huang, Xin; Luan, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been no consensus on the optimal treatment of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Most previous reports concerning the management methods were either sporadic case reports or a series of limited cases. This study is to further optimize the management for patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts by analyzing the outcomes of a cohort of patients who were treated with different strategies. Methods and Findings We reviewed the outcomes of 15 patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts who were managed by three different modalities from 1998 through 2010. Six patients underwent microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication. Seven patients underwent a modified surgical procedure, during which the cerebrospinal fluid leak aperture was located and repaired. Two patients were treated with medication and physical therapy. Outcomes of the patients were assessed by following up (13 months to 10 years). All of the six patients treated with microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication experienced complete or substantial relief of their preoperative symptoms. However, the symptoms of one patient reappeared eight months after the operation. Another patient experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six of the seven patients treated with the modified surgical operation experienced complete or substantial resolution of their preoperative symptoms, with only one patient who experienced temporary worsening of his preoperative urine incontinence, which disappeared gradually one month later. No new postoperative neurological deficits, no cerebrospinal fluid leaks and no recurrence were observed in the seven patients. The symptoms of the two patients treated with conservative measures aggravated with time. Conclusions Microsurgical operation should be a treatment consideration in patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Furthermore, the surgical procedure with partial cyst removal and aperture repair for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage seemed to be more simple and effective. PMID:22768183

  12. Pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits retinal and choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Duh, E; Gehlbach, P; Ando, A; Takahashi, K; Pearlman, J; Mori, K; Yang, H S; Zack, D J; Ettyreddy, D; Brough, D E; Wei, L L; Campochiaro, P A

    2001-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether overexpression of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) by gene transfer can inhibit neovascularization by testing its effect in three different models of ocular neovascularization. Intravitreous injection of an adenoviral vector encoding PEDF resulted in expression of PEDF mRNA in the eye measured by RT-PCR and increased immunohistochemical staining for PEDF protein throughout the retina. In mice with laser-induced rupture of Bruch's membrane, choroidal neovascularization was significantly reduced after intravitreous injection of PEDF vector compared to injection of null vector or no injection. Subretinal injection of the PEDF vector resulted in prominent staining for PEDF in retinal pigmented epithelial cells and strong inhibition of choroidal neovascularization. In two models of retinal neovascularization (transgenic mice with increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in photoreceptors and mice with oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy), intravitreous injection of null vector resulted in decreased neovascularization compared to no injection, but intravitreous injection of PEDF vector resulted in further inhibition of neovascularization that was statistically significant. These data suggest that sustained increased intraocular expression of PEDF by gene therapy might provide a promising approach for treatment of ocular neovascularization. PMID:11424092

  13. Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis and Choroidal Neovascularization by Endogenous Angioinhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Venugopal; Sudhakar, Yakkanti A

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from parent blood vessels, which is a prerequisite for many physiological and pathological conditions and is regulated by a balance between endogenous angioinhibitors and angioactivators or angiogenic factors. Imbalance between angioinhibitors and angioactivators is associated with neovascularization capacity during progression of tumor development and Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV). Normalization of pathological angiogenesis is considered as an alternative strategy to prevent the tumor growth in cancer progression or retinal damage in CNV. Various angioinhibitors are being identified and evaluated for their pathological angiogenesis regulation, of which endogenous angioinhibitors are one class derived either from extra cellular matrix or from non-extra cellular matrix of human origin. Endogenous angioinhibitors are gaining much significance as they interact with proliferating endothelial cells by binding to distinct integrins and non-integrin receptors, regulating different intracellular signaling mechanisms leading to inhibition of choroidal neovascularization and tumor growth. This review will focus on endogenous angioinhibitors and their receptor(s) mediated angioinhibitory signaling, which are of major concern in angiogenesis and their clinical and pharmaceutical implications. PMID:25258675

  14. Segmentation of choroidal neovascularization in fundus fluorescein angiograms.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula, Walid M; Shah, Syed M; Fahmy, Ahmed S

    2013-05-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a common manifestation of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is characterized by the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the choroidal layer causing blurring and deterioration of the vision. In late stages, these abnormal vessels can rupture the retinal layers causing complete loss of vision at the affected regions. Determining the CNV size and type in fluorescein angiograms is required for proper treatment and prognosis of the disease. Computer-aided methods for CNV segmentation is needed not only to reduce the burden of manual segmentation but also to reduce inter- and intraobserver variability. In this paper, we present a framework for segmenting CNV lesions based on parametric modeling of the intensity variation in fundus fluorescein angiograms. First, a novel model is proposed to describe the temporal intensity variation at each pixel in image sequences acquired by fluorescein angiography. The set of model parameters at each pixel are used to segment the image into regions of homogeneous parameters. Preliminary results on datasets from 21 patients with Wet-AMD show the potential of the method to segment CNV lesions in close agreement with the manual segmentation. PMID:23314765

  15. Sudden death from saccular laryngeal cyst.

    PubMed

    Kastowsky, Tina K; Stevenson, Melanie P; Duflou, Johan A

    2006-09-01

    Laryngeal cysts are benign, uncommon lesions of the larynx that have been reported on rare occasions to cause sudden death in infants and adults by acute airways obstruction. In this report, we document the sudden death of a 36-year-old woman from a previously undiagnosed, asymptomatic laryngeal saccular cyst that presented with acute, and consequent fatal, airway obstruction. Difficulty during intubation, both in theater and in emergency settings, is a frequent presenting problem. This can have significant medicolegal implications in determining possible negligence. The diagnosis, classification, and management of such cysts, and their importance to both the forensic pathologist and clinicians are discussed. PMID:17018096

  16. Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC).

    PubMed

    Briggs, T A; Abdel-Salam, G M H; Balicki, M; Baxter, P; Bertini, E; Bishop, N; Browne, B H; Chitayat, D; Chong, W K; Eid, M M; Halliday, W; Hughes, I; Klusmann-Koy, A; Kurian, M; Nischal, K K; Rice, G I; Stephenson, J B P; Surtees, R; Talbot, J F; Tehrani, N N; Tolmie, J L; Toomes, C; van der Knaap, M S; Crow, Y J

    2008-01-15

    Extensive intracranial calcifications and leukoencephalopathy are seen in both Coats plus and leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC; Labrune syndrome). Coats plus syndrome is additionally characterized by the presence of bilateral retinal telangiectasia and exudates while LCC shows the progressive formation of parenchymal brain cysts. Despite these apparently distinguishing features, recent evidence suggests that Coats plus and LCC represent the same clinical entity with a common primary pathogenesis involving a small vessel obliterative microangiopathy. Here, we describe eight previously unreported cases, and present an update on one of the original Coats plus patients to highlight the emerging core clinical features of the "cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcification and cysts" (CRMCC) phenotype. PMID:18076099

  17. Characterization of Choroidal Layers in Normal Aging Eyes Using Enface Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Robert F.; Baumal, Caroline R.; Mohler, Kathrin J.; Kraus, Martin F.; Liu, Jonathan; Badaro, Emmerson; Alasil, Tarek; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize qualitative and quantitative features of the choroid in normal eyes using enface swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 26 consecutive normal subjects were prospectively recruited to obtain multiple three-dimensional 12x12mm volumetric scans using a long-wavelength high-speed SS-OCT prototype. A motion-correction algorithm merged multiple SS-OCT volumes to improve signal. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was segmented as the reference and enface images were extracted at varying depths every 4.13?m intervals. Systematic analysis of the choroid at different depths was performed to qualitatively assess the morphology of the choroid and quantify the absolute thicknesses as well as the relative thicknesses of the choroidal vascular layers including the choroidal microvasculature (choriocapillaris, terminal arterioles and venules; CC) and choroidal vessels (CV) with respect to the subfoveal total choroidal thickness (TC). Subjects were divided into two age groups: younger (<40 years) and older (?40 years). Results Mean age of subjects was 41.92 (24-66) years. Enface images at the level of the RPE, CC, CV, and choroidal-scleral interface were used to assess specific qualitative features. In the younger age group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 379.4?m (SD±75.7?m), CC 81.3?m (SD±21.2?m) and CV 298.1?m (SD±63.7?m). In the older group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 305.0?m (SD±50.9?m), CC 56.4?m (SD±12.1?m) and CV 248.6?m (SD±49.7?m). In the younger group, the relative thicknesses of the individual choroidal layers were: CC 21.5% (SD±4.0%) and CV 78.4% (SD±4.0%). In the older group, the relative thicknesses were: CC 18.9% (SD±4.5%) and CV 81.1% (SD±4.5%). The absolute thicknesses were smaller in the older age group for all choroidal layers (TC p=0.006, CC p=0.0003, CV p=0.03) while the relative thickness was smaller only for the CC (p=0.04). Conclusions Enface SS-OCT at 1050nm enables a precise qualitative and quantitative characterization of the individual choroidal layers in normal eyes. Only the CC is relatively thinner in the older eyes. In-vivo evaluation of the choroid at variable depths may be potentially valuable in understanding the natural history of age-related posterior segment disease. PMID:26172550

  18. Enhanced imaging of choroidal vasculature by high-penetration and dual-velocity optical coherence angiography

    PubMed Central

    Jaillon, Franck; Makita, Shuichi; Min, Eun-Jung; Lee, Byeong Ha; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography (DB-OCA) with a 1-?m-wavelength probe is demonstrated for improved in vivo choroidal angiograms of the human eye. This method utilizes two scanning beams with spatial and temporal separation on the retina, and provides two measurable velocity ranges. The method achieves higher sensitivity to very low velocity flows than conventional Doppler optical coherence tomography. Moreover, longer wavelengths allowing greater penetration, enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels is verified with en-face projection images of the Doppler shift squared. Specifically, better choroidal vasculature visibility is achieved at a wavelength of 1 ?m than at 840 nm. PMID:21559127

  19. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

  20. Cysts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Neurofibroma Neuronal & Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain ... Neurofibroma Neuronal & Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain ...

  1. Surgical results of sacral perineural (Tarlov) cysts.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ito, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Ikuma, Hisanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes and to determine indicators of the necessity of surgical intervention. Twelve consecutive patients harboring symptomatic sacral perineural cysts were treated between 1995 and 2003. All patients were assessed for neurological deficits and pain by neurological examination. Magnetic resonance of imaging, computerized tomography, and myelography were performed to detect signs of delayed filling of the cysts. We performed a release of the valve and imbrication of the sacral cysts with laminectomies in 8 cases or recapping laminectomies in 4 cases. After surgery, symptoms improved in 10 (83%) of 12 patients, with an average follow-up of 27 months. Ten patients had sacral perineural cysts with signs of positive filling defect. Two (17%) of 12 patients experienced no significant improvement. In one of these patients, the filling defect was negative. In conclusion, a positive filling defect may become an indicator of good treatment outcomes. PMID:16508691

  2. Hydatid Cyst of Spleen: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Khalid; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Telwani, Ajaz Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Although splenic involvement alone in hydatid disease is very rare, spleen is the third most common organ involved in hydatid disease. The rarity of splenic hydatid disease poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, particularly in non-endemic areas. As the hydatid cyst can present as a simple cyst without having the classic serological and imaging features, and later can lead to life-threatening complications like anaphylaxis, hydatid disease of spleen should be considered in differential in every patient in endemic areas with cystic lesion of spleen until proved otherwise. The author used the keyword “splenic hydatid cyst” in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 1965 to June 2012. The present review is to accentuate the incidence, classification, clinical and pathophysiological features, differential diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and treatment choices of hydatid cyst of spleen along with follow-up strategy and newer treatment approaches. PMID:23378949

  3. [Bronchogenic cysts of the mediastinum in childhood].

    PubMed

    Mikha?lova, V; Drebov, R

    1993-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies result of abnormal development of the tracheobronchial tree. They develop in the lung parenchyma or in the mediastinum. For a period of 17 years (1975-1991) a total of 46 children with bronchogenic cysts have been treated; in 6 the cysts were localized in the mediastinum. Two patients were one-year-old, 3 were in the age group 1 to 3 years and 1 was older than 3 years. Four patients were boys and 2 girls. Two children had hacking cough and attacks of dyspnea; one had swallowing difficulties. In 3 children the disease produced no symptoms and was detected on examination for pneumonia (1 child) and acute upper respiratory tract infection (2 children). All children had conventional X-ray; 5 had esophagography as well, 4--computer axial tomography, 3--echography. All children were operated (total extirpation of the cyst) and left the hospital cured. PMID:8411872

  4. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Vaziri, Siavoosh; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described. PMID:26139761

  5. Thoracic radiculopathy caused by a myodil cyst.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, M O; Goyal, K; Johnston, R A

    2000-08-01

    We report the case of a myodil cyst causing a thoracic radiculopathy in a patient who had undergone a myelogram 30 years previously. Although myodil is no longer used, sequelae can continue to be seen for many years. PMID:11045204

  6. Rathke's cleft cyst presenting as pituitary apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sanjay J; Sharma, Rewati Raman; Lad, Santosh D; Dev, Ebenezer; Devadas, Rama Verma

    2002-01-01

    Sellar lesions mainly constitute pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas and benign cysts. Rathke's pouch cyst is a developmental sellar and/or suprasellar cystic lesion lined by a single layer of ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium, which rarely be comes symptomatic. The authors present an interesting case of intrasellar Rathke's pouch cyst, with a presenting feature of acute pituitary apoplexy. This was a 19 year old healthy male who had developed sudden headache and visual disturbance. Neuro-radiological imaging revealed a mass in the sella. Via transsphenoidal approach a haemorrhagic intrasellar cystic lesion was removed and was confirmed as a haemorrhagic Rathke's cleft cyst by histopathological examination. Interesting clinical presentations and the neuroimaging findings are described and discussed. PMID:11749024

  7. Chronic Hydatid Cyst in Malaysia: A Rare Occurence

    PubMed Central

    SURIA HAYATI, Md Pauzi; BOON TECK EUGENE, Chan; JAN JIN, Bong; MOHD ROSE, Isa

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are not endemic in Malaysia and are rarely seen. We hereby report a case of hydatid cyst of the liver in a 55-year-old Chinese-Australian lady who presented with a calcified liver cyst and negative hydatid serology. A liver segmentectomy was performed and revealed a well-circumscribed, calcified liver cyst containing only creamy whitish material without the typical daughter cyst. A histological examination revealed different layers of the cyst wall and the presence of loose, calcified scolices without a daughter cyst. The case highlights the importance of considering hydatid cyst in the differential diagnosis of liver cyst even in non-endemic areas, as the ease of travelling and migration allows the condition to be seen outside the endemic region. PMID:25892954

  8. Blood cyst of the mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Antonio; Capritti, Elvia; Pappalardo, Federico; Radinovic, Andrea; Ferrarello, Santo; Cammalleri, Valeria; Collu, Egidio; Ammirati, Enrico; Fumero, Andrea; Benussi, Stefano; De Bonis, Michele; Zangrillo, Alberto; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2012-01-01

    Blood cysts of the mitral valve are mostly benign diverticuli lined by endothelium and filled with blood and can be safely monitored with echocardiographic follow-up. We report a case of asymptomatic blood cyst of the mitral valve in a 63-year-old woman referred for a systolic murmur. At 3-year echo follow-up, the patient is free from notable clinical events. PMID:22089814

  9. [Intrasellar arachnoid cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, S; Nakai, M; Ryujin, Y; Uematsu, Y; Nakai, K; Itakura, T

    1995-09-01

    Intrasellar arachnoid cyst is very rare. We report a case of intrasellar arachnoid cyst. A 44-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of his headache and visual disturbance on August 6, 1993. Neurological examination revealed bilateral decreased visual acuity and visual field defect. Endocrinological examination showed panhypopituitarism. Other neurological findings were normal. X-ray film of the skull showed a ballooning dilation of the sella turcica with thinning of the sellar floor. CT scan showed a cystic lesion with CSF-density occupied the sella. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, the cyst showed no enhancement. MRI showed the intrasellar mass had the same characteristics as the surrounding subarachnoid space. Bilateral carotid angiographies demonstrated that the carotid siphons were stretched and displaced laterally, and the A1 portions of the anterior cerebral arteries were raised. We made a diagnosis of intrasellar cystic lesion. On August 18, the sella turcica was opened via the transsphenoidal rhinoseptal approach. The cyst contained CSF-like fluid, and a part of the cyst wall was resected. The cavity was filled with Gelfoam and the sellar floor was repaired with bone flap. Postoperatively, the patient's visual disturbance improved, but diabetis insipidus appeared and required hormonal replacement. The patient was discharged on September 27 with improvement of visual acuity and visual field. Histological examination demonstrated that the cyst wall consisted of thick arachnoidal cells with fibrous connective tissue. The arachnoidal cells with oval nuclei was stained with epithelial membrane antigen. Symptoms, signs and radiological findings of intrasellar arachnoid cyst are similar to those of various sellar lesions including pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, empty sella, Rathke's cleft cyst, epidermoid et al.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7566427

  10. Unusual radiologic manifestations of bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Dahmash, N S; Chen, J T; Ravin, C E; Reed, J C; Pratt, P C

    1984-06-01

    We have presented four cases of bronchogenic cyst, emphasizing the uncommon radiologic manifestations, including air trapping and/or lobulated contour. Two of the cysts were in the lung parenchyma, one in the left hilum adherent to the left lower lobe bronchus, and one in the posterior mediastinum. Recognition of the unusual radiologic features aids in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis and directing subsequent evaluation. PMID:6729555

  11. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sumida; K. Arita; K. Migita; A. Tominaga; K. Iida; K. Kurisu

    2001-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical, radiological and surgical findings in patients with both pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst.\\u000a We retrospectively selected patients with both lesions from the 374 patients in whom a sellar\\/juxtasellar lesion was detected\\u000a on MRI at 1.5 tesla. All patients received intravenous contrast medium. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst\\u000a were found in eight patients (2.1

  12. Intracranial Cysts: An Imagery Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Opri?an, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral cysts and cystic appearing intracerebral masses are common findings at routine cerebral imaging examination. We discuss here the most interesting aspects of some intracerebral cysts encountered in medical practice in terms of imaging, clinical and pathological description, and problems of differential diagnosis. On an almost routine basis, the neurologists have to deal with such differentials. Therefore, we aim to mention here some of the frequently encountered diagnosis problems when a patient presents with a cystic cerebral mass. PMID:23737706

  13. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the hyoid.

    PubMed

    Shadaba, A; Zaidi, S

    1992-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare lesion usually of the long bones, well documented in the literature. It is a cystic, osteolytic vascular tumour, replete with giant cells and fibrous septa, yet devoid of endothelial lining. It has been reported in the larynx and maxillary sinus. This appears to be the first report of an aneurysmal bone cyst occurring in the hyoid bone. PMID:1541900

  14. Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

  15. Quantitative proteomics comparison of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid collected perioperatively from arachnoid cyst patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little knowledge concerning the content and the mechanisms of filling of arachnoid cysts. The aim of this study was to compare the protein content of arachnoid cysts and cerebrospinal fluid by quantitative proteomics to increase the understanding of arachnoid cysts. Methods Arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from five patients were analyzed by quantitative proteomics in two separate experiments. In a label-free experiment arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid samples from individual patients were trypsin digested and analyzed by Orbitrap mass spectrometry in a label-free manner followed by data analysis using the Progenesis software. In the second proteomics experiment, a patient sample pooling strategy was followed by MARS-14 immunodepletion of high abundant proteins, trypsin digestion, iTRAQ labelling, and peptide separation by mix-phase chromatography followed by Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. The results from these analyzes were compared to previously published mRNA microarray data obtained from arachnoid membranes. Results We quantified 348 proteins by the label-free individual patient approach and 1425 proteins in the iTRAQ experiment using a pool from five patients of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid. This is by far the largest number of arachnoid cyst fluid proteins ever identified, and the first large-scale quantitative comparison between the protein content of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from the same patients at the same time. Consistently in both experiment, we found 22 proteins with significantly increased abundance in arachnoid cysts compared to cerebrospinal fluid and 24 proteins with significantly decreased abundance. We did not observe any molecular weight gradient over the arachnoid cyst membrane. Of the 46 proteins we identified as differentially abundant in our study, 45 were also detected from the mRNA expression level study. None of them were previously reported as differentially expressed. We did not quantify any of the proteins corresponding to gene products from the ten genes previously reported as differentially abundant between arachnoid cysts and control arachnoid membranes. Conclusions From our experiments, the protein content of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid appears to be similar. There were, however, proteins that were significantly differentially abundant between arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid. This could reflect the possibility that these proteins are affected by the filling mechanism of arachnoid cysts or are shed from the membranes into arachnoid cyst fluid. Our results do not support the proposed filling mechanisms of oncotic pressure or valves. PMID:23628075

  16. Perineural cyst presenting like cubital tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bayrakli, Fatih; Kurtuncu, Murat; Karaarslan, Ercan; Ozgen, Serdar

    2012-06-01

    Perineural cysts are believed to be asymptomatic; however, they rarely cause symptoms related to nerve root compression. Cervical symptomatic perineural cysts are in fact exceedingly rare. There are no reported cervical perineural cysts in the literature that present like cubital tunnel syndrome. A patient with motor weakness of the abductor and adductor muscles of the fingers of the left hand and hypoesthesia in the hypothenar region of the left hand presented at our clinic. A neurological examination, and neuroradiological and electrophysiological evaluations supported the finding that the patient's clinical condition was caused by a perineural cyst located around the C8 neural root. The neurological symptoms of the patient markedly improved after medical treatment. We reported the first cervical perineural cyst as presenting like cubital tunnel syndrome patient in the literature. The visualization of perineural cyst may need extra magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sections in order to view the nerve root through the neural foramen or extraforaminal area. These lesions are benign, and the appropriate treatment is curative. PMID:21574015

  17. Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model

    PubMed Central

    Kaji?, Vedran; Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Považay, Boris; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L.; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    A two stage statistical model based on texture and shape for fully automatic choroidal segmentation of normal and pathologic eyes obtained by a 1060 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is developed. A novel dynamic programming approach is implemented to determine location of the retinal pigment epithelium/ Bruch’s membrane /choriocapillaris (RBC) boundary. The choroid–sclera interface (CSI) is segmented using a statistical model. The algorithm is robust even in presence of speckle noise, low signal (thick choroid), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachments and atrophy, drusen, shadowing and other artifacts. Evaluation against a set of 871 manually segmented cross-sectional scans from 12 eyes achieves an average error rate of 13%, computed per tomogram as a ratio of incorrectly classified pixels and the total layer surface. For the first time a fully automatic choroidal segmentation algorithm is successfully applied to a wide range of clinical volumetric OCT data. PMID:22254171

  18. In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edward C.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Mujat, Mircea; Lim, Hyungsik; Yun, Seok H.

    2006-05-01

    Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) using swept laser sources is an emerging second-generation method for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Despite the widespread use of conventional OCT for retinal disease diagnostics, until now imaging the posterior eye segment with OFDI has not been possible. Here we report the development of a highperformance swept laser at 1050 nm and an ophthalmic OFDI system that offers an A-line rate of 18.8 kHz, sensitivity of >92 dB over a depth range of 2.4 mm with an optical exposure level of 550 ?W, and deep penetration into the choroid. Using these new technologies, we demonstrate comprehensive human retina, optic disc, and choroid imaging in vivo. This advance enables us to view choroidal vasculature in vivo without intravenous injection of fluorescent dyes and may provide a useful tool for evaluating choroidal as well as retinal diseases.

  19. Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model.

    PubMed

    Kaji?, Vedran; Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Považay, Boris; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A two stage statistical model based on texture and shape for fully automatic choroidal segmentation of normal and pathologic eyes obtained by a 1060 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is developed. A novel dynamic programming approach is implemented to determine location of the retinal pigment epithelium/ Bruch's membrane /choriocapillaris (RBC) boundary. The choroid-sclera interface (CSI) is segmented using a statistical model. The algorithm is robust even in presence of speckle noise, low signal (thick choroid), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachments and atrophy, drusen, shadowing and other artifacts. Evaluation against a set of 871 manually segmented cross-sectional scans from 12 eyes achieves an average error rate of 13%, computed per tomogram as a ratio of incorrectly classified pixels and the total layer surface. For the first time a fully automatic choroidal segmentation algorithm is successfully applied to a wide range of clinical volumetric OCT data. PMID:22254171

  20. Choroidal neovascularization in phakic eyes with anterior chamber intraocular lenses to correct high myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción de la Vega; Oscar Ruiz-Moreno; Jorge L Alió

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo analyze the appearance, incidence, and characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with high myopia corrected by implantation of a phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (PACL)

  1. [Is increased choroidal thickness a risk factor for primary angle-closure glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiulan; Huang, Wenbin

    2015-02-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is the main form of glaucoma in China. The pathological mechanism of PACG is not yet well understood. Traditional anatomic disorders are characterized by biometric factors such as shallow anterior chamber depth, narrow anterior chamber angle, short axial length, and thick crystalline lens.Newly found potential risk factors include dynamic changes of iris and choroid.With the development of enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and swept source OCT (SS-OCT), it is possible to measure choroidal thickness accurately.Several studies have found the choroid of PACG eyes was thicker than that of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal subject eyes, which suggests that increased choroidal thickness might be another risk factor for PACG. PMID:25907997

  2. Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Axial Length in Preschool Children with Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takafumi; Sugano, Yukinori; Maruko, Ichiro; Sekiryu, Tetsuju

    2014-10-20

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and axial length in Japanese preschool children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Twenty-four children between the age of 3 and 6 years exhibiting hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia were examined. Differences in spherical equivalent between the two eyes were over 1.5?D in all children. Twenty-four eyes in 12 children without anisometropia and amblyopia were examined as age-matched normal controls. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured by using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Axial length was measured with noncontact optical biometer. Results: The spherical equivalent ranged from +3.50 to +7.25?D in amblyopic eyes and from +0.75 to +3.50?D in fellow eyes. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly greater in the amblyopic eyes than that in the fellow eyes (407.3?±?54.2??m versus 357.7?±?54.3??m, Paired t-test, p?choroidal thickness of the fellow eyes in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia was greater than that in age matched normal children, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (326.0?±?62.1??m, p?=?0.07). The subfoveal choroidal thickness in amblyopic children was negatively correlated with their axial length (r?=?-0.50, p?choroidal thickness of amblyopic children abnormally increased and the thicker subfoveal choroid is mildly correlated with their shorter axial length. The anomalous subfoveal choroidal thicknesses in our amblyopic children may reflect a delay in emmetropization. PMID:25330225

  3. Choroidal Thickness and Biometric Markers for the Screening of Lacquer Cracks in Patients with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan-Kai; Lai, Chi-Chun; Chou, Chai Lin; Chen, Yen-Po; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Chao, An-Ning; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Validation of choroidal thickness and other biometrics measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in predicting lacquer cracks formation in highly myopic eyes. Methods Patients with a refractive error worse than ?8 diopters and moderate myopic maculopathy were recruited into two groups based on the presence or absence of lacquer cracks (36 eyes without and 33 eyes with lacquer cracks). Choroidal thickness, refractive error, and axial length were measured and subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff values at predicting lacquer crack formation. The width of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE to the inner segment/outer segment line, RPE to the external limiting membrane were also measured and compared to the subfoveal choroidal thickness to assess their relationships as potential markers of lacquer crack formation. Results Lacquer crack is associated with decreased choroidal thickness, lower best-corrected visual acuity, longer axial length and higher refractive errors. Choroidal thickness has the strongest association with lacquer crack formation versus axial length and refractive error. In eyes with lacquer cracks, stellate lacquer cracks are associated with thinner choroidal thickness compared to eyes with linear lacquer cracks. Subfoveal choroidal thickness less than the width of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner segment/outer segment line is also associated with lacquer crack formation (sensitivity 78.8%, specificity 88.3%, and accuracy 81.2%). Conclusions This study suggests that choroidal thickness and other SD-OCT measurements could be employed clinically to predict the development and severity of lacquer cracks in patients with high myopia. PMID:23349728

  4. Metastatic adenocarcinoma with rupture through the bruch membrane simulating a choroidal melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell W. Read; Ronald L. Green; Narsing A. Rao

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of adenocarcinoma metastatic to the choroid with rupture through the Bruch membrane, thus, simulating a choroidal melanoma.METHODS: Interventional case report. Evaluation in a university-based clinic, including a complete eye examination, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography; oncological evaluation; and eventual enucleation with histopathological study, including immunohistochemical stains.RESULTS: A 62-year-old Hispanic female presented with visual loss, right eye,

  5. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells and MMP13 contribute to experimental choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Lecomte; Krystel Louis; Benoit Detry; Silvia Blacher; Vincent Lambert; Sandrine Bekaert; Carine Munaut; Jenny Paupert; Pierre Blaise; Jean-Michel Foidart; Jean-Marie Rakic; Stephen M. Krane; Agnès Noel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the potential involvement of collagenase-3 (MMP13), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family member,\\u000a in the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by a neovascularisation into the choroid. RT-PCR analysis\\u000a revealed that human neovascular membranes issued from patients with AMD expressed high levels of Mmp13. The contribution of MMP13 in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation was explored

  6. Macular translocation for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilel Lewis; Peter K Kaiser; Sharon Lewis; Marc Estafanous

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a prospective study of macular translocation in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration.METHODS: In 10 eyes of 10 patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization and best-corrected visual acuity ranging from 20\\/50 to 20\\/800 (median, 20\\/111), the fovea was relocated by means of scleral imbrication, intentional retinal detachment with small posterior retinotomies, and partial fluid-air

  7. Histological findings of a surgically excised myopic choroidal neovascular membrane after photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Scupola; L. Ventura; A. C. Tiberti; D. D’Andrea; E. Balestrazzi

    2004-01-01

    Background The authors describe a myopic choroidal neovascular membrane excised 4 months after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Methods A 68-year-old woman with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to pathologic myopia underwent PDT with verteporfin in the left eye. Four months after treatment a full-thickness macular hole was diagnosed in the same eye and the patient underwent vitrectomy with submacular membranectomy. The

  8. Effect of Acute Decreases of Perfusion Pressure on Choroidal Blood Flow in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Riva; Patrick Titze; Mark Hero; Benno L. Petrig

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between choroidal blood velocity (ChBVel), blood volume (ChBVol) and blood flow (ChBF) in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus and ocular perfusion pressure and to determine whether the choroidal circulation has some autoregulatory capacity. Methods. Measurements of ChBVel, ChBVol and ChBF were obtained by laser Doppler flow- metry in healthy subjects (age range,

  9. Bilateral diffuse choroidal hemangiomas with unilateral facial nevus flammeus in Sturge–Weber Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arezo Amirikia; Ingrid U Scott; Timothy G Murray

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report bilateral choroidal hemangiomas associated with unilateral facial nevus flammeus in Sturge–Weber syndrome.METHODS: Case report.RESULTS: A 6-year-old male with a left facial nevus flammeus and a history of a left cerebral angioma had been followed 2 years for increasing esotropia. Examination demonstrated bilateral diffuse choroidal hemangiomas with overlying exudative retinal detachments. After bilateral external beam radiotherapy, the retinal

  10. Residual Cyst Associated with Calcifications in an Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, K; Nandan, S. Ratheesh Kumar; Ratnakar, P.; Srikrishna, K.; Vamsi Pavani, B.

    2014-01-01

    A residual cyst, as the name implies, is a radicular, lateral periodotal, dentigerous or any other cyst that has persisted after it’s associated tooth has been lost. Residual cysts show more predilection in males and they commonly affect the maxillary region. Usually, residual cysts are asymptomatic and calcifications occurring in the residual cysts are quite rare. We are reporting a case of symptomatic residual cyst, associated with calcifications involving the anterior region of the body of the mandible in a 60-year-old male patient. The pathogenesis, clinical, radiological features and differential diagnosis have been discussed. PMID:24701547

  11. Atlantoaxial Joint Synovial Cyst: Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Velan, Osvaldo, E-mail: osvaldo.velan@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Radiology (Argentina); Rabadan, Alejandra, E-mail: alejandra.rabadan@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Neurosurgery (Argentina); Paganini, Lisandro, E-mail: lisandro.paganini@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Radiology (Argentina); Langhi, Luciano, E-mail: luciano.langhi@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Neurosurgery (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    Synovial cysts at the atlantoaxial level are found uncommonly. Lumbar symptomatic cases are treated by percutaneous cyst aspiration with or without corticoid injection or by surgical resection, but synovial cysts at the C1-C2 level are usually treated by surgery. We report here a 92-year-old woman with a retro-odontoid synovial cyst producing spinal cord compression that was treated by percutaneous aspiration of the cyst under CT guidance. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an atlantoaxial synovial cyst successfully treated with a minimally invasive procedure.

  12. On the morphology of the brachial plexus of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    KOIZUMI, MASAHIRO; SAKAI, TATSUO

    1997-01-01

    Four forelimbs of 3 platypuses and 3 forelimbs of 2 echidnas were examined to study the precise form of the brachial plexus and to clarify the structural characteristics of the brachial plexus in phylogeny. The spinal components contributing to the plexus (C4–T2) and the formation patterns of the 3 trunks of the plexus were the same as those generally observed in mammals. In the cranial half of the brachial plexus from C4, 5 and 6 in monotremes, division into the ventral bundle (lateral cord) and dorsal bundle (axillary nerve) is clear, as in other mammals. However, for monotremes, in the caudal half of the plexus from C7 and T1 (+T2) and the nerves arising from the caudal plexus there is no definite division into the ventral and dorsal bundles, which distribute to the flexor and extensor parts of the forelimbs, respectively. The lower trunk of the monotreme brachial plexus forms a cord which contains both ventral and dorsal components. This characteristic diverges from the generally accepted idea that the tetrapod limb plexus is divided clearly into 2 layers: a dorsal layer for extensors and a ventral layer for flexors of the limb. Considering the incomplete dorsoventral division of forelimb nerves in some reptiles and urodeles, the caudal half of the monotreme brachial plexus has characteristics in common with those of lower tetrapods. PMID:9147230

  13. Radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. An 18-year experience with radon

    SciTech Connect

    Davidorf, F.H.; Pajka, J.T.; Makley, T.A. Jr.; Kartha, M.K.

    1987-03-01

    Twenty-three patients were treated with radon therapy for choroidal melanoma at the Ohio State University Hospitals, Columbus, between 1968 and 1976. We present an 18-year experience, including follow-up of at least eight years, in all those receiving therapy. Three patients (13%) died of metastatic disease. Four patients (17.4%) died of other causes. Sixteen patients (69.6%) were alive, with no signs of metastatic disease. Eight patients subsequently required enucleation due to inadequate tumor response. Of the 15 patients who demonstrated successful tumor destruction and retained their eyes, 13 (86.7%) developed substantial irradiation-induced retinopathy, including hard exudates, telangiectasias, neovascularization, microaneurysms, intraretinal and vitreous hemorrhages, secondary glaucoma, and irradiation-induced cataract. Our long-term results indicate a high incidence of both vascular complications and decreased visual acuity.

  14. Sympathetic ophthalmia complicating helium ion irradiation of a choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, P.D.; Char, D.H.; Crawford, J.B.; Waterhouse, W.

    1987-11-01

    Sympathetic ophthalmia was diagnosed 49 months after helium ion irradiation of a left choroidal melanoma. The patient maintained good vision until 18 months after therapy, when she developed neovascular glaucoma. This complication required multiple therapeutic procedures, including topical anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous drops, 360 degrees peripheral panretinal cryoblation, and a single 180 degrees application of inferior cyclocryotherapy over a 2 1/2-year period. Four weeks after the cyclocryotherapy, inflammation was noted in both eyes, and, one month later, enucleation of the left sympathogenic eye was performed. Serial histopathologic sections showed a full-thickness, fibrovascular, scleral scar and tantalum marker ring suture without uveal incarceration. Penetrating surgical trauma, a uveal melanoma, and multiple nonpenetrating treatments resulted in the development of sympathetic ophthalmia.

  15. Failure of choroidal melanoma to respond to helium ion therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Char, D.H.; Crawford, J.B.; Castro, J.R.; Woodruff, K.H.

    1983-02-01

    Helium ion irradiation is a promising alternative therapy for choroidal melanoma. In short-term follow-up (less than 5 years), more than 90% (18/19) of treated patients demonstrated tumor regression. Researchers had to enucleate five eyes after helium ion therapy either because of continued tumor growth (four patients) or other complications (one patient). Two melanomas continued to grow and seemed to be radioresistant. In two other tumors it retrospectively seemed that the entire lesion was not inside the radiation field. In one patient total retinal detachment and glaucoma developed; enucleation was performed because of a painful eye. Metastatic disease developed in no patients. The treatment failures emphasize that there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the use of charged-particle irradiation in the treatment of melanoma. Further studies must be performed to answer these questions and better delineate the use of these newer forms of therapy.

  16. Choroidal Thickness Analysis in Patients with Usher Syndrome Type 2 Using EDI OCT

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, L.; Sala, B.; Montesano, G.; Pierrottet, C.; De Cillà, S.; Maltese, P.; Bertelli, M.; Rossetti, L.

    2015-01-01

    To portray Usher Syndrome type 2, analyzing choroidal thickness and comparing data reported in published literature on RP and healthy subjects. Methods. 20 eyes of 10 patients with clinical signs and genetic diagnosis of Usher Syndrome type 2. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length (AL), automated visual field (VF), and EDI OCT. Both retinal and choroidal measures were measured. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate choroidal thickness with age, BCVA, IOP, AL, VF, and RT. Comparison with data about healthy people and nonsyndromic RP patients was performed. Results. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was 248.21 ± 79.88 microns. SFCT was statistically significant correlated with age (correlation coefficient ?0.7248179, p < 0.01). No statistically significant correlation was found between SFCT and BCVA, IOP, AL, VF, and RT. SFCT was reduced if compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.01). No difference was found when compared to choroidal thickness from nonsyndromic RP patients (p = 0.2138). Conclusions. Our study demonstrated in vivo choroidal thickness reduction in patients with Usher Syndrome type 2. These data are important for the comprehension of mechanisms of disease and for the evaluation of therapeutic approaches.

  17. Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Baskaran, Mani; Tun, Tin Aung; Aung, Tin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-definition cross-sectional images of the choroid in vivo, and hence is used in many clinical studies. However, the quantification of the choroid depends on the manual labelings of two boundaries, Bruch’s membrane and the choroidal-scleral interface. This labeling process is tedious and subjective of inter-observer differences, hence, automatic segmentation of the choroid layer is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a fast and accurate algorithm that could segment the choroid automatically. Bruch’s membrane is detected by searching the pixel with the biggest gradient value above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroidal-scleral interface is delineated by finding the shortest path of the graph formed by valley pixels using Dijkstra’s algorithm. The experiments comparing automatic segmentation results with the manual labelings are conducted on 45 EDI-OCT images and the average of Dice’s Coefficient is 90.5%, which shows good consistency of the algorithm with the manual labelings. The processing time for each image is about 1.25 seconds. PMID:23504041

  18. IKK2 Inhibition Attenuates Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huayi; Lu, Qingxian; Gaddipati, Subhash; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Wang, Wei; Pasparakis, Manolis; Kaplan, Henry J.; Li, Qiutang

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is aberrant angiogenesis associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Inflammation has been suggested as a risk factor for AMD. The IKK2/NF-?B pathway plays a key role in the inflammatory response through regulation of the transcription of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors. We investigated the functional role of IKK2 in development of the laser-induced CNV using either Ikk2 conditional knockout mice or an IKK2 inhibitor. The retinal neuronal tissue and RPE deletion of IKK2 was generated by breeding Ikk2?/flox mice with Nestin-Cre mice. Deletion of Ikk2 in the retina caused no obvious defect in retinal development or function, but resulted in a significant reduction in laser-induced CNV. In addition, intravitreal or retrobulbar injection of an IKK2 specific chemical inhibitor, TPCA-1, also showed similar inhibition of CNV. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of IKK2 in ARPE-19 cells significantly reduced heat shock-induced expression of NFKBIA, IL1B, CCL2, VEGFA, PDGFA, HIF1A, and MMP-2, suggesting that IKK2 may regulate multiple molecular pathways involved in laser-induced CNV. The in vivo laser-induced expression of VEGFA, and HIF1A in RPE and choroidal tissue was also blocked by TPCA-1 treatment. Thus, IKK2/NF-?B signaling appears responsible for production of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors in laser-induced CNV, suggesting that this intracellular pathway may serve as an important therapeutic target for aberrant angiogenesis in exudative AMD. PMID:24489934

  19. RAGE Regulates Immune Cell Infiltration and Angiogenesis in Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    McVicar, Carmel; Ward, Michael; Colhoun, Liza; Quinn, Michael; Bierhaus, Angelika; Xu, Heping; Stitt, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose RAGE regulates pro-inflammatory responses in diverse cells and tissues. This study has investigated if RAGE plays a role in immune cell mobilization and choroidal neovascular pathology that is associated with the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods RAGE null (RAGE?/?) mice and age-matched wild type (WT) control mice underwent laser photocoagulation to generate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions which were then analyzed for morphology, S100B immunoreactivity and inflammatory cell infiltration. The chemotactic ability of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) towards S100B was investigated. Results RAGE expression was significantly increased in the retina during CNV of WT mice (p<0.001). RAGE?/? mice exhibited significantly reduced CNV lesion size when compared to WT controls (p<0.05). S100B mRNA was upregulated in the lasered WT retina but not RAGE?/? retina and S100B immunoreactivity was present within CNV lesions although levels were less when RAGE?/? mice were compared to WT controls. Activated microglia in lesions were considerably less abundant in RAGE?/? mice when compared to WT counterparts (p<0.001). A dose dependent chemotactic migration was observed in BMDMs from WT mice (p<0.05–0.01) but this was not apparent in cells isolated from RAGE?/? mice. Conclusions RAGE-S100B interactions appear to play an important role in CNV lesion formation by regulating pro-inflammatory and angiogenic responses. This study highlights the role of RAGE in inflammation-mediated outer retinal pathology. PMID:24586862

  20. Brachial plexus injury in adults: Diagnosis and surgical treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Babhulkar, Sonali; Hiremath, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Adult post traumatic Brachial plexus injury is unfortunately a rather common injury in young adults. In India the most common scenario is of a young man injured in a motorcycle accident. Exact incidence figures are not available but of the injuries presenting to us about 90% invole the above combination This article reviews peer-reviewed publications including clinical papers, review articles and Meta analysis of the subject. In addition, the authors? experience of several hundred cases over the last 15 years has been added and has influenced the ultimate text. Results have been discussed and analysed to get an idea of factors influencing final recovery. It appears that time from injury and number of roots involved are most crucial. PMID:23661959

  1. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in five awake obese patients using paravertebral and superficial cervical plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, S; Fawal, H; Maaliki, H; Naja, Z M

    2015-08-01

    We report laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in five awake obese patients, completed under regional anaesthesia provided by paravertebral and superficial cervical plexus blockade. The technique was acceptable to patients, surgeons and anaesthetists. PMID:25756905

  2. Relationship between Nailfold Plexus Visibility and Clinical, Neuropsychological, and Brain Structural

    E-print Network

    Curtis, Clayton

    Relationship between Nailfold Plexus Visibility and Clinical, Neuropsychological, and Brain nonpsychiatric controls. Smooth­ pursuit eye tracking, clinical features, neuropsychological performance, worse course, more severe illness, worse occu- pational functioning, and worse neuropsychological per

  3. Investigation of brachial plexus traction lesions by peripheral and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J Jones

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral, spinal and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in 26 patients with unilateral traction injuries of the brachial plexus ganglia. Of 10 cases explored surgically the recordings correctly anticipated the major site of the lesion in eight.

  4. Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Sridhar, E-mail: shankars@ummhc.org; Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Flanagan, Hugh L. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Whang, Edward E. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication.

  5. Description and evaluation of an intraoral cervical plexus anesthetic technique.

    PubMed

    Bitner, Daniel P; Uzbelger Feldman, Daniel; Axx, Kevin; Albandar, Jasim M

    2015-07-01

    Unsuccessful anesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) may be due to supplementary innervations of mandibular molars from other branches, namely the cervical plexus (CP). The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to determine the effectiveness of an intraoral cervical plexus anesthetic technique (ICPAT) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIR) when the IAN and lingual nerve (LN) blocks failed, and to provide a description of the technique. Forty patients diagnosed with SIR received IAN and LN block anesthesia prior to treatment. After clinical signs of anesthesia, patients were subjected to an electrical pulp test (EPT) at 2-min cycles for 10 min post-injection. The anesthesia was considered unsuccessful if there was a positive EPT response ten minutes following profound lip numbness. The experimental group (n?=?20) were administered 2% Lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine using the ICPAT. The control group (n?=?20) were administered 0.9% sterile saline using the ICPAT. Success was defined as no response on two consecutive readings from an EPT. In the experimental group, 60% of subjects showed successful anesthesia, whereas none of the subjects in the control group had successful anesthesia. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the anesthesia success rate using the ICPAT method was significantly higher (P?

  6. OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

  7. Continuous posterior lumbar plexus and continuous parasacral and intubation with lighted stylet for ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; Lucena, Neli

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is characterized by progressive ossification of the spinal column with resultant stiffness. Ankylosing spondylitis can present significant challenges to the anaesthetist as a consequence of the potential difficult airway and performing neuraxial blockade. We describe a case of intubation with lighted stylet, and use of the continuous lumbosacral plexus for THA and postoperative analgesia with an elastomeric pump. Key words: Airways difficult anticipated, anesthesia, ankoylosing spondylitis, arthroplasty, conduction, continuous lumbosacral plexus, hip, infusion pumps, intubation awake, replacement PMID:25886430

  8. Case series: Septa can influence local anesthetic spread during infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maki Morimoto; Jovan Popovic; Jung T. Kim; Harald Kiamzon; Andrew D. Rosenberg

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To ultrasonically identify the presence of septae within the neurovascular sheath and to assess their effect on local anesthetic\\u000a spread when performing infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features: Thirty ASA status I and II patients scheduled for minor hand surgeries were enrolled in the study. Ultrasound guided infraclavicular\\u000a brachial plexus blocks were performed on 28 patients. The images of

  9. A note on the anastomoses between the hypoglossal nerve and the cervical plexus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph Caliot; D Dumont; V Bousquet; D Midy

    1986-01-01

    Summary  A series of 80 dissections was performed to define the anastomoses between the cervical plexus and the hypoglossal nerve (XII),\\u000a the superior anastomosis between the trunk of XII and the ansa of the atlas from the cervical plexus; the ansa cervicalis,\\u000a traditionally known as the ansa of the XIIth cranial nerve or hypoglossal ansa, formed by the direct junctional anastomosis

  10. Axillary plexus block using a peripheral nerve stimulator: single or multiple injections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lavoie; R. Martin; J.-P. Tétrault; D. J. Côté; M. J. Colas

    1992-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was undertaken to evaluate the success rates of axillary brachial plexus\\u000a block performed with the help of a peripheral nerve stimulator when either one, two or four of the major nerves of the brachial\\u000a plexus were located. Seventy-five patients undergoing upper limb surgery were randomly allocated to one of the following five\\u000a groups according to

  11. Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Gharbaoui, Idris S; Gogola, Gloria R; Aaron, Dorit H; Kozin, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder joint deformities continue to be a challenging aspect of treating upper plexus lesions in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP). It is increasingly recognized that PBPP affects the glenohumeral joint specifically, and that abnormal scapulothoracic movements are a compensatory development. The pathophysiology and assessment of glenohumeral joint contractures, the progression of scapular dyskinesia and skeletal dysplasia, and current shoulder imaging techniques are reviewed. PMID:25835253

  12. A DTC Niche Plexus Surrounds the Germline Stem Cell Pool in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Dana T.; Knobel, Karla; Affeldt, Katharyn; Crittenden, Sarah L.; Kimble, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The mesenchymal distal tip cell (DTC) provides the niche for Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells (GSCs). The DTC has a complex cellular architecture: its cell body caps the distal gonadal end and contacts germ cells extensively, but it also includes multiple cellular processes that extend along the germline tube and intercalate between germ cells. Here we use the lag-2 DTC promoter to drive expression of myristoylated GFP, which highlights DTC membranes and permits a more detailed view of DTC architecture. We find that short processes intercalating between germ cells contact more germ cells than seen previously. We define this region of extensive niche contact with germ cells as the DTC plexus. The extent of the DTC plexus corresponds well with the previously determined extent of the GSC pool. Moreover, expression of a differentiation marker increases as germ cells move out of the plexus. Maintenance of this DTC plexus depends on the presence of undifferentiated germ cells, suggesting that germ cell state can influence niche architecture. The roles of this DTC architecture remain an open question. One idea is that the DTC plexus delivers Notch signaling to the cluster of germ cells comprising the GSC pool; another idea is that the plexus anchors GSCs at the distal end. PMID:24586318

  13. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Prashad, Bhagwat; Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints. PMID:21139800

  14. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Prashad, Bhagwat; Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K

    2007-10-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints. PMID:21139800

  15. Remote transplantation of a third ventricle colloid cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Zabihyan, Samira; Etemadrezaie, Hamid; Baharvahdat, Humain; Baradaran, Aslan; Ganjeefar, Babak; Bohl, Michael A; Nakaji, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a third ventricle colloid cyst. She presented with prolonged headache, nausea, vomiting, and loss of visual acuity with bilateral papilledema. Computed tomography and MRI revealed severe biventricular hydrocephalus with transependymal periventricular fluid and a minimally enhancing cystic mass of the third ventricle. The patient was diagnosed with a colloid cyst and obstructive hydrocephalus, and endoscopic resection with ablation of the cyst remnant was performed. While attempting to extricate the cyst from the patient's head, control of the cyst was lost and the cyst fell into the lateral ventricle beyond the surgeon's view. Postoperative imaging showed that the cyst had settled in the right occipital horn. After 3 years of follow-up, imaging suggests growth of the cyst in its new position without necrosis or displacement on prone imaging. PMID:25768828

  16. Determination of the genera of cyst-forming coccidia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Frenkel; D. D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    The following heteroxenous and cyst-forming coccidian genera, Besnoitia, Cystoisospora, Frenkelia, Hammondia, Neospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma have been compared biologically, and a key to determine their tissue cysts is provided.

  17. Neurenteric Cyst of the Area Postrema

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Claire M.; Wang, Bonnie H.; Chen, Eric; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Neurenteric cysts are CNS lesions most frequently occurring in the spinal cord. Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rarer, typically presenting with headache, mass effect, or location-specific symptoms. The area postrema is known as the emetic center of the brain; lesions can cause nausea and vomiting. Our case, featuring a neurenteric cyst of the area postrema, illustrates the importance of considering a neurological etiology for nonspecific symptoms that otherwise elude explanation. Our patient presented with acute decompensated hydrocephalus upon exploratory abdominal laparoscopy for unresolving abdominal pain. The patient had an eight-month history of unexplained intermittent nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. These bouts increased in frequency during the weeks before acute presentation, prompting exploratory abdominal laparoscopy. The acute decompensation was managed by ventriculostomy, and cranial MRI revealed a cystic mass by the floor of the fourth ventricle. After the patient stabilized and returned to neurological baseline, suboccipital craniectomy and resection were performed. The mass was histologically identified as a neurenteric cyst. The patient was free from neurological complaints at one-year follow-up, indicating that the successful resection of the area postrema-associated neurenteric cyst resolved her previous symptoms. Thus, some intracranial lesions can masquerade as nonspecific symptoms, presenting a challenge to accurate diagnosis. PMID:25317345

  18. Synovial Cyst Mimicking an Intraspinal Sacral Mass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old female had a three-week history of severe low back pain radiating down the posterior left buttocks and left leg exacerbated by standing and walking. Lumbar spine MRI revealed cystic mass with similar intensity to cerebrospinal fluid located on dorsolateral left side of the sacral spinal canal inferior to the S1 pedicle. There was compression of left exiting S1 and traversing S2 nerve roots. Neurosurgery consult was requested to evaluate the cystic mass in the sacral spinal canal. After clinical evaluation, an unusually located synovial cyst was thought possible. Cyst contents were heterogeneous, suggestive of small hemorrhage and acute clinical history seemed reasonable. Left S1 and partial left S2 hemilaminectomy was performed and an epidural, partially hemorrhagic cyst was removed. There was no obvious connection to the ipsilateral L5-S1 facet joint. Pathology revealed synovial cyst, and the patient's leg pain was improved postoperatively. This synovial cyst was unusual as it had no connection with the facet joint intraoperatively and its location in the sacral canal was uncommon. PMID:24716025

  19. Neurenteric cyst of the area postrema.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claire M; Wang, Bonnie H; Moon, Seong-Jin; Chen, Eric; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Neurenteric cysts are CNS lesions most frequently occurring in the spinal cord. Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rarer, typically presenting with headache, mass effect, or location-specific symptoms. The area postrema is known as the emetic center of the brain; lesions can cause nausea and vomiting. Our case, featuring a neurenteric cyst of the area postrema, illustrates the importance of considering a neurological etiology for nonspecific symptoms that otherwise elude explanation. Our patient presented with acute decompensated hydrocephalus upon exploratory abdominal laparoscopy for unresolving abdominal pain. The patient had an eight-month history of unexplained intermittent nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. These bouts increased in frequency during the weeks before acute presentation, prompting exploratory abdominal laparoscopy. The acute decompensation was managed by ventriculostomy, and cranial MRI revealed a cystic mass by the floor of the fourth ventricle. After the patient stabilized and returned to neurological baseline, suboccipital craniectomy and resection were performed. The mass was histologically identified as a neurenteric cyst. The patient was free from neurological complaints at one-year follow-up, indicating that the successful resection of the area postrema-associated neurenteric cyst resolved her previous symptoms. Thus, some intracranial lesions can masquerade as nonspecific symptoms, presenting a challenge to accurate diagnosis. PMID:25317345

  20. Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts exposed to chlorine.

    PubMed Central

    Sauch, J F; Berman, D

    1991-01-01

    Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h. The majority of cysts exposed to chlorine concentrations of 1 to 11 mg/liter at 5 and 15 degrees C lost their internal morphological characteristics necessary for identification, but most of them were still detectable by immunofluorescence. Images PMID:1854208