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1

Intraventricular choroid plexus “arachnoid” cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A young women presented with chronic headaches associated with a cyst of the right lateral ventricle. The diagnosis of intraventricular\\u000a so-called “arachnoid” cyst was supported by CT scan, MRI and stereotactic puncture. MRI was of great value for demonstrating\\u000a that the cyst was located within the lateral ventricule, that it was delinated by a thin wall adherent to the choroid

J. Pelletier; L. Milandre; J. C. Péragut; S. Crongvist

1990-01-01

2

Diagnosis and surgical resection of a choroid plexus cyst in a dog.  

PubMed

A three-year-old neutered male toy fox terrier presented for a Chiari-like malformation. No neurological deficits were found on examination, although diffuse cervical, thoracolumbar and head pain were present. A mass within the fourth ventricle was apparent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The lesion was hyperintense to brain parenchyma on T2-weighted images, hypointense on T1-weighted images and there was strong, homogeneous contrast enhancement. The cystic mass was removed through a suboccipital craniectomy. Histopathology was consistent with a choroid plexus cyst. The dog recovered well from the procedure and was clinically normal three months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge this is the first description of the appearance of a choroid plexus cyst on MRI in a dog and of its surgical removal. Although they are an uncommon finding, choroid plexus cysts should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mass lesions within the fourth ventricle. PMID:20070492

Brewer, D M; Cerda-Gonzalez, S; Dewey, C W; Coates, J R

2010-03-01

3

Chromosomal findings in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed cysts of the choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choroid plexus cysts were diagnosed in 25 out of 823 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed abnormalities (growth retardation\\/malformations). Among these, 5 revealed a chromosomal disorder (4 cases with trisomy 18 and one case with a translocation trisomy 21). Additional abnormalities, such as growth retardation, holoprosencephaly, hydrocephalus and club foot, were found in 6 out of the 20 fetuses with no chromosomal

K. Zerres; H. Schiller; U. Gembruch; R. Bald; M. Hansmann; G. Schwanitz

1992-01-01

4

Acinar Choroid Plexus Adenoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mucin-producing cystic tumors of the choroid plexus are rare and most are papillomas or carcinomas. An acinar choroid plexus adenoma of the right lateral ventricle is described. Symptoms and signs included headache, vomiting, papilledema, and a gait distu...

G. E. Fox R. L. Davis

1970-01-01

5

Pediatric choroid plexus neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) are rare childhood neoplasms. The relatively small number of reported cases and the controversies surrounding the clinical and pathological classification of these tumors have made it difficult to define a standard of care for these patients. Our intention is to contribute to the body of knowledge of these tumors and further define the role of

Edward Chow; David A Reardon; Amit B Shah; Jesse J Jenkins; James Langston; Richard L Heideman; Robert A Sanford; Larry E Kun; Thomas E Merchant

1999-01-01

6

Thyroxine transport in choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

The role of the choroid plexus in thyroid hormone transport between body and brain, suggested by strong synthesis and secretion of transthyretin in this tissue, was investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. Rat choroid plexus pieces incubated in vitro were found to accumulate thyroid hormones from surrounding medium in a non-saturable process. At equilibrium, the ratio of thyroid hormone concentration in choroid plexus pieces to that in medium decreased upon increasing the concentration of transthyretin in the medium. Fluorescence quenching of fluorophores located at different depths in liposome membranes showed maximal hormone accumulation in the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. Partition coefficients of thyroxine and triiodothyronine between lipid and aqueous phase were about 20,000. After intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones, choroid plexus and parts of the brain steadily accumulated /sup 125/I-thyroxine, but not (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine, for many hours. The accumulation of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in choroid plexus preceded that in brain. The amount of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in non-brain tissues and the (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine content of all tissues decreased steadily beginning immediately after injection. A model is proposed for thyroxine transport from the bloodstream into cerebrospinal fluid based on partitioning of thyroxine between choroid plexus and surrounding fluids and binding of thyroxine to transthyretin newly synthesized and secreted by choroid plexus.

Dickson, P.W.; Aldred, A.R.; Menting, J.G.; Marley, P.D.; Sawyer, W.H.; Schreiber, G.

1987-10-15

7

Choroid plexus: biology and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid plexus is an epithelial–endothelial vascular convolute within the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain.\\u000a It consists of epithelial cells, fenestrated blood vessels, and the stroma, dependent on various physiological or pathological\\u000a conditions, which may contain fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, granulocytes or other infiltrates, and a rich extracellular\\u000a matrix. The choroid plexus is mainly involved in the production of

Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Paulus

2010-01-01

8

Xanthogranuloma of the choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

Uncommon tumefactions known as xanthogranulomas can occur throughout the body. Some appear to develop as benign or malignant neoplasms. An even less familiar xanthogranuloma occurs within the choroid plexus. Most are tiny plaques only a few millimeters in diameter. However, they can present as masses of significant size within the glomus. When large and unilateral, they are included in the differential diagnosis of choroid plexus tumors. A computed tomographic (CT) study of such a tumor is presented.

Pear, B.L.

1984-08-01

9

Epithelial Pathways in Choroid Plexus Electrolyte Transport  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A stable intraventricular milieu is crucial for maintaining normal neuronal function. The choroid plexus epithelium produces the cerebrospinal fluid and in doing so influences the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid of the brain. Here, we review the molecular pathways involved in transport of the electrolytes Na+, K+, ClÃÂ, and HCO across the choroid plexus epithelium.

Helle Damkier (Aarhus University Anatomy); Peter Brown (University of Manchester); Jeppe Praetorius (Aarhus University)

2010-08-01

10

Ultrastructure of disseminated choroid plexus papilloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disseminated choroid plexus papilloma (DCPP) with a malignant change in the cervico-spinal leptomeninges observed 4 years after the removal of choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), originating from the fourth ventricle, was studied under the electron microscope. Although the ultrastructure of intracranial CPP has been reported by several authors, there are just a few reports on DCPP. The present tumor was

T. Masuzawa; H. Shimabukuro; N. Yoshimizu; F. Sato

1981-01-01

11

Cystic choroid plexus papilloma in the cavum septum pellucidum.  

PubMed

A choroid plexus papilloma is a rare CNS neoplasm arising from the neuroepithelial lining of the choroid plexus. A third ventricular location of a choroid plexus papilloma is rare compared with the more common sites in the lateral and fourth ventricles. Cystic choroid plexus papilloma represents an infrequent subtype that may present diagnostic ambiguity. The authors present a case of cystic choroid plexus papilloma within a cavum septum pellucidum that radiographically mimicked neurocysticercosis. PMID:19951048

Tuchman, Alexander; Kalhorn, Stephen P; Mikolaenko, Irina; Wisoff, Jeffrey H

2009-12-01

12

Ultrastructure of disseminated choroid plexus papilloma.  

PubMed

A disseminated choroid plexus papilloma (DCPP) with a malignant change in the cervico-spinal leptomeninges observed 4 years after the removal of choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), originating from the fourth ventricle, was studied under the electron microscope. Although the ultrastructure of intracranial CPP has been reported by several authors, there are just a few reports on DCPP. The present tumor was ultrastructurally very similar to normal choroid plexus, but the lack of the capillary fenestration and of invaginations of the epithelial basal plasmalemmas suggested that the epithelium was deprived of secretory function. PMID:7270087

Masuzawa, T; Shimabukuro, H; Yoshimizu, N; Sato, F

1981-01-01

13

Cerebrospinal fluid secretion by the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus epithelium is a cuboidal cell monolayer, which produces the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid. The concerted action of a variety of integral membrane proteins mediates the transepithelial movement of solutes and water across the epithelium. Secretion by the choroid plexus is characterized by an extremely high rate and by the unusual cellular polarization of well-known epithelial transport proteins. This review focuses on the specific ion and water transport by the choroid plexus cells, and then attempts to integrate the action of specific transport proteins to formulate a model of cerebrospinal fluid secretion. Significant emphasis is placed on the concept of isotonic fluid transport across epithelia, as there is still surprisingly little consensus on the basic biophysics of this phenomenon. The role of the choroid plexus in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance in the central nervous system is discussed, and choroid plexus dysfunctions are described in a very diverse set of clinical conditions such as aging, Alzheimer's disease, brain edema, neoplasms, and hydrocephalus. Although the choroid plexus may only have an indirect influence on the pathogenesis of these conditions, the ability to modify epithelial function may be an important component of future therapies. PMID:24137023

Damkier, Helle H; Brown, Peter D; Praetorius, Jeppe

2013-10-01

14

Etiology of Ventriculomegaly in Choroid Plexus Papilloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the hypothesis that overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid can cause the hydrocephalus seen in choroid plexus papillomas, adult mongrel dogs with and without hydrocephalus were subjected to high pressure intraventricular infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Pre- and postinfusion volumes were calculated, using a new method for on-line measurement of ventricular volume involving linear measurements from Conray®

H. L. Rekate; S. Erwood; J. A. Brodkey; H. J. Chizeck; T. Spear; W. Ko; F. Montague

1986-01-01

15

Etiology of ventriculomegaly in choroid plexus papilloma.  

PubMed

In order to test the hypothesis that overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid can cause the hydrocephalus seen in choroid plexus papillomas, adult mongrel dogs with and without hydrocephalus were subjected to high pressure intraventricular infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Pre- and postinfusion volumes were calculated, using a new method for on-line measurement of ventricular volume involving linear measurements from Conray ventriculograms. Ventricular volumes increased an average of 8% in 36 h. The dogs previously made hydrocephalic by the intracisternal injection of kaolin had a significant volume increase (34% in 36 h). Overproduction of CSF alone can produce hydrocephalus, but the presence of hydrocephalus in choroid plexus papillomas is more likely to be a result of the complex interaction of CSF overproduction and partial restriction of CSF flow. PMID:3843618

Rekate, H L; Erwood, S; Brodkey, J A; Chizeck, H J; Spear, T; Ko, W; Montague, F

16

Choroid plexus protects cerebrospinal fluid against toxic metals  

SciTech Connect

Although heavy metal ions are known to be toxic to the central nervous system (CNS), the mechanisms by which the CNS may protect itself from initial challenges of such toxic ions is unknown. The choroid plexus is the principal site of formation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which bathes the brain. We have determined in rats and rabbits that after intraperitoneal administration of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic compounds, these toxic metal ions accumulated in the lateral choroid plexus at concentrations of Pb, Hg, and As that were 70-, 95-, and 40-fold higher, respectively, than those found in CSF. Cd was not detected in the CSF. In addition, concentrations of these heavy metal ions were found to be many fold greater in the choroid plexus than in the brain or blood. The accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus was dose-dependent and time-related. When the choroid plexus was preincubated, in vitro, with ouabain (1.5 mM), the uptake of Cd from the CSF side of the choroid plexus was inhibited 57%. Cadmium metallothionein was not found in the choroid plexus. Whereas the concentration of reduced glutathione in the choroid plexus was less than that in the brain cortex, the concentration of cysteine was fourfold greater. The lateral choroid plexus sequesters Pb, Cd, As, and Hg. It appears to be one of the important mechanisms that protects the CSF and the brain from the fluxes of toxic heavy metals in the blood.

Wei, Zheng; Perry, D.F.; Nelson, D.L.; Aposhian, H.V. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1991-05-01

17

Effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to examine effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus. The authors used microspheres to measure blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum in anesthetized dogs and rabbits. A critical assumption of the microsphere method is that microspheres do not pass through arteriovenous shunts. Blood flow values obtained with simultaneous injection of 15- and 50-{mu}m microspheres were similar, which suggest that shunting of 15-{mu}m microspheres was minimal. Blood flow to choroid plexus under control conditions was 287 {plus minus} 26 (means {plus minus} SE) ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in dogs and 385 {plus minus} 73 ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in rabbits. Consecutive measurements under control conditions indicated that values for blood flow are reproducible. Adenosine did not alter blood flow to cerebrum but increased blood flow to choroid plexus two- to threefold in dogs and rabbits. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not affect blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum but decreased blood flow to choroid plexus by {approx} 50%. The authors suggest that (1) the microsphere method provides reproducible valid measurements of blood flow to the choroid plexus in dogs and rabbits and (2) vasoactive stimuli may have profoundly different effects on blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum.

Faraci, F.M.; Mayhan, W.G.; Williams, J.K.; Heistad, D.D. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (USA))

1988-02-01

18

Psammoma bodies - friends or foes of the aging choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Psammoma bodies are structures classified in the group of dystrophic calcifications, which occur in some kind of tumors and in choroid plexus during the aging process. Despite early discovery of their presence in choroid plexus stroma, mechanisms responsible for their formation remained unclear. Their presence in some kind of tumors was even more extensively studied, but significant breakthrough in the field of their etiology was not attained, too. However, till today correlation between their presence in tumors and aging is not established. Also, there are not any data about structural differences between ones found in tumors and ones found in choroid plexus. This might points to the assumption that besides the aging, some other causes might be involved in their formation in choroid plexus. Furthermore, it is contradictory that forms, like psammoma bodies, present in such malignant formations as tumors, represent quite benign phenomenon in choroid plexus. Literature data and the results of our previous researches revealed that there might be connections between, these, on the first sight quite different processes. Firstly, psammoma bodies are present in stroma of tumors with predominantly papillomatous morphology, which is present in choroid plexus, too. Initial forms of psammoma bodies might be formed in fibrovascular core of choroid plexus villi, similarly like in tumors papillae of papillary thyroid cancer. Their further growth leads to the progressive destruction of both tumors papillae and choroidal villi. Choroid plexus stroma is characterized by the fenestrated blood vessels presence, which are similar to newly formed vessels in tumors. This makes it vulnerable to the noxious agents from circulation. It can contain lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and myofibroblasts in cases with psammoma bodies, similarly to tumors stroma which is in activated, proinflammatory state. So, all these facts can suggest that similar processes can lead to psammoma bodies formation in both tumors and choroid plexus and, that they might have harmful effect on choroid plexus structure and function during the aging process. Significantly higher degree of choroidal epithelial cells atrophy, in cases with present psammoma bodies proves that partially. Further researches should be focused on detection of osteopontin and nanobacteria, already detected in tumors psammoma bodies, in choroid plexus ones. Discovery of choroidal psammoma bodies mechanisms formation can be important for elucidation of some aspects in pathogenesis of some tumors, too. Application of choroid plexus epithelial cells functional markers in cases with psammoma bodies should show their functional status. PMID:20116930

Jovanovi?, Ivan; Ugrenovi?, Sladjana; Vasovi?, Ljiljana; Petrovi?, Dragan; Ceki?, Sonja

2010-06-01

19

Metastatic atypical choroid plexus papilloma: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare adult tumours and metastatic disease is even less common, more typically associated\\u000a with choroid plexus carcinoma. We present the case of a 32-year-old patient with multiple metastases arising along the length\\u000a of the neuraxis 3 years after resection of an atypical fourth ventricular CPP. Metastatic deposits were found from the mid-brain\\u000a to the lumbar cistern

Christopher E. G. Uff; Malcolm Galloway; Robert Bradford

2007-01-01

20

Management of disseminated choroid plexus papilloma: a case study.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a low-grade neoplasm of the choroid plexus that typically occurs in childhood and comprises under 1% of adult brain tumors. In this article, we report our experience delivering craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to a highly unusual case of disseminated CPP in an adult patient 8 years after an initial near total resection. The patient remains free of disease progression 3 years after completing radiation. PMID:24038916

Zachary, Guss; George, Jallo; Jaishri, Blakely; Peter, Burger; Stephanie, Terezakis

2014-03-01

21

Placental lactogen binding sites in the pregnant rabbit choroid plexus.  

PubMed Central

Prolactin has direct effects on the CNS. The highest concentration of prolactin receptors resides within the choroid plexus where they probably function to transport prolactin from blood into CSF. Another member of the lactogen family of hormones, placental lactogen (PL), also affects CNS activity and may similarly employ the cerebroventricular system as an intermediary. In order to determine whether the choroid plexus was a PL target tissue, in vitro autoradiography was used to identify specific PL binding sites in the choroid plexus of pregnant New Zealand White rabbits. Frozen brain sections were incubated in a medium containing 125I human PL (hPL) alone (total binding) or with a 500-fold excess of unlabelled hPL (nonspecific binding). The specificity of the binding was assessed with unlabelled human growth hormone (hGH) and ovine luteinising hormone (oLH). An intense autoradiographic reaction occurred over the choroid plexus of tissue sections incubated with 125I hPL alone. Excess unlabelled hPL and hGH, which is lactogenic in the rabbit, caused a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the binding of radiolabelled hPL to the choroid plexus. In contrast, unlabelled oLH had no effect on radiolabelled hPL binding to this tissue. The results support a role for the choroid plexus in the interactions between PL and the CNS. Images Fig. 1

Mangurian, L P; Lewis, R; Walsh, R J

1994-01-01

22

Antibodies to choroid plexus in senile dementia of Alzheimer's type.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To investigate whether autoantibodies to choroid plexus are present in human senile dementia. METHODS: Serum samples from 40 elderly people presenting with characteristic, diagnostic criteria of senile dementia of Alzheimer's type and 20 age matched healthy controls were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for the presence of autoantibodies to choroid plexuses, using frozen sections of rat or human fetal brain tissue. RESULTS: Significant labelling of choroid plexus basement membrane was observed in 17 of the 40 samples from patients with senile dementia; in the control series one sample of rat but not human plexus labelled positively (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The antibodies identified in this series of patients with Alzheimer's disease suggest that autoimmune mechanisms might be responsible for some of the changes in cerebrospinal fluid production described in this disorder. Images

Serot, J M; Bene, M C; Gobert, B; Christmann, D; Leheup, B; Faure, G C

1992-01-01

23

The structure of the choroid plexus and the physiology of the choroid plexus epithelium.  

PubMed

The choroid plexuses (CPs) are leaf-like highly vascular structures laying in the ventricles. The main function of choroid plexuses is the production of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although CPs have a unique distribution of ion transporters/channels, the mechanism of CSF production is similar to the production of fluids in other epithelia and is based on energy released from ATP hydrolysis, which drives unidirectional flux of ions accompanied by movement of water by osmosis. The CPs have an important role in the homeostasis of nutrients in the CSF since the kinetic parameters of glucose and amino acid (AA) transport across the CPs are the main reason for the low concentration of these molecules in the CSF. The CPs appear to be source of CSF-borne hormones and growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II), vasopressin (VP) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). The CPs also synthesise the thyroid transporting protein transthyretin and transferrin and can chelate heavy metals. PMID:15381330

Redzic, Zoran B; Segal, Malcolm B

2004-10-14

24

Hurthle cell carcinoma presenting as a single choroid plexus metastasis.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus masses represent approximately 0.3-0.8% of intracranial tumors. Herein we present, to our knowledge, the first reported patient with an isolated Hurthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. Unresponsive to iodine ablation and refusing surgery, the patient underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden), receiving 15Gy to the 50% isodose line. The lesion regressed until 5years later at which time it was unresponsive to 18Gy and required surgical resection. Although extraneural metastatic cancers are recognized as potential sources for the single choroid plexus mass, we must consider even the unusual culprit in patients with a history of cancer. PMID:24656751

Healy, Andrew T; Otvos, Balint; Schroeder, Jason; Hamrahian, Amir H; Angelov, Lilyana; Kamian, Kambiz

2014-08-01

25

Molecular Targeted Therapies of Childhood Choroid Plexus Carcinoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is a rare malignant brain tumor originating from the epithelial cells lining the cerebral ventricles. CPC represents less than 0.6% of brain tumors in all age groups, yet is more frequent in children (2-4%), especially in in...

D. Malkin D. Merino

2013-01-01

26

Kinetics of circulating vasopressin uptake by choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Uptake of circulating arginine vasopressin (AVP) by choroid plexus was studied by means of the in situ brain perfusion technique in anesthetized guinea pig and by means of single-circulation paired-tracer dilution technique in isolated perfused sheep choroid plexus. Kinetic analysis revealed saturable AVP uptake with Michaelis constant (Km) values of 32 +/- 4 and 31 +/- 5 nM and maximal saturable influx rate (Vmax) of 0.45 +/- 0.06 and 12.1 +/- 0.67 pmol.min-1.g-1 in guinea pig and sheep choroid plexus, respectively. The peptide fragments AVP-(1-8) and [pGlu4,Cyt6]AVP-(4-9), the amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, and the aminopeptidase inhibitors Bestatin and bacitracin did not influence hormone kinetics. However, the V1 antagonist [(1-beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclo-pentamethylenepropionic acid)-O-methyl-Tyr2]AVP significantly inhibited AVP uptake with inhibitor constant (Ki) values of 0.19 +/- 0.03 (guinea pig) and 0.07 +/- 0.01 microM (sheep). The V2 agonist 1-desamino-8-D-AVP and pressinoic acid produced weak inhibitions only in guinea pig choroid plexus, and Ki/Km ratios indicated 220 and 310 times lower affinities than for AVP, respectively. It is suggested that the membrane mechanism responsible for AVP uptake in choroid plexus has a binding site with properties similar to those of V1 receptor. PMID:1899978

Zlokovic, B V; Segal, M B; McComb, J G; Hyman, S; Weiss, M H; Davson, H

1991-02-01

27

'*%Lysergic Acid Biethylamide Binds to a Novel Serotonergic Site on Rat Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysergic acid diethylamide ('251-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol\\/mg of protein, which is lo-fold higher than the

KEITH A. YAGALOFF; PAUL R. HARTIG

28

Management of Choroid Plexus Tumours in Children: 20 Years Experience at a Single Neurosurgical Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Tumours of the choroid plexus are rare tumours of neuro-ectodermal origin, accounting for less than 1% of all intracranial tumours. Most cases present in children less than 2 years of age. While choroid plexus carcinomas (CPC) are reported to have an extremely poor prognosis, choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are generally regarded as benign tumours with a very favourable long-term

Andrew W. McEvoy; Brian N. Harding; Kim P. Phipps; David W. Ellison; Andrew J. Elsmore; Dominic Thompson; William Harkness; Richard D. Hayward

2000-01-01

29

Fgf2 is expressed in human and murine embryonic choroid plexus and affects choroid plexus epithelial cell behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background Although fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling plays crucial roles in several developing and mature tissues, little information is currently available on expression of Fgf2 during early choroid plexus development and whether Fgf2 directly affects the behaviour of the choroid plexus epithelium (CPe). The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of Fgf2 in rodent and human developing CPe and possible function of Fgf2, using in vitro models. The application of Fgf2 to brain in vivo can affect the whole tissue, making it difficult to assess specific responses of the CPe. Methods Expression of Fgf2 was studied by immunohistochemistry in rodent and human embryonic choroid plexus. Effects of Fgf2 on growth, secretion, aggregation and gene expression was investigated using rodent CPe vesicles, a three-dimensional polarized culture model that closely mimics CPe properties in vivo, and rodent CPe monolayer cultures. Results Fgf2 was present early in development of the choroid plexus both in mouse and human, suggesting the importance of this ligand in Fgf signalling in the developing choroid plexus. Parallel analysis of Fgf2 expression and cell proliferation during CP development suggests that Fgf2 is not involved in CPe proliferation in vivo. Consistent with this observation is the failure of Fgf2 to increase proliferation in the tri-dimensional vesicle culture model. The CPe however, can respond to Fgf2 treatment, as the diameter of CPe vesicles is significantly increased by treatment with this growth factor. We show that this is due to an increase in cell aggregation during vesicle formation rather than increased secretion into the vesicle lumen. Finally, Fgf2 regulates expression of the CPe-associated transcription factors, Foxj1 and E2f5, whereas transthyretin, a marker of secretory activity, is not affected by Fgf2 treatment. Conclusion Fgf2 expression early in the development of both human and rodent choroid plexus, and its ability to modulate behaviour and gene expression in CPe, supports the view that Fgf signalling plays a role in the maintenance of integrity and function of this specialized epithelium, and that this role is conserved between rodents and humans.

Greenwood, Sarah; Swetloff, Adam; Wade, Angela M; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Ferretti, Patrizia

2008-01-01

30

Stress protein expression in the Alzheimer-diseased choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Abnormal patterns of stress protein expression are found in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus,of Alzheimer (AD) subjects. In this study, expression of various stress proteins in the Alzheimer-diseased choroid plexus (CP) was assessed immunohistochemically. We observed decreased HO-1 immunoreactivity in the AD CP, commensurate with our earlier report of suppressed HO-1 protein levels in AD cerebrospinal fluid (Schipper et

Shawn G. Anthony; Hyman M. Schipper; Rosemarie Tavares; Virginia Hovanesian; Selina C. Cortez; Edward G. Stopa; Conrad E. Johanson

31

Bifid choroid plexus: always a normal fetal brain structure variant?  

PubMed

Choroid plexus, a fetal organ developing approximately from the sixth week of gestation, plays a fundamental role in developing fetal brain organization. As relatively little is known about the relationship between anomalies of choroid plexuses structure and their role in brain function, we examined cases of bifid choroid plexus (BCP) and discussed their potential association with lateral ventriculomegaly, other abnormal ultrasound findings, and their potential role as markers of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. In the present study, we described 23 cases of fetal BCP found in 2145 routine second trimester ultrasounds. For each patient 2D and 3D ultrasound volumes were acquired. BCP was defined as a choroid plexus whose body was divided into two portions (arms) differently located and oriented on the three spatial axes in correspondence to the lateral ventricle, in one or both sides. The entity of the separation and reciprocal orientation of the two arms was examined. The presence of BCP in a low-risk population of pregnant women undergoing routine second trimester ultrasound was showed. Lateral ventricles significantly increased in the presence of BCP. Malformations were found in four of 23 fetuses with BCP. Pregnancy outcome was favorable only in one of these four cases. We suggest that in the presence of mono or bilateral BCP without associated abnormal ultrasound findings, a closer look at fetal brain or extra-cranial structures is recommended. If no related abnormalities are found, serial prenatal and postnatal sonographic follow-up should be considered. In the presence of concomitant abnormal findings, genetic counseling, fetal karyotyping and magnetic resonance imaging, if possible by gestational age, are strongly advised. PMID:23751040

Centini, Giovanni; Imperatore, Alberto; Morelli, Michele; Rosignoli, Lucia; Passamonti, Ubaldo; Caprioli, Francesco; Lituania, Mario

2013-06-01

32

Development and Notch Signaling Requirements of the Zebrafish Choroid Plexus  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus (CP) is an epithelial and vascular structure in the ventricular system of the brain that is a critical part of the blood-brain barrier. The CP has two primary functions, 1) to produce and regulate components of the cerebral spinal fluid, and 2) to inhibit entry into the brain of exogenous substances. Despite its importance in neurobiology, little is known about how this structure forms. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we show that the transposon-mediated enhancer trap zebrafish line EtMn16 expresses green fluorescent protein within a population of cells that migrate toward the midline and coalesce to form the definitive CP. We further demonstrate the development of the integral vascular network of the definitive CP. Utilizing pharmacologic pan-notch inhibition and specific morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate a requirement for Notch signaling in choroid plexus development. We identify three Notch signaling pathway members as mediating this effect, notch1b, deltaA, and deltaD. Conclusions and Significance This work is the first to identify the zebrafish choroid plexus and to characterize its epithelial and vasculature integration. This study, in the context of other comparative anatomical studies, strongly indicates a conserved mechanism for development of the CP. Finally, we characterize a requirement for Notch signaling in the developing CP. This establishes the zebrafish CP as an important new system for the determination of key signaling pathways in the formation of this essential component of the vertebrate brain.

Bill, Brent R.; Balciunas, Darius; McCarra, Joshua A.; Young, Eric D.; Xiong, Toua; Spahn, Ashley M.; Garcia-Lecea, Marta; Korzh, Vladimir; Ekker, Stephen C.; Schimmenti, Lisa A.

2008-01-01

33

IFN-?-dependent activation of the brain's choroid plexus for CNS immune surveillance and repair.  

PubMed

Infiltrating T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages support central nervous system repair. Although infiltration of leucocytes to the injured central nervous system has recently been shown to be orchestrated by the brain's choroid plexus, the immunological mechanism that maintains this barrier and regulates its activity as a selective gate is poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that CD4(+) effector memory T cells, recently shown to reside at the choroid plexus stroma, regulate leucocyte trafficking through this portal through their interactions with the choroid plexus epithelium. We found that the naïve choroid plexus is populated by T helper 1, T helper 2 and regulatory T cells, but not by encephalitogenic T cells. In vitro findings revealed that the expression of immune cell trafficking determinants by the choroid plexus epithelium is specifically induced by interferon-?. Tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-? reciprocally controlled the expression of their receptors by the choroid plexus epithelium, and had a synergistic effect in inducing the epithelial expression of trafficking molecules. In vivo, interferon-?-dependent signalling controlled trafficking through the choroid plexus; interferon-? receptor knockout mice exhibited reduced levels of T cells and monocyte entry to the cerebrospinal fluid and impaired recovery following spinal cord injury. Moreover, reduced expression of trafficking molecules by the choroid plexus was correlated with reduced CD4(+) T cells in the choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid of interferon-? receptor knockout mice. Similar effect on the expression of trafficking molecules by the choroid plexus was found in bone-marrow chimeric mice lacking interferon-? receptor in the central nervous system, or reciprocally, lacking interferon-? in the circulation. Collectively, our findings attribute a novel immunological plasticity to the choroid plexus epithelium, allowing it to serve, through interferon-? signalling, as a tightly regulated entry gate into the central nervous system for circulating leucocytes immune surveillance under physiological conditions, and for repair following acute injury. PMID:24088808

Kunis, Gilad; Baruch, Kuti; Rosenzweig, Neta; Kertser, Alexander; Miller, Omer; Berkutzki, Tamara; Schwartz, Michal

2013-11-01

34

The presence of arginine vasopressin and its mRNA in rat choroid plexus epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in the regulation of secretory function and hemodynamics of choroid plexus, the primary site of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. In the present study, localization of AVP and its transcripts in choroid plexus of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats was studied by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry, respectively. For immunohistochemical analysis, AVP-specific polyclonal rabbit

Adam Chodobski; Y. Peng Loh; Stephanie Corsetti; Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Conrad E. Johanson; Yow-Pin Lim; Paul R. Monfils

1997-01-01

35

Choroid plexus papillomas: advances in molecular biology and understanding of tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papillomas are rare, benign tumors originating from the choroid plexus. Although generally found within the ventricular system, they can arise ectopically in the brain parenchyma or disseminate throughout the neuraxis. We sought to review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways associated with this disease. A comprehensive PubMed literature review was conducted to identify manuscripts discussing the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of choroid plexus papillomas. Articles concerning diagnosis, treatment, and long-term patient outcomes were also reviewed. The introduction of atypical choroid plexus papilloma as a distinct entity has increased the need for accurate histopathologic diagnosis. Advances in immunohistochemical staining have improved our ability to differentiate choroid plexus papillomas from other intracranial tumors or metastatic lesions using combinations of key markers and mitotic indices. Recent findings have implicated Notch3 signaling, the transcription factor TWIST1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand pathway in choroid plexus papilloma tumorigenesis. A combination of commonly occurring chromosomal duplications and deletions has also been identified. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be considered for recurrent or metastatic lesions. While generally considered benign, these tumors possess a complex biology that sheds insight into other choroid plexus tumors, particularly malignant choroid plexus carcinomas. Improving our understanding of the molecular biology, genetics, and oncogenic pathways associated with this tumor will allow for the development of targeted therapies and improved outcomes for patients with this disease.

Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C.; Bloch, Orin; Sun, Matthew Z.; Kaur, Gurvinder; Auguste, Kurtis I.; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T.

2013-01-01

36

[Hypersecretive congenital hydrocephalus due to choroid plexus villous hypertrophy associated with controlateral papilloma].  

PubMed

The authors present a case of a nine month-old baby with hypersecretive congenital hydrocephalus. The CSF overproduction was the result of a rare abnormality of the choroid plexus, a villous hypertrophy of the right ventricular choroid plexus and a left ventricular plexus papilloma. Surgical removal of the plexus papilloma and the plexectomy of the hypertrophic ventricular structure did not ameliorate the hydrocephalus, which has been controlled after a biventricular-peritoneal shunt. The physiopathological relationship between hydrocephalus and choroid plexus abnormalities are reported. The importance of an early diagnosis and treatment is stressed. Both hydrocephalus and choroid plexus pathology may represent a cause of psychomotor delay, for the little patient the effects of which is investigated in this paper. PMID:8302232

Ceddia, A; Di Rocco, C; Carlucci, A

1993-09-01

37

Studies on the human choroid plexus in vitro  

PubMed Central

The role of human choroid plexus (CP) epithelium in the transport of solutes between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid and/or in secretion processes may be studied by employing several experimental approaches. There are a number of in vitro techniques for human CP epithelium (CPE) and all have limitations that do not exclude them a priori, but that should be carefully taken into consideration. Developmental and morphological studies have been largely performed on human choroid plexus samples of either embryonic or post-mortem origin. Functional uptake studies may be performed on pathologically unaltered CP samples obtained during surgical removal of choroid plexus tumors. This approach can be used to explore transport processes mainly across the apical side of the CPE, but cannot be used to study vectorial transport across the CPE. Also, these samples have limited viability. A monolayer of CPE in culture, grown on permeable supports, provides the best available tool to study transport processes or polarized secretion by the CP, but thus far only limited attempts to culture these cells have been published and they mainly include data from neoplastic CPE. A study that used a human papilloma-derived cell line in culture showed that it forms a monolayer with barrier properties, although the cells express pleomorphic and neoplastic features and lack contact inhibition. Other cell cultures express some CPE markers but do not develop tight junctions/barrier properties. This article reviews the main characteristics and limitations of available in vitro methods to study human CPE, which could help researchers choose an appropriate experimental approach for a particular study.

2013-01-01

38

Studies on the human choroid plexus in vitro.  

PubMed

The role of human choroid plexus (CP) epithelium in the transport of solutes between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid and/or in secretion processes may be studied by employing several experimental approaches. There are a number of in vitro techniques for human CP epithelium (CPE) and all have limitations that do not exclude them a priori, but that should be carefully taken into consideration. Developmental and morphological studies have been largely performed on human choroid plexus samples of either embryonic or post-mortem origin. Functional uptake studies may be performed on pathologically unaltered CP samples obtained during surgical removal of choroid plexus tumors. This approach can be used to explore transport processes mainly across the apical side of the CPE, but cannot be used to study vectorial transport across the CPE. Also, these samples have limited viability. A monolayer of CPE in culture, grown on permeable supports, provides the best available tool to study transport processes or polarized secretion by the CP, but thus far only limited attempts to culture these cells have been published and they mainly include data from neoplastic CPE. A study that used a human papilloma-derived cell line in culture showed that it forms a monolayer with barrier properties, although the cells express pleomorphic and neoplastic features and lack contact inhibition. Other cell cultures express some CPE markers but do not develop tight junctions/barrier properties. This article reviews the main characteristics and limitations of available in vitro methods to study human CPE, which could help researchers choose an appropriate experimental approach for a particular study. PMID:23391221

Redzic, Zoran B

2013-01-01

39

The choroid plexus response to a repeated peripheral inflammatory stimulus  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic systemic inflammation triggers alterations in the central nervous system that may relate to the underlying inflammatory component reported in neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is far from being understood whether and how peripheral inflammation contributes to induce brain inflammatory response in such illnesses. As part of the barriers that separate the blood from the brain, the choroid plexus conveys inflammatory immune signals into the brain, largely through alterations in the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid. Results In the present study we investigated the mouse choroid plexus gene expression profile, using microarray analyses, in response to a repeated inflammatory stimulus induced by the intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide every two weeks for a period of three months; mice were sacrificed 3 and 15 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection. The data show that the choroid plexus displays a sustained response to the repeated inflammatory stimuli by altering the expression profile of several genes. From a total of 24,000 probes, 369 are up-regulated and 167 are down-regulated 3 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection, while at 15 days the number decreases to 98 and 128, respectively. The pathways displaying the most significant changes include those facilitating entry of cells into the cerebrospinal fluid, and those participating in the innate immune response to infection. Conclusion These observations contribute to a better understanding of the brain response to peripheral inflammation and pave the way to study their impact on the progression of several disorders of the central nervous system in which inflammation is known to be implicated.

2009-01-01

40

[Papilloma of the choroid plexus. Apropos of 11 cases].  

PubMed

The authors report 11 cases of choroid plexus papillomas in children operated on from 1979 until 1993. The age ranges from 2 months to 14 years old. The most frequent location occurred in the lateral ventricles (7 cases) followed by the locations in the third ventricle (3 cases) and the fourth ventricle (1 case). A complete resection was performed in all the cases. Hydrocephalus induced by the tumors was always present. An internal and permanent shunting procedure was carried out in the pre-operative period in 5 cases, in the post-operative course in 1 case. 3 cases underwent an external CSF shunting before surgery. This external CSF drainage has been taken out a few days after the surgical resection and no further permanent internal shunting was required in the long-term outcome. In 2 cases, no CSF drainage was performed either before or after surgery. Choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) require surgical management. The hypervascularisation of these tumors can give rise to important bleeding and generate surgical difficulties particularly in children under one year. The best way to remove these tumors would be to reach the arterial feeder(s) in first place, but it is not always possible. It's also difficult to forecast wether or nor the hydrocephalus will require further permanent CSF drainage, so we have chosen to carry on an external and transient CSF shunting. PMID:7753293

Yettou, H; Marchal, J C; Vinikoff, L; Moret, C; Czorny, A; Droulé, P; Chastagner, P

1994-01-01

41

Choroid plexus papilloma in children: Diagnostic and surgical considerations  

PubMed Central

Background: Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a benign neoplasm that arises from the ventricular choroid plexus. The clinical features, radiological characteristics, and treatment have been discussed in this study for a pediatric population. Methods: Over an eight-year period, seven pediatric (?12 years) CPP patients were treated. Tumors were located in the lateral ventricle (n = 4), IVth ventricle (n = 2), and in both the lateral and IIIrd ventricles (n = 1). The patients presented predominantly with features of raised intracranial pressure. Total microsurgical excision was carried out in all cases. Results: There was complete relief of symptoms at follow-up in six patients. A 2.5 year-old child with a large trigonal CPP with hydrocephalus leading to complete visual impairment, died due to postoperative hypokalemia that caused ventricular fibrillation. One of our patients required a postoperative, permanent CSF diversion procedure while another required a subduroperitoneal shunt for persisting postoperative subdural CSF collection. Conclusions: Coagulation of the tumor under constant irrigation to shrink and excise it in toto, avoids excessive bleeding during surgery. The vascular pedicle supplying the tumor should be adequately dealt with during the last part of tumor removal as retraction of a bleeding pedicle may result in ventricular hemorrhage and brain edema. Following surgery, an external ventricular drain for three days helps in preventing the development of acute hydrocephalus in lateral ventricular lesions, and the color of the drained CSF gives an estimate of the ventricular hemostasis achieved. Total excision is usually possible in these cases with excellent postoperative outcomes.

Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Jaiswal, Sushila; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Das, K. B.; Jain, Vijendra K.; Behari, Sanjay

2009-01-01

42

Which therapy works better in choroid plexus carcinomas?  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs) are rare tumors with dismal outcome. While it has been established that surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy improve survival, the best chemotherapy drugs for treating this disease still need to be identified. Since CPC is too rare to permit a prospective clinical trial, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of individual drugs in patients with CPCs. We expanded a pre-existing database and included all cases of choroid plexus tumors, identified in PubMed through the end of 2007, for a total of 906 patients. At first, we restricted the analysis to patients with histologically confirmed CPC (n = 361) and with residual tumor after surgery (n = 130/361 patients), and we compared response and survival between patients who received a particular drug and those who did not. Response to chemotherapy was documented in 43 patients. Of the drugs used in these patients, etoposide was associated with the highest response rate (17/36). Next survival was compared among all CPC. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests suggested a statistically significant treatment benefit for cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and carboplatin, while the effect of vincristine was found to be marginally significant (P = 0.07, log rank). Of these, only etoposide's effect could be confirmed in a limited Cox multiple regression analysis. In conclusion, etoposide should be included in future standard treatment protocols. However the survival rates are still unsatisfactory, and additional novel drugs should be studied in prospective multicenter studies. PMID:20976614

Berrak, Su G; Liu, Diane D; Wrede, Brigitte; Wolff, Johannes E

2011-05-01

43

Composition of fluid obtained from choroid plexus tissue isolated in a chamber in situ*  

PubMed Central

1. A method was developed for isolating a segment of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle of the cat brain in a chamber in situ. 2. A comparison of electrolyte and protein concentrations in serum, ultrafiltrate of serum, cisterna magna fluid, fluid accumulated in the chamber and fluid collected from the choroid plexus by another technique, demonstrates that the chamber fluid is a secretory product of the choroid plexus. 3. The rate of fluid formation in the chamber was 0·4 ?l. min-1 mg-1 of tissue, a value in good agreement with reports in the literature. 4. The observation that the concentration of K+ in choroid plexus fluid was lower than that in the serum ultrafiltrate suggests that K+ is regulated by an active transport process at the choroid plexus. 5. Significant correlation was found between electrolyte values and the protein content of the chamber fluid. This suggests that plasma is the probable source of the protein in the chamber fluid and that K+ and probably Ca2+ and Mg2+ in c.s.f. are subject to active homoeostatic regulation by the choroid plexus. 6. The technique described provides a new opportunity to study in detail the functional characteristics of the choroid plexus.

Miner, L. C.; Reed, D. J.

1972-01-01

44

Choroid plexus papilloma originating from the cerebrum parenchyma  

PubMed Central

Background: Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) can develop at a primary intraparenchymal location completely unrelated to the ventricular system. Here, we present a case of CPP that was difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Case Description: Preoperative imaging and operative findings showed that the tumor originated entirely within the cerebrum parenchyma, with no connections between the tumor and the ventricular system. Histopathological examination of the tumor revealed a papillary structure with a single layer of well-differentiated columnar epithelium in the lesion. Furthermore, part of this lesion had infiltrated the cerebral parenchyma. Therefore, the tumor was diagnosed as CPP, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistological examination. Conclusions: CPP originating as intraparenchymal growths are extremely rare. Origins of extraventricular CCP are discussed in the context of the literature.

Imai, Masaaki; Tominaga, Jiro; Matsumae, Mitsunori

2011-01-01

45

Sudden death from ruptured choroid plexus arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Brain vascular malformations are recognized as having potential to produce hemorrhage, but leading to sudden death in children is uncommon. Arteriovenous malformations may be situated in any region of the brain, but very rarely, they can be restricted to the choroid plexus. We report here a rare case of sudden death in a child, caused by a ruptured vascular malformation with an unusual location, which was not identified grossly but only on histological examination. The size and the location of the lesion, as well as the age of our patient, were contributing factors of the massive bleeding. Autopsy remains an important tool because it provides valuable information about the etiology of such bleedings, improves knowledge about these lesions, and enhances epidemiologic data. PMID:24781402

Cioca, Andreea; Gheban, Dan; Perju-Dumbrava, Dan; Chiroban, Ovidiu; Mera, Mihaela

2014-06-01

46

5HT1C receptor-mediated stimulation of inositol phosphate production in pig choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1) 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) induces inositol phosphate production in a pig choroid plexus preparation. This effect has been pharmacologically characterized and the data compared to those obtained from radioligand binding studies performed with [3H]mesulergine to 5-HT1C sites in pig choroid plexus membranes. 2) The rank order of potency of agonists stimulating inositol phosphate production was: a-methyl-5-HT > 1-methyl-5-HT > DOI

Daniel Hoyer; Christian Waeber; Philippe Schoeffter; Jose Maria Palacios; Anant Dravid

1989-01-01

47

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors may show morphological and immunohistochemical features seen in choroid plexus tumors.  

PubMed

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are aggressive embryonal tumors having a poor prognosis and are associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene hSNF5/SMARCB1/INI1. Differential diagnosis includes choroid plexus carcinoma which has occasionally been attributed as showing an inactivation of INI1/SMARCB1 nuclear staining in immunohistochemistry. However, these findings have been challenged by others. We therefore examined eight AT/RTs from six patients by immunohistochemistry for membranous expression of the inward rectifier potassium channel Kir7.1, which was in the central nervous system so far considered specific for choroid plexus tumors and normal choroid plexus epithelium. Two AT/RT cases exhibited membranous staining of Kir7.1, indicating a plexus epithelial differentiation of these tumors. The implications of these results on tumor diagnosis are discussed. PMID:21276081

Schittenhelm, Jens; Nagel, Christoph; Meyermann, Richard; Beschorner, Rudi

2011-10-01

48

In vivo Analysis of Choroid Plexus Morphogenesis in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus (ChP), a component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and as a result plays a role in (i) protecting and nurturing the brain as well as (ii) in coordinating neuronal migration during neurodevelopment. Until now ChP development was not analyzed in living vertebrates due to technical problems. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the formation of the fourth ventricle ChP of zebrafish in the GFP-tagged enhancer trap transgenic line SqET33-E20 (Gateways) by a combination of in vivo imaging, histology and mutant analysis. This process includes the formation of the tela choroidea (TC), the recruitment of cells from rhombic lips and, finally, the coalescence of TC resulting in formation of ChP. In Notch-deficient mib mutants the first phase of this process is affected with premature GFP expression, deficient cell recruitment into TC and abnormal patterning of ChP. In Hedgehog-deficient smu mutants the second phase of the ChP morphogenesis lacks cell recruitment and TC cells undergo apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of ChP in vivo revealing a role of Notch and Hedgehog signalling pathways during different developmental phases of this process.

Fong, Steven H.; Ye, Zhang-Rui; Korzh, Vladimir

2008-01-01

49

Unique serotonin receptor (5HT-1C) in choroid plexus is linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The binding of /sup 125/I-LSD to the 5HT-1C site and of /sup 3/H-ket-anserin to the 5HT-2 site was determined in choroid plexus and cerebral cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. As an index of phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, whole choroid plexus and cerebral cortex slices were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and serotonin (5HT) stimulated release of /sup 3/H-inositol-1-phosphate was measured. 5HT stimulated PI hydrolysis in choroid plexus (6-fold) and in cerebral cortex (2.5-fold). 5HT was more potent in choroid plexus (EC/sub 50/ = 46 nM) consistent with the involvement of the 5HT-1C site. 5HT antagonists, ketanserin, mianserin and spiperone, inhibited the response to 5HT with different potencies in the two tissues. In cerebral cortex all 3 antagonists had nM affinities and a rank order (spiperone > ketanserin > mianserin) consistent with the 5HT-2 site. In choroid plexus, however, the rank order (mianserin > ketanserin > spiperone) and absolute potencies agreed with binding to the 5HT-1C site. These data suggest that the 5HT-1C site is a functional receptor which utilizes PI hydrolysis as its biochemical effector system.

Sanders-Bush, E.; Conn, P.J.; Hoffman, B.J.; Hartig, P.R.

1986-03-01

50

Pathological Alteration in the Choroid Plexus of Alzheimer's Disease: Implication for New Therapy Approaches  

PubMed Central

Morphological alterations of choroid plexus in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been extensively investigated. These changes include epithelial atrophy, thickening of the basement membrane, and stroma fibrosis. As a result, synthesis, secretory, and transportation functions are significantly altered resulting in decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turnover. Recent studies discuss the potential impacts of these changes, including the possibility of reduced resistance to stress insults and slow clearance of toxic compounds from CSF with specific reference to the amyloid peptide. Here, we review new evidences for AD-related changes in the choroid plexus. The data suggest that the significantly altered functions of the choroid plexus contribute to the multiparametric pathogenesis of late-onset AD.

Krzyzanowska, Agnieszka; Carro, Eva

2012-01-01

51

Na+-dependent gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport in the choroid plexus of rabbit.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine the mechanisms of transport of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the choroid plexus. Choroid plexus slices from the rabbit were depleted of ATP with 2,4-dinitrophenol. GABA accumulated in the choroid plexus slices in a concentrative manner in the presence of an inwardly-directed Na+ gradient. Uptake occurred in the presence of Cl-; replacement of Cl- with gluconate abolished uptake. SCN-, NO3- or Br- were able to support uptake in the absence of Cl- to a significant extent (80, 68 and 61% of control, respectively). GABA uptake was saturable (Km of 37 +/- 8.5 microM, Vmax of 409 +/- 43 nmol/g/min). Na+-driven GABA uptake was inhibited by beta-alanine (IC50 = 22.9 microM) and hypotaurine (IC50 = 21.9 microM) but less potently by nipecotic acid (IC50 = 244 microM) and hydroxy-nipecotic acid (IC50 = 284 microM). Betaine, L-(2,4)-diaminobutyric acid, guvacine and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-3-ol were weak inhibitors (IC50 > 500 microM). GABA inhibited Na+-driven uptake of taurine (IC50 = 230 microM); taurine, however, did not inhibit GABA uptake (IC50 > 1 mM). RT-PCR, using degenerate primers for cloned GABA transporters, did not result in the amplification of a band from rat choroid plexus RNA. The location of the choroid plexus in the ventricles of the brain, and its role in the secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid, suggest a role for the choroid plexus Na+-GABA transporter in the disposition of GABA in the brain. PMID:9375816

Ramanathan, V K; Brett, C M; Giacomini, K M

1997-11-13

52

Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of choroid plexus tumors: single-institution experience in Mexican population.  

PubMed

In recent years, few studies have specifically focused on only histological features in choroid plexus tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic and histological features in 37 patients with choroid plexus tumors and correlated these with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53, p21, and Rb labeling indexes, with special attention to tumor recurrence/regrowth. The study included 24 choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs), 4 atypical choroid plexus papillomas (ACPPs), and 9 choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs). Patient age ranged from 15 to 70 years (mean 44 years). Most of the choroid plexus tumors were located in the IV ventricle. Recurrence was observed in 21 (52%) cases, 14 of which were CPP and 7 of which were CPC (P = 0.032). Histologic findings included major necrosis, fibrosis and psammoma bodies, amyloid deposits, inflammation, and thick vessels in recurrent tumors. The PCNA labeling index was 52.04 + or - 13.92 in CPPs, 76.50 + or - 17 in ACPPs, and 95.22 + or - 21.34 in CPCs (P = 0.009), and 67.43 + or - 28 in recurrent tumors. Similar values were found for p53, p21, and Rb. Furthermore, we observed that these presented more histological changes, adding, than nonrecurrent tumors, as well as a higher proliferation index of cell-cycle markers, and these were dependent predictor factors of survival. Recurrent tumors showed a different biological behavior than nonrecurrent tumors, but histological observations showed no mitotic features in order to consider them as grade II. PMID:20082118

Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Rembao-Bojórquez, Daniel; Castillejos, Manuel

2010-07-01

53

Human choroid plexus papilloma cells efficiently transport glucose and vitamin C.  

PubMed

In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the basolateral membrane of choroid plexus cells, which is in contact with blood vessels, is involved in the uptake of the reduced form of vitamin C, ascorbic acid (AA), through the sodium-vitamin C cotransporter, (SVCT2). Moreover, very low levels of vitamin C were observed in the brains of SVCT2-null mice. The oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), is incorporated through the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). In this study, the contribution of SVCT2 and GLUT1 to vitamin C uptake in human choroid plexus papilloma (HCPP) cells in culture was examined. Both the functional activity and the kinetic parameters of GLUT1 and SVCT2 in cells isolated from HCPP were observed. Finally, DHA uptake by GLUT1 in choroid plexus cells was assessed in the presence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-activated human neutrophils. A marked increase in vitamin C uptake by choroid plexus cells was observed that was associated with superoxide generation and vitamin C oxidation (bystander effect). Thus, vitamin C can be incorporated by epithelial choroid plexus papilloma cells using the basolateral polarization of SVCT2 and GLUT1. This mechanism may be amplified with neutrophil infiltration (inflammation) of choroid plexus tumors. In choroid plexus papilloma cells, the vitamin C transporters SVCT2 and GLUT1 are polarized to the basolateral epithelial membrane, where SVCT2 is essential for AA flux from the blood vessels into the brain. However, neutrophils, attracted by inflammation or the tumor microenvironment, can oxidize extracellular AA to DHA, thereby enabling its uptake through GLUT1. For the first time, we show the in vivo and in vitro basolateral co-distribution of functional SVCT2 and GLUT1 in epithelial cells. We postulate that patients with choroid plexus papillomas may continue to transport vitamin C from the blood to CSF. However, increased transport of oxidized vitamin C could generate pro-oxidative conditions that may help control tumor growth. PMID:23647458

Ulloa, Viviana; García-Robles, María; Martínez, Fernando; Salazar, Katterine; Reinicke, Karin; Pérez, Fernando; Godoy, David F; Godoy, Alejandro S; Nualart, Francisco

2013-11-01

54

Evaluation of rare choroid plexus metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma with multimodality imaging.  

PubMed

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignancy of thyroid gland. Though it metastasizes primarily through lymphatics, hematogenous spread is not infrequent. We report the case of a 62-year-old male patient with intraventricular choroid plexus metastasis from PTC, incidentally detected on post-high-dose radioiodine therapy whole-body I scan, which is an extremely rare presentation. Only 3 cases of choroid plexus metastasis from thyroid carcinoma have been reported. Further multimodality radiological investigations confirmed diagnosis and helped in assessing treatment response. The patient received gamma-knife stereotactic radiosurgery, and follow-up radiological imaging suggested improvement of intracranial metastasis. PMID:23877529

Manzil, Fathima Fijula Palot; Bender, Luvenia Wilcox; Scott, Johnny W

2014-06-01

55

Kinetic analysis of glutamate transport by the miniswine choroid plexus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of glutamic acid by the choroid plexus, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, was investigated by using the isolated choroid plexi from the fourth (FVCP) and lateral ventricles (LVCP) of the young adult miniswine in vitro. Glutamic acid uptake was very pronounced, with concentrations 7-fold (LVCP) and 2.4-fold (FVCP) higher in tissue than in medium after only 5 min of

Chung Sim Kim; Aracelis Virella; Robert C. Braunberg; Ivan A. Ross; Roger N. Matthews; Widmark Johnson; Leonard Friedman

1996-01-01

56

Homeostatic capabilities of the choroid plexus epithelium in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

As the secretory source of vitamins, peptides and hormones for neurons, the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium critically provides substances for brain homeostasis. This distributive process of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume transmission reaches many cellular targets in the CNS. In ageing and ageing-related dementias, the CP-CSF system is less able to regulate brain interstitial fluid. CP primarily generates CSF bulk flow, and so its malfunctioning exacerbates Alzheimers disease (AD). Considerable attention has been devoted to the blood-brain barrier in AD, but more insight is needed on regulatory systems at the human blood-CSF barrier in order to improve epithelial function in severe disease. Using autopsied CP specimens from AD patients, we immunocytochemically examined expression of heat shock proteins (HSP90 and GRP94), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFr) and a fluid-regulatory protein (NaK2Cl cotransporter isoform 1 or NKCC1). CP upregulated HSP90, FGFr and NKCC1, even in end-stage AD. These CP adjustments involve growth factors and neuropeptides that help to buffer perturbations in CNS water balance and metabolism. They shed light on CP-CSF system responses to ventriculomegaly and the altered intracranial pressure that occurs in AD and normal pressure hydrocephalus. The ability of injured CP to express key regulatory proteins even at Braak stage V/VI, points to plasticity and function that may be boosted by drug treatment to expedite CSF dynamics. The enhanced expression of human CP 'homeostatic proteins' in AD dementia is discussed in relation to brain deficits and pharmacology.

Johanson, Conrad; McMillan, Paul; Tavares, Rosemarie; Spangenberger, Anthony; Duncan, John; Silverberg, Gerald; Stopa, Edward

2004-01-01

57

Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus (CP), the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that are expressed in the CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the CP at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the CP in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier.

Turner, Cortney A.; Thompson, Robert C.; Bunney, William E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Barchas, Jack D.; Myers, Richard M.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.

2014-01-01

58

Choroid plexus coagulation in infants with extreme hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly.  

PubMed

Object Severe hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly are common congenital conditions in Kenya. In patients with these conditions, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are associated with appreciable complications and endoscopic third ventriculostomies (ETVs) have limited success. Endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation (CPC) to diminish CSF production is a potential treatment option. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPC without ETV in infants with severe hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly. Methods Medical records of infants with severe congenital hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly who underwent CPC in Kijabe Hospital from November 2010 to April 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-three patients with complete medical records and preoperative radiographic images were identified. After CPC, the infants were followed in the Kijabe Hospital outpatient department, in mobile clinics, or by telephone. Success of the CPC was defined as resolution of preoperative symptoms, stabilization of head size, and avoidance of VP shunt placement. Results Patients were followed from 30 to 608 days (median of 120 days). Three patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 30 evaluable patients, CPC was considered to be successful in 13 (43.3%), including 8 of 20 patients with severe hydrocephalus and 5 of 10 with hydranencephaly. Failure of CPC was evident from increased head circumference in 14 (82%) of 17 patients and from CSF leakage in 3. Of the 17 failures, 13 occurred within 3 months of surgery. Six patients died: 3 whose CPC procedures were failures, 2 whose CPC was successful, and 1 postoperatively. Of the 17 in whom CPC failed, 10 subsequently underwent VP shunt insertion. Conclusions CPC stabilizes macrocephaly in approximately 40% of infants with severe congenital hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly and can be considered as an alternative to VP shunt placement. PMID:24766307

Shitsama, Sylvia; Wittayanakorn, Nunthasiri; Okechi, Humphrey; Albright, A Leland

2014-07-01

59

Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus (CP), the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that are expressed in the CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the CP at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the CP in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier. PMID:24795602

Turner, Cortney A; Thompson, Robert C; Bunney, William E; Schatzberg, Alan F; Barchas, Jack D; Myers, Richard M; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J

2014-01-01

60

TRANSPORT OF l-[125I]THYROXINE BY IN SITU PERFUSED OVINE CHOROID PLEXUS: INHIBITION BY LEAD EXPOSURE  

PubMed Central

Lead (Pb) exposure hinders brain development in children by mechanisms that remain unknown. Previous evidence shows that sequestration of Pb in the choroid plexus lowers the production and secretion of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine (T4) transport protein, from the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study was undertaken to characterize the uptake kinetics of T4 by the choroid plexus and to determine if in vivo Pb exposure altered the T4 uptake in an in situ perfused ovine choroid plexus model. Sheep received ip injections of Pb acetate (20 mg Pb/kg) or Na acetate (as the controls) every 48 h for a period of 16 d. The [125I]T4 uptake was determined by a paired-tracer perfusion method using 0.5?Ci [125I]T4 and 2 ? Ci [14C]mannitol at various concentrations of unlabeled T4 (trace to 20 ?M). The flux of [125I]T4 into the choroid plexus followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the maximum flux (Vmax) of 56.6 nmol/min/g and half-saturation constant (Km) of 10.7 ?mol/L, suggesting an evident saturable influx of T4 into the choroid epithelium. In vivo Pb exposure in these sheep resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus and hippocampus. Pb treatment diminished the Vmax by 63.7% of control, but did not alter Km. The maximal cellular uptake (Umax) and net uptake (Unet) in Pb-treated animals were 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, lower than those of control. Exposure to Pb, however, did not significantly change the flow rate through the choroid plexus. Data suggest that the choroid plexus may serve as a significant site for T4 transport into the CSF, and Pb exposure may hinder the influx of T4 from the blood into the choroid plexus.

Zheng, Wei; Deane, Rashid; Redzic, Zoran; Preston, Jane E.; Segal, Malcolm B.

2014-01-01

61

Preoperative Radiotherapy in the Management of Posterior Fossa Choroid Plexus Papillomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although primary radical removal is the procedure of choice in the treatment of choroid plexus papillomas, the age of the child, the size and\\/or location of the tumor and an above average surgical risk can make advisable the use of a first stage shunt operation, with section of the tentorium if there are signs of upwards tentorial herniation. The present

Raúl Carrea; Moises Polak

1977-01-01

62

X-ray induced dysplasia in the developing telencephalic choroid plexus of mice exposed in utero  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant NMRI-mice were X-irradiated with single doses of 0.95 Gy (100 R) and 1.9 Gy (200 R) on day of gestation (dg) 12. For sampling, anesthetized animals were perfused with buffered glutaraldehyde solution or fixed by immersion in Karnovsky solution. LM, SEM, and TEM studies were carried out on brains prenatally and up to the age of 20 months to follow the radiation effects on the developing lateral choroid plexus. Radiation-induced changes were found using all three methods and at all stages studied. The normally sickle-shaped and stretched choroid plexus is shortened and irregular, and the dome-shaped plexus cells are flattened. Their superficial fine structures, i.e., the microvilli and cilia, are altered. Three stages of severity can be distinguished and the internal hydromicrocephalus increases from stage I to III. Intercellular spaces of the treated plexus epithelium are often dilated, but the tight junctions at the ventricular surface seem to be intact. The interstitium shows large dilations in comparison with the controls. Thus, gross changes and alterations in the fine structure can be induced in the choroid plexus by doses of 0.95 Gy and 1.9 Gy, which persist throughout postnatal life.

Heinzmann, U.

1982-08-01

63

Ion channel diversity, channel expression and function in the choroid plexuses  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the diversity of ion channel form and function has increased enormously over the last 25 years. The initial impetus in channel discovery came with the introduction of the patch clamp method in 1981. Functional data from patch clamp experiments have subsequently been augmented by molecular studies which have determined channel structures. Thus the introduction of patch clamp methods to study ion channel expression in the choroid plexus represents an important step forward in our knowledge understanding of the process of CSF secretion. Two K+ conductances have been identified in the choroid plexus: Kv1 channel subunits mediate outward currents at depolarising potentials; Kir 7.1 carries an inward-rectifying conductance at hyperpolarising potentials. Both K+ channels are localised at the apical membrane where they may contribute to maintenance of the membrane potential while allowing the recycling of K+ pumped in by Na+-K+ ATPase. Two anion conductances have been identified in choroid plexus. Both have significant HCO3- permeability, and may play a role in CSF secretion. One conductance exhibits inward-rectification and is regulated by cyclic AMP. The other is carried by an outward-rectifying channel, which is activated by increases in cell volume. The molecular identity of the anion channels is not known, nor is it clear whether they are expressed in the apical or basolateral membrane. Recent molecular evidence indicates that choroid plexus also expresses the non-selective cation channels such as transient receptor potential channels (TRPV4 and TRPM3) and purinoceptor type 2 (P2X) receptor operated channels. In conclusion, good progress has been made in identifying the channels expressed in the choroid plexus, but determining the precise roles of these channels in CSF secretion remains a challenge for the future.

Millar, Ian D; Bruce, Jason IE; Brown, Peter D

2007-01-01

64

Choroid plexus carcinomas are characterized by complex chromosomal alterations related to patient age and prognosis.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinoma is a malignant brain tumor predominantly occurring in young children. Only limited data are available regarding the underlying molecular genetic alterations. Therefore, molecular inversion probe single nucleotide polymorphism (MIP SNP) arrays were performed on a series of 26 neuropathologically well-characterized choroid plexus carcinomas. Recurrent copy number losses of chromosomes 5, 6, 16, 18, 19, and 22 as well as gains of chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 12, and 20 were identified. Furthermore, GISTIC analysis identified significant recurrent gains of 17 genes in 9 regions, and recurrent losses of 96 genes in 14 regions. Clustering analysis separated choroid plexus carcinomas into two groups: one characterized by marked losses and the other characterized by gains across the chromosomes. Chromosomal losses of 9, 19p, and 22q were significantly more frequent in younger children (<36 months), whereas gains on chromosomes 7 and 19, and chromosome arms 8q, 14q, and 21q prevailed in older patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that loss of 12q was associated with shorter survival [12?±?5 months vs. 86?±?8 months; (mean?±?SD; P?=?0.001)] and, in addition, 45 smaller chromosomal regions showing genetic alterations significantly associated with survival could be identified. The MIP SNP array profiles also contributed to the diagnosis of two difficult SMARCB1-negative tumors as choroid plexus carcinoma and cribriform neuroepithelial tumor (CRINET), respectively. In conclusion, choroid plexus carcinomas are characterized by complex genetic alterations, which are related to patient age and may have prognostic and diagnostic value. PMID:24478045

Ruland, Vincent; Hartung, Stefan; Kordes, Uwe; Wolff, Johannes E; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

2014-05-01

65

Alteration of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in the choroid plexus of rats with induced or congenital hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Specific binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the choroid plexus of rats with induced or congenital hydrocephalus were examined using in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiographic methods. The number of 125I-ANP binding sites in the choroid plexus of rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus was significantly higher as compared to findings in the control rats, whereas no differences in the binding affinity were observed 3 days and 3 weeks after the intracisternal injection of kaolin. Conversely, rats with congenital hydrocephalus (LEW-HYR and HTX rats) had a small number of binding sites for 125I-ANP in the choroid plexus, as compared to findings in the control rats. These alterations may relate to the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus. The possibility that atrial natriuretic peptide may be involved in the regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production in the choroid plexus must be considered. PMID:2166621

Mori, K; Tsutsumi, K; Kurihara, M; Kawaguchi, T; Niwa, M

1990-06-01

66

[Alterations of atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in the choroid plexus of rats with congenital hydrocephalus (LEW-HYR and HTX)].  

PubMed

By using quantitative receptor autoradiography, specific atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding sites in the choroid plexus of congenital hydrocephalic rats (LEW/HYR and HTX strains) were analyzed. The effect of ANP on cyclic GMP production in the choroid plexus of these rats were also examined. The number of 125I-ANP binding sites in the choroid plexus of rats with congenital hydrocephalus (both LEW/HYR and HTX strains) was significantly lower, at 0.3 nM 125I-ANP concentrations, when compared with those in the age-matched control rats. This alteration was specific in the choroid plexus, since no significant difference in the binding of 125I-ANP was observed in the olfactory bulb. On the other hand, in spite of lower number of 125I-ANP binding sites in the choroid plexus, cyclic GMP response to ANP in these rats was similar to that of age-matched control Lewis rats. These results suggest that ANP receptor may play a role in the regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production. Alterations in ANP receptor in the choroid plexus might be involved in the development of congenital hydrocephalus. PMID:2169788

Tsutsumi, K

1990-06-01

67

Iodine 125-lysergic acid diethylamide binds to a novel serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

/sup 125/I-Lysergic acid diethylamide (/sup 125/I-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg of protein, which is 10-fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The choroid plexus site exhibits a novel pharmacology that does not match the properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT1a), 5-HT1b, or 5-HT2 serotonergic sites. /sup 125/I-LSD binding to the choroid plexus site is potently inhibited by mianserin, serotonin, and (+)-LSD. Other serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic agonists and antagonists exhibit moderate to weak affinities for this site. The rat choroid plexus /sup 125/I-LSD binding site appears to represent a new type of serotonergic site which is located on non-neuronal cells in this tissue.

Yagaloff, K.A.; Hartig, P.R.

1985-12-01

68

A sacro-caudal spinal cord choroid plexus papilloma in a shar-pei dog.  

PubMed

A seven-year-old shar-pei dog was referred because of severe lumbosacral pain and faecal incontinence of 20 days' duration. Neurological examination was characterised by plegic tail, absence of perineal reflex, dilated anus, perineum and tail analgesia, and severe lumbosacral pain. The neurological clinical signs were suggestive of a selective lesion involving sacral and caudal spinal cord segments and/or related nerve roots. A magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral spine was performed and was suggestive of an intradural lesion. Primary or secondary neoplasia was considered as the most probable differential diagnosis. The dog was euthanased upon the owner's request. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of an intradural-extramedullary neoplastic tissue enveloping intradural tract of spinal nerve roots. On the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of well-differentiated choroid plexus papilloma was made. To the authors's knowledge, this is the first case of primary or metastatic spinal choroid plexus papilloma in dogs. PMID:23731182

Giannuzzi, A Pasquale; Gernone, F; Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Mandara, M Teresa

2013-10-01

69

Drug metabolizing enzyme expression in rat choroid plexus: effects of in vivo xenobiotics treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of drug metabolizing enzymes in extrahepatic tissues such as the choroid plexus (CP) suggests that the CP, like\\u000a the blood–brain barrier, affords a metabolic protection to the brain against xenobiotics. The CP, which is the principal site\\u000a of formation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), controls the exchange of many endogenous compounds and exogenous molecules\\u000a between brain tissue and

Daniela Gradinaru; Anne-Laure Minn; Yves Artur; Alain Minn; Jean-Marie Heydel

2009-01-01

70

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) and endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation: A historical vignette  

PubMed Central

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) was one of the pioneers of neuroendoscopy and the head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Columbia University in New York from 1947 to 1949. In this article, we highlight the pioneering and longstanding efforts of John E. Scarff in support of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation. These efforts represent an important part of the rich history of neuroendoscopy and a legacy to which the current procedure owes a great credit.

Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Nasim, Khurram

2014-01-01

71

Natural Simian Virus 40 Strains Are Present in Human Choroid Plexus and Ependymoma Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences for large tumor antigen (T-ag) were recently detected in a significant fraction of certain human brain tumors of early childhood (Bergsagel et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 326, 988-993, 1992). In the current study, we sought to determine whether authentic SV40 was present in the choroid plexus and ependymoma tumors previously examined. Polymerase chain reaction

John A. Lednicky; Robert L. Garcea; Daniel J. Bergsagel; Janet S. Butel

1995-01-01

72

Choroid Plexus Carcinoma in Infants: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is a rare malignant brain tumour which occurs predominantly in childhood. We present the cases\\u000a of two infants with CPC. One, a 6-month-old boy with the tumour in the right lateral ventricle, who died of a postoperative\\u000a intracranial haemorrhage and severe gastrointestinal bleeding, and the other, a 9-month-old boy with the tumour in the fourth\\u000a ventricle,

J. Shinoda; M. Kawaguchi; T. Matsuhisa; K. Deguchi; N. Sakai

1998-01-01

73

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) and endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation: A historical vignette.  

PubMed

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) was one of the pioneers of neuroendoscopy and the head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Columbia University in New York from 1947 to 1949. In this article, we highlight the pioneering and longstanding efforts of John E. Scarff in support of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation. These efforts represent an important part of the rich history of neuroendoscopy and a legacy to which the current procedure owes a great credit. PMID:25024890

Azab, Waleed A; Shohoud, Sherien A; Alsheikh, Tarek M; Nasim, Khurram

2014-01-01

74

Transport of cefodizime, a novel third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, in isolated rat choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

To characterize the transport system by which cephalosporin antibiotics are accumulated by the choroid plexus, kinetic analysis of cefodizime transport was performed. Accumulation of cefodizime was against an electrochemical potential gradient via a saturable process (Km = 470 microM, Vmax = 174 nmol/ml of tissue per min) that was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (KCN and 2,4-dinitrophenol), hypothermia, a sulfhydryl reagent (p-hydroxymer-curibenzoic acid) and anion transport inhibitors (probenecid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene -2,2'-disulfonic acid). Accumulation of cefodizime was inhibited competitively by benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of aproximately 100 microM. Cefodizime inhibited competitively the accumulation of benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of approximately 500 microM. Kinetic analysis using 16 kinds of beta-lactam antibiotics also supported the view (1) that the transport system of cefodizime is shared by benzylpenicillin and (2) that these beta-lactam antibiotics are transported via a common transport system. These findings indicate that the major transport system of cephalosporin antibiotics in the rat choroid plexus is via a carrier-mediated active anion transport process. The affinity of beta-lactam antibiotics for this transport system in the choroid plexus may be a major factor in determining their pharmacokinetics in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Nohjoh, T.; Suzuki, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sugiyama, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

1989-07-01

75

Defense of mammalian body against heavy metal-induced toxicities: Sequestration by the choroid plexus and elimination via the bile  

SciTech Connect

Tissue sequestration and biliary elimination are two of the important mechanisms by which mammalian body defends against heavy metal insults. In rats or rabbits that had received Pb, Cd, Hg, As and [sup 210]Po, these metal ions were sequestered in the choroid plexus at concentrations of Pb, Cd, Hg, As and Po that were 57, 33, 12, 13 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those found in the brain cortex. In addition, the concentrations of these heavy metal ions were many fold greater in the choroid plexus than in the CSF or blood. The accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus was dose-dependent and time-related. When the choroid plexus was incubated, in vitro, with ouabain, the latter significantly inhibited the uptake of Cd from the CSF side of the choroid plexus. Cystine concentration was four times greater in the choroid plexus than in brain cortex. Results suggest that the choroid plexus sequesters toxic metal and metalloid ions. It appears to do this in order to protect the CSF and brain from toxic heavy metals in the blood. The effects of N-(2,3-dimercaptopropyl)phthalamidic acid (DMPA), meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid (DMPS) on biliary excretion of Cd was studied in rat chronic intoxication mode. DMPA (0.10 mmol/kg, iv), when given to rats three days after exposure to Cd, elicited within 30 min a 20-fold increase in biliary Cd excretion. GSH in rat bile was also increased three fold as compared to control. Neither DMSA nor DMPS increased biliary Cd or GSH. Upon iv administration, DMPA, not DMSA, appeared in bile. An altered, presumably disulfide, form of DMPS was also found in bile. Incubation of DMPA or DMSA with Cd-saturated MT resulted in the removal of Cd from MT. DMPS, however, promoted the formation of MT polymers. DMPA protected biliary GSH from autoxidation.

Zheng Wei.

1991-01-01

76

Transport of L-[125I]thyroxine by in situ perfused ovine choroid plexus: inhibition by lead exposure.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) exposure hinders brain development in children by mechanisms that remain unknown. Previous evidence shows that sequestration of Pb in the choroid plexus lowers the production and secretion of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine (T4) transport protein, from the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study was undertaken to characterize the uptake kinetics of T4 by the choroid plexus and to determine if in vivo Pb exposure altered the T4 uptake in an in situ perfused ovine choroid plexus model. Sheep received i.p. injections of Pb acetate (20 mg Pb/kg) or Na acetate (as the controls) every 48 h for a period of 16 d. The [125I]T4 uptake was determined by a paired-tracer perfusion method using 0.5 microCi [125I]T4 and 2 microCi [14C]mannitol at various concentrations of unlabeled T4 (trace to 20 microM). The flux of [125I]T4 into the choroid plexus followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the maximum flux (Vmax) of 56.6 nmol/min/g and half-saturation constant (Km) of 10.7 mumol/L, suggesting an evident saturable influx of T4 into the choroid epithelium. In vivo Pb exposure in these sheep resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus and hippocampus. Pb treatment diminished the Vmax by 63.7% of control, but did not alter Km. The maximal cellular uptake (Umax) and net uptake (Unet) in Pb-treated animals were 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, lower than those of control. Exposure to Pb, however, did not significantly change the flow rate through the choroid plexus. Data suggest that the choroid plexus may serve as a significant site for T4 transport into the CSF, and Pb exposure may hinder the influx of T4 from the blood into the choroid plexus. PMID:12712631

Zheng, Wei; Deane, Rashid; Redzic, Zoran; Preston, Jane E; Segal, Malcolm B

2003-03-14

77

The microvascular architecture of the choroid plexus in fetal human brain lateral ventricle: a scanning electron microscopy study of corrosion casts  

PubMed Central

The microvascular architecture of developing lateral ventricle choroid plexus was investigated by corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy in human fetuses aged 20 gestational weeks. The areas with different microvascular patterns corresponded to the particular parts of the mature plexus: anterior part, glomus, posterior part, the villous fringe and the free margin. In the posterior part, densely packed parallel arterioles and venules were surrounded by sheath-like capillary networks. Other areas contained compact capillary plexuses of the primary villi: the most prominent, protruding basket- and leaf-shaped plexuses were observed in the villous fringe, whilst less numerous and smaller plexuses occurred in the anterior part and glomus. The capillaries of the plexuses had a large diameter and sinusoidal dilations, and showed the presence of occasional short, blind sprouts indicative of angiogenesis. Short anastomoses between arterioles supplying the plexuses and venules draining them were only rarely observed. In the upper area of the choroid plexus, the superior choroidal vein was surrounded by a capillary network forming small, glomerular or rosette-shapes plexuses. The free margin of the choroid plexus was characterized by flat, multiple, arcade-like capillary loops. The general vascular architecture of the human choroid plexus at 20 gestational weeks seems to be similar to that of postnatal/mature plexus, still lacking, however, the complex vascular plexuses of the secondary villi.

Zagorska-Swiezy, K; Litwin, J A; Gorczyca, J; Pitynski, K; Miodonski, A J

2008-01-01

78

Choroid plexus epithelial monolayers - a cell culture model from porcine brain  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of the present study was to develop an in vitro choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell culture model for studying transport of protein-mediated drug secretion from blood to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vice versa. Methods Cells were isolated by mechanical and enzymatic treatment of freshly isolated porcine plexus tissue. Epithelial cell monolayers were grown and CSF secretion and transepithelial resistance were determined. The expression of f-actin as well as the choroid plexus marker protein transthyretin (TTR), were assessed. The expression of the export proteins p-glycoprotein (Pgp, Abcb1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1, Abcc1) was studied by RT-PCR, Western-blot and immunofluorescence techniques and their functional activity was assessed by transport and uptake experiments. Results Choroid plexus epithelial cells were isolated in high purity and grown to form confluent monolayers. Filter-grown monolayers displayed transendothelial resistance (TEER) values in the range of 100 to 150 ?cm2. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical net work of f-actin and expressed TTR at a high rate. The cultured cells were able to secrete CSF at a rate of 48.2 ± 4.6 ?l/cm2/h over 2–3 hours. The ABC-export protein Mrp1 was expressed in the basolateral (blood-facing) membranes of cell monolayers and intact tissue. P-glycoprotein showed only low expression within the apical (CSF directed) membrane but was located more in sub-apical cell compartments. This finding was paralleled by the lack of directed excretion of p-glycoprotein substrates, verapamil and rhodamine 123. Conclusion It was demonstrated that CP epithelium can be isolated and cultured, with cells growing into intact monolayers, fully differentiating and with properties resembling the tissue in vivo. Thus, the established primary porcine CP model, allowing investigation of complex transport processes, can be used as a reliable tool for analysis of xenobiotic transport across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB).

Baehr, Carsten; Reichel, Valeska; Fricker, Gert

2006-01-01

79

ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 are expressed on choroid plexus epithelium but not endothelium and mediate binding of lymphocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in the choroid plexus was studied in normal brain and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the SJL/J mouse during inflammation induced by intracerebral injection of killed Corynebacterium parvum in the C3H/He mouse. Both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not MAdCAM-1, were constitutively expressed on choroid plexus epithelium but not on the fenestrated capillary endothelial cells within the choroid plexus. During EAE, we observed an up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and de novo expression of MAdCAM-1 on choroid plexus epithelial cells. In contrast, endothelial cells in the choroid plexus were not induced to express any of the investigated CAMs. In in situ hybridization analysis we demonstrated that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 were locally synthesized and that the amount of their mRNAs increased in the inflamed choroid plexus. In vitro, primary choroid plexus epithelial cells could be induced to express ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 on their surface after treatment with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate the functional status of the expressed CAMs we performed Stamper-Woodruff binding assays on frozen sections of inflamed and naive brains. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells mediated binding of lymphocytes via their known ligands LFA-1 and alpha4-integrin, respectively. The expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 on choroid plexus epithelial cells together with the lack of their expression on the fenestrated choroid plexus endothelium raises the possibility that the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier plays an important role in the immunosurveillance of the central nervous system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3A Figure 3B Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Steffen, B. J.; Breier, G.; Butcher, E. C.; Schulz, M.; Engelhardt, B.

1996-01-01

80

Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters in duodenum, collecting ducts and choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Epithelia cover the internal and external surfaces of the organism and form barriers between the various compartments. Some of these epithelia are specialized for effective transmembrane or even transepithelial movement of acid-base equivalents. Certain epithelia with a high rate of HCO3- transport express a few potent Na+-coupled acid-base transporters to gain a net HCO3- movement across the epithelium. Examples of such epithelia are renal proximal tubules and pancreatic ducts. In contrast, multiple Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters are expressed in other HCO3- secreting epithelia, such as the duodenal mucosa or the choroid plexus, which maintain suitable intracellular pH despite a variable demand for secreting HCO3-. In the duodenum, the epithelial cells must secrete HCO3- for neutralization of the gastric acid, and at the same time prevent cellular acidification. During the neutralization, large quantities of CO2 are formed in the duodenal lumen, which enter the epithelial cells. This would tend to lower intracellular pH and require effective counteracting mechanisms to avoid cell death and to maintain HCO3- secretion. The choroid plexus secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and controls the pH of the otherwise poorly buffered CSF. The pCO2 of CSF fluctuates with plasma pCO2, and the choroid plexus must regulate the HCO3- secretion to minimize the effects of these fluctuations on CSF pH. This is done while maintaining pH neutrality in the epithelial cells. Thus, the Na+-HCO3- cotransporters appear to be involved in HCO3- import in more epithelia, where Na+/H+ exchangers were until recently thought to be sufficient for maintaining intracellular pH. PMID:21170886

Praetorius, Jeppe

2010-01-01

81

Cimetidine transport in isolated brush border membrane vesicles from bovine choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the transport of cimetidine across the brush border membrane of choroid plexus epithelium. Brush border membrane vesicles were prepared from bovine choroid plexus and the uptake of (3H)cimetidine was studied using the methods of rapid vacuum filtration and scintillation counting. Cimetidine accumulated in the vesicles with time reaching equilibrium within 2 hr. The amount of cimetidine taken up by the vesicles at equilibrium decreased with increasing extravesicular media osmolarity suggesting that cimetidine accumulates in an osmotically reactive intravesicular space. Binding of cimetidine to the membrane was estimated to be less than 18%. Michaelis-Menten studies demonstrated that cimetidine transport involved both a saturable and a nonsaturable component. The Vmax and Km (mean +/- S.E.) were 16.7 +/- 5.9 pmol/sec/mg protein and 58.1 +/- 3.1 microM, respectively, suggesting that cimetidine is transported across the choroid plexus brush border membrane with a lower affinity and a higher capacity than across the renal brush border membrane. The organic cation, quinidine (0.1 mM), and the amino acid, histidine (20 mM), both significantly reduced the initial, but not the equilibrium, uptake of cimetidine. However, high concentrations (5 mM) of more polar organic cations including tetraethylammonium, as well as of several organic anions including salicylate did not inhibit cimetidine transport. Studies with unlabeled cimetidine revealed a countertransport phenomenon. Attempts to drive the concentrative uptake of cimetidine with various ion gradients were unsuccessful. Of note was the fact that an outwardly directed proton gradient could significantly accelerate the uptake of cimetidine.

Whittico, M.T.; Gang, Y.A.; Giacomini, K.M. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-11-01

82

Somatic Mosaicism in Menkes Disease Suggests Choroid Plexus-mediated Copper Transport to the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

The primary mechanism of copper transport to the brain is unknown, although this process is drastically impaired in Menkes disease, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in an evolutionarily conserved copper transporter, ATP7A. Potential central nervous system entry routes for copper include brain capillary endothelial cells that originate from mesodermal angioblasts and form the blood-brain barrier, and the choroid plexuses, which derive from embryonic ectoderm, and form the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. We exploited a rare (and first reported) example of somatic mosaicism for an ATP7A mutation to shed light on questions about copper transport into the developing brain. In a 20-month-old Menkes disease patient evaluated before copper treatment, blood copper and catecholamine concentrations were normal, whereas levels in cerebrospinal fluid were abnormal and consistent with his neurologically severe phenotype. We documented disparate levels of mosaicism for an ATP7A missense mutation, P1001L, in tissues derived from different embryonic origins; allele quantitation showed P1001L in approximately 27% and 88% of DNA samples from blood cells (mesoderm-derived) and cultured fibroblasts (ectoderm-derived), respectively. These findings imply that the P1001L mutation in the patient preceded formation of the three primary embryonic lineages at gastrulation, with the ectoderm layer ultimately harboring a higher percentage of mutation-bearing cells than mesoderm or endoderm. Since choroid plexus epithelia are derived from neuroectoderm, and brain capillary endothelial cells from mesodermal angioblasts, the clinical and biochemical findings in this infant support a critical role for the blood-CSF barrier (choroid plexus epithelia) in copper entry to the developing brain.

Donsante, Anthony; Johnson, Paul; Jansen, Laura A.; Kaler, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

83

The role of the choroid plexus in neutrophil invasion after traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently results in neuroinflammation, which includes the invasion of neutrophils. After TBI, neutrophils infiltrate the choroid plexus (CP), a site of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB), and accumulate in the CSF space near the injury, from where these inflammatory cells may migrate to brain parenchyma. We have hypothesized that the CP functions as an entry point for neutrophils to invade the injured brain. Using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI in rats and an in vitro model of the BCSFB, we show that the CP produces CXC chemokines, such as cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 or CXCL1, CINC-2? or CXCL3, and CINC-3 or CXCL2. These chemokines are secreted both apically and basolaterally from choroidal epithelium, a prerequisite for neutrophil migration across epithelial barriers. Consistent with these findings, we also provide electron microscopic evidence that neutrophils infiltrate the choroidal stroma and subsequently reach the intercellular space between choroidal epithelial cells. This is the first detailed analysis of the BCSFB function related to neutrophil trafficking. Our observations support the role of this barrier in post-traumatic neutrophil invasion.

Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Strazielle, Nathalie; Zink, Brian J.; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-Francois; Chodobski, Adam

2009-01-01

84

Vestibular syndrome due to a choroid plexus papilloma in a ferret.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old, castrated male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented with progressive neurological signs consisting of a right-sided head tilt and ataxia. Neurological examination revealed hemiparesis and absence of proprioception on the right side, consistent with central vestibular syndrome. Measurement of blood glucose excluded hypoglycemia due to insulinoma. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed the presence of an intracranial mass, consistent with either granuloma or neoplasia. Palliative treatment with prednisolone yielded no improvement. At postmortem examination, a final diagnosis of a choroid plexus papilloma originating from the fourth ventricle was made. This is the first report of such a tumor in a ferret. PMID:19258423

van Zeeland, Yvonne; Schoemaker, Nico; Passon-Vastenburg, Maartje; Kik, Marja

2009-01-01

85

Synchrotron radiation dichromographic imaging of the extra- and intracranial arterial circulations and choroid plexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication proposes the use of synchrotron radiation based k-edge dichromographic imaging for the simultaneous study of the extracranial and intracranial arterial circulations following a single peripheral intravenous injection of a contrast agent. This approach can provide images of the vertebral arteries, the common, external and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries, during a single scanning procedure, lasting only a few seconds, requiring an X-ray exposure on the order of about 30 mGy/image. The method has specific advantages for the evaluation of the perfusion of the choroid plexus.

Rubenstein, E.

2002-05-01

86

Vulnerability of fourth ventricle choroid plexus in sudden unexplained fetal and infant death syndromes related to smoking mothers.  

PubMed

The human choroid plexuses in the ventricular system represent the main source of cerebrospinal fluid secretion and constitute a major barrier interface that controls the brain's environment. The present study focused on the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle, the main cavity of the brainstem containing important nuclei and/or structures mediating autonomic vital functions. In serial sections of 84 brainstems of subjects aged from 17 gestational weeks to 8 postnatal months of life, the deaths due to both known and unknown causes, we examined the cytoarchitecture and the developmental steps of the fourth ventricle choroid plexus to determine whether this structure shows morphological and/or functional alterations in unexplained perinatal deaths (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death Syndrome). High incidence of histological and immunohistochemical alterations (prevalence of epithelial dark cells, the presence of cystic cells in the stroma, decreased number of blood capillaries, hyperexpression of Substance P and apoptosis) were prevalently observed in unexplained death victims (p<0.05 vs. controls). A significant correlation was found between maternal smoking in pregnancy and choroidal neuropathological parameters (p<0.01). This work underscores the negative effects of prenatal exposure to nicotine on the development of the autonomic nervous system, and in particular of the fourth ventricle choroid plexus that is a very vulnerable structure in the developing CSF-brain system. PMID:23680292

Lavezzi, Anna M; Matturri, Luigi; Del Corno, Giuseppe; Johanson, Conrad E

2013-08-01

87

Rare intraparenchymal choroid plexus carcinoma resembling atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor diagnosed by immunostaining for INI1 protein.  

PubMed

The authors present the case of a rare extraventricular, intraparenchymal choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC). This 6-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Imaging studies revealed an intraaxial cystic and solid mass located in the right frontal lobe with central nodular enhancement and minimally enhancing cyst walls. Gross-total resection was accomplished via craniotomy without complications. The initial pathological diagnosis was atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT); however, immunostaining for INI1 protein (using the BAF47/SNF5 antibody) showed retention of nuclear staining in the tumor cells, resulting in a change in the diagnosis to CPC. There was no evidence of recurrence at the last follow-up 2.5 years after treatment, which supports the diagnosis of CPC over AT/RT. This case emphasizes the importance of immunostaining for INI1 protein for distinguishing CPC from AT/RT in cases with atypical or indeterminate features. PMID:19795969

Stevens, E Andrew; Stanton, Constance A; Nichols, Kyle; Ellis, Thomas L

2009-10-01

88

Unique Presentation of Cerebellopontine Angle Choroid Plexus Papillomas: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives?We present the case of a choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), describe the different appearances of CPPs with a variety of imaging techniques, and discuss the differential diagnosis of CPA tumors. Participant and Design?We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with headache, tinnitus, and unilateral hearing impairment whose preoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhancing CPA mass that extended into the internal auditory canal. Main Outcome Measures, Results, and Conclusion?The preoperative imaging appearance of the lesion was most consistent with that of a schwannoma. Postoperative histopathologic examination found the tumor to be a CPP with cuboidal epithelial cells overlying fibrovascular stroma. CPPs are rare benign central nervous system neoplasms arising from choroid plexus epithelium. The most common site of presentation is in the fourth ventricle in adults and the lateral ventricles in children. CPPs rarely occur in the CPA, and when they do, clinical-radiologic diagnosis is difficult due to both the rarity of this presentation and to nonspecific radiological features.

Anderson, Mark; Babington, Parker; Taheri, Reza; Diolombi, Mairo; Sherman, Jonathan H.

2013-01-01

89

The kinetics of tiazofurin uptake by the isolated perfused choroid plexus of the sheep.  

PubMed

Tiazofurin (TZF-beta-D-ribofuronosyl thiazole-4-carboxamide, NSC-286193) is a synthetic nucleoside analog with potent antitumor activity. Isolated choroid plexuses (CP) of sheep were perfused in situ and the uptake of [3H]-tiazofurin was determined in relation to the recovery of [14C]-mannitol by means of the paired indicator dilution technique. The maximal uptake of tiazofurin was 8.29 +/- 0.84% and was shown to be both carrier-mediated, sodium-dependent and inhibited by adenosine which suggests that it uses the carrier for endogenous nucleosides. However, the total tiazofurin uptake into the choroid plexus was negligible (0.93 +/- 1.97%) as a result of a high backflux, indicating that tiazofurin is not trapped within the cells of the CP to any significant degree. The kinetics for the uptake into the CP were more favorable than for its passage across the blood-brain barrier with a Km of 7.71 +/- 1.42 microM, a Vmax of 1.30 +/- 0.05 microM/min/g and a negligible constant of a free diffusion (Kd) which suggests that the CP/CSF route may act as an alternative pathway into the brain. PMID:10893696

Redzic, Z B; Segal, M B; Gasic, J M; Markovic, I D; Isakovic, A; Rakic, L M

2000-04-01

90

First report of the simultaneous occurrence of choroid plexus papilloma and meningioma in a dog.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old spayed female English Cocker Spaniel was examined because of a 1-week history of lethargy, stumbling over objects and circling, and the presence of two tonic-clonic generalised seizures two days before presentation. The neurological signs suggested a lesion involving the right forebrain. Computed tomography revealed the presence of two intracranial masses, one located inside the right lateral ventricle and the other located in the right frontal lobe attached to the falx cerebri. Because of the poor prognosis, the owner refused to continue with the therapy and the dog was euthanised. On postmortem examination one mass was diagnosed histologically as a meningioma and the other as a papilloma of the choroid plexus. Information in the veterinary literature on multiple malignancies affecting the central nervous system is very limited. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the association of meningioma and choroid plexus papilloma has never been reported either in the human or in the veterinary medical literature. PMID:19635711

Espino, Luciano; Suarez, Maruska; Santamarina, German; Vila, Mónica; Miño, Natalia; Lopez-Peña, Mónica

2009-09-01

91

The role of the cat choroid plexus in regulating cerebrospinal fluid magnesium.  

PubMed Central

1. The regulation of c.s.f. Mg concentration was studied using the cat choroid plexus isolated in a chamber in situ. 2. An increase in plasma Mg concentration was accompanied by the usual reciprocal decrease in plasma Ca concentration. Chamber fluid Ca concentration was unaffected. 3. Hypermagnesemia (plasma Mg concentration greater than 6 m-equiv/1.) caused relatively small increases in c.s.f. Mg concentration (delta plasma [Mg]/ delta c.s.f. [Mg] = 4). 4. Various chamber fluid Mg concentrations (0, 2.4 or 4.8 m-equiv/1.) were rapidly (within 30--60 min) returned to near the control value of 1.83 m-equiv/1. 5. When plasma and chamber fluid Mg concentrations were altered simultaneously, the final chamber fluid Mg concentration was returned towards normal with or against a concentration gradient. 6. The data indicate that the choroid plexus is involved in maintaining the constancy of the c.s.f. Mg concentration by sensing changes in the normal c.s.f. Mg concentration and altering approximately its rate of active secretion of Mg.

Reed, D J; Yen, M H

1978-01-01

92

Developmental changes in ciliary motility on choroid plexus epithelial cells during the perinatal period.  

PubMed

Cilia have crucial roles in various developmental and physiological events. Previously, we reported that choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) have multiple, nonmotile 9+0 cilia, but the cilia exhibit transient motility with variable axonemal arrangements in the neonatal period. These features make these cilia unique, as they do not fit in to the traditional categories of primary or motile cilia, and their physiological roles remain elusive. To address this issue, we studied ciliary motility on CPECs through development, with particular interest in the embryonic period. In the fetal choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles, the proportion of cells with motile cilia and their beat frequency increased over time. The ciliary motility profiles peaked near the day of birth, and gradually declined in the two weeks thereafter. The dynamic changes in ciliary motility correlated with changes in Dnahc11 expression. We demonstrated previously that the ciliary motility at P2 was insufficient to produce detectable fluid flow; thus it appears that CPEC cilia do not produce fluid flow at any point during development. Together, our results suggest that a temporally regulated, unique function of CPEC cilia may exist during the perinatal period. PMID:23959957

Nonami, Yuta; Narita, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideki; Inoue, Takafumi; Takeda, Sen

2013-12-01

93

Targeting choroid plexus epithelia and ventricular ependyma for drug delivery to the central nervous system  

PubMed Central

Background Because the choroid plexus (CP) is uniquely suited to control the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), there may be therapeutic benefits to increasing the levels of biologically active proteins in CSF to modulate central nervous system (CNS) functions. To this end, we sought to identify peptides capable of ligand-mediated targeting to CP epithelial cells reasoning that they could be exploited to deliver drugs, biotherapeutics and genes to the CNS. Methods A peptide library displayed on M13 bacteriophage was screened for ligands capable of internalizing into CP epithelial cells by incubating phage with CP explants for 2 hours at 37C and recovering particles with targeting capacity. Results Three peptides, identified after four rounds of screening, were analyzed for specific and dose dependant binding and internalization. Binding was deemed specific because internalization was prevented by co-incubation with cognate synthetic peptides. Furthermore, after i.c.v. injection into rat brains, each peptide was found to target phage to epithelial cells in CP and to ependyma lining the ventricles. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ligand-mediated targeting can be used as a strategy for drug delivery to the central nervous system and opens the possibility of using the choroid plexus as a portal of entry into the brain.

2011-01-01

94

Confocal imaging of organic anion transport in intact rat choroid plexus.  

PubMed

We used confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to follow the movement of the fluorescent organic anion fluorescein (FL) from bath to cell and cell to blood vessel in intact rat lateral choroid plexus. FL accumulation in epithelial cells and underlying vessels was rapid, concentrative, and reduced by other organic anions. At steady state, cell fluorescence exceeded bath fluorescence by a factor of 3-5, and vessel fluorescence exceeded cell fluorescence by a factor of approximately 2. In cells, FL distributed between diffuse and punctate compartments. Cell and vessel accumulation of FL decreased when metabolism was inhibited by KCN, when bath Na(+) was reduced from 130 to 26 mM, and when the Na(+) gradient was collapsed with ouabain. Cell and vessel accumulation increased by >50% when 1-10 microM glutarate was added to the bath. Finally, transport of FL and carboxyfluorescein (generated intracellularly from carboxyfluorescein diacetate) from cell to blood vessel was greatly diminished when medium K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) was increased 10-fold. These results 1) validate a new approach to the study of choroid plexus function, and 2) indicate a two-step mechanism for transepithelial organic anion transport: indirect coupling of uptake to Na(+) at the apical membrane and electrical potential-driven efflux at the basolateral membrane. PMID:11934698

Breen, Christopher M; Sykes, Destiny B; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

2002-05-01

95

The characteristics of nucleobase transport and metabolism by the perfused sheep choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The uptake of nucleobases was investigated across the basolateral membrane of the sheep choroid plexus perfused in situ. The maximal uptake (U(max)) for hypoxanthine and adenine, was 35.51+/-1.50% and 30.71+/-0.49% and for guanine, thymine and uracil was 12.00+/-0.53%, 13.07+/-0.48% and 12.30+/-0.55%, respectively with a negligible backflux, except for that of thymine (35.11+/-5.37% of the U(max)). HPLC analysis revealed that the purine nucleobase hypoxanthine and the pyrimidine nucleobase thymine can pass intact through the choroid plexus and enter the cerebrospinal fluid CSF so the lack of backflux for hypoxanthine was not a result of metabolic trapping in the cell. Competition studies revealed that hypoxanthine, adenine and thymine shared the same transport system, while guanine and uracil were transported by a separate mechanism and that nucleosides can partially share the same transporter. HPLC analysis of sheep CSF collected in vivo revealed only two nucleobases were present adenine and hypoxanthine; with an R(CSF/Plasma) 0.19+/-0.02 and 3.43+/-0.20, respectively. Xanthine and urate, the final products of purine catabolism, could not be detected in the CSF even in trace amounts. These results suggest that the activity of xanthine oxidase in the brain of the sheep is very low so the metabolic degradation of purines is carried out only as far as hypoxanthine which then accumulates in the CSF. In conclusion, the presence of saturable transport systems for nucleobases at the basolateral membrane of the choroidal epithelium was demonstrated, which could be important for the distribution of the salvageable nucleobases, adenine and hypoxanthine in the central nervous system. PMID:11146053

Redzic, Z B; Segal, M B; Gasic, J M; Markovic, I D; Vojvodic, V P; Isakovic, A; Thomas, S A; Rakic, L M

2001-01-01

96

[Ultrastructural aspects of sheep choroid plexus cells during exogenous cell fusion induced by Visna virus in vitro].  

PubMed

During the first moments of the in vitro infection of Sheep choroid plexus cells with high multiplicities of infection of Visna virus, the authors observed: a strong development of GERL, some signs of an intensive protein synthesis and numerous filament bundles. This infection leads to an exogenous cell fusion. PMID:6769604

Pautrat, G; Benkoel, L; Donadey, C

1980-03-24

97

Expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the choroid plexuses from buffalo brain.  

PubMed

Choroid plexuses (CPs) play pivotal roles in a wide range of processes that establish, survey, and maintain the biochemical and cellular status of the central nervous system. Mammalian CPs contain a very high density of serotonin receptors, and serotonin has been shown to affect CP functions. The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates the entire serotonergic system, including serotonin receptors by means of modulation of serotonin concentration in the extracellular fluid. In this study, the expression of SERT in the CPs from the brain of a mammalian species, Bubalis bubalis, was established. By immunogold labeling in scanning electron microscopy, SERT immunoreactivity was found to be localized on the apical surface of the choroid epithelium. In particular, SERT positivity was detected on the apical portion of villi, and both on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of grouped cells on the surface of the choroid epithelium. Significantly, no SERT was detected in blood vessels irrigating the CPs. The expression of SERT mRNA transcripts of 440 bp in the CPs was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting analysis revealed the presence of three isoforms of the protein with molecular masses of approximately 70, 80, and 140 kDa, respectively, probably corresponding to differently glycosylated SERT. Our findings provide the first report of SERT detection in the CPs of buffalo brain and indicate that this protein is locally synthesized from the choroid epithelial cells. We suggest that SERT might have an important role in mammalian CPs, possibly regulating the serotonin flow between brain and rest of the body. PMID:17957753

Pavone, Luigi M; Tafuri, Simona; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Morte, Rossella Della; Lombardi, Pietro; Avallone, Luigi; Maharajan, Veeramani; Staiano, Norma; Scala, Gaetano

2007-12-01

98

Atypical transformation in sacral drop metastasis from posterior fossa choroid plexus papilloma.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are rare tumours and spinal metastases of CPP are even less common. We report a 50-year-old woman with spinal drop metastases at Th9 and S1-2 6 years after total resection of a posterior fossa CPP. The metastasis at S1-2 was resected and histological examination showed transformation to an atypical CPP. Atypical transformation in a metastasis years after resection of a benign posterior fossa CPP has been described once. We would like to advocate craniospinal MRI at the time of initial diagnosis as well as periodic follow-up after total and subtotal resection of a posterior fossa CPP in adults at least once in 1 or 2 years, depending on the histological grading of the primary CPP. In our case report, this could have resulted in earlier diagnosis of the locoregional recurrence or of the spinal drop metastasis. PMID:22922909

Stuivenvolt, Mischa; Mandl, Ellen; Verheul, Jeroen; Fleischeuer, Ruth; Tijssen, Cees C

2012-01-01

99

Endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum resection of a large solid choroid plexus papilloma of the third ventricle.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a highly vascular solid or mixed solid-cystic tumor. Previously described resection techniques for the more common solid CPP in the third ventricle have all been through the transcranial route. The authors review the literature and describe a patient who, to their knowledge, is the first successful resection of a large, completely solid CPP of the third ventricle through an entirely endoscopic, extended transphenoidal approach. Using modern neuroendoscopic methods and closure techniques, a gross total resection was accomplished and a successful closure without postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was achieved despite the presence of preoperative hydrocephalus. For appropriately selected lesions, an extended endonasal skull base resection can be performed successfully for vascular tumors despite the presence of preoperative hydrocephalus. PMID:24480582

Kulwin, Charles; Chan, David; Ting, Jonathan; Hattab, Eyas M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2014-07-01

100

Sustained choroid plexus function in human elderly and Alzheimer's disease patients  

PubMed Central

We and other investigators have postulated deterioration of essential choroid plexus (CP) functions in some elderly and especially Alzheimer’s disease patients based on apparent anatomical, histological and pathological changes in CP. We have termed this putative phenomenon CP failure. By focusing on four essential energy-requiring CP functions, specifically ascorbic acid (AA) and folate transport from blood into CSF, transthyretin synthesis and secretion into CSF, and electrolyte/acid–base balance in CSF, we were able to evaluate the hypothesis of CP failure by reviewing definitive human data. In both healthy elderly and Alzheimer’s disease patients, the CP functions normally to transport AA and folates actively from blood into CSF, synthesize and secrete transthyretin into CSF, and maintain CSF acid–base balance and ion concentrations. These human CSF compositional data provide no support for the notion of CP failure in elderly humans and Alzheimer’s disease patients.

2013-01-01

101

A "Pseudo-cavernoma" - an encapsulated Hematoma of the Choroid Plexus  

PubMed Central

We present the first report of an intraventricular encapsulated hematoma, mimicking cavernous malformation on imaging and gross lesion appearance. A 47-year-old female on anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation presented with left upper extremity apraxia, neglect, and mild gait imbalance. Her brain CT scan and MRI revealed multilobulated lesions involving the choroid plexus in the atria of both lateral ventricles. The intraoperative appearance was that of encapsulated mass, with blood clots at different stages of liquefaction and organization, all consistent with the gross appearance of a cavernous malformation. However, histopathologic examination demonstrated hematoma with components at different ages, and normal vessel infiltration without any hint of cavernous malformation histology, or underlying neoplasia. Encapsulated hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic intraventricular masses.

Dey, Mahua; Turner, Michael S.; Pytel, Peter; Awad, Issam A.

2011-01-01

102

The Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid: Emerging Roles in Development, Disease, and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Although universally recognized as the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (ChP) has been one of the most understudied tissues in neuroscience. The reasons for this are multiple and varied, including historical perceptions about passive and permissive roles for the ChP, experimental issues, and lack of clinical salience. However, recent work on the ChP and instructive signals in the CSF have sparked new hypotheses about how the ChP and CSF provide unexpected means for regulating nervous system structure and function in health and disease, as well as new ChP-based therapeutic approaches using pluripotent stem cell technology. This minisymposium combines new and established investigators to capture some of the newfound excitement surrounding the ChP-CSF system.

Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Holtzman, David M.

2013-01-01

103

Use of tranexamic acid in infants undergoing choroid plexus papilloma surgery: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a highly vascular tumor of infancy. Reducing blood loss is the key to successful surgical removal of CPPs. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is efficacious in reducing bleeding in craniofacial surgery for infants. This report demonstrates the potential utility of TXA for decreasing blood loss in the removal of vascular tumors in infants. We administered tranexamic acid to two infants with CPP during surgical removal to potentially aid hemostasis and therefore lessen intra-operative bleeding. Gross total surgical resection was accomplished; the patients were hemodynamically stable perioperatively, and the total calculated blood loss was minimal at <20% of the patients' total circulating blood volume. This is the first report of tranexamic acid administration for CPP surgery in children. TXA is an easily administered hemostatic agent and may merit further study as an agent to help reduce intra-operative blood loss in this vulnerable population. PMID:24924340

Phi, Ji H; Goobie, Susan M; Hong, Ki H; Dholakia, Ayesha; Smith, Edward R

2014-07-01

104

Choroid Plexus  

MedlinePLUS

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105

Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

1985-02-01

106

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.

Millward, Jason M.; Schnorr, Jorg; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Wuerfel, Jens T.; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

2013-01-01

107

Macrophages and dendritic cells in the rat meninges and choroid plexus: three-dimensional localisation by environmental scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation provides novel information on the topographical distribution of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in normal meninges and choroid plexus of the rat central nervous system (CNS). Whole-mounts of meninges and choroid plexus of Lewis rats were incubated with various anti-leucocyte monoclonal antibodies and either visualised with gold-conjugated secondary antibody followed by silver enhancement and subsequent examination by

Paul G. McMenamin; Rosamund J. Wealthall; Marie Deverall; Stephanie J. Cooper; Brendan Griffin

2003-01-01

108

Comparison of the global gene expression of choroid plexus and meninges and associated vasculature under control conditions and after pronounced hyperthermia or amphetamine toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background The meninges (arachnoid and pial membranes) and associated vasculature (MAV) and choroid plexus are important in maintaining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) generation and flow. MAV vasculature was previously observed to be adversely affected by environmentally-induced hyperthermia (EIH) and more so by a neurotoxic amphetamine (AMPH) exposure. Herein, microarray and RT-PCR analysis was used to compare the gene expression profiles between choroid plexus and MAV under control conditions and at 3?hours and 1?day after EIH or AMPH exposure. Since AMPH and EIH are so disruptive to vasculature, genes related to vasculature integrity and function were of interest. Results Our data shows that, under control conditions, many of the genes with relatively high expression in both the MAV and choroid plexus are also abundant in many epithelial tissues. These genes function in transport of water, ions, and solutes, and likely play a role in CSF regulation. Most genes that help form the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and tight junctions were also highly expressed in MAV but not in choroid plexus. In MAV, exposure to EIH and more so to AMPH decreased the expression of BBB-related genes such as Sox18, Ocln, and Cldn5, but they were much less affected in the choroid plexus. There was a correlation between the genes related to reactive oxidative stress and damage that were significantly altered in the MAV and choroid plexus after either EIH or AMPH. However, AMPH (at 3?hr) significantly affected about 5 times as many genes as EIH in the MAV, while in the choroid plexus EIH affected more genes than AMPH. Several unique genes that are not specifically related to vascular damage increased to a much greater extent after AMPH compared to EIH in the MAV (Lbp, Reg3a, Reg3b, Slc15a1, Sct and Fst) and choroid plexus (Bmp4, Dio2 and Lbp). Conclusions Our study indicates that the disruption of choroid plexus function and damage produced by AMPH and EIH is significant, but the changes may not be as pronounced as they are in the MAV, particularly for AMPH. Expression profiles in the MAV and choroid plexus differed to some extent and differences were not restricted to vascular related genes.

2013-01-01

109

Kinetics of nucleoside uptake by the basolateral side of the sheep choroid plexus epithelium perfused in situ.  

PubMed

Sheep choroid plexus epithelium expresses equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) 1 and 2 and concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 at the transcript level. This study aimed to explore the kinetics and functional role of these transporters at the basolateral side of the sheep choroid plexus epithelium perfused in situ. The cellular uptake of [(3)H]adenosine and [(3)H]uridine was insensitive to 1 microm nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), and the uptake of [(3)H]adenosine was reduced significantly when 10 microm NBTI was present in low-Na(+) Ringer solution. This might suggest that ENT2, a transporter sensitive to micromolar NBTI, is functionally active at the basolateral side of the choroid plexus epithelium while ENT1, a transporter sensitive to nanomolar NBTI, is not active. When low-Na(+) Ringer solution was used for the in situ perfusion, the Na(+) concentration in the venous effluent decreased to 14 mm; under these conditions the maximal uptake (U(max)) of [(3)H]adenosine and [(3)H]uridine did not change significantly when compared with the U(max) obtained when Ringer solution that contained 145 mm Na(+) was used. Kinetic analysis revealed apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m,app)) for cellular uptake of [(3)H]adenosine, [(3)H]inosine and [(3)H]thymidine of 1.2 +/- 0.2, 15.7 +/- 2.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.9 microm, respectively. The HPLC and HPLC-fluorometric analysis of the sheep plasma and cerebrospinal fluid revealed nanomolar concentrations of adenosine and thymidine and micromolar levels of inosine and nucleobases. Considering the estimated K(m,app) values, it appears that under normal conditions inosine is the more important nucleoside substrate for uptake by the basolateral membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium than other nucleosides. PMID:18039975

Markovic, Ivanka; Segal, Malcolm; Djuricic, Bogdan; Redzic, Zoran

2008-03-01

110

Actin containing filaments in sheep choroid plexus cells infected in vitro by Visna virus: an immunofluorescent and ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

The in vitro infection of sheep choroid plexus cells by Visna virus induces changes in the distribution and the orientation of actin containing filament bundles. During the cell fusion the stellate shape of cells with several interdigitations is associated with radial spanning of the contractile system. The intercellular contacts are characterized by the occurrence of a discontinuous line of rich actin containing dots which could be a junction of several short filament bundles. PMID:6998576

Pautrat, G; Benkoel, L; Benyamin, Y; Van Thoai, N

1980-09-01

111

[Ultrastructural aspects of the cell fusion induced by Visna virus on sheep choroid plexus cell in culture].  

PubMed

Sheep choroid plexus cells infected with low multiplicities of infection of Visna Virus were stellate and had long and thin processes containing filaments and forming cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells. Enlargement of the bridges resulted in the formation of multinucleated cells. Some glycoproteins were clustered on filaments outside the cell. The cytoplasmic changes showed : an intensive protein synthesis; numerous mitochondria closely associated with filaments and some lysosomes and numerous vesicules near the plasma membrane. PMID:199372

Pautrat, G; Benkoel, L; de tmicco, P; Tamalet, J

1977-09-26

112

Inflammation-inducible type 2 deiodinase expression in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and at brain blood vessels in male rodents.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone regulates immune functions and has antiinflammatory effects. In promoter assays, the thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, type 2 deiodinase (D2), is highly inducible by the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-? B (NF-?B), but it is unknown whether D2 is induced in a similar fashion in vivo during inflammation. We first reexamined the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on D2 expression and NF-?B activation in the rat and mouse brain using in situ hybridization. In rats, LPS induced very robust D2 expression in normally non-D2-expressing cells in the leptomeninges, adjacent brain blood vessels, and the choroid plexus. These cells were vimentin-positive fibroblasts and expressed the NF-?B activation marker, inhibitor ? B-? mRNA, at 2 hours after injection, before the increase in D2 mRNA. In mice, LPS induced intense D2 expression in the choroid plexus but not in leptomeninges, with an early expression peak at 2 hours. Moderate D2 expression along numerous brain blood vessels appeared later. D2 and NF-?B activation was induced in tanycytes in both species but with a different time course. Enzymatic assays from leptomeningeal and choroid plexus samples revealed exceptionally high D2 activity in LPS-treated rats and Syrian hamsters and moderate but significant increases in mice. These data demonstrate the cell type-specific, highly inducible nature of D2 expression by inflammation, and NF-?B as a possible initiating factor, but also warrant attention for species differences. The results suggest that D2-mediated T3 production by fibroblasts regulate local inflammatory actions in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus and brain blood vessels, and perhaps also in other organs. PMID:24601886

Wittmann, Gábor; Harney, John W; Singru, Praful S; Nouriel, Shira S; Reed Larsen, P; Lechan, Ronald M

2014-05-01

113

LRP1 expression in cerebral cortex, choroid plexus and meningeal blood vessels: relationship to cerebral amyloid angiopathy and APOE status.  

PubMed

APOE genotype is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The risk and severity of CAA increase with possession of APOE ?4, whereas APOE ?2 increases the risk of vessel rupture. Uptake of A? by cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs) is mediated by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1). To determine whether APOE influences CAA by altering LRP1 expression, particularly by CVSMCs, we analysed APOE genotype, CAA severity, and LRP1 levels in post-mortem cerebral cortex, choroid plexus and meningeal vessels. LRP1 mRNA and protein were not related to CAA severity and presence. LRP1 mRNA was increased in meningeal vessels, but not cortex or choroid plexus, in AD and in association with APOE ?4, and was decreased in association with APOE ?3. In brains with CAA, APOE ?2 was associated with decreased LRP1 protein in meningeal vessels, and ?3 with increased LRP1 in choroid plexus. These findings suggest that APOE may influence the severity of CAA through altered expression of LRP1. PMID:22967844

Ruzali, Wan Adriyani W; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

2012-09-13

114

Expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in human choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Background Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) 1-3 and human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs) 1-3 in the human choroid plexus (hCP) play a role in the homeostasis of adenosine and other naturally occurring nucleosides in the brain; in addition, hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 mediate membrane transport of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that could be used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine and 2'3'-dideoxyinosine. This study aimed to explore the expression levels and functional activities of hENTs 1-3 and hCNTs 1-3 in human choroid plexus. Methods Freshly-isolated pieces of lateral ventricle hCP, removed for various clinical reasons during neurosurgery, were obtained under Local Ethics Committee approval. Quantification of mRNAs that encoded hENTs and hCNTs was performed by the hydrolysis probes-based reverse transcription real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); for each gene of interest and for 18 S ribosomal RNA, which was an endogenous control, the efficiency of PCR reaction (E) and the quantification cycle (Cq) were calculated. The uptake of [3H]inosine by the choroid plexus pieces was investigated to explore the functional activity of hENTs and hCNTs in the hCP. Results RT-qPCR revealed that the mRNA encoding the intracellularly located transporter hENT3 was the most abundant, with E-Cq value being only about 40 fold less that the E-Cq value for 18 S ribosomal RNA; mRNAs encoding hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 were much less abundant than mRNA for the hENT3, while mRNAs encoding hCNT1 and hCNT2 were of very low abundance and not detectable. Uptake of [3H]inosine by the CP samples was linear and consisted of an Na+-dependent component, which was probably mediated by hCNT3, and Na+-independent component, mediated by hENTs. The latter component was not sensitive to inhibition by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), when used at a concentration of 0.5 ?M, a finding that excluded the involvement of hENT1, but it was very substantially inhibited by 10 ?M NBMPR, a finding that suggested the involvement of hENT2 in uptake. Conclusion Transcripts for hENT1-3 and hCNT3 were detected in human CP; mRNA for hENT3, an intracellularly located nucleoside transporter, was the most abundant. Human CP took up radiolabelled inosine by both concentrative and equilibrative processes. Concentrative uptake was probably mediated by hCNT3; the equilibrative uptake was mediated only by hENT2. The hENT1 transport activity was absent, which could suggest either that this protein was absent in the CP cells or that it was confined to the basolateral side of the CP epithelium.

2010-01-01

115

Cotransport of sodium and chloride by the adult mammalian choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

Cerebrospinal fluid formation stems primarily from the transport of Na and Cl in choroid plexus (CP). To characterize properties and modulation of choroidal transporters, we tested diuretics and other agents for ability to alter ion transport in vitro. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were the source of CPs preincubated with drug for 20 min and then transferred to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) medium containing 22Na or 36Cl with (3H)mannitol (extracellular correction). Complete base-line curves were established for cellular uptake of Na and Cl at 37 degrees C. The half-maximal uptake occurred at 12 s, so it was used to assess drug effects on rate of transport (nmol Na or Cl/mg CP). Bumetanide (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) decreased uptake of Na and Cl with maximal inhibition (up to 45%) at 10(-5) M. Another cotransport inhibitor, furosemide (10(-4) M), reduced transport of Na by 25% and Cl by 33%. However, acetazolamide (10(-4) M) and atriopeptin III (10(-7) M) significantly lowered uptake of Na (but not Cl), suggesting effect(s) other than on cotransport. The disulfonic stilbene 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS; 10(-4) M), known to inhibit Cl-HCO3 exchange, substantially reduced the transport of 36Cl. Bumetanide plus DIDS (both 10(-4) M) caused additive inhibition of 90% of Cl uptake, which provides strong evidence for the existence of both cotransport and antiport Cl carriers. Overall, this in vitro analysis, uncomplicated by variables of blood flow and neural tone, indicates the presence in rat CP of the cotransport of Na and Cl in addition to the established Na-H and Cl-HCO3 exchangers.

Johanson, C.E.; Sweeney, S.M.; Parmelee, J.T.; Epstein, M.H. (Brown Univ./Rhode Island Hospital, Providence (USA))

1990-02-01

116

The choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system: from development to aging.  

PubMed

The function of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the tissue that secretes it, the choroid plexus (CP), has traditionally been thought of as both providing physical protection to the brain through buoyancy and facilitating the removal of brain metabolites through the bulk drainage of CSF. More recent studies suggest, however, that the CP-CSF system plays a much more active role in the development, homeostasis, and repair of the central nervous system (CNS). The highly specialized choroidal tissue synthesizes trophic and angiogenic factors, chemorepellents, and carrier proteins, and is strategically positioned within the ventricular cavities to supply the CNS with these biologically active substances. Through polarized transport systems and receptor-mediated transcytosis across the choroidal epithelium, the CP, a part of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), controls the entry of nutrients, such as amino acids and nucleosides, and peptide hormones, such as leptin and prolactin, from the periphery into the brain. The CP also plays an important role in the clearance of toxins and drugs. During CNS development, CP-derived growth factors, such as members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and retinoic acid, play an important role in controlling the patterning of neuronal differentiation in various brain regions. In the adult CNS, the CP appears to be critically involved in neuronal repair processes and the restoration of the brain microenvironment after traumatic and ischemic brain injury. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the CP acts as a nursery for neuronal and astrocytic progenitor cells. The advancement of our knowledge of the neuroprotective capabilities of the CP may therefore facilitate the development of novel therapies for ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. In the later stages of life, the CP-CSF axis shows a decline in all aspects of its function, including CSF secretion and protein synthesis, which may in themselves increase the risk for development of late-life diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease. The understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the dysfunction of the CP-CSF system in the elderly may help discover the treatments needed to reverse the negative effects of aging that lead to global CNS failure. PMID:16344101

Redzic, Zoran B; Preston, Jane E; Duncan, John A; Chodobski, Adam; Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna

2005-01-01

117

Choroid plexus implants rescue Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies by modulating amyloid-? degradation.  

PubMed

The choroid plexuses (CP) release numerous biologically active enzymes and neurotrophic factors, and contain a subpopulation of neural progenitor cells providing the capacity to proliferate and differentiate into other types of cells. These characteristics make CP epithelial cells (CPECs) excellent candidates for cell therapy aiming at restoring brain tissue in neurodegenerative illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, using in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that CP were able to diminish amyloid-? (A?) levels in cell cultures, reducing A?-induced neurotoxicity. For in vivo studies, CPECs were transplanted into the brain of the APP/PS1 murine model of AD that exhibits advanced A? accumulation and memory impairment. Brain examination after cell implantation revealed a significant reduction in brain A? deposits, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and astrocytic reactivity. Remarkably, the transplantation of CPECs was accompanied by a total behavioral recovery in APP/PS1 mice, improving spatial and non-spatial memory. These findings reinforce the neuroprotective potential of CPECs and the use of cell therapies as useful tools in AD. PMID:24343520

Bolos, Marta; Antequera, Desireé; Aldudo, Jesús; Kristen, Henrike; Bullido, María Jesús; Carro, Eva

2014-08-01

118

Polarized distribution of nucleoside transporters in rat brain endothelial and choroid plexus epithelial cells.  

PubMed

This study investigated mRNA expression and protein localization of equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs, CNTs) in primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and rat choroid plexus epithelial cells (RCPEC). Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that RBEC and RCPEC contained mRNA for rENT1, rENT2 and rCNT2 and for rENT1, rENT2, rCNT2 and rCNT3, respectively. Immunoblotting of membrane fractions of RBEC, fresh RCPEC and primary cultures of RCPEC revealed the presence of rENT1, rENT2 and rCNT2 proteins in all samples. Measurement of [14C]adenosine uptake into cells grown as monolayers on permeable plastic supports revealed a polarized distribution of Na+-dependent adenosine uptake in that CNT activity was associated exclusively in membranes of RBEC facing the lower chamber (which corresponds to the surface facing the interstitial fluid in situ) and in membranes of RCPEC facing the upper chamber (which corresponds to the surface facing the cerebrospinal fluid in situ). In both RBEC and RCPEC, adenosine uptake from the opposite chambers was Na+-independent and partially inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine, indicating the presence of the equilibrative sensitive transporter rENT1. PMID:16111480

Redzic, Zoran B; Biringer, Jean; Barnes, Kay; Baldwin, Stephen A; Al-Sarraf, Hameed; Nicola, Pieris A; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E; Barrand, Margery A; Hladky, Stephen B

2005-09-01

119

Modulation of iron metabolism in aging and in Alzheimer's disease: relevance of the choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for mammalian cellular homeostasis. However, in excess, it promotes free radical formation and is associated with aging-related progressive deterioration and with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are no mechanisms to excrete iron, which makes iron homeostasis a very tightly regulated process at the level of the intestinal absorption. Iron is believed to reach the brain through receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-bound transferrin by the brain barriers, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, formed by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Importantly, the CP epithelial cells are responsible for producing most of the CSF, the fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. Recently, the finding that the CP epithelial cells display all the machinery to locally control iron delivery into the CSF may suggest that the general and progressive senescence of the CP may be at the basis of the impairment of regional iron metabolism, iron-mediated toxicity, and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging and, particularly, in AD.

Mesquita, Sandro D.; Ferreira, Ana C.; Sousa, Joao C.; Santos, Nadine C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

2012-01-01

120

Ectopic choroid plexus found in fetal sections: a case report with literature consideration.  

PubMed

We incidentally found an ectopic choroid plexus (CP) attached to the posterior side of the cervicothoracic spinal cord (C4-T6) in a 16-week aborted fetus. The cytoarchitecture of the cord and segmental nerves showed normal development. The fourth ventricle did not contain the usual CP but a red blood cell cluster due to hemorrhage, although the cause, whether spontaneous or traumatic, was unknown. The ectopic CP was associated with thick neuroepithelium that was strongly positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, nestin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, but did not contain any CD34-positive vessels. Thus, the ectopic neuroepithelium seemed not to carry growth factor for vascular development. On the inferior side of the ectopic CP, the lower thoracic cord was wavy, folded, and packed in a limited space as a folding fan. Despite the strange gross appearance, however, we found no abnormality in the dorsal root ganglion, the spinal nerve root, or the cytoarchitecture of the lower thoracic cord. Therefore, the abnormality in the lower thoracic cord seemed to be secondarily induced by trophic factor(s) from the ectopic CP and/or the associated neuroepithelium. This may be the first report on an ectopic CP associated with ectopic neuroepithelium. PMID:24158592

Ha, Yeon Soo; Cho, Kwang Ho; Cheong, Jin Sung; Kim, Ji Hyun; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

2014-06-01

121

KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for normal function and mechanical protection of the CNS. The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms currently not fully understood. Previously, the heteromeric KCNQ1-KCNE2 K(+) channel was functionally linked to epithelial processes including gastric acid secretion and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Here, using Kcne2(-/-) tissue as a negative control, we found cerebral expression of KCNE2 to be markedly enriched in the CPe apical membrane, where we also discovered expression of KCNQ1. Targeted Kcne2 gene deletion in C57B6 mice increased CPe outward K(+) current 2-fold. The Kcne2 deletion-enhanced portion of the current was inhibited by XE991 (10 ?M) and margatoxin (10 ?M) but not by dendrotoxin (100 nM), indicating that it arose from augmentation of KCNQ subfamily and KCNA3 but not KCNA1 K(+) channel activity. Kcne2 deletion in C57B6 mice also altered the polarity of CPe KCNQ1 and KCNA3 trafficking, hyperpolarized the CPe membrane by 9 ± 2 mV, and increased CSF [Cl(-)] by 14% compared with wild-type mice. These findings constitute the first report of CPe dysfunction caused by cation channel gene disruption and suggest that KCNE2 influences blood-CSF anion flux by regulating KCNQ1 and KCNA3 in the CPe. PMID:21859894

Roepke, Torsten K; Kanda, Vikram A; Purtell, Kerry; King, Elizabeth C; Lerner, Daniel J; Abbott, Geoffrey W

2011-12-01

122

The resolution of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration: leukocyte recruitment via the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Inflammation is an integral part of the body's physiological repair mechanism, unless it remains unresolved and becomes pathological, as evident in the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Based on studies from outside the central nervous system (CNS), it is now understood that the resolution of inflammation is an active process, which is dependent on well-orchestrated innate and adaptive immune responses. Due to the immunologically privileged status of the CNS, such resolution mechanism has been mostly ignored. Here, we discuss resolution of neuroinflammation as a process that depends on a network of immune cells operating in a tightly regulated sequence, involving the brain's choroid plexus (CP), a unique neuro-immunological interface, positioned to integrate signals it receives from the CNS parenchyma with signals coming from circulating immune cells, and to function as an on-alert gate for selective recruitment of inflammation-resolving leukocytes to the inflamed CNS parenchyma. Finally, we propose that functional dysregulation of the CP reflects a common underlying mechanism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and can thus serve as a potential novel target for therapy. PMID:24357543

Schwartz, Michal; Baruch, Kuti

2014-01-01

123

A novel TP53 somatic mutation involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric choroid plexus carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is an uncommon, aggressive, malignant, central nervous system neoplasm that typically occurs in children, presenting with the signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension and cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. Case Report We report the case of a 2.5-year-old girl with CPC. The tumor was subtotally removed by microsurgery, followed by gamma knife radiosurgery for the residual lesion. H&E staining indicated that this was a rare case of CPC. Neuropathological studies, assayed by immunohistochemical staining, showed that the tumor sample was positive to antibodies against S-100, CgA, AE1/AE3 (cytokeratin), Ki-67, INI1 and TP53, and was negative to antibodies against Nestin, GFAP, CD133, EMA and AFP. Moreover, stainings for transthyretin and vimentin were focally positive. Interestingly, direct DNA sequencing of the paraffin-embedded tumor sample identified a novel R248Q mutation in the TP53 gene. In contrast to previous reports suggesting that TP53 germline mutations were associated with the pathogenesis of CPC, here we provide a rare case of CPC with TP53 somatic mutation, as evidence that the peritumoral tissue possesses the non-mutant TP53 allele. Conclusions Our finding suggests that TP53 somatic mutations, in addition to its germline mutations, may also be involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric CPC.

Lv, Sheng-Qing; Song, Ye-Chun; Xu, Jian-Ping; Shu, Hai-Feng; Zhou, Zheng; An, Ning; Huang, Qi-Lin; Yang, Hui

2012-01-01

124

CNS-specific T cells shape brain function via the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Adaptive immunity was repeatedly shown to play a role in maintaining lifelong brain function. Under physiological conditions, this activity was associated with CD4+ T cells specific for brain self-antigens. Nevertheless, direct interactions of T cells with the healthy neuronal parenchyma are hardly detectable. Recent studies have identified the brain's choroid plexus (CP) as an active neuro-immunological interface, enriched with CNS-specific CD4+ T cells. Strategically positioned for receiving signals from both the central nervous system (CNS) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and from the circulation through epithelium-immune cell interactions, the CP has recently been recognized as an important immunological compartment in maintaining and restoring brain homeostasis/allostasis. Here, we propose that CNS-specific T cells shape brain function via the CP, and suggest this immunological control to be lost as part of aging, in general, and immune senescence, in particular. Accordingly, the CP may serve as a novel target for immunomodulation to restore brain equilibrium. PMID:23597431

Baruch, Kuti; Schwartz, Michal

2013-11-01

125

Fluorescein-methotrexate transport in rat choroid plexus analyzed using confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

One function of the vertebrate choroid plexus (CP) is removal of potentially toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood for subsequent excretion in urine and bile. We have used confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to follow transport of the large organic anion fluorescein-methotrexate (FL-MTX) from bath (CSF side) to blood vessels in intact rat CP and found concentrative transport from CSF to blood. With 2 microM FL-MTX in the bath, steady-state fluorescence in the subepithelium and vascular spaces exceeded bath levels by 5- to 10-fold, but fluorescence in epithelial cells was below bath levels. FL-MTX accumulation in subepithelium and vascular spaces was reduced by NaCN, Na removal, and by other organic anions, e.g., MTX, probenecid, and estrone sulfate. Increasing medium K 10-fold had no effect. None of these treatments affected cellular accumulation. However, two observations indicated that apical FL-MTX uptake was indeed mediated: first, cellular accumulation was a saturable function of medium substrate concentration; and second, digoxin and MK-571 reduced FL-MTX accumulation in the subepithelial/vascular spaces but also increased cellular accumulation severalfold. In the presence of digoxin and MK-571, cellular accumulation was concentrative, specific, and Na dependent. Thus transepithelial FL-MTX transport involved the following two mediated steps: Na-dependent uptake at the apical membrane and electroneutral efflux at the basolateral membrane, possibly on Oatp2 and Mrp1. PMID:15126245

Breen, Christopher M; Sykes, Destiny B; Baehr, Carsten; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

2004-09-01

126

Identification and properties of a novel variant of NBC4 (Na(+)/HCO(3)- co-transporter 4) that is predominantly expressed in the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Secretion of HCO(3)- at the apical side of the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus is an essential step in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid. Anion conductance with a high degree of HCO(3)- permeability has been observed and suggested to be the major pathway for HCO(3)- transport across the apical membrane. Recently, it was found that NBC (Na(+)/HCO(3)- co-transporter) 4, an electrogenic member of the NBC family, was expressed in the choroid plexus. We found that a novel variant of the NBC4 [NBC4g/Slc4a5 (solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate co-transporter, member 5)] is almost exclusively expressed in the apical membrane of rat choroid plexus epithelium at exceptionally high levels. RNA interference-mediated knockdown allowed the functional demonstration that NBC4g is the major player in the HCO(3)- transport across the apical membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium. When combined with a recent observation that in choroid plexus epithelial cells electrogenic NBC operates with a stoichiometry of 3:1, the results of the present study suggest that NBC4g mediates the efflux of HCO(3)- and contributes to cerebrospinal fluid production. PMID:23205667

Fukuda, Hidekazu; Hirata, Taku; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Kato, Akira; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

2013-02-15

127

Gross total resection improves overall survival in children with choroid plexus carcinoma.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is a rare, malignant, primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. While previous reports have shown benefits of aggressive surgery, very few large-scale studies have focused exclusively on the pediatric population, for whom the risks of aggressive surgery must be weighed carefully against the benefits. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of pediatric CPCs to test the effects of gross total resection (GTR) on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). A Pubmed search was performed to identify children with CPC who underwent surgical resection. Only disaggregated clinical cases in which extent of resection was confirmed by CT or MRI were included for analysis. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression survival analyses were performed to determine the effects of extent of resection on OS and PFS. Disaggregated clinical data from a total of 102 pediatric CPC patients (age ?18 years) with known extent of resection and overall survival were analyzed. GTR was significantly associated with better OS by Kaplan-Meier analysis (logrank p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, tumor location (supratentorial vs. infratentorial), and type of adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, radiation, and combined therapy), showed that GTR independently increased OS (p = 0.006). While GTR also improved PFS on Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.027), the effect did not meet our criteria for significance in our multivariate Cox model (p = 0.120). GTR improved OS of pediatric CPC and is recommended if it can be safely performed. PMID:24166581

Sun, Matthew Z; Ivan, Michael E; Clark, Aaron J; Oh, Michael C; Delance, Arthur R; Oh, Taemin; Safaee, Michael; Kaur, Gurvinder; Bloch, Orin; Molinaro, Annette; Gupta, Nalin; Parsa, Andrew T

2014-01-01

128

The kinetics of hypoxanthine transport across the perfused choroid plexus of the sheep.  

PubMed

The uptake of principal salvageable nucleobase hypoxanthine was investigated across the basolateral membrane of the sheep choroid plexus (CP) perfused in situ. The results suggest that hypoxanthine uptake was Na+-independent, which means that transport system on the basolateral membrane can mediate the transport in both directions. Although the unlabelled nucleosides adenosine and inosine markedly reduce the transport it seems that this inhibition was due to nucleoside degradation into nucleobases in the cells, since non-metabolised nucleoside analogue NBTI did not inhibit the transport. The presence of adenine also inhibits hypoxanthine uptake while the addition of the pyrimidines does not show any effect, so it seems that the transport of purine nucleobases through basolateral membrane is mediated via a common transporter which is different from the nucleoside transporters. The inclusion of allopurinol in the perfusion fluid did not change the value and general shape of the curve for the uptake which suggest that degradation of hypoxanthine into xanthine and uric acid does not occur in the CP. The capacity of the CP basolateral membrane to transport hypoxanthine is high (90.63+/-3.79 nM/min/g) and close to the values obtained for some essential amino acids by the CP and blood-brain barrier, while the free diffusion is negligible. The derived value of Km (20.72+/-2.42 microM) is higher than the concentration of hypoxanthine in the sheep plasma (15.61+/-2.28 microM) but less than a half of the concentration in the CSF, which indicates that the transport system at basolateral membrane mostly mediates the efflux of hypoxanthine from the cerebrospinal fluid in vivo. PMID:11792365

Redzic, Zoran B; Gasic, Jovana M; Segal, Malcolm B; Markovic, Ivanka D; Isakovic, Aleksandra J; Rakic, Miodrag Lj; Thomas, Sarah A; Rakic, Ljubisa M

2002-01-25

129

Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions.

Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

2013-01-01

130

Active removal of inorganic phosphate from cerebrospinal fluid by the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The Pi concentration of mammalian cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is about one-half that of plasma, a phenomenon also shown here in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias. The objective of the present study was to characterize the possible role of the choroid plexus (CP) in determining CSF Pi concentration. The large sheet-like fourth CP of the shark was mounted in Ussing chambers where unidirectional (33)Pi fluxes revealed potent active transport from CSF to the blood side under short-circuited conditions. The flux ratio was 8:1 with an average transepithelial resistance of 87 ± 17.9 ?·cm(2) and electrical potential difference of +0.9 ± 0.17 mV (CSF side positive). Active Pi absorption from CSF was inhibited by 10 mM arsenate, 0.2 mM ouabain, Na(+)-free medium, and increasing the K(+) concentration from 5 to 100 mM. Li(+) stimulated transport twofold compared with Na(+)-free medium. Phosphonoformic acid (1 mM) had no effect on active Pi transport. RT-PCR revealed both Pi transporter (PiT)1 and PiT2 (SLC20 family) gene expression, but no Na(+)-Pi cotransporter II (SLC34 family) expression, in the shark CP. PiT2 immunoreactivity was shown by immunoblot analysis and localized by immunohistochemistry in (or near) the CP apical microvillar membranes of both the shark and rat. PiT1 appeared to be localized primarily to vascular endothelial cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the CP actively removes Pi from CSF. This process has transport properties consistent with a PiT2, Na(+)-dependent transporter that is located in the apical region of the CP epithelium. PMID:24740787

Guerreiro, Pedro M; Bataille, Amy M; Parker, Sonda L; Renfro, J Larry

2014-06-01

131

The Impact of Radiotherapy Fields in the Treatment of Patients With Choroid Plexus Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a comprehensive literature review and analysis of cases dealing with choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) to determine the optimal radiotherapy (RT) treatment field. Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1979 to 2008 was performed, yielding 33 articles with 56 patients who had available data regarding RT treatment field. The median age at diagnosis was 2.7 years (range, 1 month-53 years). Of 54 patients with data regarding type of surgery, 21 (38.9%) had complete resection. Chemotherapy was delivered to 27 (48%) as part of initial therapy. The RT treatment volume was the craniospinal axis in 38 (68%), whole brain in 9 (16%), and tumor/tumor bed in 9 (16%). Median follow-up for surviving patients was 40 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 59.5% and 37.2%, respectively. Complete resection (p = 0.035) and use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI; p = 0.025) were found to positively affect PFS. The 5-year PFS for patients who had CSI vs. whole brain and tumor/tumor bed RT were 44.2% and 15.3%. For the 19 patients who relapsed, 9 (47%) had a recurrence in the RT field, 6 (32%) had a recurrence outside the RT field, and 4 (21%) had a recurrence inside and outside the irradiated field. Conclusion: Patients with CPC who received CSI had better PFS compared with those receiving less than CSI. This study supports the use of CSI in the multimodality management of patients with CPC.

Mazloom, Ali [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Wolff, Johannes E. [Department of Pediatrics, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-09-01

132

A molecular characterization of the choroid plexus and stress-induced gene regulation.  

PubMed

The role of the choroid plexus (CP) in brain homeostasis is being increasingly recognized and recent studies suggest that the CP has a more important role in physiological and pathological brain functions than currently appreciated. To obtain additional insight on the CP function, we performed a proteomics and transcriptomics characterization employing a combination of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry and gene expression analyses in normal rodent brain. Using multiple protein fractionation approaches, we identified 1400 CP proteins in adult CP. Microarray-based comparison of CP gene expression with the kidney, cortex and hippocampus showed significant overlap between the CP and the kidney. CP gene profiles were validated by in situ hybridization analysis of several target genes including klotho, CLIC 6, OATP 14 and Ezrin. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed for CP and enpendyma detection of several target proteins including cytokeratin, Rab7, klotho, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP1), MMP9 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The molecular functions associated with various proteins of the CP proteome indicate that it is a blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier that exhibits high levels of metabolic activity. We also analyzed the gene expression changes induced by stress, an exacerbating factor for many illnesses, particularly mood disorders. Chronic stress altered the expression of several genes, downregulating 5HT2C, glucocorticoid receptor and the cilia genes IFT88 and smoothened while upregulating 5HT2A, BDNF, TNF? and IL-1b. The data presented here attach additional significance to the emerging importance of CP function in brain health and CNS disease states. PMID:22781172

Sathyanesan, M; Girgenti, M J; Banasr, M; Stone, K; Bruce, C; Guilchicek, E; Wilczak-Havill, K; Nairn, A; Williams, K; Sass, S; Duman, J G; Newton, S S

2012-01-01

133

Intracellular Localization and Subsequent Redistribution of Metal Transporters in a Rat Choroid Plexus Model Following Exposure to Manganese or Iron  

PubMed Central

Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) exposure on the subcellular distribution of metal transporting proteins, i.e., divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1), and transferrin receptor (TfR), in the rat intact choroid plexus which comprises the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In control tissue, DMT1 was concentrated below the apical epithelial membrane, MTP1 was diffuse within the cytosol, and TfR was distributed in vesicles around nuclei. Following Mn or Fe treatment (1 and 10 µM), the distribution of DMT1 was not affected. However, MTP1 and TfR moved markedly toward the apical pole of the cells. These shifts were abolished when microtubules were disrupted. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels of TfR but not DMT1 and MTP1 after Mn exposure. These results suggest that early events in the tissue response to Mn or Fe exposure involve microtubule-dependent, intracellular trafficking of MTP1 and TfR. The intracellular trafficking of metal transporters in the choroid plexus following Mn exposure may partially contribute to Mn-induced disruption in Fe homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following Mn exposure.

Wang, Xueqian; Miller, David S.; Zheng, Wei

2008-01-01

134

NBCe2 exhibits a 3 HCO3(-):1 Na+ stoichiometry in mouse choroid plexus epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The transport stoichiometry of the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (SLC4A5 or NBCe2) in mouse choroid plexus was examined. Whole-cell recording methods measured the currents carried by the NBCe2, using experimental solutions determined to minimise the contributions of the other ion conductances present. Increases in outward current were observed when 21.2 mM HCO3(-) was added to the bath solution in the presence of Na(+), but not N-methyl-D-glucamine. This HCO3(-)-induced current was completely abolished by 500 microM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid. The reversal potential for the HCO3(-)-induced current was -95.1+/-7.1 mV (n=11), a value which corresponds to a NBCe2 transport stoichiometry of 3 HCO3(-) with 1 Na(+). The NBCe2, with this stoichiometry, will mediate the efflux of HCO3(-) and Na(+) from the cell into the cerebrospinal fluid at the apical membrane of the choroid plexus. PMID:18588858

Millar, Ian D; Brown, Peter D

2008-09-01

135

Insulin-like growth factor II messenger ribonucleic acids are synthesized in the choroid plexus of the rat brain  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies demonstrating the presence of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their receptors in the brain suggest a role of the IGFs in the central nervous system. IGF-II has been implicated as the predominant IGF in brain of mature animals based on studies of immunoreactive peptide and of IGF-II mRNAs. To obtain information about the sites of synthesis of IGF-II in adult rat brain, a /sup 32/P-labeled 31 base long synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary in sequence to trailer peptide coding sequences in rat IGF-II mRNA (IGF-II 31 mer) was hybridized with coronal sections of fixed rat brain. The IGF-II 31 mer showed specific hybridization with the choroid plexus throughout rat brain, whereas in other brain regions, structures or cells, hybridization was not discernibly above background. These findings suggest that the choroid plexus is a primary site of synthesis of IGF-II, a probable source of IGF-II in cerebrospinal fluid, and a potential source of IGF-II for actions on target cells within the adult rat brain.

Hynes, M.A.; Brooks, P.J.; Van Wyk, J.J.; Lund, P.K.

1988-01-01

136

Brain capillary endothelium and choroid plexus epithelium regulate transport of transferrin-bound and free iron into the rat brain  

PubMed Central

Iron transport into the CNS is still not completely understood. Using a brain perfusion technique in rats, we have shown a significant brain capillary uptake of circulating transferrin (Tf)-bound and free 59Fe (1 nM) at rates of 136 ± 26 and 182 ± 23 ?L/g/min, respectively, while their respective transport rates into brain parenchyma were 1.68 ± 0.56 and 1.52 ± 0.48 ?L/g/min. Regional Tf receptor density (Bmax) in brain endothelium determined with 125I-holo-Tf correlated well with 59Fe-Tf regional brain uptake rates reflecting significant vascular association of iron. Tf-bound and free circulating 59Fe were sequestered by the choroid plexus and transported into the CSF at low rates of 0.17 ± 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.02 ?L/min/g, respectively, consistent with a 10-fold brain-CSF concentration gradient for 59Fe, Tf-bound or free. We conclude that transport of circulating Tf-bound and free iron could be equally important for its delivery to the CNS. Moreover, data suggest that entry of Tf-bound and free iron into the CNS is determined by (i) its initial sequestration by brain capillaries and choroid plexus, and (ii) subsequent controlled and slow release from vascular structures into brain interstitial fluid and CSF.

Deane, Rashid; Zheng, Wei; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

2014-01-01

137

Organic anion transport in choroid plexus from wild-type and organic anion transporter 3 (Slc22a8)-null mice.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus actively transports endogenous, xenobiotic, and therapeutic compounds from cerebrospinal fluid to blood, thereby limiting their exposure to the central nervous system (CNS). Establishing the mechanisms responsible for this transport is critical to our understanding of basic choroid plexus physiology and will likely impact drug targeting to the CNS. We recently generated an organic anion transporter 3- (Oat3)-null mouse, which exhibited loss of PAH, estrone sulfate, and taurocholate transport in kidney and of fluorescein (FL) transport in choroid plexus. Here, we measured the uptake of four Oat3 substrates by choroid plexus from wild-type and Oat3-null mice to establish 1) the contribution of Oat3 to the apical uptake of each substrate and 2) the Na dependence of transport by Oat3 in the intact tissue. Mediated transport of PAH and FL was essentially abolished in tissue from Oat3-null mice. In contrast, only a 33% reduction in estrone sulfate uptake was observed in tissue from Oat3-null mice and, surprisingly, no reduction in taurocholate uptake could be detected. For PAH, FL, and estrone sulfate, all Oat3-mediated transport was Na dependent. However, estrone sulfate and taurocholate also exhibited additional mediated and Na-dependent components of uptake that were not attributed to Oat3, demonstrating the complexity of organic anion transport in this tissue and the need for further examination of expressed transporters and their energetics. PMID:15075193

Sykes, Destiny; Sweet, Douglas H; Lowes, Simon; Nigam, Sanjay K; Pritchard, John B; Miller, David S

2004-05-01

138

Effects of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and quinolinic acid on 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid transport by the rabbit choroid plexus: pharmacology and electron microscopic cytochemistry.  

PubMed

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) reduced the uptake of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by the choroid plexus in a dose-related manner, while treatment with quinolinic acid at comparable concentrations did not inhibit 5-HIAA uptake. The role of carrier-mediated transport in the clearance of 5-HIAA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was also evaluated in vivo by ventriculocisternal perfusion. Steady-state clearance of 5-HIAA from CSF exceeded that of inulin and was reduced competitively in the presence of 2,4,5-T. However, the clearance was not affected by quinolinic acid. The effect of 2,4,5-T on transport enzyme systems was also studied by electron microscopic cytochemistry. Na+-K+-ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activities in the choroid plexus were reduced by 2,4,5-T. Since this transport system in the choroid plexus is normally responsible for the excretion of the serotonin metabolite from the brain to the plasma, accumulation of endogenously produced organic acids in the CSF and the brain, secondary to reduced clearance by the choroid plexus, could be a contributing factor in the development of neurotoxicity. PMID:2444018

Kim, C S; Keizer, R F; Ambrose, W W; Breese, G R

1987-09-30

139

Ontogeny of specific prolactin binding sites in the rat choroid plexus and their temporal relation to the prolactin short-loop feedback system  

SciTech Connect

The development of prolactin receptors in the choroid plexus of the rat was examined using the in vivo autoradiographic approach employing the principle of competitive binding. Animals aged 0, 10, 14, and 18 days postnatal were perfusion fixed following hormone injection and prepared for light microscopic autoradiography. The choroid plexus first demonstrated specific binding of prolactin at 14 days postnatal. The lactogen specificity of these binding sites was further defined by the ability of I/sup 125/-prolactin to be displaced by unlabelled human growth hormone, which is lactogenic in rats, and not by unlabelled insulin, which is structurally dissimilar to prolactin. Morphometric analysis was performed on electron micrographs of choroid plexus from 10 and 14 day postnatal rats. The volume densities of constituents known to be involved in the synthesis and/or function of polypeptide hormone receptors were measured and differences tested for statistical significance. A semi-quantitative histo-fluorescence technique was used to evaluate the ability of prolactin to stimulate secretion of its inhibiting factor, dopamine, in 10 day postnatal rats. The present findings indicate that the ontogenesis of specific prolactin binding sites is not temporally connected with the establishment of the prolactin short-loop feedback system since activation of the system occurs prior to the establishment of specific prolactin binding at choroid plexus.

Silverman, .F.

1985-01-01

140

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

This video presentation was created to show a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures, not residing within the brain proper, that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis. The tissue harvested is suitable for biochemical and physiological analysis, and the MAV has been shown to be sensitive to damage produced by amphetamine and hyperthermia 1,2. As well, the major and minor cerebral vasculatures harvested in MAV are of potentially high interest when investigating concussive types of head trauma. The MAV dissected in this presentation consists of the pial and some of the arachnoid membrane (less dura) of the meninges and the major and minor cerebral surface vasculature. The choroid plexus dissected is the structure that resides in the lateral ventricles as described by Oldfield and McKinley3,4,5,6. The methods used for harvesting these two tissues also facilitate the harvesting of regional cortical tissue devoid of meninges and larger cerebral surface vasculature, and is compatible with harvesting other brain tissues such as striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, etc. The dissection of the two tissues takes from 5 to 10 min total. The gene expression levels for the dissected MAV and choroid plexus, as shown and described in this presentation can be found at GSE23093 (MAV) and GSE29733 (choroid plexus) at the NCBI GEO repository. This data has been, and is being, used to help further understand the functioning of the MAV and choroid plexus and how neurotoxic events such as severe hyperthermia and AMPH adversely affect their function.

Bowyer, John F.; Thomas, Monzy; Patterson, Tucker A.; George, Nysia I.; Runnells, Jeffrey A.; Levi, Mark S.

2012-01-01

141

Trigeminal neuralgia caused by a choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

This report describes a 59-year old woman with a rare choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle presenting with trigeminal neuralgia. The patient was admitted complaining of a 12-year history of paroxysmal lancinating pain throughout the right side of her face. Treatment with carbamazepine, Chinese medicine and a peripheral neurectomy had not relieved the pain. At operation, a 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm neoplasm was found in the cerebellopontine angle, which was firmly adherent to the roots of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves and the brainstem. There was no apparent tumour bulk or vascular compression around the trigeminal nerve root entry zone. Subtotal tumour excision and selective partial rhizotomy were performed. The patient's facial pain gradually resolved. Involvement of the trigeminal nucleus in the brainstem by the cerebellopontine angle tumour is suggested as the possible cause for trigeminal neuralgia in this case. PMID:20233541

Jia, D Z; Zhou, M D; Jiang, Y Q; Li, G

2010-01-01

142

Epidermal Growth Factor Targeting of Bacteriophage to the Choroid Plexus for Gene Delivery to the Central Nervous System via Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Because the choroid plexus normally controls the production and composition of cerebrospinal fluid and as such, its many functions of the central nervous system, we investigated whether ligand-mediated targeting could deliver genes to its secretory epithelium. We show here that when bacteriophage are targeted with epidermal growth factor, they acquire the ability to enter choroid epithelial cells grown in vitro as cell cultures, ex vivo as tissue explants or in vivo by intra-cerebro-ventricular injection. The binding and internalization of these particles activates EGF receptors on targeted cells and the dose-, and time- dependant internalization of particles is inhibited by the presence of excess ligand. When the phage genome is further re-engineered to contain like green fluorescent protein or firefly luciferase under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter, gene expression is detectable in the choroid plexus and ependymal epithelium by immunohistochemistry or by non-invasive imaging respectively. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that re-engineered ligand-mediated gene delivery should be considered a viable strategy to increase the specificity of gene delivery to the central nervous system and bypass the blood brain barrier so as to exploit the biological effectiveness of the choroid plexus as a portal of entry into the brain.

Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Podvin, Sonia; Leadbeater, Wendy; Borboa, Alexandra; Burg, Michael; Sawada, Ritsuko; Rayner, James; Sims, Karen; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Johanson, Conrad; Stopa, Edward; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew

2010-01-01

143

Expression of junctional proteins in choroid plexus epithelial cell lines: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing interest in using choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines to study the properties of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Currently, there are three major CP-derived cell lines available. Z310 and TR-CSFB3, two immortalized cell lines carrying the simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene, were derived from rat CP epithelium, whereas the CPC-2 cell line was derived from human CP carcinoma. Although these cell lines have previously been used in various functional studies, the expression of adherens junction (AJ) and tight junction (TJ) proteins in these epithelial cells has not been systematically studied. Accordingly, in the present study, we sought to characterize the expression of these junctional proteins in these three cell lines. Methods The cells were grown in six-well cell culture plates. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry were used to characterize the expression of AJ and TJ proteins in the CP cell lines. Results Z310 and TR-CSFB3 cells expressed a TJ protein, occludin, and its cytosolic binding partner, zonula occludens 1, as well as an AJ protein, E-cadherin, and ?-catenin, a cytoplasmic protein that interacts with E-cadherin. However, the expression of occludin and E-cadherin in TR-CSFB3 cells at both the mRNA and protein level was weaker than that found in Z301 cells. The immunocytochemical analysis also demonstrated that the staining pattern for these junctional proteins in TR-CSFB3 cells was discontinuous and the staining intensity was weaker than that observed in Z310 cells. The message for claudin 1 and claudin 2 was expressed at low levels in TR-CSFB3 cells and these cells were weakly immunopositive for claudin 1. In comparison, the message for these TJ proteins could not be detected in Z310 cells. CPC-2 cells expressed occludin, which was localized to areas of cell-cell contact, but the staining pattern for this TJ protein was found to be variable and irregular. Although CPC-2 cells expressed mRNA for claudin 1, claudin 2, and claudin 11, only claudin 1 was expressed at the protein level and it was localized to the nuclei rather than to areas of cell-cell contact. An AJ protein, E-cadherin, was also found to be mislocalized in CPC-2 cells, even though its cytosolic binding partner, ?-catenin, was restricted to areas of cell-cell contact, as in normal CP. Conclusion The three CP cell lines analyzed in this study vary considerably with regard to the expression of AJ and TJ proteins, which is likely reflected by different barrier properties of these in vitro models of BCSFB.

Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Pascale, Crissey L; Pfeffer, Andrew N; Coulter, Cassaundra; Chodobski, Adam

2007-01-01

144

Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels contribute to the delayed-rectifying K+ conductance in rat choroid plexus epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The choroid plexuses secrete, and maintain the composition of, the cerebrospinal fluid. K+ channels play an important role in these processes. In this study the molecular identity and properties of the delayed-rectifying K+ (Kv) conductance in rat choroid plexus epithelial cells were investigated. Whole cell K+ currents were significantly reduced by 10 nM dendrotoxin-K and 1 nM margatoxin, which are specific inhibitors of Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels, respectively. A combination of dendrotoxin-K and margatoxin caused a depolarization of the membrane potential in current-clamp experiments. Western blot analysis indicated the presence of Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 proteins in the choroid plexus. Furthermore, the Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 proteins appear to be expressed in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells in immunocytochemical studies. The Kv conductance was inhibited by 1 microM serotonin (5-HT), with maximum inhibition to 48% of control occurring in 8 min (P < 0.05 by Student's t-test for paired data). Channel inhibition by 5-HT was prevented by the 5-HT2C antagonist mesulergine (300 nM). It was also attenuated in the presence of calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). The conductance was partially inhibited by 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, both of which activate protein kinase C. These data suggest that 5-HT acts at 5-HT2C receptors to activate protein kinase C, which inhibits the Kv channels. In conclusion, Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels make a significant contribution to K+ efflux at the apical membrane of the choroid plexus. PMID:14602579

Speake, Tracey; Kibble, Jonathan D; Brown, Peter D

2004-03-01

145

Choroid Plexus Epithelial Expression of MDR1 P Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein Contribute to the Blood-Cerebrospinal-Fluid Drug-Permeability Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-brain barrier and a blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier function together to isolate the brain from circulating drugs, toxins, and xenobiotics. The blood-CSF drug-permeability barrier is localized to the epithelium of the choroid plexus (CP). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating drug permeability across the CP epithelium are defined poorly. Herein, we describe a drug-permeability barrier in human and rodent CP mediated

Vallabhaneni V. Rao; Julie L. Dahlheimer; Mark E. Bardgett; Abraham Z. Snyder; Rick A. Finch; Alan C. Sartorelli; David Piwnica-Worms

1999-01-01

146

Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the Meninges and the Choroid Plexus: Implications for Non-Neuronal Sources for GABA in the Developing Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Neural progenitors in the developing neocortex, neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, have a bipolar shape with a basal process contacting the basal membrane of the meninge and an apical plasma membrane facing the lateral ventricle, which the cerebrospinal fluid is filled with. Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter which appears first during development and works as a diffusible factor to regulate the properties of neural progenitors. In this study, we examined whether GABA can be released from the meninges and the choroid plexus in the developing mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67), both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges. The epithelial cells in the choroid plexus express GAD65. GABA immunoreactivity could be observed beneath the basal membrane of the meninge and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. Expression analyses on Bestrophin-1, which is known as a GABA-permeable channel in differentiated glial cells, suggested that the cells in the meninges and the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus have the channels able to permeate non-synaptic GABA into the extracellular space. Further studies showed that GAD65/67-expressing meningeal cells appear in a manner with rostral to caudal and lateral to dorsal gradient to cover the entire neocortex by E14.5 during development, while the cells in the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle start to express GAD65 on E11–E12, the time when the choroid plexus starts to develop in the developing brain. These results totally suggest that the meninges and the choroid plexus can work as non-neuronal sources for ambient GABA which can modulate the properties of neural progenitors during neocortical development.

Tochitani, Shiro; Kondo, Shigeaki

2013-01-01

147

Traumatic brain injury and recovery mechanisms: peptide modulation of periventricular neurogenic regions by the choroid plexus-CSF nexus  

PubMed Central

In traumatic brain injury (TBI), severe disruptions occur in the choroid plexus (CP)–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nexus that destabilize the nearby hippocampal and subventricular neurogenic regions. Following invasive and non-invasive injuries to cortex, several adverse sequelae harm the brain interior: (i) structural damage to CP epithelium that opens the blood–CSF barrier (BCSFB) to protein, (ii) altered CSF dynamics and intracranial pressure (ICP), (iii) augmentation of leukocyte traffic across CP into the CSF–brain, (iv) reduction in CSF sink action and clearance of debris from ventricles, and (v) less efficient provision of micronutritional and hormonal support for the CNS. However, gradual post-TBI restitution of the injured CP epithelium and ependyma, and CSF homeostatic mechanisms, help to restore subventricular/subgranular neurogenesis and the cognitive abilities diminished by CNS damage. Recovery from TBI is faciltated by upregulated choroidal/ependymal growth factors and neurotrophins, and their secretion into ventricular CSF. There, by an endocrine-like mechanism, CSF bulk flow convects the neuropeptides to target cells in injured cortex for aiding repair processes; and to neurogenic niches for enhancing conversion of stem cells to new neurons. In the recovery from TBI and associated ischemia, the modulating neuropeptides include FGF2, EGF, VEGF, NGF, IGF, GDNF, BDNF, and PACAP. Homeostatic correction of TBI-induced neuropathology can be accelerated or amplified by exogenously boosting the CSF concentration of these growth factors and neurotrophins. Such intraventricular supplementation via the CSF route promotes neural restoration through enhanced neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuroprotective effects. CSF translational research presents opportunities that involve CP and ependymal manipulations to expedite recovery from TBI.

Stopa, Edward; Baird, Andrew; Sharma, Hari

2010-01-01

148

Increased {beta}-amyloid levels in the choroid plexus following lead exposure and the involvement of low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1  

SciTech Connect

The choroid plexus, a barrier between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is known to accumulate lead (Pb) and also possibly function to maintain brain's homeostasis of A{beta}, an important peptide in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate if Pb exposure altered A{beta} levels at the blood-CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Rats received ip injection of 27 mg Pb/kg. Twenty-four hours later, a FAM-labeled A{beta} (200 pmol) was infused into the lateral ventricle and the plexus tissues were removed to quantify A{beta} accumulation. Results revealed a significant increase in intracellular A{beta} accumulation in the Pb-exposed animals compared to controls (p < 0.001). When choroidal epithelial Z310 cells were treated with 10 {mu}M Pb for 24 h and 48 h, A{beta} (2 {mu}M in culture medium) accumulation was significantly increased by 1.5 fold (p < 0.05) and 1.8 fold (p < 0.05), respectively. To explore the mechanism, we examined the effect of Pb on low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 (LRP1), an intracellular A{beta} transport protein. Following acute Pb exposure with the aforementioned dose regimen, levels of LRP1 mRNA and proteins in the choroid plexus were decreased by 35% (p < 0.05) and 31.8% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison to those of controls. In Z310 cells exposed to 10 {mu}M Pb for 24 h and 48 h, a 33.1% and 33.4% decrease in the protein expression of LRP1 was observed (p < 0.05), respectively. Knocking down LRP1 resulted in even more substantial increases of cellular accumulation of A{beta}, from 31% in cells without knockdown to 72% in cells with LRP1 knockdown (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that the acute exposure to Pb results in an increased accumulation of intracellular A{beta} in the choroid plexus; the effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of LRP1 production following Pb exposure.

Behl, Mamta; Zhang Yanshu; Monnot, Andrew D.; Jiang, Wendy [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, Room 1169, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Zheng Wei [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, Room 1169, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

2009-10-15

149

Recurrent adult choroid plexus carcinoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and syngeneic stem cell (bone marrow) transplant.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs) are rare epithelial central nervous system tumors. CPC occurs mainly in infants and young children, comprising ? 1 to 4% of all pediatric brain neoplasms. There is very limited information available regarding tumor biology and CPC treatment due to its rarity. There have been various case reports and meta-analyses of reported cases with CPC. Surgical resection is often challenging but remains a well-established treatment option. Chemotherapy is often reserved for recurrent or refractory cases, but the goal of treatment is usually palliative. We present a case of recurrent, adult CPC with disseminated leptomeningeal involvement treated with salvage chemotherapy including high-dose ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide; once a remission was achieved, this response was consolidated with a syngeneic stem cell (bone marrow) transplant after a preparative regimen of high-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide, and thiotepa. Although the patient tolerated the transplant well and remained disease-free for 12 months, she subsequently succumbed to relapsed disease 18 months posttransplant. We believe that this is the first report of using syngeneic stem cell transplant in CPC to consolidate a remission achieved by salvage chemotherapy. PMID:23427033

Samuel, Thomas A; Parikh, Jigarkumar; Sharma, Suash; Giller, Cole A; Sterling, Kristen; Kapoor, Suraj; Pirkle, Christen; Jillella, Anand

2013-12-01

150

The binding of SCH 39166 and SCH 23390 to 5-HT1C receptors in porcine choroid plexus.  

PubMed

SCH 39166 is a novel benzonaphthazepine, which has been characterized as a potent and selective D1 antagonist. Recently, its D1 selective benzazepine predecessor, SCH 23390, has been shown to bind to 5-HT1C binding sites in the choroid plexus. Therefore, the present studies were undertaken to determine if SCH 39166 has any measurable affinity for 5-HT1C binding sites. Our results indicate that SCH 39166 exhibited poor affinity for the 5-HT1C receptor, with a Ki of 1327 nM. In contrast, SCH 23390 inhibited [3H]-mesulergine binding to 5-HT1C receptors with a Ki of 30 nM. The non-selective 5-HT antagonist, methysergide, inhibited binding with a Ki of 2.4 nM. Finally, studies with the stereoisomers of SCH 39166 and SCH 23390 demonstrated that stereoselectivity at the 5-HT1C site is significantly less than for the D1 site. PMID:1943454

Taylor, L A; Tedford, C E; McQuade, R D

1991-01-01

151

Analysis of the Effects of Sex Hormone Background on the Rat Choroid Plexus Transcriptome by cDNA Microarrays  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (CP) are highly vascularized branched structures that protrude into the ventricles of the brain, and form a unique interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the blood-CSF barrier, that are the main site of production and secretion of CSF. Sex hormones are widely recognized as neuroprotective agents against several neurodegenerative diseases, and the presence of sex hormones cognate receptors suggest that it may be a target for these hormones. In an effort to provide further insight into the neuroprotective mechanisms triggered by sex hormones we analyzed gene expression differences in the CP of female and male rats subjected to gonadectomy, using microarray technology. In gonadectomized female and male animals, 3045 genes were differentially expressed by 1.5-fold change, compared to sham controls. Analysis of the CP transcriptome showed that the top-five pathways significantly regulated by the sex hormone background are olfactory transduction, taste transduction, metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and circadian rhythm pathways. These results represent the first overview of global expression changes in CP of female and male rats induced by gonadectomy and suggest that sex hormones are implicated in pathways with central roles in CP functions and CSF homeostasis.

Quintela, Telma; Goncalves, Isabel; Carreto, Laura C.; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Marcelino, Helena; Patriarca, Filipa M.; Santos, Cecilia R. A.

2013-01-01

152

Recruitment of Beneficial M2 Macrophages to Injured Spinal Cord Is Orchestrated by Remote Brain Choroid Plexus  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Monocyte-derived macrophages are essential for recovery after spinal cord injury, but their homing mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that although of common origin, the homing of proinflammatory (M1) and the “alternatively activated” anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages to traumatized spinal cord (SC) was distinctly regulated, neither being through breached blood-brain barrier. The M1 macrophages (Ly6chiCX3CR1lo) derived from monocytes homed in a CCL2 chemokine-dependent manner through the adjacent SC leptomeninges. The resolving M2 macrophages (Ly6cloCX3CR1hi) derived from monocytes trafficked through a remote blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier, the brain-ventricular choroid plexus (CP), via VCAM-1-VLA-4 adhesion molecules and epithelial CD73 enzyme for extravasation and epithelial transmigration. Blockage of these determinants, or mechanical CSF flow obstruction, inhibited M2 macrophage recruitment and impaired motor-function recovery. The CP, along with the CSF and the central canal, provided an anti-inflammatory supporting milieu, potentially priming the trafficking monocytes. Overall, our finding demonstrates that the route of monocyte entry to central nervous system provides an instructional environment to shape their function.

Shechter, Ravid; Miller, Omer; Yovel, Gili; Rosenzweig, Neta; London, Anat; Ruckh, Julia; Kim, Ki-Wook; Klein, Eugenia; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Bendel, Peter; Lira, Sergio A.; Jung, Steffen; Schwartz, Michal

2014-01-01

153

Na+,K(+)-ATPase phosphorylation in the choroid plexus: synergistic regulation by serotonin/protein kinase C and isoproterenol/cAMP-PK/PP-1 pathways.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The ion pump Na+,K(+)-ATPase is responsible for the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid from the choroid plexus. In this tissue, the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase is inhibited by serotonin via stimulation of protein kinase C-catalyzed phosphorylation. The choroid plexus is highly enriched in two phosphoproteins which act as regulators of protein phosphatase-1 activity, DARPP-32 and inhibitor-1. Phosphorylation catalyzed by cAMP-dependent protein kinase on a single threonyl residue converts DARPP-32 and inhibitor-1 into potent inhibitors of protein phosphatase-1. Previous work has shown that in the choroid plexus, phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and I-1 is enhanced by isoproterenol and other agents that activate cAMP-PK. We have now examined the possible involvement of the cAMP-PK/protein phosphatase-1 pathway in the regulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The state of phosphorylation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity incorporated into the ion pump following immunoprecipitation from 32P-prelabeled choroid plexuses incubated with various drugs (see below). Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping was employed to identify the protein kinase involved in the phosphorylation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase. RESULTS: The serotonin-mediated increase in Na+,K(+)-ATPase phosphorylation is potentiated by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases-1 and -2A, as well as by forskolin or the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, activators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide maps suggest that this potentiating action occurs at the level of a protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Forskolin and isoproterenol also stimulate the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and protein phosphatase inhibitor-1, which in their phosphorylated form are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatase-1. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented here support a model in which okadaic acid, forskolin, and isoproterenol achieve their synergistic effects with serotonin through phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and inhibitor-1, inhibition of protein phosphatase-1, and a reduction of dephosphorylation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase at a protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Fisone, G.; Snyder, G. L.; Aperia, A.; Greengard, P.

1998-01-01

154

Dominant Expression of mRNA for Prostaglandin D Synthase in Leptomeninges, Choroid Plexus, and Oligodrendrocytes of the Adult Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase [prostaglandin-H_2 D-isomerase; (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9alpha, 11alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate D-isomerase, EC 5.3.99.2] is an enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of prostaglandin D_2 in the central nervous system. In situ hybridization with antisense RNA for the enzyme indicated that mRNA for the enzyme was predominantly expressed in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes of the adult rat brain. The findings agree with those

Yoshihiro Urade; Kunio Kitahama; Hitoshi Ohishi; Takeshi Kaneko; Noboru Mizuno; Osamu Hayaishi

1993-01-01

155

Molecularly and temporally separable lineages comprise the hindbrain roof plate and contribute differentially to the choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Summary Both hindbrain roof plate epithelium (hRPe) and choroid plexus epithelium (hCPe) produce morphogens and growth factors essential for proper hindbrain development. Despite their importance, little is known about how these essential structures develop. Recent genetic fate maps indicate that hRPe and hCPe descend from the same pool of dorsal neuroectodermal progenitor cells of the rhombic lip. A linear developmental progression has been assumed, with the rhombic lip producing nonmitotic hRPe, and seemingly uniform hRPe transforming into hCPe. Here we show that hRPe is not uniform but rather is comprised of three spatiotemporal fields, differing in organization, proliferative state, order of emergence from the rhombic lip, and molecular profile of either the constituent hRPe cells themselves and/or their parental progenitors. Only two fields contribute to hCPe. We also show an hCPe contribution directly by the rhombic lip at late embryonic stages when hRPe is no longer present; indeed the production interval for hCPe by the rhombic lip is surprisingly extensive. Further, we show that the hCPe lineage appears unique among the varied rhombic lip-derived lineages in its proliferative response to constitutively active Notch1 signaling. Collectively, these findings provide a new platform for investigating hRPe and hCPe as neural organizing centers and provide support for the model that they are themselves patterned structures, likely capable of influencing neural development along multiple spatial and temporal axes.

Hunter, Nina L.; Dymecki, Susan M.

2010-01-01

156

Age-related changes in choroid plexus and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function in the sheep.  

PubMed

Dysfunction of the choroid plexuses (CPs) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) might contribute to age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. We used the CPs from young (1-2 years), middle-aged (3-6 years) and old (7-10 years) sheep to explore effects of aging on various aspects of CP and BCSFB functions. Total protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was significantly higher in old compared to young sheep and CSF secretion by the CP perfused in situ was significantly lower in both old and middle-aged when compared to young sheep, which correlated with reduced (22)Na(+) uptake and efflux by the CP. Steady-state extractions of a low and medium size molecular weight extracellular space marker, (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-polyethylene glycol, respectively, were significantly higher in CPs from old compared to young animals; however, there was no significant difference in steady-state extraction of a high molecular weight marker, (125)I-bovine serum albumin. This indicates increased passive BCSFB permeability for small and medium sized molecules in old sheep. CP redox activity was significantly lower in the old animals as assessed by the MTT assay, however, there was no significant difference in ATP content and energy charge of the CP with age suggesting adequate baseline energy reserve capacity. These data indicate that normal aging processes alter protein content in the CSF, CSF secretion, integrity of the BCSFB and Na(+) flux in the epithelial layer, which could impact on CSF homeostasis and turnover. PMID:19133323

Chen, R L; Kassem, N A; Redzic, Z B; Chen, C P C; Segal, M B; Preston, J E

2009-04-01

157

Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier  

PubMed Central

Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and visualized by electron microscopy. Results The expression of known ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporter and solute carrier (Slc) genes in CP was confirmed by qPCR. Primary cells and cell lines showed similar, but overall lower expression of Abc transporters and absent Slc expression when compared to intact tissue. Consistent with this Mrp1, Mrp4 and P-gp protein levels were higher in intact CP compared to cell lines. Functionality of P-gp and Mrp1 was confirmed by Calcein-AM and CMFDA uptake assays and studies using [3H]bis-POM-PMEA as a substrate indicated Mrp4 function. Cell lines showed low or absent TJ protein expression. After treatment of cell lines with corticosteroids, RNA expression of claudin1, 2 and 11 and occludin was elevated, as well as claudin1 and occludin protein expression. TJ formation was further investigated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and only rarely observed. Increases in TJ particles with steroid treatment were not accompanied by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Conclusion Taken together, immortalized cell lines may be a tool to study transport processes mediated by P-gp, Mrp1 or Mrp4, but overall expression of transport proteins and TJ formation do not reflect the situation in intact CP tissue.

2010-01-01

158

Fetal Brain-directed AAV Gene Therapy Results in Rapid, Robust, and Persistent Transduction of Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelia  

PubMed Central

Fetal brain-directed gene addition represents an under-appreciated tool for investigating novel therapeutic approaches in animal models of central nervous system diseases with early prenatal onset. Choroid plexuses (CPs) are specialized neuroectoderm-derived structures that project into the brain's ventricles, produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and regulate CSF biochemical composition. Targeting the CP may be advantageous for adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy for central nervous system disorders due to its immunoprivileged location and slow rate of epithelial turnover. Yet the capacity of AAV vectors to transduce CP has not been delineated precisely. We performed intracerebroventricular injections of recombinant AAV serotype 5-green fluorescent protein (rAAV5-GFP) or rAAV9-GFP in embryonic day 15 (E15) embryos of CD-1 and C57BL/6 pregnant mice and quantified the percentages of GFP expression in CP epithelia (CPE) from lateral and fourth ventricles on E17, postnatal day 2 (P2), and P22. AAV5 was selective for CPE and showed significantly higher transduction efficiency in C57BL/6 mice (P = 0.0128). AAV9 transduced neurons and glial cells in both the mouse strains, in addition to CPE. We documented GFP expression in CPE on E17, within just 48 hours of rAAV administration to the fetal lateral ventricle, and expression by both the serotypes persisted at P130. Our results indicate that prenatal administration of rAAV5 and rAAV9 enables rapid, robust, and sustained transduction of mouse CPE and buttress the rationale for experimental therapeutics targeting the CP.

Haddad, Marie Reine; Donsante, Anthony; Zerfas, Patricia; Kaler, Stephen G

2013-01-01

159

Pigmented free-floating vitreous cyst in a patient with high myopia and uveal coloboma simulating choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old woman was referred for a pigmented fundus lesion in her right eye that was suspected to be a possible choroidal melanoma. She complained of an intermittent floater in the right eye. Funduscopy revealed peripapillary atrophy and posterior staphyloma due to degenerative myopia, large inferior choroidal coloboma, and a cystic pigmented lesion measuring 7 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness located inferiorly when the patient was in the upright position. Following supine positioning, the lesion floated to the macular region. Ultrasonography confirmed that the lesion is cystic and freely mobile. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, nodular preretinal intraocular lesion that was hypointense in both T1- and T2-weighted, non-contrast axial images. Observation of the benign vitreous cyst was advised. A free-floating pigmented vitreous cyst can be associated with high myopia and uveal coloboma. Its location in the posterior vitreous can lead to a misdiagnosis of a choroidal melanoma. PMID:21485975

Tuncer, Samuray; Bayramoglu, Sadik

2011-01-01

160

Molecular heterogeneity in the choroid plexus epithelium: the 22-member ?-protocadherin family is differentially expressed, apically localized, and implicated in CSF regulation  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium develops from the ependyma that lines the ventricular system, and plays a critical role in the development and function of the brain. In addition to being the primary site of CSF production, the CP maintains the blood-CSF barrier via apical tight junctions between epithelial cells. Here we show that the 22-member ?-Protocadherin (?-Pcdh) family of cell adhesion molecules, which we have implicated previously in synaptogenesis and neuronal survival, is highly expressed by both CP epithelial and ependymal cells, in which ?-Pcdh protein localization is, surprisingly, tightly restricted to the apical membrane. Multi-label immunostaining demonstrates that ?-Pcdhs are excluded from tight junctions, basolateral adherens junctions, and apical cilia tufts. RT-PCR analysis indicates that, as a whole, the CP expresses most members of the Pcdh-? gene family. Immunostaining using novel monoclonal antibodies specific for single ?-Pcdh proteins shows that individual epithelial cells differ in their apically-localized ?-Pcdh repertoire. Restricted mutation of the Pcdh-? locus in the choroid plexus and ependyma leads to significant reductions in ventricular volume, without obvious disruptions of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Together, these results suggest an unsuspected role for the ?-Pcdhs in CSF production and demonstrate a surprising molecular heterogeneity in the CP epithelium.

Lobas, Mark A.; Helsper, Lindsey; Vernon, Claire G.; Schreiner, Dietmar; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Weiner, Joshua A.

2011-01-01

161

P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein expression and function at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (choroid plexus) in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 on expression and function of the ATP-binding cassette transport proteins P-glycoprotein (Pgp, Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) at the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier formed by the choroid plexus. In brain capillary endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier, Pgp and Bcrp are located in the luminal membrane while apical/sub-apical localization was described for Pgp in choroid plexus epithelial cells. Alterations in expression or function may lead to damages in barrier integrity and may cause brain defects after long term diabetes. Diabetes was induced by i.p.-streptozotocin injection 14days prior to performing experiments. RNA and protein expression were analyzed in choroid plexus and blood-brain barrier capillaries by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Pgp and Bcrp expression was increased in blood-brain barrier capillaries; in choroid plexus, only Bcrp showed elevated gene expression. Protein expression was not altered. Functional analyses were carried out using confocal laser-scanning microscopy in intact isolated brain capillaries with the fluorescent Pgp substrate NBD-Cyclosporin A (NBD-CsA) and BODIPY® FL prazosin as substrate for Bcrp. Consistent with protein expression data, no changes in diabetic animals occurred, suggesting an unaltered function of Pgp and Bcrp. PMID:21075088

Reichel, Valeska; Burghard, Simone; John, Isabel; Huber, Olga

2011-01-25

162

The distributional nexus of choroid plexus to cerebrospinal fluid, ependyma and brain: toxicologic/pathologic phenomena, periventricular destabilization, and lesion spread.  

PubMed

Bordering the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are epithelial cells of choroid plexus (CP), ependyma and circumventricular organs (CVOs) that contain homeostatic transporters for mediating secretion/reabsorption. The distributional pathway ("nexus") of CP-CSF-ependyma-brain furnishes peptides, hormones, and micronutrients to periventricular regions. In disease/toxicity, this nexus becomes a conduit for infectious and xenobiotic agents. The sleeping sickness trypanosome (a protozoan) disrupts CP and downstream CSF-brain. Piperamide is anti-trypanosomic but distorts CP epithelial ultrastructure by engendering hydropic vacuoles; this reflects phospholipidosis and altered lysosomal metabolism. CP swelling by vacuolation may occlude CSF flow. Toxic drug tools delineate injuries to choroidal compartments: cyclophosphamide (vasculature), methylcellulose (interstitium), and piperazine (epithelium). Structurally perturbed CP allows solutes to penetrate the ventricles. There, CSF-borne pathogens and xenobiotics may permeate the ependyma to harm neurogenic stem cell niches. Amoscanate, an anti-helmintic, potently injures rodent ependyma. Ependymal/brain regions near CP are vulnerable to CSF-borne toxicants; this proximity factor links regional barrier breakdown to nearby periventricular pathology. Diverse diseases (e.g., African sleeping sickness, multiple sclerosis) take early root in choroidal, circumventricular, or perivascular loci. Toxicokinetics informs on pathogen, anti-parasitic agent, and auto-antibody distribution along the CSF nexus. CVOs are susceptible to plasma-borne toxicants/pathogens. Countering the physico-chemical and pathogenic insults to the homeostasis-mediating ventricle-bordering cells sustains brain health and fluid balance. PMID:21189316

Johanson, Conrad; Stopa, Edward; McMillan, Paul; Roth, Daniel; Funk, Juergen; Krinke, Georg

2011-01-01

163

Encapsulated living choroid plexus cells: potential long-term treatments for central nervous system disease and trauma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In neurodegenerative disease and in acute brain injury, there is often local up-regulation of neurotrophin production close to the site of the lesion. Treatment by direct injection of neurotrophins and growth factors close to these lesion sites has repeatedly been demonstrated to improve recovery. It has therefore been proposed that transplanting viable neurotrophin-producing cells close to the trauma lesion, or site of degenerative disease, might provide a novel means for continuous delivery of these molecules directly to the site of injury or to a degenerative region. The aim of this paper is to summarize recent published information and present new experimental data that indicate that long-lasting therapeutic implants of choroid plexus (CP) neuroepithelium may be used to treat brain disease. CP produces and secretes numerous biologically active neurotrophic factors (NT). New gene microarray and proteomics data presented here indicate that many other anti-oxidant, anti-toxin and neuronal support proteins are also produced and secreted by CP cells. In the healthy brain, these circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid through the brain and spinal cord, maintaining neuronal networks and associated cells. Recent publications describe how transplanted CP cells and tissue, either free or in an immunoprotected encapsulated form, can effectively deliver therapeutic molecules when placed near the lesion or site of degenerative disease in animal models. Using simple techniques, CP neuroepithelial cell clusters in suspension culture were very durable, remaining viable for 6 months or more in vitro. The cell culture conditions had little effect on the wide range and activity of genes expressed and proteins secreted. Recently, completed experiments show that implanting CP within alginate-poly-ornithine capsules effectively protected these xenogeneic cells from the host immune system and allowed their survival for 6 months or more in the brains of rats, causing no adverse effects. Previously reported evidence demonstrated that CP cells support the survival and differentiation of neuronal cells in vitro and effectively treat acute brain injury and disease in rodents and non-human primates in vivo. The accumulated preclinical data together with the long-term survival of implanted encapsulated cells in vivo provide a sound base for the investigation of these treatments for chronic inherited and established neurodegenerative conditions.

Skinner, S. J. M.; Geaney, M. S.; Lin, H.; Muzina, M.; Anal, A. K.; Elliott, R. B.; Tan, P. L. J.

2009-12-01

164

Na(+) dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na(+) dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed. PMID:24155723

Christensen, Henriette L; Nguyen, An T; Pedersen, Fredrik D; Damkier, Helle H

2013-01-01

165

Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of the models of brain endothelial cells and choroidal plexus epithelial cells in culture has allowed us to investigate into these mechanisms. Our strategy is aimed at exploring different routes to the entrapment of iron oxide NPs in these brain related cells. Here we demonstrated that not only cells endowed with a good phagocytic activity like activated macrophages but also endothelial brain capillary and choroidal plexus epithelial cells do internalize iron oxide NPs. Our study of the intracellular trafficking of NPs by TEM, and confocal microscopy revealed that NPs are mainly internalized by the endocytic pathway. Iron oxide NPs were dispersed in water and coated with 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) using standard procedures. Magnetic lipid NPs were prepared by NANOVECTOR: water in oil in water (W/O/W) microemulsion process has been applied to directly coat different iron based NPs by lipid layer or to encapsulate them into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs). By these coating/loading the colloidal stability was improved without strong alteration of the particle size distribution. Magnetic lipid NPs could be reconstituted after freeze drying without appreciable changes in stability. L-DOPA coated NPs are stable in PBS and in MEM (Modified Eagle Medium) medium. The magnetic properties of these NPs were not altered by the coating processes. We investigated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and interaction of these NPs with rat brain capillary endothelial (REB4) and choroidal plexus epithelial (Z310) cells. By means of widefield, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we studied the cell uptake of magnetic SLNs derivatized with a fluorescent reporter molecule and of L-DOPA-TRITC coated NPs. Inhibition of the caveolae-mediated pathway by preincubation with filipin and nystatin did not modify the cellular uptake of these NPs in both cell lines. Furthermore a mild decrease of the NPs cell uptake was obtained after chlorpromazine and NaN3 pretreatment, which interferes with clathrin and energy-dependent endocytosis, and cytochalasin and amiloride pretreatment which interfere with macropinocytosis. NPs particle size as such can strongly affect the efficiency of cellular uptake and the mode of endocytosis. Considering that our L-DOPA and magnetic SLNs display a medium hydrodynamic size of 120 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.3, we can assume that the cell uptake process of these NPs may develop, depending the particle size, both via clathrin mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis and only to less extent via the pathway of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Taken together these results let us to conclude that SLNs iron loaded and iron based L-DOPA coated NPs are internalized into brain endothelial and choroidal plexus epithelial cells and this might provide the first step of an intracellular trafficking to transport these NPs between blood and brain.

Cambianica, I.; Bossi, M.; Gasco, P.; Gonzalez, W.; Idee, J. M.; Miserocchi, G.; Rigolio, R.; Chanana, M.; Morjan, I.; Wang, D.; Sancini, G.

2010-10-01

166

The characteristics of basolateral nucleoside transport in the perfused sheep choroid plexus and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition on these processes.  

PubMed

The single pass paired dilution technique was used to measure the uptake of nucleosides across the basolateral face of the isolated in situ perfused sheep choroid plexus (CP). The uptake of labelled adenosine and guanosine into the CP was large (approximately 35%) whereas that of thymidine was less (approximately 15%). The addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled adenosine to the perfusate inhibited the uptake of labelled adenosine by 66%, guanosine by 100% and that of thymidine by 50%, whereas the addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled thymidine caused complete self-inhibition. The backflux of adenosine was very small which may indicate a high rate of cellular metabolism or a flux into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled adenosine did not alter the backflux of adenosine, but increased that of guanosine and thymidine. The entry of radioactivity derived from adenosine across the apical side of the CP cells into the newly formed CSF was determined as a 'CSF uptake index' relative to [14C]butanol and found to be about 25%; however, HPLC analysis revealed that the majority of this activity was hypoxanthine, and not adenosine. The complete inhibition of nitric oxide synthase caused a significant reduction in adenosine uptake into the CP and an increase in backflux for this molecule. It would appear that the uptake for adenosine by the CP is governed by the rate of cellular metabolism and not by the rate of transport into the cells of the choroid plexus whereas for guanosine and thymidine, transport is of greater importance. PMID:9365012

Redzi?, Z B; Segal, M B; Markovi?, I D; Gasi?, J M; Vidovi?, V; Raki?, L M

1997-08-29

167

Initial experience with combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization for post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity: the importance of prepontine cistern status and the predictive value of FIESTA MRI imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity (PHHP) is among the most common causes of infant hydrocephalus in developed\\u000a nations. This population has a high incidence of shunt failure, infection, and slit ventricle syndrome. Although effective\\u000a for other etiologies of infant hydrocephalus, the efficacy of combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus\\u000a cauterization (ETV\\/CPC) in PHHP has not been investigated. This pilot study

Benjamin C. Warf; Jeffrey W. Campbell; Eric Riddle

2011-01-01

168

[Evidence for the production of a fusion factor during in vitro infection of sheep choroid plexus cells by visna virus].  

PubMed

One of the most important early events during the infection of sheep choroïd plexus cells in culture by Visna virus is the synthesis by these cells of a fusion factor distinct from the virus. The cell fusion activity of this factor does not seem transmissible. It promotes cell shape changes and a migration of the nucleus towards the cell wall. PMID:230888

Pautrat, G; Filippi, P

1979-01-01

169

Uneven distribution of nucleoside transporters and intracellular enzymatic degradation prevent transport of intact [14C] adenosine across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium as a monolayer in primary culture  

PubMed Central

Background Efflux transport of adenosine across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium might contribute to the homeostasis of this neuromodulator in the extracellular fluids of the brain. The aim of this study was to explore adenosine transport across sheep CP epithelial cell monolayers in primary culture. Methods To explore transport of adenosine across the CP epithelium, we have developed a method for primary culture of the sheep choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPEC) on plastic permeable supports and analysed [14C] adenosine transport across this cellular layer, [14C] adenosine metabolism inside the cells, and cellular uptake of [14C] adenosine from either of the chambers. The primary cell culture consisted of an enriched epithelial cell fraction from the sheep fourth ventricle CP and was grown on laminin-precoated filter inserts. Results and conclusion CPEC grew as monolayers forming typical polygonal islands, reaching optical confluence on the third day after the seeding. Transepithelial electrical resistance increased over the time after seeding up to 85 ± 9 ? cm2 at day 8, while permeability towards [14C] sucrose, a marker of paracellular diffusion, simultaneously decreased. These cells expressed some features typical of the CPEC in situ, including three nucleoside transporters at the transcript level that normally mediate adenosine transport across cellular membranes. The estimated permeability of these monolayers towards [14C] adenosine was low and the same order of magnitude as for the markers of paracellular diffusion. However, inhibition of the intracellular enzymes, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase, led to a significant increase in transcellular permeability, indicating that intracellular phosphorylation into nucleotides might be a reason for the low transcellular permeability. HPLC analysis with simultaneous detection of radioactivity revealed that [14C] radioactivity which appeared in the acceptor chamber after the incubation of CPEC monolayers with [14C] adenosine in the donor chamber was mostly present as [14C] hypoxanthine, a product of adenosine metabolic degradation. Therefore, it appears that CPEC in primary cultures act as an enzymatic barrier towards adenosine. Cellular uptake studies revealed that concentrative uptake of [14C] adenosine was confined only to the side of these cells facing the upper or apical chamber, indicating uneven distribution of nucleoside transporters.

Redzic, Zoran B; Isakovic, Aleksandra J; Misirlic Dencic, Sonja T; Popadic, Dusan; Segal, Malcolm B

2006-01-01

170

Mineralocorticoid receptors/epithelial Na(+) channels in the choroid plexus are involved in hypertensive mechanisms in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) precedes hypertension and is a key step in the development of salt-induced hypertension. In the choroid plexus (CP), epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) have an important role in Na(+) transport from the blood into the CSF. However, it remains unknown whether the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR)/ENaCs pathway in the CP of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) is involved in neural mechanisms of hypertension. Therefore, we examined the role of the MR/ENaCs pathway in the CP in the development of hypertension in SHRSP associated with an increase in CSF [Na(+)]. As a marker of MR activation, serum/glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1) expression levels in the CP were measured and found to be greater in SHRSP than in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. CSF [Na(+)] levels were also higher in SHRSP than in WKY rats. In SHRSP, high-salt intake (8%) increased blood pressure and urinary norepinephrine excretion compared with those in animals fed a regular salt diet (0.5%) for 2 weeks. Furthermore, the expression levels of MR, Sgk1 and ENaCs in the CP and the increase in CSF [Na(+)] were greater in SHRSP fed a high-salt diet than in those fed a regular salt diet. These alterations were attenuated by intracerebroventricular infusion of eplerenone (10??g?kg(-1) per day), except for ?-ENaC and ?-ENaC. We conclude that activation of the MR/ENaCs pathway in the CP contributes to hypertension via an increase in CSF [Na(+)], thereby exaggerating salt-induced hypertension with sympathetic hyperactivation in SHRSP. PMID:23096235

Nakano, Masatsugu; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Matsukawa, Ryuichi; Ito, Koji; Sunagawa, Kenji

2013-03-01

171

Organic anion transport pathways in antiviral handling in choroid plexus in Oat1 (Slc22a6) and Oat3 (Slc22a8) deficient tissue  

PubMed Central

Transporters in the choroid plexus (CP) regulate transport of numerous compounds of physiological and therapeutic interest between blood and CSF and thus likely play a key role in determining CNS levels of drugs, toxins and metabolites. Here, high CP expression was noted for the organic anion transporters, Oat1 (SLC22A6 or NKT) and Oat3 (SLC22A8) which are also the principal Oats in the renal proximal tubule, as well as SLC22A17, believed to be involved in iron transport. Because Oat1 and Oat3 have overlapping substrate specificity, ex vivo preparations of CP from Oat1(?/?) and Oat3(?/?) mice were used to isolate the individual transport function of each, respectively. Tissue from either knockout mouse mediated the probenecid-inhibitable transport of the Oat substrate, 6-carboxyfluorescein (6CF), confirming the presence of Oat1 and Oat3 function. Because many antiviral medications are Oat substrates, including those crucial in the treatment of HIV infections, the interaction of the antivirals zidovudine, acyclovir, tenofovir, lamivudine, and stavudine, with Oat1 and Oat3 in CP, was investigated by determining the inhibition of 6CF uptake. All the antivirals tested manifested significant interaction with both Oat1 and Oat3, with the exception of stavudine which did not significantly affect Oat1 function. These results could have important implications for antiretroviral (and other drugs) penetration into or retention within the CNS, a major reservoir for virus during HIV infection. Apart from any effect at the blood brain barrier (BBB), designing specific inhibitors of Oat1 and Oat3 may be helpful in altering CNS drug levels by blocking organic anion transporters in the CP. The ability of Oats to regulate the movement of small molecules across the BBB, CP, proximal tubule and other tissues may also be important for their hypothesized role in remote sensing and signaling (Ahn and Nigam, 2009; Wu et al., 2011).

Nagle, Megha A.; Wu, Wei; Eraly, Satish A.; Nigam, Sanjay K.

2013-01-01

172

Gene expression-based comparison of the human secretory neuroepithelia of the brain choroid plexus and the ocular ciliary body: potential implications for glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Background The neuroepithelia of the choroid plexus (CP) in the brain and the ciliary body (CB) of the eye have common embryological origins and share similar micro-structure and functions. The CP epithelium (CPE) and the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) of the CB produce the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the aqueous humor (AH) respectively. Production and outflow of the CSF determine the intracranial pressure (ICP); production and outflow of the AH determine the intraocular pressure (IOP). Together, the IOP and ICP determine the translaminar pressure on the optic disc which may be involved in the pathophysiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The aim of this study was to compare the molecular machinery of the secretory neuroepithelia of the CP and CB (CPE versus NPE) and to determine their potential role in POAG. Methods We compared the transcriptomes and functional annotations of healthy human CPE and NPE. Microarray and bioinformatic studies were performed using an Agilent platform and the Ingenuity Knowledge Database (IPA). Results Based on gene expression profiles, we found many similar functions for the CPE and NPE including molecular transport, neurological disease processes, and immunological functions. With commonly-used selection criteria (fold-change?>?2.5, p-value??5, p-value?

2014-01-01

173

Stereotactic Radiosurgical Treatment of Brain Metastases to the Choroid Plexus;Renal cell cancer; Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA); Graded prognostic assessment (GPA); Survival and outcomes; Gamma knife  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Choroid plexus metastases (CPM) are uncommon lesions. Consequently, optimal management of CPM is uncertain. We summarize our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of CPM. Methods and Materials: Sixteen consecutive patients with presumed CPM treated with SRS between 1997 and 2007 were examined. Twelve were men with a median age at diagnosis of CPM of 61.9 {+-} 9.9 years; 14 had metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). All patients had controlled primary disease at the time of treatment for CPM. Four patients with RCC and 1 with non-small-cell lung cancer had undergone whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) previously and 2 had received SRS to other brain metastases. The disease-free interval from the primary diagnosis to CPM diagnosis averaged 39.3 {+-} 46.2 months (range, 1.0-156.3). Five patients were asymptomatic; of the remaining 11, none had symptoms related to CPM. All presented with a single CPM. Results: Average maximum diameter of the CPMs was 2.0 {+-} 1.0 cm (range, 0.9-4.1 cm); mean volume was 2.4 {+-} 2.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-9.3). Median SRS dose was 24 Gy to the 53% isodose line (range, 14-24 Gy). Survival after SRS to the CPM was 25.3 {+-} 23.4 months (range, 3.2-101.6). Patients in Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) class I (n = 10) had improved survival compared to those in class II (n = 6), as did those with better GPA scores. There were no local failures. After SRS, 1 patient underwent WBRT, 3 patients had one, and another had two subsequent SRS treatments to other brain lesions. Of the 14 patients who have died, 11 succumbed to systemic disease progression, 2 to progressive, multifocal central nervous system disease, and 1 to systemic disease with concurrent, stable central nervous system disease. There were no complications related to SRS. Conclusions: Most CPMs are associated with RCC. SRS represents a safe and viable treatment option as primary modality for these metastases, with excellent outcomes.

Siomin, Vitaly [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lin, Jennifer L. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Marko, Nicholas F., E-mail: markon@ccf.org [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Barnett, Gene H.; Toms, Steven A. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chao, Samuel T. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Neurological and Taussig Cancer Institutes, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Navaratne, Kapila [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Neurological and Taussig Cancer Institutes, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Weil, Robert J. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-07-15

174

Nhe1 is a luminal Na+/H+ exchanger in mouse choroid plexus and is targeted to the basolateral membrane in Ncbe/Nbcn2-null mice  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) secretes the major fraction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The Na+-HCO3? transporter Ncbe/Nbcn2 in the basolateral membrane of CPE cells is important for Na+-dependent pHi increases and probably for CSF secretion. In the current study, the anion transport inhibitor DIDS had no effect on the residual pHi recovery in acidified CPE from Ncbe/Nbcn2 knockout mouse by 2?,7?-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)-fluorescence microscopy in the presence of CO2/HCO3? (Ncbe/Nbcn2-ko+DIDS 109% of control, P = 0.76, n = 5). Thus Ncbe/Nbcn2 mediates the DIDS-sensitive Na+-dependent pHi recovery in the CPE. The Na+/H+ exchanger-1 Nhe1 is proposed to mediate similar functions as Ncbe/Nbcn2 in CPE. Here, we immunolocalize the Nhe1 protein to the luminal membrane domain in mouse and human CPE. The Na+-dependent pHi recovery of Nhe1 wild-type (Nhe1-wt) mice in the absence of CO2/HCO3? was abolished in the Nhe1 knockout CPE (Nhe1-ko 0.37% of Nhe1-wt, P = 0.0007, n = 5). In Ncbe/Nbcn2-ko mice, Nhe1 was targeted to the basolateral membrane. Nevertheless, the luminal Na+-dependent pHi recovery was increased in Ncbe/Nbcn2-ko compared with wild-type littermates (Nhe1-ko 146% of Nhe1-wt, P = 0.007, n = 5). Whereas the luminal Nhe activity was inhibited by the Nhe blocker EIPA (10 ?M) in the Ncbe/Nbcn2-wt, it was insensitive to the inhibitor in Ncbe/Nbcn2-ko (Ncbe/Nbcn2-ko+EIPA 100% of control, P = 0.98, n = 5). This indicates that a luminal EIPA-insensitive Nhe was induced in Ncbe/Nbcn2-ko CPE and that EIPA-sensitive Nhe activity was basolateral. The Nhe1 translocation in Ncbe/Nbcn2-ko CPE may reflect a compensatory response, which provides the cells with better means of regulating pHi or transporting Na+ after Ncbe/Nbcn2 disruption.

Damkier, Helle Hasager; Prasad, Vikram; Hubner, Christian Andreas; Praetorius, Jeppe

2009-01-01

175

Transport of [14C]hypoxanthine by sheep choroid plexus epithelium as a monolayer in primary culture: Na+-dependent and Na+-independent uptake by the apical membrane and rapid intracellular metabolic conversion to nucleotides.  

PubMed

Hypoxanthine is the main product of purine metabolic degradation and previous studies have revealed that it is present in the sheep CSF and plasma in micromolar concentrations. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transport of this molecule across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) as a monolayer in primary culture, to explore the mechanism of uptake by the apical side of the CPE and investigate the metabolic changes inside the cell. The estimated permeability of the CPE monolayer for [14C]hypoxanthine, [14C]adenine and [14C]guanine was low and comparable to the permeability towards the extracellular space markers. The study of [14C]hypoxanthine uptake by the CPE revealed two components: Na+-dependent and Na+-independent, the latter being partially mediated by the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2. HPLC with simultaneous detection of radioactivity revealed that the majority of [14C]hypoxanthine inside the CPE is metabolised into [14C]nucleotides and [14C]inosine. The remaining intact [14C]hypoxanthine was transported across the opposite, basolateral side of CPE and appeared in the lower chamber buffer together with [14C]inosine. These findings indicate two possible roles of hypoxanthine uptake from the CSF by the CP epithelium in vivo: to provide material for nucleotide synthesis through the salvage pathways in the CPE, as well as to transfer excess hypoxanthine from CSF to blood. PMID:18164814

Isakovic, Aleksandra J; Dencic, Sonja Misirlic; Segal, Malcolm B; Redzic, Zoran B

2008-01-31

176

Brachial plexus  

MedlinePLUS

The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These ... Damage to the brachial plexus nerves can cause muscle and sensation problems that are often associated with pain in the same area. Symptoms may ...

177

The angiographic ocular choroidal crescent: Distortion with intraorbital and remote intracranial pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocular choroidal plexus can be identified on virtually all normal internal or common carotid angiograms. Posterior flattening of the choroid is often seen with retrobulbar tumors. This angiographic appearance can also be observed in some patients with papilledema and increased intracranial pressure. In these patients, ampulliform dilatation of the dura and subarachnoid space just posterior to the globe produces

A. G. Osborn; D. J. Thurman; H. J. L. Dyk

1978-01-01

178

Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT)  

MedlinePLUS

... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

179

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Brachial ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of ...

180

Choroidal imaging: A review  

PubMed Central

Being the most vascular tissue of the eye, importance of the choroid has been very well established in various retinal and chorio-retinal diseases. Understanding of the choroidal structures has improved significantly since the evolution of enhanced depth imaging. Quantitative assessment of choroidal measurements has been found to be reproducible using different devices. This review article describes factors affecting choroidal thickness and choroidal changes in several diseases and reports its clinical importance. Evaluation of choroid would provide insight into the pathogenesis, treatment planning and follow up in chorioretinal diseases.

Chhablani, Jay; Wong, Ian Y.; Kozak, Igor

2014-01-01

181

Choroidal imaging: A review.  

PubMed

Being the most vascular tissue of the eye, importance of the choroid has been very well established in various retinal and chorio-retinal diseases. Understanding of the choroidal structures has improved significantly since the evolution of enhanced depth imaging. Quantitative assessment of choroidal measurements has been found to be reproducible using different devices. This review article describes factors affecting choroidal thickness and choroidal changes in several diseases and reports its clinical importance. Evaluation of choroid would provide insight into the pathogenesis, treatment planning and follow up in chorioretinal diseases. PMID:24843305

Chhablani, Jay; Wong, Ian Y; Kozak, Igor

2014-04-01

182

Brachial plexus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that originate from the neck region and branch off to give rise ... movement in the upper limb. Injuries to the brachial plexus are common and can be debilitating. If the ...

183

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

184

Serpiginous choroiditis and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis  

PubMed Central

Serpiginous choroiditis (SC) is a posterior uveitis displaying a geographic pattern of choroiditis, extending from the juxtapapillary choroid and intermittently spreading centrifugally. The choroiditis involves the overlying retinal pigment epithelium, and the outer retina. This intraocular inflammation typically involves both eyes in otherwise healthy, middle-aged individuals with no familial or ethnic predilection. Pathogenesis is unclear; however, based on limited histopathologic studies, favorable response to immunosuppressive agents, and the absence of association with systemic or local infectious or noninfectious diseases, an organ-specific autoimmune inflammation seems likely to be the underlying process. Patients, particularly from tuberculosis-endemic regions, may present with fundus changes simulating SC, but show evidence of active tuberculosis and/or the presence of mycobacterial DNA in the aqueous humor. This has been referred to as serpiginous-like choroiditis, but we prefer the description multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC). We present the distinguishing features of SC and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis simulating SC. The distinction is crucial to avoid unnecessarily treating SC with antimicrobial agents. Advances in diagnostic and imaging modalities can help differentiate SC from MSC. Novel local and systemic treatment approaches improve the outcome and preserve vision in SC.

Nazari, Hossein; Rao, Narsing A

2012-01-01

185

Unknown syndrome: peculiar face, severe hypodontia of permanent teeth, and precocious choroid calcifications.  

PubMed Central

We describe a mother and her twin daughters affected with severe hypodontia of the permanent teeth, precocious calcification of the choroid plexus, and minor digital anomalies. The presence of inner telecanthus, broad and flattened nasal bridge, mild ocular proptosis, small nose with anteverted nostrils, and slight microretrognathia gives them an unusual appearance. All three affected persons are of normal intelligence. Images

Pallotta, R; Fusilli, P

1998-01-01

186

The Brachial Plexus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to instruct students on the basic anatomy and physiology of the brachial plexus. Through exercises such as matching, coloring and labeling, students are introduced to the brachial plexus and its role in controlling the cutaneous sensation and movement of the upper limbs.

Mr. Samuel J Schwarzlose (Amarillo College Biology)

2010-08-20

187

Hemorrhagic retinal macrocysts, simulating choroidal melanoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemorrhagic retinal macrocysts are extremely rare retinal lesions that can be mistaken for malignancy with subsequent enucleation. Such a case was diagnosed, by a retina specialist based on ultrasonography, as a choroidal melanoma with exudative retinal detachment and the patient was advised to have brachytherapy. Case presentation A 15-year-old Caucasian boy suffered sudden visual loss in the left eye and exam revealed vitreous hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the mass as hyperintense on T1-weighted images and isointense on T2-weighted images with no enhancement after gadolinium dye. Following scleral buckle, the hemorrhagic retinal macrocyst collapsed gradually over a period of 5 weeks. The patient recovered visual acuity of 6/7.5 at the 1-year follow up. Conclusion A hemorrhagic retinal macrocyst can be erroneously diagnosed as choroidal melanoma. Hints for the presence of retinal macrocysts include: egg shape; cyst wall configuration; no attachment to the choroid; and presence of retinal detachment.

Mansour, Ahmad M; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O

2013-01-01

188

Ganglion Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... watch the cyst over a period of time. Shoe modifications. Wearing shoes that do not rub the cyst or cause ... advised. In addition, placing a pad inside the shoe may help reduce pressure against the cyst. Aspiration ...

189

Ganglion Cysts  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Surgery for Ganglion Cysts Introduction Ganglion cysts are common. They may cause pain and discomfort in the ... motion. The cyst may also recur. After the Surgery Your hand will be bandaged. Your doctor will ...

190

[Perinatal brachial plexus palsy].  

PubMed

Upper limbs palsy as a result of affliction of plexus brachialis nervous bunch is disorder, whose frequency moves among 0.42-5.1 / 1000 liveborn children. Delivery mechanism itself certain weighty, no however only cause rising paralysis. Some way paralysis rise already intrauterinne, some way then at surgical childbirth per sectionem caeseream. Brachial plexus palsy isn't benign disorder. If isn't this disorder in time diagnosed and accordingly treated, child threatens late aftermath, especially significant limitation of limbs movement with functional consequencies. PMID:20925223

Macko, Jozef

2010-08-01

191

[Late postoperative choroidal detachment].  

PubMed

Three eyes of three patients with advanced primary open angle glaucoma developed hypotony and choroidal detachment 2-3 months following technically uncomplicated trabeculectomy, in one patient and facoemulsification in two patients. The two latter patients had undergone trabeculectomy previously. No wound or bleb leakage were found. Patients did not receive any antiglaucoma medications before the detachment. After treatment with topical corticosteroids and cycloplegic eyedrops both patients showed marked clinical improvement within 2-6 weeks. However, one of the patients after phacoemulsification developed recurrent choroidal detachment shortly after application of timolol drops used due to IOP elevation. Detachment resolved spontaneously after discontinuation of timolol. PMID:18655461

Zarnowski, Tomasz; Rejdak, Robert; Choragiewicz, Tomasz

2008-01-01

192

Lumbar synovial or ganglion cysts.  

PubMed

Most reports regarding synovial cysts of the spinal canal have been presentations identifying an unusual pathological entity that is to be included in the differential diagnosis of cauda equina compression syndromes. Most of the 26 cases reported represent isolated examples of this pathological process. We present five cases of lumbar synovial cysts encountered in our practice in the past 8 years. Patients with lumbar synovial cysts do not demonstrate any predictable clinical picture. They may present with a unilateral sciatica or neurogenic claudication. Lumbar extension is usually restricted, whereas flexion is full. Mechanical signs of nerve root entrapment or lumbosacral plexus irritation are unimpressive. Neurological deficits are usually mild, if present. Radiological findings include degenerative spondylosis, spondylolisthesis, and a rounded posterolateral extradural mass of low attenuation value adjacent to a facet shown on computed tomographic scan. The etiology of lumbar synovial cysts is not known. Histological findings of myxoid degeneration, microcystic change, calcification, and hemosiderin deposits suggest that chronic microtrauma with occasional focal hemorrhage may play a major role in the etiology of the cysts. With resection of the cyst, the postoperative course is usually uneventful. Recurrences have not yet been encountered in our patients. PMID:3489903

Kjerulf, T D; Terry, D W; Boubelik, R J

1986-09-01

193

Perinatal brachial plexus palsy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a flaccid paralysis of the arm at birth that affects different nerves of the brachial plexus supplied by C5 to T1 in 0.42 to 5.1 infants per 1000 live births. OBJECTIVES To identify antenatal factors associated with PBPP and possible preventive measures, and to review the natural history as compared with the outcome after primary or secondary surgical interventions. METHODS A literature search on randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the prevention and treatment of PBPP was performed. EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched until June 2005. Key words for searches included ‘brachial plexus’, ‘brachial plexus neuropathy’, ‘brachial plexus injury’, ‘birth injury’ and ‘paralysis, obstetric’. RESULTS There were no prospective studies on the cause or prevention of PBPP. Whereas birth trauma is said to be the most common cause, there is some evidence that PBPP may occur before delivery. Shoulder dystocia and PBPP are largely unpredictable, although associations of PBPP with shoulder dystocia, infants who are large for gestational age, maternal diabetes and instrumental delivery have been reported. The various forms of PBPP, clinical findings and diagnostic measures are described. Recent evidence suggests that the natural history of PBPP is not all favourable, and residual deficits are estimated at 20% to 30%, in contrast with the previous optimistic view of full recovery in greater than 90% of affected children. There were no randomized controlled trials on nonoperative management. There was no conclusive evidence that primary surgical exploration of the brachial plexus supercedes conservative management for improved outcome. However, results from nonrandomized studies indicated that children with severe injuries do better with surgical repair. Secondary surgical reconstructions were inferior to primary intervention, but could still improve arm function in children with serious impairments. CONCLUSIONS It is not possible to predict which infants are at risk for PBPP, and therefore amenable to preventive measures. Twenty-five per cent of affected infants will experience permanent impairment and injury. If recovery is incomplete by the end of the first month, referral to a multidisciplinary team is necessary. Further research into prediction, prevention and best mode of treatment needs to be done.

Andersen, John; Watt, Joe; Olson, Jaret; Van Aerde, John

2006-01-01

194

Ganglion Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

Ganglion cysts are very common lumps within the hand and wrist that occur adjacent to joints or tendons. ... joint of the finger (see Figure 2). The ganglion cyst often resembles a water balloon on a stalk ( ...

195

Pilar Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... skin), and they may or may not be tender. Pilar cysts may run in families. Rarely, these ... they may become quite large. Occasionally, they are tender to the touch. The cysts may spontaneously burst ...

196

Management of brachial plexus injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most brachial plexus lesions are traction injuries sustained during birth, but in adolescents and older people they are usually\\u000a caused by traffic accidents or following a fall in the home. A minority are the result of penetrating injury after civilian\\u000a assault or trauma encountered during wartime.\\u000a \\u000a Birth palsy cases (obstetric brachial plexus palsy) and the remaining cases (traumatic brachial plexus

G. Blaauw; R. S. Muhlig; J. W. Vredeveld

197

Tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis  

PubMed Central

Choroidal tuberculosis (TB) infection may present itself as a diffuse choroiditis that resembles serpiginous choroiditis, usually treated with immunossupressants. Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with serpiginous-like choroiditis and evidence of systemic or latent TB are best treated with antituberculosis treatment (ATT) in addition to the corticosteroid therapy. The authors present a case of a 58-year-old man with decreased vision in his left eye. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 right eye and 20/200 left eye. Funduscopic examination revealed a diffuse choroiditis. Mantoux skin test showed an area of induration measuring 30×35 mm and the patient started ATT with complete resolution of retinal lesions after 2 weeks of treatment. His final visual acuity was 20/25 in the left eye with no recurrences over a follow-up of 6 months. The use of ATT in these patients is likely to reduce active inflammation and eliminate future recurrences.

Guedes, Marta Esteves; Galveia, Jose Nuno; Almeida, Ana Catarina; Costa, Joao Marques

2011-01-01

198

Lumbosacral plexus lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background  Aim of the present study was to analyse the main causes of lumbosacral plexus lesions together with the best diagnostic and\\u000a therapeutic options for better patient outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We report our surgical experience with eight patients in whom lesion mechanisms consisted of high-energy trauma (4 pts), firearm\\u000a injuries (2 pts), spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma in anticoagulant therapy (1 pt) and schwannoma (1

G. Stevanato; L. Vazzana; S. Daramaras; G. Trincia; G. C. Saggioro; G. Squintani

199

Plexus Computers, Inc., Plexus P/60, Plexus FORTRAN77 Version 1.1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report (VSR) for the Plexus Computers Inc., Plexus FORTRAN77 Version 1.1 running under the P/60 SYS 3.1 UNIX provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the validation of the subject compiler against the 1978 FORTR...

1984-01-01

200

Tumoral and Choroidal Vascularization  

PubMed Central

An adequate balance between serine proteases and their plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is critical for pathological angiogenesis. PAI-1 deficiency in mice is associated with impaired choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and tumoral angiogenesis. In the present work, we demonstrate unexpected differences in the contribution of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in these two processes regulated by PAI-1. PAI-1?/? mice grafted with BM-derived from wild-type mice were able to support laser-induced CNV formation but not skin carcinoma vascularization. Engraftment of irradiated wild-type mice with PAI-1?/? BM prevented CNV formation, demonstrating the crucial role of PAI-1 delivered by BM-derived cells. In contrast, the transient infiltration of tumor transplants by local PAI-1-producing host cells rather than by BM cells was sufficient to rescue tumor growth and angiogenesis in PAI-1-deficient mice. These data identify PAI-1 as a molecular determinant of a local permissive soil for tumor angiogenesis. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that different cellular mechanisms contribute to PAI-1-regulated tumoral and CNV. PAI-1 contributes to BM-dependent choroidal vascularization and to BM-independent tumor growth and angiogenesis.

Jost, Maud; Maillard, Catherine; Lecomte, Julie; Lambert, Vincent; Tjwa, Marc; Blaise, Pierre; Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz; Bajou, Khalid; Blacher, Silvia; Motte, Patrick; Humblet, Chantal; Defresne, Marie Paule; Thiry, Marc; Frankenne, Francis; Gothot, Andre; Carmeliet, Peter; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Noel, Agnes

2007-01-01

201

Mesenteric Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal masses generally omited or briefly reported in textbooks. Their rarity had fostered a lack of information and difficulty in classification. The goal of the study is to present a simple, comprehensive, and reproducible classification of mesenteric cysts. Methods: A large review of the literature with particular attention to recent series was performed in order

Marc de Perrot; Marie-Anne Bründler; Martin Tötsch; Gilles Mentha; Philippe Morel

2000-01-01

202

Axillary Brachial Plexus Block  

PubMed Central

The axillary approach to brachial plexus blockade provides satisfactory anaesthesia for elbow, forearm, and hand surgery and also provides reliable cutaneous anaesthesia of the inner upper arm including the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and intercostobrachial nerve, areas often missed with other approaches. In addition, the axillary approach remains the safest of the four main options, as it does not risk blockade of the phrenic nerve, nor does it have the potential to cause pneumothorax, making it an ideal option for day case surgery. Historically, single-injection techniques have not provided reliable blockade in the musculocutaneous and radial nerve territories, but success rates have greatly improved with multiple-injection techniques whether using nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance. Complete, reliable, rapid, and safe blockade of the arm is now achievable, and the paper summarizes the current position with particular reference to ultrasound guidance.

Satapathy, Ashish R.; Coventry, David M.

2011-01-01

203

Axillary brachial plexus block.  

PubMed

The axillary approach to brachial plexus blockade provides satisfactory anaesthesia for elbow, forearm, and hand surgery and also provides reliable cutaneous anaesthesia of the inner upper arm including the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and intercostobrachial nerve, areas often missed with other approaches. In addition, the axillary approach remains the safest of the four main options, as it does not risk blockade of the phrenic nerve, nor does it have the potential to cause pneumothorax, making it an ideal option for day case surgery. Historically, single-injection techniques have not provided reliable blockade in the musculocutaneous and radial nerve territories, but success rates have greatly improved with multiple-injection techniques whether using nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance. Complete, reliable, rapid, and safe blockade of the arm is now achievable, and the paper summarizes the current position with particular reference to ultrasound guidance. PMID:21716725

Satapathy, Ashish R; Coventry, David M

2011-01-01

204

Hepatic Cysts.  

PubMed

Treatment of hepatic cysts should be considered only for those patients who are symptomatic. For simple cysts, percutaneous aspiration invariably leads to recurrence; laparoscopic deroofing is usually curative. Open deroofing (fenestration) should be reserved for cysts inaccessible by laparoscopy. Percutaneous instillation of sclerosing agents (ethanol, iophendylate, minocycline) into nonbiliary and nonparasitic cysts is an alternative therapeutic option in certain cases. Due to increased morbidity, hepatic resection should be reserved for polycystic liver disease, diffuse hepatic involvement, or recurrence after a deroofing procedure. Patients with congenital fibropolycystic disorders (eg, congenital hepatic fibrosis) with evidence of hepatic decompensation, should be considered for liver transplantation. For hepatic hydatid cysts, simple cystectomy or the PAIR (puncture, aspirate, inject, and reaspirate) technique with albendazole treatment have been shown to be equally successful. In the case of alveolar echinococcosis, hepatic resection and liver transplantation are the only effective modalities for localized and extensive hepatic disease, respectively. PMID:11096603

Kaul; Friedenberg; Rothstein

2000-12-01

205

Brachial plexus injury in newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... and vascular disorders. In: Fenichel GM, ed. Neonatal Neurology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006: ... CB, Kratz JR, Jelin Ac, Gelfand AA. Child neurology: brachial plexus birth injury: what every neurologist needs ...

206

Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents various odontogenic cysts and tumors, including periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, odontogenic keratocysts, orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, lateral periodontal cysts, glandular odontogenic cysts, ameloblastomas, clear cell odontogenic carcinomas, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, squamous odontogenic tumors, ameloblastic fibromas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, odontomas, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors, and odontogenic myxomas. The authors provide an overview of these cysts and

Angela C. Chi; Brad W. Neville

2011-01-01

207

Inflammatory Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Purpose and Methods: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) can be a severe sight-threatening sequela, which can be secondary to both infectious and noninfectious uveitis. This review summarizes the different diseases associated with CNV, highlighting new treatment modalities and the possible strategies, which could be applied for the therapy of this occurrence. Results: Since CNV can often originate from posterior pole lesions and can be hard to identify, an accurate examination is mandatory in order to identify the correct diagnosis. In the majority of cases, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) enable the determination of the clinical characteristics of the CNV. An infectious disease should be looked for to include a suitable therapy when available. The treatment strategy for CNV secondary to noninfectious uveal inflammations should be directed at controlling the inflammatory process. Systemic corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive agents are indicated even when the CNV occurs with apparently inactive uveitis: Chronic subclinical inflammation can be the basis for the pathogenesis of CNV. Additional therapies aimed directly at the neovascular process, such as the intravitreal anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) agents, are recommended particularly when the therapy shows an insufficient response. Conclusion: CNV secondary to uveitis is a severe sequela leading to significant visual impairment. ICGA is mandatory in order to obtain relevant information about the choroidal status. Several therapeutic options have been considered, but no guidelines are provided at the moment. Moreover, the current data are still only based on case reports or small series. For such reasons, further trials are mandatory to validate the preliminary available results.

Neri, Piergiorgi; Lettieri, Marta; Fortuna, Cinzia; Manoni, Mara; Giovannini, Alfonso

2009-01-01

208

Sebaceous cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... or inflamed, other symptoms may include: Skin redness Tender or sore skin Warm skin in the affected ... that reduces swelling. If the cyst becomes swollen, tender, or large, your doctor may drain it or ...

209

Lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury following prolonged compression.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management. PMID:17116618

Kao, Chung-Lan; Yuan, Chia-Hei; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Chan, Rai-Chi

2006-11-01

210

Choledochal cysts  

PubMed Central

Much about the etiology, pathophysiology, natural course and optimal treatment of cystic disease of the biliary tree remains under debate. Gastroenterologists, surgeons and radiologists alike still strive to optimize their roles in the management of choledochal cysts. To that end, much has been written about this disease entity, and the purpose of this 3-part review is to organize the available literature and present the various theories currently argued by the experts. In part 1, we discuss the background of the disease, describing the etiology, classification, pathogenesis and malignant potential of choledochal cysts.

Singham, Janakie; Yoshida, Eric M.; Scudamore, Charles H.

2009-01-01

211

Choledochal cysts  

PubMed Central

Much about the etiology, pathophysiology, natural course and optimal treatment of cystic disease of the biliary tree remains under debate. Gastroenterologists, surgeons and radiologists alike still strive to optimize their roles in the management of choledochal cysts. To that end, much has been written about this disease entity, and the purpose of this 3-part review is to organize the available literature and present the various theories currently argued by the experts. In part 3, we discuss the management of choledochal cysts, thus completing our comprehensive review.

Singham, Janakie; Yoshida, Eric M.; Scudamore, Charles H.

2010-01-01

212

Choroidal Nevi in USAF Aviators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A choroidal nevus may be mistaken for a melanoma or it may develop into a malignant melanoma. We reviewed the records of over 5,000 aviators examined over the past 14 years at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine. One hundred and fourteen aviators were n...

D. L. Vandivort R. P. Green T. J. Tredici

1990-01-01

213

Endogenous endostatin inhibits choroidal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endostatin, a fragment of the basement membrane component collagen XVIII, exhibits antian- giogenic properties in vitro and in vivo when high doses are administered. It is not known whether endogenous endostatin at physiological levels has a protective role as an inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis, such as choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related mac- ular degeneration. Using a laser injury model, we

Alexander G. Marneros; Haicheng She; Hadi Zambarakji; Hiroya Hashizume; Edward J. Connolly; Ivana Kim; Evangelos S. Gragoudas; Joan W. Miller; Bjorn R. Olsen

2007-01-01

214

Intrapericardial bronchogenic duplication cyst.  

PubMed

Bronchogenic cysts arise from an abnormal budding of the ventral diverticulum of the foregut or the tracheobronchial tree, during embryogenesis. Intrapericardial cysts are rare, accounting for 27% of bronchogenic cysts. In this case report, we present a young woman with a symptomatic intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst compressing the superior vena cava. The cyst was resected via median sternotomy, alleviating the patients' preoperative symptoms. PMID:24729202

Nair, Lawrence; Ranawaka, Yasangi; Naidoo, Rishendran

2014-08-01

215

Role of echography in diagnostic dilemma in choroidal masses  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the role of echography in diagnosis and management of a diverse array of choroidal masses. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two cases of clinically suspected choroidal masses were prospectively analyzed with B-scan (10 Hz), A-scan, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) (50 Hz) after a meticulous history and ocular examination. Ancillary investigations and systemic evaluation were also done. Results: Based on clinical suspicion, acoustic features, response to treatment, and other ancillary tests combined together, the various masses were differentiated. The cases included in the study were as follows: n = 10 malignant melanomas, n = 16 metastasis and infiltrations, n = 9 hemangioma, n = 7 tuberculoma, n = 8 nonspecific inflammatory masses, n = 2 disciform plaques, n = 4 macular cysts or retinoschisis, n = 2 Coat's disease, n = 1 melanocytoma, and n = 2 osteomas. Ultrasonography (USG) alone could identify n = 51 lesions, while UBM in combination with USG was needed in remaining 11 masses. Conclusion: Standardized echography is an important adjunct in the diagnosis and management of eyes with intraocular masses. A better understanding of the clinicopathological and echographic picture of the diverse lesions can help in detection, differentiation, diagnosis, proposing a therapeutic approach, and also monitoring response to treatment. Echography is essential to evaluate tumors for extrascleral and anterior segment extension.

Mithal, Kopal N; Thakkar, Hansa H; Tyagi, Mudit A; Bharwada, Rekha M; Billore, Puja O

2014-01-01

216

Epidermoid Cyst Mimicry  

PubMed Central

Cysts are entities encountered frequently in dermatological clinics. Various types of cysts have been described and include trichilemmal cysts, epidermoid cysts, steatocystomas, and the myriad of developmental cysts (branchial cleft cyst, thyroglossal duct cysts, bronchogenic cysts). Moreover, not all lesions that appear clinically as cystic structures are, in fact, cysts. Increased awareness of these mimickers and a systematic approach to the evaluation of these cases is essential. The authors report seven cases, over the course of six years, presenting to their dermatology department, all of which were originally clinically diagnosed as “cysts” and referred to the authors for management. In this article, the authors review seven cyst mimickers and describe important aspects of these diagnoses to increase awareness of the importance of a preoperative biopsy and evaluation. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the wide differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodules and to consider other causes of lesions that appear to be cysts, particularly in the anatomical locations described.

Ke, Malcolm S.; Willen, Marlene

2009-01-01

217

Choroidal tuberculoma with membranous glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

We report treatment of a 24-year-old man with membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) who developed a solitary choroidal tuberculoma in association with miliary tuberculosis during steroid therapy. In June 1995, the patient had developed nephrotic syndrome. He had refused renal biopsy at that time. So we treated him with corticosteroids having assumed a diagnosis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome. After initial corticosteroids and diuretics therapy for 5 months, his generalized edema resolved but proteinuria (3 positive) continued, suggesting the presence of other forms of glomerulonephritis. Renal biopsy performed in January 1996. The patient was diagnosed as having MGN. The patient was closely observed over a period of 34 months and remained stable without steroid therapy. However at 34 months, generalized edema was again noted and steroid therapy at high dosage was initiated. After 5 months of steroid therapy, he developed miliary tuberculosis and a solitary choroidal mass. An antituberculosis chemotherapeutic regimen was started and after a further 5 months, all clinical symptoms and signs of the pulmonary lesion were resolved and a measurable shrinking of the choroidal mass was recorded. PMID:11519089

Han, B G; Choi, S O; Lee, S J; Kim, Y H; Hong, W P; Lee, J H

2001-08-01

218

Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography of the choroid.  

PubMed Central

Indocyanine green fluorescence (ICG) angiography of the choroid gives better visualization of the choroidal vessels than does fluorescein angiography. We found that the detachment of the pigment epithelium seems bigger on ICG than on fluorescein angiograms, and pigmented lesions are more clearly delineated. Images

Craandijk, A; Van Beek, C A

1976-01-01

219

Upper Plexus Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Optimal Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previously, transaxillary first rib resection alone was not considered adequate therapy for “upper plexus” (median nerve) thoracic outlet syndrome. It was thought that the “combined” approach with upper plexus dissection through a supraclavicular incision in addition to the transaxillary approach was necessary. However, with better understanding of anatomy—that the median nerve receives fibers from C8 and T1 as well

1997-01-01

220

Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated state-of-the-art ultrasound technology for supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks in 40 outpatients. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injec- tion. The block technique we describe

Vincent W. S. Chan; Anahi Perlas; Regan Rawson; Olusegun Odukoya

2003-01-01

221

Choroidal neovascularization after intraocular foreign body  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual case of choroidal neovascularization secondary to intraocular foreign body (IOFB) penetrating trauma. A 44-year-old man was referred to our department for IOFB trauma in the right eye. Vitrectomy and IOFB extraction was performed with good visual results. However, 2 months after surgery, he returned complaining of a drop in visual acuity. Choroidal neovascularization originating from a direct choroidal rupture at the IOFB impact site was observed. The patient was treated with 6-monthly intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor, and showed regression of neovascularization and a final visual acuity of 20/80. IOFB trauma is a serious condition, indeed in spite of initially good results after a favorable surgical outcome. Choroidal neovascularization after direct traumatic choroidal rupture is usually aggressive and requires more active antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

Fernandez-Lopez, Ester; Desco-Esteban, Mari Carmen; Fandino-Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez-Diaz, Mikhail; Navea, Amparo

2014-01-01

222

Unusual branching in lumbar plexus: case report.  

PubMed

This article describes a complex bilateral variation in the formation of lumbar plexus in a 32 year old male cadaver. On the left side the plexus was postfixed and located posterior to the psoas major muscle. The femoral nerve was formed by the union of anterior rami of the second, third, fourth and fifth lumbar spinal nerves. On the right side, the lumbar plexus was prefixed. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh was formed by the union of the anterior rami of the first and second lumbar spinal nerves. The femoral nerve formed by branches from the first, second, third and fifth lumbar spinal nerves while the obturator nerve was formed by the union of the first, second and third lumbar spinal nerves. The right lumbar plexus was located in the substance of the psoas major muscle. In the present case, the formation of branches of the lumbar plexus were different from the previous data present in the literature. PMID:10409846

Erbil, K M; Ondero?lu, S; Ba?ar, R

1999-05-01

223

Unusual branching in lumbar plexus. Case report.  

PubMed

This article describes a complex bilateral variation in the formation of lumbar plexus in a 32 year old male cadaver. On the left side the plexus was postifixed and located posterior to the psoas major muscle. The femoral nerve was formed by the union of anterior rami of the second, third, fourth and fifth lumbar spinal nerves. On the right side, the lumbar plexus was prefixed. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh was formed. By the union of the anterior rami of the first and second lumbar spinal nerves. The femoral nerve formed by branches from the first, second, third and fifth lumbar spinal nerves while the obturator nerve was formed by the union of the first, second and third lumbar spinal nerves. The right lumbar plexus was located in the substance of the psoas major muscle. In the present case, the formation of branches of the lumbar plexus were different from the previous data present in the literature. PMID:10437316

Mine Erbil, K; Ondero?lu, S; Ba?ar, R

1998-01-01

224

Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen.

Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

2012-01-01

225

Multifocal photodynamic therapy for diffuse choroidal hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Background A choroidal hemangioma is an uncommon benign vascular tumor of the choroid that can be either circumscribed or diffuse. In our experience, diffuse choroidal hemangiomas in Asian patients often require multiple photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment sessions. Methods We here provide a case report of a 7-year-old boy with Sturge–Weber syndrome who presented with diffuse choroidal hemangioma in the left eye. Five sessions of PDT treatment were required over a period of 1 year and a final optical coherence tomogram 3 months later revealed resolution of subretinal fluid and the choroidal hemangioma. Results Final visual acuity was 20/100 in the left eye with resolution of subretinal fluid. This case report illustrates that a single application of PDT using standard published parameters was insufficient to achieve the destruction of the enlarged vessels. This experience is similar to previous Chinese reports on circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. The decision for repeat treatment was based on subretinal fluid recurrence, rather than complete tumor regression. Conclusion Our case report supports previous suggestions that larger dilated vessels in the vascular network of a choroidal hemangioma might affect the efficacy and selectivity of PDT in treating the eyes of Asian patients – which may explain the need for multiple treatments.

Ang, Marcus; Lee, Shu-Yen

2012-01-01

226

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with antiphospholipid syndrome can have ocular complications. We report a 44-year-old Chinese lady with recurrent relapses of SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome with high disease activity, presenting with visual distortion in her right eye for 2 months. There was subretinal hemorrhage in her right eye, confirmed on investigations to be choroidal neovascularization secondary to a variant of age-related macular degeneration known as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy resolved her eye condition. SLE could be associated with PCV via common mechanisms, including complement pathway activation and vasculitis involving the choroidal circulation. PMID:24407425

Chin, Y C; Bhargava, M; Khor, C C; Cheung, C M G; Wong, T Y

2014-03-01

227

Hydatid cyst within a choledochal cyst.  

PubMed

A 5 year 4 months old male child presenting with pain abdomen and jaundice was diagnosed to have type 1 choledochal cyst on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography. On exploration, the cystic dilatation of common bile duct was found to have a hydatid cyst (HC) inside it. The per-operative findings were confirmed by histopathology. Association of HC within a choledochal cyst is extremely rare and has been reported only twice before in the available English literature. PMID:24347872

Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Maitra, Sujay; Bhattacharya, Malay; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath

2013-10-01

228

[Evaluation of the choroid in central serous chorioretinopathy].  

PubMed

Studies using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) revealed that the main cause of central serous chorioretionopathy (CSC) stems from choroidal abnormalities such as choroidal vascular hyperpermeability. However, there are no methods to evaluate the choroid except for either the invasive ICGA or low-resolution ultrasonography. The recently developed enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) technique can visualize the choroid appropriately and noninvasively using conventional OCT. EDI-OCT showed that both the affected and unaffected eyes in CSC patients have a thickened choroid; whereas the remarkably thickened choroid in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease decreases immediately after corticosteroid treatment and the eyes with high myopia show a thinner choroid. We evaluated the choroidal thickness after treatment of CSC. The subfoveal choroidal thickness in typical CSC treated with laser photocoagulation showed no changes during the follow-up. On the other hand, the subfoveal choroid in chronic CSC treated with half-dose verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) showed temporary thickening after 2 days but thinned back 1 month after treatment. Both the choroidal thickness and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability in ICGA decreased after PDT, but they did not change after laser photocoagulation. These findings suggest that PDT can affect the abnormal choroid directly and works through a different mechanism from conventional laser photocoagulation. It is important to evaluate the choroid using OCT in CSC and other macular diseases. PMID:23316655

Maruko, Ichiro

2012-11-01

229

A Histologic Study of Regional Choroidal Dystrophy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Light and electron microscopy studies of eyes removed from an 84-year-old man after death indicated a normal optic nerve despite severe peripapillary choroidal atrophy. In the area of atrophy, the choriocapillaris retinal pigment epithelium, and photorece...

J. Weiter B. S. Fine

1977-01-01

230

Multifocal choroiditis: indocyanine green angiographic features.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic features in 13 patients affected by multifocal choroiditis. We identified two clinical and angiographic patterns. The 'active' pattern showed hypofluorescence up to the late phases and more extensive choroidal involvement than presumed by ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography. In the 'inactive' pattern, ICG angiography showed hypofluorescence during all the phases: no increase in lesion number was observed between early and late phases. Choroidal neovascularization was present in 10 patients, and it was bilateral in 2 of these: it occurred only in the inactive stage. The appearance of choroidal lesions in IGC angiography supports the hypothesis of inflammatory involvement of the choriocapillaris as the pathophysiological mechanism of the disease. PMID:11125264

Vadalà, M; Lodato, G; Cillino, S

2001-01-01

231

Brachial plexus injury: treatment options and outcomes.  

PubMed

The brachial plexus is a series of nerves formed by roots of cervical segments 5 to 8 (C5-C8) as well as the first thoracic nerve (T1). It functions to provide sensation and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the chest and upper limb. It does so through different segments: roots, trunks, divisions, and cords. Injuries to the brachial plexus occur relatively frequently and are due mainly to traumatic accidents that lead to traction or compression of the nerve roots. When considering the etiology and treatment of such injuries, it is important to make a distinction between adult versus obstetric brachial plexus injury. Although several surgical treatment options are described and used for patients with brachial plexus injury, no perfect remedy currently exists. Prevention and safety should be the focus. At the same time, high-quality studies and new technology and techniques are needed to determine more effective treatments for this group. PMID:25006897

Arzillo, Samantha; Gishen, Kriya; Askari, Morad

2014-07-01

232

The role of choroid plexus in IVIG-induced beta-amyloid clearance.  

PubMed

We have shown that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains anti-A? autoantibodies and IVIG could induce beta amyloid (A?) efflux from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood in both Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. However, the molecular mechanism underlying IVIG-induced A? efflux remains unclear. In this study, we used amyloid precursor protein (A?PP) transgenic mice to investigate if the IVIG could induce efflux of A? from the brain and whether low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), a hypothetic A? transporter in blood-CSF barrier (BCB); could mediate this clearance process. We currently provide strong evidence to demonstrate that IVIG could reduce brain A? levels by pulling A? into the blood system in A?PP transgenic mice. In the mechanistic study, IVIG could induce A? efflux through the in vitro BCB membrane formed by cultured BCB epithelial cells. Both receptor-associated protein (RAP; a functional inhibitor of LRP1), and LRP1 siRNA were able to significantly inhibit the A? efflux. Should A? prove to be the underlying cause of AD, our results strongly suggest that IVIG could be beneficial in the therapy for AD by inducing efflux of A? from the brain through the LRP1 in the BCB. PMID:24747018

Gu, H; Zhong, Z; Jiang, W; Du, E; Dodel, R; Liu, J; Farlow, M R; Zheng, W; Du, Y

2014-06-13

233

Neurinomas of the brachial plexus: case report.  

PubMed

Neurinomas, also referred to as neurilemmomas and schwannomas, are rare benign tumours of the peripheral nerves, a low proportion of which arise from the brachial plexus. Authors report a case of an ancient schwannoma arising from the brachial plexus. The tumour, usually asymptomatic, may cause sensory radicular symptoms, or rarely motor deficits in the involved arm. Enucleation of the tumour from the nerve without damage to any of the fascicles is the correct treatment. PMID:10710825

Forte, A; Gallinaro, L S; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Prece, V; Illuminati, G

1999-01-01

234

Intradural spinal hydatid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal hydatid cysts are very rare and comprise only 1% of all bony involvement. Intradural hydatid cysts are extremely rare\\u000a compared to other types of spinal hydatid cysts. We report the case of a 19-year-old man with lumbar intradural hydatid cysts.\\u000a He complained of paraparesis and urinary hesitancy. Myelography revealed a block of the contrast medium at the L4 level

Sertaç ??lekel; Mehmet Zileli; Yusuf Er?ahin

1998-01-01

235

Pancreatic epidermoid cyst.  

PubMed

Epidermoid cyst of intrapancreatic spleen is described but epidermoid cyst occurring in the pancreas itself is not documented. We report a 36-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain radiating to the back. On ultrasonography, a multilocular cyst was seen in the head of the pancreas. Fine-needle aspiration cytology suggested a diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, which was confirmed on histology of the resected specimen. PMID:17558078

Sahu, Kausalya Kumari; Pai, Radha R; Kini, Hema; Somayaji, Vasudeva

2007-01-01

236

Percutaneous Intraosseous Cyst Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The majority of patients affected by intraosseous cysts are children or adolescents. The most commonly noted forms are vascular\\u000a anomalies (including aneurysmal bone cysts), unicameral bone cysts and histiocytosis. Percutaneous treatment of intraosseous\\u000a cysts is an alternative to surgical treatment. It minimizes the risk of bleeding, avoids immobilization and prevents disfiguration\\u000a or dysfunction particularly when the lesion is located in

Josée Dubois; Laurent Garel

237

Retinal choroidal anastomoses and occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study was designed to identify the incidence of retinal choroidal anastomoses in patients with occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and focal hot spots on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, to identify the clinical and angiographic features that would assist in their identification, and to determine if the presence of these anastomotic lesions affect the outcome of laser therapy.

Jason S Slakter; Lawrence A Yannuzzi; Ulrike Schneider; John A Sorenson; Antonio Ciardella; David R Guyer; Richard F Spaide; K. Bailey Freund; Dennis A Orlock

2000-01-01

238

Predictors of Visual Outcome and Choroidal Neovascular Membrane Formation After Traumatic Choroidal Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: A retrospective review of patients with trau- matic choroidal rupture diagnosed in the Retina Ser- vice, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, be- tween January 1993 and August 2001 was performed. Parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were used to evaluate visual prognosis, CNV, and retinal de- tachment after traumatic choroidal rupture. Results: One hundred eleven cases were identified and

Christine Shortsleeve Ament; David N. Zacks; Magdalena Krzystolik; Donald J. D'Amico; Shizuo Mukai; Lucy H. Young; John Loewenstein; Jorge Arroyo; Joan W. Miller

2006-01-01

239

Idiopathic giant retinal cyst.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case report of idiopathic asymptomatic giant retinal cyst with underlying hyperpigmentation. Low- and high-frequency ultrasound (ultrasound biomicroscopy) revealed an anechoic giant cyst with two hyper-reflective traction bands between the ciliary body and the anterior base of the retinal cyst. There was no retinal detachment. PMID:24840531

Chen, Carlos Y; Semenova, Ekaterina; Cohen, Ben Z; Finger, Paul T

2014-01-01

240

Genetics Home Reference: Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina  

MedlinePLUS

... catalog Conditions > Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (often shortened to gyrate atrophy ) On this page: ... gyrate atrophy? Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina, which is often shortened to gyrate atrophy, is ...

241

Bilateral choroidal metastasis from carcinoma of the submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Metastatic tumor is the most common uveal malignancy. However, choroidal metastasis from a salivary gland neoplasm is extremely rare. We report a case of bilateral, multifocal choroidal metastasis from carcinoma of the submandibular gland. PMID:18158413

John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Braganza, Andrew D; Kuriakose, Thomas

2008-01-01

242

Brachial plexus variations during the fetal period.  

PubMed

The brachial plexus is an important nervous system structure. It can be injured during the perinatal period and by postnatal damage. The goal of this study was to assess human fetal brachial plexus variability. A total of 220 brachial plexuses were surgically prepared from 110 human fetuses aged 14-32 weeks of fetal life (50 females and 60 males) ranging in CRL from 80 to 233 mm. The study incorporated the following methods: dissectional and anthropological, digital image acquisition, digital image processing using Image J and GIMP software, and statistical methods (Statistica 9.0). Symmetry and sexual dimorphism were examined. Anomalies of the brachial plexuses were observed in 117 (53.18 %) cases. No sexual dimorphism was found. It was observed that cord variations occurred more often on the left side. Division variants (33.64 %) occurred most often, but also cords (18.18 %) as well as root nerves and terminal ramifications (15.90 %) were found. Trunk anomalies were rare and occurred in only 5.45 % of plexuses. Three height types of median nerve roots in combination with the nerve were distinguished. In one-third of cases, median nerve root connections were found below the axillary fossa and even half in the proximal part of the humerus. In conclusion, the brachial plexus was characterized for anatomical structural variability. Most often division and cord variations were observed. Anomalies occurred regardless of sex or body side except for cord variants. Brachial plexus variation recognition is significant from the neurosurgical and traumatological point of view. PMID:22945314

Wo?niak, Jowita; K?dzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof

2012-12-01

243

Indocyanine green angiographic features of traumatic choroidal ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To investigate the indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic findings of healed traumatic choroidal ruptures.Methods Three eyes of two patients with choroidal ruptures underwent both fluorescein angiography and ICG angiography with a digital high-resolution system.Results Fundus examination showed healed choroidal ruptures in all three eyes. Two of the eyes had old macular scars and one eye had a recent choroidal neovascular

Ahmet Akman; Sibel Kadayifcilar; Sibel Oto; Pinar Aydin

1998-01-01

244

Anterior Cervical Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome.

Sharifi, Give

2013-01-01

245

Microsurgical anatomy of the inferior alveolar neurovascular plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microdissection of the cadaveric human inferior neurovascular bundle showed that the inferior alveolar nerve after its origin from the mandibular division forms what can only be described as a plexus. The main trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve exhibits a branching structure reminiscent of the brachial plexus of the upper limb. This plexus-like nature is compounded by delicate interweaving of

K Zoud; GA Doran

1993-01-01

246

Spontaneous Resolution of Subretinal Hemorrhage Secondary to Choroidal Osteoma Unassociated with Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Choroidal osteoma is a rare benign intraocular tumor composed of calcification throughout the choroid. Various treatment modalities are available according to location of the tumor and the cause of the visual distortion. We report herein a 30-year-old male who was referred to our hospital with acute blurred vision as a result of the subretinal hemorrhage from choroidal osteoma. We ruled out the presence of CNV and observation was preferred and we prevented unnecessary treatment attempts as spontaneous recovery is the easiest and safest way.

Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Gokce, Gokcen; Uysal, Yusuf; Durukan, Ali Hakan

2014-01-01

247

Choroidal neovascularization in a patient with blunt trauma-caused traumatic retinopathy without choroidal rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) following blunt trauma without choroidal rupture, with past history\\u000a of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A 43-year-old man with a nonperforating injury caused by a baseball that hit his right eye exhibited traumatic retinopathy.\\u000a The damage was localized to the outer layer of the retina at the macula and there was no choroidal

Mitsuo Takahashi; Satoshi Kinoshita; Wataru Saito; Manabu Kase; Susumu Ishida

2011-01-01

248

Systematic Evaluation Of Brachial Plexus Injuries  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injuries offer a unique challenge to the athletic trainer because of their relatively high frequency rate in contact sports and because of the complexity of the neuroanatomy in the cervical area. During a game, athletic trainers must make a fast, accurate decision regarding a player's return to competition. It is imperative that the athletic trainer be able to quickly differentiate between minor injuries and more serious injuries warranting removal from the game and/or physician referral. A systematic approach to the evaluation of a brachial plexus injury is essential to ensure proper treatment. This paper will present a structured approach to an on-the-field assessment of brachial plexus injuries.

Haynes, Scott

1993-01-01

249

Choroidal vasculitis in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy.  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old Caucasian female presented with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) and associated infiltration round some of the larger choroidal blood vessels. This infiltration dissipated as the patient's clinical condition improved and did not induce any permanent alteration of the overlying retinal pigment epithelium. We suggest that the infiltration round the choroidal vessels was due to a choroidal vasculitis. The finding of choroidal inflammation in this case lends support to the hypothesis that choroidal vasculitis is an underlying pathological process in APMPPE. Images

Spaide, R. F.; Yannuzzi, L. A.; Slakter, J.

1991-01-01

250

Choroidal vasculitis in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old Caucasian female presented with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) and associated infiltration round some of the larger choroidal blood vessels. This infiltration dissipated as the patient's clinical condition improved and did not induce any permanent alteration of the overlying retinal pigment epithelium. We suggest that the infiltration round the choroidal vessels was due to a choroidal vasculitis. The finding of choroidal inflammation in this case lends support to the hypothesis that choroidal vasculitis is an underlying pathological process in APMPPE. PMID:1793461

Spaide, R F; Yannuzzi, L A; Slakter, J

1991-11-01

251

Tenosynovial giant cell tumour of brachial plexus.  

PubMed

Tenosynovial giant cell tumours (TGT) are benign tumours that arise in the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths and bursae. Tumours arising from the vertebral column are extremely rare, with few cases reported. In this article, we describe an unusual case of an extra-articular TGT of the brachial plexus, arising from the synovium of the vertebral facet joint. To our knowledge and after a review of the literature, this is the first patient with a TGT involving the brachial plexus. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour are described together with a brief discussion of management options. PMID:24380756

Ye, Joshua Mingsheng; Ye, Mingwei J; Rogers, Te Whiti; Gonzales, Michael; Lo, Patrick

2014-06-01

252

Choroidal metastasis from leiomyosarcoma in two cases  

PubMed Central

Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal cells and is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma. Leiomyosarcoma is a notably rare tumor in the ophthalmic region and can be of primary, secondary or metastatic origin. To the best of our knowledge, there has only been one published case of leiomyosarcoma metastasis to the choroid. In this case study, we report two cases of primary leiomyosarcoma with metastasis to the choroid of the eye. Both cases displayed systemic metastasis and showed response to high dose plaque radiotherapy. Despite its prevalence as the leading form of sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma rarely metastasizes to the ocular region.

Feinstein, Eric; Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L.; Ehya, Hormoz; Shields, Jerry A.

2014-01-01

253

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts.  

PubMed

Arachnoid cysts of the posterior fossa are rare lesions that are considered to be mostly congenital in origin. In this article, we retrospectively review 12 patients who underwent surgical treatment for their symptomatic posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. The most common presenting symptoms were gait disturbances and headache. The diagnosis was established on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Surgery consisted of cyst wall excision with fenestration in nine cases and shunting procedures in three cases. In all cases except one who-died, the postsurgical follow-up neuroradiological investigations showed that the cysts had decreased in size, the cerebellum had re-expanded, and if there was preoperative hydrocephalus, the ventricular size was decreased. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 11 years. All surviving cases are free of symptoms and no arachnoid cysts recurred. The classification, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and surgical treatment of infratentorial arachnoid cysts are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:10492679

Erdinçler, P; Kaynar, M Y; Bozkus, H; Ciplak, N

1999-02-01

254

CHOROIDAL IMAGING USING SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY  

PubMed Central

Background A structurally and functionally normal choroidal vasculature is essential for retinal function. Therefore, a precise clinical understanding of choroidal morphology should be important for understanding many retinal and choroidal diseases. Methods PUBMED (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed) was used for most of the literature search for this article. The criterion for inclusion of an article in the references for this review was that it included materials about both the clinical and the basic properties of choroidal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results Recent reports show successful examination and accurate measurement of choroidal thickness in normal and pathologic states using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography systems. This review focuses on the principles of the new technology that make choroidal imaging using optical coherence tomography possible and on the changes that subsequently have been documented to occur in the choroid in various diseases. Additionally, it outlines future directions in choroidal imaging. Conclusion Optical coherence tomography is now proven to be an effective noninvasive tool to evaluate the choroid and to detect choroidal changes in pathologic states. Additionally, choroidal evaluation using optical coherence tomography can be used as a parameter for diagnosis and follow-up.

Regatieri, Caio V.; Branchini, Lauren; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

2012-01-01

255

Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed.

Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz

2012-01-01

256

The Choroidal Eye Oximeter - An instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Choroidal Eye Oximeter is an electro-optical instrument that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in the back of the human eye by a spectrophotometric method. Since choroidal blood is characteristic of blood which is supplied to the brain, the Choroidal Eye Oximeter can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen which is supplied to the brain under varying external conditions. The instrument consists of two basic systems: the optical system and the electronic system. The optical system produces a suitable bi-chromatic beam of light, reflects this beam from the fundus of the subject's eye, and onto a low-noise photodetector. The electronic system amplifies the weak composite signal from the photodetector, computes the average oxygen saturation from the area of the fundus that was sampled, and displays the value of the computed oxygen saturation on a panel meter.

Laing, R. A.; Danisch, L. A.; Young, L. R.

1975-01-01

257

Paramesencephalic arachnoid cysts.  

PubMed

The term "paramesencephalic" is proposed to describe the location of a general class of arachnoid cysts observed in four patients. These cysts, which appear to arise within the subarachnoid space, are characterized by a lack of communication with the ventricular system. Usually, the arachnoid tissue is normal, and the cyst fluid resembles cerebrospinal fluid both macroscopically and microscopically. Hydrocephalus is variably accompanied by localizing signs. Problems may be encountered in the diagnosis of suprasellar (case 4), parapineal (case 3), incisural (case 1), and interpeduncular (cases 2 and 4) arachnoid cysts. Early surgical exploration is strongly recommended. PMID:943067

Grollmus, J M; Wilson, C B; Newton, T H

1976-02-01

258

Giant mesenteric cyst  

PubMed Central

Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy.

Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

2011-01-01

259

Hemorrhagic adrenal cyst.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of a hemorrhagic adrenal cyst, one of the tumors known in literature as incidentalomas, emphasizing the clinical characteristics, since adrenal cysts or pseudocysts are generally rare and observed by chance during imaging procedures. Traditionally they are classified as pseudocysts, endothelial, epithelial or parasitic cysts. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been considered the treatment of choice for benign, functioning or non-functioning adrenal lesions. Small cystic adrenal tumors can be managed conservatively by laparoscopic decortication or marsupialization, but larger cysts should be treated by total or partial adrenalectomy. PMID:23045835

da Silva, Elsa Cristina Fontes Pires; Viamontez, Francisco; Silva, Vasco Sabino; Andrade, Artur; Júlio Neto, Gonçalo; Gomes, Constança de Palma; Neto, Sérgio; Quitembo, Mateus; Dimbany, Higino; Van-Dunem, Joaquim Carlos Vicente Dias; de Miranda, Sandra Maria da Rocha Neto; Bastos, Fernando; Cordeiro, Lemuel Bornelli; Guilherme, Mateus

2012-01-01

260

DAVID APPLE AND MILTON BONIUK, EDITORS Transscleral Choroidal Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Choroidal Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 57-year-old man with non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma of the abdominal lymph nodes developed moderate cells in the anterior chamber and vitreous, choroidal infiltration, and total nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment in both eyes while receiving chemotherapy. After a diagnostic vitrectomy in the left eye was nonrevealing, the patient was referred to the oncology service. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the choroidal infiltrate was

Kaan Gündüz; Jerry A Shields; Carol L Shields; Ralph C Eagle JR; Waltenio Diniz; Gary Mercado; William Chang

1999-01-01

261

Responsiveness of eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with choroidal hyperpermeability to intravitreal ranibizumab  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the role played by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) based on an interventional immunology theory. Methods Eyes with PCV were divided in a masked fashion into those with choroidal hyperpermeability (HP group) and those with normal choroidal permeability (NP group) based on the indocyanine green angiograms. The inter-rater agreement rate was evaluated using Fleiss’ kappa. Patients were treated by intravitreal ranibizumab (IVB). The central choroidal thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT) at the baseline and 7 days after the treatment were measured by optical coherence tomography. Results Among the 57 consecutive eyes diagnosed with PCV, 42 eyes of 42 patients met the inclusion criteria (21 eyes/HP group vs 21 eyes /NP group). Central choroidal thickness in HP group was significantly thicker than that in the NP group (P?choroidal hyper-permeability may not be strongly associated with VEGF-related pathology, and may not respond favorably to anti-VEGF monotherapy.

2013-01-01

262

PLEXUS--The Expert System for Referral.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a description of PLEXUS, an expert system on gardening designed as a referral tool for public libraries by the University of London. Highlights include determining user characteristics, developing the problem statement, the use of semantic categories, and search strategies that modify the original problem statement using Boolean…

Vickery, A.; Brooks, H. M.

1987-01-01

263

The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea  

PubMed Central

Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue.

Diaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Mejias, Wigberto; Jimenez, Luis B.

2010-01-01

264

What has changed in brachial plexus surgery?  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injuries, in all their severity and complexity, have been extensively studied. Although brachial plexus injuries are associated with serious and often definitive sequelae, many concepts have changed since the 1950s, when this pathological condition began to be treated more aggressively. Looking back over the last 20 years, it can be seen that the entire approach, from diagnosis to treatment, has changed significantly. Some concepts have become better established, while others have been introduced; thus, it can be said that currently, something can always be offered in terms of functional recovery, regardless of the degree of injury. Advances in microsurgical techniques have enabled improved results after neurolysis and have made it possible to perform neurotization, which has undoubtedly become the greatest differential in treating brachial plexus injuries. Improvements in imaging devices and electrical studies have allowed quick decisions that are reflected in better surgical outcomes. In this review, we intend to show the many developments in brachial plexus surgery that have significantly changed the results and have provided hope to the victims of this serious injury.

de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Silva, Gustavo Bersani; de Paula, Emygdio Jose Leomil; Junior, Rames Mattar; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

2013-01-01

265

Myenteric plexus abnormalities associated with epiphrenic diverticula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To (1) categorize histologic esophageal myenteric plexus abnormalities in patients undergoing surgical treatment for epiphrenic diverticulum, and (2) correlate histologic changes with associated esophageal motility disorders and hiatal hernia. Methods: From January 1987 to May 2008, 40 patients had surgery for epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry was abnormal in 29 (73%); 23 (58%) had hiatal hernia. Esophageal muscle specimens were

Thomas W. Rice; John R. Goldblum; Martha M. Yearsley; Steven S. Shay; Scott I. Reznik; Sudish C. Murthy; David P. Mason; Eugene H. Blackstone

2010-01-01

266

Myenteric plexus abnormalities associated with epiphrenic diverticula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To (1) categorize histologic esophageal myenteric plexus abnormalities in patients undergoing surgical treatment for epiphrenic diverticulum, and (2) correlate histologic changes with associated esophageal motility disorders and hiatal hernia. Methods: From January 1987 to May 2008, 40 patients had surgery for epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry was abnormal in 29 (73%); 23 (58%) had hiatal hernia. Esophageal muscle specimens were

Thomas W. Rice; John R. Goldblum; Martha M. Yearsley; Steven S. Shay; Scott I. Reznik; Sudish C. Murthy; David P. Mason; Eugene H. Blackstone

2009-01-01

267

Age-related macular degeneration: choroidal ischaemia?  

PubMed Central

Aim Our aim is to use ultrasound to non-invasively detect differences in choroidal microarchitecture possibly related to ischaemia among normal eyes and those with wet and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective case series of subjects with dry AMD, wet AMD and age-matched controls. Methods Digitised 20?MHz B-scan radiofrequency ultrasound data of the region of the macula were segmented to extract the signal from the retina and choroid. This signal was processed by a wavelet transform, and statistical modelling was applied to the wavelet coefficients to examine differences among dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate a multivariate classifier. Results In the 69 eyes of 52 patients, 18 did not have AMD, 23 had dry AMD and 28 had wet AMD. Multivariate models showed statistically significant differences between groups. Multiclass ROC analysis of the best model showed an excellent volume-under-curve of 0.892±0.17. The classifier is consistent with ischaemia in dry AMD. Conclusions Wavelet augmented ultrasound is sensitive to the organisational elements of choroidal microarchitecture relating to scatter and fluid tissue boundaries such as seen in ischaemia and inflammation, allowing statistically significant differentiation of dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. This study further supports the association of ischaemia with dry AMD and provides a rationale for treating dry AMD with pharmacological agents to increase choroidal perfusion. ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00277784.

Coleman, D Jackson; Silverman, Ronald H; Rondeau, Mark J; Lloyd, Harriet O; Khanifar, Aziz A; Chan, R V Paul

2013-01-01

268

[Choroidal tumor with exsudative retinal detachment?].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 41-year-old female patient with acute onset of nyctalopia, xanthopsia and impairment of visual field. The ophthalmologic examination revealed peripheral choroidal elevation with accompanying retinal detachment. Due to the the presence of a nanophthalmic eye without any evidence of inflammation or malignant growth, the diagnosis uveal effusion syndrome could be made. PMID:22134345

Brauns, T; Höhn, F; Hattenbach, L-O

2012-02-01

269

Choroidal blood flow and arterial blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Untreated hypertension is associated with ocular complications and is a risk factor for the development and progression of vascular ocular pathologies. We set out to investigate the association between systemic blood pressure and choroidal blood flow.Methods All subjects were male non-smokers, who did not receive any medication and had normal or slightly elevated blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ?160

K Polak; E Polska; A Luksch; G Dorner; G Fuchsjäger-Mayrl; O Findl; H-G Eichler; M Wolzt; L Schmetterer; Schmetterer

2003-01-01

270

Primary Transpupillary Thermotherapy of Choroidal Melanocytic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the role of primary transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in the treatment of choroidal melanocytic lesions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of 24 patients (24 eyes) with choroidal melanocytic lesions, including 20 choroidal melanoma and four choroidal nevus treated with primary TTT. Choroidal nevus cases treated with primary TTT either demonstrated risk factors for growth into an early melanoma or had overlying choroidal neovascularization. Results: The mean initial tumor basal diameter was 6.6 (3.0-10.0) mm and the mean initial tumor thickness was 3.0 (1.0-5.0) mm. The mean number of TTT sessions was 2.5 (1-6). The mean decrease in tumor thickness was 1.2 mm (from 3.0 to 1.8 mm) at a mean follow-up of 22.7 (range 3-90) months. On the LogMar scale, visual acuity was stable at 1.0. Complications occurred in 50% of eyes. The most frequent complications were vitreous hemorrhage [5 patients (20.8%)], focal cataract [5 patients (20.8%)], iris atrophy [4 patients (16.6%)] and posterior synechia [4 patients (16.6%)]. There was no significant difference in the complication rate with respect to tumor thickness >3 mm versus tumor thickness ?3 mm and juxtapapillary versus nonjuxtapapillary location (Fisher’s exact test, P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 9% of eyes develop recurrence by 1 year and 27% develop recurrence by 5 years after primary TTT. Two eyes (8.3%) were enucleated because of neovascular glaucoma and one eye (4.1%) was exenterated because of extraocular tumor recurrence. Globe salvage was achieved in 21 patients (87.5%). One patient (4.1%) with extraocular tumor recurrence developed liver metastasis and expired. Conclusions: Although TTT may be useful in the treatment of small choroidal melanocytic lesions, the high complication and recurrence rates warrant close monitoring of patients after primary TTT even when a flat chorioretinal scar has been achieved.

Gunduz, Kaan; Karslioglu, Melisa Zisan; Kose, Kenan

2011-01-01

271

Choroidal invasion of retinoblastoma: metastatic potential and clinical risk factors.  

PubMed Central

There is considerable debate about the significance of choroidal invasion of retinoblastoma with regard to metastatic disease. The charts of patients with retinoblastoma were reviewed over a 17 year period to determine the frequency of histopathological choroidal invasion of retinoblastoma and its risk for eventual metastatic disease. Sixty seven of 289 eyes (23%) enucleated for retinoblastoma had histopathological evidence of choroidal invasion. Those patients with choroidal invasion (with or without optic nerve invasion) were more likely to develop metastases than those without choroidal invasion (p = 0.0001). When considering those patients with isolated choroidal invasion of retinoblastoma, excluding those with associated optic nerve invasion, there was no significant risk but there was a trend towards the development of metastases (p = 0.10). The clinical factors found to be predictive for choroidal invasion from retinoblastoma from a univariate analysis included increased intraocular pressure (p = 0.04) and iris neovascularisation (p = 0.007) and, from a multivariate analysis, iris neovascularisation (p = 0.02). The histopathological factors statistically associated with choroidal invasion included the presence of optic nerve invasion (p = 0.002) and poorly differentiated retinoblastoma (p = 0.003). Factors not predictive for choroidal invasion included the age, race, and sex of the patient and the tumour laterality, inheritance, size, and growth pattern. Choroidal invasion of retinoblastoma is a risk for metastases, especially if it is associated with any degree of optic nerve invasion. Images

Shields, C. L.; Shields, J. A.; Baez, K. A.; Cater, J.; De Potter, P. V.

1993-01-01

272

Choledochal cysts in adults.  

PubMed Central

The clinical features and management of 14 adults with choledochal cysts who presented to our hospital are discussed. There were 10 Todani type I, and four type IV cysts. The cysts were fusiform in all but three cases. The pancreatobiliary junction was abnormal in only two patients. Ten patients had cystolithiasis. Six patients had undergone previous biliary surgery, three of whom presented with biliary strictures. We recommend that choledochal cyst be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients with dilated bile ducts, especially when symptoms persist after biliary surgery. In two patients who had undergone endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone clearance, and in whom the diagnosis was still in doubt after cholangiography, hepatic iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by showing persistent biliary stagnation despite free flow of bile across the sphincter of Oddi. Complete resection of the cyst was achieved in all cases with one postoperative death. A modification of the standard surgical technique is described which makes mobilisation of the cyst easier. The need to demonstrate the pancreatobiliary ductal confluence as an aid to complete excision of the cyst is emphasised. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4

Jesudason, S. R.; Govil, S.; Mathai, V.; Kuruvilla, R.; Muthusami, J. C.

1997-01-01

273

Lumbar synovial cysts.  

PubMed

Synovial spinal cysts are typically found in the lumbar spine, most often at the L4-L5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic imaging of choice in the workup of suspected synovial cysts. This study consisted of 24 patients with lumbar synovial cysts treated by cyst excision and nerve root decompression through partial or complete facetectomy and primary posterolateral fusion. The most common location of the cysts was the L4-L5 segment. Synovial tissue was found in histological sections of 18 cysts. At a mean follow-up of 12 (range, 8 to 24) months, 20 patients (83%) had excellent or good results; two patients (8.3%) had fair and two patients (8.3%) had poor improvement. Operative complications included dural tear in two patients and postoperative wound dehiscence in one patient, which were treated accordingly. To eliminate the risk of recurrence synovial cyst excision through partial or complete facetectomy is required. In addition, since synovial cysts reflect disruption of the facet joint and some degree of instability, primary spinal fusion is recommended. PMID:23327848

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Sapkas, George S; Korres, Demetrios S; Pneumaticos, Spyridon G

2012-01-01

274

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIntracranial dermoid cysts are rare congenital neoplasms that are believed to arise from ectopic cell rests incorporated in the closing neural tube. The rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a relatively rare event that typically occurs spontaneously. In the past it was believed that rupture is always fatal, a hypothesis that is not supported by more recently reported cases.

Ruediger Stendel; Terttu Aulikki Pietilä; Kerstin Lehmann; Ralf Kurth; Olaf Suess; Mario Brock

2002-01-01

275

Penile Epidermal Inclusion Cyst  

PubMed Central

We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst in a 32-year-old male. This was a complication of circumcision that was neglected over years to form stones and urethrocutaneous fistula. Complete excision of the cyst and repair of the fistula were performed successfully. Histopathological examination confirmed our diagnosis.

El-Shazly, M.; Ghobashy, A.; Allam, A.; Alenezy, T.; Alenezy, N.; Yordanov, E.; Hathout, B.; Albunnai, R.

2012-01-01

276

Penile epidermal inclusion cyst.  

PubMed

We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst in a 32-year-old male. This was a complication of circumcision that was neglected over years to form stones and urethrocutaneous fistula. Complete excision of the cyst and repair of the fistula were performed successfully. Histopathological examination confirmed our diagnosis. PMID:22693677

El-Shazly, M; Ghobashy, A; Allam, A; Alenezy, T; Alenezy, N; Yordanov, E; Hathout, B; Albunnai, R

2012-01-01

277

Clinical factors in the identification of small choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed

The detection and treatment of choroidal melanoma early in its natural course is critical to providing the patient with the best prognosis. Studies of tumour doubling time have indicated that metastasis from choroidal melanoma can occur quite early in the course of the disease, when the tumour is about 3.0 mm in basal dimension and 1.5 mm in thickness. Clinical studies have shown that, at 5 years, metastasis occurs in 16% of patients with small choroidal melanomas (less than 4 mm thick), compared with 32% of those with medium-sized (4-8 mm thick) choroidal melanomas and 53% of those with large (more than 8 mm thick) choroidal melanomas. The difficulty with early detection of choroidal melanoma relates to its clinical similarity to benign choroidal nevus. Factors that assist in differentiating small choroidal melanoma from choroidal nevus can be remembered using the mnemonic "TFSOM" (to find small ocular melanoma), where T = thickness greater than 2 mm, F = subretinal fluid, S = symptoms, O = orange pigment and M = margin touching optic disc. Choroidal melanocytic tumours that display none of these factors have a 3% risk of growth into melanoma at 5 years and most likely represent choroidal nevi. Tumours that display one factor have a 38% risk of growth, and those with two or more factors show growth in over 50% of cases. Most tumours with two or more risk factors probably represent small choroidal melanomas, and early treatment is generally indicated. Therefore, ophthalmologists should be aware of the clinical factors that identify small choroidal melanoma so that early treatment and better prognosis can be achieved for their patients. PMID:15327099

Shields, Carol L; Demirci, Hakan; Materin, Miguel A; Marr, Brian P; Mashayekhi, Arman; Shields, Jerry A

2004-06-01

278

Dermoid cysts in caribou.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous dermoid cysts were identified in eight wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from widely dispersed locations in northern Canada and in one wild caribou from Alaska. The dermoid cysts from Canadian caribou were found among 557 diagnostic specimens that had been detected by hunters and submitted by resource officers and biologists between 1 January 1966 and 15 May 2007. All of the cysts were located in the cervical region, and five of nine cysts were found in the throat area. All of the animals for which the age was known were adult; males and females were equally represented. Dermoid cysts were not diagnosed in any of 1,108 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 293 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 174 elk (Cervus elaphus), or 529 moose (Alces alces) examined during the same period at the Canadian laboratory. PMID:19395761

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Neimanis, A; Beckmen, K B

2009-04-01

279

Treatment of Ganglion Cysts  

PubMed Central

Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence.

Fung, B.; Lung, C. P.

2013-01-01

280

Dermoid cyst: A rare intramedullary inclusion cyst  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary dermoid cysts are rare tumors, especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. Only six cases have been reported in the literature. Of these, only two cases have had magnetic resonance imaging studies. We report a case of an 18-year-old female patient, who presented with progressive weakness of both the lower limbs and wasting of both the upper limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intramedullary lesion extending from C3 to D2 with peripheral enhancement on contrast. Decompression of the cystic contents with partial removal of cyst wall was done. Hair with oily cholesterol and keratin debris was encountered. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. This case adds to the previous reported cases of the rare and uncommon intramedullary space occupying lesions of the spinal cord.

Patankar, A. P.; Sheth, J. H.

2012-01-01

281

Portable Cyst Extractor: Detecting Cyst Nematodes in the Field  

PubMed Central

For on-site detection of cysts, a portable cyst extraction kit was constructed from nine readily available items. The portable cyst extractor detected cysts in a range of 1-117 cysts/100 g soil from 42 fields. Samples processed by this kit in fields were clean and easy to examine, possibly because the kit is a compact version of the standard wet-sieving technique used in the laboratory. The portable cyst extractor has several advantages over traditional survey methods: i) diagnosis of cyst infestations in the field accurately and rapidly most of the year and ii) reduction in the labor of samplings and transportation of soil samples.

Kim, D. G.; Riggs, R. D.

1995-01-01

282

Germline cyst formation in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In a wide variety of organisms, gametes develop within clusters of interconnected germline cells called cysts. Four major principles guide the construction of most cysts: synchronous division, a maximally branched pattern of interconnection between cells, specific changes in cyst geometry, and cyst polarization. The fusome is a germline-specific organelle that is associated with cyst formation in many insects and is likely to play an essential role in these processes. This review examines the cellular and molecular processes that underlie fusome formation and cyst initiation, construction, and polarization in Drosophila melanogaster. The studies described here highlight the importance of cyst formation to the subsequent development of functional gametes. PMID:9442902

de Cuevas, M; Lilly, M A; Spradling, A C

1997-01-01

283

Tarlov Cyst and Infertility  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients.

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

2009-01-01

284

Bilateral brachial plexus compressive neuropathy (crutch palsy).  

PubMed

Brachial plexus compressive neuropathy following the use of axillary crutches (crutch palsy) is a rare but well-recognized entity. Most reported cases involve the posterior cord of the brachial plexus in children and have resolved spontaneously within 8-12 weeks. We recently treated a 36-year-old man who was using axillary crutches for mobilization after a supracondylar femoral fracture. Bilateral posterior cord (predominantly radial nerve) compressive neuropathy subsequently developed, with lesser involvement of the ulnar and median nerves. The patient had little to no improvement clinically 8 weeks after the estimated onset of the palsy, and an electromyogram at that time confirmed the presence of a severe axonotmesis lesion of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves bilaterally. The patient was treated with static cock-up wrist splinting and discontinuation of the axillary crutches. Return of sensory and motor function was delayed but occurred within 9 months. PMID:9057152

Raikin, S; Froimson, M I

1997-01-01

285

Choroidal osteoma: evidence of progression and decalcification over 20 years.  

PubMed

Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign, ossifying tumour of the choroid of unknown aetiology. In contrast to other types of intraocular ossification, choroidal osteoma is found typically in young healthy females in the second or third decades of life with no history of systemic or ocular disease. Choroidal osteoma is a deep, pale yellow lesion with distinct geographic borders at the juxtapapillary or macular region, with branching 'spider' vessels on the surface of the tumour. These features should help differentiate choroidal osteoma from other types of intraocular tumour and the diagnosis can be confirmed with ultrasonography and computerised tomography. Here we report an initially unilateral case of choroidal osteoma, which decalcified over 20 years but during the same period the fellow eye also developed a choroidal osteoma to become a bilateral case. Despite the benign nature of the tumour, vision may be compromised by gradual atrophy of the overlying retina, serous retinal detachment, accumulation of sub-retinal fluid and sub-retinal haemorrhage associated with choroidal neovascularisation. Frequent examinations are recommended for patients with choroidal osteoma, for early detection of a subretinal neovascular membrane and potential treatment with laser photocoagulation. PMID:16494612

Chen, Jennifer; Lee, Lawrence; Gass, J Donald M

2006-03-01

286

Choroidal blood flow. III. Reflexive control in human eyes.  

PubMed

Choroidal blood flow helps maintain a stable temperature environment for the outer retinal layers, especially in the macular area. Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated a centrally mediated reflexive mechanism that increases choroidal blood flow in response to light or light-generated heat. This increase in choroidal blood flow can be detected as an elevation in ocular surface temperature. With the use of ocular surface temperature as a semiquantitative index of alterations in choroidal blood flow, the existence of a similar reflex was demonstrated in normal human volunteers. PMID:6626016

Parver, L M; Auker, C R; Carpenter, D O

1983-10-01

287

Posterior mediastinal cyst.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is still an important health problem in the world. Mediastinal localization of hydatidosis is very rare. We report the case of a 19-year-old man who presented with right chest wall pain and cough. Chest X-Ray and computed tomography showed a mediastinal cystic mass. A right posterolateral thoracotomy was performed and the cystic mass was identified. Daughter cysts were seen within the cyst when the lesion was accidentally opened during the procedure. Cyst mass was radically resected. No complication or recurrence was seen in the follow-up period. PMID:24444071

Aghajanzadeh, Manouchehr; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina; Hassanzadeh, Rasool; Ebrahimi, Hannan

2014-01-01

288

Treatment Options for Brachial Plexus Injuries  

PubMed Central

The incidence of brachial plexus injuries is rapidly growing due to the increasing number of high-speed motor-vehicle accidents. These are devastating injuries leading to significant functional impairment of the patients. The purpose of this review paper is to present the available options for conservative and operative treatment and discuss the correct timing of intervention. Reported outcomes of current management and future prospects are also analysed.

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Mazis, George; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

289

Carotid Endarterectomy with Intermediate Cervical Plexus Block  

PubMed Central

During carotid endarterectomy, the use of locoregional anesthesia to achieve a combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block can cause cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic complications. Seeking to reduce risk and find an easier procedure, we applied locoregional anesthesia and an intermediate cervical plexus block in a series of patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. From 2006 through 2007, 183 patients underwent primary carotid endarterectomy at our hospital. Mean age was 75.9 ± 9.9 yr; mean body mass index, 27.3 ± 6.7 kg/m2; and median American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, P3 (range, P2–P4). All procedures combined an intermediate cervical plexus block with subcutaneous infiltration of the incision line. We inserted a 15-mm, 25G needle to its full length, perpendicular to the skin along the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, midway between the mastoid process and the clavicle. We injected 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine solution for 3 to 5 minutes. This block was systematically combined with subcutaneous infiltration of the incision line with the ropivacaine (0.75%, 10 mL), and sometimes also with 2% topical lidocaine intraoperatively. If necessary, intraoperative sedation, analgesia, or both were given to patients to improve their compliance. Intraoperative topical lidocaine was required in 59 patients (32.2%), and intravenous midazolam, fentanyl, or both were required in 29 patients (15.8%). Two procedures were converted to general anesthesia (1.1%). No perioperative deaths or complications occurred. Postoperatively, 2 patients experienced strokes and 1 sustained a myocardial infarction (total rate, 1.6%). We found the intermediate cervical plexus block to be feasible, effective, and safe, with low perioperative and postoperative complication rates. Herein, we report our findings.

Barone, Marco; Diemunsch, Pierre; Baldassarre, Emanuele; Oben, Walter Enoh; Ciarlo, Marinella; Wolter, Johannes; Albani, Alessandro

2010-01-01

290

Carotid endarterectomy with intermediate cervical plexus block.  

PubMed

During carotid endarterectomy, the use of locoregional anesthesia to achieve a combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block can cause cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic complications. Seeking to reduce risk and find an easier procedure, we applied locoregional anesthesia and an intermediate cervical plexus block in a series of patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. From 2006 through 2007, 183 patients underwent primary carotid endarterectomy at our hospital. Mean age was 75.9 +/- 9.9 yr; mean body mass index, 27.3 +/- 6.7 kg/m(2); and median American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, P3 (range, P2-P4). All procedures combined an intermediate cervical plexus block with subcutaneous infiltration of the incision line. We inserted a 15-mm, 25G needle to its full length, perpendicular to the skin along the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, midway between the mastoid process and the clavicle. We injected 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine solution for 3 to 5 minutes. This block was systematically combined with subcutaneous infiltration of the incision line with the ropivacaine (0.75%, 10 mL), and sometimes also with 2% topical lidocaine intraoperatively. If necessary, intraoperative sedation, analgesia, or both were given to patients to improve their compliance. Intraoperative topical lidocaine was required in 59 patients (32.2%), and intravenous midazolam, fentanyl, or both were required in 29 patients (15.8%). Two procedures were converted to general anesthesia (1.1%). No perioperative deaths or complications occurred. Postoperatively, 2 patients experienced strokes and 1 sustained a myocardial infarction (total rate, 1.6%). We found the intermediate cervical plexus block to be feasible, effective, and safe, with low perioperative and postoperative complication rates. Herein, we report our findings. PMID:20548805

Barone, Marco; Diemunsch, Pierre; Baldassarre, Emanuele; Oben, Walter Enoh; Ciarlo, Marinella; Wolter, Johannes; Albani, Alessandro

2010-01-01

291

Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?  

PubMed Central

Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture.

Yalcin, Saban; Cece, Hasan; Nacar, Halil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp

2011-01-01

292

Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?  

PubMed

Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture. PMID:21712873

Yalcin, Saban; Cece, Hasan; Nacar, Halil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp

2011-03-01

293

Endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have evaluated the safety and efficacy of performing endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS CPN) in patients with pain due to intra-abdominal malignancies. Methods: Thirty patients with upper abdominal pain requiring narcotic analgesia and suspected or known intra-abdominal malignancy were selected for EUS CPN. This group included 25 patients with pancreas carcinoma and 5 patients with intra-abdominal metastases. Using

Maurits J. Wiersema; Lisa M. Wiersema

1996-01-01

294

Vertikale infraklavikulärePlexus-brachialis-Blockade (VIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Fragestellung. Die vertikale, infraklavikuläre Plexus-brachialis-Blockade (VIP) nach Kilka et al. ist eine Methode, die sich im Vergleich zu anderen periklavikulären Methoden durch ein geringes Pneumothoraxrisiko auszeichnet (0,2%). Dieses Risiko scheint bei asthenischen Patienten erhöht zu sein. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde bei Patienten, bei denen ein VIP durchgeführt werden sollte, untersucht, ob eine leicht veränderte Punktionsortbestimmung zu einer sicheren

M. Neuburger; H. Kaiser; B. Åss; C. Franke; H. Maurer

2003-01-01

295

Oral Propranolol for Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several therapeutic approaches have been developed to treat choroidal hemangioma. However, all these therapies are associated with a potential risk of damaging the overlying retina. Case Report We report a case of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH) in a 59-year-old man refractory to laser treatment. Visual acuity was 20/200 and a serous macular detachment was present. The CCH was treated with oral propanolol, whereupon visual acuity improved to 20/20 and the macular detachment resolved without systemic or local adverse effects. Discussion Propanolol is a ?-blocker commonly used in cardiology that may induce endothelium vasoconstriction and inhibit endothelial proliferation. It has been shown to be effective in infantile facial hemangiomas, and proved safe and effective for the CCH in our patient. Further studies are needed to confirm our observation.

Sanz-Marco, Empar; Gallego, Roberto; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel

2011-01-01

296

Brachial plexus block in a parturient.  

PubMed

We report a novel circumstance of brachial plexus anesthesia in a parturient. A 25-year-old woman at 34 weeks of gestation presented with a pathologic proximal right humerus fracture from an intramedullary mass. She was scheduled for tumor biopsy which was performed using a two-site ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block to maximize odds of complete anesthesia while minimizing the risk of phrenic nerve paresis. After a supraclavicular block with 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL, we translated our ultrasound probe cephalad, inferior to the root of C7 where the divisions of the superior trunk could be seen in a tightly compact arrangement. An additional injection of 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL was administered at this site, and the patient subsequently underwent successful biopsy without sedatives or analgesics, aside from local anesthetics. In the post-anesthesia care unit, she had normal respirations and oxygen saturations breathing room air, denied any shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, and was discharged shortly after her arrival. While we did not pursue radiologic examination to rule out hemidiaphragm paralysis, we assumed, as evidenced in a previous case report, that unlike most healthy patients, a parturient would demonstrate some clinical signs and/or symptoms of hemidiaphragm paralysis, given that the diaphragm is almost totally responsible for inspiration in the term parturient. This represents only the second brachial plexus block in a parturient reported in the literature; the first using ultrasound guidance and without respiratory embarrassment. PMID:24631059

Patzkowski, M; Scheiner, J

2014-05-01

297

Multifocal choroiditis with evidence of Lyme disease.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man had multifocal choroiditis without vitreous involvement. The diagnosis of Lyme disease was suggested by serial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of his serum and a cerebrospinal fluid specimen. The ocular findings resembled those seen in patients with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE). The active lesions resolved after administration of a two-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone. This case suggests that some cases of APMPPE actually may be Lyme disease. PMID:1637125

Bodine, S R; Marino, J; Camisa, T J; Salvate, A J

1992-05-01

298

Baicalin attenuates laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To determine whether intravitreally-injected baicalin inhibits the growth of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) experimentally induced via laser photocoagulation through analysis of angiogenic factors. Materials and methods: Six CNVs were induced in the left eyes of 8-week-old male Brown Norway rats. Immediately after the induction of CNV, 4??l of baicalin solution (0.1, 1 or 5?nmol) and 4??l of a solution containing 100??g of bevacizumab were slowly injected into the vitreous cavity under direct observation with an operating microscope. At 14 days after CNV induction, fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed, and choroidal flat mounts were produced for quantitative assessment of CNV. The levels of the anti-angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were determined via Western blot analysis. Results: FA of bevacizumab- and baicalin-treated rats showed significantly reduced CNV and leakage from the CNV lesions compared to control rats at day 14. Choroidal flat mounts revealed that baicalin inhibited the growth of CNV lesions in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis demonstrated that baicalin significantly attenuated the up-regulation of VEGF, PDGF and MMP-2. Conclusion: Baicalin suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. These results suggest that baicalin should be considered as a candidate drug for treating exudative age-related macular degeneration. PMID:24502359

Yang, Sung Jae; Jo, Hyoung; Kim, June-Gone; Jung, Sang Hoon

2014-07-01

299

Increased macular choroidal blood flow velocity and decreased choroidal thickness with regression of punctate inner choroidopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in choroidal circulation hemodynamics during the course of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate changes in choroidal blood flow velocity by using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) in patients with PIC. Case presentation This PIC patient was initially treated with systemic corticosteroids for 4 months. LSFG measurements were taken 10 consecutive times before treatment and at 1, 3, 12, 20 and 23 months after the initiation of therapy. The mean blur rate (MBR), a quantitative index of relative blood flow velocity, was calculated using LSFG in three regions: Circles 1, 2 and 3 were set at the fovea, a lesion site, and an area of normal-appearing retina, respectively. The PIC lesions scarred after treatment along with improvements in visual function and outer retinal morphology. When the changing rate of macular flow over the 12-month follow-up period was compared with the MBR before treatment (100%), an increase of 16–37%, 24–49% and 15–18% was detected in Circles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At the time of PIC recurrence after 20 months, the MBR decreased temporarily but subsequently increased after retreatment with systemic corticosteroids. This trend was accompanied by a decrease in choroidal thickness at the lesion site after retreatment. Conclusions Macular choroidal blood flow velocity increased and choroidal thickness decreased concurrently with regression of PIC. The present findings suggest that inflammation-related impairments in choroidal circulation may relate to the pathogenesis of PIC, extending over a wider area in the posterior pole than the PIC lesions per se.

2014-01-01

300

Splenic cyst during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Splenic cyst during pregnancy is rare and may result in spontaneous rupture during the third trimester, which increases perinatal morality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a 27-year-old healthy Caucasian female who presented at 18 weeks gestation with left flank pain, early satiety and weight loss. Imaging studies demonstrated a large complex multiloculated splenic cyst. The patient underwent a successful laparoscopic splenectomy and delivered a healthy child at term without complication. DISCUSSION Spontaneous rupture of a splenic cyst during the third trimester incurs a perinatal mortality rate as high as 70%. Surgical management includes open or laparoscopic splenectomy or fenestration and preservation of the spleen. CONCLUSION Laparoscopic splenectomy during the second trimester appears to be safe and offers definitive management of a large symptomatic splenic cyst during pregnancy.

Varban, Oliver

2014-01-01

301

Intradural spinal cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 18 cases of benign intradural spinal cyst (9 arachnoidal, 2 neuroepithelial, 7 endodermal) are reported and compared with 94 cases (67 arachnoidal, 7 neuroepithelial, 20 endodermal) obtained from the literature.

A. Fortuna; S. Mercuri

1983-01-01

302

Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Based on the study of 8 cases of spinal intradural arachnoid cysts, the authors underline that the diagnosis is sometimes difficult because of the limitations of the paraclinical examination. They discuss aetiopathological problems.

F. Lesoin; D. Leys; M. Rousseaux; A. Cama; M. Jomin; H. Petit

1985-01-01

303

Abuse-a-Cyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine how brine shrimp populations can survive in some of the harshest environments. Learners subject brine shrimp cysts to extreme conditions to evaluate the hardiness of these creatures.

Utah, University O.

2009-01-01

304

Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst  

PubMed Central

Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

HS, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A.; Astekar, Madhusudan S.

2012-01-01

305

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology.  

PubMed

Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. PMID:12845468

Graif, Moshe; Martinoli, Carlo; Rochkind, Shimon; Blank, Anat; Trejo, Leonor; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada; Derchi, Lorenzo E

2004-02-01

306

Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour.

Sharifah, MIA; Nor Hazla, MH; Suraya, A; Tan, SP

2011-01-01

307

Extraosseous aneurysmal bone cyst.  

PubMed

A 73-year-old man developed an enlarged cystic lesion located in the soft tissues surrounding the left hip. The lesion was surgically removed. The patient was well 1 year after surgery. The lesion was histologically identical to an aneurysmal bone cyst, therefore it was diagnosed as an extraosseous aneurysmal bone cyst. The differential diagnoses and a review of the literature are presented. PMID:9063529

Riccioni, L; Foschini, M P

1996-01-01

308

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts (RICDC) is a rare phenomenon. The mechanism of rupture, pathophysiology of fat in the\\u000a ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, possible complications, and proper management of such conditions are proposed on the basis\\u000a of a review of the literature and experience with two cases of ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts (One was in the pineal\\u000a region, while another

K. El-Bahy; A. Kotb; A. Galal; A. EL-Hakim

2006-01-01

309

Periscapular bronchogenic cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periscapular location of bronchogenic cysts is extremely rare with four cases reported in literature. We report a relatively\\u000a late presentation in a ten-year-old boy that was clinically mistaken for a typical sebaceous cyst. The definitive treatment\\u000a is total excision after preoperative imaging to detect the occassional intrathoracic extension. Histologically they are lined\\u000a by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, which can rarely

K. Das; P. B. Jackson; A. J. D’Cruz

2003-01-01

310

Risk factors for choroidal detachment after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the risk factors for choroidal detachment after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC). Materials and methods We retrospectively evaluated 420 patients (420 eyes) with glaucoma who underwent trabeculectomy with MMC between June 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010 at Kumamoto University Hospital, Japan. Choroidal detachment after trabeculectomy was defined as a solid-appearing elevation of the retina and choroid. Logistic multivariable analysis was applied to determine the risk factors for choroidal detachment. The following factors were assessed: gender, age, subtypes of glaucoma, eye laterality, history of previous cataract surgery, preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP; mean of three Goldmann applanation readings recorded on different days), postoperative IOP (mean of seven Goldmann applanation readings recorded on 7 consecutive days after trabeculectomy), and postoperative laser suture lysis. Results Of the 420 patients, 79 (18.8%) revealed choroidal detachments. The mean period between trabeculectomy and choroidal detachment was 6.1 ± 3.6 days. The mean IOP at the time of the choroidal detachment was 5.5 ± 3.6 mmHg. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.028/year, P = 0.0068) and postoperative IOP (OR = 0.887/mmHg, P < 0.0001) were risk factors for choroidal detachment after trabeculectomy. The subgroup analysis for eyes with open angle glaucoma (201 patients) revealed that age (OR = 1.060/year, P = 0.0040) and postoperative IOP (OR = 0.898/mmHg, P = 0.0110) were significant risk factors for choroidal detachment after trabeculectomy with MMC. Conclusion Among glaucoma patients, older age and lower postoperative IOP are risk factors for choroidal detachment after trabeculectomy with MMC. In eyes with open angle glaucoma, older age and lower postoperative IOP are risk factors for choroidal detachment after trabeculectomy with MMC.

Haga, Akira; Inatani, Masaru; Shobayashi, Kohei; Kojima, Sachi; Inoue, Toshihiro; Tanihara, Hidenobu

2013-01-01

311

Upregulation of DMT1 expression in choroidal epithelia of the blood-CSF barrier following manganese exposure in vitro  

PubMed Central

Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), whose mRNA possesses a stem-loop structure in 3?-untranslated region, has been identified in most organs and responsible for transport of various divalent metal ions. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that manganese (Mn) exposure alters the function of iron regulatory protein (IRP) and increases iron (Fe) concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Mn treatment, by acting on protein–mRNA binding between IRP and DMT1 mRNA, altered the expression of DMT1 in an immortalized choroidal epithelial Z310 cell line which was derived from rat choroid plexus epithelia, leading to a compartmental shift of Fe from the blood to the CSF. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of DMT1 in Z310 cell. Following in vitro exposure to Mn at 100 ?M for 24 and 48 h, the expression of DMT1 mRNA in Z310 cells was significantly increased by 45.4% (P < 0.05) and 78.1% (P < 0.01), respectively, as compared to controls. Accordingly, Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase of DMT1 protein concentrations at 48 h after Mn exposure (100 ?M). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that Mn exposure increased binding of IRP to DMT1 mRNA in cultured choroidal Z310 cells. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR revealed no changes in DMT1 heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) levels following Mn exposure. These data suggest that Mn appears to stabilize the binding of IRP to DMT1 mRNA, thereby increasing the expression of DMT1. The facilitated transport of Fe by DMT1 at the blood–CSF barrier may partly contribute to Mn-induced neurodegenerative Parkinsonism.

Wang, Xueqian; Li, Guojun Jane; Zheng, Wei

2014-01-01

312

Primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a 46-year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI. It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. PMID:24709247

Ahmed, Mughis Uddin; Eid, Ahmed Fathi; Al-Hawashim, Nadia; Sheikh, Mohammed Younus; Yiannakou, Nearchos

2014-04-01

313

[Epidermoid cyst of the cecum].  

PubMed

This paper describes a case of an epidermoid cyst arising in the anterior wall of the coecum. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts of the coecum are exceptionally rare. These cysts arise by the sequestration of squamous epithelium during embryological development, or following trauma or surgery. The true cysts are the result of inclusion or sequestration of ectodermal elements at the time of closure of the neural groove. Acquired epidermoid cysts are of traumatic or iatrogenic origin, due to implantation of the epidermis. In this reported case the patient had no previous abdominal surgery which is why this cyst represents the congenital variant of the disease. PMID:11494750

Vajda, K; Drabos, E

2001-07-22

314

Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Fundus Perimetry After Surgery for Choroidal Neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Submacular surgery is under investigation for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, and other causes. The aims of this study were to determine whether the macular area from which choroidal neovascularization was removed surgically remained functional and whether there was any qualitative difference between eyes with different disease conditions or between

Anat Loewenstein; Janet S Sunness; Neil M Bressler; Marta J Marsh; Eugene de Juan

1998-01-01

315

Schistosomotic choroiditis. I. Funduscopic changes and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of biomicroscopy and funduscopy on five patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. Fluorescein angioretinography was performed on two patients. All cases showed yellowish white multiple billateral nodules of various sizes, located in the choroidal plane. The nature and differential diagnosis of these nodules is discussed, and the suggestion is made that they represent cases of schistosomotic nodular choroiditis. Images

Orefice, F.; Simal, C. J.; Pittella, J. E.

1985-01-01

316

Nicotine Increases Size and Severity of Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Cigarette smoking is the strongest environmental risk factor for all forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, the influence of nicotine on the severity of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a mouse model of neovascular AMD and its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells derived from mouse choroid were investigated. METHODS. A mouse model for CNV was

Ivan J. Suner; Diego G. Espinosa-Heidmann; Maria E. Marin-Castano; Eleut P. Hernandez; Simone Pereira-Simon; Scott W. Cousins

2004-01-01

317

Solitary choroidal mass as the presenting sign in systemic sarcoidosis.  

PubMed Central

A solitary choroidal mass with an overlying neurosensory retinal detachment was seen in an otherwise healthy 25-year-old Caucasian female. Ocular and general physical examinations, serum chemistry, and pathological examination of a lymph node biopsy confirmed sarcoidosis as the cause for the choroidal mass. Treatment with systemic steroids resulted in resolution of the lesion and return of normal visual acuity. Images

Olk, R. J.; Lipmann, M. J.; Cundiff, H. C.; Daniels, J.

1983-01-01

318

Changes of choroidal thickness after treatment for diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the choroidal thickness changes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB), panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) or both for diabetic retinopathy treatment. Materials and Methods: The study included 31 eyes (31 patients) in the IVB group, 35 eyes (35 patients) in the PRP group and 35 eyes (35 patients) in the IVB-PRP group. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) was performed before and 1?month after each treatment to measure subfoveal and extrafoveal (500 and 1000??m) choroidal thicknesses. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were also measured. Results: The choroidal thickness at all locations significantly decreased after treatment in all groups, but there was no significant difference in the amount of change among the three groups. The subfoveal choroidal thickness and CMT significantly decreased after treatment in the IVB and IVB-PRP groups. In the PRP group, the CMT significantly increased, while the choroidal thickness significantly decreased after treatment. The subfoveal choroidal thickness and CMT were significantly reduced after IVB, but there was no significant correlation between their changes. The BCVA was improved significantly in the IVB and IVB-PRP group, but not in the PRP group. Conclusions: The choroidal thickness decreased after all treatments, suggesting that IVB or PRP rapidly reduced choroidal vascular permeability. PMID:24502275

Lee, Seung Hyen; Kim, Jaeyoung; Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Hyung Chan

2014-07-01

319

Associated factors in 1611 cases of brachial plexus injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify risk factors associated with brachial plexus injury in a large population.Methods: A computerized data set containing records from hospital discharge summaries of mothers and infants and birth certificates was examined. The deliveries took place in more than 300 civilian acute care hospitals in California between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1995. Cases of brachial plexus injury

William M Gilbert; Thomas S Nesbitt; Beate Danielsen

1999-01-01

320

Intracranial Supratentorial Cysts in Children Excluding Tumor and Parasitic Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracranial, liquid-containing cysts in children (excluding tumor and parasitic cysts) are relatively frequent in neurosurgical practice. They raise several problems about their nosology, etiology, clinical and radiological diagnosis, and treatment which are analyzed in a series of 36 cases of supratentorial cysts. The most frequent clinical feature is increased head circumference (22 cases) followed by epileptic fits (18 cases),

Maurice Choux; Charles Raybaud; Nicole Pinsard; Jacques Hassoun; Danièle Gambarelli

1978-01-01

321

In Vivo Human Choroidal Thickness Measurements: Evidence for Diurnal Fluctuations  

PubMed Central

Purpose The authors applied partial coherence interferometry (PCI) to estimate the thickness of the human choroid in vivo and to learn whether it fluctuates during the day. Methods By applying signal processing techniques to existing PCI tracings of human ocular axial length measurements, a signal modeling algorithm was developed and validated to determine the position and variability of a postretinal peak that, by analogy to animal studies, likely corresponds to the choroidal/scleral interface. The algorithm then was applied to diurnal axial eye length datasets. Results The postretinal peak was identified in 28% of subjects in the development and validation datasets, with mean subfoveal choroidal thicknesses of 307 and 293 ?m, respectively. Twenty-eight of 40 diurnal PCI datasets had at least two time points with identifiable postretinal peaks, yielding a mean choroidal thickness of 426 ?m and a mean high-low difference in choroidal thickness of 59.5 ± 24.2 ?m (range, 25.9–103 ?m). The diurnal choroidal thickness fluctuation was larger than twice the SE of measurement (24.5 ?m) in 16 of these 28 datasets. Axial length and choroidal thickness tended to fluctuate in antiphase. Conclusions Signal processing techniques provide choroidal thickness estimates in many, but not all, PCI datasets of axial eye measurements. Based on eyes with identifiable postretinal peaks at more than one time in a day, choroidal thickness varied over the day. Because of the established role of the choroid in retinal function and its possible role in regulating eye growth, further development and refinement of clinical methods to measure its thickness are warranted.

Brown, Jamin S.; Flitcroft, D. Ian; Ying, Gui-shuang; Francis, Ellie L.; Schmid, Gregor F.; Quinn, Graham E.; Stone, Richard A.

2014-01-01

322

Symptomatic Rathke cleft cyst.  

PubMed

Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are uncommon intrasellar lesions. Although their clinical manifestations, radiological features and treatment are frequently reported, controversy remains as a result of their rarity. We reviewed the preoperative clinical manifestations, neurological examination findings, visual acuity and fields, endocrinological function, radiographic study findings, surgical and pathological records, and prognosis of 45 patients with RCC (21 males, 24 females, average age: 47 years) admitted to our department between January 2002 and January 2011. The most common clinical manifestations included headaches, and visual and hormonal disturbances. Most RCC were intrasellar with a suprasellar extension. The most common MRI patterns were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, isointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and hyperintense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Aspiration and biopsy of the cyst wall were performed in most patients. Most patients experienced improved headaches and visual disturbance, but the hormonal disturbance rarely returned to normal, especially in those patients with a serious preoperative hormonal disturbance. The recurrence rate was 14%, which was associated with the extent of cyst removal, inflammation and rim enhancement, as well as the surgical approach. Aspiration and biopsy of the cyst wall still seems to be an effective treatment for most RCC for its low morbidity and good prognosis. Conservative treatment and close follow-up may be suitable for small cysts with subtle clinical manifestations. PMID:22336224

Zhong, Weiying; You, Chao; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; Chen, Haifeng; Liu, Jiagang; Zhou, Peizhi; Liu, Yi; Cai, Bowen

2012-04-01

323

Adult brachial plexus injury: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury involves injury of the C5-T1 spinal nerves. Common patterns of injury include "upper arm" and "total arm" types. The specific signs of preganglionic avulsion injury infer a poor prognosis for spontaneous recovery and surgery may be needed. Detailed preoperative evaluation is recommended for localization of the lesions. The treatment of upper arm type injury comprises restoration of elbow flexion and shoulder control. Good functional results may be achieved after multiple nerve transfers. The treatment of total arm type includes hand function reconstruction, in addition to shoulder and elbow treatment. Current options for hand function reconstruction include functioning free muscle transfers and nerve transfers. PMID:24095074

Limthongthang, Roongsak; Bachoura, Abdo; Songcharoen, Panupan; Osterman, A Lee

2013-10-01

324

Nasal dorsal cyst after rhinoplasty.  

PubMed

Nasal dorsal cyst formation after rhinoplasty is considered a rare complication. These cysts are due to entrapment of mucosal remnants in the subcutaneous space. Meticulous surgical technique aimed at preserving the mucosal lining may prevent cyst formation. Surgical excision with the open approach is a reliable treatment. A case of nasal dorsal cyst after previous rhinoplasty is presented. After four years no sign of recurrence is noted. PMID:8362177

Zijlker, T D; Vuyk, H D

1993-06-01

325

Prognosis of untreated occult choroidal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this investigation was to evaluate prognostic factors influencing the short-term prognosis of occult choroidal\\u000a neovascularization (CNV).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A consecutive series of 107 untreated occult CNV in 101 patients were evaluated in terms of the effect of their initial lesion\\u000a characteristics, as determined with fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICG-A) and optical coherence\\u000a tomography (OCT), on the change

Ilse Krebs; Ulrike Stolba; Carl Glittenberg; Orang Seyeddain; Thomas Benesch; Susanne Binder

2007-01-01

326

Intraspinal epidermoid and dermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven cases of intraspinal inclusion cysts, surgically treated between 1970 and 1984, are reported in this paper. Four were epidermoid cysts and three dermoid. Two cysts were located in the thoracic spine (one dermoid and one epidermoid) and five in the lumbosacral region (three epidermoid and two dermoid). Associated spinal dysraphia was noted in five cases. Congenital dermal sinus was

J. Shikata; T. Yamamuro; Y. Mikawa; Y. Kotoura

1988-01-01

327

Endoscopic transchoroidal and transforaminal approaches for resection of third ventricular colloid cysts.  

PubMed

To review our experience over 10 years in endoscopic resection of third ventricular colloid cysts, describing the details of the transventricular-transchoroidal approach used in selected patients. This series included 24 patients with colloid cysts of the third ventricle treated in our department between October 2001 and January 2013 using an endoscopic approach. Clinical presentation, preoperative radiological findings, endoscopic technique employed, and complications were assessed in all patients. The mean length of patient follow-up was 5.16 years. The most common symptom was headache (75%). The average size of the resected colloid cysts was 16.25 mm, the maximum diameter measured in cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Resection was transforaminal in 16 cases (66.7%), transchoroidal in 7 (29.17%), and transseptal in 1; macroscopically complete resection was achieved in 23 of 24 procedures (95.8%). Complications included three intraventricular hemorrhages, four memory deficits (two of them transient), one case of temporary potomania, two soft tissue infections, and one meningitis. There were no statistically significant differences between the route of resection and number of complications. The Glasgow Outcome Scale at 1 year after surgery was 5 in 82.6% of the patients. A transventricular endoscopic approach allows macroscopically complete resection of third ventricle colloid cysts in most cases. The option of opening the choroidal fissure (transventricular-transchoroidal approach) during the procedure can address third ventricle colloid cysts that do not emerge sufficiently through the foramen of Monro without increasing procedure-related morbidity. PMID:24526368

Ibáñez-Botella, G; Domínguez, M; Ros, B; De Miguel, L; Márquez, B; Arráez, M A

2014-04-01

328

Branchial cleft cyst.  

PubMed

Branchial cleft cysts are benign lesions caused by anomalous development of the brachial cleft. This report describes a 20-year-old girl with swelling on the right lateral aspect of the neck, which expanded slowly but progressively. The clinical suspicion was that of a branchial cleft cyst. Sonography revealed a homogeneously hypo- to anechoic mass with well-defined margins and no intralesional septa. Color Doppler reviewed no internal vascularization. The ultrasound examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of a second branchial cleft cyst, demonstrating the cystic nature of the mass and excluding the presence of complications. For superficial lesions like these, ultrasound is the first-level imaging study of choice because it is non-invasive, rapid, low-cost, and does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:24046795

Valentino, M; Quiligotti, C; Carone, L

2013-01-01

329

Diagnosis of brachial and lumbosacral plexus lesions.  

PubMed

To most doctors, brachial and lumbosacral plexopathies are known as difficult disorders, because of their complicated anatomy and relatively rare occurrence. Both the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses are extensive PNS structures stretching from the neck to axillary region and running in the paraspinal lumbar and pelvic region, containing 100000-200000 axons with 12-15 major terminal branches supplying almost 50 muscles in each limb. The most difficult part in diagnosing a plexopathy is probably that it requires an adequate amount of clinical suspicion combined with a thorough anatomical knowledge of the PNS and a meticulous clinical examination. Once a set of symptoms is recognized as a plexopathy the patients' history and course of the disorder will often greatly limit the differential diagnosis. The most common cause of brachial plexopathy is probably neuralgic amyotrophy and the most common cause of lumbosacral plexopathy is diabetic amyotrophy. Traumatic and malignant lesions are fortunately rarer but just as devastating. This chapter provides an overview of both common and rarer brachial and lumbosacral plexus disorders, focusing on clinical examination, the use of additional investigative techniques, prognosis, and treatment. PMID:23931788

van Alfen, Nens; Malessy, Martijn J A

2013-01-01

330

Microsurgical treatment of lumbosacral plexus injuries.  

PubMed

Surgical treatment of lumbar and sacral plexus lesions is very rarely reported in the literature. The incidence of the involvement of these nervous structures in traumatic lesions of different etiology is probably much higher than believed, and surgical treatment should be taken into consideration more often. In this paper the experience derived from the surgical treatment of 15 cases is reported. Different surgical approaches have been employed according to ethiology, to level of nerve lesion and concomitant lesions of other organs. Patients who suffered a lesion in the lumbar or sacral plexus may have a very severe problem with deambulation since the leg may not be stable or may be unable to withstand the weight of the body. Pain syndrome in these patients may be a very severe obstacle to rehabilitation programs and to deambulation and everyday activity. Microsurgical nerve treatment in the retroperitoneal space is demanding both for the surgeon and for the patient but neurolysis and grafting procedures are possible also in this area. The resulting improvement of motor performance and the relief of pain are strong arguments in favor of this choice. Muscles benefitting most from surgery are the gluteal and femural muscles; more distant muscles, and particularly the anterior tibial nerve dependent muscles will gain minimal benefit from surgery. The relief from pain is relevant in all cases. PMID:15830968

Alexandre, A; Corò, L; Azuelos, A

2005-01-01

331

Peripapillary choroidal neovascularization in pars planitis  

PubMed Central

Background Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a rare complication of intermediate uveitis. Risk factors are not well-characterized. Here, we describe a case of peripapillary CNV in a patient with intermediate uveitis and explore the pathophysiology and treatment of this condition. This study is a case report and review of the literature. Results A 15-year-old boy with intermediate uveitis - suppressed for the preceding year on immunosuppressive therapy and low-dose corticosteroids - and chronic disc swelling presented with unilateral metamorphopsia, peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage, and subretinal fluid. Fluorescein angiogram confirmed the presence of an active choroidal neovascular membrane. Treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab 1.25 mg every 4 weeks for 4 months resulted in resolution of subretinal fluid, subretinal hemorrhage, and regression of the CNV. The patient's intermediate uveitis remained inactive throughout this time. Conclusion Review of the existing literature and pathophysiologic consideration suggests that chronic disc edema may be a risk factor for this condition. Peripapillary CNV in the context of intermediate uveitis appears to respond well to VEGF-inhibitor therapy.

2013-01-01

332

Imaging of retinal and choroidal vascular tumours  

PubMed Central

The most common intraocular vascular tumours are choroidal haemangiomas, vasoproliferative tumours, and retinal haemangioblastomas. Rarer conditions include cavernous retinal angioma and arteriovenous malformations. Options for ablating the tumour include photodynamic therapy, argon laser photocoagulation, trans-scleral diathermy, cryotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, plaque radiotherapy, and proton beam radiotherapy. Secondary effects are common and include retinal exudates, macular oedema, epiretinal membranes, retinal fibrosis, as well as serous and tractional retinal detachment, which are treated using standard methods (ie, intravitreal anti-angiogenic agents or steroids as well as vitreoretinal procedures, such as epiretinal membrane peeling and release of retinal traction). The detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of vascular tumours and their complications have improved considerably thanks to advances in imaging. These include spectral domain and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and EDI-OCT, respectively), wide-angle photography and angiography as well as wide-angle fundus autofluorescence. Such novel imaging has provided new diagnostic clues and has profoundly influenced therapeutic strategies so that vascular tumours and secondary effects are now treated concurrently instead of sequentially, enhancing any opportunities for conserving vision and the eye. In this review, we describe how SD-OCT, EDI-OCT, autofluorescence, wide-angle photography and wide-angle angiography have facilitated the evaluation of eyes with the more common vascular tumours, that is, choroidal haemangioma, retinal vasoproliferative tumours, and retinal haemangioblastoma.

Heimann, H; Jmor, F; Damato, B

2013-01-01

333

Lumbosacral perineural cysts as a cause for neurogenic muscular hypertrophy.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 40 year-old man with a severe lesion of the anterior rami of the left spinal nerves L5 and S1 who showed hypertrophy of the leg and atrophy of the intrinsic foot and gluteal muscles. In the biopsy of the hypertrophied gastrocnemius muscle, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates were observed, apart from atrophied and hypertrophied muscle fibres. Electromyography revealed no pathologic spontaneous activity but chronic neurogenic changes. The precise site of the lesion was predicted by electrophysiologic investigations. The lesion was caused by two perineural cysts in the region of the upper sacral plexus, as demonstrated by MRI and CT of the small pelvis and confirmed at operation. Three years earlier, when almost only L5 muscles were affected, an intervertebral disc prolapse L5/S1 had been suspected on myelography and CT but could not have been confirmed at operation. PMID:9298339

Amoiridis, G; Wöhrle, J; Heye, N; Przuntek, H

1997-08-01

334

Automated Segmentation of the Choroid from Clinical SD-OCT  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We developed and evaluated a fully automated 3-dimensional (3D) method for segmentation of the choroidal vessels, and quantification of choroidal vasculature thickness and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness of the macula, and evaluated repeat variability in normal subjects using standard clinically available spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. A total of 24 normal subjects was imaged twice, using clinically available, 3D SD-OCT. A novel, fully-automated 3D method was used to segment and visualize the choroidal vasculature in macular scans. Local choroidal vasculature and choriocapillaris-equivalent thicknesses were determined. Reproducibility on repeat imaging was analyzed using overlapping rates, Dice coefficient, and root mean square coefficient of variation (CV) of choroidal vasculature and choriocapillaris-equivalent thicknesses. Results. For the 6 × 6 mm2 macula-centered region as depicted by the SD-OCT, average choroidal vasculature thickness in normal subjects was 172.1 ?m (95% confidence interval [CI] 163.7–180.5 ?m) and average choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness was 23.1 ?m (95% CI 20.0–26.2 ?m). Overlapping rates were 0.79 ± 0.07 and 0.75 ± 0.06, Dice coefficient was 0.78 ± 0.08, CV of choroidal vasculature thickness was 8.0% (95% CI 6.3%–9.4%), and of choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness was 27.9% (95% CI 21.0%–33.3%). Conclusions. Fully automated 3D segmentation and quantitative analysis of the choroidal vasculature and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness demonstrated excellent reproducibility in repeat scans (CV 8.0%) and good reproducibility of choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness (CV 27.9%). Our method has the potential to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with eye diseases in which the choroid is affected.

Zhang, Li; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Mullins, Robert F.; Sonka, Milan; Abramoff, Michael D.

2012-01-01

335

Acquired choroidal folds: a sign of idiopathic intracranial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Choroidal folds may be caused by several underlying ocular and orbital diseases; they are classified as idiopathic when no\\u000a obvious cause is found. The objective of this study was to determine whether acquired choroidal folds are associated with\\u000a idiopathic intracranial hypertension.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this observational case series, three patients with normal fundus examination later developed choroidal folds. They underwent\\u000a complete ocular

Jacó Lavinsky; Daniel Lavinsky; Fabio Lavinsky; André Frutuoso

2007-01-01

336

Free-floating vitreous cyst.  

PubMed

Cysts of the vitreous are an unusual clinical finding, with only about 50 such cases reported in the literature. The sizes of the cyst may vary from 0.15 to 12 mm, and they have been found in the anterior and posterior vitreous. The etiology has been theorized to be both congenital and acquired. Acquired cysts may be due to trauma or other forms of intraocular inflammation. Pigmented cysts are believed to originate from the pars ciliaris and nonpigmented cysts are likely to be derived from the remnants of the hyaloidal artery system. The appearances of the cysts are striking and are often seen as clear spherical bodies in the vitreous with interesting interlacing surface patterns. The cysts are benign and are of little significance, except when they encroach on the visual axis and produce visual disturbances (usually floater symptoms). PMID:9547797

Jones, W L

1998-03-01

337

Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively unusual cause of progressive paraparesis is a spinal arachnoid cyst. The following is a case report of this lesion in an adolescent. The CT-myelographic and MR features, as well as the management of this case are discussed, followed by a review of the pertinent English literature on this topic.

Michael T. Stechison; Bruce Hendrick; E. Cohen

1989-01-01

338

Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of 16-year-old boy with a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst is presented. An extradural arachnoid diverticulum extending from T10 to L1 was excised totally with hemilaminectomy. Surgery caused prompt improvement of the neurological deficit. The pertinent literature is reviewed.

Yusuf Ersahin; Ahmet Yildizhan; Naci Seber

1993-01-01

339

Renal Cysts and Urinomas  

PubMed Central

Renal cysts are a common imaging finding. Although most cysts never have symptoms, some cause pain, collecting system compression, hematuria, hypertension, and secondary infection. The mere presence of a cyst is not an indication for intervention, but treatment may be indicated in symptomatic patients or those with secondary obstruction. Urinomas generally are a contained collection of urine outside of the normal pathways where urine travels. As such, urinomas can arise anywhere from the upper abdomen down into the low pelvis and have a variety of etiologies. Ureteral obstruction with forniceal rupture and trauma (blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic) are the most common causes of urinomas. When urinomas arise spontaneously, the likely cause varies with the patient's age. Blunt or penetrating trauma can cause perinephric urinomas by two mechanisms—direct disruption of the pelvis or collecting system or by degeneration of nonviable tissue. These urinomas are often perinephric, but can also occur in a subcapsular location. This review will discuss diagnosis, classification, and treatment of renal cysts and urinomas.

Lee, Jessica; Darcy, Michael

2011-01-01

340

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare event with considerable associated morbidity and potential mortality. We present a case of intracranial rupture of a dermoid cystic tumor with consequent dissemination of subarachnoid fat droplets resulting in acute aseptic chemical meningitis. Radiographic findings, operative treatment, and pathologic features are described.

Barnett, David W.; Snipes, George J.; Layton, Kennith F.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

2012-01-01

341

Canine intracranial epidermoid cyst.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old intact male pitbull presented with a 2-month history of progressive dysequilibrium. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was indicative of a central inflammatory or neoplastic disorder. A cerebellar cystic structure was identified on magnetic resonance imaging which was found to be an epidermoid cyst on histopathology. PMID:10528837

Platt, S R; Graham, J; Chrisman, C L; Adjiri-Awere, A; Clemmons, R M

1999-01-01

342

Hatch-a-Cyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the optimal environment for hatching brine shrimp? Using a scaffold, learners design and conduct experiments testing the effect of a single abiotic factor on brine shrimp cyst hatch rate. Pool results from the group to determine the optimal environment for hatching these resilient organisms.

Utah, University O.

2009-01-01

343

Brachial Plexus Injuries in Adults: Evaluation and Diagnostic Approach  

PubMed Central

The increased incidence of motor vehicle accidents during the past century has been associated with a significant increase in brachial plexus injuries. New imaging studies are currently available for the evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. Myelography, CT myelography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are indicated in the evaluation of brachial plexus. Moreover, a series of specialized electrodiagnostic and nerve conduction studies in association with the clinical findings during the neurologic examination can provide information regarding the location of the lesion, the severity of trauma, and expected clinical outcome. Improvements in diagnostic approaches and microsurgical techniques have dramatically changed the prognosis and functional outcome of these types of injuries.

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Mazis, George A.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

344

The inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus): its importance in neural preservation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the surgery of male neurological cancers relies on the anatomico-surgical approach to the pelvic neural structures. The objective of our study was to provide a better understanding of the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP) and its anatomical relationships in order to spare it during radical prostatectomy. Fifteen male formalin-preserved cadavers which had no sub-umbilical scar were used. In

B. Mauroy; X. Demondion; A. Drizenko; E. Goullet; J.-L. Bonnal; J. Biserte; C. Abbou

2003-01-01

345

Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study reported here was to assess choroidal thickness (CT) and central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Materials and methods A total of 151 eyes from 80 patients from the retina department of Istanbul Training and Research Hospital who had type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy were studied retrospectively in this cross-sectional research. Patients were divided into three groups: mild–moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy without macular edema (NPDR), mild–moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (DME), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In addition, 40 eyes of 20 healthy individuals comprised a control group. Choroidal thickness was measured from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-?m intervals up to 1,500 ?m temporal and nasal to the fovea. The CMT measurement was obtained for each eye. Serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Results The study included 191 eyes, comprising 151 eyes of 80 patients and 40 eyes of 20 healthy individuals. Of the 151 patient eyes, 61 had NPDR, 62 had PDR, and 28 eyes had DME. There was no statistically significant difference in age between the groups (P>0.05). In both the PDR and DME groups, the CT was statistically significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.001, P<0.001 for the PDR and DME groups, respectively). The mean CMT in the DME group was increased significantly compared with both the NPDR and PDR groups (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). In all three groups, serum HbA1c levels were found to be increased significantly compared with the control group (P=0.000). We found a statistically weak–moderate negative correlation between central macular and foveal CT (r=?289, P=0.000). There was a statistically strong correlation between CMT and HbA1c levels (r=0.577, P=0.483) and a statistically weak–moderate negative correlation between the central CT and HbA1c levels (r=?0.331, P<0.001). Conclusion Diabetes changes the CT. CT was found to be significantly decreased in the DME and PDR groups.

Unsal, Erkan; Eltutar, Kadir; Zirtiloglu, Sibel; Dincer, Nurhan; Ozdogan Erkul, Sezin; Gungel, Hulya

2014-01-01

346

CSF Pulsations Within Nonneoplastic Spinal Cord Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postsurgical MR scans had a lower incidence of pulsatile cysts. In five patients with both pre- and postoperative MR scans, shunting of the cyst reduced the size of the pulsating cyst (two patients) or reduced the size of the cyst and eliminated pulsation altogether (three patients). Axial, T2-weighted images are recommended in the investi- gation of spinal cord cysts to

Dieter R. Enzrnann; James O'Donohue; Jeremy B. Rubin; Larry Shuer; Phil Cogen; Gerald Silverberg

347

Infraclavicular brachial plexus block in Wilson's disease.  

PubMed

Wilson's disease (WD) is characterized by progressive copper accumulation with hepatic and neurological impairment. Anesthesia and surgical practices may exacerbate WD and liver damage, and even cause life-threatening liver failure. Due to this existing liver damage, anesthetic management is important in WD cases in terms of drug choice, dose, and technique used. This study reports an emergency surgical procedure for trauma in a 24-year-old WD patient suffering the disease for 18 years. The operation was planned under infraclavicular brachial plexus block because of a right supracondiller/proximal humerus fracture. The selected type of anesthetic technique and agents in WD is specific. The pharmacokinetic changes in these cases are difficult to predict and require attention to drug choice and dose. PMID:23833859

Tokgöz, Orhan; Yildirim, Mehmet Be?ir; Tüfek, Adnan; Celik, Feyzi; Gümü?, Abdurrahman; Kavak, Gönül Olmez

2013-02-01

348

Combined internal drainage of subretinal fluid and choroidal detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a surgical technique to perform the intraocular drainage of choroidal hemorrhage with a flute needle. This procedure is performed at the time of the internal subretinal fluid drainage for a traumatic retinal detachment.

Gholam A. Peyman; Marcia D. Carney

1987-01-01

349

Combined internal drainage of subretinal fluid and choroidal detachment.  

PubMed

We describe a surgical technique to perform the intraocular drainage of choroidal hemorrhage with a flute needle. This procedure is performed at the time of the internal subretinal fluid drainage for a traumatic retinal detachment. PMID:3493985

Peyman, G A; Carney, M D

1987-02-01

350

Bilateral episcleral brachytherapy in simultaneous choroidal melanoma and circumscribed hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the efficacy of episcleral brachytherapy in a choroidal melanoma and circumscribed hemangioma arising in both eyes of the same patient. Case report We present the case of a 47 year old man who presented decreased visual acuity a few months preceding initial consult. On fundoscopy, he presented a melanotic lesion in the right eye, and a red-orange choroidal mass in the macular area of the left eye. Material and methods B scan-ultrasound, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography, confirmed the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma in the right eye, and circumscribed choroidal hemangioma in the left eye. Episcleral brachytherapy with 125I was performed in both eyes consecutively. Results and Conclusions Bilateral episcleral brachytherapy successfully treated both tumors, preserving the eyes and useful visual function.

Saornil, Maria Antonia; Garcia-Alvarez, Ciro; Martin, Francisco Lopez-Lara; Frutos-Baraja, Jesus Maria

2013-01-01

351

Multiple pigmented follicular cysts: a subtype of multiple pilosebaceous cysts.  

PubMed

Pigmented follicular cyst is a rare disorder which typically presents as a pigmented papule on the head or neck and which, histologically, exhibits terminally differentiated, pigmented hair shafts in an epidermoid cyst. We report a 22-year-old man with the multiple variant of this disorder. Clinically he had numerous brown-blue to flesh-coloured, domed-shaped papules, on the anterior chest and abdomen, of 10 years duration. Histologically, hybrid cysts exhibiting trichilemmal and epidermoid keratinization were seen. The cysts contained numerous pigmented, terminally differentiated hair shafts and, embedded in the wall of one cyst, was a sebaceous gland. The condition of multiple pigmented follicular cysts, is thought to represent a distinct subtype within the spectrum of multiple pilosebaceous cystic disorders. PMID:8733387

Salopek, T G; Lee, S K; Jimbow, K

1996-04-01

352

Traumatic and postoperative lesions of the lumbosacral plexus.  

PubMed

In 53 cases of injury of the lumbosacral plexus, 31 were due to trauma and 22 followed operations on the hip joint. Post-traumatic lesions occur mostly in conjunction with severe bony injuries, especially fractures of the acetabulum and of the pelvic ring. Nearly always, it is the sacral portion of the plexus that is involved, either predominantly or exclusively. Seventeen of the 22 postoperative pareses followed complete hip-joint replacement. In the postoperative lesions the lumbar plexus portion is most frequently involved. Ninety-one percent of all of our cases were misdiagnosed in previous clinical examinations, that is, as a lesion of the femoral or sciatic nerve, or they were unrecognized because of lack of awareness of the possibility of plexus damage or because the signs were obscured by the associated bony injuries or hip-joint disease. In order to make an exact diagnosis, a detailed electromyographic investigation is necessary. PMID:718476

Stoehr, M

1978-11-01

353

Upper trunk brachial plexus injuries in contact sports.  

PubMed

Cervical nerve pinch syndrome, a neurapraxia of the brachial plexus, is a common occurrence in contact football. The incidence at two universities was approximately 49%. The more serious injury, brachial plexus axonotmesis, has received little attention in the literature. We are reporting 13 cases of brachial plexus axonotmesis. Ten were documented by electromyography. All involved the upper trunk. All but one patient recovered within a 3- to 42-week interval. These brachial plexus axonotmesis injuries may initially present as a cervical nerve pinch syndrome. All significant or repeated cervical nerve pinch injuries should be reexamined at 2 weeks. Those patient with axonotmesis should not be allowed to return to competition until they have achieved normal strength in the involved muscles and the electromyogram shows no signs of active denervation. PMID:907035

Clancy, W G; Brand, R L; Bergfield, J A

1977-01-01

354

Foveolar Choroidal Blood Flow in Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to assess relative choroidal blood velocity (CfoBVcl~), volume (CM?Vo)), and flow (CbBFlow) in the center of the fovea. Measurements were obtained in 20 eyes of 20 subjects with 10 or more large drusen, visual acuity of 20\\/32 or better, and no evidence of choroidal neovascularization. Findings obtained in these subjects were compared with those

Juan E. Grunwald; Seenu M. Hariprasad; Joan DuPont; Maureen G. Maguire; Stuart L. Fine; Alexander J. Brucker; Albert M. Maguire; Allen C. Ho

355

Diode laser modifications for treatment of choroidal neovascularisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe various diode laser modifications and their use in treating choroidal neovascularisation\\u000a in age-related macular degeneration. Diode lasers are used to treat selected choroidal neovascular membranes. Alterations\\u000a in microprocessor connectivity, and parameters such as maximum spot size, light delivery time and coupled Joule meter, were\\u000a made so that ophthalmic surgeons could specify treatment

R. Roizenblatt; M. E. Farah; J. Castro; J. A. Cardillo; R. A. Costa; J. Roizenblatt

2003-01-01

356

Automatic segmentation of choroidal thickness in optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

The assessment of choroidal thickness from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human choroid is an important clinical and research task, since it provides valuable information regarding the eye’s normal anatomy and physiology, and changes associated with various eye diseases and the development of refractive error. Due to the time consuming and subjective nature of manual image analysis, there is a need for the development of reliable objective automated methods of image segmentation to derive choroidal thickness measures. However, the detection of the two boundaries which delineate the choroid is a complicated and challenging task, in particular the detection of the outer choroidal boundary, due to a number of issues including: (i) the vascular ocular tissue is non-uniform and rich in non-homogeneous features, and (ii) the boundary can have a low contrast. In this paper, an automatic segmentation technique based on graph-search theory is presented to segment the inner choroidal boundary (ICB) and the outer choroidal boundary (OCB) to obtain the choroid thickness profile from OCT images. Before the segmentation, the B-scan is pre-processed to enhance the two boundaries of interest and to minimize the artifacts produced by surrounding features. The algorithm to detect the ICB is based on a simple edge filter and a directional weighted map penalty, while the algorithm to detect the OCB is based on OCT image enhancement and a dual brightness probability gradient. The method was tested on a large data set of images from a pediatric (1083 B-scans) and an adult (90 B-scans) population, which were previously manually segmented by an experienced observer. The results demonstrate the proposed method provides robust detection of the boundaries of interest and is a useful tool to extract clinical data.

Alonso-Caneiro, David; Read, Scott A.; Collins, Michael J.

2013-01-01

357

Beals-Hecht syndrome and choroidal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a female diagnosed with Beals–Hecht syndrome. Methods: A retrospective, interventional case is described in a 26-year-old female complaining of metamorphopsia and visual loss in her left eye (counting fingers). The fluorescein angiogram and the optical coherence tomography supported the diagnosis of CNV. Intravitreal ranibizumab was administered. Results: After the third intravitreal ranibizumab, her visual acuity improved to 0.8 and the morphology of the macular area was restored. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in Beals–Hecht syndrome treated with ranibizumab. Self-monitoring by periodically performing Amsler grid test is strongly recommended in these patients in order to achieve an early diagnosis of eventual CNV and avoid visual acuity loss.

Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Lopez-Lizcano, Ruth; Millan, Jose Maria; Arevalo, J Fernando; Mullor, J Luis; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel

2010-01-01

358

Animal Models of Choroidal and Retinal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

There have been numerous types of animal models of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and retinal neovascularization (RNV). Understanding the pathobiology of CNV and RNV is important when evaluating and utilizing these models. Both CNV and RNV are dynamic processes. A break or defect in Bruchs’ membrane is necessary for CNV to develop. This may be induced with a laser, mechanically via surgery, or in the setting of transgenic mice. Some of the transgenic mouse models spontaneously develop RNV and/or retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP)-like lesions. The pathogenesis of RNV is well-known and is generally related to ischemic retinopathy. Models of oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) closely resemble retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The streptozotocin (STZ) rat model develops features similar to diabetic retinopathy. This review summarizes general categories and specific examples of animal models of CNV and RNV. There are no perfect models of CNV or RNV and individual investigators are encouraged to choose the model that best suits their needs.

Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Kang, Shin J.; Berglin, Lennart

2010-01-01

359

Thermoablation of Liver Metastases: Efficacy of Temporary Celiac Plexus Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of celiac plexus block during thermoablation of liver metastases. Methods: Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent thermoablation therapy of liver tumors by laser-induced thermotherapy. Twenty-nine patients received a temporary celiac plexus block, 26 patients acted as control group. In both groups fentanyl and midazolam were administered intravenously upon request of the patient. The duration of the intervention,

A. N. Beck; M. Schäfer; M. Werk; M. Pech; G. Wieners; C. Cho; J. Ricke

2005-01-01

360

Schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic swelling.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumours. A small percentage of these tumours arise from the brachial plexus. Cystic degeneration and hemorrhagic necrosis can occur in these tumours in up to 40% of the cases. Detailed preoperative evaluation and careful dissection during surgery will avoid post operative neurological complications. We report a case of schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic neck swelling which was successfully managed by us. PMID:23120083

Somayaji, K S G; Rajeshwari, A; Gangadhara, K S

2004-07-01

361

Anatomy of the posterior approach to the lumbar plexus block  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the relation of the lumbar plexus with the psoas major and with the superficial\\u000a and deep landmarks close to it. Four cadavers were dissected and 22 computed tomography files of the lumbosacral region studied.\\u000a Cadaver dissections demonstrated that the lumbar plexus, at the level of L5, is within the substance of the

Juliana Farny; Pierre Drolet; Michel Girard

1994-01-01

362

Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods This is an observational case report. Results A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS) line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

Asao, Kazunobu; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nakada, Atsuko; Kawasaki, Yoshimi

2014-01-01

363

Clinicopathological correlation of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy revealed by ultrastructural study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe the clinical and histopathological findings in a patient with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Methods: A 76 year old Japanese man had a discrete, orange-red lesion of 1 disc diameter in the macula, with the fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographic and optical coherence tomographic findings compatible with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. He underwent a surgical removal of the macular lesion, followed by light and electron microscopic examinations. Results: The histopathological examination revealed that the specimen consisted of degenerated retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch’s membrane-choriocapillaris complex and inner choroid. A tortuous, unusually dilated venule was present adjacent to an arteriole with marked sclerotic changes, appearing to form arteriovenous crossing. These vessels seemed to represent native inner choroidal vessels, and had haemorrhage per diapedesis. Blood cells and fibrin filled the lumina of the vessels and accumulated in the extravascular spaces, indicating vascular stasis. Conclusion: Hyperpermeability and haemorrhage due to stasis of a dilated venule and an arteriole involved by sclerosis at the site where they cross in the inner choroid might cause oedema and degeneration of the tissue. Voluminous accumulation of blood cells and fibrin might generate elevation of tissue pressure sufficient to displace the weakened lesion anteriorly. The result suggests that the polypoidal vessels in this case represent abnormality in the inner choroidal vasculature.

Okubo, A; Sameshima, M; Uemura, A; Kanda, S; Ohba, N

2002-01-01

364

Intraspinal Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of juxtafacet cysts is closely related to degenerative instability of the lumbar spine and degenerative changes in the ligamentum flavum and the facet joint. A 56-year-old man presented with severe right thigh pain and numbness for 1 month after a laminar fracture of the L4 spine. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogenous cystic mass surrounding the facet joint between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae on the right side. Conservative therapy was unsuccessful and the lesion was removed by surgical decompression alone without fusion. The histological examination showed a fragmented, cystic wall-like structure composed of myxoid degenerative tissue without lining epithelium. Here we present this case of a ganglion cyst that appeared to be associated with facet joint instability.

Mun, Jong Hyeon; Lim, Byung Chan; Lim, Jun Seob; Cho, Kyu Yong

2012-01-01

365

Tuberculosis of odontogenic cyst.  

PubMed

Tuberculous infection of the oral tissues is a rare finding. An interesting case of primary tuberculosis of mouth is described, presenting as persistent discharge of pus from the lower wisdom tooth region. Incisional biopsy revealed features of an infected dentigerous cyst while histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed keratinizing cyst with secondary infection. Non-healing of the bony defect prompted curettage of the area and the submitted sample microscopically showed granuloma with characteristic Langhans' giant cells, raising the suspicion of underlying systemic tuberculosis. The importance to the dental surgeon in the recognition, especially by use of pathological examination, is emphasized and also the value of diagnosis for the patients and the community. PMID:23540089

Sharma, Preeti; Saxena, Susmita; Aggarwal, Pooja; Reddy, Vandana

2013-01-01

366

Maxillary Air Cyst  

PubMed Central

Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options.

Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

2013-01-01

367

Spinal Intramedullary Ependymal Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pediatric patients (4 and 5 years of age) with spinal intramedullary ependymal cysts located at the cervical and dorsal cord are reported here. One patient was admitted with subtle signs, while the other had disabling spastic quadriparesis. In both patients, MRI depicted a well-demarcated, localized, nonenhancing intramedullary lesion isointense with CSF on T1- and T2-weighted images. Total excision of

Raj Kumar; Suresh R. Nayak; N. Krishnani; D. K. Chhabra

2001-01-01

368

Intradiploic epidermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 37 intradiploic epidermoid cysts, reviewing typical and atypical radiological features and the differential diagnosis. The most common clinical feature was a long standing lump in the scalp, occurring in 25 patients (67.7 %). Plain films were the most cost-effective radiological technique in diagnosis. The typical finding was a well-defined lytic lesion with sclerotic border, seen in 29 cases

E. Arana; F. F. Latorre; A. Revert; F. Menor; P. Riesgo; F. Liaño; C. Diaz

1996-01-01

369

Intradiploic epidermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 37 intradiploic epidermoid cysts, reviewing typical and atypical radiological features and the differential diagnosis. The most common clinical feature was a long standing lump in the scalp, occurring in 25 patients (67.7%). Plain films were the most cost-effective radiological technique in diagnosis. The typical finding was a well-defined lytic lesion with sclerotic border, seen in 29 cases (78%).

E. Arana; F. F. Latorre; A. Revert; F. Menor; P. Riesgo; F. Liaño; C. Diaz

1996-01-01

370

Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.  

PubMed Central

A rare case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas is reported. Microscopically the cyst content consisted of keratinous material and the walls were lined by mature squamous epithelium surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse reactivity for CD20 and CD3 in the lymphoid tissue and uniform positivity for cytokeratins in the squamous epithelium. Although the histogenesis of lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas is not understood, awareness of this lesion is helpful in differentiating it from other pancreatic cystic lesions. Images

Gafa, R; Grandi, E; Cavazzini, L

1997-01-01

371

Radiologic Evaluation of Epidermoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

Optimal radiologic investigation greatly improves surgical outcome in cases of epidermoid cyst. As the lesion is benign but will recur if total excision is not accomplished, the surgeon must be prepared to resect the entire capsule and not simply drain the cyst. The contribution of neuroimaging and other diagnostic procedures to the preoperative evaluation of a man with posterior fossa cyst is reported. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

Koppel, Barbara S.; Weinberger, Gerald

1987-01-01

372

Bronchogenic cyst of interatrial septum.  

PubMed

Bronchogenic cyst, also known as inclusion cyst, is a type of congenital endodermal heterotropia derived from an abnormal development of the ventral diverticulum of the foregut or the tracheobronchial tree during embryogenesis. Its interatrial localization is extremely rare and making a final diagnosis without surgery challenges the clinician. Herein, we report a 58-year-old male patient who had an interatrial bronchogenic cyst related to transient ischemic attack. PMID:22089816

Akpinar, Ibrahim; Tufekcioglu, Omac; Sen, Taner; Basar, Nurcan; Cagli, Kumral Ergun; Aydog, Gulden; Birincioglu, Levent; Ozbulbul, Nilgun Isiksalan

2011-12-01

373

Transnasal endoscopic marsupialization of bilateral nasoalveolar cysts.  

PubMed

Nasoalveolar cysts are uncommon nonodontogenic and developmental cysts with an uncertain pathogenesis. This cyst has been reported to occur bilaterally in 10-11% of cases. This case report describes a 45-year-old woman in whom the clinicopathologic findings were consistent with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts. The authors report a new, less invasive method for transnasal endoscopic marsupialization of bilateral nasoalveolar cysts. Transnasal endoscopic marsupialization has benefits for the treatment of bilateral and unilateral nasoalveolar cysts. PMID:19604675

Sazgar, A A; Sadeghi, M; Yazdi, A K; Ojani, L

2009-11-01

374

Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts (MLC)  

MedlinePLUS

... new treatments for the disease. Are there other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC)? Other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC) include: ...

375

Thermoablation of Liver Metastases: Efficacy of Temporary Celiac Plexus Block  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the efficacy of celiac plexus block during thermoablation of liver metastases. Methods. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent thermoablation therapy of liver tumors by laser-induced thermotherapy. Twenty-nine patients received a temporary celiac plexus block, 26 patients acted as control group. In both groups fentanyl and midazolam were administered intravenously upon request of the patient. The duration of the intervention, consumption of opiates, and individual pain sensations were documented. Results. No complications resulting from the celiac plexus block were recorded. Celiac plexus block significantly reduced the amount of pain medication used during thermoablation therapy of liver tumors (with block, 2.45 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight; without block, 3.58 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight, p < 0.05; midazolam consumption was not reduced) in patients with metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule. For metastases farther away from the capsule no significant differences in opiate consumption were seen. Celiac plexus block reduced the time for thermoablation significantly (178 min versus 147 min, p < 0.05) no matter how far the metastases were from the liver capsule. Average time needed to set the block was 12 min (range 9-15 min); additional costs for the block were marginal. As expected (as pain medications were given according to individual patients' needs) pain indices did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion. In patients with liver metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule, celiac plexus block reduces the amount of opiates necessary, simplifying patient monitoring. In addition celiac plexus block reduces intervention time, with positive effects on overall workflow for all patients.

Beck, A.N., E-mail: alexander.beck@charite.de; Schaefer, M.; Werk, M.; Pech, M.; Wieners, G.; Cho, C.; Ricke, J. [Universitaets Medicin Berlin, Charite, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2005-05-15

376

A noninvasive eye fixation monitoring system for CyberKnife radiotherapy of choroidal and orbital tumors  

SciTech Connect

A new noninvasive monitoring system for fixing the eye has been developed to treat orbital and choroidal tumors with CyberKnife-based radiotherapy. This device monitors the eye during CT/MRI scanning and during treatment. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of the fixation light system for CyberKnife-based treatments of orbital and choroidal tumors and supports the idea that larger choroidal melanomas and choroidal metastases could be treated with CyberKnife without implanting fiducial markers.

Daftari, I. K.; Petti, P. L.; Larson, D. A.; O'Brien, J. M.; Phillips, T. L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2009-03-15

377

Arachnoid cyst slit valves: the mechanism for arachnoid cyst enlargement.  

PubMed

Arachnoid cysts are common, accounting for approximately 1% of intracranial mass lesions. Most are congenital, clinically silent, and remain static in size. Occasionally, they increase in size and produce symptoms due to mass effect or obstruction. The mechanism of enlargement of arachnoid cysts is controversial. One-way slit valves are often hypothesized as the mechanism for enlargement. The authors present 4 cases of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts in which a slit valve was identified. The patients presented with hydrocephalus due to enlargement of the cyst. The valve was located in the arachnoid wall of the cyst directly over the basilar artery. The authors believe this slit valve was responsible for the net influx of CSF into the cyst and for its enlargement. They also present 1 case of an arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa that had a small circular opening but lacked a slit valve. This cyst did not enlarge but surgery was required because of rupture and the development of a subdural hygroma. One-way slit valves exist and are a possible mechanism of enlargement of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts. The valve was located directly over the basilar artery in each of these cases. Caudad-to-cephalad CSF flow during the cardiac cycle increased the opening of the valve, whereas cephalad-to-caudad CSF flow during the remainder of the cardiac cycle pushed the slit opening against the basilar artery and decreased the size of the opening. Arachnoid cysts that communicate CSF via circular, nonslit valves are probably more likely to remain stable. PMID:23662935

Halani, Sameer H; Safain, Mina G; Heilman, Carl B

2013-07-01

378

Progesterone receptors in arachnoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We report 2 cases of arachnoid cysts, one with a retrocerebellar and the other with a left temporal localization, in which immunohistochemical studies had been conducted. The results of the immunohistochemistry on the presence of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and of the scanning- and transmission electron microscopy revealed the cyst lining to be identical

K. G. Go; M. A. Blankenstein; T. M. Vroom; E. H. Blaauw; F. Dijk; H. Hollema; A. Verhagen

1997-01-01

379

[Rathke's pouch cyst: case report].  

PubMed

The Rathke's pouch cysts are a relatively common autopsy finding, but rarely have they been reported as a clinical entity. We report a Rathke's pouch cyst patient's case with visual impairment and emphasize aspects like clinical presentation, radiological studies and treatment. Many published series about this pathology have been reviewed and compared with the present case. PMID:12806513

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Madalosso, Fabiola A; Hohmann, Fábio B

2003-06-01

380

Bronchogenic cyst with multiple complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchogenic cysts are a rare type of mediastinal mass thought to arise from abnormal budding of the embryologic foregut. This paper presents a rare case of a 32-year-old male who developed multiple serious complications from a bronchial cyst. This rare presentation is discussed and the role of CT and MR imaging in making the diagnosis is highlighted. © 2007 Biomedical

G Marshall; C Cheah; NP Lenzo

2007-01-01

381

Intrahepatic biliary cysts in deer.  

PubMed

The gross and histological appearances of intrahepatic cysts in red and roe deer are described. It is suggested that the structures arise as anomalous developments of the biliary tree. Although not of clinical significance, these cysts may pose a problem at meat inspection. PMID:1918448

Munro, R

1991-07-01

382

Role of NO in Choroidal Blood Flow Regulation during Isometric Exercise in Healthy Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of basal choroidal blood flow. Animal experiments indicate that NO is also involved in choroidal blood flow regulation during changes in ocular perfusion pressure and inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) has been reported to shift choroidal pressure- flow curves to the right. The hypothesis for the study was that inhibition of NOS

Alexandra Luksch; Elzbieta Polska; Andrea Imhof; Joanne Schering; Gabriele Fuchsjager-Mayrl; Michael Wolzt; Leopold Schmetterer

2003-01-01

383

Unilateral light–dark transitions affect choroidal blood flow in both eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is recent evidence that the perfusion of the choroid changes during dark–light transitions. We set out to investigate this response in more detail and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in this process. For this purpose, the effect of dark–light transitions on choroidal perfusion was studied in healthy subjects. Choroidal blood flow and ocular fundus pulsation amplitude were measured as

Gabriele Fuchsjäger-Mayrl; Elzbieta Polska; Magdalena Malec; Leopold Schmetterer

2001-01-01

384

Transpupillary thermotherapy in the management of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.  

PubMed

Laser photocoagulation and various radiation therapy methods have been used in the treatment of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma that produce visual loss. Recently, transpupillary thermotherapy has been employed in the management of choroidal hemangioma. Thirty-six cases of choroidal hemangioma treated with transpupillary thermotherapy are reviewed. Twenty-eight cases were reported in the literature and 10 cases were managed by the author. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been used as a primary treatment (36 cases) or secondary treatment (2 cases) for choroidal hemangioma. The goal of transpupillary thermotherapy is to achieve resolution of exudative detachment of the fovea and improvement of vision. In all eyes the foveal detachment subsided. In 26 eyes having pretreatment visual acuity >or=0.05 (20/400), the visual acuity increased in 20 (77%) eyes and remained unchanged in 6 (23%) eyes. After transpupillary thermotherapy, 16 (42%) cases showed complete regression, 20 (53%) demonstrated partial regression, and in 2 (5%) there was no change in tumor thickness at follow-ups ranging from 2 to 44 months. Complications of transpupillary thermotherapy of choroidal hemangioma included cystoid macular edema (3 eyes), preretinal fibrosis (2 eyes), focal iris atrophy (3 eyes), and retinal vascular occlusion (1 eye). Although the follow-up in many studies is limited, transpupillary thermotherapy has not been associated with any significant complications. PMID:15110668

Gündüz, Kaan

2004-01-01

385

Choroidal melanoma with massive extraocular extensions through sclera  

PubMed Central

We report a case of choroidal melanoma with massive extraocular extensions through the sclera. A 64-year-old woman reported blurred vision in her right eye. At the first visit, visual acuity was 10/20 OD. An ophthalmological examination revealed a raised choroidal mass and exudative retinal detachment in the lower retina. A diagnosis of peripheral choroidal melanoma was confirmed by additional test results. Because the tumor size was large and no systemic metastasis was found, we recommended enucleation. However, the patient refused and requested only to be followed without treatment. Seven months later, the tumor showed extraocular extensions through the sclera into subconjunctival space and she finally agreed to undergo enucleation. Histopathologic findings showed that the tumor was a mixed cell malignant melanoma of the choroid. The eye was filled with tumor cells, and the tumor had massive extraocular extensions into the orbit through the sclera and scleral emissarium vessels. The intraocular tumor was markedly necrotic, which indicated rapid growth. Choroidal melanomas can increase quickly in size resulting in extraocular extensions through the sclera.

Kimura, Motoki; Ogata, Nahoko; Shima, Chieko; Takahashi, Kanji

2012-01-01

386

Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.  

PubMed

We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

2008-05-01

387

Rehabilitation of brachial plexus injuries in adults and children.  

PubMed

Management of brachial plexus injury sequelae is a challenging issue in neurorehabilitation. In the last decades great strides have been made in the areas of early diagnosis and surgical techniques. Conversely, rehabilitation of brachial plexus injury is a relatively unexplored field. Some critical aspects regarding brachial plexus injury rehabilitation have to be acknowledged. First, brachial plexus injury may result in severe and chronic impairments in both adults and children, thus requiring an early and long-lasting treatment. Second, nerve damage causes a multifaceted clinical picture consisting of sensorimotor disturbances (pain, muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, secondary deformities) as well as reorganization of the Central Nervous System that may be associated with upper limb underuse, even in case of peripheral injured nerves repair. Finally, psychological problems and a lack of cooperation by the patient may limit rehabilitation effects and increase disability. In the present paper the literature concerning brachial plexus injury deficits and rehabilitation in both adults and children was reviewed and discussed. Although further research in this field is recommended, current evidence supports the potential role of rehabilitation in reducing both early and long-lasting disability. Furthermore, the complexity of the functional impairment necessitates an interdisciplinary approach incorporating various health professionals in order to optimizing outcomes. PMID:23075907

Smania, N; Berto, G; La Marchina, E; Melotti, C; Midiri, A; Roncari, L; Zenorini, A; Ianes, P; Picelli, A; Waldner, A; Faccioli, S; Gandolfi, M

2012-09-01

388

Ultrasound localization of the sacral plexus using a parasacral approach.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe the feasibility of locating the sacral plexus nerve using a parasacral approach and an ultrasound-guided technique. The parasacral region using a curved probe (2-5 MHz) was scanned in 17 patients in search of the medial border of the ischial bone and the lateral border of the sacrum, which represent the limit of the greater sciatic foramen. In addition, attempts were made to identify the piriformis muscles and the gluteal arteries. The sacral plexus was identified at the level of the sciatic foramen as a round hyperechoic structure. The gluteal arteries were identified in 10 of 17 patients, but we failed to positively identify the piriformis muscle in any patient. To confirm localization of the sacral plexus, an insulated needle attached to a nerve stimulator was advanced and, in each case, a sacral plexus motor response was elicited (plantar flexion-12, dorsal flexion-1, hamstring muscle stimulation-3, gastrocnemius muscle stimulation-1-not recorded) at a current between 0.2 and 0.5 mA. No complications were observed. This report confirms the feasibility of using ultrasound to locate the sacral plexus using a parasacral approach. PMID:19448235

Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Joshi, Rama; Uskova, Anna; Chelly, Jacques E

2009-06-01

389

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm{sup 3} (range, 151-1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9-76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong [Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Il, E-mail: jilee@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-01

390

Choroidal venous pulsations at an arterio-venous crossing in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.  

PubMed

It has been reported that pulsations in abnormal vessels are observed on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in half of patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), although the mechanism of the pulsation is unknown. In this study, we report a case of PCV showing venous pulsations at an arterio-venous (A-V) crossing, and discuss a possible mechanism of polypoidal vessel formation and pulsations in PCV. A 66-year-old female presented with a reddish-orange elevated lesion and serous retinal detachment in the macula of her left eye, and was diagnosed as PCV. She was treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and followed-up through routine examinations, including ICG angiography. ICG angiography at presentation showed a branching vascular network and choroidal venules with dye leakage (polypoidal vessels) in the left eye. Pulsations, supposedly of venous origin, were observed at an A-V crossing in the abnormal vessels. Within 3 months after PDT, the polypoidal vessel ceased to leak and the pulsations vanished. The reddish-orange lesion gradually decreased in size with complete disappearance of retinal detachment. This study suggests that an unusual compression at an A-V crossing may make a venule polypoidal, and fluctuations of blood flow and pressure in the venule may cause pulsatile movements of the vessel wall. PMID:24082779

Okubo, Akiko; Sameshima, Munefumi; Sakamoto, Taiji

2013-10-01

391

Choroidal Venous Pulsations at an Arterio-venous Crossing in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that pulsations in abnormal vessels are observed on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in half of patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), although the mechanism of the pulsation is unknown. In this study, we report a case of PCV showing venous pulsations at an arterio-venous (A-V) crossing, and discuss a possible mechanism of polypoidal vessel formation and pulsations in PCV. A 66-year-old female presented with a reddish-orange elevated lesion and serous retinal detachment in the macula of her left eye, and was diagnosed as PCV. She was treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and followed-up through routine examinations, including ICG angiography. ICG angiography at presentation showed a branching vascular network and choroidal venules with dye leakage (polypoidal vessels) in the left eye. Pulsations, supposedly of venous origin, were observed at an A-V crossing in the abnormal vessels. Within 3 months after PDT, the polypoidal vessel ceased to leak and the pulsations vanished. The reddish-orange lesion gradually decreased in size with complete disappearance of retinal detachment. This study suggests that an unusual compression at an A-V crossing may make a venule polypoidal, and fluctuations of blood flow and pressure in the venule may cause pulsatile movements of the vessel wall.

Sameshima, Munefumi; Sakamoto, Taiji

2013-01-01

392

Orbital cysts of childhood—classification, clinical features, and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little in the literature about the clinical spectrum of orbital cysts of childhood and no comprehensive classification has been proposed. The authors propose a classification of orbital cysts of childhood and review their clinical features, pathology, and management. The major categories in the classification include cysts of surface epithelium, teratomatous cysts, neural cysts, secondary cysts, inflammatory cysts, and

Jerry A Shields; Carol L Shields

2004-01-01

393

Posterior Fossa Dermoid Cysts Causing Cerebellar Abscesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermoid cysts are uncommon tumors, and posterior fossa dermoid cysts may rarely cause abscess formation or formation of daughter abscesses within the cerebellum. At present, there are only 16 cases with posterior fossa dermoid cysts causing cerebellar abscesses reported in the literature. Two cases, 22 and 14 months old, with posterior fossa dermoid cysts and dermal sinus causing multiple cerebellar

Feyza Karagöz Güzey; N. Serdar Bas; Altay Sencer; Erhan Emel; M. Kemal Hamamcioglu; Nezih Özkan; Kemal Hepgul; Abdurrahman Aycan

2007-01-01

394

Cystoventricular Shunting of Intracranial Arachnoid Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts were treated with direct shunting of the cyst to a lateral ventricle. The strategic goal of cystoventricular shunting is to establish physiologically normal intracranial pressure relationships, rather than cyst obliteration. Cystoventricular shunts were successful in treating single and multiple intracranial cysts in supratentorial and infratentorial locations and in patients with normal and enlarged lateral

Lori A. McBride; Ken R. Winston; Jane E. Freeman

2003-01-01

395

Developmental CSF cysts of the posterior fossa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 20 cases of operated developmental CSF cysts are surveyed: 8 Dandy-Walker syndromes and 12 extraaxial “arachnoid” cysts. A CSF shunt is the only possible operation for Dandy-Walker syndrome and a single shunt from the cyst is preferable to a double shunt; the success rate is 50%. Congenital extraaxial “arachnoid” cysts, which arise from a developmental anomaly of the roof

L. Palma; N. Di Lorenzo; S. Nicole

1979-01-01

396

Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy: A Variant of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) in an elderly patient. Case Report A 74-year-old Caucasian woman, with a 20-year history of a stable choroidal nevus in her right eye, was referred for evaluation of two small hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) affecting the temporal peripheral fundus of the same eye. Nine months later, the lesions became larger and indocyanine green angiography revealed polypoidal choroidal vascular changes corresponding to the location of the ophthalmoscopically visible PEDs. Despite one session of verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the lesions continued to enlarge eventually resulting in the development of a large hemorrhagic PED, which failed to respond to two subsequent injections of intravitreal bevacizumab. The final ophthalmoscopic appearance of the large hemorrhagic PED was typical of PEHCR. Conclusion This case suggests that polypoidal choroidal vascular changes similar to that seen in our patient may underlie the development of PEHCR in some cases.

Mashayekhi, Arman; Shields, Carol L.; Shields, Jerry A.

2013-01-01

397

Multifocal choroidal metastases from thyroid carcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 62-year-old female patient, with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, which presented to our department for a severe decrease in vision at right eye level. Despite a complex therapy, that included a near-total thyroidectomy, thyroid I-131 ablation, suppressive therapy with LT4, and external beam radiotherapy with cobalt- 60, the patient developed multiple lung, mediastinal, liver, and bone metastases, followed after 1 year, by multifocal choroidal metastases. The complex ocular investigations performed for the diagnosis and follow-up of the choroidal metastases are presented. A review of the literature was also performed. The rarity of choroidal metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma imposes, for their detection, periodic ocular examinations. PMID:23618581

Munteanu, M; Giuri, S; Ro?ca, C; Boruga, O; Cre?u, O

2013-01-01

398

Intravitreal bevacizumab for consecutive multiple choroidal breast metastatic lesions  

PubMed Central

A 49-year-old woman presented with visual loss in the right from optic nerve metastatic disease and asymptomatic choroidal lesion at the inferior arcade. Throughout 22 months of follow-up, she developed a total of five different sequential choroidal metastases to the left eye that were non-responsive to chemotherapy but showed prompt tumour regression by fundus examination and fluorescein angiography within 2 weeks after a single intravitreal bevacizumab. The control of the lesion with a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab reflects the superior choroidal bioavailability of the drug. The persistence of subretinal fluid at the site of prior metastases may be thought to be one sign of persistence of malignant cells, but in the current case and in the literature, it seems a reflection of a diseased retinal pigment epithelium with probable damage from the tumour invasion.

Mansour, Ahmad M; Alameddine, Ramzi

2012-01-01

399

Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal and Choroidal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the field of ophthalmology since its introduction 20 years ago. Originally intended primarily for retina specialists to image the macula, it has found its role in other subspecialties that include glaucoma, cornea, and ocular oncology. In ocular oncology, OCT provides axial resolution to approximately 7 microns with cross-sectional images of the retina, delivering valuable information on the effects of intraocular tumors on the retinal architecture. Some effects include retinal edema, subretinal fluid, retinal atrophy, photoreceptor loss, outer retinal thinning, and retinal pigment epithelial detachment. With more advanced technology, OCT now provides imaging deeper into the choroid using a technique called enhanced depth imaging. This allows characterization of the thickness and reflective quality of small (<3?mm thick) choroidal lesions including choroidal nevus and melanoma. Future improvements in image resolution and depth will allow better understanding of the mechanisms of visual loss, tumor growth, and tumor management.

Say, Emil Anthony T.; Shah, Sanket U.; Ferenczy, Sandor; Shields, Carol L.

2011-01-01

400

Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal and Choroidal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the field of ophthalmology since its introduction 20 years ago. Originally intended primarily for retina specialists to image the macula, it has found its role in other subspecialties that include glaucoma, cornea, and ocular oncology. In ocular oncology, OCT provides axial resolution to approximately 7 microns with cross-sectional images of the retina, delivering valuable information on the effects of intraocular tumors on the retinal architecture. Some effects include retinal edema, subretinal fluid, retinal atrophy, photoreceptor loss, outer retinal thinning, and retinal pigment epithelial detachment. With more advanced technology, OCT now provides imaging deeper into the choroid using a technique called enhanced depth imaging. This allows characterization of the thickness and reflective quality of small (<3?mm thick) choroidal lesions including choroidal nevus and melanoma. Future improvements in image resolution and depth will allow better understanding of the mechanisms of visual loss, tumor growth, and tumor management.

Say, Emil Anthony T.; Shah, Sanket U.; Ferenczy, Sandor; Shields, Carol L.

2012-01-01

401

Neurosurgical management of birth injuries of the brachial plexus.  

PubMed

While most newborns with birth injury of the brachial plexus make a full spontaneous recovery, the minority who do not can expect lifelong disability from weakness, disturbed patterns of muscle activity, contracture, and deformity. Those children who are destined to a poor recovery can be identified in early infancy. Early reconstruction of the brachial plexus carries low morbidity and has been shown by many to support useful shoulder and elbow function. Patients who are referred later in childhood may still benefit from plexus exploration, but how to best use clinical and electrophysiologic data to plan a surgical intervention that will improve on the natural history remains to be elucidated for this group. PMID:1821731

Piatt, J H

1991-01-01

402

Epicardial GATA factors regulate early coronary vascular plexus formation.  

PubMed

During early development, GATA factors have been shown to be important for key events of coronary vasculogenesis, including formation of the epicardium. Myocardial GATA factors are required for coronary vascular (CV) formation; however, the role of epicardial localized GATAs in this process has not been addressed. The current study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the epicardium controls coronary vasculogenesis, focusing on the role of epicardial GATAs in establishing the endothelial plexus during early coronary vasculogenesis. To address the role of epicardial GATAs, we ablated GATA4 and GATA6 transcription factors specifically from the mouse epicardium and found that the number of endothelial cells in the sub-epicardium was drastically reduced, and concomitant coronary vascular plexus formation was significantly compromised. Here we present evidence for a novel role for epicardial GATA factors in controlling plexus formation by recruiting endothelial cells to the sub-epicardium. PMID:24380800

Kolander, Kurt D; Holtz, Mary L; Cossette, Stephanie M; Duncan, Stephen A; Misra, Ravi P

2014-02-01

403

Improved assessment of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to develop and evaluate new methods of analyzing laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV), in order to make recommendations for improving the reporting of experimental CNV in the literature. Six laser burns of sufficient power to rupture Bruch's membrane were concentrically placed in each eye of 18 adult Norway rats. Eyes received intravitreal injections of either triamcinolone acetonide, ketorolac, or balanced salt solution (BSS). Fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed 2 and 3 weeks after injection, followed by choroidal flat mount preparation. Vascular leakage on FAs and vascular budding on choroidal mounts were quantified by measuring either the cross-sectional area of each CNV lesion contained within the best-fitting polygon using Adobe Photoshop (Lasso Technique or Quick Selection Technique), or the area of bright pixels within a lesion using Image-Pro Plus. On choroidal mounts, the Lasso Technique and Image-Pro Plus detected a significant difference in lesion size between either ketorolac or triamcinolone when compared to BSS, while the Quick Selection Technique did not (Lasso Technique, 0.78 and 0.64; Image-Pro Plus, 0.77 and 0.65). On FA, the Lasso Technique and Quick Selection Technique detected a significant difference in lesion size between either ketorolac or triamcinolone when compared to BSS, while Image-Pro Plus did not (Lasso Tool, 0.81 and 0.54; Quick Selection Tool, 0.76 and 0.57). Choroidal mounts and FA are both valuable for imaging experimental CNV. Adobe Photoshop and Image-Pro Plus are both able to detect subtle differences in CNV lesion size, when images are not manipulated. The combination of choroidal mounts and FA provides a more comprehensive assessment of CNV anatomy and physiology. PMID:20553963

Toma, Hassanain S; Barnett, Joshua M; Penn, John S; Kim, Stephen J

2010-12-01

404

Recurrent intraoperative choroidal effusion in Sturge-Weber syndrome.  

PubMed

The formation of a massive choroidal effusion without hemorrhage during a trabeculectomy procedure was documented in a 17-year-old male with Sturge-Weber syndrome, most probably representing the youngest patient in the literature with this intraoperative complication. The occurrence of similar signs during a previous trabeculectomy procedure in the same eye, suggested the possible recurrent nature of this entity. Preparation of a posterior sclerotomy site before entering the eye during intraocular surgery in patients with Sturge-Weber Syndrome might help in the immediate management and in preventing complications due to the formation of massive choroidal effusion. PMID:6644488

Shihab, Z M; Kristan, R W

1983-01-01

405

Eruption cysts: A series of two cases  

PubMed Central

Eruption cysts are benign cysts that appear on the mucosa of a tooth shortly before its eruption. They may disappear by themselves but if they hurt, bleed or are infected they may require surgical treatment to expose the tooth and drain the contents. Here we present 2 case reports of eruption cysts presenting with different chief complaint. The treatment included incising the eruption cyst and draining the contents of the cyst.

Dhawan, Preeti; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Chachra, Sanjay; Advani, Shweta

2012-01-01

406

Role of Laparoscopy in Hepatic Cyst Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hepatic cysts are detected incidentally in 2.5–5% of the population. Only about 15% of such cysts are symptomatic. Since laparoscopic deroofing for liver cysts was first described in 1991 there have been a number of reports of successful laparoscopic management of hepatic cysts, including the laparoscopic management of complex and parasitic cysts. Methods: A systematic review of English-language articles

B. Gloor; Q. Ly; D. Candinas

2002-01-01

407

Cervical thymic cyst: a case report.  

PubMed

Cervical thymic cysts are rare lesions often misdiagnosed clinically as branchial cyst. Here we report a rare case of multiloculated thymic cyst in a young 8 year old male child on the left side of the neck. Histopathology of the excised cyst revealed mural nodules of thymic tissue with prominent Hassal's corpuscles associated with multiloculated cyst. This case is presented here for its rarity. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of neck masses in children. PMID:24427638

Prabhakar, Gundala; Santhosh, A N; Manjunath, S S; Santosh, K V

2013-07-01

408

Giant osteochondral body in a popliteal cyst  

PubMed Central

Popliteal cysts, although commonly seen, are rarely associated with motion restriction or calcification. Radiological features are of soft-tissue swelling, with occasional reports of calcifications or small osteochondral bodies inside the cysts. We report a giant osteochondral body in a popliteal cyst, with significant mechanical block to flexion. This type of mass has to be differentiated from synovial osteochondromatosis, calcifications in the cyst, extraosseous and intraarticular osteochondromas. Complete excision of the cyst resulted in complete recovery of range of motion.

Dhillon, MS; Prasad, Prabhudev; Goel, Akshay; Kar, Abheek

2009-01-01

409

Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis*  

PubMed Central

On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%), indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomycosis can present with lung cysts on HRCT scans. Therefore, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases.

Costa, Andre Nathan; Marchiori, Edson; Benard, Gil; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

2013-01-01

410

Laparoscopic surgery for choledochal cysts.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic cystectomy has become a common procedure for choledochal cysts. The cyst should be removed completely just above the confluence of the common biliopancreatic channel at the distal end and approximately 5 mm from the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts at the proximal end to avoid complications of the cystic remnant. The operation is feasible and safe. The rate of conversion to open surgery is low. The rate of complication under skill laparoscopic surgeons is also low, even lower than in open surgery. There was no difference between hepaticoduodenostomy and hepaticojejunostomy concerning the rate of cholangitis. Gastritis due to bilious reflux occurred with a low rate in hepaticoduodenostomy. Both techniques could be used for choledochal cysts; however, hepaticoduodenostomy should be applied for choledochal cysts without intrahepatic dilatation of biliary tract. PMID:23572286

Liem, Nguyen Thanh

2013-06-01

411

Post traumatic spinal arachnoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Based on the study of 10 cases of post traumatic spinal arachnoid cysts (SAC), acute and chronic clinical variants are individualized. A physiopathological hypothesis is advanced to explain their mechanism of formation.

F. Lesoin; M. Rousseau; C. E. Thomas; M. Jomin

1984-01-01

412

Giant adrenal cyst: case study  

PubMed Central

One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61Z–year old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24–h 17–ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is performed and a cyst of 15 cm is removed. The evolution after surgery is good. The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia. The immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for CD34 and ACT in the vessels and VIM in the stroma. The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection. The pathological exam highlights the major aspects.

Carsote, M; Chirita, P; Terzea, D; Paun, S; Beuran, M

2010-01-01

413

Giant adrenal cyst: case study.  

PubMed

One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61-year-old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24-h 17-ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is performed and a cyst of 15 cm is removed. The evolution after surgery is good. The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia. The immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for CD34 and ACT in the vessels and VIM in the stroma. The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection. The pathological exam highlights the major aspects. PMID:20945822

Poiana, Catalina; Carsote, Mara; Chirita, Corina; Terzea, Dana; Paun, S; Beuran, M

2010-01-01

414

Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented of an intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst at the L4–5 level. The clinical picture suggested a herniated nucleus pulposus at this level. A myelogram revealed a round lesion almost completely obstructing the flow of Pantopaque at the L4–5 level. A ganglion cyst with a haemorrhage into it and the surrounding tissue was removed, and surgery was followed

Adam Brish; Hushong M. Payan

1972-01-01

415

Intraocular malignant melanoma of the choroid presenting as orbital cellulitis.  

PubMed

We report a case of choroidal melanoma with features suggestive of orbital cellulitis. A 24-year-old Asian Indian male presented with a 20-day history of sudden loss of vision in the right eye. Edematous eyelids with complete mechanical ptosis, complete ophthalmoplegia, gross proptosis accompanied by massive chemosis, and prolapse of the inferior forniceal conjunctiva were noted. He denied perception of light in the right eye. The left eye was unremarkable. B-scan ultrasonography of the right eye showed a large dome-shaped mass filling the posterior segment suggestive of choroidal melanoma. Computed tomography confirmed those findings and showed no extraocular tumor extension. The patient was conservatively treated with systemic steroids following which the inflammation subsided. He underwent enucleation of the right eye and a diagnosis of spindle A cell choroidal melanoma was confirmed by histopathological examination. Although rare, orbital cellulitis is one of the presenting features of choroidal melanoma. Uveal melanoma-associated orbital cellulitis can be well controlled with systemic steroids, does not always indicate extraocular tumor extension, and can occur in spindle A cell melanomas. PMID:23918350

Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kaliki, Swathi; Ali, Mohammed Javed; Naik, Milind N; Vemuganti, Geeta K

2014-06-01

416

Increased choroidal thickness in patient with high-altitude retinopathy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of high-altitude retinopathy with increased choroidal thickness detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A 36-year-old Japanese man developed an acute vision decrease in his left eye after he had trekked at an altitude of 4600 m in Tibet for 1 week. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/200 OS with refractive errors of ? 0.25 diopters (D) OD and ? 0.50 D OS 3 weeks after the onset of the visual decrease. Funduscopic examinations revealed multiple intraretinal hemorrhages bilaterally and a macular hemorrhage in the left eye. SD-OCT showed that the thickness of choroidal layer at the fovea was 530 ?m OD and 490 ?m OS which is thicker than that in normal subjects of approximately 300 ?m. We suggest that the increase in the retinal blood flow under hypoxic conditions may be associated with an increase in the choroidal blood flow resulting in an increase in choroidal thickness.

Hirukawa-Nakayama, Kyoko; Hirakarta, Akito; Tomita, Kaoru; Hiraoka, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Makoto

2014-01-01

417

Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina: a case report.  

PubMed

Gyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic disease characterized by hyperornithinemia, typical retinal and choroidal lesions, high myopia with marked astigmatism, early cataract formation, and autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. In this paper, we describe a 12-year-old boy presenting with high myopia and gyrate fundus lesions, in addition to 10-times elevated serum ornithine level. PMID:21534348

Büyüktortop, Nesrin; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Sivri, Serap; Co?kun, Turgay; Kural, Gülcan

2011-01-01

418

Functional and morphological characteristics of the retinal and choroidal vasculature.  

PubMed

This review is about vascular endothelial phenotype heterogeneity in the retinal and choroidal circulations. It is becoming increasingly clear that the functional and structural heterogeneity is present in the retinal and choroidal circulations. Differential responses of the vessels to vasoactive substances have been shown with intraluminal and extraluminal delivery and in different regions of the same vascular bed. Vascular endothelial phenotype is highly heterogenic and site-specific, particularly in the retinal and choroidal veins. Updated information of such heterogeneity may help us to further understand the control mechanisms of the retinal and choroidal circulations which are important in compensating for the physiological and pathological challenges faced by these vascular beds. The site-specific changes of vascular endothelial phenotype may be linked with endothelium dysfunction, and site-specific diseases such as central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as an initial step for many vascular diseases. Endothelial cells are a strategic and valid target for therapeutic intervention. Fundamentally important questions regarding the role of vascular endothelial cell function in the eye are discussed. PMID:24583621

Yu, Dao-Yi; Yu, Paula K; Cringle, Stephen J; Kang, Min H; Su, Er-Ning

2014-05-01

419

Neurography of the brachial plexus in the thoracic outlet syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurography of the brachial plexus was carried out in 180 patients with suspected thoracic outlet syndrome and in 30 normal subjects. In the thoracic outlet syndrome, abnormalities were found in 85% of suspected cases. Narrowing was seen in the scalenus triangle (30%), in the costoclavicular-space (75%) and at the subcoracoid level (6%). Translucent lines were present in 53%, and in

M. Takeshita; H. Minamikawa; H. Iwamoto; N. Takagishi

1991-01-01

420