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1

Endoscopic treatment of a third ventricle choroid plexus cyst.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus cysts are frequent benign intraventricular lesions that infrequently cause symptoms, usually in the form of obstructive hydrocephalus. These instances are even less common in the adult population. When warranted, treatment seeks to reestablish cerebrospinal fluid flow and does not necessarily require resection of the cyst itself. Hence, endoscopic exploration of the ventricles with subsequent cyst ablation is the current treatment of choice for these lesions. Herein we present the case of a 25-year-old female patient with a 3-week history of intermittent headaches. Investigation with computerized tomography (CT) of the head detected supratentorial hydrocephalus, with enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a homogeneous cystic lesion in the third ventricle. A right-sided, pre-coronal burr hole was carried out, followed by endoscopic exploration of the ventricular system. A third-ventriclostomy was performed. With the aid of the 30-degrees endoscope, a cyst arising from the choroid plexus was visualized along the posterior portion of the third ventricle, obstructing the aqueduct opening. The cyst was cauterized until significant reduction of its dimensions was achieved and the aqueduct opening was liberated. Postoperative recovery was without incident and resolution of the hydrocephalus was confirmed by CT imaging. The patient reports complete improvement of her headaches and has been uneventfully followed since surgery. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/XBtj_SqY07Q. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2013.V1.FOCUS12332) PMID:23282159

de Lara, Danielle; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Muto, Jun; Prevedello, Daniel M

2013-01-01

2

Isolated fetal choroid plexus cysts and trisomy 18: A review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Risk of trisomy 18 in a fetus with ultrasonographic diagnosis of choroid plexus cysts and no other anomalies is controversial. Using our data and current literature, we performed a meta-analysis and estimated the positive predictive value of isolated choroid plexus cysts fot risomy 18.STUDY DESIGN: Between Jan. 1, 1989, and Dec. 31, 1992, all women undergoing ultrasonographic examination at

Susan J. Gross; Lee P. Shulman; Elizabeth A. Tolley; Donald S. Emerson; Richard E. Felker; Joe Leigh Simpson; Sherman Elias

1995-01-01

3

The second-trimester fetus with isolated choroid plexus cysts: a meta-analysis of risk of trisomies 18 and 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the risk of trisomy 18 and trisomy 21 associated with isolated choroid plexus cysts diagnosed by ultrasound in the second trimester.Methods of Study Selection: We reviewed the unabridged PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE databases for articles written in the English language regarding second-trimester fetal isolated choroid plexus cysts and trisomies 18 and 21, published in the period 1987–1997. Selection

Pamela R Yoder; Rudy E Sabbagha; Susan J Gross; Carolyn M Zelop

1999-01-01

4

Xanthogranuloma of the choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

Uncommon tumefactions known as xanthogranulomas can occur throughout the body. Some appear to develop as benign or malignant neoplasms. An even less familiar xanthogranuloma occurs within the choroid plexus. Most are tiny plaques only a few millimeters in diameter. However, they can present as masses of significant size within the glomus. When large and unilateral, they are included in the differential diagnosis of choroid plexus tumors. A computed tomographic (CT) study of such a tumor is presented.

Pear, B.L.

1984-08-01

5

Epithelial Pathways in Choroid Plexus Electrolyte Transport  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A stable intraventricular milieu is crucial for maintaining normal neuronal function. The choroid plexus epithelium produces the cerebrospinal fluid and in doing so influences the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid of the brain. Here, we review the molecular pathways involved in transport of the electrolytes Na+, K+, ClÂ?, and HCO across the choroid plexus epithelium.

Helle Damkier (Aarhus University Anatomy)

2010-08-01

6

Endoscopic Coagulation of Choroid Plexus in Hydranencephaly  

PubMed Central

Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital disease defined as an absence of cerebral hemispheres with an intact thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Generally, patients with hydranencephaly require cerebro-spinal fluid diversion due to progressive hydrocephalus. An excellent view of the choroid plexus and advancement of the neurosurgical endoscope were possible, leading to easy coagulation of the choroid plexus to balance cerebro-spinal fluid production without the use of a shunt device. We present this rare case and good treatment outcome from endoscopic coagulation of the choroid plexus. PMID:25237437

Kim, Sang Young; Cho, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

7

Functional and genetic analysis of choroid plexus development in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus, an epithelial-based structure localized in the brain ventricle, is the major component of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus produces the cerebrospinal fluid and regulates the components of the cerebrospinal fluid. Abnormal choroid plexus function is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation in the choroid plexus epithelium, and hydrocephaly. In this study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system to understand the genetic components of choroid plexus development. We generated an enhancer trap line, Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the choroid plexus epithelium. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescent tracers, we demonstrated that the zebrafish choroid plexus possesses brain barrier properties such as tight junctions and transporter activity. Thus, we have established zebrafish as a functionally relevant model to study choroid plexus development. Using an unbiased approach, we performed a forward genetic dissection of the choroid plexus to identify genes essential for its formation and function. Using Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, we isolated 10 recessive mutant lines with choroid plexus abnormalities, which were grouped into five classes based on GFP intensity, epithelial localization, and overall choroid plexus morphology. We also mapped the mutation for two mutant lines to chromosomes 4 and 21, respectively. The mutants generated in this study can be used to elucidate specific genes and signaling pathways essential for choroid plexus development, function, and/or maintenance and will provide important insights into how these genetic mutations contribute to disease. PMID:25426018

Henson, Hannah E.; Parupalli, Chaithanyarani; Ju, Bensheng; Taylor, Michael R.

2014-01-01

8

Choroid plexus papilloma in the posterior fossa.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papillomas in the posterior fossa can present with different clinical signs and symptoms. The tumors in the patients we discuss in this article originated from different sites of the choroid plexus. One patient, who had a fourth ventricle papilloma, experienced unsteady gait and episodes of dizziness over many years. The tumor was cystic an calcified, and adherent to the brain-stem. The second patient had only signs of increased intracranial pressure. A soft tumor was located in the cerebellomedullary cistern. The third patient, with a papilloma in the cerebellopontine angle, complained of hearing loss. This tumor was firmly adherent to the dura mater and looked exactly like a meningioma. The appearance on computed tomography scan, the macroscopic aspect, and the vascular supply of a papilloma in the posterior fossa can vary considerably. PMID:3496674

van Swieten, J C; Thomeer, R T; Vielvoye, G J; Bots, G T

1987-08-01

9

Choroid plexus in developmental and evolutionary perspective  

PubMed Central

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary is present at the level of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. As one of the sources of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) plays an important role during brain development and function. Its formation has been studied largely in mammalian species. Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo. At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation. Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives. PMID:25452709

Bill, Brent Roy; Korzh, Vladimir

2014-01-01

10

Effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to examine effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus. The authors used microspheres to measure blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum in anesthetized dogs and rabbits. A critical assumption of the microsphere method is that microspheres do not pass through arteriovenous shunts. Blood flow values obtained with simultaneous injection of 15- and 50-{mu}m microspheres were similar, which suggest that shunting of 15-{mu}m microspheres was minimal. Blood flow to choroid plexus under control conditions was 287 {plus minus} 26 (means {plus minus} SE) ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in dogs and 385 {plus minus} 73 ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in rabbits. Consecutive measurements under control conditions indicated that values for blood flow are reproducible. Adenosine did not alter blood flow to cerebrum but increased blood flow to choroid plexus two- to threefold in dogs and rabbits. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not affect blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum but decreased blood flow to choroid plexus by {approx} 50%. The authors suggest that (1) the microsphere method provides reproducible valid measurements of blood flow to the choroid plexus in dogs and rabbits and (2) vasoactive stimuli may have profoundly different effects on blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum.

Faraci, F.M.; Mayhan, W.G.; Williams, J.K.; Heistad, D.D. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (USA))

1988-02-01

11

The choroid plexuses and their impact on developmental neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

During brain development the neural stem cells are regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic sources. One site of origin of extrinsic regulation is the developing choroid plexuses, primely situated inside the cerebral ventricles. The choroid plexuses are very active in terms of both secretion and barrier function as soon as they appear during development and control the production and contents of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This suggests that regulated secretion of signaling molecules from the choroid plexuses into CSF can regulate neural stem cell behavior (as they are in direct contact with CSF) and thereby neurogenesis and brain development. Here, choroid plexus development, particularly with regards to molecular regulation and specification, is reviewed. This is followed by a review and discussion of the role of the developing choroid plexuses in brain development. In particular, recent evidence suggests a region-specific reciprocal regulation between choroid plexuses and the neural stem cells. This is accomplished by site-specific secretion of signaling molecules from the different choroid plexuses into CSF, as well as brain region specific competence of the neural stem cells to respond to the signaling molecules present in CSF. In conclusion, although in its infancy, the field of choroid plexus regulation of neurogenesis has already and will likely continue to shed new light on our understanding of the control and fine-tuning of overall brain development. PMID:25386116

Johansson, Pia A.

2014-01-01

12

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with

Y. Kaneko; T. Iwaki; T. Matsushima; M. Fukui

1991-01-01

13

Choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle.  

PubMed

The cerebellopontine angle is an extremely rare site for the growth of a choroid plexus papilloma. The clinicoradiological diagnosis of this tumor in the cerebellopontine angle is difficult because of its rarity in addition to a nonspecific clinical presentation and radiological features. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old woman with complaints of headache and features of raised intracranial pressure, whose computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were suggestive of acoustic neuroma or meningioma with hydrocephalus. Histology revealed multiple arborizing papillae with a central fibrovascular core, lined by cubo-columnar cells. The cells showed diffuse immunoreactivity for pancytokeratin, S100 protein, synaptophysin, and vimentin, as well as focal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytokeratin 7. English medical literature is also reviewed. PMID:21039014

Khoddami, Maliheh; Gholampour Shahaboddini, Roohollah

2010-11-01

14

Involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation.  

PubMed

During inflammatory conditions in the central nervous system (CNS), immune cells immigrate into the CNS and can be detected in the CNS parenchyma and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The most comprehensively investigated model for CNS inflammation is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is considered the prototype model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). In EAE autoagressive CD4(+), T cells gain access to the CNS and initiate the molecular and cellular events leading to edema, inflammation, and demyelination in the CNS. The endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been considered the obvious place of entry for the circulating immune cells into the CNS. A role of the choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of EAE or MS, i.e., as an alternative entry site for circulating lymphocytes directly into the CSF, has not been seriously considered before. However, during EAE, we observed massive ultrastructural changes within the choroid plexus, which are different from changes observed during hypoxia. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we observed expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the choroid plexus and demonstrated their upregulation and also de novo expression of MAdCAM-1 during EAE. Ultrastructural studies revealed polar localization of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells and their complete absence on the fenestrated endothelial cells within the choroid plexus parenchyme. Furthermore, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 expressed in choroid plexus epithelium mediated binding of lymphocytes via their known ligands. In vitro, choroid plexus epithelial cells can be induced to express ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and, additionally, MHC class I and II molecules on their surface. Taken together, our observations imply a previously unappreciated function of the choroid plexus in the immunosurveillance of the CNS. PMID:11135454

Engelhardt, B; Wolburg-Buchholz, K; Wolburg, H

2001-01-01

15

Primary choroid plexus papilloma of the sacral nerve roots.  

PubMed

The authors describe a unique case of a choroid plexus papilloma of the sacral nerve roots. This 60-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of a 1-year history of sacral pain, rectal and urinary bladder retention, and paradoxical episodic incontinence. Physical examination revealed sensory abnormalities in the S-2 dermatomes and poor rectal and bladder sphincter contractions. Contrast-enhanced spinal MR imaging showed a well-circumscribed, ovoid, homogeneously enhancing mass at the S1-2 level suggesting a diagnosis of ependymoma or schwannoma, and surgery allowed the identification and complete removal of a soft gray mass intimately adhering to the sacral nerve roots. Histological examination revealed a tumor consisting of papillary structures lined by a single layer of columnar cells, with an immunophenotype that satisfied the diagnostic criteria of choroid plexus papilloma. After diagnosis, contrast-enhanced brain MR imaging excluded the presence of a primary choroid plexus papilloma in the cerebral ventricles, thus ruling out a drop metastasis along the CSF pathways. A review of the literature did not reveal any similar cases of choroid plexus papilloma, and so the authors also discuss the inclusion of primary or metastatic papillary tumors in this unusual location as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:19119933

Boldorini, Renzo; Panzarasa, Gabriele; Girardi, Paola; Monga, Guido

2009-01-01

16

Regulation of Zinc Transport in the Choroid Plexus  

E-print Network

, Zip6, MT-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA-2) in primary cell cultures of neonatal rat choroid plexus and isolated tissues in which extracellular zinc was depleted with 10 ?M diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid or supplemented with 25 ?M ZnCl_(2) for 48 h...

Aquino, Mayra

2014-07-21

17

'*%Lysergic Acid Biethylamide Binds to a Novel Serotonergic Site on Rat Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysergic acid diethylamide ('251-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol\\/mg of protein, which is lo-fold higher than the

KEITH A. YAGALOFF; PAUL R. HARTIG

18

Infection of the choroid plexus by feline immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses rapidly penetrate into the brain and trigger an inflammatory process\\u000a that can lead to significant neurologic disease. However, the mechanisms that permit efficient trafficking of macrophage-tropic\\u000a and the more neurotoxic lymphocytotropic isolates are still poorly understood. One potential source of virus entry may be\\u000a the blood-CSF barrier provided by the choroid plexus. Infected

D. C. Bragg; T. A. Childers; M. B. Tompkins; W. A. Tompkins; R. B. Meeker

2002-01-01

19

Densely Calcified Atypical Choroid Plexus Papilloma at the Cerebellopontine Angle in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papilloma is a rare benign tumor accounting for 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. The majority of choroid plexus papillomas occur during the first 2 years of life in the ventricular system. Moreover, dense calcification of the tumor is uncommon. We report an adult case of densely calcified, atypical choroid plexus papilloma that originated from the cerebellopontine angle without connection to the forth ventricle. Because the case involves a rare combination of four features—adult, dense calcification, atypical form, and cerebellopontine angle—each characteristic associated with the choroid plexus papilloma was discussed. The finding of calcification at the cerebellopontine angle in an adult should suggest the possible presence of choroid plexus papilloma. PMID:24303341

Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Margraf, Russell R.; Fukushima, Takanori

2013-01-01

20

Pigmented choroid plexus carcinoma: A cytogenetic and ultrastructural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pigmented choroid plexus carcinoma was studied. The pigment was Fontana-positive, and the neoplastic cells focally expressed melanosomal marker HMB45 and contained probable aberrant melanosomes. The tumor was composed of two pseudodiploid clones, having the karyotypes 46,XY,in v(4)(q 12q35), t(6;15)(g21;q22),inv(7)(p 11.2822), t(19;22)(q13.4; q11.2)(15)l46,XY, t(4;14)(q31.1; p11.2),t(12;13)(p11.1;q34)(6]. The available data seem to indicate that rearrangements of 7p11–12, 9q11–12, 15822, and 19813.4 may

Sheila M. Dobin; Ludvik R. Donner

1997-01-01

21

Choroid plexus papillomas: advances in molecular biology and understanding of tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papillomas are rare, benign tumors originating from the choroid plexus. Although generally found within the ventricular system, they can arise ectopically in the brain parenchyma or disseminate throughout the neuraxis. We sought to review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways associated with this disease. A comprehensive PubMed literature review was conducted to identify manuscripts discussing the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of choroid plexus papillomas. Articles concerning diagnosis, treatment, and long-term patient outcomes were also reviewed. The introduction of atypical choroid plexus papilloma as a distinct entity has increased the need for accurate histopathologic diagnosis. Advances in immunohistochemical staining have improved our ability to differentiate choroid plexus papillomas from other intracranial tumors or metastatic lesions using combinations of key markers and mitotic indices. Recent findings have implicated Notch3 signaling, the transcription factor TWIST1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand pathway in choroid plexus papilloma tumorigenesis. A combination of commonly occurring chromosomal duplications and deletions has also been identified. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be considered for recurrent or metastatic lesions. While generally considered benign, these tumors possess a complex biology that sheds insight into other choroid plexus tumors, particularly malignant choroid plexus carcinomas. Improving our understanding of the molecular biology, genetics, and oncogenic pathways associated with this tumor will allow for the development of targeted therapies and improved outcomes for patients with this disease. PMID:23172371

Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C.; Bloch, Orin; Sun, Matthew Z.; Kaur, Gurvinder; Auguste, Kurtis I.; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T.

2013-01-01

22

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation.  

PubMed

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with Ricinus communis (RCA-I). Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Limax flavus (LFA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), while Arachis hypoaea (PNA) stained them only after the removal of sialic acid. Human fetal choroid plexus cells at 8 weeks gestation already showed the same lectin-binding patterns as adult ones. All CPNs were stained by RCA-I and Con A in a similar manner as the normal choroid plexus cells. Although seven CPNs were positive for LFA, two CPCs were not stained by LFA, which bound to sialic acid. Two LFA-positive CPPs were stained by PNA before the removal of sialic acid. Moreover, unlike the normal choroid plexus cells, Ulex europaeus-, Glycine maximus- and Dolichos biflorus-binding sites often appeared, and WGA-binding sites of three CPNs remained even after sialic acid removal. In conclusion, the glycosialylation in normal choroid plexus cells was completed during the early embryonic stage. The lectin-binding patterns of CPNs were heterogenous in each case. The alternation of the glycosialylation and/or acquisition of binding sites for some lectins was sometimes observed through a neoplastic transformation. PMID:1927268

Kaneko, Y; Iwaki, T; Matsushima, T; Fukui, M

1991-01-01

23

Choroid plexus-derived Otx2 homeoprotein constrains adult cortical plasticity  

PubMed Central

Summary Brain plasticity is often restricted to critical periods in early life. Here, we show that a key regulator of this process in visual cortex, Otx2 homeoprotein, is synthesized and secreted globally from the choroid plexus. Consequently, Otx2 is maintained in selected GABA cells unexpectedly throughout the mature forebrain. Genetic disruption of choroid-expressedOtx2 impacts these distant circuits and in primary visual cortex reopens binocular plasticity to restore vision in amblyopic mice. The potential to regulate adult cortical plasticity through the choroid plexus underscores the importance of this structure in brain physiology and offers novel therapeutic approaches to recovery from neurodevelopmental disorders more broadly. PMID:23770240

Spatazza, Julien; Lee, Henry HC; Di Nardo, Ariel A; Tibaldi, Lorenzo; Joliot, Alain; Hensch, Takao K; Prochiantz, Alain

2014-01-01

24

In vivo Analysis of Choroid Plexus Morphogenesis in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus (ChP), a component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and as a result plays a role in (i) protecting and nurturing the brain as well as (ii) in coordinating neuronal migration during neurodevelopment. Until now ChP development was not analyzed in living vertebrates due to technical problems. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the formation of the fourth ventricle ChP of zebrafish in the GFP-tagged enhancer trap transgenic line SqET33-E20 (Gateways) by a combination of in vivo imaging, histology and mutant analysis. This process includes the formation of the tela choroidea (TC), the recruitment of cells from rhombic lips and, finally, the coalescence of TC resulting in formation of ChP. In Notch-deficient mib mutants the first phase of this process is affected with premature GFP expression, deficient cell recruitment into TC and abnormal patterning of ChP. In Hedgehog-deficient smu mutants the second phase of the ChP morphogenesis lacks cell recruitment and TC cells undergo apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of ChP in vivo revealing a role of Notch and Hedgehog signalling pathways during different developmental phases of this process. PMID:18769618

Fong, Steven H.; Ye, Zhang-Rui; Korzh, Vladimir

2008-01-01

25

Altered expression of aquaporin 1 and 5 in the choroid plexus following preterm intraventricular hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is a common cause of hydrocephalus in infants. Dysregulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production by the choroid plexus may contribute to the development of PHVD. The aquaporins (AQPs), transmural water transporting proteins, are believed to contribute to CSF production. The aim of the study was to characterize the expression and localization of AQP1, 4 and 5 in the choroid plexus following preterm IVH. Using a preterm rabbit pup model, the mRNA expression, protein level and localization of AQP1, 4 and 5 were investigated in the choroid plexus at 24 and 72 h following IVH with PHVD. Further, AQP1, 4 and 5 expression were characterized in primary human plexus epithelial cells exposed to CSF from preterm human infants with IVH and to hemoglobin metabolites. IVH with PHVD in the immature brain caused a downregulation of AQP1 mRNA, the key AQP in CSF production, but an upregulation of AQP1 protein level with apical epithelial cell localization. Notably, AQP5 was expressed in the choroid plexus with upregulated mRNA expression and protein levels during PHVD with apical epithelial cell localization. Analysis of human choroid plexus epithelial cells in vitro, following exposure to posthemorrhagic CSF and to hemin, displayed results concordant with those observed in vivo, i.e. downregulation of AQP1 mRNA and upregulation of AQP5 mRNA expression. AQP4 was neither detectable in vivo nor in vitro. The changes observed in AQP1 and AQP5 expression in the choroid plexus suggest an adaptive response following IVH with possible functional implications for the development of PHVD. PMID:25342576

Sveinsdottir, Snjolaug; Gram, Magnus; Cinthio, Magnus; Sveinsdottir, Kristbjörg; Mörgelin, Matthias; Ley, David

2014-01-01

26

Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus (CP), the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that are expressed in the CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the CP at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the CP in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier. PMID:24795602

Turner, Cortney A.; Thompson, Robert C.; Bunney, William E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Barchas, Jack D.; Myers, Richard M.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.

2014-01-01

27

Transcriptome signature of the adult mouse choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Background Although the gene expression profile of several tissues in humans and in rodent animal models has been explored, analysis of the complete choroid plexus (CP) transcriptome is still lacking. A better characterization of the CP transcriptome can provide key insights into its functions as one of the barriers that separate the brain from the periphery and in the production of cerebrospinal fluid. Methods This work extends further what is known about the mouse CP transcriptome through a microarray analysis of CP tissue from normal mice under physiological conditions. Results We found that the genes most highly expressed are those implicated in energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis) and in ribosomal function, which is in agreement with the secretory nature of the CP. On the other hand, genes encoding for immune mediators are among those with lower expression in basal conditions. In addition, we found genes known to be relevant during brain development, and not previously identified to be expressed in the CP, including those encoding for various axonal guidance and angiogenesis molecules and for growth factors. Some of these are known to influence the neural stem cell niche in the subventricular zone, highlighting the involvement of the CP as a likely modulator of neurogenesis. Interestingly, our observations confirm that the CP transcriptome is unique, displaying low homology with that of other tissues. Of note, we describe here that the closest similarity is with the transcriptome of the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Conclusions Based on the data presented here, it will now be possible to further explore the function of particular proteins of the CP secretome in health and in disease. PMID:21349147

2011-01-01

28

Neuroendoscopic Assessment of Choroid Plexus Coagulation to Release Ventricular Catheter: Note on the Seldinger Technique.  

PubMed

Shunting is fundamental in neurosurgical practice and a large number of patients experience shunt dysfunction throughout life. The Seldinger technique seems to be a valuable tool in the management of dysfunctions and consists of coagulating the choroid plexus before shunt removal. We report the unique case of a neuroendoscopic view of choroid plexus coagulation by the Seldinger technique in a 7-year-old child with shunt dysfunction submitted to endoscopic third ventriculostomy and previous shunt removal. We reinforce the security and efficacy of the Seldinger technique with a direct neuroendoscopic view of the coagulation process. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25471312

Nishikuni, Koshiro; Freitas, Luiz R M; Oliveira, Matheus F; Leme, Ricardo J A

2014-12-01

29

Culture of Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells and In Vitro Model of Blood–CSF Barrier  

PubMed Central

Chemical homeostasis in the extracellular fluid of the central nervous system (CNS) is maintained by two brain barrier systems, i.e., the blood–brain barrier (BBB) that separates the blood circulation from brain interstitial fluid and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) that separates the blood from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The choroid plexus, where the BCB is located, is a polarized tissue, with the basolateral side of the choroidal epithelium facing the blood and the apical microvilli in direct contact with the CSF. The tissue plays a wide range of roles in brain development, aging, nutrient transport, endocrine regulation, and pathogenesis of certain neurodegenerative disorders. This chapter describes two in vitro cultures that have been well established to allow for study of the BCB structure and function. The primary choroidal epithelial cell culture can be established from rat choroid plexus tissue, and a similar immortalized murine choroidal epithelial cell culture known as Z310 cells has also been established. Both cultures display a dominant polygonal morphology, and immunochemical studies demonstrate the presence of transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein known to be exclusively produced by the choroidal epithelia in the CNS. These cultures have been adapted for use on freely permeable Transwell® membranes sandwiched between two culture chambers, facilitating transport studies of various compounds across this barrier in vitro. These choroidal epithelia cultures with the Transwell system will perceivably assist blood–CSF barrier research. PMID:23097098

Monnot, Andrew D.; Zheng, Wei

2014-01-01

30

Culture of choroid plexus epithelial cells and in vitro model of blood-CSF barrier.  

PubMed

Chemical homeostasis in the extracellular fluid of the central nervous system (CNS) is maintained by two brain barrier systems, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that separates the blood circulation from brain interstitial fluid and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) that separates the blood from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The choroid plexus, where the BCB is located, is a polarized tissue, with the basolateral side of the choroidal epithelium facing the blood and the apical microvilli in direct contact with the CSF. The tissue plays a wide range of roles in brain development, aging, nutrient transport, endocrine regulation, and pathogenesis of certain neurodegenerative disorders. This chapter describes two in vitro cultures that have been well established to allow for study of the BCB structure and function. The primary choroidal epithelial cell culture can be established from rat choroid plexus tissue, and a similar immortalized murine choroidal epithelial cell culture known as Z310 cells has also been established. Both cultures display a dominant polygonal morphology, and immunochemical studies demonstrate the presence of transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein known to be exclusively produced by the choroidal epithelia in the CNS. These cultures have been adapted for use on freely permeable Transwell(®) membranes sandwiched between two culture chambers, facilitating transport studies of various compounds across this barrier in vitro. These choroidal epithelia cultures with the Transwell system will perceivably assist blood-CSF barrier research. PMID:23097098

Monnot, Andrew D; Zheng, Wei

2013-01-01

31

Recurrence of fourth ventricular choroid plexus papilloma with late occurrence of a spinal drop metastasis.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papillomas are rare tumours, which occasionally spread both intracranially and down the spinal canal. Spinal metastasis has been reported infrequently and only once many years since the initial diagnosis. This is the first reported case of late recurrence, metastasis and transformation of a benign to an atypical lesion. PMID:20632883

Palmer, Christopher; Kalsi, Pratipal; Scoones, David; Bradey, Nicholas; Strachan, Roger

2010-08-01

32

Extracellular hemoglobin - mediator of inflammation and cell death in the choroid plexus following preterm intraventricular hemorrhage.  

PubMed

BackgroundIntraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality in preterm infants. The mechanisms leading to PHVD and brain damage remain largely unknown. The choroid plexus and the ependyma, which constitute an essential part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), are the first structures to encounter the damaging effects of extravasated blood. The breakdown of the BBB is a critical upstream event leading to brain damage following IVH. In this study we investigated the impact of hemorrhage and hemoglobin (Hb) metabolites on the choroid plexus epithelium.MethodsUsing a preterm rabbit pup model of IVH, the structural and functional integrity, cellular, inflammatory and oxidative response of the choroid plexus, at 24 and 72 hours following IVH¿+¿PHVD, were investigated. In order to further characterize cellular and molecular mechanisms, primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells were exposed to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from preterm infants with IVH as well as to Hb-metabolites. Finally, the blocking effects of the Hb-scavenger haptoglobin (Hp) were investigated both in vivo and in vitro.ResultsFollowing IVH¿+¿PHVD, an up-regulation of mRNA for the receptor-related genes TLR-4, IL1R1, FAS, the transcription factor NF-¿ß and for the pro-inflammatory and chemotactic effector molecules, IL-1ß, TNF¿, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-6 was observed in the choroid plexus at 24 and 72 hours. This was associated with structural disintegration, caspase activation and cell death in the choroid plexus epithelium. In vitro characterization of choroid plexus epithelial cells, following exposure to hemorrhagic CSF and to the Hb-metabolites metHb and heme, displayed apoptotic and necrotic cell death and an up-regulation of receptor-related and inflammatory effector molecules similar to that observed in vivo following IVH¿+¿PHVD. Intraventricular injection of the Hb-scavenger Hp in vivo and co-incubation with Hp in vitro reversed or reduced the cellular activation, inflammatory response, structural damage and cell death. ConclusionHb-metabolites are important causal initiators of cell death following IVH and removal or scavenging of Hb-metabolites may present an efficient means to reduce the damage to the immature brain following IVH. PMID:25441622

Gram, Magnus; Sveinsdottir, Snjolaug; Cinthio, Magnus; Sveinsdottir, Kristbjörg; Hansson, Stefan R; Mörgelin, Matthias; Akerström, Bo; Ley, David

2014-12-01

33

Ion channel diversity, channel expression and function in the choroid plexuses  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the diversity of ion channel form and function has increased enormously over the last 25 years. The initial impetus in channel discovery came with the introduction of the patch clamp method in 1981. Functional data from patch clamp experiments have subsequently been augmented by molecular studies which have determined channel structures. Thus the introduction of patch clamp methods to study ion channel expression in the choroid plexus represents an important step forward in our knowledge understanding of the process of CSF secretion. Two K+ conductances have been identified in the choroid plexus: Kv1 channel subunits mediate outward currents at depolarising potentials; Kir 7.1 carries an inward-rectifying conductance at hyperpolarising potentials. Both K+ channels are localised at the apical membrane where they may contribute to maintenance of the membrane potential while allowing the recycling of K+ pumped in by Na+-K+ ATPase. Two anion conductances have been identified in choroid plexus. Both have significant HCO3- permeability, and may play a role in CSF secretion. One conductance exhibits inward-rectification and is regulated by cyclic AMP. The other is carried by an outward-rectifying channel, which is activated by increases in cell volume. The molecular identity of the anion channels is not known, nor is it clear whether they are expressed in the apical or basolateral membrane. Recent molecular evidence indicates that choroid plexus also expresses the non-selective cation channels such as transient receptor potential channels (TRPV4 and TRPM3) and purinoceptor type 2 (P2X) receptor operated channels. In conclusion, good progress has been made in identifying the channels expressed in the choroid plexus, but determining the precise roles of these channels in CSF secretion remains a challenge for the future. PMID:17883837

Millar, Ian D; Bruce, Jason IE; Brown, Peter D

2007-01-01

34

Development of chloride transport by the rat choroid plexus, in vitro.  

PubMed

The uptake and efflux of 36Cl in the lateral ventricle choroid plexus of 1-7-week-old rats were measured to determine if Cl transport changed with age and if such transport responded to inhibitors of CSF secretion and ion transport. The steady-state (30 min) Cl uptakes were 148 +/- 9.4 nmol.mg-1 dry weight at 1 week and 139 +/- 7.0 nmol.mg-1 dry weight at 7 weeks, (P > 0.05). The 36Cl efflux was significantly slower in 1 and 2 week plexuses compared to more mature tissues (P < 0.01) with k (rate coefficient) = 0.029 +/- 0.004 s-1, t1/2 = 24.1 +/- 3.3 s at 1 week and k = 0.041 +/- 0.003 s-1, t1/2 = 17.4 +/- 1.3 s at 7 weeks. 36Cl efflux at 1 week was unaffected by acetazolamide, bumetanide and DIDS (4,4 diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2 disulphonic acid), however, all these drugs substantially reduced efflux from 2, 3 and 7 week choroid plexuses. In contrast, the Cl conductance blocker, DPC (diphenylamine carboxylate) at 10(-4) M reduced 36Cl efflux from both 1 and 7 week tissues by 43% and 39%, respectively. These findings suggest that some transport systems responsible for movement of Cl out of the epithelium are either absent or less functional in the immature rat choroid plexus and may account for the relatively low level of CSF secretion in younger animals. The unidirectional efflux of 36Cl, J, was calculated for 1 week and adult rats, as a function of the choroid plexus volume to surface area ratio (V/A).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8252390

Preston, J E; Dyas, M; Johanson, C E

1993-10-01

35

Transport of digoxin into brain microvessels and choroid plexuses isolated from guinea pig.  

PubMed

To characterize the efflux system of digoxin, a cardiac glycoside, from the brain to the blood through the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, the accumulation of digoxin by the brain microvessel or the choroid plexus isolated from guinea pig brain was investigated. The accumulation of digoxin by the brain microvessel has a saturable component (Km = 0.163 microM, Vmax = 0.142 nmol/mL of tissue/min), with a nonsaturable component [Kd = 0.203 cell-to-medium (C:M) ratio/min] that was decreased by hypothermia (Q10 = 2.9), sulfhydryl reagent, and quinidine, but not by a metabolic inhibitor [2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)]. It was concentration- and Na+-dependent. The accumulation of digoxin by the choroid plexus was also saturable (Km = 1.9 microM, Vmax = 3.8 nmol/mL of tissue/min), and was decreased by hypothermia (Q10 = 4.4), sulfhydryl reagents, ouabain, and quinidine, but not by metabolic inhibitors (DNP, KCN); it was also concentration- and Na+-dependent. The binding of digoxin to the homogenate of choroid plexus was one-tenth of digoxin accumulation by the intact choroid plexus, suggesting that digoxin is transported into the cells and bound to the cytosol fraction. The value of (Vmax/Km + Kd) multiplied by the total tissue weight of the microvessel per guinea pig is approximately 10-fold that of Vmax/Km multiplied by the tissue weight of the choroid plexus, although (Vmax/Km + Kd) per milliliter of the microvessel is half the Vmax/Km value of the choroid plexus. These findings suggest that digoxin can be excreted from both the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid to blood by a carrier-mediated diffusion system which is inhibited by quinidine, and that a main route of digoxin efflux from the brain to the blood is not through the blood-CSF barrier, but through the blood-brain barrier. PMID:3379595

Kurihara, A; Suzuki, H; Sawada, Y; Sugiyama, Y; Iga, T; Hanano, M

1988-04-01

36

Iodine 125-lysergic acid diethylamide binds to a novel serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

/sup 125/I-Lysergic acid diethylamide (/sup 125/I-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg of protein, which is 10-fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The choroid plexus site exhibits a novel pharmacology that does not match the properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT1a), 5-HT1b, or 5-HT2 serotonergic sites. /sup 125/I-LSD binding to the choroid plexus site is potently inhibited by mianserin, serotonin, and (+)-LSD. Other serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic agonists and antagonists exhibit moderate to weak affinities for this site. The rat choroid plexus /sup 125/I-LSD binding site appears to represent a new type of serotonergic site which is located on non-neuronal cells in this tissue.

Yagaloff, K.A.; Hartig, P.R.

1985-12-01

37

A sacro-caudal spinal cord choroid plexus papilloma in a shar-pei dog.  

PubMed

A seven-year-old shar-pei dog was referred because of severe lumbosacral pain and faecal incontinence of 20 days' duration. Neurological examination was characterised by plegic tail, absence of perineal reflex, dilated anus, perineum and tail analgesia, and severe lumbosacral pain. The neurological clinical signs were suggestive of a selective lesion involving sacral and caudal spinal cord segments and/or related nerve roots. A magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral spine was performed and was suggestive of an intradural lesion. Primary or secondary neoplasia was considered as the most probable differential diagnosis. The dog was euthanased upon the owner's request. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of an intradural-extramedullary neoplastic tissue enveloping intradural tract of spinal nerve roots. On the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of well-differentiated choroid plexus papilloma was made. To the authors's knowledge, this is the first case of primary or metastatic spinal choroid plexus papilloma in dogs. PMID:23731182

Giannuzzi, A Pasquale; Gernone, F; Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Mandara, M Teresa

2013-10-01

38

Developmental changes in the transcriptome of the rat choroid plexus in relation to neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexuses are the interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the ventricular spaces of the central nervous system. The tight junctions linking adjacent cells of the choroidal epithelium create a physical barrier to paracellular movement of molecules. Multispecific efflux transporters as well as drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes functioning in these cells contribute to a metabolic barrier. These barrier properties reflect a neuroprotective function of the choroid plexus. The choroid plexuses develop early during embryogenesis and provide pivotal control of the internal environment throughout development when the brain is especially vulnerable to toxic insults. Perinatal injuries like hypoxia and trauma, and exposure to drugs or toxic xenobiotics can have serious consequences on neurogenesis and long-term development. The present study describes the developmental expression pattern of genes involved in the neuroprotective functions of the blood–CSF barrier. Methods The transcriptome of rat lateral ventricular choroid plexuses isolated from fifteen-day-old embryos, nineteen-day old fetuses, two-day old pups, and adults was analyzed by a combination of Affymetrix microarrays, Illumina RNA-Sequencing, and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Genes coding for proteins involved in junction formation are expressed early during development. Overall perinatal expression levels of genes involved in drug metabolism and antioxidant mechanisms are similar to, or higher than levels measured in adults. A similar developmental pattern was observed for multispecific efflux transporter genes of the Abc and Slc superfamilies. Expression of all these genes was more variable in choroid plexus from fifteen-day-old embryos. A large panel of transcription factors involved in the xenobiotic- or cell stress-mediated induction of detoxifying enzymes and transporters is also expressed throughout development. Conclusions This transcriptomic analysis suggests relatively well–established neuroprotective mechanisms at the blood-CSF barrier throughout development of the rat. The expression of many transcription factors early in development raises the possibility of additional protection for the vulnerable developing brain, should the fetus or newborn be exposed to drugs or other xenobiotics. PMID:23915922

2013-01-01

39

Choroid plexus macrophages proliferate and release toxic factors in response to feline immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent observations have suggested that lentiviruses stimulate the proliferation and activation of microglia. A similar effect\\u000a within the dense macrophage population of the choroid plexus could have significant implications for trafficking of virus\\u000a and inflammatory cells into the brain. To explore this possibility, we cultured fetal feline macrophages and examined their\\u000a response to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or the T-cell-derived

D. C. Bragg; L. C. Hudson; Y. H. Liang; M. B. Tompkins; A. Fernandes; R. B. Meeker

2002-01-01

40

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) and endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation: A historical vignette  

PubMed Central

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) was one of the pioneers of neuroendoscopy and the head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Columbia University in New York from 1947 to 1949. In this article, we highlight the pioneering and longstanding efforts of John E. Scarff in support of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation. These efforts represent an important part of the rich history of neuroendoscopy and a legacy to which the current procedure owes a great credit. PMID:25024890

Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Nasim, Khurram

2014-01-01

41

Transport of cefodizime, a novel third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, in isolated rat choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

To characterize the transport system by which cephalosporin antibiotics are accumulated by the choroid plexus, kinetic analysis of cefodizime transport was performed. Accumulation of cefodizime was against an electrochemical potential gradient via a saturable process (Km = 470 microM, Vmax = 174 nmol/ml of tissue per min) that was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (KCN and 2,4-dinitrophenol), hypothermia, a sulfhydryl reagent (p-hydroxymer-curibenzoic acid) and anion transport inhibitors (probenecid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene -2,2'-disulfonic acid). Accumulation of cefodizime was inhibited competitively by benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of aproximately 100 microM. Cefodizime inhibited competitively the accumulation of benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of approximately 500 microM. Kinetic analysis using 16 kinds of beta-lactam antibiotics also supported the view (1) that the transport system of cefodizime is shared by benzylpenicillin and (2) that these beta-lactam antibiotics are transported via a common transport system. These findings indicate that the major transport system of cephalosporin antibiotics in the rat choroid plexus is via a carrier-mediated active anion transport process. The affinity of beta-lactam antibiotics for this transport system in the choroid plexus may be a major factor in determining their pharmacokinetics in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Nohjoh, T.; Suzuki, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sugiyama, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

1989-07-01

42

High-resolution genomic analysis does not qualify atypical plexus papilloma as a separate entity among choroid plexus tumors.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus tumors are rare neoplasms that mainly affect children. They include papillomas, atypical papillomas, and carcinomas. Detailed genetic studies are rare, and information about their molecular pathogenesis is limited. Molecular inversion probe analysis is a hybridization-based method that represents a reliable tool for the analysis of highly fragmented formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue-derived DNA. Here, analysis of 62 cases showed frequent hyperdiploidy in papillomas and atypical papillomas that appeared very similar in their cytogenetic profiles. In contrast, carcinomas showed mainly losses of chromosomes. Besides recurrent focal chromosomal gains common to all choroid plexus tumors, including chromosome 14q21-q22 (harboring OTX2), chromosome 7q22 (LAMB1), and chromosome 9q21.12 (TRPM3), Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer analysis uncovered focal alterations specific for papillomas and atypical papillomas (e.g. 7p21.3 [ARL4A]) and for carcinomas (16p13.3 [RBFOX1] and 6p21 [POLH, GTPBP2, RSPH9, and VEGFA]). Additional RNA expression profiling and gene set enrichment analysis revealed greater expression of cell cycle-related genes in atypical papillomas in comparison with that in papillomas. These findings suggest that atypical papillomas represent an immature variant of papillomas characterized by increased proliferative activity, whereas carcinomas seem to represent a genetically distinct tumor group. PMID:25575132

Japp, Anna Sophia; Gessi, Marco; Messing-Jünger, Martina; Denkhaus, Dorota; Zur Mühlen, Anja; Wolff, Johannes Ernst; Hartung, Stefan; Kordes, Uwe; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Pietsch, Torsten

2015-02-01

43

Cellular Specificity of the Blood–CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood–CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood–CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub-population of specialised choroid plexus epithelial cells. PMID:25211495

Liddelow, Shane A.; Dzi?gielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Whish, Sophie C.; Noor, Natassya M.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Traweger, Andreas; Bauer, Hannelore; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Saunders, Norman R.

2014-01-01

44

Regulation of intracellular chloride in bullfrog choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Intracellular Cl- activity (AiCl) of the bullfrog choroidal epithelium has been studied using double-barreled Cl(-)-selective microelectrodes. In bicarbonate-buffered saline, the brush-border membrane potential (VVC) was -43 mV, and AiCl was 24 mM which was twice the predicted equilibrium activity. The uphill Cl- accumulation required the presence of external Na+ and was inhibited by furosemide added to the basolateral side. Removal of HCO3- from the bath solution slightly increased AiCl. On addition of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), VVC depolarized, and AiCl approached the equilibrium activity. It is concluded that net Cl- secretion by the choroidal epithelium is mediated by a furosemide-sensitive, Na+-coupled Cl- uptake mechanism at the basolateral border and a Cl- conductive pathway at the brush border membrane. The results suggest that intracellular cAMP either increases the Cl- conductance of the epithelial membranes and/or inhibits the NaCl co-transport mechanism. PMID:2443215

Saito, Y; Wright, E M

1987-08-11

45

Cimetidine transport in isolated brush border membrane vesicles from bovine choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the transport of cimetidine across the brush border membrane of choroid plexus epithelium. Brush border membrane vesicles were prepared from bovine choroid plexus and the uptake of (3H)cimetidine was studied using the methods of rapid vacuum filtration and scintillation counting. Cimetidine accumulated in the vesicles with time reaching equilibrium within 2 hr. The amount of cimetidine taken up by the vesicles at equilibrium decreased with increasing extravesicular media osmolarity suggesting that cimetidine accumulates in an osmotically reactive intravesicular space. Binding of cimetidine to the membrane was estimated to be less than 18%. Michaelis-Menten studies demonstrated that cimetidine transport involved both a saturable and a nonsaturable component. The Vmax and Km (mean +/- S.E.) were 16.7 +/- 5.9 pmol/sec/mg protein and 58.1 +/- 3.1 microM, respectively, suggesting that cimetidine is transported across the choroid plexus brush border membrane with a lower affinity and a higher capacity than across the renal brush border membrane. The organic cation, quinidine (0.1 mM), and the amino acid, histidine (20 mM), both significantly reduced the initial, but not the equilibrium, uptake of cimetidine. However, high concentrations (5 mM) of more polar organic cations including tetraethylammonium, as well as of several organic anions including salicylate did not inhibit cimetidine transport. Studies with unlabeled cimetidine revealed a countertransport phenomenon. Attempts to drive the concentrative uptake of cimetidine with various ion gradients were unsuccessful. Of note was the fact that an outwardly directed proton gradient could significantly accelerate the uptake of cimetidine.

Whittico, M.T.; Gang, Y.A.; Giacomini, K.M. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-11-01

46

Primary choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle: magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomographic and angiographic appearances.  

PubMed

The computed tomographic, angiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of a benign primary choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle are reported. Although benign, this tumour showed local invasion of the petrous temporal bone and mastoid air cells. The differential diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle lesions is discussed. Papilloma is suggested by the presence of a vascular, calcified, enhancing extra-axial mass in or around the cerebellopontine angle. MRI may show evidence of high vascularity and internal haemorrhage. Differentiation from other cerebellopontine tumours, most particularly meningioma, may not be possible on radiological features. PMID:1393408

Jackson, A; Panizza, B J; Hughes, D; Reid, H

1992-09-01

47

Inflammation of the Choroid Plexus and Ependymal Layer of the Ventricle Following Intraventricular Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), which afflicts thousands of people of all ages every year, frequently results in the development of communicating hydrocephalus. Classically, IVH-induced hydrocephalus has been attributed to reduced resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to dysfunction of arachnoid granulations, but this explanation may be incomplete. We hypothesized that IVH would cause inflammation of the choroid plexus and of the ependymal lining of the ventricles, resulting in dysfunction of these barrier cells. Barrier dysfunction, in turn, would be expected to cause an increase in production of abnormal protein-rich CSF and transependymal migration of CSF. We tested this hypothesis using a rat model of IVH, in which 160 ?l of autologous blood was infused into the lateral ventricle, resulting in a twofold increase in ventricular size 48 h later. In this model, we found significant activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling by the CSF barrier cells of the choroid plexus and ependymal lining. Moreover, these inflammatory changes were associated with abnormal uptake of serum-derived IgG by the barrier cells, a phenomenon closely linked to abnormal permeability of the blood–brain barrier. We conclude that inflammation marked by NF-?B signaling is a prominent feature after IVH and may account for certain pathophysiological sequelae associated with IVH. PMID:21731590

Simard, Philippe F.; Tosun, Cigdem; Melnichenko, Ludmila; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

2011-01-01

48

Confocal imaging of organic anion transport in intact rat choroid plexus.  

PubMed

We used confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to follow the movement of the fluorescent organic anion fluorescein (FL) from bath to cell and cell to blood vessel in intact rat lateral choroid plexus. FL accumulation in epithelial cells and underlying vessels was rapid, concentrative, and reduced by other organic anions. At steady state, cell fluorescence exceeded bath fluorescence by a factor of 3-5, and vessel fluorescence exceeded cell fluorescence by a factor of approximately 2. In cells, FL distributed between diffuse and punctate compartments. Cell and vessel accumulation of FL decreased when metabolism was inhibited by KCN, when bath Na(+) was reduced from 130 to 26 mM, and when the Na(+) gradient was collapsed with ouabain. Cell and vessel accumulation increased by >50% when 1-10 microM glutarate was added to the bath. Finally, transport of FL and carboxyfluorescein (generated intracellularly from carboxyfluorescein diacetate) from cell to blood vessel was greatly diminished when medium K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) was increased 10-fold. These results 1) validate a new approach to the study of choroid plexus function, and 2) indicate a two-step mechanism for transepithelial organic anion transport: indirect coupling of uptake to Na(+) at the apical membrane and electrical potential-driven efflux at the basolateral membrane. PMID:11934698

Breen, Christopher M; Sykes, Destiny B; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

2002-05-01

49

Choroid plexus epithelial monolayers – a cell culture model from porcine brain  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of the present study was to develop an in vitro choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell culture model for studying transport of protein-mediated drug secretion from blood to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vice versa. Methods Cells were isolated by mechanical and enzymatic treatment of freshly isolated porcine plexus tissue. Epithelial cell monolayers were grown and CSF secretion and transepithelial resistance were determined. The expression of f-actin as well as the choroid plexus marker protein transthyretin (TTR), were assessed. The expression of the export proteins p-glycoprotein (Pgp, Abcb1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1, Abcc1) was studied by RT-PCR, Western-blot and immunofluorescence techniques and their functional activity was assessed by transport and uptake experiments. Results Choroid plexus epithelial cells were isolated in high purity and grown to form confluent monolayers. Filter-grown monolayers displayed transendothelial resistance (TEER) values in the range of 100 to 150 ?cm2. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical net work of f-actin and expressed TTR at a high rate. The cultured cells were able to secrete CSF at a rate of 48.2 ± 4.6 ?l/cm2/h over 2–3 hours. The ABC-export protein Mrp1 was expressed in the basolateral (blood-facing) membranes of cell monolayers and intact tissue. P-glycoprotein showed only low expression within the apical (CSF directed) membrane but was located more in sub-apical cell compartments. This finding was paralleled by the lack of directed excretion of p-glycoprotein substrates, verapamil and rhodamine 123. Conclusion It was demonstrated that CP epithelium can be isolated and cultured, with cells growing into intact monolayers, fully differentiating and with properties resembling the tissue in vivo. Thus, the established primary porcine CP model, allowing investigation of complex transport processes, can be used as a reliable tool for analysis of xenobiotic transport across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). PMID:17184532

Baehr, Carsten; Reichel, Valeska; Fricker, Gert

2006-01-01

50

Stress-induced stimulation of choline transport in cultured choroid plexus epithelium exposed to low concentrations of cadmium.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus epithelium forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and accumulates essential minerals and heavy metals. Choroid plexus is cited as being a "sink" for heavy metals and excess minerals, serving to minimize accumulation of these potentially toxic agents in the brain. An understanding of how low doses of contaminant metals might alter transport of other solutes in the choroid plexus is limited. Using primary cultures of epithelial cells isolated from neonatal rat choroid plexus, our objective was to characterize modulation of apical uptake of the model organic cation choline elicited by low concentrations of the contaminant metal cadmium (CdCl?). At 50-1,000 nM, cadmium did not directly decrease or increase 30-min apical uptake of 10 ?M [(3)H]choline. However, extended exposure to 250-500 nM cadmium increased [(3)H]choline uptake by as much as 75% without marked cytotoxicity. In addition, cadmium induced heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression and markedly induced metallothionein gene expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Conversely, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) enhanced stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Cadmium also activated ERK1/2 MAP kinase. The MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 diminished ERK1/2 activation and attenuated stimulation of choline uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation abated stimulation of choline uptake in cells exposed to cadmium with BSO. These data indicate that in the choroid plexus, exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may induce oxidative stress and consequently stimulate apical choline transport through activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase. PMID:24401988

Young, Robin K; Villalobos, Alice R A

2014-03-01

51

The expression of viral and cellular genes in papillomas of the choroid plexus induced in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

A line of transgenic mice that carry the SV40 gene for the large Tumor antigen express this protein during the first two weeks of life in brain tissue. By 30-40 days after birth, independently derived multiple foci of abnormal cells appear throughout the choroid plexus. After 90 days, higher levels of T antigen and rapid tumor growth are detected and all these animals die in a narrow time span, between 100-120 days. In situ hybridization with tissue sections and Northern blot analysis have been employed to follow the steady state levels of SV40 RNA and the p53 oncogene RNA levels in normal and tumor tissues. The level of SV40 RNA is quite variable between tumor cells in a section. This heterogeneity of T antigen mRNA levels could permit the selection of cells (from the multiple foci) expressing higher levels of T antigen and growing more rapidly. The increased levels of p53 RNA observed in tumor cells could then result from the active growth state of these cells or a more direct transcriptional activation. Two cellular genes, transthyretin and the 5-HT1C serotonin receptor, both of which are preferentially expressed in normal choroid plexus cells, were also examined for RNA production in these tumors of the choroid plexus. Both of these genes produced high levels of RNA in tumor tissue indicating the retention of well differentiated gene expression in these tumor tissues. This reflects, at the level of gene expression, the well differentiated morphology of these papillomas of the choroid plexus. Interestingly, as cell lines have been derived from these tumors, both the choroid plexus specific RNA species (for 5-HT1C receptor) and characteristic morphology were lost and an increase in T antigen levels was observed. PMID:2851142

Marks, J; Lin, J; Miller, D; Lozano, G; Herbert, J; Levine, A J

1988-01-01

52

Expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the choroid plexuses from buffalo brain.  

PubMed

Choroid plexuses (CPs) play pivotal roles in a wide range of processes that establish, survey, and maintain the biochemical and cellular status of the central nervous system. Mammalian CPs contain a very high density of serotonin receptors, and serotonin has been shown to affect CP functions. The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates the entire serotonergic system, including serotonin receptors by means of modulation of serotonin concentration in the extracellular fluid. In this study, the expression of SERT in the CPs from the brain of a mammalian species, Bubalis bubalis, was established. By immunogold labeling in scanning electron microscopy, SERT immunoreactivity was found to be localized on the apical surface of the choroid epithelium. In particular, SERT positivity was detected on the apical portion of villi, and both on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of grouped cells on the surface of the choroid epithelium. Significantly, no SERT was detected in blood vessels irrigating the CPs. The expression of SERT mRNA transcripts of 440 bp in the CPs was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting analysis revealed the presence of three isoforms of the protein with molecular masses of approximately 70, 80, and 140 kDa, respectively, probably corresponding to differently glycosylated SERT. Our findings provide the first report of SERT detection in the CPs of buffalo brain and indicate that this protein is locally synthesized from the choroid epithelial cells. We suggest that SERT might have an important role in mammalian CPs, possibly regulating the serotonin flow between brain and rest of the body. PMID:17957753

Pavone, Luigi M; Tafuri, Simona; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Morte, Rossella Della; Lombardi, Pietro; Avallone, Luigi; Maharajan, Veeramani; Staiano, Norma; Scala, Gaetano

2007-12-01

53

Endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum resection of a large solid choroid plexus papilloma of the third ventricle.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a highly vascular solid or mixed solid-cystic tumor. Previously described resection techniques for the more common solid CPP in the third ventricle have all been through the transcranial route. The authors review the literature and describe a patient who, to their knowledge, is the first successful resection of a large, completely solid CPP of the third ventricle through an entirely endoscopic, extended transphenoidal approach. Using modern neuroendoscopic methods and closure techniques, a gross total resection was accomplished and a successful closure without postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was achieved despite the presence of preoperative hydrocephalus. For appropriately selected lesions, an extended endonasal skull base resection can be performed successfully for vascular tumors despite the presence of preoperative hydrocephalus. PMID:24480582

Kulwin, Charles; Chan, David; Ting, Jonathan; Hattab, Eyas M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2014-07-01

54

The choroid plexus and the paradox of interferons in the aging brain.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus (CP) function is largely viewed as the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and as a barrier between the blood and the CSF. Other functions of the CP are becoming increasingly recognized as in the recent publication by Baruch et. al. who demonstrate increased expression of interferon type I mRNA signature (irf7, ifnß and ifit1) in CP of aged brains compared to younger brains, whereas interferon type II dependent genes (icam1, cxcl10, and ccl17) are reduced in the aging CP. The authors speculate an IFN-dependent mechanism that plays a role in the aging process and cognitive decline. This short communication summarizes the findings by the authors and highlights the seemingly paradoxical roles of IFN type I and type II in neuroinflammation. PMID:25510902

Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl

2015-02-01

55

Atypical transformation in sacral drop metastasis from posterior fossa choroid plexus papilloma.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are rare tumours and spinal metastases of CPP are even less common. We report a 50-year-old woman with spinal drop metastases at Th9 and S1-2 6 years after total resection of a posterior fossa CPP. The metastasis at S1-2 was resected and histological examination showed transformation to an atypical CPP. Atypical transformation in a metastasis years after resection of a benign posterior fossa CPP has been described once. We would like to advocate craniospinal MRI at the time of initial diagnosis as well as periodic follow-up after total and subtotal resection of a posterior fossa CPP in adults at least once in 1 or 2 years, depending on the histological grading of the primary CPP. In our case report, this could have resulted in earlier diagnosis of the locoregional recurrence or of the spinal drop metastasis. PMID:22922909

Stuivenvolt, Mischa; Mandl, Ellen; Verheul, Jeroen; Fleischeuer, Ruth; Tijssen, Cees C

2012-01-01

56

The Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid: Emerging Roles in Development, Disease, and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Although universally recognized as the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (ChP) has been one of the most understudied tissues in neuroscience. The reasons for this are multiple and varied, including historical perceptions about passive and permissive roles for the ChP, experimental issues, and lack of clinical salience. However, recent work on the ChP and instructive signals in the CSF have sparked new hypotheses about how the ChP and CSF provide unexpected means for regulating nervous system structure and function in health and disease, as well as new ChP-based therapeutic approaches using pluripotent stem cell technology. This minisymposium combines new and established investigators to capture some of the newfound excitement surrounding the ChP-CSF system. PMID:24198345

Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Holtzman, David M.

2013-01-01

57

Changes in the surface features of choroid plexus of the rat following the administration of acetazolamide and other drugs which affect CSF secretion.  

PubMed Central

The surface of the choroid plexus of the rat was examined by scanning electron microscopy before and after administration of acetazolamide and other drugs (cardiac glycosides and pilocarpine) which affect the rate of secretion of the CSF. In control animals, bleb-covered cells were more common on the IVth ventricle choroid plexus than on the lateral ventricle choroid plexus (20 per specimen compared to 0-3 per specimen). Following administration of acetazolamide the number of bleb-covered cells was reduced significantly (P less than 0-001). The effects of the other drugs were less well defined. Since acetazolamide is known to interfere with the active transport of the extra chloride ions normally added to the CSF in the IVth ventricle, it is suggested that the bleb-covered cells of the IVth ventricle choroid plexus are the specific site for chloride secretion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1240096

Collins, P; Morriss, G M

1975-01-01

58

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood-brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset. PMID:23452162

Millward, Jason M; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Wuerfel, Jens T; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

2013-01-01

59

Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

1985-02-01

60

Multi-Sensor Arrays for Online Monitoring of Cell Dynamics in in vitro Studies with Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Sensors and multi-sensor arrays are the basis of new technologies for the non-label monitoring of cell activity. In this paper we show that choroid plexus cells can be cultured on silicon chips and that sensors register in real time changes in their activity, constituting an interesting experimental paradigm for cell biology and medical research. To validate the signals recorded (metabolism = peri-cellular acidification, oxygen consumption = respiration; impedance = adhesion, cell shape and motility) we performed experiments with compounds that act in a well-known way on cells, influencing these parameters. Our in vitro model demonstrates the advantages of multi-sensor arrays in assessment and experimental characterization of dynamic cellular events—in this case in choroid plexus functions, however with applicability to other cell types as well. PMID:22438715

Mestres-Ventura, Pedro; Morguet, Andrea; de las Heras, Soledad García Gómez

2012-01-01

61

Potential of Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cell Grafts for Neuroprotection in Huntington’s Disease: What Remains Before Considering Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid plexuses (CPs) help maintain the extracellular milieu of the brain by modulating chemical exchange between the\\u000a cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma, surveying the chemical and immunological status of the brain, detoxifying the brain,\\u000a secreting a nutritive “cocktail” of polypeptides, and participating in repair processes following trauma. Based on recent\\u000a pre-clinical studies in animal models, a novel therapeutic approach

Dwaine F. Emerich; Cesario V. Borlongan

2009-01-01

62

The distribution of the HIV protease inhibitor, ritonavir, to the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and choroid plexuses of the guinea pig.  

PubMed

Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug penetration into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is necessary to tackle HIV within the CNS. This study examines movement of [(3)H]ritonavir across the guinea pig blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and accumulation within the brain, CSF, and choroid plexus. Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor, used in combination therapy (often as a pharmacoenhancer) to treat HIV. Drug interactions at brain barrier efflux systems may influence the CNS penetration of anti-viral drugs, thus the influence of additional protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on [(3)H]ritonavir CNS distribution was explored. Additionally, the involvement of transporters on [(3)H]ritonavir passage across the brain barriers was assessed. Results from in situ brain perfusions and capillary depletion analysis demonstrated that [(3)H]ritonavir uptake into the guinea pig brain was considerable (6.6 +/- 0.7 ml/100 g at 30 min, vascular space corrected), although a proportion of drug remained trapped in the cerebral capillaries and did not reach the brain parenchyma. CSF uptake was more limited (2.2 +/- 0.4 ml/100 g at 30 min), but choroid plexus uptake was abundant (176.7 +/- 46.3 ml/100 g at 30 min). [(3)H]Ritonavir brain and CSF uptake was unaffected by neither inhibitors of organic anion transport (probenecid and digoxin) or P-glycoprotein (progesterone), nor by any additional anti-HIV drugs, indicating that brain barrier efflux systems do not significantly limit brain or CSF [(3)H]ritonavir accumulation in this model. [(3)H]Ritonavir uptake into the perfused choroid plexus was significantly reduced by nevirapine and abacavir, additional perfusion studies, and isolated incubated choroid plexus experiments were carried out in an attempt to further characterize the transporter involved. PMID:14634041

Anthonypillai, C; Sanderson, R N; Gibbs, J E; Thomas, S A

2004-03-01

63

Polarization of membrane associated proteins in the choroid plexus epithelium from normal and slc4a10 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) has served as a model-epithelium for cell polarization and transport studies and plays a crucial role for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. The normal luminal membrane expression of Na+,K+-ATPase, aquaporin-1 and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 in the choroid plexus is severely affected by deletion of the slc4a10 gene that encodes the bicarbonate transporting protein Ncbe/NBCn2. The causes for these deviations from normal epithelial polarization and redistribution following specific gene knockout are unknown, but may be significant for basic epithelial cell biology. Therefore, a more comprehensive analysis of cell polarization in the choroid plexus is warranted. We find that the cytoskeleton in the choroid plexus contains ?I-, ?II-, ?I-, and ?II-spectrin isoforms along with the anchoring protein ankyrin-3, most of which are mainly localized in the luminal membrane domain. Furthermore, we find ?-adducin localized near the plasma membranes globally, but with only faint expression in the luminal membrane domain. In slc4a10 knockout mice, the abundance of ?1 Na+,K+-ATPase subunits in the luminal membrane is markedly reduced. Anion exchanger 2 abundance is increased in slc4a10 knockout and its anchor protein, ?-adducin is almost exclusively found near the basolateral domain. The ?I- and ?I-spectrin abundances are also decreased in the slc4a10 knockout, where the basolateral domain expression of ?I-spectrin is exchanged for a strictly luminal domain localization. E-cadherin expression is unchanged in the slc4a10 knockout, while small decreases in abundance are observed for its probable adaptor proteins, the catenins. Interestingly, the abundance of the tight junction protein claudin-2 is significantly reduced in the slc4a10 knockouts, which may critically affect paracellular transport in this epithelium. The observations allow the generation of new hypotheses on basic cell biological paradigms that can be tested experimentally in future studies. PMID:24348423

Christensen, Inga B.; Gyldenholm, Tua; Damkier, Helle H.; Praetorius, Jeppe

2013-01-01

64

Expression of mRNAs for neurotrophins and their receptors in the rat choroid plexus and dura mater.  

PubMed

The presence of the neurotrophin, nerve growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin-4 (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4) and their receptors of the tyrosine kinase family (trkA, trkB and trkC) have been investigated in the choroid plexus and dura mater of the adult rat by ribonuclease protection assay. The choroid plexus contained high levels of mRNAs for NGF and NT-4, and low levels of NT-3 and BDNF mRNA; and high levels of trkB mRNA, and undetectable levels of trkA and trkC mRNA. In the dura mater there were high levels of NT-3 and NGF, and low levels of BDNF and NT-4 mRNAs; and high levels of trkC mRNA, and relatively high amount of trkB mRNA, while levels of trkA mRNA was undetectable. The present analysis revealed a different distribution of neurotrophins and their related receptors in the choroid plexus and dura mater. PMID:8580426

Timmusk, T; Mudò, G; Metsis, M; Belluardo, N

1995-10-23

65

Changes in E2F5 intracellular localization in mouse and human choroid plexus epithelium with development.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is a specialized epithelium involved primarily in the production of cerebrospoinal fluid (CSF) which is important for maintaining an optimal homeostatic environment for the brain. Although, the physiology of the CPe is fairly well understood, its development has not been thoroughly studied. It has been recently shown that mice lacking functional transcription factors, E2F5, foxJ1 or p73, develop non-obstructive hydrocephalus likely due to CPe dysfunction. We have further studied their expression in the mouse and human developing CPe, focusing particularly on E2F5. We show here that in the mouse E2F5, foxJ1 and p73 transcripts are detectable as soon as the choroid plexuses form. E2F5 protein is also detected as soon as the choroid plexuses are morphologically apparent both in mouse and human, suggesting that its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. E2F5 protein is down-regulated late in embryogenesis and this coincides with a change in its intracellular localization, from predominantly nuclear to cytoplasmic. The pattern of expression and intracellular localization of E2F5 in vivo does not appear to correlate with that of proliferating CPe cells, as indicated by protein cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining, but rather with their maturation, as changes in E2F5 localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm parallel the morphological change from pseudostratified to cuboidal epithelium. PMID:16172982

Swetloff, Adam; Ferretti, Patrizia

2005-01-01

66

Structural defects in cilia of the choroid plexus, subfornical organ and ventricular ependyma are associated with ventriculomegaly  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrocephalus is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple etiologies that are not yet fully understood. Animal models have implicated dysfunctional cilia of the ependyma and choroid plexus in the development of the disorder. In this report, we sought to determine the origin of the ventriculomegaly in four Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) mutant mouse strains as models of a ciliopathy. Methods Evans Blue dye was injected into the lateral ventricle of wild- type and BBS mutant mice to determine whether obstruction of intra- or extra-ventricular CSF flow contributed to ventriculomegaly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the ultrastructure of the choroid plexus, subfornical organ (SFO), subcommisural organ (SCO), and ventricular ependyma to evaluate their ultrastructure and the morphology of their primary and motile cilia. Results and discussion No obstruction of intra- or extra-ventricular CSF flow was observed, implying a communicating form of hydrocephalus in BBS mutant mice. TEM analyses of the mutants showed no evidence of choroidal papillomas or breakdown of the blood:CSF barrier. In contrast, structural defects were observed in a subpopulation of cilia lining the choroid plexus, SFO, and ventricular ependyma. These included disruptions of the microtubular structure of the axoneme and the presence of electron-dense vesicular-like material along the ciliary shaft and at the tips of cilia. Conclusions Abnormalities in cilia structure and function have the potential to influence ciliary intraflagellar transport (IFT), cilia maintenance, protein trafficking, and regulation of CSF production. Ciliary structural defects are the only consistent pathological features associated with CSF-related structures in BBS mutant mice. These defects are observed from an early age, and may contribute to the underlying pathophysiology of ventriculomegaly. PMID:23046663

2012-01-01

67

The resolution of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration: leukocyte recruitment via the choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is an integral part of the body's physiological repair mechanism, unless it remains unresolved and becomes pathological, as evident in the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Based on studies from outside the central nervous system (CNS), it is now understood that the resolution of inflammation is an active process, which is dependent on well-orchestrated innate and adaptive immune responses. Due to the immunologically privileged status of the CNS, such resolution mechanism has been mostly ignored. Here, we discuss resolution of neuroinflammation as a process that depends on a network of immune cells operating in a tightly regulated sequence, involving the brain's choroid plexus (CP), a unique neuro-immunological interface, positioned to integrate signals it receives from the CNS parenchyma with signals coming from circulating immune cells, and to function as an on-alert gate for selective recruitment of inflammation-resolving leukocytes to the inflamed CNS parenchyma. Finally, we propose that functional dysregulation of the CP reflects a common underlying mechanism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and can thus serve as a potential novel target for therapy. PMID:24357543

Schwartz, Michal; Baruch, Kuti

2014-01-01

68

The resolution of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration: leukocyte recruitment via the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Inflammation is an integral part of the body's physiological repair mechanism, unless it remains unresolved and becomes pathological, as evident in the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Based on studies from outside the central nervous system (CNS), it is now understood that the resolution of inflammation is an active process, which is dependent on well-orchestrated innate and adaptive immune responses. Due to the immunologically privileged status of the CNS, such resolution mechanism has been mostly ignored. Here, we discuss resolution of neuroinflammation as a process that depends on a network of immune cells operating in a tightly regulated sequence, involving the brain's choroid plexus (CP), a unique neuro-immunological interface, positioned to integrate signals it receives from the CNS parenchyma with signals coming from circulating immune cells, and to function as an on-alert gate for selective recruitment of inflammation-resolving leukocytes to the inflamed CNS parenchyma. Finally, we propose that functional dysregulation of the CP reflects a common underlying mechanism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and can thus serve as a potential novel target for therapy. PMID:24357543

Schwartz, Michal; Baruch, Kuti

2014-01-01

69

Expression of HNF4alpha in the human and rat choroid plexus – Implications for drug transport across the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus consists of highly differentiated epithelium and functions as a barrier at the interface of the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF). This tissue may therefore determine the bioavailability and transport of drugs to the brain. Little is known about the expression of drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (DME) and of drug transporters in the human choroid plexus. Notably, the transcription factor and zinc finger protein HNF4alpha is a master regulator of DMEs and of drug transporters. As of today its activity in the blood-CSF barrier is unknown. Here we report our efforts in determining HNF4alpha activity in the regulation of ABC transporters in the human and rat choroid plexus. Results We report expression of HNF4alpha by qRT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry and evidence transcript expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCC1-6 in choroid plexus. Additionally, HNF4alpha DNA binding activity at regulatory sequences of ABCB4 and ABCC1 was determined by EMSA bandshift assays with a specific antibody. We then performed siRNA mediated functional knock down of HNF4alpha in Caco-2 cells and found ABCC1 gene expression to be repressed in cell culture experiments. Conclusion Our study evidences activity of HNF4alpha in human and rat choroid plexus. This transcription factor targets DMEs and drug transporters and may well determine availability of drugs at the blood-CSF barrier. PMID:19575803

Niehof, Monika; Borlak, Jürgen

2009-01-01

70

Identification and properties of a novel variant of NBC4 (Na(+)/HCO(3)- co-transporter 4) that is predominantly expressed in the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Secretion of HCO(3)- at the apical side of the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus is an essential step in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid. Anion conductance with a high degree of HCO(3)- permeability has been observed and suggested to be the major pathway for HCO(3)- transport across the apical membrane. Recently, it was found that NBC (Na(+)/HCO(3)- co-transporter) 4, an electrogenic member of the NBC family, was expressed in the choroid plexus. We found that a novel variant of the NBC4 [NBC4g/Slc4a5 (solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate co-transporter, member 5)] is almost exclusively expressed in the apical membrane of rat choroid plexus epithelium at exceptionally high levels. RNA interference-mediated knockdown allowed the functional demonstration that NBC4g is the major player in the HCO(3)- transport across the apical membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium. When combined with a recent observation that in choroid plexus epithelial cells electrogenic NBC operates with a stoichiometry of 3:1, the results of the present study suggest that NBC4g mediates the efflux of HCO(3)- and contributes to cerebrospinal fluid production. PMID:23205667

Fukuda, Hidekazu; Hirata, Taku; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Kato, Akira; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

2013-02-15

71

Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of immunoglobulin light-chain immunoreactive amyloid in psammoma bodies of the human choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to establish the presence of amyloid and to quantify immunohistochemical reactions of kappa and lambda light chains of psammoma bodies of the choroid plexus. Choroid plexus tissue obtained from 14 right lateral ventricles postmortem was processed histologically and stained with Congo red, thioflavin T, and monoclonal antibodies for kappa and lambda light chains. Morphological analysis was performed with a light microscope at lens magnifications of 4×, 10×, 20×, 25×, and 40×. The morphometric characteristics of psammoma bodies that were kappa and lambda positive and negative were analyzed with ImageJ. Histological analysis showed that the psammoma bodies, stromal blood vessel walls, and some epithelial cells reacted positively with Congo red and thioflavin T. Psammoma bodies were predominantly positive for lambda light chains. Lambda positivity was detected inside some stromal blood vessels, which pointed to a probable systemic origin for these light chains. Morphometric analysis showed that the mean optical densities of lambda- and kappa-positive psammoma bodies were significantly higher than those that gave a negative reaction. The percentage of lambda-positive psammoma bodies was significantly higher than the percentage of lambda-negative psammoma bodies in 80% of the cases, while the reaction with kappa light chains was negative in the majority of the cases. Linear regression analysis showed a significant increase in the percentage of lambda-positive psammoma bodies and their mean optical density with age. Finally, it can be concluded that the positive reaction of psammoma bodies in the choroid plexus with respect to amyloid and lambda light chains may point to the presence of light-chain amyloid in their structures. PMID:23996683

Jovanovi?, Ivan; Ugrenovi?, Sladjana; Vasovi?, Ljiljana; Stojanovi?, Ivan

2014-03-01

72

A molecular characterization of the choroid plexus and stress-induced gene regulation  

PubMed Central

The role of the choroid plexus (CP) in brain homeostasis is being increasingly recognized and recent studies suggest that the CP has a more important role in physiological and pathological brain functions than currently appreciated. To obtain additional insight on the CP function, we performed a proteomics and transcriptomics characterization employing a combination of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry and gene expression analyses in normal rodent brain. Using multiple protein fractionation approaches, we identified 1400 CP proteins in adult CP. Microarray-based comparison of CP gene expression with the kidney, cortex and hippocampus showed significant overlap between the CP and the kidney. CP gene profiles were validated by in situ hybridization analysis of several target genes including klotho, CLIC 6, OATP 14 and Ezrin. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed for CP and enpendyma detection of several target proteins including cytokeratin, Rab7, klotho, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP1), MMP9 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The molecular functions associated with various proteins of the CP proteome indicate that it is a blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier that exhibits high levels of metabolic activity. We also analyzed the gene expression changes induced by stress, an exacerbating factor for many illnesses, particularly mood disorders. Chronic stress altered the expression of several genes, downregulating 5HT2C, glucocorticoid receptor and the cilia genes IFT88 and smoothened while upregulating 5HT2A, BDNF, TNF? and IL-1b. The data presented here attach additional significance to the emerging importance of CP function in brain health and CNS disease states. PMID:22781172

Sathyanesan, M; Girgenti, M J; Banasr, M; Stone, K; Bruce, C; Guilchicek, E; Wilczak-Havill, K; Nairn, A; Williams, K; Sass, S; Duman, J G; Newton, S S

2012-01-01

73

A molecular characterization of the choroid plexus and stress-induced gene regulation.  

PubMed

The role of the choroid plexus (CP) in brain homeostasis is being increasingly recognized and recent studies suggest that the CP has a more important role in physiological and pathological brain functions than currently appreciated. To obtain additional insight on the CP function, we performed a proteomics and transcriptomics characterization employing a combination of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry and gene expression analyses in normal rodent brain. Using multiple protein fractionation approaches, we identified 1400 CP proteins in adult CP. Microarray-based comparison of CP gene expression with the kidney, cortex and hippocampus showed significant overlap between the CP and the kidney. CP gene profiles were validated by in situ hybridization analysis of several target genes including klotho, CLIC 6, OATP 14 and Ezrin. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed for CP and enpendyma detection of several target proteins including cytokeratin, Rab7, klotho, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP1), MMP9 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The molecular functions associated with various proteins of the CP proteome indicate that it is a blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier that exhibits high levels of metabolic activity. We also analyzed the gene expression changes induced by stress, an exacerbating factor for many illnesses, particularly mood disorders. Chronic stress altered the expression of several genes, downregulating 5HT2C, glucocorticoid receptor and the cilia genes IFT88 and smoothened while upregulating 5HT2A, BDNF, TNF? and IL-1b. The data presented here attach additional significance to the emerging importance of CP function in brain health and CNS disease states. PMID:22781172

Sathyanesan, M; Girgenti, M J; Banasr, M; Stone, K; Bruce, C; Guilchicek, E; Wilczak-Havill, K; Nairn, A; Williams, K; Sass, S; Duman, J G; Newton, S S

2012-01-01

74

Texas Red transport across rat and dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to compare driving forces, specificity, and regulation of transport of the fluorescent organic anion, Texas Red (sulforhodamine 101 free acid; TR), in lateral choroid plexus (CP) isolated from rat and an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate, dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). CP from both species exhibited concentrative, specific, and metabolism-dependent TR transport from bath to subepithelial/vascular space; at steady state, TR accumulation in vascular/subepithelial space was substantially higher than in epithelial cells. In rat CP, steady-state TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces was reduced by Na+-replacement, but was not affected by a 10-fold increase in buffer K+. In shark CP, Na+-replacement did not alter TR accumulation in either tissue compartment; subepithelial/vascular space levels of TR were reduced in high-K+ medium. In both species, steady-state TR accumulation was not affected by p-aminohippurate or leukotriene C4, suggesting that neither organic anion transporters (SLC22A family) nor multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC family) contributed. In rat CP, digoxin was without effect, indicating that organic anion transporting polypeptide isoform 2 was not involved. Several organic anions reduced cellular and subepithelial/vascular space TR accumulation in both tissues, including estrone sulfate, taurocholate, and the Mrp1 inhibitor MK571. In rat CP, TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces increased with PKA activation (forskolin), but was not affected by PKC activation (phorbol ester). In shark, neither PKA nor PKC activation specifically affected TR transport. Thus, rat and dogfish shark CP transport TR but do so using different basic mechanisms that respond to different regulatory signals. PMID:18650317

Reichel, Valeska; Miller, David S.; Fricker, Gert

2008-01-01

75

Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions. PMID:24391755

Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

2013-01-01

76

Successful treatment of a recurrent choroid plexus carcinoma with surgery followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is a rare central nervous system malignant tumor with a dismal prognosis, especially in the case of incomplete resection or recurrence. The authors report long-term survival of a 1-year-old patient with recurrent CPC and Li-Fraumeni syndrome with surgical resection and high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) consisting of single cycle of Busulfan and Thiotepa followed by autologous stem cell rescue without the use of radiation therapy. Remarkably the patient remains without evidence of recurrence 5 years after completion of therapy. Additional studies are necessary to determine the role of HDC and stem cell rescue in patients with recurrent CPC. PMID:23301664

Mosleh, Othman; Tabori, Uri; Bartels, Ute; Huang, Annie; Schechter, Tal; Bouffet, Eric

2013-08-01

77

Secondary active transport of water across ventricular cell membrane of choroid plexus epithelium of Necturus maculosus.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction between Cl-, K+ and H2O fluxes were studied in the ventricular membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium from Necturus maculosus by means of ion-selective microelectrodes. The flux of H2O was measured by means of K+ electrodes as the dilution or concentration of intracellular choline ions, Ch+i. 2. In one series of experiments Cl- was readministered to the ventricular solution of tissues incubated in media with low Cl- concentrations. The resulting influx of Cl- was associated with an instantaneous influx of K+ and H2O. 3. Both the Cl- and the K+ influxes were reduced by the diuretic furosemide but were unaffected by inhibitors of Na+, K(+)-ATPase or changes in membrane potentials induced by Ba2+. Since the influx of K+ proceeds against its electrochemical gradient and is unaffected by changes in membrane potentials, the membrane exhibits secondary active, electroneutral transport of K+. 4. The influx of water, initiated simultaneously with the influx of K+ and Cl-, commenced before these ions had changed the osmolarity of the intracellular solution significantly. The influx of H2O could proceed against an osmotic gradient. The influx stopped when 100 mmol l-1 of mannitol was added to the ventricular solution at the same time as the Cl- ions. The influx of H2O was inhibited by K+ removal, furosemide or high external Ba2+ (10 mmol l-1), but not by strophanthidin, ouabain or low concentrations of Ba2+ (0.5 mmol l-1). The influx could not continue with other permeable anions, NO3-, acetate- or SCN-, replacing Cl-. 5. In another series of experiments Cl- was removed from the ventricular solution of tissues bathed in saline solutions with normal concentrations of Cl-. The resulting efflux of Cl- was associated with an instantaneous efflux of K+ and H2O. This efflux of H2O could proceed against an osmotic gradient of up to 70 mosmol l-1. This effect was inhibited by furosemide, in which case the water fluxes were entirely dependent on the osmotic gradients and the osmotic water permeability Lp of the ventricular membrane. 6. The data suggest that there is a coupling between the flux of KCl and of water in the ventricular membrane, which implies that the reflection coefficient sigma for KCl under the given circumstances is less than one. I suggest that the ability of leaky epithelia to transport against osmotic gradients depends on such a coupling, which derives from the properties of the proteins through which K+, Cl- and H2O leave the cell. PMID:1822549

Zeuthen, T

1991-01-01

78

Distinct neural stem cell tropism, early immune activation, and choroid plexus pathology following coxsackievirus infection in the neonatal central nervous system.  

PubMed

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are both neurotropic RNA viruses, which can establish a persistent infection and cause meningitis and encephalitis in the neonatal host. Utilizing our neonatal mouse model of infection, we evaluated the consequences of early viral infection upon the host central nervous system (CNS) by comparing CVB3 and LCMV infection. Both viruses expressed high levels of viral protein in the choroid plexus and subventricular zone (SVZ), a region of neurogenesis. LCMV infected a greater number of cells in the SVZ and targeted both nestin(+) (neural progenitor cell marker) and olig2(+) (glial progenitor marker) cells at a relatively equal proportion. In contrast, CVB3 preferentially infected nestin(+) cells within the SVZ. Microarray analysis revealed differential kinetics and unique host gene expression changes for each infection. MHC class I gene expression, several developmental-related Hox genes, and transthyretin (TTR), a protein secreted in the cerebrospinal fluid by the choroid plexus, were specifically downregulated following CVB3 infection. Also, we identified severe pathology in the choroid plexus of CVB3-infected animals at 48?h post infection accompanied by a decrease in the level of TTR and carbonic anhydrase II. These results demonstrate broader neural progenitor and stem cell (NPSC) tropism for LCMV in the neonatal CNS, whereas CVB3 targeted a more specific subset of NPSCs, stimulated a distinct early immune response, and induced significant acute damage in the choroid plexus. PMID:24378643

Puccini, Jenna M; Ruller, Chelsea M; Robinson, Scott M; Knopp, Kristeene A; Buchmeier, Michael J; Doran, Kelly S; Feuer, Ralph

2014-02-01

79

Ontogeny of specific prolactin binding sites in the rat choroid plexus and their temporal relation to the prolactin short-loop feedback system  

SciTech Connect

The development of prolactin receptors in the choroid plexus of the rat was examined using the in vivo autoradiographic approach employing the principle of competitive binding. Animals aged 0, 10, 14, and 18 days postnatal were perfusion fixed following hormone injection and prepared for light microscopic autoradiography. The choroid plexus first demonstrated specific binding of prolactin at 14 days postnatal. The lactogen specificity of these binding sites was further defined by the ability of I/sup 125/-prolactin to be displaced by unlabelled human growth hormone, which is lactogenic in rats, and not by unlabelled insulin, which is structurally dissimilar to prolactin. Morphometric analysis was performed on electron micrographs of choroid plexus from 10 and 14 day postnatal rats. The volume densities of constituents known to be involved in the synthesis and/or function of polypeptide hormone receptors were measured and differences tested for statistical significance. A semi-quantitative histo-fluorescence technique was used to evaluate the ability of prolactin to stimulate secretion of its inhibiting factor, dopamine, in 10 day postnatal rats. The present findings indicate that the ontogenesis of specific prolactin binding sites is not temporally connected with the establishment of the prolactin short-loop feedback system since activation of the system occurs prior to the establishment of specific prolactin binding at choroid plexus.

Silverman, .F.

1985-01-01

80

The embryonic blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function before the formation of the fetal choroid plexus: role in cerebrospinal fluid formation and homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has attracted interest as an active signaling milieu that regulates brain development, homeostasis, and course disease. CSF is a nutrient-rich fluid, which also contains growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS). CSF constitution is controlled tightly and constituent concentrations are maintained narrow, depending on developmental stage. From fetal stages to adult life, CSF is produced mainly by the choroid plexus. The development and functional activities of the choroid plexus, and other blood-brain barrier systems in adults, have been extensively analyzed. However, the study of CSF production and homeostasis in embryos from the closure of the anterior neuropore, when the brain cavities become physiologically sealed, to the formation of the functional fetal choroid plexus has been largely neglected. This developmental stage is characterized by tightly controlled morphological and cellular events in the anterior part of the CNS, such as rapid brain anlagen growth and initiation of primary neurogenesis in the neural progenitor cells lining the cavities, events which are driven by specific molecules contained within the embryonic CSF. In this article, we review the existing literature on formation and function of the temporary embryonic blood-CSF barrier, from closure of the anterior neuropore to the formation of functional fetal choroid plexuses, with regard to crucial roles that embryonic CSF plays in neural development. PMID:25165045

Bueno, David; Parvas, Maryam; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

2014-01-01

81

A Rare Case of Pericallosal Lipoma Associated with Bilaterally Symmetrical Lateral Ventricular Choroid Plexus Lipomas without Corpus Callosal Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Lipomas constitute less than 5% of primary brain tumors. Pericallosal lipomas (PCLp) constitute almost half of all intracranial lipomas. Corpus callosal anomalies commonly occur in cases with PCLps. Although PCLp is often described as corpus callosal lipoma, it is most often pericallosal in location. PCLps may have calcification in the periphery and may continue into lateral ventricles, which is a very rare presentation. We observed a case of PCLp with peripheral calcifications associated with PCLp continuing as bilaterally symmetrical lateral ventricular choroid plexus lipomas (CPLp) without any corpus callosal or other central nervous system anomalies, and as this is not been previously reported, we are presenting it. The appearance of PCLp in this case does not correspond to the descriptions of any of the existing morphological types (anterior and posterior) of classification of PCLps; it is rather mixed, where PCLp occupies both anterior and posterior locations around the corpus callosum. PMID:24605264

Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.; Hasan, Islam Ali

2013-01-01

82

Choroid plexus dysfunction impairs beta-amyloid clearance in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Compromised secretory function of choroid plexus (CP) and defective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production, along with accumulation of beta-amyloid (A?) peptides at the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), contribute to complications of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The AD triple transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) at 16 month-old mimics critical hallmarks of the human disease: ?-amyloid (A?) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) with a temporal- and regional- specific profile. Currently, little is known about transport and metabolic responses by CP to the disrupted homeostasis of CNS A? in AD. This study analyzed the effects of highly-expressed AD-linked human transgenes (APP, PS1 and tau) on lateral ventricle CP function. Confocal imaging and immunohistochemistry revealed an increase only of A?42 isoform in epithelial cytosol and in stroma surrounding choroidal capillaries; this buildup may reflect insufficient clearance transport from CSF to blood. Still, there was increased expression, presumably compensatory, of the choroidal A? transporters: the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE). A thickening of the epithelial basal membrane and greater collagen-IV deposition occurred around capillaries in CP, probably curtailing solute exchanges. Moreover, there was attenuated expression of epithelial aquaporin-1 and transthyretin (TTR) protein compared to Non-Tg mice. Collectively these findings indicate CP dysfunction hypothetically linked to increasing A? burden resulting in less efficient ion transport, concurrently with reduced production of CSF (less sink action on brain A?) and diminished secretion of TTR (less neuroprotection against cortical A? toxicity). The putative effects of a disabled CP-CSF system on CNS functions are discussed in the context of AD.

González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Johanson, Conrad E.; Carmona-Calero, Emilia María; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; Brito-Armas, José Miguel; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castro-Fuentes, Rafael

2015-01-01

83

A developmental analysis of differences in the uptake of [ 123 I]isopropyliodoamphetamine versus 99m Tc-pertechnetate by the choroid plexus and brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of intravascular [123I]isopropyliodoamphetamine (IMP) and99mTc-pertechnetate into choroid plexus (CP) and brain (frontal cortex) was studied by an indicator fractionation method applied to immature, ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5, 2, and 3 wk). Assessment of the rate and extent of uptake of these indicators provides functional information (eg blood flow; transport) about various regions of the developing CNS. IMP uptake

Robert F. Yacavone; Muriel L. Dyas; Conrad E. Johanson

1994-01-01

84

Choroid Plexus Epithelial Expression of MDR1 P Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein Contribute to the Blood-Cerebrospinal-Fluid Drug-Permeability Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-brain barrier and a blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier function together to isolate the brain from circulating drugs, toxins, and xenobiotics. The blood-CSF drug-permeability barrier is localized to the epithelium of the choroid plexus (CP). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating drug permeability across the CP epithelium are defined poorly. Herein, we describe a drug-permeability barrier in human and rodent CP mediated

Vallabhaneni V. Rao; Julie L. Dahlheimer; Mark E. Bardgett; Abraham Z. Snyder; Rick A. Finch; Alan C. Sartorelli; David Piwnica-Worms

1999-01-01

85

Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the Meninges and the Choroid Plexus: Implications for Non-Neuronal Sources for GABA in the Developing Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Neural progenitors in the developing neocortex, neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, have a bipolar shape with a basal process contacting the basal membrane of the meninge and an apical plasma membrane facing the lateral ventricle, which the cerebrospinal fluid is filled with. Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter which appears first during development and works as a diffusible factor to regulate the properties of neural progenitors. In this study, we examined whether GABA can be released from the meninges and the choroid plexus in the developing mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67), both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges. The epithelial cells in the choroid plexus express GAD65. GABA immunoreactivity could be observed beneath the basal membrane of the meninge and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. Expression analyses on Bestrophin-1, which is known as a GABA-permeable channel in differentiated glial cells, suggested that the cells in the meninges and the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus have the channels able to permeate non-synaptic GABA into the extracellular space. Further studies showed that GAD65/67-expressing meningeal cells appear in a manner with rostral to caudal and lateral to dorsal gradient to cover the entire neocortex by E14.5 during development, while the cells in the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle start to express GAD65 on E11–E12, the time when the choroid plexus starts to develop in the developing brain. These results totally suggest that the meninges and the choroid plexus can work as non-neuronal sources for ambient GABA which can modulate the properties of neural progenitors during neocortical development. PMID:23437266

Tochitani, Shiro; Kondo, Shigeaki

2013-01-01

86

Increased {beta}-amyloid levels in the choroid plexus following lead exposure and the involvement of low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1  

SciTech Connect

The choroid plexus, a barrier between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is known to accumulate lead (Pb) and also possibly function to maintain brain's homeostasis of A{beta}, an important peptide in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate if Pb exposure altered A{beta} levels at the blood-CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Rats received ip injection of 27 mg Pb/kg. Twenty-four hours later, a FAM-labeled A{beta} (200 pmol) was infused into the lateral ventricle and the plexus tissues were removed to quantify A{beta} accumulation. Results revealed a significant increase in intracellular A{beta} accumulation in the Pb-exposed animals compared to controls (p < 0.001). When choroidal epithelial Z310 cells were treated with 10 {mu}M Pb for 24 h and 48 h, A{beta} (2 {mu}M in culture medium) accumulation was significantly increased by 1.5 fold (p < 0.05) and 1.8 fold (p < 0.05), respectively. To explore the mechanism, we examined the effect of Pb on low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 (LRP1), an intracellular A{beta} transport protein. Following acute Pb exposure with the aforementioned dose regimen, levels of LRP1 mRNA and proteins in the choroid plexus were decreased by 35% (p < 0.05) and 31.8% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison to those of controls. In Z310 cells exposed to 10 {mu}M Pb for 24 h and 48 h, a 33.1% and 33.4% decrease in the protein expression of LRP1 was observed (p < 0.05), respectively. Knocking down LRP1 resulted in even more substantial increases of cellular accumulation of A{beta}, from 31% in cells without knockdown to 72% in cells with LRP1 knockdown (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that the acute exposure to Pb results in an increased accumulation of intracellular A{beta} in the choroid plexus; the effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of LRP1 production following Pb exposure.

Behl, Mamta; Zhang Yanshu; Monnot, Andrew D.; Jiang, Wendy [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, Room 1169, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Zheng Wei [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, Room 1169, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

2009-10-15

87

Ethacrynic acid and furosemide alter Cl, K, and Na distribution between blood, choroid plexus, CSF, and brain.  

PubMed

Can loop diuretics like ethacrynic acid and furosemide, when administered intravenously, significantly alter ion transport and fluid dynamics in CNS? To shed light on this unresolved issue, we tested the ability of these agents to effect redistribution of Na, K and Cl in adult rat brain. Cl penetration into various CNS regions was assessed as the volume of distribution, i.e., uptake, of 36Cl from blood. Ethacrynic acid and furosemide (50 mg/kg IV) reduced by 20-30% the rate of permeation of 36Cl across the blood-CSF barrier, and they elevated [K] and [Cl] in choroid plexus (CP) by 15-25%. The loop diuretic-induced buildup of K and Cl in CP (lateral and 4th ventricle) was likely a reflection of decreased movement of these ions across the apical membrane into CSF. 36Cl activity in parietal cortex and pons-medulla decreased in treatment with furosemide and ethacrynic acid, due to slowing of Cl transport across blood-brain and/or blood-CSF barriers. Our inhibitory findings in intact rats are consistent with those from previous in vitro experiments demonstrating diminution by loop diuretics of Na, K and Cl transport across isolated CP membranes. PMID:1461357

Johanson, C E; Murphy, V A; Dyas, M

1992-11-01

88

Expression of hepcidin at the choroid plexus in normal aging rats is associated with IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence has revealed that brain iron concentrations increase with aging, and the choroid plexus (CP) may be at the basis of iron-mediated toxicity and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging. The mechanism involves not only hepcidin, the key hormone in iron metabolism, but also iron-related proteins and signaling-transduction molecules, such as IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway and hepcidin at the CP in normal aging. Quantitative real time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the alterations in specific mRNA and corresponding protein changes at the CP at ages of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 months in Brown-Norway/Fischer (B-N/F) rats. The results demonstrated that hepcidin mRNA level at the CP kept stable in young rats (from 3 to 18 months), and increased with aging (from 21 to 36 months). The alterations of IL-6/p-Stat3 mRNA and protein expressions in normal aging were in accordance with that of hepcidin mRNA. Our data suggest that IL-6 may regulate hepcidin expression at the CP, upon interaction with the cognate cellular receptor, and through the Stat3 signaling transduction pathway. PMID:25516512

Liu, Chong-Bin; Wang, Rui; Dong, Miao-Wu; Gao, Xi-Ren; Yu, Feng

2014-12-25

89

Recurrent adult choroid plexus carcinoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and syngeneic stem cell (bone marrow) transplant.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs) are rare epithelial central nervous system tumors. CPC occurs mainly in infants and young children, comprising ? 1 to 4% of all pediatric brain neoplasms. There is very limited information available regarding tumor biology and CPC treatment due to its rarity. There have been various case reports and meta-analyses of reported cases with CPC. Surgical resection is often challenging but remains a well-established treatment option. Chemotherapy is often reserved for recurrent or refractory cases, but the goal of treatment is usually palliative. We present a case of recurrent, adult CPC with disseminated leptomeningeal involvement treated with salvage chemotherapy including high-dose ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide; once a remission was achieved, this response was consolidated with a syngeneic stem cell (bone marrow) transplant after a preparative regimen of high-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide, and thiotepa. Although the patient tolerated the transplant well and remained disease-free for 12 months, she subsequently succumbed to relapsed disease 18 months posttransplant. We believe that this is the first report of using syngeneic stem cell transplant in CPC to consolidate a remission achieved by salvage chemotherapy. PMID:23427033

Samuel, Thomas A; Parikh, Jigarkumar; Sharma, Suash; Giller, Cole A; Sterling, Kristen; Kapoor, Suraj; Pirkle, Christen; Jillella, Anand

2013-12-01

90

Multiple isoforms of the tumor protein p73 are expressed in the adult human telencephalon and choroid plexus and present in the cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

p73, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor, codes for full-length transactivating (TA) and N-terminally truncated (DeltaN) isoforms, with pro- and anti-apoptotic activities, respectively. We examined the expression of the main p73 isoforms in adult human and mouse telencephalon and choroid plexus by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections, and immunoblotting (IB) of tissue extracts and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using antibodies against different protein domains. Cortical neurons expressed TAp73 predominantly in the cytoplasm and DeltaNp73 mainly in the nucleus, with partial overlap in the cytoplasm. Highest expression was found in the hippocampus. IB showed an array of TAp73 variants in adult human cortex and hippocampus. IB of human choroid plexus and CSF using TAp73-specific antibodies revealed the presence of a approximately 90-kDa protein whose molecular weight was reduced after N-deglycosylation, suggesting that glycosylated TAp73 is exported into the CSF. In the mouse, high expression of TAp73 was also detected in the subcommissural organ (SCO), an ependymal gland absent in adult humans. TAp73 colocalized with anti-fibra-Reissner-antibody (AFRU), which is a marker of Reissner's fiber, the secreted SCO product. p73-deficient mice had generalized cortical hypoplasia and hydrocephalus; in addition, we observed a dramatic size reduction of the choroid plexus. However, the SCOs were apparently unaltered and continued to secrete Reissner's fiber. Our findings point to complex and widespread p73 activities in the maintenance of adult cortical neurons and in brain homeostasis. TAp73 in the CSF may play important roles in the maintenance of the adult ventricular wall as well as in the development of the proliferating neuroepithelium. PMID:16630058

Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Pueyo Morlans, Mercedes; Suarez Sola, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Delgado, Francisco J; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustin; Marin, Maria C; Meyer, Gundela

2006-04-01

91

Maturational differences in acetazolamide-altered pH and HCO3 of choroid plexus, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain.  

PubMed

The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is useful for analyzing ion transport, pH regulation, and fluid formation in developing central nervous system. We used the 14C-labeled dimethadione technique to measure alterations in steady-state pH, and to estimate the HCO3 concentration [HCO3], in choroid plexus (CP), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and cerebral cortex of 1- and 3-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats treated with acetazolamide or probenecid. These drugs can suppress transport of HCO3 and other anions in some cells, consequently altering intracellular pH. In 1-wk-old infant rats whose CSF secretory process is incompletely developed, 1 h of acetazolamide treatment did not significantly change CP intracellular pH or [HCO3]. However, in 3-wk-old rats, in which the ability of CP to secrete ions and fluids is almost fully developed, acetazolamide caused marked increases in CP cell intracellular pH and [HCO3]. In contrast, acetazolamide-induced alkalinization was not observed in CSF or cerebral cortex of the 1- and 3-wk-old animals. The other test agent, probenecid (an inhibitor of anion transport but not of carbonic anhydrase), did not alter the pH of any region at any age investigated. Overall, the results are interpreted in light of developmental changes in carbonic anhydrase and previous findings from kinetic analyses of ion-translocating systems in CP. Acetazolamide may interfere with a CP apical membrane HCO3 extrusion mechanism not fully operational in infant rats. PMID:1590485

Johanson, C E; Parandoosh, Z; Dyas, M L

1992-05-01

92

Cotransport of K+, Cl- and H2O by membrane proteins from choroid plexus epithelium of Necturus maculosus.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction between K+, Cl- and H2O fluxes was studied in the ventricular membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium from Necturus maculosus by means of ion-selective microelectrodes. 2. Three experimental strategies were adopted: the osmolarity of the ventricular solution was increased abruptly by addition of (i) mannitol or (ii) KCl; (iii) Na+ in the ventricular solution was replaced isosmotically by K+. 3. The mannitol experiments showed that H2O had two pathways across the ventricular membrane. One was purely passive, with a water permeability, L'p, of 0.64 x 10(-4) cm s-1 (osmol l-1)-1. This operated in parallel with an ion-dependent pathway of similar magnitude which was abolished in Cl(-)-free solutions. 4. When KCl was added there was a flow of H2O into the cell. Surprisingly, this took place despite the osmotic gradient which favoured an efflux of H2O. The effect was blocked by frusemide (furosemide), in which case KCl had the same effects as applications of NaCl or mannitol. 5. Replacement of Na+ with K+ caused an influx of H2O. This flux could proceed against osmotic gradients implemented by mannitol. 6. The present data and those of earlier publications show that the interdependence of the fluxes of K+, Cl- and H2O in the exit membrane can be described as cotransport. The fluxes have a fixed stoichiometry of 1:1:500, the flux of one species is able to energize the flux of the two others, and the transport exhibits saturation and is specific for K+ and Cl-. 7. A molecular model based upon a mobile barrier in a membrane spanning protein gives an accurate quantitative description of the data. PMID:7965842

Zeuthen, T

1994-01-01

93

Profile of toll-like receptor mRNA expression in the choroid plexus in adult ewes.  

PubMed

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) located in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus (CP) forms the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and pathogen components circulating in the blood. The CP is also implicated in the passage of peripheral immune signals and circulation of immune cells into the central nervous system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are patternrecognition receptors that play a crucial role in the recognition of pathogens and triggering of the innate immune response. In sheep, ten members of the TLR family have been identified and cloned. We used real-time PCR analyses to examine the profiles of TLR mRNA expression in the CP of cerebral ventricles in healthy adult ewes. The transcripts for all ten TLRs except TLR8 were present; however, we observed a high variation in the degree of expression of the TLR5 and TLR1 genes (coefficient of variation: 61% and 46%, respectively) as well as a moderate variation in the expression of the TLR4 (34%), TLR2 (27%) and TLR6 (26%) genes. The TLR9, TLR7, TLR3 and TLR10 genes were the four receptors with relatively invariable expression levels (coefficient of variation: 7%, 8%, 16% and 17%, respectively) across the six adult ewes. The concentration of cortisol in blood collected prior to sacrificing the ewes ranged from 0.18 to 78.9 ng/ml. There was no correlation between cortisol concentration and mRNA expression of any of the examined TLRs. These data suggest that the CP has the potential to sense the presence of many bacterial and viral components and mediate responses for the elimination of invading microorganisms, thereby protecting the brain. PMID:25374259

Skipor, Janina; Szczepkowska, Aleksandra; Kowalewska, Marta; Herman, Andrzej P; Lisiewski, Pawe?

2014-11-01

94

Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier  

PubMed Central

Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and visualized by electron microscopy. Results The expression of known ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporter and solute carrier (Slc) genes in CP was confirmed by qPCR. Primary cells and cell lines showed similar, but overall lower expression of Abc transporters and absent Slc expression when compared to intact tissue. Consistent with this Mrp1, Mrp4 and P-gp protein levels were higher in intact CP compared to cell lines. Functionality of P-gp and Mrp1 was confirmed by Calcein-AM and CMFDA uptake assays and studies using [3H]bis-POM-PMEA as a substrate indicated Mrp4 function. Cell lines showed low or absent TJ protein expression. After treatment of cell lines with corticosteroids, RNA expression of claudin1, 2 and 11 and occludin was elevated, as well as claudin1 and occludin protein expression. TJ formation was further investigated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and only rarely observed. Increases in TJ particles with steroid treatment were not accompanied by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Conclusion Taken together, immortalized cell lines may be a tool to study transport processes mediated by P-gp, Mrp1 or Mrp4, but overall expression of transport proteins and TJ formation do not reflect the situation in intact CP tissue. PMID:20704740

2010-01-01

95

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitope Immunodominance in the Control of Choroid Plexus Tumors in Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

The simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (Tag) is a virus-encoded oncoprotein which is the target of a strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. Three immunodominant H-2b-restricted epitopes, designated epitopes I, II/III, and IV, have been defined. We investigated whether induction of CTLs directed against these Tag epitopes might control Tag-induced tumors in SV11+ (H-2b) mice. SV11+ mice develop spontaneous tumors of the choroid plexus due to expression of SV40 Tag as a transgene. We demonstrate that SV11+ mice are functionally tolerant to the immunodominant Tag CTL epitopes. CTLs specific for the H-2Kb-restricted Tag epitope IV were induced in SV11+ mice following adoptive transfer with unprimed C57BL/6 spleen cells and immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing either full-length Tag or the H-2Kb-restricted epitope IV as a minigene. In addition, irradiation of SV11+ mice prior to adoptive transfer with unprimed C57BL/6 spleen cells led to the priming of epitope IV-specific CTLs by the endogenous Tag. Induction of epitope IV-specific CTLs in SV11+ mice by either approach correlated with increased life span and control of the choroid plexus tumor progression, indicating that CTLs specific for the immunodominant Tag epitope IV control the progressive growth of spontaneous tumors induced by this DNA virus oncogene in transgenic mice. PMID:10364350

Schell, Todd D.; Mylin, Lawrence M.; Georgoff, Ingo; Teresky, Angelica K.; Levine, Arnold J.; Tevethia, Satvir S.

1999-01-01

96

Molecular heterogeneity in the choroid plexus epithelium: the 22-member ?-protocadherin family is differentially expressed, apically localized, and implicated in CSF regulation.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium develops from the ependyma that lines the ventricular system, and plays a critical role in the development and function of the brain. In addition to being the primary site of CSF production, the CP maintains the blood-CSF barrier via apical tight junctions between epithelial cells. Here we show that the 22-member ?-protocadherin (?-Pcdh) family of cell adhesion molecules, which we have implicated previously in synaptogenesis and neuronal survival, is highly expressed by both CP epithelial and ependymal cells, in which ?-Pcdh protein localization is, surprisingly, tightly restricted to the apical membrane. Multi-label immunostaining demonstrates that ?-Pcdhs are excluded from tight junctions, basolateral adherens junctions, and apical cilia tufts. RT-PCR analysis indicates that, as a whole, the CP expresses most members of the Pcdh-? gene family. Immunostaining using novel monoclonal antibodies specific for single ?-Pcdh proteins shows that individual epithelial cells differ in their apically localized ?-Pcdh repertoire. Restricted mutation of the Pcdh-? locus in the choroid plexus and ependyma leads to significant reductions in ventricular volume, without obvious disruptions of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Together, these results suggest an unsuspected role for the ?-Pcdhs in CSF production and demonstrate a surprising molecular heterogeneity in the CP epithelium. PMID:22092001

Lobas, Mark A; Helsper, Lindsey; Vernon, Claire G; Schreiner, Dietmar; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J; Thedens, Daniel R; Weiner, Joshua A

2012-03-01

97

Encapsulated living choroid plexus cells: potential long-term treatments for central nervous system disease and trauma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In neurodegenerative disease and in acute brain injury, there is often local up-regulation of neurotrophin production close to the site of the lesion. Treatment by direct injection of neurotrophins and growth factors close to these lesion sites has repeatedly been demonstrated to improve recovery. It has therefore been proposed that transplanting viable neurotrophin-producing cells close to the trauma lesion, or site of degenerative disease, might provide a novel means for continuous delivery of these molecules directly to the site of injury or to a degenerative region. The aim of this paper is to summarize recent published information and present new experimental data that indicate that long-lasting therapeutic implants of choroid plexus (CP) neuroepithelium may be used to treat brain disease. CP produces and secretes numerous biologically active neurotrophic factors (NT). New gene microarray and proteomics data presented here indicate that many other anti-oxidant, anti-toxin and neuronal support proteins are also produced and secreted by CP cells. In the healthy brain, these circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid through the brain and spinal cord, maintaining neuronal networks and associated cells. Recent publications describe how transplanted CP cells and tissue, either free or in an immunoprotected encapsulated form, can effectively deliver therapeutic molecules when placed near the lesion or site of degenerative disease in animal models. Using simple techniques, CP neuroepithelial cell clusters in suspension culture were very durable, remaining viable for 6 months or more in vitro. The cell culture conditions had little effect on the wide range and activity of genes expressed and proteins secreted. Recently, completed experiments show that implanting CP within alginate-poly-ornithine capsules effectively protected these xenogeneic cells from the host immune system and allowed their survival for 6 months or more in the brains of rats, causing no adverse effects. Previously reported evidence demonstrated that CP cells support the survival and differentiation of neuronal cells in vitro and effectively treat acute brain injury and disease in rodents and non-human primates in vivo. The accumulated preclinical data together with the long-term survival of implanted encapsulated cells in vivo provide a sound base for the investigation of these treatments for chronic inherited and established neurodegenerative conditions.

Skinner, S. J. M.; Geaney, M. S.; Lin, H.; Muzina, M.; Anal, A. K.; Elliott, R. B.; Tan, P. L. J.

2009-12-01

98

Na+ dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na+ dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed. PMID:24155723

Christensen, Henriette L.; Nguyen, An T.; Pedersen, Fredrik D.; Damkier, Helle H.

2013-01-01

99

Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of the models of brain endothelial cells and choroidal plexus epithelial cells in culture has allowed us to investigate into these mechanisms. Our strategy is aimed at exploring different routes to the entrapment of iron oxide NPs in these brain related cells. Here we demonstrated that not only cells endowed with a good phagocytic activity like activated macrophages but also endothelial brain capillary and choroidal plexus epithelial cells do internalize iron oxide NPs. Our study of the intracellular trafficking of NPs by TEM, and confocal microscopy revealed that NPs are mainly internalized by the endocytic pathway. Iron oxide NPs were dispersed in water and coated with 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) using standard procedures. Magnetic lipid NPs were prepared by NANOVECTOR: water in oil in water (W/O/W) microemulsion process has been applied to directly coat different iron based NPs by lipid layer or to encapsulate them into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs). By these coating/loading the colloidal stability was improved without strong alteration of the particle size distribution. Magnetic lipid NPs could be reconstituted after freeze drying without appreciable changes in stability. L-DOPA coated NPs are stable in PBS and in MEM (Modified Eagle Medium) medium. The magnetic properties of these NPs were not altered by the coating processes. We investigated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and interaction of these NPs with rat brain capillary endothelial (REB4) and choroidal plexus epithelial (Z310) cells. By means of widefield, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we studied the cell uptake of magnetic SLNs derivatized with a fluorescent reporter molecule and of L-DOPA-TRITC coated NPs. Inhibition of the caveolae-mediated pathway by preincubation with filipin and nystatin did not modify the cellular uptake of these NPs in both cell lines. Furthermore a mild decrease of the NPs cell uptake was obtained after chlorpromazine and NaN3 pretreatment, which interferes with clathrin and energy-dependent endocytosis, and cytochalasin and amiloride pretreatment which interfere with macropinocytosis. NPs particle size as such can strongly affect the efficiency of cellular uptake and the mode of endocytosis. Considering that our L-DOPA and magnetic SLNs display a medium hydrodynamic size of 120 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.3, we can assume that the cell uptake process of these NPs may develop, depending the particle size, both via clathrin mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis and only to less extent via the pathway of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Taken together these results let us to conclude that SLNs iron loaded and iron based L-DOPA coated NPs are internalized into brain endothelial and choroidal plexus epithelial cells and this might provide the first step of an intracellular trafficking to transport these NPs between blood and brain.

Cambianica, I.; Bossi, M.; Gasco, P.; Gonzalez, W.; Idee, J. M.; Miserocchi, G.; Rigolio, R.; Chanana, M.; Morjan, I.; Wang, D.; Sancini, G.

2010-10-01

100

Excretory plugs from the choroid plexus in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with neurological disease: possible role in the formation of corpora arenacea.  

PubMed

Cytological specimens of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 13 (6.5%) of 200 dogs with various neurological diseases contained excretory plugs (EPs) originating from choroid plexus cells (ChPCs). The presence of EPs was not related to age, breed or sex, or to any particular neurological disease. EPs, which ranged from 3 to 25 microm in diameter, had a sharp outline and contained granular material. Many such bodies were also found within ChPCs of dogs without neurological disease, which were examined to determine the origin of EPs. The results suggest that EPs found in the CSF are excretory products originating in a small population of ChPCs, and that when they reach a certain size they are eliminated into the CSF. It is possible that they serve as cores around which corpora arenacea ("brain sand") are subsequently formed. PMID:11032668

Garma-Aviña, A

2000-01-01

101

Initial experience with combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization for post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity: the importance of prepontine cistern status and the predictive value of FIESTA MRI imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity (PHHP) is among the most common causes of infant hydrocephalus in developed\\u000a nations. This population has a high incidence of shunt failure, infection, and slit ventricle syndrome. Although effective\\u000a for other etiologies of infant hydrocephalus, the efficacy of combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus\\u000a cauterization (ETV\\/CPC) in PHHP has not been investigated. This pilot study

Benjamin C. Warf; Jeffrey W. Campbell; Eric Riddle

2011-01-01

102

Ecrg4 expression and its product augurin in the choroid plexus: impact on fetal brain development, cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis and neuroprogenitor cell response to CNS injury  

PubMed Central

Background The content and composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is determined in large part by the choroid plexus (CP) and specifically, a specialized epithelial cell (CPe) layer that responds to, synthesizes, and transports peptide hormones into and out of CSF. Together with ventricular ependymal cells, these CPe relay homeostatic signals throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and regulate CSF hydrodynamics. One new candidate signal is augurin, a newly recognized 14 kDa protein that is encoded by esophageal cancer related gene-4 (Ecrg4), a putative tumor suppressor gene whose presence and function in normal tissues remains unexplored and enigmatic. The aim of this study was to explore whether Ecrg4 and its product augurin, can be implicated in CNS development and the response to CNS injury. Methods Ecrg4 gene expression in CNS and peripheral tissues was studied by in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR. Augurin, the protein encoded by Ecrg4, was detected by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The biological consequence of augurin over-expression was studied in a cortical stab model of rat CNS injury by intra-cerebro-ventricular injection of an adenovirus vector containing the Ecrg4 cDNA. The biological consequences of reduced augurin expression were evaluated by characterizing the CNS phenotype caused by Ecrg4 gene knockdown in developing zebrafish embryos. Results Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, the CP is a major source of Ecrg4 in the CNS and that Ecrg4 mRNA is predominantly localized to choroid plexus epithelial (CPe), ventricular and central canal cells of the spinal cord. After a stab injury into the brain however, both augurin staining and Ecrg4 gene expression decreased precipitously. If the loss of augurin was circumvented by over-expressing Ecrg4 in vivo, BrdU incorporation by cells in the subependymal zone decreased. Inversely, gene knockdown of Ecrg4 in developing zebrafish embryos caused increased proliferation of GFAP-positive cells and induced a dose-dependent hydrocephalus-like phenotype that could be rescued by co-injection of antisense morpholinos with Ecrg4 mRNA. Conclusion An unusually elevated expression of the Ecrg4 gene in the CP implies that its product, augurin, plays a role in CP-CSF-CNS function. The results are all consistent with a model whereby an injury-induced decrease in augurin dysinhibits target cells at the ependymal-subependymal interface. We speculate that the ability of CP and ependymal epithelium to alter the progenitor cell response to CNS injury may be mediated, in part by Ecrg4. If so, the canonic control of its promoter by DNA methylation may implicate epigenetic mechanisms in neuroprogenitor fate and function in the CNS. PMID:21349154

2011-01-01

103

A developmental analysis of differences in the uptake of [123I]isopropyliodoamphetamine versus 99mTc-pertechnetate by the choroid plexus and brain.  

PubMed

The uptake of intravascular [123I]isopropyliodoamphetamine (IMP) and 99mTc-pertechnetate into choroid plexus (CP) and brain (frontal cortex) was studied by an indicator fractionation method applied to immature, ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5, 2, and 3 wk). Assessment of the rate and extent of uptake of these indicators provides functional information (eg blood flow; transport) about various regions of the developing CNS. IMP uptake by lateral ventricle CP was 1.15 ml/g/min in 1.5-wk-old infant rats and gradually increased to 3.9 mg/g/min by adulthood (7-8 wk) (P < 0.05); over the same postnatal period, 99mTc uptake went from 2.82 to 3.18 ml/g/min. IMP uptake by cortex was 0.39 and 0.99 ml/g/min in infants and adults, respectively (P < 0.05); however, 99mTc uptake by cortex was only 0.07 +/- 0.01 ml/g/min at all ages, reflecting early development of blood-brain barrier (BBB) to pertechnetate. Overall, our findings indicated a progressive increase with age in the rate of uptake of IMP by CP and brain; and that 99mTc penetration into CP was relatively constant and substantially greater than into cortex at all developmental stages. Thus the nature of uptake of IMP, relative to 99mTc, was markedly different at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (i.e., CP) vs. the blood-brain barrier. PMID:8065493

Yacavone, R F; Dyas, M L; Johanson, C E

1994-04-01

104

Lead-Induced Accumulation of ?-Amyloid in the Choroid Plexus: Role of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Protein-1 and Protein Kinase C  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (CP), constituting the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, has the capacity to remove beta-amyloid (A?) from the cerebrospinal fluid. Our previous work indicates that exposure to lead (Pb) results in A? accumulation in the CP by decreasing the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 (LRP1), a protein involved in the transport and clearance of A?. The current study was designed to explore the relationship between A? accumulation, protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and LRP1 status in the CP following Pb exposure. Confocal microscopy revealed that LRP1 was primarily localized in the cytosol of the CP in control rats and migrated distinctly towards the apical surface and the microvilli following acute Pb exposure (27 mg Pb/kg, ip, 24 hr). Co-immunostaining revealed a co-localization of both PKC-? and LRP1 in the cytosol of control rats, with a distinct relocalization of both towards the apical membrane following Pb exposure. Preincubation of the tissues with PKC-? inhibitor rottlerin (2 µM) prior to Pb exposure in vitro, resulted in abolishing the Pb-induced relocalization of LRP1 to the apical surface. Importantly, a significant elevation in intracellular A? levels (p<0.01) was observed in the cytosol of the CP following Pb exposure, which was abolished following preincubation with rottlerin. In addition, rottlerin caused a relocalization of A? from the cytosol to the nucleus in both Pb-treated and control CP tissues. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed a strong protein-protein interaction between LRP1 and PKC-? in the CP. These studies suggest that Pb exposure disrupts A? homeostasis at the CP, owing partly to a Pb-induced relocalization of LRP1 via PKC-?. PMID:20488202

Behl, Mamta; Zhang, Yanshu; Shi, Yunzhou; Cheng, Jixin; Du, Yansheng; Zheng, Wei

2010-01-01

105

Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... such as trichinosis , dog tapeworm ( Toxocara canis ), and echinococcus , can form cysts within the muscles, liver, brain, lungs, and eyes. Cysts are common on the skin. They can develop from a clogged sebaceous glands ( ...

106

Choroid epithelial cells: source cerebrospinal fluid progesterone in sheep?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karahan S., Yarim G. F., Yarim M. Choroid epithelial cells: the source of cerebrospinal fluid progesterone in sheep? Summary The present study was conducted to immunolocalize 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3b-HSD), an enzyme metabolizing pregnenolone to progesterone in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle in sheep, as well as to measure progesterone concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma using radioimmunoassay

SIYAMI KARAHAN; GUL FATMA YARIM; MURAT YARIM

2007-01-01

107

Ovarian cysts  

MedlinePLUS

Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts; Corpus luteum cysts; Follicular cysts ... cyst often contains a small amount of blood. Ovarian cysts are more common the in childbearing years between ...

108

Choroidal imaging: A review  

PubMed Central

Being the most vascular tissue of the eye, importance of the choroid has been very well established in various retinal and chorio-retinal diseases. Understanding of the choroidal structures has improved significantly since the evolution of enhanced depth imaging. Quantitative assessment of choroidal measurements has been found to be reproducible using different devices. This review article describes factors affecting choroidal thickness and choroidal changes in several diseases and reports its clinical importance. Evaluation of choroid would provide insight into the pathogenesis, treatment planning and follow up in chorioretinal diseases. PMID:24843305

Chhablani, Jay; Wong, Ian Y.; Kozak, Igor

2014-01-01

109

Ovarian Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Ovarian Cyst Overview What is an ovarian cyst? An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac in or on the ovary. There are several types of ovarian cysts. Many ovarian cysts are noncancerous cysts that ...

110

Single port microsurgical technique for excision of third ventricular colloid cysts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Colloid cysts are benign space-occupying lesions that account for 0.5-1.0% of brain tumors and arise from the velum interpositum or the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. Material and Methods: We are describing a modified surgical technique that combines the positive attributes of being minimalistic, while retaining the effectiveness of microsurgery. In all 20 consecutive symptomatic patients with a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of colloid cyst who came to the senior author between 2008 and 2011 were included in the study. The patient was kept supine with the head positioned neutrally in the sagittal plane and neck flexed at 20°. The tube of a 5 ml plastic syringe having an external diameter of 13 mm and an internal diameter of 12.6 mm was cut toward the nozzle end to the appropriate length depending upon the cortical thickness measured on the preoperative MRI. Results: The average operative time was around 90 min with maximum of 120 min. None of the patients had seizures preoperatively or postoperatively and in all cases antiepileptic medication could be stopped after 3-6 month of surgery. Two patients had short-term memory impairment which returned to near normal by 1-year following surgery. Conclusion: A volume of 5 ml plastic syringe port technique decreases the operative morbidity and operative time. The wider corridor of working makes the simultaneously maneuverability of two surgical instruments feasible enhancing safety and completeness of excision.

Vaish, Manish; Patir, Rana; Prasad, Rahul; Agrawal, Amit

2014-01-01

111

THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL CHOROID  

PubMed Central

The choroid of the eye is primarily a vascular structure supplying the outer retina. It has several unusual features: It contains large membrane-lined lacunae, which, at least in birds, function as part of the lymphatic drainage of the eye and which can change their volume dramatically, thereby changing the thickness of the choroid as much as four-fold over a few days (much less in primates). It contains non-vascular smooth muscle cells, especially behind the fovea, the contraction of which may thin the choroid, thereby opposing the thickening caused by expansion of the lacunae. It has intrinsic choroidal neurons, also mostly behind the central retina, which may control these muscles and may modulate choroidal blood-flow as well. These neurons receive sympathetic, parasympathetic and nitrergic innervation. The choroid has several functions: Its vasculature is the major supply for the outer retina; impairment of the flow of oxygen from choroid to retina may cause Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The choroidal blood flow, which is as great as in any other organ, may also cool and warm the retina. In addition to its vascular functions, the choroid contains secretory cells, probably involved in modulation of vascularization and in growth of the sclera. Finally, the dramatic changes in choroidal thickness move the retina forward and back, bringing the photoreceptors into the plane of focus, a function demonstrated by the thinning of the choroid that occurs when the focal plane is moved back by the wearing of negative lenses, and, conversely, by the thickening that occurs when positive lenses are worn. In addition to focusing the eye, more slowly than accommodation and more quickly than emmetropization, we argue that the choroidal thickness changes also are correlated with changes in the growth of the sclera, and hence of the eye. Because transient increases in choroidal thickness are followed by a prolonged decrease in synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules and a slowing of ocular elongation, and attempts to decouple the choroidal and scleral changes have largely failed, it seems that the thickening of the choroid may be mechanistically linked to the scleral synthesis of macromolecules, and thus may play an important role in the homeostatic control of eye growth, and, consequently, in the etiology of myopia and hyperopia. PMID:20044062

Nickla, Debora L.; Wallman, Josh

2010-01-01

112

The choroid plexus response to a repeated peripheral inflammatory stimulus  

E-print Network

Gnai1 Definition Guanine nucleotide binding protein alphaLyzs Definition D site albumin promoter binding proteinDefinition Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like Cytochrome P450 family 26 subfamily b polypeptide 1 Spondin 2 extracellular matrix protein

2009-01-01

113

Ovarian Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office ...

114

Brachial plexus injury.  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old man shot himself in the left posterior triangle of the neck with a shotgun. At the initial operation secondary repair of the resultant brachial plexus injury was decided upon in view of the difficulty in assessing lesions in continuity at this point after injury. The patient had total brachial plexus palsy. Nine weeks after the injury sensory and motor function were returning and the only element of the brachial plexus not showing evidence of nerve fibre continuity was the musculocutaneous nerve. Sural nerve autografts were sutured between the trimmed proximal and distal stumps of this nerve. By 4 months after the injury there was further improvement in both sensory and motor function, and by 18 months there was sensation in the autonomous zones of both median and ulnar nerves and good return of muscle power. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:603845

Hudson, A. R.; Dommisse, I.

1977-01-01

115

Vitelliform focal choroidal excavation.  

PubMed

Focal choroidal excavations (FCE) are characterized by foveal or perifoveal choroid excavations seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The authors report a case of FCE associated with a vitelliform lesion within the excavation. A case of FCE associated with a small vitelliform lesion has been described previously, but the larger extent of the vitelliform lesion observed in the current case has not been previously reported. This may represent a novel category of FCE, vitelliform focal choroidal excavation, in which deposition of vitelliform material is associated with its development. PMID:24877636

Or, Chris; Forooghian, Farzin

2014-01-01

116

Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.  

PubMed

Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is considered to be the result of a trauma during the delivery, even if there remains some controversy surrounding the causes. Although most babies recover spontaneously in the first 3 months of life, a small number remains with poor recovery which requires surgical brachial plexus exploration. Surgical indications depend on the type of lesion (producing total or partial palsy) and particularly the nonrecovery of biceps function by the age of 3 months. In a global palsy, microsurgery will be mandatory and the strategy for restoration will focus first on hand reinnervation and secondarily on providing elbow flexion and shoulder stability. Further procedures may be necessary during growth in order to avoid fixed contractured deformities or to give or increase strength of important muscle functions like elbow flexion or wrist extension. The author reviews the history of obstetrical brachial plexus injury, epidemiology, and the specifics of descriptive and functional anatomy in babies and children. Clinical manifestations at birth are directly correlated with the anatomical lesion. Finally, operative procedures are considered, including strategies of reconstruction with nerve grafting in infants and secondary surgery to increase functional capacity at later ages. However, normal function is usually not recovered, particularly in total brachial plexus palsy. PMID:23622302

Romaña, M C; Rogier, A

2013-01-01

117

Ovarian Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

What is an ovarian cyst? An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid or other tissue that forms on the ovary . ... FAQ Ovarian Cancer). What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts? Most ovarian cysts are small and do not ...

118

Management of brachial plexus injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most brachial plexus lesions are traction injuries sustained during birth, but in adolescents and older people they are usually\\u000a caused by traffic accidents or following a fall in the home. A minority are the result of penetrating injury after civilian\\u000a assault or trauma encountered during wartime.\\u000a \\u000a Birth palsy cases (obstetric brachial plexus palsy) and the remaining cases (traumatic brachial plexus

G. Blaauw; R. S. Muhlig; J. W. Vredeveld

119

Ovarian Cysts  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the release of eggs that are needed for reproduction. The hormones produced by the ovaries are very ... a growth. These cysts can be painful during sexual intercourse and during menstruation. Cystadenomas. These cysts develop ...

120

Epidermoid Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | ... known as sebaceous cysts (a misnomer), contain a soft "cheesy" material composed of keratin, a protein component of skin, hair, and nails. Epidermoid cysts form when the top ...

121

Arachnoid Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... that arise during the early weeks of gestation. Secondary arachnoid cysts are not as common as primary cysts and develop as a result of head injury, meningitis, or tumors, or as a complication of ...

122

Lumbosacral plexus lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background  Aim of the present study was to analyse the main causes of lumbosacral plexus lesions together with the best diagnostic and\\u000a therapeutic options for better patient outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We report our surgical experience with eight patients in whom lesion mechanisms consisted of high-energy trauma (4 pts), firearm\\u000a injuries (2 pts), spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma in anticoagulant therapy (1 pt) and schwannoma (1

G. Stevanato; L. Vazzana; S. Daramaras; G. Trincia; G. C. Saggioro; G. Squintani

123

Blake's pouch cyst: an entity within the Dandy-Walker continuum.  

PubMed

Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections within the posterior fossa are defined by the Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) and by arachnoid cysts (AC). The DWC includes the Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), the Dandy-Walker variant (DWV) and the mega-cisterna magna (MCM). In addition, Tortori-Donati et al. added persistent Blake's pouch cyst (BPC) as an independent entity within the DWC. BPC represents a posterior ballooning of the superior medullary velum into the cisterna magna. All of these malformations are overlapping developmental anomalies characterized by varying degrees of malformation of the medullary vela, the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres, the fourth ventricle choroid plexus, the posterior fossa subarachnoid cisterns and the enveloping meningeal structures. We present two cases of persistent BPC detected in two adult women without history of gestational or subsequent growth problems. They underwent neuroradiological investigation because of headache and because of recurrent episodes of loss of consciousness, respectively. The MRI findings included tetraventricular hydrocephalus, wide communication of the fourth ventricle and the cystic posterior fossa (i.e. BPC), inferior posterior fossa mass effect with or without hypoplasia of both the cerebellar vermis and the medial aspects of the cerebellar hemispheres, and absence of communication between fourth ventricle and the basal subarachnoid space in the midline posteriorly. Persistent BPC is defined by a failure of embryonic assimilation of the area membranacea anterior within the tela choroidea associated with imperforation of the foramen of Magendie. Typically this condition becomes symptomatic early in life. In the current cases the normal function of the laterally positioned foramina of Luschka probably helped to maintain some CSF flow between intraventricular and subarachnoid spaces, with the establishment of a precarious equilibrium characterized by a compensatory enlargement of the cerebral ventricular system (i.e. hydrocephalus). PMID:10872175

Calabrò, F; Arcuri, T; Jinkins, J R

2000-04-01

124

Choroidal thickness after intravitreal ranibizumab injections for choroidal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study changes in choroidal thickness with ranibizumab treatment for choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Design Prospective case series. Methods This prospective study consisted of 60 CNV-affected eyes of 60 patients treated with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab using an on-demand protocol after an initial loading phase. The eyes studied included 20 with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 20 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and 20 with myopic CNV. In the eyes with AMD and PCV, choroidal thickness at the fovea was measured with optical coherence tomography using enhanced depth imaging. In eyes with myopic CNV, the choroidal thickness was measured using standard optical coherence tomography without the enhanced depth imaging technique. Results With ranibizumab treatment, central retinal thickness decreased significantly (P < 0.001) and visual acuity improved significantly (P < 0.001). However, central choroidal thickness (167.2 ± 108.3 ?m) showed no significant change at 1 month after the loading phase (165.2 ± 107.8 ?m, P = 0.120) or at final examination (164.8 ± 107.7 ?m, P = 0.115). At baseline, central retinal thickness in eyes with AMD was significantly greater that those with PCV (P = 0.005) or high myopia (P = 0.029). However, central choroidal thickness in eyes with myopic CNV was significantly thinner than in eyes with AMD (P < 0.001) or PCV (P < 0.001). In each type of disease, there was no significant change in central choroidal thickness with ranibizumab treatment. Conclusion The effect of ranibizumab on the choroidal thickness is minimal, if any. PMID:22701085

Ellabban, Abdallah A; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Ogino, Ken; Ooto, Sotaro; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oishi, Akio; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

2012-01-01

125

Bronchogenic Cyst  

PubMed Central

The clinical presentation of the bronchogenic cyst is variable, from respiratory distress at birth to late appearance of symptoms. In order to determine clinical features and treatments, we retrospectively studied the medical records and pathology reports of all patients with bronchogenic cysts (n = 22) referred to our surgical department from February 1985 through January 2002. They included 18 male and 4 female patients with an age range of 1 to 38 years (average, 16.4 years). There were 14 mediastinal, 2 hilar, and 6 intrapulmonary bronchogenic cysts. Symptoms were present in 18 of the 22 patients. Cough was the most common symptom (45%). Ten patients (45%) presented with complications: severe hemoptysis, pneumothorax and pleuritis, esophageal compression, infected cyst, and postobstructive pneumonia. In all patients, complete resection of the bronchogenic cyst was performed by thoracotomy. A postoperative sequela occurred in only 1 patient, who had a persistent air leak. There were no late sequelae, nor was there a recurrence of the cyst. The follow-up period ranged from 8 months to 12 years (mean, 5.2 years). Because a confident preoperative diagnosis is not always possible and because complications are common, we recommend surgical resection of all suspected bronchogenic cysts in operable candidates. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:105–8) PMID:12809250

Sarper, Alpay; Ayten, Arife; Golbasi, Ilhan; Demircan, Abid; Isin, Erol

2003-01-01

126

Pilar Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | ... that are most often found on the scalp. The cysts are smooth and mobile, filled with keratin (a protein component found in hair, nails, and skin), and they may or may ...

127

[Choroidal tuberculosis: reports of 3 cases].  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic infection with a high incidence in Morocco. Ocular involvement is rare. We report three cases of choroidal tuberculosis. Case no 1: A 24-year-old female with tuberculous meningitis, multifocal choroiditis in the right eye and choroidal granuloma in the left eye. Case no 2: A 22-year-old female with multifocal tuberculosis. The ocular examination showed a choroidal granuloma. Case no 3: A 25-year-old male with HIV infection and miliary tuberculosis. Ocular involvement consisted in a choroidal granuloma. Ocular involvement in tuberculosis is uncommon. Choroidal granuloma is a characteristic manifestation. PMID:20108570

Baha Ali, T; Benhaddou, R; Hajj, I; Khoumiri, R; Guelzim, H; Moutaouakil, A

2009-01-01

128

Focal choroidal excavation associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.  

PubMed

A 48-year-old woman presented with blurred vision in her right eye for 6 weeks. Visual acuity was 20/300 and 20/25 in the right and left eyes, respectively. Fundus examination showed subretinal hemorrhage in the superonasal macula in the right eye, whereas the left eye was normal. Fluorescein angiography showed blocked fluorescence from hemorrhage and a round distinct hypofluorescent spot along the inferotemporal arcade. Indocyanine green angiography revealed hyperfluorescent tubular and aneurysmal dilatations consistent with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in the superior macula. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed retinal pigment epithelial irregularities and detachment. Scans through the round area of hypofluorescence revealed a conforming focal choroidal excavation and thinning of the underlying choriocapillaries. Because the pathogenesis of focal choroidal excavation is currently unclear, the authors propose the possibility of an acquired etiology related to loss of choriocapillaries from perfusion abnormalities as evidenced here. PMID:23883536

Say, Emil Anthony T; Jani, Pooja D; Appenzeller, Matthew F; Houghton, Odette M

2013-01-01

129

Choroidal Nevus in an Eye with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report an eye with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and a choroidal nevus. Methods This is an observational case report. Results A healthy 69-year-old woman was referred to the Osaka University Hospital with a diagnosis of a macular tumor. She complained of having distorted vision in her left eye. The medical history of the patient was unremarkable. At the initial examination, her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in both eyes, and the intraocular pressure was 18 mm Hg in both eyes. A slit-lamp examination showed no abnormalities in the anterior segment of both eyes and a fundus examination of the left eye showed a slightly elevated juxtafoveal chorioretinal lesion and polyp-like reddish-orange lesions. The juxtafoveal choroidal lesion was located beneath a choroidal neovascularization (CNV). An optical coherence tomography confirmed CNV with pigment epithelial detachment (PED). Fluorescein angiography showed juxtafoveal hyperfluorescence due to CNV. Indocyanine green angiography demonstrated a branching choroidal vascular network that resembled polypoidal lesions. A fundus autofluorescence showed a mosaic pattern and a slight hyperautofluorescence at the CNV. We diagnosed the patient as having PCV. Aflibercept was injected intravitreally because of her PED. After the injection, PED improved and her visual acuity remained stable during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusions In cases of PCV, FAF images are helpful in determining the status of the posterior pole. Intravitreal injections of aflibercept can improve PED associated with CNV, and the BCVA will remain stable for at least 12 months. PMID:25606040

Asao, Kazunobu; Hashida, Noriyasu; Nishida, Kohji

2014-01-01

130

Choroidal impairment and macular thinning in patients with systemic sclerosis: The acute study.  

PubMed

Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a reversible vasospastic response of the extremities to cold or emotion, and can be the first manifestation or may be present before the development of an overt systemic sclerosis (SSc). The disturbance of the balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction is not limited to the peripheral microcirculation of the skin, but it is also observed in other organs, such as the choroidal plexus of the eye. We aimed to examine the choroidal thickness (CT), the macular thickness and ganglion cell complex (GCC) average in thirty consecutive patients, without visual symptoms, classified as primary RP (pRP), RP secondary to suspected SSc, and overt SSc. All the patients underwent rheumatologic and ophthalmologic examination, capillaroscopy, test for anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-dsDNA, and anti-extractable nuclear antigens. Ophthalmologic examination included: best corrected visual acuity; slit lamp biomicroscopy; intraocular pressure measurements, fundus examination, and Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) with enhanced depth imaging scan system. Twenty-seven healthy subjects similar for gender and age were analyzed. In pRP, CT was significantly thinner than controls in the outer nasal and temporal regions. In secondary RP, the inner and outer nasal areas were significantly thinner than controls. In SSc, the central, inner inferior, inner nasal, inner superior, outer temporal, outer inferior, and outer nasal regions were significantly thinner than controls. A decreasing trend of central foveal thickness was noted. All the patients had GCC average significantly lower than controls. A thinning of choroidal and macular thickness, as well as of GCC was observed in patients with pRP and becomes more severe and extensive in RP secondary to suspected SSc and overt SSc. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the choroidal features using SD-OCT in RP. These data may be clinically useful in suggesting an early involvement of ocular microcirculation with significant reduction of choroidal perfusion. PMID:25262916

Ingegnoli, Francesca; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Pierro, Luisa; Del Turco, Claudia; Miserocchi, Elisabetta; Schioppo, Tommaso; Meroni, Pier Luigi

2015-01-01

131

Neurological recovery after surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningoceles extending to lumbar spine associated with previous brachial plexus injury.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of 28-year-old man who presented with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy due to the giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine at 10 years after previous brachial plexus injury. To evaluate the communicating tract between pseudomeningocele and subarachnoidal space, the multidetector-row helical CT with simultaneous myelography was performed preoperatively. The surgical treatment in the cervical spine included the resection of pseudomeningocele and the repair of dural defects communicating into the cyst following multi-level laminoplasty and foraminotomies. At 6 years after surgery, the significant neurologic recovery and complete obliteration of cysts in the whole spine area were maintained. This serves as the first report describing the significant neurologic recovery after the surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine after previous brachial plexus injury. PMID:20383537

Kotani, Yoshihisa; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Terae, Satoshi; Hisada, Yukiyoshi; Minami, Akio

2010-07-01

132

Neurological recovery after surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningoceles extending to lumbar spine associated with previous brachial plexus injury  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of 28-year-old man who presented with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy due to the giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine at 10 years after previous brachial plexus injury. To evaluate the communicating tract between pseudomeningocele and subarachnoidal space, the multidetector-row helical CT with simultaneous myelography was performed preoperatively. The surgical treatment in the cervical spine included the resection of pseudomeningocele and the repair of dural defects communicating into the cyst following multi-level laminoplasty and foraminotomies. At 6 years after surgery, the significant neurologic recovery and complete obliteration of cysts in the whole spine area were maintained. This serves as the first report describing the significant neurologic recovery after the surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine after previous brachial plexus injury. PMID:20383537

Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Terae, Satoshi; Hisada, Yukiyoshi; Minami, Akio

2010-01-01

133

Intrinsic choroidal neurons in the duck eye receive sympathetic input: anatomical evidence for adrenergic modulation of nitrergic functions in the choroid.  

PubMed

Intrinsic choroidal neurons (ICN) in the duck eye form an intramural ganglionic plexus that may subserve complex integrative functions. A key feature of such ganglia is an innervation by sympathetic postganglionic neurons. The present study was thus aimed at determining the sympathetic postganglionic innervation of ICN. Choroids were processed for double immunofluorescence labelling with the following markers: tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)/nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), TH/galanin (GAL), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH)/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), TH/DBH and DBH/alpha-smooth-muscle actin (alphaSMA), and for triple immunofluorescence labelling with VIP/DBH/TH. Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for evaluation. Immunoperoxidase staining for TH or DBH in combination with NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry was applied for electron microscopy. ICN spread over the entire choroid but were concentrated in an equatorial zone passing obliquely from naso-cranial to temporocaudal. More than 80% of nNOS-positive ICN showed close appositions of TH/DBH-immunoreactive varicose nerve fibres at the light-microscopic level, as could be confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Ultrastructurally, these appositions could be defined as both synapses or close contacts without synaptic specialisation. Vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle fibres also received TH/DBH-immunopositive innervation. Our findings suggest that most ICN receive a sympathetic input that might modulate their nitrergic effects upon vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle fibres in the choroid and that they may have more complex functions than merely being a simple parasympathetic relay. PMID:11396712

Schrödl, F; Tines, R; Brehmer, A; Neuhuber, W L

2001-05-01

134

Role of echography in diagnostic dilemma in choroidal masses  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the role of echography in diagnosis and management of a diverse array of choroidal masses. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two cases of clinically suspected choroidal masses were prospectively analyzed with B-scan (10 Hz), A-scan, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) (50 Hz) after a meticulous history and ocular examination. Ancillary investigations and systemic evaluation were also done. Results: Based on clinical suspicion, acoustic features, response to treatment, and other ancillary tests combined together, the various masses were differentiated. The cases included in the study were as follows: n = 10 malignant melanomas, n = 16 metastasis and infiltrations, n = 9 hemangioma, n = 7 tuberculoma, n = 8 nonspecific inflammatory masses, n = 2 disciform plaques, n = 4 macular cysts or retinoschisis, n = 2 Coat's disease, n = 1 melanocytoma, and n = 2 osteomas. Ultrasonography (USG) alone could identify n = 51 lesions, while UBM in combination with USG was needed in remaining 11 masses. Conclusion: Standardized echography is an important adjunct in the diagnosis and management of eyes with intraocular masses. A better understanding of the clinicopathological and echographic picture of the diverse lesions can help in detection, differentiation, diagnosis, proposing a therapeutic approach, and also monitoring response to treatment. Echography is essential to evaluate tumors for extrascleral and anterior segment extension. PMID:24618487

Mithal, Kopal N; Thakkar, Hansa H; Tyagi, Mudit A; Bharwada, Rekha M; Billore, Puja O

2014-01-01

135

Choledochal cysts  

PubMed Central

Much about the etiology, pathophysiology, natural course and optimal treatment of cystic disease of the biliary tree remains under debate. Gastroenterologists, surgeons and radiologists alike still strive to optimize their roles in the management of choledochal cysts. To that end, much has been written about this disease entity, and the purpose of this 3-part review is to organize the available literature and present the various theories currently argued by the experts. In part 2, we explore the details surrounding diagnosis, describing the presentation and imaging of the disease. PMID:20011188

Singham, Janakie; Yoshida, Eric M.; Scudamore, Charles H.

2009-01-01

136

Birth Defects: What They Are and How They Happen  

MedlinePLUS

... include heart defects , cleft lip and cleft palate , Down syndrome and spina bifida . Find out how to prevent ... the choroid plexus. These cysts are made of blood vessels and tissue. They do not cause intellectual disabilities ...

137

Choroidal Blood Flow During Isometric Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions. Previous studies have demonstrated that during isometric exercise, blood pres- sures in the ophthalmic and brachial arteries rise in parallel. These observations and the current results indicate that an increase in PPm up to 67% induces an increase in choroidal vascular resistance that limits the increase in choroidal blood flow to approximately 12%. This regulatory process fails when PPm

Charles E. Riva; Patrick Titze; Mark Hero; Armand Movaffaghy; Benno L. Petrig

138

Schistosomotic choroiditis. II. Report of first case.  

PubMed Central

The first case of granulomatous choroiditis produced by Schistosoma mansoni with histological confirmation is reported. The patient had the hepatosplenic and cardiopulmonary forms of the disease and presented with cerebral schistosomiasis. The funduscopic aspects of the lesion and the possible pathways taken by the parasite to reach the choroid are discussed. Images PMID:3994947

Pittella, J. E.; Oréfice, F.

1985-01-01

139

The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error. Subjects and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area. Results The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 ?m, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001) and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02). Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age. Conclusion Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 ?m every year and 14.59 ?m with 1 mm increase in axial length. PMID:25419112

Jirarattanasopa, Pichai; Panon, Nisa; Hiranyachattada, Siriphun; Bhurayanontachai, Patama

2014-01-01

140

Neurinomas of the brachial plexus: case report.  

PubMed

Neurinomas, also referred to as neurilemmomas and schwannomas, are rare benign tumours of the peripheral nerves, a low proportion of which arise from the brachial plexus. Authors report a case of an ancient schwannoma arising from the brachial plexus. The tumour, usually asymptomatic, may cause sensory radicular symptoms, or rarely motor deficits in the involved arm. Enucleation of the tumour from the nerve without damage to any of the fascicles is the correct treatment. PMID:10710825

Forte, A; Gallinaro, L S; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Prece, V; Illuminati, G

1999-01-01

141

The Pro-Antioxidant Role of Zinc Supplementation in Cadmium-Treated Choroid Plexus  

E-print Network

.11 Inductively coupled plasma#16;mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) .................. #3;#3;#3;#3;#20;9 2.12 Statistics ............................................................................................... 20 3. RESULTS... before collection medium was removed. 2.5 mL of cold sterile dissociation media (per L H2O: 8.0 g NaCl, 0.20 g KCl, 0.10 g Na2HPO4, and 2.38 g HEPES; pH: 7.5) with 10 mg glucose, 10 mg pronase, 40,000 KU DNAse I per 10 mL was added to the collection...

Francis Stuart, Samantha D.

2014-05-06

142

Cervical synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Abstract Synovial cysts of the cervical spine are extremely rare. They can therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. We present an unusual case of acute symptomatology secondary to spontaneous haemorrhage into a cervical facet joint cyst. PMID:24801806

Attwell, Lukas; Elwell, Vivian A; Meir, Adam

2014-12-01

143

Bilateral brachial plexus palsy and right Horner syndrome due to congenital cervicothoracal syringomyelia.  

PubMed

Syringomyelia (SM) is a disorder in which a cyst forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, expands and elongates over time, destroying the center of the cord. Horner syndrome is an infrequent illness caused by a lesion of the cervical sympathetic nerve fiber. Its clinical features are facial anhidrosis, ptosis, miosis, and hypochromia iridis of the affected side. A full-term male newborn infant was admitted with weakness in bilateral upper extremities and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on the right side. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a smaller right pupil. Muscle power in bilateral upper limbs was 1/5. Chest X-ray and cranial magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervicothoracic spine showed SM at C4-T2 level. Electromyographic examination revealed bilateral brachial plexus palsy. The diagnosis was of brachial plexus palsy and congenital Horner syndrome due to congenital cervicothoracic SM. According to our best knowledge, this association has not been reported in the literature. PMID:19765926

Ca?an, Eren; Sayin, Refah; Do?an, Murat; Peker, Erdal; Ca?an, Havva Hasret; Caksen, Hüseyin

2010-08-01

144

Choroidal metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting as pigmented choroidal tumor.  

PubMed

Our case represents a unique occurrence of pigmented choroidal tumor that clinically appeared as choroidal melanoma and was treated accordingly. At the same time, while evaluating the patient for systemic metastases of uveal melanoma, she was diagnosed as having lung carcinoma. Events that led to the enucleation of the eye enabled a histological diagnosis: pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In our case, it happened that a very rare pigmented choroidal metastatic tumor was the presenting sign of a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:23139674

Frenkel, Shahar; Pe'er, Jacob

2012-09-01

145

Esophageal duplication cyst.  

PubMed

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

2015-03-01

146

Baker’s cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... cyst is a buildup of joint fluid (synovial fluid) that forms a cyst behind the knee. ... knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid bulges into the back of the knee. Baker's cyst commonly occurs with: A tear in the meniscal ...

147

[Recurrent Baker's cyst].  

PubMed

A 50-year old female patient with unilateral knee pain demonstrated a recurrent ultrasound-proven popliteal cyst (Baker's cyst). Even though a proper differential diagnosis was done, the MRT of the knee showed in a secondary step a tibial fissure as the cause of the treatment-refractory knee pain and Baker's cyst. A fracture of the tibia is a rare cause for a symptomatic Baker's cysts. Mechanical, degenerative or inflamed diseases of the joint are more frequent associated with a Baker's cyst. PMID:21792809

Stöckli, C; Hunziker, R; Tamborrini, G

2011-07-27

148

Semimembranosus ganglion cyst  

PubMed Central

Ganglion cysts are tumor-like lesions in the soft tissues, generated by mucoid degeneration of the joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheaths on the dorsum of hand, wrist and foot. However, an intratendinous origin for a ganglion cyst is extremely rare. During dissection of the popliteal fossa, a cyst of 2.5 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm was observed in the tendon of right semimembranosus, 3.5 cm above the insertion of the muscle. Contrast X-ray revealed the cyst as not communicating with the knee joint or any adjacent bursae. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ganglion cyst. PMID:25276481

Kannadath, Bijun Sai; Soundamourthy, Sandosh; Subramanian, Aruna; Sinhasan, Sankappa P.; Bhat, Ramachandra V.

2014-01-01

149

Anatomy of the presacral venous plexus: implications for rectal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presacral venous plexus results from anastomoses between the lateral and median sacral veins, and courses into the pelvic fascia covering the anterior aspect of the body of the sacrum. The presacral venous plexus is not directly visible during rectal surgery, and injuries to this plexus may be life-threatening. Dissection of the retrorectal plane or anchoring of the rectum to

P. Baqué; B. Karimdjee; A. Iannelli; E. Benizri; A. Rahili; D. Benchimol; J.-L. Bernard; E. Sejor; S. Bailleux; F. de Peretti; A. Bourgeon

2004-01-01

150

Intravitreal polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in radiation retinopathy.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old woman diagnosed with choroidal melanoma and treated with plaque radiation and transpupillary thermotherapy 5 years earlier presented with recalcitrant proliferative radiation retinopathy despite multiple intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections. Swept-source and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated intravitreal polyps lying on the surface of atrophied chorioretinal tissue. Fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed leakage from these saccular choroidal neovasculopathic vessels adjacent to a large zone of poor choroidal perfusion. Intravitreal polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy may be associated with radiation retinopathy and is well-demonstrated with swept-source and spectral-domain OCT and FA. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:585-588.]. PMID:25347829

Pang, Claudine E; Freund, K Bailey

2014-11-01

151

Systematic Evaluation Of Brachial Plexus Injuries  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injuries offer a unique challenge to the athletic trainer because of their relatively high frequency rate in contact sports and because of the complexity of the neuroanatomy in the cervical area. During a game, athletic trainers must make a fast, accurate decision regarding a player's return to competition. It is imperative that the athletic trainer be able to quickly differentiate between minor injuries and more serious injuries warranting removal from the game and/or physician referral. A systematic approach to the evaluation of a brachial plexus injury is essential to ensure proper treatment. This paper will present a structured approach to an on-the-field assessment of brachial plexus injuries. PMID:16558242

Haynes, Scott

1993-01-01

152

Compact laser Doppler choroidal flowmeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact instrument is described that allows the measurement of the laser Doppler flow parameters, i.e., the velocity, the volume, and flow of blood in the foveal region of the human choroidal vascular system. This new device uses the optical principle of confocality for the delivery of the laser light to the site of measurement and heterodyne detection of the Doppler frequency shifted scattered light. Power of the incident light (785 nm) at the cornea is 90 (mu) W. Measurements were obtained in both eyes of a group of 21 normal volunteers without pupil dilatation. We determined the intrasubject reproducibility and the minimum statistically significant detectable changes in the flow parameters for a group of 21 eyes (one in each subject). Linear correlations were also established between the flow parameters in the right and left eyes.

Geiser, Martial H.; Diermann, Ulrich; Riva, Charles E.

1999-10-01

153

Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.

Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

1990-05-01

154

The Ordovician Arkonia-Striatotheca acritarch plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original diagnoses, stratigraphical ranges and geographical distribution of all infrageneric taxa attributed to the genera Arkonia Burmann 1970 and Striatotheca Burmann 1970, are critically evaluated in a review of published literature supplemented by studies of new material from Belgium and Germany, including sections from type areas. Arkonia and Striatotheca constitute a very important plexus of Ordovician acritarch taxa. They

Thomas Servais

1997-01-01

155

The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea  

PubMed Central

Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Mejías, Wigberto; Jiménez, Luis B.

2010-01-01

156

What has changed in brachial plexus surgery?  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injuries, in all their severity and complexity, have been extensively studied. Although brachial plexus injuries are associated with serious and often definitive sequelae, many concepts have changed since the 1950s, when this pathological condition began to be treated more aggressively. Looking back over the last 20 years, it can be seen that the entire approach, from diagnosis to treatment, has changed significantly. Some concepts have become better established, while others have been introduced; thus, it can be said that currently, something can always be offered in terms of functional recovery, regardless of the degree of injury. Advances in microsurgical techniques have enabled improved results after neurolysis and have made it possible to perform neurotization, which has undoubtedly become the greatest differential in treating brachial plexus injuries. Improvements in imaging devices and electrical studies have allowed quick decisions that are reflected in better surgical outcomes. In this review, we intend to show the many developments in brachial plexus surgery that have significantly changed the results and have provided hope to the victims of this serious injury. PMID:23644864

de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Silva, Gustavo Bersani; de Paula, Emygdio José Leomil; Junior, Rames Mattar; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

2013-01-01

157

Treatment of vascular activity secondary to atypical choroidal nevus using intravitreal bevacizumab  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of 27 eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for intraretinal and subretinal vascular activity associated with atypical choroidal nevi. Methods This was an Internal Review Board-approved retrospective review of 27 eyes of 27 patients with choroidal nevus treated for secondary vascular activity with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab, performed by a single surgeon (TGM) at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. All patients were rigorously evaluated before the procedure and followed thereafter with ophthalmic examinations, refractive analysis, fundus photos, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ocular echography. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, dates of bevacizumab injections, and spectral-domain (SD)-OCT findings at each injection were recorded. Macular edema was graded as per SD-OCT findings for the initial and final visit. Results The mean age was 66.6 years (range, 40–86 years), with ten males and 17 females. Mean, median, and range baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were 20/53, 20/40, and 20/20–4/200, respectively. After a mean follow up of 29 months, the final BCVA mean, median, and range were 20/50, 20/40, and 20/20–20/400, respectively. The final BCVA ranged from 20/20 to 20/25 in nine eyes, while only six eyes had an initial BCVA within the same range. All patients demonstrated OCT findings of vascular activity suggestive of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Initial SD-OCT findings included intraretinal cysts in eleven eyes, intraretinal fluid in six eyes, subretinal fluid in 14 eyes, pigment epithelial detachment in six eyes, epiretinal membrane in five eyes, and subretinal neovascularization in 14 eyes. On fundus photos, four eyes presented retinal hemorrhage. A mean of eight (range of 1–31) intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 cc) injections were given in all cases. A total of 37% (10/27) of eyes had complete or partial regression of vascular activity. The mean initial OCT classification for macular edema was 3 and a mean grade of 3 was maintained at the final follow-up OCT. All 27 choroidal nevi remained stable, and there were no adverse effects from the bevacizumab injections. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the largest published case series of eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for vascular activity associated with choroidal nevus. Intravitreal bevacizumab seems to be effective in the treatment of CNV secondary to choroidal nevus, and OCT can be a useful tool in the follow up of these patients, to assess the regression of CNV and to monitor macular edema. PMID:25092961

Cavalcante, Milena L; Villegas, Victor M; Gold, Aaron S; Cavalcante, Ludimila L; Lonngi, Marcela; Shah, Nisha V; Murray, Timothy G

2014-01-01

158

Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. PMID:25674524

Cho, Jae Hee

2015-01-01

159

Hemorrhagic adrenal cyst.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of a hemorrhagic adrenal cyst, one of the tumors known in literature as incidentalomas, emphasizing the clinical characteristics, since adrenal cysts or pseudocysts are generally rare and observed by chance during imaging procedures. Traditionally they are classified as pseudocysts, endothelial, epithelial or parasitic cysts. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been considered the treatment of choice for benign, functioning or non-functioning adrenal lesions. Small cystic adrenal tumors can be managed conservatively by laparoscopic decortication or marsupialization, but larger cysts should be treated by total or partial adrenalectomy. PMID:23045835

da Silva, Elsa Cristina Fontes Pires; Viamontez, Francisco; Silva, Vasco Sabino; Andrade, Artur; Júlio Neto, Gonçalo; Gomes, Constança de Palma; Neto, Sérgio; Quitembo, Mateus; Dimbany, Higino; Van-Dunem, Joaquim Carlos Vicente Dias; de Miranda, Sandra Maria da Rocha Neto; Bastos, Fernando; Cordeiro, Lemuel Bornelli; Guilherme, Mateus

2012-01-01

160

Cyst of the gallbladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A cyst of the gallbladder is a very rare lesion. The possible causes of such an anomaly are reviewed. It may be acquired or congenital. The latter is particularly exceptional. A case of congenital cyst is reported and illustrated by various imaging techniques.

E. Jacobs; D. Ardichvili; E. D'Avanzo; R. Penneman; D. Van Gansbeke

1991-01-01

161

Subretinal and disc neovascularisation in serpiginous choroiditis.  

PubMed Central

Three out of 15 patients with serpiginous choroiditis who have been followed up for 1 to 10 years (mean 4.9 years) developed subretinal neovascularisation in the macula. In one eye new vessels were treated with argon laser without attaining permanent obliteration, in the second eye the neovascular membrane was regarded as untreatable because it was under the fovea, and in the third eye new vessels became obliterated spontaneously after atrophy of the surrounding choriocapillaris and the pigment epithelium of the retina. In a furth patient disc new vessels were seen at the active stage of serpiginous choroiditis; these new vessels disappeared after scarring of the initial chorioretinal lesions. Images PMID:6176258

Laatikainen, L; Erkkilä, H

1982-01-01

162

Choroidal metastasis from leiomyosarcoma in two cases  

PubMed Central

Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal cells and is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma. Leiomyosarcoma is a notably rare tumor in the ophthalmic region and can be of primary, secondary or metastatic origin. To the best of our knowledge, there has only been one published case of leiomyosarcoma metastasis to the choroid. In this case study, we report two cases of primary leiomyosarcoma with metastasis to the choroid of the eye. Both cases displayed systemic metastasis and showed response to high dose plaque radiotherapy. Despite its prevalence as the leading form of sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma rarely metastasizes to the ocular region. PMID:24799797

Feinstein, Eric; Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L.; Ehya, Hormoz; Shields, Jerry A.

2014-01-01

163

Dermoid cysts in caribou.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous dermoid cysts were identified in eight wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from widely dispersed locations in northern Canada and in one wild caribou from Alaska. The dermoid cysts from Canadian caribou were found among 557 diagnostic specimens that had been detected by hunters and submitted by resource officers and biologists between 1 January 1966 and 15 May 2007. All of the cysts were located in the cervical region, and five of nine cysts were found in the throat area. All of the animals for which the age was known were adult; males and females were equally represented. Dermoid cysts were not diagnosed in any of 1,108 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 293 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 174 elk (Cervus elaphus), or 529 moose (Alces alces) examined during the same period at the Canadian laboratory. PMID:19395761

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Neimanis, A; Beckmen, K B

2009-04-01

164

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial

Moshe Graif; Carlo Martinoli; Shimon Rochkind; Anat Blank; Leonor Trejo; Judith Weiss; Ada Kessler; Lorenzo E. Derchi

2004-01-01

165

Treatment Options for Brachial Plexus Injuries  

PubMed Central

The incidence of brachial plexus injuries is rapidly growing due to the increasing number of high-speed motor-vehicle accidents. These are devastating injuries leading to significant functional impairment of the patients. The purpose of this review paper is to present the available options for conservative and operative treatment and discuss the correct timing of intervention. Reported outcomes of current management and future prospects are also analysed. PMID:24967125

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Mazis, George; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

166

Brachial plexus block in a parturient.  

PubMed

We report a novel circumstance of brachial plexus anesthesia in a parturient. A 25-year-old woman at 34 weeks of gestation presented with a pathologic proximal right humerus fracture from an intramedullary mass. She was scheduled for tumor biopsy which was performed using a two-site ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block to maximize odds of complete anesthesia while minimizing the risk of phrenic nerve paresis. After a supraclavicular block with 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL, we translated our ultrasound probe cephalad, inferior to the root of C7 where the divisions of the superior trunk could be seen in a tightly compact arrangement. An additional injection of 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL was administered at this site, and the patient subsequently underwent successful biopsy without sedatives or analgesics, aside from local anesthetics. In the post-anesthesia care unit, she had normal respirations and oxygen saturations breathing room air, denied any shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, and was discharged shortly after her arrival. While we did not pursue radiologic examination to rule out hemidiaphragm paralysis, we assumed, as evidenced in a previous case report, that unlike most healthy patients, a parturient would demonstrate some clinical signs and/or symptoms of hemidiaphragm paralysis, given that the diaphragm is almost totally responsible for inspiration in the term parturient. This represents only the second brachial plexus block in a parturient reported in the literature; the first using ultrasound guidance and without respiratory embarrassment. PMID:24631059

Patzkowski, M; Scheiner, J

2014-05-01

167

Management of adult choledochal cysts.  

PubMed Central

A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

1981-01-01

168

Responsiveness of eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with choroidal hyperpermeability to intravitreal ranibizumab  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the role played by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) based on an interventional immunology theory. Methods Eyes with PCV were divided in a masked fashion into those with choroidal hyperpermeability (HP group) and those with normal choroidal permeability (NP group) based on the indocyanine green angiograms. The inter-rater agreement rate was evaluated using Fleiss’ kappa. Patients were treated by intravitreal ranibizumab (IVB). The central choroidal thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT) at the baseline and 7 days after the treatment were measured by optical coherence tomography. Results Among the 57 consecutive eyes diagnosed with PCV, 42 eyes of 42 patients met the inclusion criteria (21 eyes/HP group vs 21 eyes /NP group). Central choroidal thickness in HP group was significantly thicker than that in the NP group (P?choroidal hyper-permeability may not be strongly associated with VEGF-related pathology, and may not respond favorably to anti-VEGF monotherapy. PMID:23962072

2013-01-01

169

Age-related macular degeneration: choroidal ischaemia?  

PubMed Central

Aim Our aim is to use ultrasound to non-invasively detect differences in choroidal microarchitecture possibly related to ischaemia among normal eyes and those with wet and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective case series of subjects with dry AMD, wet AMD and age-matched controls. Methods Digitised 20?MHz B-scan radiofrequency ultrasound data of the region of the macula were segmented to extract the signal from the retina and choroid. This signal was processed by a wavelet transform, and statistical modelling was applied to the wavelet coefficients to examine differences among dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate a multivariate classifier. Results In the 69 eyes of 52 patients, 18 did not have AMD, 23 had dry AMD and 28 had wet AMD. Multivariate models showed statistically significant differences between groups. Multiclass ROC analysis of the best model showed an excellent volume-under-curve of 0.892±0.17. The classifier is consistent with ischaemia in dry AMD. Conclusions Wavelet augmented ultrasound is sensitive to the organisational elements of choroidal microarchitecture relating to scatter and fluid tissue boundaries such as seen in ischaemia and inflammation, allowing statistically significant differentiation of dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. This study further supports the association of ischaemia with dry AMD and provides a rationale for treating dry AMD with pharmacological agents to increase choroidal perfusion. ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00277784. PMID:23740965

Coleman, D Jackson; Silverman, Ronald H; Rondeau, Mark J; Lloyd, Harriet O; Khanifar, Aziz A; Chan, R V Paul

2013-01-01

170

Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed Central

Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated: one for rubeotic glaucoma, and one for uveitic glaucoma. Though six patients have died, only one death was due to metastatic choroidal melanoma (39 months after treatment). Clinical observations suggest that the addition of microwave heating to plaque radiation therapy of choroidal melanoma has been well tolerated. There has been a 97.7% local control rate (with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months). We have reduced the minimum tumour radiation dose (apex dose) to levels used for thermoradiotherapy of cutaneous melanomas (50 Gy/5000 rad). Within the range of this follow-up period no adverse effects which might preclude the use of this microwave heat delivery system for treatment of choroidal melanoma have been noted. Images PMID:1622949

Finger, P. T.

1992-01-01

171

Cervical Thymic Cyst Mimicking Laryngocele  

PubMed Central

Cervical thymic cysts are nearly 0.3% of all congenital cervical cysts. Thymic cysts are asymptomatic, but they rarely complain of dysphagia or tracheal obstruction symptoms. A soft, mobile, and painless mass increasing with valsalva maneuver directs the diagnosis of laryngocele. There has not been any study in the literature in which thymic cyst presenting like laryngocele. We hereby present a case of thymic cyst mimicking laryngocele that has not been reported so far. PMID:24455374

Ozturk, Kayhan; Elsurer, Cagdas; Bulut, Serap; Duran, Mutlu; Ugras, Serdar

2013-01-01

172

Posterior mediastinal cyst.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is still an important health problem in the world. Mediastinal localization of hydatidosis is very rare. We report the case of a 19-year-old man who presented with right chest wall pain and cough. Chest X-Ray and computed tomography showed a mediastinal cystic mass. A right posterolateral thoracotomy was performed and the cystic mass was identified. Daughter cysts were seen within the cyst when the lesion was accidentally opened during the procedure. Cyst mass was radically resected. No complication or recurrence was seen in the follow-up period. PMID:24444071

Aghajanzadeh, Manouchehr; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina; Hassanzadeh, Rasool; Ebrahimi, Hannan

2014-01-01

173

Bilateral Testicular Epidermoid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Testicular epidermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors of the testes, but account for only 1-2% of all testicular tumors. In a young man presenting with a testicular mass, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the malignant testicular germ cell tumor, which is 50-times more common than testicular epidermoid cyst. Bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts are a very rare condition, with only a few reports in the literature. It is extremely important in this condition to make a correct pre-operative diagnosis on imaging to enable a testis-sparing surgery. PMID:21915385

Loberant, Norman; Bhatt, Shweta; Messing, Edward; Dogra, Vikram S.

2011-01-01

174

Choroidal thickness profile in healthy Indian subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim was to study choroidal thickness (CT) and its profile based on location in healthy Indian subjects using Cirrus high definition (HD) optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods: A total of 211 eyes of 115 healthy subjects with no retinal or choroidal disease were consecutively scanned using Cirrus HD 1 line raster scan mode without pupillary dilation. Eyes with any ocular disease or axial length (AXL) >24 mm or <20 mm were excluded. Experienced technician measured CT from the lower border of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the lower border of choroid. CT was measured from the posterior edge of the RPE to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-?m intervals up to 3000 ?m temporal and nasal to the fovea. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation between CT at various locations and age, AXL, spherical equivalent, and macular thickness. Results: Mean age was 42.8 ± 13.6 years. Mean AXL was 22.84 ± 0.78 mm. Median spherical equivalent was 0.16 ± 0.64 D. Mean central macular thickness was 216.4 ± 30.03 ?m. Choroidal was thinnest nasally and thickest subfoveally. On multivariate regression, age was the most significant factor affecting subfoveal CT (P = 0.000). Regression analysis showed an approximate decrease in CT of 1.18 ?m every year. Conclusions: Our study provides CT profile in Indian healthy subjects in various age groups. CT depends on its location, subfoveal being the thickest and nasal being the thinnest. Age is a critical factor, which is negatively correlated with CT. PMID:25494246

Chhablani, Jay; Rao, P Srinivasa; Venkata, Amarnath; Rao, Harsha L; Rao, B Siva Koteswar; Kumar, Uday; Narayanan, Raja; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy

2014-01-01

175

Tailgut cysts: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 11 surgically resected pelvic tailgut cysts were analyzed with reference to histopathologic\\u000a and clinical data. Homogeneity, size, location, signal intensity, appearance and presence of septa and\\/or nodules and\\/or peripheral\\u000a rim and involvement of surrounding structures were studied. Histological examination demonstrated 11 tailgut cysts (TGC),\\u000a including one infected TGC and one TGC with a component

V. Aflalo-Hazan; P. Rousset; N. Mourra; M. Lewin; L. Azizi; C. Hoeffel

2008-01-01

176

Testicular epidermoid cyst.  

PubMed

Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report. PMID:25659561

Cakiroglu, Basri; Sönmez, Nurettin Cem; Sinano?lu, Orhun; Ate?, Lora; Aksoy, Süleyman Hilmi; Özcan, Faruk

2015-01-01

177

Infected solitary hepatic cyst.  

PubMed

An unusual case involving an infected hepatic cyst in which the correct diagnosis was made without operation is reported. A 93-year-old woman presented with acute onset of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, mild left lower quadrant abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever. On admission, computed tomography revealed a 15 cm solitary hepatic cyst in the anterior-superior segment of the liver with a thickened wall that enhanced with contrast media. Ultrasonography demonstrated a 15 cm anechoic lesion with a hypoechoic area in the dependent portion of the cyst and a thickened wall. The serum concentration of C-reactive protein was 24.3 mg/dL, and the white blood cell count was 13,800/microL. A diagnosis of infected hepatic cyst was suspected, and percutaneous transhepatic drainage of the cyst was performed. Milky yellow fluid was obtained and the patient's right upper quadrant abdominal pain resolved after drainage. Klebsiella pneumoniae was cultured from the drainage fluid. The patient was discharged 20 days after drainage. Infection has not recurred and the hepatic cyst has not enlarged after 18 months. PMID:14685292

Yoshida, Hiroshi; Tajiri, Takashi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Kawano, Youichi; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Uchida, Eiji; Watanabe, Manabu; Uchida, Eiichi

2003-12-01

178

Ultrasonography for neonatal brachial plexus palsy.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography has previously been reported for use in the evaluation of compressive or traumatic peripheral nerve pathology and for its utility in preoperative mapping. However, these studies were not performed in infants, and they were not focused on the brachial plexus. The authors report a case in which ultrasonography was used to improve operative management of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP). An infant boy was born at term, complicated by right-sided shoulder dystocia. Initial clinical evaluation revealed proximal arm weakness consistent with an upper trunk injury. Unlike MRI or CT myelography that focus on proximal nerve roots, ultrasonography of the brachial plexus in the supraclavicular fossa was able to demonstrate a small neuroma involving the upper trunk (C-5 and C-6) and no asymmetry in movement of the diaphragm or in the appearance of the rhomboid muscle when compared with the unaffected side. However, the supra- and infraspinatus muscles were significantly asymmetrical and atrophied on the affected side. Importantly, ultrasound examination of the shoulder revealed posterior glenohumeral laxity. Instead of pursuing the primary nerve reconstruction first, timely treatment of the shoulder subluxation prevented formation of joint dysplasia and formation of a false glenoid, which is a common sequela of this condition. Because the muscles innervated by proximal branches of the cervical nerve roots/trunks were radiographically normal, subsequent nerve transfers were performed and good functional results were achieved. The authors believe this to be the first report describing the utility of ultrasonography in the surgical treatment planning in a case of NBPP. Noninvasive imaging, in addition to thorough history and physical examination, reduces the intraoperative time required to determine the extent and severity of nerve injury by allowing improved preoperative planning of the surgical strategy. Inclusion of ultrasonography as a preoperative modality may yield improved outcomes for children with NBPP. PMID:25216291

Joseph, Jacob Rahul; DiPietro, Michael A; Somashekar, Deepak; Parmar, Hemant A; Yang, Lynda J S

2014-11-01

179

Unilateral Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia with Choroidal Neovascularization.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man with decreasing visual acuity in his left eye over 1 year, diagnosed elsewhere as vein occlusion and treated unsuccessfully by systemic steroids was reported. Retrospective analysis of available previous imaging studies was undertaken, and a retrospective diagnosis of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) was made. Examination revealed subfoveal neovascularization and retinochoroidal anastomosis (RCA) in his left eye with macular edema and exudates surrounding it. The right eye was normal. Current fluorescein angiography (FA) confirmed the presence of choroidal neovascularization and RCA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated cystoid macular edema and subfoveal neovascularization.The patient was diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic macular telangiectasia complicated by subretinal neovascularization. The presences of a choroidal neovascularization process and an RCA have not, to our knowledge, been reported in this type of IMT. PMID:20337307

Mezad-Koursh, Daphna; Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Barak, Adiel; Loewenstein, Anat

2010-03-01

180

Current perspectives of herpesviral retinitis and choroiditis.  

PubMed

Vision-threatening viral retinitis are primarily caused by members of the herpesvirus family. The biology and molecular characterization of herpesviruses, clinical presentations of retinopathies, pathology and pathogenesis including the host responses, epidemiology and the laboratory methods of aetiological diagnosis of these diseases are described. Clinical syndromes are acute retinal necrosis (ARN), progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, multifocal choroiditis and serpiginous choroiditis besides other viral retinopathies. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) retinitis is more common in immunocompetent persons while varicella zoster virus (VZV) affects both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients equally. CMV retinitis is most common among patients with AIDS. The currently employed laboratory methods of antigen detection, virus isolation and antibody detection by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) have low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the value of diagnosis due to its high clinical sensitivity and absolute specificity in detection of herpesviruses in intraocular specimens. PMID:16295367

Madhavan, H N; Priya, K; Biswas, J

2004-10-01

181

Absence of ganglionated plexus in bullfrog gallbladder.  

PubMed

We first carried out microscopic observation of the intramural nerves of a bullfrog gallbladder which were fixed and stained with a solution of OsO4 and ZnI2. We then investigated if the responses of isolated frog gallbladder evoked by electrical stimulation are mediated through the intramural nerves. The following results were obtained: 1. The nerve plexus and the perivascular nerves were observed in the subserosal layer of the wall of the gallbladder. These nerves do not have a ganglia. That is to say, no ganglionated plexus or ganglia were observed in the subserosal layer of the wall of the gallbladder. 2. Electrical stimulation caused the gallbladders to contraction with rectangular pulses (50 volt, 40 Hz) of durations of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 msec for a period of 10 sec. Three blockers of nerve mediated responses, atropine (1 x 10(-6) M), guanethidine (1 x 10(-6) M) and tetrodotoxin (3 x 10(-7) M), had no effect on the gallbladder contractions induced by stimulation with pulses as short as 0.5 msec or as long as 5 msec. These results suggest that the bullfrog gallbladder may not contain nerves related to movement. Thus, the contraction of the bullfrog gallbladder induced by electrical stimulation does not seem to be modulated by extrinsic nerve terminals distributed in the gallbladder wall. PMID:10379927

Yoshida, M; Koeda, T

1998-01-01

182

Increased macular choroidal blood flow velocity and decreased choroidal thickness with regression of punctate inner choroidopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in choroidal circulation hemodynamics during the course of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate changes in choroidal blood flow velocity by using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) in patients with PIC. Case presentation This PIC patient was initially treated with systemic corticosteroids for 4 months. LSFG measurements were taken 10 consecutive times before treatment and at 1, 3, 12, 20 and 23 months after the initiation of therapy. The mean blur rate (MBR), a quantitative index of relative blood flow velocity, was calculated using LSFG in three regions: Circles 1, 2 and 3 were set at the fovea, a lesion site, and an area of normal-appearing retina, respectively. The PIC lesions scarred after treatment along with improvements in visual function and outer retinal morphology. When the changing rate of macular flow over the 12-month follow-up period was compared with the MBR before treatment (100%), an increase of 16–37%, 24–49% and 15–18% was detected in Circles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At the time of PIC recurrence after 20 months, the MBR decreased temporarily but subsequently increased after retreatment with systemic corticosteroids. This trend was accompanied by a decrease in choroidal thickness at the lesion site after retreatment. Conclusions Macular choroidal blood flow velocity increased and choroidal thickness decreased concurrently with regression of PIC. The present findings suggest that inflammation-related impairments in choroidal circulation may relate to the pathogenesis of PIC, extending over a wider area in the posterior pole than the PIC lesions per se. PMID:24885365

2014-01-01

183

Pilonidal cyst of the clitoris.  

PubMed

A pilonidal cyst is an epithelialized sinus tract or cyst containing hair follicles with a surrounding inflammatory reaction. It usually develops in the sacrococcygeal region with few reports of its development in the genitalia. We present a case of a periclitoral pilonidal cyst in a young woman and its management. PMID:25181383

Kanis, Margaux J; Momeni, Mazdak; Zakashansky, Konstantin

2014-01-01

184

Giant intraabdominal endometrial cyst.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is the condition where endometrium gets implanted and flourishes outside the uterine cavity, most commonly in ovary and on the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity and viscera. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way similar to the endometrium inside the uterus. Symptoms often worsen with the menstrual cycle. We present a case of 50 years old female who presented with gross abdominal distension and abdominal pain over years. CT scan showed a huge intraabdominal cyst of unknown origin which was compressing adjacent structures. Patient underwent a high risk operation and whole cyst weighing 214 kg (471 lbs) was removed along with both ovaries and uterus. Histopathologically, it was reported as endometrial cyst. PMID:24953922

Shah, Azhar Ali; Soomro, Niaz Ahmed; Talib, Rabender Kumar; Sadhayo, Asif Nabi; Soomro, Suhail Ahmed

2014-06-01

185

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (mycotic cyst).  

PubMed

Phaeohyphomycosis designates fungal infections caused by pheoid or melanized fungi and characterized histopathologically by the presence of septate hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts. Etiologic agents include Exophiala, Phoma, Bipolaris, Phialophora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Alternaria, Exserohilum, and Phialemonium sp. The most common are Exophiala jeanselmei and Wangiella dermatitidis. The clinical presentation depends on the immune status of the host: superficial (tinea nigra and black piedra); cutaneous (scytalidiosis) and corneal; subcutaneous (mycotic cyst); and systemic phaeohyphomycosis in the immunocompromised host. The mycotic cyst is a localized form, characterized by subcutaneous asymptomatic nodular lesions that develop after traumatic implantation of fungi, especially on the extremities. The average size of the cysts is 2.5 cm. KOH examination reveals pigmented yeasts, pseudohyphae, and hyphae. A cutaneous biopsy specimen usually shows an abscess or a suppurative granuloma with pigmented yeasts and pseudohyphae. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but additional anti-fungal therapy is recommended for recurrent cases and immunocompromised patients. PMID:22682192

Isa-Isa, Rafael; García, Carlos; Isa, Mariel; Arenas, Roberto

2012-01-01

186

Electroacupuncture attenuates neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury  

PubMed Central

Electroacupuncture has traditionally been used to treat pain, but its effect on pain following brachial plexus injury is still unknown. In this study, rat models of an avulsion injury to the left brachial plexus root (associated with upper-limb chronic neuropathic pain) were given electroacupuncture stimulation at bilateral Quchi (LI11), Hegu (LI04), Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34). After electroacupuncture therapy, chronic neuropathic pain in the rats’ upper limbs was significantly attenuated. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression of ?-endorphins in the arcuate nucleus was significantly increased after therapy. Thus, experimental findings indicate that electroacupuncture can attenuate neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury through upregulating ?-endorphin expression. PMID:25221593

Zhang, Shenyu; Tang, Hailiang; Zhou, Junming; Gu, Yudong

2014-01-01

187

Effect of Ultrasound Radiation Force on the Choroid  

PubMed Central

Purpose. While visualization of the retina and choroid has made great progress, functional imaging techniques have been lacking. Our aim was to utilize acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) response to probe functional properties of these tissues. Methods. A single element 18-MHz ultrasound transducer was focused upon the retina of the rabbit eye. The procedure was performed with the eye proptosed and with the eye seated normally in the orbit. The transducer was excited to emit ARFI over a 10-ms period with a 25% duty cycle. Phase resolved pulse/echo data were acquired before, during, and following ARFI. Results. In the proptosed eye, ARFI exposure produced tissue displacements ranging from 0 to 10 ?m, and an immediate increase in choroidal echo amplitude to over 6 dB, decaying to baseline after about 1 second. In the normally seated eye, ultrasound phase shifts consistent with flow were observed in the choroid, but enhanced backscatter following ARFI rarely occurred. ARFI-induced displacements of about 10 ?m were observed at the choroidal margins. Larger displacements occurred within the choroid and in orbital tissues. Conclusions. We hypothesize that elevated intraocular pressure occurring during proptosis induced choroidal ischemia and that acoustic radiation force produced a transient local decompression and reperfusion. With the eye normally seated, choroidal flow was observed and little alteration in backscatter resulted from exposure. Clinical application of this technique may provide new insights into diseases characterized by altered choroidal hemodynamics, including maculopathies, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. PMID:23211817

Silverman, Ronald H.; Urs, Raksha; Lloyd, Harriet O.

2013-01-01

188

Moving the retina: Choroidal modulation of refractive state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chick eye is able to change its refractive state by as much as 7 D by pushing the retina forward or pulling it back; this is effected by changes in the thickness of the choroid, the vascular tissue behind the retina and pigment epithelium. Chick eyes first made myopic by wearing diffusers and then permitted unrestricted vision developed choroids

Josh Wallman; Christine Wildsoet; Aiming Xu; Michael D. Gottlieb; Debora L. Nickla; Lynn Marran; Wolf Krebs; Anne Mette Christensen

1995-01-01

189

Lumbosacral perineural cysts as a cause for neurogenic muscular hypertrophy.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 40 year-old man with a severe lesion of the anterior rami of the left spinal nerves L5 and S1 who showed hypertrophy of the leg and atrophy of the intrinsic foot and gluteal muscles. In the biopsy of the hypertrophied gastrocnemius muscle, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates were observed, apart from atrophied and hypertrophied muscle fibres. Electromyography revealed no pathologic spontaneous activity but chronic neurogenic changes. The precise site of the lesion was predicted by electrophysiologic investigations. The lesion was caused by two perineural cysts in the region of the upper sacral plexus, as demonstrated by MRI and CT of the small pelvis and confirmed at operation. Three years earlier, when almost only L5 muscles were affected, an intervertebral disc prolapse L5/S1 had been suspected on myelography and CT but could not have been confirmed at operation. PMID:9298339

Amoiridis, G; Wöhrle, J; Heye, N; Przuntek, H

1997-08-01

190

Bacteriological study of epidermal cysts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial infection plays a significant role in the inflammatory process of epidermal cysts. Samples from 152 patients (115 cases of inflamed and 37 of uninflamed epidermal cysts) were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture and the isolates were investigated. The rate of bacterial growth and the recovered anaerobes were significantly greater in the inflamed than the uninflamed epidermal cysts. However, it is difficult to determine whether recovered isolates from epidermal cysts represent "infection" or "colonization". In conclusion, this study revealed the predominance of anaerobes in inflamed cysts, strongly suggesting that anaerobes play a role in the inflammatory process. PMID:18176745

Kuniyuki, Shuichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Maekawa, Naoki; Yamanaka, Kazuhoshi

2008-01-01

191

Blood Flow MRI of the Human Retina/Choroid during Rest and Isometric Exercise  

E-print Network

Retina Blood Flow MRI of the Human Retina/Choroid during Rest and Isometric Exercise Yi Zhang,1. To investigate blood flow (BF) in the human retina/ choroid during rest and handgrip isometric exercise using/choroid during rest and isometric exercise. Retina/choroid BF increases during brief handgrip exercise

Duong, Timothy Q.

192

Reduced Choroidal Neovascular Membrane Formation in Cyclooxygenase-2 Null Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the degree of laser-induced choroidal neovascular membrane formation in wild-type (WT) and COX-2 null mice and to measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels in the retina and choroid. Methods. Four laser burns were placed in each eye of WT and COX-2 null mice to induce choroidal neovascularization. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed at 14 days, and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid-sclera (choroidal) flat mounts were prepared. The retina and choroid were isolated from WT and COX-2 null mice at 24, 72, and 168 hours after laser photocoagulation and from unlasered eyes and were tested for VEGF, IL-1?, and TNF-?. Results. COX-2 null mice demonstrated 58% (P = 0.001) and 48% (P = 0.001) reductions in CNV formation on FA and choroidal flat mounts, respectively, compared with WT mice. For unlasered mice, mean VEGF concentrations in the retina and choroid were 1.2 ± 0.42 pg/mg protein for WT but only 0.42 ± 0.2 pg/mg protein for COX-2 null mice (P < 0.05). After laser photocoagulation, WT mice showed significantly greater VEGF and IL-? expression in the retina and choroid by 168 hours (P < 0.05) and 72 hours (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with COX-2 null mice. Conclusions. COX-2 null mice exhibited significantly less choroidal neovascular membrane formation associated with reduced expression of VEGF. The results of this study suggest that COX-2 modulates VEGF expression in CNV and implicates a potential therapeutic role for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20881304

Rezaei, Kasra A.; Toma, Hassanain S.; Cai, Jiyang; Penn, John S.; Sternberg, Paul

2011-01-01

193

Hydatid cyst of orbit.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old woman presented with protrusion and diminution of vision of left eye for 3 months. CT scan of orbit revealed an intra-orbital cystic space occupying lesion. Exenteration of the left orbit was done and histopathological examination of the cystic mass proved it to be a case of hydatid cyst. PMID:22480108

Bhaduri, Gautam; Chatterjee, Soumya Swarup; Gayen, Sharmistha; Goswami, Soumik

2011-09-01

194

Renal Cysts and Urinomas  

PubMed Central

Renal cysts are a common imaging finding. Although most cysts never have symptoms, some cause pain, collecting system compression, hematuria, hypertension, and secondary infection. The mere presence of a cyst is not an indication for intervention, but treatment may be indicated in symptomatic patients or those with secondary obstruction. Urinomas generally are a contained collection of urine outside of the normal pathways where urine travels. As such, urinomas can arise anywhere from the upper abdomen down into the low pelvis and have a variety of etiologies. Ureteral obstruction with forniceal rupture and trauma (blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic) are the most common causes of urinomas. When urinomas arise spontaneously, the likely cause varies with the patient's age. Blunt or penetrating trauma can cause perinephric urinomas by two mechanisms—direct disruption of the pelvis or collecting system or by degeneration of nonviable tissue. These urinomas are often perinephric, but can also occur in a subcapsular location. This review will discuss diagnosis, classification, and treatment of renal cysts and urinomas. PMID:23204636

Lee, Jessica; Darcy, Michael

2011-01-01

195

Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid cyst.  

PubMed

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right extremity as well as urinary dysfunction and sphincter dysfunction. She had a lumbar puncture three times due to Pneumococcal meningitis when she was 13 years old. The well-circumscribed intradural extramedullary mass of 1.8×1.6×4 cm size was found on the L4-5 in a magnetic resonance image. Gross total tumor removal was garried out after the total laminectomy L5 and partial laminectomy L4. The tumor mass was gray-colored and so fragile that it was easy to be removed. The histological diagnosis confirmed epidermoid cyst without malignancy. After the operation, the patient progressively showed remarkable neurological recovery. In this case, the cause of epidermoid cyst is considered iatrogenic concerning history of several times of lumbar puncture as meningitis. PMID:25346768

Park, Min Ho; Cho, Tach Geun; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-09-01

196

Odonto calcifying cyst  

PubMed Central

The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested. PMID:23853467

Aswath, Nalini; Mastan, Kader; Manikandan, Tirupathi; Samuel, Gigi

2013-01-01

197

Hatch-a-Cyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the optimal environment for hatching brine shrimp? Using a scaffold, learners design and conduct experiments testing the effect of a single abiotic factor on brine shrimp cyst hatch rate. Pool results from the group to determine the optimal environment for hatching these resilient organisms.

Utah, University O.

2009-01-01

198

[Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma of the brachial plexus].  

PubMed

Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma that is extremely rare in the brachial plexus. We report a case of a myxoid/round cell liposarcoma originating in the brachial plexus that was surgically resected and evolved well, with no deficit or recurrence after 2 years of follow-up. To date, there has been no other case of this sarcoma in the literature. PMID:25126709

Giner, Javier; Isla, Alberto; Hernández, Borja; Nistal, Manuel

2014-01-01

199

Recurrent Annular Peripheral Choroidal Detachment after Trabeculectomy  

PubMed Central

We report a challenging case of recurrent flat anterior chamber without hypotony after trabeculectomy in a 54-year-old Black male with a remote history of steroid-treated polymyositis, cataract surgery, and uncontrolled open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a flat chamber on postoperative day 11, but had a normal fundus exam and intraocular pressure (IOP). Flat chamber persisted despite treatment with cycloplegics, steroids, and a Healon injection into the anterior chamber. A transverse B-scan of the peripheral fundus revealed a shallow annular peripheral choroidal detachment. The suprachoroidal fluid was drained. The patient presented 3 days later with a recurrent flat chamber and an annular peripheral choroidal effusion. The fluid was removed and reinforcement of the scleral flap was performed with the resolution of the flat anterior chamber. A large corneal epithelial defect developed after the second drainage. The oral prednisone was tapered quickly and the topical steroid was decreased. One week later, his vision decreased to count fingers with severe corneal stromal edema and Descemet's membrane folds that improved to 20/50 within 24 h of resumption of the oral steroid and frequent topical steroid. The patient's visual acuity improved to 20/20 following a slow withdrawal of the oral and topical steroid. Eight months after surgery, the IOP was 15 mm Hg without glaucoma medication. The detection of a shallow anterior choroidal detachment by transverse B-scan is critical to making the correct diagnosis. Severe cornea edema can occur if the steroid is withdrawn too quickly. Thus, steroids should be tapered cautiously in steroid-dependent patients. PMID:24348402

Liu, Shaohui; Sun, Lisa L.; Kavanaugh, A. Scott; Langford, Marlyn P.; Liang, Chanping

2013-01-01

200

[The familial occurrence of choroidal melanoma].  

PubMed

In 2010 we treated one case of familial choroidal melanoma which was detected in a mother and a daughter at the Department of Ophthalmology and Ocular Oncology University Hospital in Krakow. The enucleation was performed in a daughter, while the mother refused to give an informed consent to the procedure despite the diagnosis of ring melanoma, and was eventually subjected to brachytherapy. In both cases histopathological examination confirmed melanoma. Both patients and their relatives have remained in a follow-up until now. Results: Inheritance may play a role in the etiology of melanoma. Therefore, each time melanoma is diagnosed, the close relatives of the patients should undergo regular eye tests. PMID:25345291

Markiewicz, Anna; Bogdali, Anna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena

2014-01-01

201

Choledochoceles: are they choledochal cysts?  

PubMed

The classification of choledochoceles as a type of choledochal cyst stems from the 1959 article by Alonso-Lej and colleagues describing 94 choledochal cysts, only 4 of which were choledochoceles. Even then, Alonso-Lej questioned the propriety of including the choledochocele, stating it was unclear "as to whether or not it originates from the same etiologic factors [as other choledochal cysts]". In 1971, Trout and Longmire also questioned the validity of classifying choledochoceles as choledochal cysts, noting the anatomic position article and variant mucosa of the choledochocele. Wearn and Wiot, in an article titled "Choledochocele: not a form of choledochal cyst", cite the differences in clinical presentation, demographics, and histology as reasons why choledochoceles represent separate entities from choledochal cysts. Over the ensuing decades, numerous investigators have questioned the legitimacy of classifying choledochoceles as choledochal cysts. In our recent series (the only one to our knowledge directly comparing patients with choledochocele and other [type I, II, IV, and V] choledochal cysts), patients with choledochoceles differed from patients with choledochal cysts in their age, gender, presenting symptoms, history of previous cholecystectomy, pancreatobiliary ductal anatomy, management, and most importantly, propensity to developing biliary malignancy. Based on the available cases of choledochoceles found in the literature, combined with the recent series from our institution, we conclude that choledochoceles seem to be distinct entities from choledochal cysts. PMID:21954689

Ziegler, Kathryn M; Zyromski, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

202

Ethacrynic acid and furosemide alter Cl, K, and Na distribution between blood, choroid plexus, CSF, and brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can loop diuretics like ethacrynic acid and furosemide, when administered intravenously, significantly alter ion transport and fluid dynamics in CNS? To shed light on this unresolved issue, we tested the ability of these agents to effect redistribution of Na, K and Cl in adult rat brain. Cl penetration into various CNS regions was assessed as the volume of distribution, i.e.,

Conrad E. Johanson; Vincent A. Murphy; Muriel Dyas I

1992-01-01

203

Immunohistochemical localization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in tanycytes, subcommissural organ and choroid plexus in the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the immunohistochemical localization of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the rat brain. In addition to epithelial ependymal cells lining the ventricular wall, tanycytes in the basomedial hypothalamus were heavily immunostained. The immunoreactive processes of tanycytes made contacts to sinusoidal capillaries and reached the pial surface forming an immuno-positive structure at the floor of the hypothalamus. Other

Masahiro Nishibori; Naoki Nakaya; Shuji Mori; Kiyomi Saeki

1997-01-01

204

MRI of axillary brachial plexus blocks  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Axillary plexus blocks are usually guided by ultrasound, but alternative methods may be used when ultrasound equipment is lacking. For a nonultrasound-guided axillary block, the need for three injections has been questioned. OBJECTIVES Could differences in block success between single, double and triple deposits methods be explained by differences in local anaesthetic distribution as observed by MRI? DESIGN A blinded and randomised controlled study. SETTING Conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2009 to 2011. PATIENTS Forty-five ASA 1 to 2 patients scheduled for surgery were randomised to three equally sized groups. All patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Patients in the single-deposit group had an injection through a catheter parallel to the median nerve. In the double-deposit group the patients received a transarterial block. In the triple-deposit group the injections of the two other groups were combined. Upon completion of local anaesthetic injection the patients were scanned by MRI, before clinical block assessment. The distribution of local anaesthetic was scored by its closeness to terminal nerves and cords of the brachial plexus, as seen by MRI. The clinical effect was scored by the degree of sensory block in terminal nerve innervation areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensory block effect and MRI distribution pattern. RESULTS The triple-deposit method had a higher success rate (100%) than the single-deposit method (67%) and the double-deposit method (67%) in blocking all cutaneous nerves distal to the elbow (P?=?0.04). The patients in the triple-deposit group most often had the best MRI scores. For any nerve or cord, at least one of the single-deposit or double-deposit groups had a similarly high MRI score as the triple-deposit group. CONCLUSION Distal to the elbow, the triple-deposit method had the highest sensory block success rate. This could be explained to some extent by analysis of the magnetic resonance images. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01033006. PMID:25051144

Kjelstrup, Trygve; Hol, Per K.; Courivaud, Frédéric; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Røkkum, Magne; Klaastad, Øivind

2014-01-01

205

Helmet-mounted choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact laser Doppler flowmeter (35x80x210mm3) for the measurement of subfoveal choroidal blood flow parameters (ChBF) was mounted on a helmet. This device allows the measurement of ChBF during dynamic exercises or in supine position, without the need for pupil dilatation. Its optical system is based on a Schlieren arrangement by which the surface of light collection and that of the illumination are spatially separated by an obscuration. The laser probing beam ((lambda) equals 790 nm, 100 (mu) W at the cornea) is focused at the fovea by having the tested subject look directly at the beam. Computer analysis of the photocurrent produced by the scattered light provides a relative measure of the mean blood velocity, number and flux of the red blood cells in the choriocapillaris. Measurements were performed to assess the reliability of the flow parameters measurements in normal volunteers: reproducibility and sensibility when subjects are sitting or standing; measurement of changes in ChBF in the case of isometric and dynamic exercises. Results demonstrate that this new helmet-mounted device provides data comparable to the conventional device. It allows for the first time, however, the continuous measurement of choroidal hemodynamics in humans during various types of exercises.

Geiser, Martial H.; Moret, Fabrice; Riva, Charles E.

2001-06-01

206

A case of primary choroidal malignant melanoma in a cat.  

PubMed

This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, histological lesions, and prognosis of a primary choroidal malignant melanoma in a 15-year-old cat. The animal was presented for unilateral blindness. On ocular examination, a raised pigmented mass protruding from the posterior pole into the vitreous body was observed by diffuse transillumination and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Ocular ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) scan confirmed localization of the tumor to the posterior segment. The diagnosis of primary choroidal melanoma was confirmed by histopathology after enucleation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a feline malignant melanoma with a primary choroidal localization without iris involvement. PMID:25399839

Bourguet, Aurélie; Piccicuto, Virginie; Donzel, Elise; Carlus, Marine; Chahory, Sabine

2014-11-16

207

Thermoablation of Liver Metastases: Efficacy of Temporary Celiac Plexus Block  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the efficacy of celiac plexus block during thermoablation of liver metastases. Methods. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent thermoablation therapy of liver tumors by laser-induced thermotherapy. Twenty-nine patients received a temporary celiac plexus block, 26 patients acted as control group. In both groups fentanyl and midazolam were administered intravenously upon request of the patient. The duration of the intervention, consumption of opiates, and individual pain sensations were documented. Results. No complications resulting from the celiac plexus block were recorded. Celiac plexus block significantly reduced the amount of pain medication used during thermoablation therapy of liver tumors (with block, 2.45 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight; without block, 3.58 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight, p < 0.05; midazolam consumption was not reduced) in patients with metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule. For metastases farther away from the capsule no significant differences in opiate consumption were seen. Celiac plexus block reduced the time for thermoablation significantly (178 min versus 147 min, p < 0.05) no matter how far the metastases were from the liver capsule. Average time needed to set the block was 12 min (range 9-15 min); additional costs for the block were marginal. As expected (as pain medications were given according to individual patients' needs) pain indices did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion. In patients with liver metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule, celiac plexus block reduces the amount of opiates necessary, simplifying patient monitoring. In addition celiac plexus block reduces intervention time, with positive effects on overall workflow for all patients.

Beck, A.N., E-mail: alexander.beck@charite.de; Schaefer, M.; Werk, M.; Pech, M.; Wieners, G.; Cho, C.; Ricke, J. [Universitaets Medicin Berlin, Charite, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2005-05-15

208

Giant supratentorial neurenteric cyst.  

PubMed

Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions that may be mistaken for other cystic neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. A 35 years old right handed man presented with a one year history of progressive left hemiparesis, headache, personality changes and seizures. Clinical examination revealed a confused patient with left hemiparesis (power 4/5 in both left upper and lower limbs), upper motor neuron type signs in left half of the body (up going plantar reflex and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes at 3+), left facial weakness of upper motor neuron type. CT scan head with contrast revealed a non-enhancing spherical cystic lesion in the frontotemporoparietal region with minimal to moderate mass effect. The cyst was removed using a combination of hydrodissection and excision. Recovery was complete with no evidence of recurrence or residual disease at 3 months. PMID:25518778

Junaid, Muhammad; Kalsoom, Anisa; Khalid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Sarmad

2014-11-01

209

Cervical thymic cysts.  

PubMed

Thymic cysts are considered uncommon lesions in the differential diagnosis of pediatric neck masses. They usually present in the 1st decade after the age of 2 years, possibly because the thymus attains its greatest development before puberty. They may be found anywhere along the normal descent route of the thymus gland from the mandible to the sternal notch; 50% extend into the mediastinum. Most patients are asymptomatic, although respiratory complications may occur. A review of the operative records in our hospital over the last 10 years revealed two cases of cervical thymic cysts (CTC) in a 5- and a 9-year-old boy. Both children presented with an atraumatic, painless, enlarging mass in the left side of the neck anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Neither boy had respiratory problems or swallowing difficulties. Ultrasound and computed tomography showed a lesion consistent with a tentative diagnosis of a branchial cyst in one boy and an extensive cystic hygroma in the other. Both lesions were approached through a transverse cervical incision and, although closely adherent to the internal jugular vein, carotid artery, and vagus nerve, were resected completely. There were no postoperative complications and so far there has been no recurrence. CTCs are uncommon benign lesions that should be considered in the evaluation of neck masses in children. Preoperative diagnosis is unusual and, at this time, there is no preoperative radiologic test that can accurately identify a neck mass as a CTC. Histologic investigation of the excised specimen showing thymic tissue remnants with pathognomonic Hassall's corpuscles and cholesterol clefts in the cyst wall is the only definitive diagnosis. Evolution is benign. Intact, complete surgical excision remains the treatment of choice. PMID:12415385

De Caluwé, D; Ahmed, M; Puri, P

2002-09-01

210

Tailgut cysts: MRI findings.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 11 surgically resected pelvic tailgut cysts were analyzed with reference to histopathologic and clinical data. Homogeneity, size, location, signal intensity, appearance and presence of septa and/or nodules and/or peripheral rim and involvement of surrounding structures were studied. Histological examination demonstrated 11 tailgut cysts (TGC), including one infected TGC and one TGC with a component of adenocarcinoma. Lesions (3-8 cm in diameter) were exclusively or partly retrorectal in all cases but one, with an extension down the anal canal in five cases. Lesions were multicystic in all patients but one. On T1-weighted MR images, all cystic lesions contained at least one hyperintense cyst. The peripheral rim of the cystic lesion was regular and non or moderately enhancing in all cases but the two complicated TGC. Nodular peripheral rim and irregular septa were seen in the degenerated TGC. Marked enhancement of the peripheral structures was noted in the two complicated TGC. Pelvic MRI is a valuable tool in the preoperative evaluation of TGC. PMID:18566821

Aflalo-Hazan, V; Rousset, P; Mourra, N; Lewin, M; Azizi, L; Hoeffel, C

2008-11-01

211

Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma.  

PubMed

We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n = 15; P = 0.001), 105.3 microns at 1 year (n = 10; P = 0.03), and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n = 7; P = 0.08). BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n = 26; P < 0.001), 2.8 lines (n = 20; P = 0.01) at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n = 13; P = 0.049) at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma. PMID:25147732

Mansour, Ahmad M; Arevalo, J Fernando; Al Kahtani, Eman; Zegarra, Hernando; Abboud, Emad; Anand, Rajiv; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sisk, Robert A; Mirza, Salman; Tuncer, Samuray; Navea Tejerina, Amparo; Mataix, Jorge; Ascaso, Francisco J; Pulido, Jose S; Guthoff, Rainer; Goebel, Winfried; Roh, Young Jung; Banker, Alay S; Gentile, Ronald C; Martinez, Isabel Alonso; Morris, Rodney; Panday, Neeraj; Min, Park Jung; Mercé, Emilie; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Massoud, Vicky; Ghazi, Nicola G

2014-01-01

212

Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma  

PubMed Central

We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n = 15; P = 0.001), 105.3 microns at 1 year (n = 10; P = 0.03), and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n = 7; P = 0.08). BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n = 26; P < 0.001), 2.8 lines (n = 20; P = 0.01) at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n = 13; P = 0.049) at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma. PMID:25147732

Mansour, Ahmad M.; Al Kahtani, Eman; Zegarra, Hernando; Anand, Rajiv; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sisk, Robert A.; Mirza, Salman; Tuncer, Samuray; Navea Tejerina, Amparo; Mataix, Jorge; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Pulido, Jose S.; Guthoff, Rainer; Goebel, Winfried; Roh, Young Jung; Banker, Alay S.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Martinez, Isabel Alonso; Morris, Rodney; Panday, Neeraj; Min, Park Jung; Mercé, Emilie; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Massoud, Vicky; Ghazi, Nicola G.

2014-01-01

213

Ovarian Cysts - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ovarian Cysts - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Ovarian Cysts English (Arabic) ??????? ???????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education ...

214

Bilateral episcleral brachytherapy in simultaneous choroidal melanoma and circumscribed hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the efficacy of episcleral brachytherapy in a choroidal melanoma and circumscribed hemangioma arising in both eyes of the same patient. Case report We present the case of a 47 year old man who presented decreased visual acuity a few months preceding initial consult. On fundoscopy, he presented a melanotic lesion in the right eye, and a red-orange choroidal mass in the macular area of the left eye. Material and methods B scan-ultrasound, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography, confirmed the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma in the right eye, and circumscribed choroidal hemangioma in the left eye. Episcleral brachytherapy with 125I was performed in both eyes consecutively. Results and Conclusions Bilateral episcleral brachytherapy successfully treated both tumors, preserving the eyes and useful visual function. PMID:24474976

Saornil, María Antonia; García-Álvarez, Ciro; Martín, Francisco Lopez-Lara; Frutos-Baraja, Jesus María

2013-01-01

215

Tuberculous choroidal granuloma in an HIV-positive patient.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 34-year-old HIV-positive patient undergoing treatment for pulmonary and lymph node Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, who developed loss of vision secondary to a tuberculous choroidal granuloma. PMID:22648901

Papineni, P; Saunders, J; Papageorgiou, K; Westcott, M; Noble, H

2012-05-01

216

Measurement of Choroidal Perfusion and Thickness Following Systemic Sildenafil (Viagra®)  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate anatomic and physiologic changes in the human choroid following systemic sildenafil citrate (ViagraR) using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound. Methods Seven healthy male subjects (mean age 32.7 years) were evaluated at baseline and two hours after ingesting 50 mg of sildenafil. Swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound and EDI-OCT were utilized to measure choroidal perfusion and thickness, respectively. Results were read by masked observers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and t-test were used to analyze differences in choroidal flow and thickness at baseline and two hours after ingestion of sildenafil. Results Two hours following sildenafil, increased choroidal perfusion was observed in 11 of 12 eyes measured by swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound. The mean increase was 3.46 (±2.00) times baseline with a range of 0.47 to 7.80 times baseline (p=0.004). Increased choroidal thickness was observed in 12 of 12 eyes measured with EDI-OCT. The average choroidal thickness increased by 11.6% temporal to the fovea, 9.3% nasal to the fovea, and 10.7% underneath the fovea (p<0.001 for all values). Conclusions Choroidal perfusion and thickness both increase in response to systemic sildenafil. These changes could secondarily affect retinal function, explain previously reported clinical symptoms, and potentially be a useful adjunct for treatment of ocular diseases that would benefit from increased choroidal blood flow. PMID:22974308

Kim, David Y.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Chan, R.V. Paul; Khanifar, Aziz A.; Rondeau, Mark; Lloyd, Harriet; Schlegel, Peter; Coleman, D. Jackson

2011-01-01

217

Choroidal thickness measurements during central serous chorioretinopathy treatment.  

PubMed

To determine changes in choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) during the first 3 months after initial diagnosis and assess variable therapeutic interventions via enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). In this prospective study, choroidal thickness was measured via EDI-OCT both in the affected and fellow eyes of 10 patients with CSCR at the fovea, as well as at 500 and 1,000 ?m both temporal and nasal from the centre of the fovea and at the leakage point (if present), visualised via fluorescein angiography. Follow-up measurements were performed after 2-3 weeks, 6-8 weeks and 3 months. Seven of the 10 patients received additional systemic therapy with oral acetazolamide. A control group of eight healthy subjects was recruited to determine normal choroidal thickness in healthy eyes. The mean age of the 10 patients (9 male, 1 female) in the CSCR group was 42.1 (±9.3) years. The choroid in the affected eyes was significantly thickened at baseline compared to fellow eyes and the eyes of healthy subjects. The choroid in the fellow eyes also revealed a slight thickening at baseline compared to normal eyes. During the 3 month follow-up period, the choroidal thickness of the affected eyes showed a highly significant decrease, but did not reach normal levels. Minor changes could also be observed in the fellow eyes but did not reach statistical significance. In patients with CSCR, the average choroidal thickness not only demonstrated a significant thickening at baseline, but also showed a marked decrease after 3 months, yet not reaching normal levels. Our data indicate that after 3 months, normalisation of choroidal thickness is not yet completed. PMID:23572440

Brandl, Caroline; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

2014-02-01

218

Automatic segmentation of choroidal thickness in optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

The assessment of choroidal thickness from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human choroid is an important clinical and research task, since it provides valuable information regarding the eye’s normal anatomy and physiology, and changes associated with various eye diseases and the development of refractive error. Due to the time consuming and subjective nature of manual image analysis, there is a need for the development of reliable objective automated methods of image segmentation to derive choroidal thickness measures. However, the detection of the two boundaries which delineate the choroid is a complicated and challenging task, in particular the detection of the outer choroidal boundary, due to a number of issues including: (i) the vascular ocular tissue is non-uniform and rich in non-homogeneous features, and (ii) the boundary can have a low contrast. In this paper, an automatic segmentation technique based on graph-search theory is presented to segment the inner choroidal boundary (ICB) and the outer choroidal boundary (OCB) to obtain the choroid thickness profile from OCT images. Before the segmentation, the B-scan is pre-processed to enhance the two boundaries of interest and to minimize the artifacts produced by surrounding features. The algorithm to detect the ICB is based on a simple edge filter and a directional weighted map penalty, while the algorithm to detect the OCB is based on OCT image enhancement and a dual brightness probability gradient. The method was tested on a large data set of images from a pediatric (1083 B-scans) and an adult (90 B-scans) population, which were previously manually segmented by an experienced observer. The results demonstrate the proposed method provides robust detection of the boundaries of interest and is a useful tool to extract clinical data. PMID:24409381

Alonso-Caneiro, David; Read, Scott A.; Collins, Michael J.

2013-01-01

219

Computer modeling of transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal neovascularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal effects of visible and near-infrared laser pulses were modeled in order to guide future pre-clinical and clinical studies for transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal neovascularization. A finite-difference, thermophysical model of the native fundus was developed, and contributions were added to consider the effects of incident visible and near-infrared laser irradiation, natural pigment heterogeneity, an absorptive CNV complex, as well as subretinal and sub-RPE blood. Calculations were performed with and without choroidal convective cooling.

Berger, Jeffrey W.

2001-06-01

220

High resolution neurography of the lumbosacral plexus on 3T magneteic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance neurography is a technique that complements clinical and electrophysiological study of the peripheral nerves and brachial and lumbosacral plexuses. Numerous focal processes (inflammatory, traumatic, primary tumors, secondary tumors) and diffuse processes (diabetic polyneuropathy, chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy due to amyloidosis or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) can involve the lumbosacral plexus. This article reviews the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus, describes the technique for neurography of the plexus at our institution, and shows the diverse diseases that affect it. PMID:25447367

Cejas, C; Escobar, I; Serra, M; Barroso, F

2014-11-15

221

Changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries with cysts induced by dexamethasone administration.  

PubMed

We revealed earlier that induction of ovarian cysts in gilts by dexamethasone phosphate disodium salt (DXM) administration from the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (EC) changed the cholinergic innervation of the gonad. In the present study, the innervation of porcine ovaries by vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive (IR) fibres, after induction of cystic changes from the middle luteal phase of the EC, was determined. The cystic changes were induced by DXM injections from days 7 to 21 of the EC, and 11 days later, the ovaries were collected. In the cystic ovaries, VAChT-, nNOS- and SOM-IR fibres were found around cysts and small tertiary follicles; nNOS-IR and also VAChT-IR fibres were observed near secondary follicles and veins; and VAChT- and nNOS-IR fibres were not found around cortical arteries. The number of VIP-IR fibres increased near the cysts and within the ground plexus, while the number of VAChT-IR fibres decreased within the medullar part of this structure. Thus, our study showed changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of the porcine cystic ovaries induced from the middle phase of the cycle and confirmed that cystic ovary innervation depends partly on the phase of the EC in which the induction of cysts was started. PMID:24519145

Koz?owska, A; Majewski, M; Jana, B

2014-09-01

222

Treatment of choroid hemangioma with argon laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment effects of 7 cases of choroid hemangioma are reported. Of them, 4 cases were men and 3 cases were women. Ages varied from 34 to 52 years. The mean age was 43 years. All of their eyesight was between 0.01 and 0.4. Six of the seven cases were solitary hemangioma, the other one was Sturge-Weber syndrome. After treatment photography, the color of the hemangioma body gradually got weak and the local presented pigmentation. The results of the fluorescein fundus angiography indicated that the hemangioma body reduced, then got atrophy and fibrosis. In five cases eyesight increased, and it didn't in the other two cases.

Yang, Chuanzhu; Song, Man

1993-03-01

223

Choroidal Excavation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of choroidal excavation accompanied by Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH). Methods A 54-year-old Japanese woman who was complaining of bilateral blurring of vision associated with headache underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography as well as a routine ophthalmological examination. Results Fundoscopy showed papilloedema and serous retinal detachment in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography detected bilateral multifocal leakage with pooling of dye in the subretinal space. Indocyanine green angiography showed patches of hyperfluorescence and hypofluorescent spots bilaterally. A diagnosis of VKH was reached soon afterwards. OCT of the left eye revealed the presence of a unilateral choroidal excavation under the fovea and subretinal fibrin over the site of the excavation. Treatment successfully resolved VKH symptoms with gradual resolution of subretinal fibrin and fluid; however, the choroidal excavation remained. Conclusions This case is the first report of choroidal excavation associated with VKH. Our results suggest that choroidal excavation can be induced by choroidal inflammation caused by VKH. PMID:25202266

Hashida, Noriyasu; Fok, Andrew; Nishida, Kohji

2014-01-01

224

Intradiploic arachnoid cyst: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the extreme rarity of intradiploic arachnoid cysts, their pathogenesis is unknown; congenital or traumatic origins are suggested. We report an intradiploic arachnoid cyst in a 57-year-old woman, without a history of trauma, in whom a forgotten injury might play a significant role.

A. Alfieri; G. Zona; S. Cirillo; R. Spaziante

1996-01-01

225

Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola

2014-01-01

226

Blake's pouch cyst  

PubMed Central

Background: In 1900, Joseph Blake described a transient posterior evagination of the tela choroidea of the fourth ventricle in the normal 130-day old human embryo. He was the first to recognize and fully elucidate on the real nature of the foramen of Magendie as an aperture, which develops within a saccular expansion of the embryonic fourth ventricular cavity. The persistence of this temporary fourth ventricular outpouching into the postnatal period and its significance either as separate entity or as an entity within the Dandy–Walker continuum has over the years been one of the most controversial topics in both neurosurgical and neuroradiological literature. Methods: A search of the medical literature was conducted for publications addressing the historical, embryological, and neuororadiological features as well as the clinical presentation and management of persistent Blake's pouch. Results: The literature on the various features of Blake's pouch cyst has limited areas of consensus between various authors. Conclusion: Blake's pouch cyst is a rare entity that is thought to belong to the Dandy–Walker continuum. It has a variable clinical presentation and when symptomatic can be treated with an endoscopic third ventriculostomy or shunting. PMID:25101207

Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Elmansoury, Tamer M.; Salaheddin, Waleed; Nasim, Khurram; Parwez, Aslam

2014-01-01

227

A noninvasive eye fixation monitoring system for CyberKnife radiotherapy of choroidal and orbital tumors  

SciTech Connect

A new noninvasive monitoring system for fixing the eye has been developed to treat orbital and choroidal tumors with CyberKnife-based radiotherapy. This device monitors the eye during CT/MRI scanning and during treatment. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of the fixation light system for CyberKnife-based treatments of orbital and choroidal tumors and supports the idea that larger choroidal melanomas and choroidal metastases could be treated with CyberKnife without implanting fiducial markers.

Daftari, I. K.; Petti, P. L.; Larson, D. A.; O'Brien, J. M.; Phillips, T. L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2009-03-15

228

[Large simple liver cyst treated laparoscopically].  

PubMed

Simple liver cysts of various sizes are present in 1% of the population. Most are found incidentally and require no treatment. However, in a few the cyst is symptomatic and requires surgery: celiotomy and unroofing of the cyst. A 64-year-old woman with a symptomatic, simple cyst of the liver underwent laparoscopic surgery. After an uneventful course she was discharged on the 3rd postoperative day. Simple liver cysts can be safely treated by laparoscopic surgery. PMID:8138207

Lazauskas, T; Greif, F; Michowitz, M; Lelcuk, S

1994-01-01

229

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts.  

PubMed

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. PMID:5531903

Tarlov, I M

1970-12-01

230

Learn the Brachial Plexus in Five Minutes or Less  

E-print Network

is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the VA Gulf Coast Veterans Health and Rehabilitation Department of Veterans Affairs, Biloxi, Mississippi and Dennis A. Chu, M.D. This material view of the Department of Veterans Affairs of the U.S. Government. #12;The brachial plexus contains

Finley Jr., Russell L.

231

Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis*  

PubMed Central

On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%), indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomycosis can present with lung cysts on HRCT scans. Therefore, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases. PMID:23857700

Costa, André Nathan; Marchiori, Edson; Benard, Gil; Araújo, Mariana Sponholz; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

2013-01-01

232

MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo  

E-print Network

MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo William on retinal homeostasis with age and on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. Methods: The distribution, et al. (2012) MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

Proton Beam Irradiation Using a Light-Field Technique for the Treatment of Choroidal Hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To describe the clinical outcomes of patients with circumscribed and diffuse choroidal hemangiomas treated by proton beam irradiation using a nonsurgical light-field technique. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on a series of 19 patients (19 eyes) with choroidal hemangiomas treated with proton beam therapy between July 1988 and August 2005. Choroidal hemangiomas were treated with proton beam

R. V. Paul Chan; Yoshihiro Yonekawa; Dimitra Skondra; John E. Munzenrider; J. Michael Collier; Evangelos S. Gragoudas; Ivana K. Kim

2010-01-01

234

[Thyroglossal cyst of double cyst: one case report].  

PubMed

A 5 years old boy was referred to our department with complaints of a painless midline neck swelling. Clinical feature: there was a painless swelling above the middle of thyroid cartilage, it was about 2.0 cm x 0.5 cm, and it was soft. And its boundary was clear. The skin temperature is normal. B-mode ultrasound features: there is a cystic mass in the front of the neck, it is about 2.3 cm x 1.0 cm, and be apart from the skin is 0.3 cm. It is showed that another cystic mass behind this one, is about 1.9 cm x 0.7 cm. The borders are clear, and no blood flow signal is detected. The thyroid was not abnormal. Pathology results showed the wall of cyst and there were pectin in the cyst. Diagnosis: thyroglossal cyst of double cyst. PMID:25185296

Fu, Yangyang; She, Cuiping; Zhang, Qingfeng

2014-03-01

235

Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings of Choroidal Osteoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the morphologic features of a choroidal osteoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Methods Two eyes of two cases with a choroidal osteoma were studied using SS-OCT and FAF. Results The location of the tumor was circumpapillary without macular involvement in case 1 and juxtapapillary with macular involvement in case 2. Both cases had a mixture of calcified and decalcified areas, and a concomitant choroidal neovascularization was found in case 2. The FAF images showed decreased autofluorescence in the central decalcified regions and relatively preserved fluorescence in marginal calcified regions in both cases. SS-OCT revealed a normal inner retina and an abnormal outer retina in both cases, and subretinal fluid in case 2. The calcified regions appeared sponge-like and were multilayered in case 2. A lamellar reflective pattern was observed in the decalcified regions in case 1, and hyperreflective mound-like areas were observed in both cases. SS-OCT demonstrated hyperreflective areas above Bruch's membrane accompanied by disruption of Bruch's membrane in case 1. The chorioscleral border was visible in both cases. Conclusions The FAF pattern in the calcified and decalcified areas of the choroidal osteoma may correspond to the different stage of tumor evolution. The SS-OCT findings indicate that choroidal osteomas can have characteristic reflective patterns and alterations of the overlying retina. PMID:25120475

Hayashi, Yuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Egawa, Mariko; Semba, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Toshihiko

2014-01-01

236

PET/CT imaging: detection of choroidal melanoma  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine the size of untreated choroidal melanomas resolved by whole body positron emission tomography fused with computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods: 50 consecutive patients with untreated choroidal melanomas underwent whole body PET/CT. A functionally fused helical CT scan and 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans were employed. The tumours were identified (both quantitatively and qualitatively) and compared with clinical measurements derived from ophthalmoscopic, angiographic, and ultrasonographic imaging. Standardised uptake values (SUV) of more than 2.5 were considered positive. Results: Among the 50 patients with choroidal melanoma, PET/CT scan SUVs of more than 2.5 were noted in 14 (28%) tumours. No AJCC T1 class tumours, 33.3% of T2 melanomas, and 75% of T3 melanomas were physiologically identifiable on PET/CT. With respect to COMS group classifications, no small choroidal tumours, 33% of medium, and 75% of large melanomas were physiologically identifiable. The sole ring melanoma was identifiable on PET/CT imaging. The smallest tumour physiologically identifiable by PET/CT had basal dimensions of 3×5.9 and an apical height of 2.9 mm. Conclusion: Though PET/CT was found to be capable of physiologically identifying certain medium (T2) and most large sized (T3) choroidal melanomas, physiological imaging was not completely dependent upon tumour size. Functionally fused PET/CT localised the tumours within the eye and assessed their physiological activity. PMID:16170113

Reddy, S; Kurli, M; Tena, L B; Finger, P T

2005-01-01

237

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm{sup 3} (range, 151-1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9-76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong [Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Il, E-mail: jilee@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-01

238

Choroidal blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described that provides measurements of blood flow (ChBF) in discrete regions of the choroidal vascular system. It is based on the technique of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). A diode laser beam (wavelength equals 810 nm, 60 (mu) W at the cornea) is delivered to the eye through a fundus camera. Light scattered by red blood cells in the tissue volume illuminated by the incident laser beam is detected at the fundus image plane of the camera by an optical fiber. Two analysis schemes of the Doppler signal are developed: one uses commercial skin blood flowmeters and the other a NeXTstation (Motorola 68040 based) computer system. Responses of ChBF to various stimuli are in good agreement with previously published findings in animals. LDF is a valid technique for obtaining noninvasive, continuous, and sensitive recordings of ChBF at discrete regions of the cat eye and in the foveal region of the human fundus, without the need to dilate the pupil.

Riva, Charles E.; Petrig, Benno L.

1995-03-01

239

Thymic cyst in the neck.  

PubMed

A rare case of a thymic cyst in the neck containing both thymus and parathyroid tissue in a 7-year-old boy is presented. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, surgical management and histopathological features are described. The embryology of cervical thymic cysts and the differential diagnosis of cystic neck masses in children are briefly reviewed. The diagnosis is seldom made preoperatively. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for definitive diagnosis, resolution of symptoms and cure. PMID:15799585

Berenos-Riley, L; Manni, J J; Coronel, C; De Wilde, P C M

2005-01-01

240

Tectal plate cyst in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Tectal plate cysts are very rare. We report two adult patients with benign tectal plate cyst and secondary hydrocephalus.\\u000a The first patient had an unusual eye movement disorder with bilateral upper eyelid retraction (Collier’s sign), limited upgaze,\\u000a severe upgaze evoked nystagmus and retraction nystagmus. The second patient presented with ataxia and failure of upward gaze.\\u000a Endoscopic fenestration of the tectal

V. Kumar; E. W. K. Peng; M. O. Fitzpatrick; I. R. Whittle

2006-01-01

241

Diagnosis and Monitoring of Choroidal Osteoma through Multimodal Imaging  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old Caucasian female with a 6-month history of decreased visual acuity and metamorphopsia in the left eye is reported. The fundus of the left eye revealed a well defined lesion in the macula region. Diagnosis of choroidal osteoma was established using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICG), and B-scan ultrasonography. Subretinal fluid (SRF) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachment were noted in the absence of obvious classic choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). The patient was followed up for over 13 months without any treatment in the interim and the lesion was noted to have enlarged but visual acuity and SRF had remained stable. We report an interesting case where subretinal fluid was noted in the absence of evident choroidal neovascularisation and provide an example of the imaging modalities application in the era of “optical biopsy.” PMID:25276141

Empeslidis, Theodoros; Imrani, Usman; Mushtaq, Fizza; Fotiou, Pandelis; Kumar, Periyasami; Banerjee, Somnath; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T.

2014-01-01

242

Laser-induced macular holes demonstrate impaired choroidal perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Choroidal perfusion was evaluated following the creation of a laser induced macular hole in a nonhuman primate model. Two Rhesus monkeys underwent macular exposures delivered by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The lesions were evaluated with fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography . Each lesion produced vitreous hemorrhage and progressed to a full thickness macular hole. ICG angiography revealed no perfusion of the choriocapillaris beneath the lesion centers. Histopathologic evaluation showed replacement of the choriocapillaris with fibroblasts and connective tissue. Nd:YAG, laser-induced macular holes result in long term impairment of choroidal perfusion at the base of the hole due to choroidal scarring and obliteration of the choriocapillaris.

Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Allen, Ronald D.; Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Lund, David J.; Stuck, Bruce E.

2003-06-01

243

The inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus): its importance in neural preservation techniques.  

PubMed

The progress in the surgery of male neurological cancers relies on the anatomico-surgical approach to the pelvic neural structures. The objective of our study was to provide a better understanding of the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP) and its anatomical relationships in order to spare it during radical prostatectomy. Fifteen male formalin-preserved cadavers which had no sub-umbilical scar were used. In five subjects, the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the pre-sacral plexus were displayed then the IHP and its sacral afferents (pelvic splanchnic nerves or erector nerves of Eckhardt) were dissected out. Serial sections of the IHP were then studied in ten subjects. This allowed its identification on certain imaging sections obtained in pelvic tumor pathology and these made up the "reference cuts". The IHP lies within a fibro-fatty plate which is flat, rectangular, sub-peritoneal, sagittal and symmetrical. It arises at the level of the intersection between the vas deferens and the terminal pelvic ureter and follows the postero-lateral aspect and circumvolutions of the seminal vesicle, with which there is a plane of surgical cleavage. The seminal vesicle is, therefore, an essential landmark for this neural structure. The plane of this cleavage may be used in pelvic cancer surgery. The safest technical means of respecting sexual function and the integrity of the IHP is to keep it at a distance. The preservation of a lateral layer of the seminal vesicle is probably a method of limiting these complications as long as this does not conflict with the oncological clearance. An irregular communicating branch was found in one of five cases between the IHP, the sacral plexus and the pudendal nerve. This communicating branch lay immediately behind the intersection between the vas deferens and the ureter in the sacral concavity. It overhangs the IHP in the seminal vesicle. Impotence remains a frequent complication after radical prostatectomy. The methods of neural preservation at the prostatic apex are known but neural preservation should also be carried out posteriorly at the lateral pole of the seminal vesicle. The possibility of posterior neural preservation may be assessed pre-operatively by study of the "reference sections". The cleavage plane between the seminal vesicle and the IHP may be used intra-operatively to spare the IHP. The cavernous nerve in particular emerges at the antero-inferior border of the IHP before running along the postero-lateral aspect of the prostate. It therefore passes in contact with the seminal vesicle and may as a result be injured during radical prostatectomy with vesiculectomy. A proximal communicating branch between the IHP and the pudendal nerve is irregular. Such communicating branches may explain a better recovery of sexual function in curative neurological cancer surgery. The essential relationship of the IHP is with the seminal vesicle. The two are in tight contact and the seminal vesicle has a true plane of surgical cleavage with IHP. The risk of injuries to the posterior erectile mechanisms can be reduced either by using the cleavage plane between the IHP and seminal vesicle or by leaving a layer of the seminal vesicle when the oncological conditions allow. During celio-surgery, the operator must be careful to retract the little bands of the seminal vesicle and divide the fibrous and vascular tracts which tighten during this maneuver. During an abdominal approach, dissection of the seminal vesicle takes place at the bottom of a real pit. The operator must carry out the division leaving a layer of the seminal vesicle in place rather than trying to extract all the seminal vesicle by placing the forceps blindly. This maneuver is naturally dependent on the oncological situation. The anatomical confirmation of a regular or irregular proximal or distal communicating branch between the IHP and the pudendal nerve is probably an explanation for the sometimes uncertain results of new techniques of neural preservation in curative cancer surgery. PMID:12690518

Mauroy, B; Demondion, X; Drizenko, A; Goullet, E; Bonnal, J-L; Biserte, J; Abbou, C

2003-04-01

244

CT of the brachial plexus in patients with cancer  

SciTech Connect

To assess the usefulness of CT, we reviewed 51 patients with clinically diagnosed brachial plexopathy who were seen between 1977 and 1981. The established etiology was metastatic tumor in 46 and radiation fibrosis in 5. CT was abnormal in 89% of tumor patients. Myelography, bone scan, and plain cervical spine radiographs were less useful. In four of five patients with radiation fibrosis, CT showed distortion of normal tissue planes without a discrete mass, but was not always distinguishable from tumor infiltration. CT of the brachial plexus provides the best two-dimensional view of tumor infiltration and detects bony changes earlier than standard radiographs. CT is a useful guide for surgical exploration of the brachial plexus, but does not differentiate tumor infiltration from radiation fibrosis.

Cascino, T.L.; Kori, S.; Krol, G.; Foley, K.M.

1983-12-01

245

Reoperation for failed shoulder reconstruction following brachial plexus birth injury  

PubMed Central

Background Various approaches have been developed to treat the progressive shoulder deformity in patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Reconstructive surgery for this condition consists of complex procedures with a risk for failure. Case presentations This is a retrospective case review of the outcome in eight cases referred to us for reoperation for failed shoulder reconstructions. In each case, we describe the initial attempt(s) at surgical correction, the underlying causes of failure, and the procedures performed to rectify the problem. Results were assessed using pre- and post-operative Mallet shoulder scores. All eight patients realized improvement in shoulder function from reoperation. Conclusions This case review identifies several aspects of reconstructive shoulder surgery for brachial plexus birth injury that may cause failure of the index procedure(s) and outlines critical steps in the evaluation and execution of shoulder reconstruction. PMID:23883413

2013-01-01

246

Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury: pathological and biomechanical analyses  

PubMed Central

A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were significantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treatment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies.

Yang, Qi; Luo, Min; Li, Peng; Jin, Hai

2014-01-01

247

Secondary operation for elbow flexion reconstruction after brachial plexus lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Elbow flexion plays a key role in the overall function of the upper extremity. In the case of unilateral complete brachial\\u000a plexus lesion, restoration of elbow flexion will dramatically increase the patient's chances of regaining bimanual prehension.\\u000a Furthermore, depending on the type of reconstruction, stability of the glenohumeral joint as well as some supination function\\u000a of the forearm can

A. Berger; R. Hierner; M. H.-J. Becker

1997-01-01

248

Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand  

MedlinePLUS

... among gymnasts, who repeatedly apply stress to the wrist. Ganglion cysts that develop at the end joint of a ? nger — also known as mucous cysts — are typically associated with arthritis in the ? nger joint, and are more ...

249

Hydatid cyst of the cardiac interventricular septum.  

PubMed

Hydatid cysts of the cardiac interventricular septum are rare and present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman who was successfully treated with cyst excision and capitonnage. PMID:24887895

Naeem, Syed Nadir; Burhan, Hira; Khan, Ghufranullah

2015-03-01

250

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Schwannoma of Brachial Plexus  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve. PMID:24466527

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann; Jung, Pil Kyo

2013-01-01

251

Interocular Symmetry in Macular Choroidal Thickness in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective. To report interocular differences in choroidal thickness in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate findings with biometric data. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study included 91 (182 eyes) healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye exam and axial length measurement, high definition macular scans were performed using SD-OCT. Two observers manually measured the choroidal thickness at the foveal center and at 1500?µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Interocular differences were computed; correlations with age, gender, refractive error, and axial length were performed. Results. Mean age was 10.40 ± 3.17 years; mean axial length and refractive error values were similar between fellow eyes. There was excellent correlation between the two observers' measurements. No significant interocular differences were observed at any location. There was only a trend for right eyes to have higher values in all thicknesses, except the superior thickness. Most of the choroidal thickness measurements correlated positively with spherical equivalent but not with axial length, age, or gender. Conclusion. Choroidal thickness measurements in children as performed using SD-OCT revealed a high level of interobserver agreement and consistent interocular symmetry. Values correlated positively with spherical equivalent refraction. PMID:25525509

Al-Haddad, Christiane; El Chaar, Lama; Noureddin, Baha'

2014-01-01

252

Papillary thyroid carcinoma: bilateral choroidal metastases with extrascleral extension.  

PubMed

Here, we present the case of a patient with bilateral choroidal metastases with extraocular extension in one eye. Metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma to the uvea is extremely rare, with only 6 patients reported in the literature. A 62-year-old man with a prior history of papillary thyroid carcinoma suffered the rapid loss of vision in his right eye. He had neovascular glaucoma, total retinal detachment, and a solitary choroidal mass. A month later, his left visual acuity also decreased because of a small macular choroidal mass. The right eye was enucleated and a nodular lesion over the sclera representing extraocular extension was observed. This tumor and the intraocular lesion were composed of papillary excrescences and cystic spaces and stained positively for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin, all confirming the diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. The tumor in the left eye was successfully treated with diode laser transpupillary thermotherapy. The patient expired within a month as a result of widespread pulmonary metastases. Papillary thyroid carcinoma may metastasize to the uvea bilaterally, cause rapid visual function loss, erode the sclera, and may extend outside the globe similar to choroidal melanoma. This aggressive ocular involvement was associated with a dismal prognosis in our patient. PMID:23730117

Kiratli, Hayyam; Tarlan, Berçin; Söylemezo?lu, Figen

2013-06-01

253

Choroidal melanoma in children: be aware of risks.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of choroidal melanoma in a 13-year-old girl treated with plaque brachytherapy. Uveal melanoma is reported in all age groups but tends to manifest itself in adults more often than children. Childhood (< 20 years) uveal melanoma represents 1% of all cases. Clinical features and treatment options in childhood melanoma are discussed. PMID:25490240

Sivalingam, Meera D; Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Shields, Carol L

2014-01-01

254

Bilateral Choroidal Metastasis from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast and lung cancers are the most common primary neoplasms to manifest with choroidal metastases. The incidence of choroidal metastases from metastatic lung cancer was reported to be 2–6.7%. We report a case of bilateral choroidal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. A 59-year-old Caucasian female patient, never a smoker, was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pleura, bones, and the brain. Her initial scan of the chest showed innumerable soft tissue nodules and mediastinal adenopathy compatible with metastatic disease. Her initial brain MRI showed numerous small enhancing lesions consistent with extensive disease. Unfortunately, during her follow-up visits, she presented with bulge on her left eye. Simultaneously, her follow-up chest scan showed increase in the size of the lung nodules. She continued to have a reasonable performance status at that time, except for mild increase in her dyspnea. The choroidal metastases require a multidisciplinary care and should be among the differential patients with malignancy who present with ocular symptoms. PMID:25295203

Namad, Tariq; Wang, Jiang; Tilton, Annemarie; Abdel Karim, Nagla

2014-01-01

255

Proton beam therapy for posterior pole circumscribed choroidal haemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Macular and juxtapapillary circumscribed choroidal haemangiomas (CCH) have always posed a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Proton beam therapy has been advocated by Zografos and associates as optimal for treating these tumours in this critical region as charged particles have a highly localised and uniform dose distribution.Patients We present 3 cases of CCH treated with proton beam therapy. Two patients

Vickie Lee; John L Hungerford

1998-01-01

256

Low-Dose Proton Beam Therapy for Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pro- ton beam therapy for complicated circumscribed cho- roidal hemangiomas. Methods: The study was a retrospective nonrandom- ized investigation. Seventeen consecutive patients, re- ferred to the Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, France, for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma associated with serous retinal detachment were studied. Each eye re- ceived a total dose of 20 cobalt gray

Eric Frau; Frank Rumen; George Noel; Sabine Delacroix; Jean-Louis Habrand

2004-01-01

257

Low-Dose Proton Beam Therapy for Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pro- ton beam therapy for complicated circumscribed cho- roidal hemangiomas. Methods: The study was a retrospective nonrandom- ized investigation. Seventeen consecutive patients, re- ferred to the Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, France, for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma associated with serous retinal detachment were studied. Each eye re- ceived a total dose of 20 cobalt gray

Eric Frau; Frank Rumen; George Noel; Sabine Delacroix; Jean-Louis Habrand

258

Simple renal cysts in children with AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple renal cysts are very uncommon among children. Of 50 children with AIDS that underwent computed tomography at our hospital,\\u000a 4 had radiographically simple cysts. The incidence of simple renal cysts in this group of children is thus approximately 45\\u000a times that seen in normal children. To our knowledge, simple renal cysts have never been reported as a manifestation of

Harry L. Zinn; Sonam T. Rosberger; Jack O. Haller; Alan E. Schlesinger

1997-01-01

259

Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst  

PubMed Central

Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. PMID:24822143

Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Banno, Tomohiro; Ushirozako, Hiroki; Koide, Yoichi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

260

Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

2009-01-01

261

Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results. PMID:25140251

Tetik, Cihangir; Uzun, Metin

2014-01-01

262

Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries.  

PubMed

This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed. PMID:25593443

Thomas, Jimmy

2014-01-01

263

Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries  

PubMed Central

This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed. PMID:25593443

Thomas, Jimmy

2014-01-01

264

Suppression of Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization by Curcumin in Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effects of curcumin on the development of experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Methods C57BL/6N mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of curcumin daily for 3 days prior to laser-induced CNV, and the drug treatments were continued until the end of the study. The CNV area was analyzed by fluorescein-labeled dextran angiography of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid flat mounts on day 7 and 14, and CNV leakage was evaluated by fluorescein angiography (FA) on day 14 after laser photocoagulation. The infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages and GR-1 positive granulocytes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on RPE-choroid flat mounts on day 3. Their expression in RPE-choroid complex was quantified by real-time PCR (F4/80) and Western blotting (GR-1) on day 3. RPE-choroid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were examined by ELISA on day 3. Double immunostaining of F4/80 and VEGF was performed on cryo-sections of CNV lesions on day 3. The expression of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)?1? in the RPE-choroid was determined by Western blotting. Results Curcumin-treated mice had significantly less CNV area (P<0.05) and CNV leakage (P<0.001) than vehicle-treated mice. Curcumin treatment led to significant inhibition of F4/80 positive macrophages (P<0.05) and GR-1 positive granulocytes infiltration (P<0.05). VEGF mainly expressed in F4/80 positive macrophages in laser injury sites, which was suppressed by curcumin treatment (P<0.01). Curcumin inhibited the RPE-choroid levels of TNF-? (P<0.05), MCP-1 (P<0.05) and ICAM-1 (P<0.05), and suppressed the activation of NF-?B in nuclear extracts (P<0.05) and the activation of HIF?1? (P<0.05). Conclusion Curcumin treatment led to the suppression of CNV development together with inflammatory and angiogenic processes including NF-?B and HIF?1? activation, the up-regulation of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines, and infiltrating macrophages and granulocytes. This provides molecular and cellular evidence of the validity of curcumin supplementation as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated CNV. PMID:23285282

Xie, Ping; Zhang, WeiWei; Yuan, Songtao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yang, Qin; Yuan, DongQing; Wang, Feng; Liu, QingHuai

2012-01-01

265

Quantitation of Giardia cysts by membrane filtration.  

PubMed Central

A method of fixing and staining Giardia cysts on a membrane filter is reported. This procedure appears to be a reliable method for the recovery and detection of cysts and also for the determination of cyst densities. Evaluation and possible applications of the technique are described. Images PMID:6195183

Spaulding, J J; Pacha, R E; Clark, G W

1983-01-01

266

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and\\/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal\\u000a compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage\\u000a into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature.

Marta CicuendezJose; Jose F. Alen; Ana Ramos; Ramiro D. Lobato; Alfonso Lagares

2010-01-01

267

Inhibition of choroidal fibrovascular membrane formation by new class of RNA interference therapeutic agent targeting periostin.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision-threatening disease characterized by choroidal fibrovascular membrane (FVM) formation, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and choroidal fibrosis. No safe and effective therapeutic method has been developed for the choroidal fibrosis, although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy can partially shrink the CNV. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN), which is produced by retinal pigment epithelial cells, has an important role in the formation of preretinal FVMs, but its role in choroidal FVMs has not been determined. In this study, we used Postn knockout mice to investigate the role played by POSTN in choroidal FVM formation. In addition, we used a new class of RNA interference (RNAi) agent (NK0144) that targets POSTN and determined its effect on choroidal FVM development. Genetic ablation of Postn had an inhibitory effect not only on CNV formation but also on choroidal fibrosis in a mouse CNV model. NK0144 also had a greater inhibitory effect on both the CNV and choroidal fibrosis than control RNAi with no apparent adverse effects. These findings suggest a causal relationship between POSTN and choroidal FVM formation, and also a potential therapeutic role of intravitreal NK0144 for AMD. PMID:25503692

Nakama, T; Yoshida, S; Ishikawa, K; Kobayashi, Y; Zhou, Y; Nakao, S; Sassa, Y; Oshima, Y; Takao, K; Shimahara, A; Yoshikawa, K; Hamasaki, T; Ohgi, T; Hayashi, H; Matsuda, A; Kudo, A; Nozaki, M; Ogura, Y; Kuroda, M; Ishibashi, T

2015-02-01

268

Laparoscopic approach to retrorectal cyst.  

PubMed

Retrorectal cysts are rare benign lesions in the presacral space which are frequently diagnosed in middle-aged females. We report here our experience with two symptomatic female patients who were diagnosed as having a retrorectal cyst and managed using a laparoscopic approach. The two patients were misdiagnosed as having an ovarian cystic lesion after abdominal ultrasonography. Computer tomograghy (CT) scan was mandatory to establish the diagnosis. The trocar port site was the same in both patients. An additional left oophorectomy was done for a coexisting ovarian cystic lesion in one patient in the same setting. There was no postoperative morbidity or mortality and the two patients were discharged on the 5th and 6th post operative days, respectively. Our cases show that laparoscopic management of retrorectal cysts is a safe approach. It reduces surgical trauma and offers an excellent tool for perfect visualization of the deep structures in the presacral space. PMID:19030218

Gunkova, Petra; Martinek, Lubomir; Dostalik, Jan; Gunka, Igor; Vavra, Petr; Mazur, Miloslav

2008-11-14

269

Relationship of Simple Renal Cyst to Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Simple renal cyst is the most common cystic deformation found in adults. However, there were a few systematic Korean reports for the clinical symptoms and complications of simple renal cysts. The author's purpose was to determine the relationship between simple renal cysts diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and hypertension. Methods Among 13,482 persons who took a routine physical examination at Ulsan University Hospital in 2002, 5,127 persons who took medical examinations again in 2010 were selected. We excluded persons who had renal cyst, hypertension, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, thyroid disease, and cancer in 2002. Analysis was conducted for 505 subjects with newly diagnosed simple renal cyst and 2,744 subjects without renal cyst in 2010. The simple renal cyst group was compared to a control group without renal cyst. Results Among 3,249 subjects, simple renal cyst and hypertension were newly diagnosed in 505 subjects and 503 subjects. The subjects who had simple renal cysts had significantly higher hypertension incidence (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.94). Significant hypertension incidence was observed especially when the subjects had cysts located on both kidneys (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.12 to 5.71), two (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.84 to 5.15) or more cysts (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.38 to 7.04), and larger cysts more than 1 cm in diameter (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.07). Conclusion The presence of simple renal cysts was significantly positively related to the incidence of hypertension. Bilateral distribution, two or more number, and larger size than 1 cm diameter were the characteristics of simple renal cyst related to hypertension. PMID:25309704

Kim, Su-Mi; Oh, Myoung-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Gul; Bae, Sung-Jin

2014-01-01

270

Pigmented eyelid cysts revisited: apocrine retention cyst chromhidrosis.  

PubMed

A minority of eyelid hidrocystomas are pigmented containing brown-black contents. Chromhidrosis describes the excretion of colored secretions composed of lipofuscin pigments in apocrine gland-rich anatomic locations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of pigmented eyelid cysts. A case-control study was conducted, examining consecutive pigmented and nonpigmented eyelid hidrocystoma excision specimens. Over a 4-year period, 9 pigmented eyelid hidrocystomas were identified, representing 13% (9/70) of all hidrocystoma excisions. Compared to controls (n = 14), no difference existed for age [mean age 59 (44-78 years) vs. 60 (42-82 years)] or size [mean diameter 2.3 (1-4 mm) vs. 2.7 (1-5 mm)] (pigmented vs. nonpigmented, respectively), but a trend for female, left side, and lower lid predominance for pigmented hidrocystomas existed: 8:1 versus 7:7 F:M; 7:2 versus 7:7 left:right; 8:1 versus 9:5 lower:upper eyelid (pigmented vs. nonpigmented, respectively). Clinically, the pigmented cysts' color varied from dark blue, brown, and to black, and on gross examination, they expressed dark brown to black granular liquid contents. Applying histologic criteria of Jakobiec and Zakka, 8 of 9 and 14 of 14 pigmented and nonpigmented hidrocystomas were of apocrine type. Seven of 9 (78%) pigmented cysts and 6 of 14 (43%) nonpigmented hidrocystomas contained granular eosinophilic cyst contents and/or intracellular cytoplasmic granular pigmented deposits by light microscopy. (The pigmented cyst contents did not survive processing in 2 cases.) By histochemistry (periodic acid Schiff with diastase, Sudan Black, and Fite acid-fast positive staining) and ultraviolet fluorescence, these sediments were determined to be lipofuscin pigments. No hidrocystomas had melanin deposits, and one case had hemosiderin deposits in a scarred cyst wall in addition to cyst lipofuscin pigments. In studies of chromhidrosis, both normal and chromhidrotic apocrine glands contain lipofuscin pigments; the sole difference lies in the amount of lipofuscin granules. Similarly, for eyelid apocrine hidrocystomas, lipofuscin pigments exist in both groups. Presumptively, the amount of lipofuscin and degree of its oxidation distinguish pigmented from nonpigmented apocrine hidrocystomas. PMID:24247572

Al-Rohil, Rami N; Meyer, Dale; Slodkowska, Elzbieta A; Carlson, J A

2014-04-01

271

Pericyst: the outermost layer of hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease, caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus, mostly affects the liver and the lungs with hydatid cysts which consist of three layers: (1) the outer pericyst; (2) the middle laminated membrane; and (3) the inner germinal layer. Pericyst, as the outermost layer of the hydatid cyst, is made by host cells encasing the hydatid cyst. An extremely close interaction exists between this host tissue and the parasite, and any degenerative changes of the pericyst would result in hydatid cyst degeneration or rupture. The pericyst plays an undeniably important role in the development and survival of the hydatid cyst. PMID:24574815

Golzari, Samad E J; Sokouti, Mohsen

2014-02-01

272

Pericyst: The outermost layer of hydatid cyst  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease, caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus, mostly affects the liver and the lungs with hydatid cysts which consist of three layers: (1) the outer pericyst; (2) the middle laminated membrane; and (3) the inner germinal layer. Pericyst, as the outermost layer of the hydatid cyst, is made by host cells encasing the hydatid cyst. An extremely close interaction exists between this host tissue and the parasite, and any degenerative changes of the pericyst would result in hydatid cyst degeneration or rupture. The pericyst plays an undeniably important role in the development and survival of the hydatid cyst. PMID:24574815

Golzari, Samad EJ; Sokouti, Mohsen

2014-01-01

273

Prenatal diagnosis of a paraurethral cyst.  

PubMed

Paraurethral cysts arising from Skene's gland are a rare cause of urogenital masses in the neonate. We report the case of a pelvic mass noted at the vaginal introitus on prenatal ultrasound that following delivery was found to be a paraurethral cyst. On prenatal ultrasound, there was no evidence of involvement of the urinary, gastrointestinal, or upper genital tract. Serial ultrasounds demonstrated slight enlargement of the cyst without other changes. The patient delivered at 33 weeks and postnatal evaluation demonstrated a paraurethral cyst. The cyst was managed expectantly and drained spontaneously on the second day of life with complete resolution. PMID:23146295

Johnson, Clark T; Millard, Sarah E; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Ehsanipoor, Robert M

2013-02-01

274

Radiculopathy due to spontaneous facetal cyst hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Facetal cysts are usually encountered as incidental radiological findings in spinal imaging studies. Only rarely can neurological symptoms be attributed to them. These cysts are lined by vascularized synovial tissue. There are few reports in literature of hemorrhagic transformation in these cysts with sudden increase in size precipitating symptoms acutely. We report one such case where the existence of a hitherto undiagnosed cyst was unmasked by the haemorrhage. There is a need to be aware of this complication in patients with untreated or incidentally diagnosed cysts so that any sudden neurological deterioration can be dealt with promptly.

Krishnan, Prasad; Sanyal, Sugat; Das, Sayan

2014-01-01

275

Dramatic regression of amelanotic choroidal melanoma with PDT following poor response to brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for treatment of choroidal neovascular membrane from exudative macular degeneration. Other applications include treatment of some intraocular tumors, such as choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, and choroidal osteoma. The authors report the effect of PDT for amelanotic choroidal melanoma. A 40-year-old woman with an amelanotic choroidal melanoma of 6.5 mm thickness showed poor response to iodine brachytherapy (80 Gy apical dose) with no reduction in thickness at 16 months of follow-up. There was prominent residual tumor. The amelanotic tumor was treated with verteporfin PDT using three overlapping spots (8,600 microns), with avoidance of the optic disc using standard treatment parameters. Dramatic tumor regression over 2 months to a completely flat scar (1.3 mm thickness) was documented and remained stable at 50 months of follow-up. Amelanotic choroidal melanoma with incomplete response following conventional plaque radiotherapy can be treated with verteporfin PDT for consolidation. PMID:22589358

Tuncer, Samuray; Kir, Nur; Shields, Carol L

2012-01-01

276

A case of symptomatic Rathke's cyst  

PubMed Central

Rathke's cleft cyst is a benign growth found on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a fluid-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathke's pouch does not develop properly, and ranges in size from 2 to 40?mm in diameter. Asymptomatic cysts are common, detected during autopsies of 2–26% of individuals who have died of unrelated causes. Symptomatic cysts are rare and only approximately 150 cases have been reported. Females are twice as likely as males to have a cyst. Symptomatic cysts can trigger visual disturbances, pituitary dysfunction and headaches. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old female patient who presented with complains of visual disturbances, headache and amenorrhoea. On investigations, MRI of brain revealed findings suggestive of Rathke's cleft cyst. PMID:23355555

Naik, Vismay Dinesh; Thakore, Nilay Rajendra

2013-01-01

277

Multidirectional Instability Accompanying an Inferior Labral Cyst  

PubMed Central

Paralabral cyst of the shoulder joint can be observed in 2% to 4% of the general population, particularly in men during the third and fourth decade. On average, these cysts measure 10 mm to 20 mm in diameter and are located preferentially on the postero-superior aspect of the glenoid. The MRI has increased the frequency of the diagnosis of paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint. Paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint usually develop in the proximity of the labrum. The relationship between shoulder instability and labral tears is well known, however, the association of shoulder instability with a paralabral cyst is rare. Shoulder instability may cause labral injury or labral injury may cause shoulder instability, and then injured tear develops paralabral cyst. In our patient, the inferior paralabral cyst may be associated with inferior labral tears and instability MRI. PMID:20514270

Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sung-Jae

2010-01-01

278

Intratesticular Epidermoid Cyst Masquerading as Testicular Torsion  

PubMed Central

Epidermoid cysts are benign tumors that comprise approximately 1% of all testicular masses. They usually present as painless masses that can be identified on scrotal ultrasound as well-demarcated intratesticular lesions with mixed echogenicity. This case report describes a rare presentation of an extremely large intratesticular epidermoid cyst with clinical and radiologic findings more consistent with testicular torsion. The sizeable cyst obliterated the surrounding testicular parenchyma, causing it to appear on scrotal Doppler ultrasound as a testicle devoid of blood flow. This obliteration also resulted in failure to identify a testicular mass on physical examination or imaging. The current literature contains previous reports of extratesticular epidermoid cysts presenting as torsion; however, this is the first report of an intratesticular epidermoid cyst presenting in this manner. Though smaller cysts may be managed effectively with testicular-sparing surgery, optimal management of a cyst this size requires orchiectomy.

Slawin, Jeremy; Slawin, Kevin

2014-01-01

279

New insights about suprapatellar cyst.  

PubMed

Suprapatellar bursa is located between the quadriceps tendon and femur, and it develops before the birth as a separate synovial compartment proximal to the knee joint. By the fifth month of fetal life there is a suprapatellar septum between the knee joint cavity and suprapatellar bursa which later perforates and involutes in a way that a normal communication between the cavity of bursa and knee is established. A small portion of the embrionic septum can later lag as more or less expressed suprapatellar plica. In case when suprapatellar plica has a small communication with valve mechanism or in case of complete septum, bursa becomes a separate compartment and potential location for the suprapatellar cyst development. Magnetic resonance imaging is recognised as the gold standard in diagnosis of knee cysts because of its ability to show cystic nature of the lesion, its relationship with other anatomic structures, as well as to establish whether other knee pathologies are present. Considering treatment possibilities, majority of cysts around the knee resolve spontaneously and should be treated by aspiration and application of corticosteroids. Suprapatellar cyst is a very rare knee pathology and it can in some occasions be treated using open or arthroscopic surgery. PMID:22577510

Crnkovi?, Tomislav; Gašpar, Drago; Ethurovi?, Dražen; Podsednik, Dinko; Slišuri?, Ferdinand

2012-01-01

280

[Hydatid cysts of the liver].  

PubMed

Single or multiple hydatid cysts of the liver are frequently observed in Italy and the Mediterranean countries. They are swellings caused by the hexacanth larva of a small cestode, Echinococcus granulosus. This must be distinguished from E. multilocularis, which is responsible for alveolar cyst, and is common in central-eastern Europe, but rare in Italy. An account is given of the development cycle of the intermediate and final host, the protean symptomatology (dependent on the siting of the cyst in the liver and the presence of complications), and the radiological, ultrasound, biological and anatomical diagnosis of this form. Diagnosis is much dependent on the examinations of first choice (currently echotomography, plus immunoelectrophoresis and immunofluorescence that permit epidemiological control of the community and serological follow-up after surgery). Computed tomography is of assistance in the approximately 25% of cases in which echotomography is not conclusive, while angiography is called upon to provide very precise mapping of the supramesocolic region. Surgery requires two fundamental stages: sterilisation of the parasite and treatment of the pericystium. It involves external or internal shunting, or partial or total resection, depending on various factors, particularly the thinness or thickness of the pericystium, the absence or presence of infection, and the site, volume and number of the cysts. Medical management with mebendazole and its derivatives is still chancy, both on the strictly therapeutic plane and with regard to the prevention of secondary, spontaneous or postoperative dissemination. PMID:6709221

Manzullo, V

1984-03-10

281

Giant hydronephrosis mimicking echinococcal cyst.  

PubMed

Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than one to two liters of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis of > 17.5 Kg mimicking a huge echinococcal cyst. PMID:16453224

El Fortia, M; Bendaoud, M; Badi, H; Abufalgha, F; Elgsier, N; Hajaji, E; Abubaker, G

2005-12-01

282

New insights about suprapatellar cyst  

PubMed Central

Suprapatellar bursa is located between the quadriceps tendon and femur, and it develops before the birth as a separate synovial compartment proximal to the knee joint. By the fifth month of fetal life there is a suprapatellar septum between the knee joint cavity and suprapatellar bursa which later perforates and involutes in a way that a normal communication between the cavity of bursa and knee is established. A small portion of the embrionic septum can later lag as more or less expressed suprapatellar plica. In case when suprapatellar plica has a small communication with valve mechanism or in case of complete septum, bursa becomes a separate compartment and potential location for the suprapatellar cyst development. Magnetic resonance imaging is recognised as the gold standard in diagnosis of knee cysts because of its ability to show cystic nature of the lesion, its relationship with other anatomic structures, as well as to establish whether other knee pathologies are present. Considering treatment possibilities, majority of cysts around the knee resolve spontaneously and should be treated by aspiration and application of corticosteroids. Suprapatellar cyst is a very rare knee pathology and it can in some occasions be treated using open or arthroscopic surgery. PMID:22577510

Crnkovi?, Tomislav; Gašpar, Drago; Ðurovi?, Dražen; Podsednik, Dinko; Slišuri?, Ferdinand

2012-01-01

283

Investigation of occult choroidal neovascularization at low-light level: clinical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a double TV camera system incorporated in a standard fundus camera for imaging the choroidal vascular network with very low intensity infrared light. The equipment was employed to perform indocyanine green (ICG) choroidal angiography in several chorioretinal pathologies with particular interest in age related macular degeneration (AMD). An evaluation and comparison of fluorescein and ICG angiograms is carried out for the diagnosis, localization, and laser treatment evaluation of choroidal neovascularizations (CNV).

Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ciamberlini, Claudio; Guarnieri, Vittorio; Poggi, Pasquale; Panzardi, G.; Donati, M. C.; Faraldi, F.

1995-02-01

284

Structure of the brachial plexus root and adjacent regions displayed by ultrasound imaging?  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexuses of 110 healthy volunteers were examined using high resolution color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasonic characteristics and anatomic variation in the intervertebral foramen, interscalene, supraclavicular and infraclavicular, as well as the axillary brachial plexus were investigated. Results confirmed that the normal brachial plexus on cross section exhibited round or elliptic hypoechoic texture. Longitudinal section imaging showed many parallel linear hypo-moderate echoes, with hypo-echo. The transverse processes of the seventh cervical vertebra, the scalene space, the subclavian artery and the deep cervical artery are important markers in an examination. The display rates for the interscalene, and supraclavicular and axillary brachial plexuses were 100% each, while that for the infraclavicular brachial plexus was 97%. The region where the normal brachial plexus root traversed the intervertebral foramen exhibited a regular hypo-echo. The display rate for the C5-7 nerve roots was 100%, while those for C8 and T1 were 83% and 68%, respectively. A total of 20 of the 110 subjects underwent cervical CT scan. High-frequency ultrasound can clearly display the outline of the transverse processes of the vertebrae, which were consistent with CT results. These results indicate that high-frequency ultrasound provides a new method for observing the morphology of the brachial plexus. The C7 vertebra is a marker for identifying the position of brachial plexus nerve roots.

Li, Zhengyi; Xia, Xun; Rong, Xiaoming; Tang, Yamei; Xu, Dachuan

2012-01-01

285

Spatial mapping of the brachial plexus using three-dimensional ultrasound.  

PubMed

Imaging of the brachial plexus with MRI and standard two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound has been reported, and 2D ultrasound-guided regional anaesthetic block is an established technique. The aim of this study was to map the orientation of the brachial plexus in relation to the first rib, carotid and subclavian arteries, using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. A free-hand optically tracked 3D ultrasound system was used with a 12 MHz transducer. 10 healthy volunteers underwent 3D ultrasound of the neck. From the 3D ultrasound data sets, the outlines of the brachial plexus, subclavian artery and first rib were manually segmented. A surface was interpolated from the series of outlines to produce a spatially orientated 3D reconstruction of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus could be mapped in all volunteers, although a variation in image resolution between individuals existed. Anatomical variations were demonstrated between the 10 volunteers; the most notable and clinically relevant was the alignment of the plexus divisions. 3D reconstructions illustrated the plexus, changing its orientation from a vertical alignment in the interscalene region to a more horizontal alignment in the supraclavicular fossa. Spatial mapping of the brachial plexus is possible with 3D ultrasound using the subclavian artery and first rib as landmarks. There is a deviation from the conventionally described anatomy and this may have implications for the administration of regional anaesthesia. PMID:16352583

Cash, C J C; Sardesai, A M; Berman, L H; Herrick, M J; Treece, G M; Prager, R W; Gee, A H

2005-12-01

286

Penile erectile dysfunction after brachial plexus root avulsion injury in rats.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have demonstrated that some male patients suffering from brachial plexus injury, particularly brachial plexus root avulsion, show erectile dysfunction to varying degrees. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the erectile function after establishing brachial plexus root avulsion models with or without spinal cord injury in rats. After these models were established, we administered apomorphine (via a subcutaneous injection in the neck) to observe changes in erectile function. Rats subjected to simple brachial plexus root avulsion or those subjected to brachial plexus root avulsion combined with spinal cord injury had significantly fewer erections than those subjected to the sham operation. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase did not change in brachial plexus root avulsion rats. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly decreased in brachial plexus root avulsion + spinal cord injury rats. These findings suggest that a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis may play a role in erectile dysfunction caused by the combination of brachial plexus root avulsion and spinal cord injury. PMID:25422647

Fu, Guo; Qin, Bengang; Jiang, Li; Huang, Xijun; Lu, Qinsen; Zhang, Dechun; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai; Zheng, Jianwen; Li, Xuejia; Gu, Liqiang

2014-10-15

287

Demonstration of myenteric plexus abnormalities in genetic diseases by a microdissection technique: preliminary studies.  

PubMed

Eighty-eight specimens of esophagus, small intestine, or colon from 45 patients, predominantly infants and children, with 30 different genetic diseases were analyzed by a microdissection technique for the following abnormalities of the Auerbach (myenteric) plexus: (1) abnormality of the pattern of the nervous network of the plexus, (2) abnormal fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus, (3) abnormal size or appearance of the cytoplasm of the neurons of the plexus, and (4) abnormal number of neurons in the ganglia of the plexus. Seven of 8 specimens of esophagus from patients with neuronal storage diseases (infantile Niemann-Pick disease, Jansky-Bielschowsky disease, etc.) showed an increased fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus, whereas 2 of 3 patients with Cockayne syndrome showed a reduced fraction, with abnormally slender interganglionic fibers. The fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus was also abnormal at one or more levels in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy, ataxia telangiectasia, Krabbe disease, and juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy. Abnormality of neuron size and cytology was seen in several neuronal lipidoses, including Jansky-Bielschowsky and Sandhoff diseases and juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis, with the most striking neuronal enlargement noted in infantile Niemann-Pick disease. Abnormalities of plexus mass or pattern, as well as those of neuronal cytoplasm and neuron number, offer improved insight into possible mechanisms producing gastrointestinal tract dysfunction (swallowing difficulty, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, etc) in patients with genetic disorders. PMID:3130868

Galvis, D A; Nakazato, Y; Wells, T R; Landing, B H

1987-01-01

288

Penile erectile dysfunction after brachial plexus root avulsion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that some male patients suffering from brachial plexus injury, particularly brachial plexus root avulsion, show erectile dysfunction to varying degrees. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the erectile function after establishing brachial plexus root avulsion models with or without spinal cord injury in rats. After these models were established, we administered apomorphine (via a subcutaneous injection in the neck) to observe changes in erectile function. Rats subjected to simple brachial plexus root avulsion or those subjected to brachial plexus root avulsion combined with spinal cord injury had significantly fewer erections than those subjected to the sham operation. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase did not change in brachial plexus root avulsion rats. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly decreased in brachial plexus root avulsion + spinal cord injury rats. These findings suggest that a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis may play a role in erectile dysfunction caused by the combination of brachial plexus root avulsion and spinal cord injury. PMID:25422647

Fu, Guo; Qin, Bengang; Jiang, Li; Huang, Xijun; Lu, Qinsen; Zhang, Dechun; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai; Zheng, Jianwen; Li, Xuejia; Gu, Liqiang

2014-01-01

289

A supraomohyoidal plexus block designed to avoid complications.  

PubMed

Interscalene blocks of the brachial plexus are used for surgery of the shoulder and are frequently associated with complications such as temporary phrenic block, Horner syndrome or hematoma. To minimize the risk of these complications, we developed an approach that avoids medially directed needle advancement and favors spread to lateral regions only: the supraomohyoidal block. We tested this procedure in 11 cadavers fixed by Thiel's method. The insertion site is at the lateral margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle at the level of the cricoid cartilage. The needle is inserted in the axis of the plexus with an angle of approximately 35 degrees to the skin, and advanced in lateral and caudal direction. Distribution of solution was determined in ten cadavers after bilateral injection of colored solution (20 and 30 ml) and followed by dissection. In an eleventh cadaver, computerized tomography and 3D reconstruction after radio contrast injection was performed. In additional five cadavers we performed Winnie's technique with bilateral injection (20 and 30 ml). Concerning the supraomohyoidal block the injection mass reached the infraclavicular region surrounded all trunks of the brachial plexus in the supraclavicular region and the suprascapular nerve in all cases. The solution did not spread medially beyond the lateral margin of the anterior scalene muscle into the scalenovertebral triangle. Therefore, phrenic nerve, stellate ganglion, laryngeal nerve nor the vertebral artery were exposed to the injected solution. Distribution was comparable with the use of 20 and 30 ml of solution. Injections on five cadavers performing the interscalene block of Winnie resulted in an extended spread medially to the anterior scalene muscle. We conclude that our method may be a preferred approach due to its safety, because no structures out of interest were reached. Solution of 20 ml is suggested to be enough for a successful block. PMID:16680393

Feigl, G; Fuchs, A; Gries, M; Hogan, Q H; Weninger, B; Rosmarin, W

2006-08-01

290

Finger movement at birth in brachial plexus birth palsy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether the finger movement at birth is a better predictor of the brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing pre-surgical records of 87 patients with residual obstetric brachial plexus palsy in study 1. Posterior subluxation of the humeral head (PHHA), and glenoid retroversion were measured from computed tomography or Magnetic resonance imaging, and correlated with the finger movement at birth. The study 2 consisted of 141 obstetric brachial plexus injury patients, who underwent primary surgeries and/or secondary surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Information regarding finger movement was obtained from the patient’s parent or guardian during the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 9 (10.3%) patients who lacked finger movement at birth had a PHHA > 40%, and glenoid retroversion < -12°, whereas only 1 patient (1.1%) with finger movement had a PHHA > 40%, and retroversion < -8° in study 1. The improvement in glenohumeral deformity (PHHA, 31.8% ± 14.3%; and glenoid retroversion 22.0° ± 15.0°) was significantly higher in patients, who have not had any primary surgeries and had finger movement at birth (group 1), when compared to those patients, who had primary surgeries (nerve and muscle surgeries), and lacked finger movement at birth (group 2), (PHHA 10.7% ± 15.8%; Version -8.0° ± 8.4°, P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively) in study 2. No finger movement at birth was observed in 55% of the patients in this study group. CONCLUSION: Posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion measurements indicated significantly severe shoulder deformities in children with finger movement at birth, in comparison with those lacked finger movement. However, the improvement after triangle tilt surgery was higher in patients who had finger movement at birth. PMID:23362472

Nath, Rahul K; Benyahia, Mohamed; Somasundaram, Chandra

2013-01-01

291

Massive psoas haematoma causing lumbar plexus palsy: a case report.  

PubMed

An 84-year-old man who was receiving oral anticoagulation therapy presented with complete lumbar plexus palsy caused by a massive psoas haematoma. Conservative treatment rather than drainage of the haematoma was undertaken, because of the risk of bleeding complications and mortality. At the one-year follow-up, the patient had no clinical signs of neurological recovery. The patient died 2 months later due to his concurrent medical problems. A high degree of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis because of the insidiously developing neurological deficit. PMID:22535820

Conesa, Xavier; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto

2012-04-01

292

Brachial plexus injury during surgery--report of two cases.  

PubMed

Brachial plexus is the most commonly injured peripheral nerve by malposition during operation. We present two cases of transient brachial palsy after surgery under general anesthesia. Symptoms of the first case persisted about 60 min. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) revealed no abnormal finding three days later. In the second case, axonal neuropathy was found at left axillary and suprascapular nerves by EMG and NCV three weeks later. Symptoms persisted for three months and had complete remission after conservative treatment. PMID:9407684

Liu, S T; Huang, S J; Chu, Y H; Wong, C S; Wu, C T; Ho, S T

1997-09-01

293

Ischaemic neuropathy of the lumbosacral plexus following intragluteal injection.  

PubMed Central

A lesion of the lumbo sacral plexus may result from an inadvertent intra-arterial injection of vasotoxic drugs into one of the gluteal arteries. Symptoms and follow-up of three cases are reported. The neuropathy is attributed to a toxic endarteritis with retrograde propagation of spasm and thrombosis. Swelling an bluish discoloration of the buttocks ("embolia cutis medicamentosa") as well as an impaired circulation in the homolateral leg are associated with the neurological syndrome in fully developed cases and makes possible a correct diagnosis. Images PMID:7205289

Stöhr, M; Dichgans, J; Dörstelmann

1980-01-01

294

Evaluation and management of brachial plexus birth palsy.  

PubMed

Brachial plexus birth palsy can result in permanent lifelong deficits and unfortunately continues to be relatively common despite advancements in obstetric care. The diagnosis can be made shortly after birth by physical examination, noting a lack of movement in the affected upper extremity. Treatment begins with passive range-of-motion exercises to maintain flexibility and tactile stimulation to provide sensory reeducation. Primary surgery consists of microsurgical nerve surgery, whereas secondary surgery consists of alternative microsurgical procedures, tendon transfers, or osteotomies, all of which improve outcomes in the short term. However, the long-term outcomes of current treatment recommendations remain unknown. PMID:24684916

Abzug, Joshua M; Kozin, Scott H

2014-04-01

295

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve arising in the brachial plexus.  

PubMed

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve is a rare benign infiltrating condition of peripheral nerves leading to progressive functional loss. Previous descriptions have virtually all been confined to the distal part of the upper limb, with the median nerve being the commonest reported site. Most cases occur in the first 3 decades of life and a third are associated with macrodactyly. A case is described in a 63-year-old woman, involving the whole of the brachial plexus, a previously unreported site for this particular lesion. PMID:7759925

Price, A J; Compson, J P; Calonje, E

1995-02-01

296

Pulsed radiofrequency treatment within brachial plexus for the management of intractable neoplastic plexopathic pain.  

PubMed

We report on the use of pulsed radiofrequency (RF) within the plexus for the management of intractable pain in three patients with metastatic or invasive plexopathy. The patients were a 38-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 6 years earlier whose computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a mass lesion at the infraclavicular part of the right brachial plexus, a 68-year-old man diagnosed with advanced lung cancer whose CT scans revealed a bone metastasis in the right humerus invading the axillary region of the right brachial plexus, and a 67-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced lung cancer whose CT scans revealed a bone metastasis in the left humerus invading the axillary region of the left brachial plexus. Ultrasound-guided pulsed RF was performed within the interscalene brachial plexus. During the follow-up period, their intractable pain was moderately controlled. PMID:23070568

Arai, Young-Chang P; Nishihara, Makoto; Aono, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Chiharu; Kinoshita, Akiko; Ushida, Takahiro

2013-04-01

297

Nerve transfer helps repair brachial plexus injury by increasing cerebral cortical plasticity  

PubMed Central

In the treatment of brachial plexus injury, nerves that are functionally less important are transferred onto the distal ends of damaged crucial nerves to help recover neuromuscular function in the target region. For example, intercostal nerves are transferred onto axillary nerves, and accessory nerves are transferred onto suprascapular nerves, the phrenic nerve is transferred onto the musculocutaneous nerves, and the contralateral C7 nerve is transferred onto the median or radial nerves. Nerve transfer has become a major method for reconstructing the brachial plexus after avulsion injury. Many experiments have shown that nerve transfers for treatment of brachial plexus injury can help reconstruct cerebral cortical function and increase cortical plasticity. In this review article, we summarize the recent progress in the use of diverse nerve transfer methods for the repair of brachial plexus injury, and we discuss the impact of nerve transfer on cerebral cortical plasticity after brachial plexus injury.

Sun, Guixin; Wu, Zuopei; Wang, Xinhong; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yudong

2014-01-01

298

Pelvis metastasis from primary choroidal melanoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

The patient, a 16-year-old girl, was admitted to our hospital with complaints of right hip pain and claudication. Her past medical history indicated that 2 years earlier she had undergone enucleation of her left eye for a primary choroidal melanoma. Imaging studies revealed a osteolytic destruction with soft tissue mass involving the right hemipelvis (zone I–II). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT) showed no other sites of metastases. Consequently, the patient underwent hemipelvic prosthesis reconstruction after tumor resection. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was metastatic malignant melanoma. Thirty months after treatment, imaging studies indicated no evidence of recurrence, and functional recovery was excellent. To our knowledge, the literature does not reveal any previously reported cases of ocular choroidal melanoma that metastasized to pelvis, meanwhile was carried out hemipelvic prosthesis reconstruction after pelvic tumor resection. PMID:25484593

Xiong, Yan; Lang, Yun; Tu, Chongqi; Duan, Hong

2014-01-01

299

Transscleral Diode Photocoagulation of Large Retinal and Choroidal Vascular Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background Transscleral retinal photocoagulation with a diode laser is used in glaucoma refractory to medical and surgical treatment. Our main research question was how the technique performed in large vascular lesions associated with hemangiomas of the retina and choroid. Methodology/Clinical Findings Patient charts were retrieved from the hospital files for patients who underwent the procedure and were followed for at least 24 months. Five patients (6 eyes) fit the criteria. Cases included Von Hippel’s disease (2 eyes), Coats’ disease (1 eye) and choroidal hemangioma (3 cases). Transscleral diode laser treatment was performed under retrobulbar and topical anesthesia with a retinopexy probe (IRIS DioPexy, IRIS Medical Instruments, Mountain View, CA) applied transsclerally under indirect ophthalmoscope visualization. We found an improvement in best-corrected visual acuity at 24 months postoperatively. Conclusions/Significance Transscleral photocoagulation may have a clinical application in these diseases as an alternate to the high cost of photodynamic therapy with photosensitizing agents. PMID:22792170

Feng, Yun; Ma, Zhizhong

2012-01-01

300

Uveal Melanoma in the Peripheral Choroid Masquerading as Chronic Uveitis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To describe a case of uveal melanoma in the peripheral choroid masquerading as chronic uveitis and to raise awareness about malignant masquerade syndromes. Case Report A 36-year-old Chinese woman presented from an outside ophthalmologist with a 6-month history of unilateral chronic uveitis unresponsive to medical therapy in the left eye. She was found to have a uveal melanoma in the retinal periphery and underwent successful enucleation of her left eye. The histopathological diagnosis confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Conclusions When uveal melanoma presents in an atypical way, the diagnosis is more difficult. This case highlights the uncommon presentations of malignant melanoma of the choroid. It provides valuable information on how peripheral uveal melanoma can present with clinical signs consistent with an anterior uveitis. PMID:25036546

Feng, Lei; Zhu, Jiang; Gao, Tao; Li, Baizhou; Yang, Yabo

2014-01-01

301

Bilateral choroidal excavation in best vitelliform macular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) has recently been described as one or more localized areas of choroidal excavation on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The authors describe a case of bilateral FCE in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD). SD-OCT revealed FCE in both eyes characterized by interruption of the internal segment-outer segment junction and the presence of subretinal hyporeflective space. This is the first report describing bilateral FCE in a distinct macular disorder and specifically with VMD. Future investigations are warranted to ascertain the involvement of other macular dystrophies with atrophic evolution and the impact of FCE on the clinical course. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:e8-e10.]. PMID:24512759

Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Zucchiatti, Ilaria; Fasce, Francesco; Bandello, Francesco

2014-01-01

302

Choroid sprouting assay: an ex vivo model of microvascular angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis of the microvasculature is central to the etiology of many diseases including proliferative retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and cancer. A mouse model of microvascular angiogenesis would be very valuable and enable access to a wide range of genetically manipulated tissues that closely approximate small blood vessel growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro are widely used, however, isolating pure vascular murine endothelial cells is technically challenging. A microvascular mouse explant model that is robust, quantitative and can be reproduced without difficulty would overcome these limitations. Here we characterized and optimized for reproducibility an organotypic microvascular angiogenesis mouse and rat model from the choroid, a microvascular bed in the posterior of eye. The choroidal tissues from C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice and Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and incubated in Matrigel. Vascular sprouting was comparable between choroid samples obtained from different animals of the same genetic background. The sprouting area, normalized to controls, was highly reproducible between independent experiments. We developed a semi-automated macro in ImageJ software to allow for more efficient quantification of sprouting area. Isolated choroid explants responded to manipulation of the external environment while maintaining the local interactions of endothelial cells with neighboring cells, including pericytes and macrophages as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. This reproducible ex vivo angiogenesis assay can be used to evaluate angiogenic potential of pharmacologic compounds on microvessels and can take advantage of genetically manipulated mouse tissue for microvascular disease research. PMID:23922736

Shao, Zhuo; Friedlander, Mollie; Hurst, Christian G; Cui, Zhenghao; Pei, Dorothy T; Evans, Lucy P; Juan, Aimee M; Tahiri, Houda; Tahir, Houda; Duhamel, François; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chemtob, Sylvain; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Smith, Lois E H

2013-01-01

303

Choroid Sprouting Assay: An Ex Vivo Model of Microvascular Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis of the microvasculature is central to the etiology of many diseases including proliferative retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and cancer. A mouse model of microvascular angiogenesis would be very valuable and enable access to a wide range of genetically manipulated tissues that closely approximate small blood vessel growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro are widely used, however, isolating pure vascular murine endothelial cells is technically challenging. A microvascular mouse explant model that is robust, quantitative and can be reproduced without difficulty would overcome these limitations. Here we characterized and optimized for reproducibility an organotypic microvascular angiogenesis mouse and rat model from the choroid, a microvascular bed in the posterior of eye. The choroidal tissues from C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice and Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and incubated in Matrigel. Vascular sprouting was comparable between choroid samples obtained from different animals of the same genetic background. The sprouting area, normalized to controls, was highly reproducible between independent experiments. We developed a semi-automated macro in ImageJ software to allow for more efficient quantification of sprouting area. Isolated choroid explants responded to manipulation of the external environment while maintaining the local interactions of endothelial cells with neighboring cells, including pericytes and macrophages as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. This reproducible ex vivo angiogenesis assay can be used to evaluate angiogenic potential of pharmacologic compounds on microvessels and can take advantage of genetically manipulated mouse tissue for microvascular disease research. PMID:23922736

Shao, Zhuo; Friedlander, Mollie; Hurst, Christian G.; Cui, Zhenghao; Pei, Dorothy T.; Evans, Lucy P.; Juan, Aimee M.; Tahir, Houda; Duhamel, François; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chemtob, Sylvain; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Smith, Lois E. H.

2013-01-01

304

Sympathetic ophthalmia complicating helium ion irradiation of a choroidal melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympathetic ophthalmia was diagnosed 49 months after helium ion irradiation of a left choroidal melanoma. The patient maintained good vision until 18 months after therapy, when she developed neovascular glaucoma. This complication required multiple therapeutic procedures, including topical anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous drops, 360 degrees peripheral panretinal cryoblation, and a single 180 degrees application of inferior cyclocryotherapy over a 2 1\\/2-year

P. D. Fries; D. H. Char; J. B. Crawford; W. Waterhouse

1987-01-01

305

Photochemical Thrombosis Of Retinal And Choroidal Vessels Using Rose Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rose bengal is an effective photosensitizing agent which interacts with argon green light to induce photochemical thrombosis of irradiated vessels. We used focal, low energy irradiation to occlude retinal and choroidal vessels in both albino and pigmented rabbits. Immediately after intravenous injection of rose bengal at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/kg, irradiation was performed via a slit lamp-delivered argon green laser (514.5 nm) with the aid of fundus contact lens. In 11 eyes, arteries were treated with 50-100 interrupted bursts of 75u spot size at 0.2 sec and 40-100 mW (9 choroidal vessels, serous elevation of the retina, and disc neovascularization. In eight eyes choroidal vessels were irradiated with 10-20 mW, 15-60 sec, 500u spot size (31 choroidal vessels. There was minimal damage to surrounding tissue. Control eyes in all three groups irradiated utilizing the same parameters, but without rose bengal, demonstrated no evidence of thermal injury.

Lewis, Mary Lou; Winward, Kirk; Watson, Brant D.; Hernandez, Eleut

1989-09-01

306

Systemic bevacizumab for simultaneous treatment of cancer and choroidal neovascularisation.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with a medical history of pseudoxanthoma elasticum and associated choroidal neovascularisation that was successfully managed with intravitreal bevacizumab injections developed non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinoma. The patient's oncological medication regimen included systemic bevacizumab. During the 22 months that the patient received systemic bevacizumab for management of her malignancy, intravitreal bevacizumab injections were held and the patient's visual acuity remained stable and the subretinal space was free of fluid leakage. PMID:24825559

Saffra, Norman; Reinherz, Benjamin

2014-01-01

307

Spinal endodermal cyst resembling an arachnoid cyst in appearance: Pitfalls in intraoperative diagnosis of cystic lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Surgical treatment of endodermal cysts requires total removal of the cyst wall during the first operation to prevent recurrence. Therefore, intraoperative pathological diagnosis plays an important role in determining the optimal surgical strategy. We present a rare case of a spinal endodermal cyst and discuss its diagnostic difficulty during the intraoperative pathological examination. Case Description: An 18-year-old male presented with progressive paraparesis and precordial oppression. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary cystic mass having the same signal intensity as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without gadolinium enhancement at the T1-T2 level. The preoperative diagnosis was an endodermal or arachnoid cyst. The patient underwent surgery. An intraoperative frozen section showed a cyst wall consisting of loose, thin, fibrous tissue intermittently covered by flattened epithelium. The diagnosis was an arachnoid cyst. Accordingly, partial resection of the cyst wall was performed to create CSF communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis from permanent sections was an endodermal cyst, which was lined with ciliated columnar epithelium that was immunopositive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Subsequent paraffin embedding and immunostaining of the intraoperative frozen sample also confirmed patchy cytokeratin expression by all flattened epithelial cells. The patient's cyst had refilled 10 months after surgery, and he subsequently underwent fenestration of the cyst wall and placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt. Conclusion: Examination of multiple samples from multiple sites or intraoperative immunostaining of frozen sections is recommended for accurate intraoperative diagnosis of endodermal cysts. PMID:22937478

Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Nakamizo, Akira; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Tanaka, Shunya; Tsuchimochi, Ryosuke; Amano, Toshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio

2012-01-01

308

Circumscribed choroidal haemangioma mimicking chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of bilateral circumscribed choroidal haemangioma in an otherwise healthy male, which mimicked chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). A 52-year-old Asian man presented with a one-year history of visual decline in his left eye. The vision in the right eye had been reduced for 15 years. Visual acuity was 6/60 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed an area of discoloration with overlying retinal pigment epithelial changes in the macula and evidence of prior surrounding argon laser photocoagulation. The left macula showed a raised choroidal lesion with overlying retinal pigment epithelial changes and associated subretinal fluid. This appearance illustrates how chronic retinal pigment epithelial alterations associated with longstanding subretinal fluid exudation from circumscribed choroidal haemangiomas may mimick the appearance of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography helped to establish the diagnosis. The active lesion in the left eye was treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy with improvement in vision. PMID:23201343

Rahman, W; Horgan, N; Hungerford, J

2013-03-01

309

Anatomy of the spermatic venous plexus (pampiniform plexus) in men with and without varicocele: intraoperative venographic study.  

PubMed

Venous anatomy of the testis was reexamined by retrograde spermatic venography during surgery in 17 men with and in 11 without a varicocele. The route of venous drainage of the testis was the internal spermatic vein and the external pudendal vein. The cremasteric and vasal veins were smaller collaterals. There was no cross communication between the right and left spermatic venous systems in the scrotal, retropubic or pelvic areas. In men with a varicocele the spermatic venous plexus was formed of numerous venous sinuses and large dilated veins. PMID:1569670

Wishahi, M M

1992-05-01

310

Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Choroidal Thickness in Human Donor Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The choroid plays a vital role in the health of the outer retina. While measurements of choroid using optical coherence tomography show altered thickness in aging and macular disease, detailed histopathologic and proteomic analyses are lacking. In this study we sought to evaluate biochemical differences in human donor eyes between very thin and thick choroids. Methods. One hundred forty-one eyes from 104 donors (mean age ± standard deviation, 81.5 ± 12.2) were studied. Macular sections were collected, and the distance between Bruch's membrane and the inner surface of the sclera was measured in control, early/dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), neovascular AMD, and geographic atrophy eyes. Proteins from the RPE-choroid of eyes with thick and thin choroids were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and/or mass spectrometry. Two proteins with altered abundance were confirmed using Western blot analysis. Results. Donor eyes showed a normal distribution of thicknesses. Eyes with geographic atrophy had significantly thinner choroids than age-matched controls or early AMD eyes. Proteomic analysis showed higher levels of the serine protease SERPINA3 in thick choroids and increased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) in thin choroids. Conclusions. Consistent with clinical imaging observations, geographic atrophy was associated with choroidal thinning. Biochemical data suggest an alteration in the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors in eyes that lie at the extremes of choroidal thickness. An improved understanding of the basic mechanisms associated with choroidal thinning may guide the development of new therapies for AMD. PMID:24519422

Sohn, Elliott H.; Khanna, Aditi; Tucker, Budd A.; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Mullins, Robert F.

2014-01-01

311

Two Rare Presentations of Epidermal Cyst  

PubMed Central

Epidermal cysts are very rare. It is more common in males than in females and the most common site of presentation are the hairy sites. We came across two rare cases of epidermal cysts. In one case, a parous lady presented with an adnexal mass and D/D of broad ligament fibroid or ovarian mass was considered which turned out to be a cyst containing cheesy pultaceous material. In the other case, a parous lady presented with a mass arising from the posterior fourchette that contained cheesy pultaceous material on excision. In both cases histopathology confirmed it to be epidermal cysts. Epidermal cysts known for its rare incidence by itself is now found to be presenting at rare sites which emphasizes on the need for further research into the etiopathogenesis of these cysts and its development at the various sites of the body. PMID:25478413

Rao, Bharathi; Kurian, Maria Joseph; Pai, Radha R.

2014-01-01

312

Two rare presentations of epidermal cyst.  

PubMed

Epidermal cysts are very rare. It is more common in males than in females and the most common site of presentation are the hairy sites. We came across two rare cases of epidermal cysts. In one case, a parous lady presented with an adnexal mass and D/D of broad ligament fibroid or ovarian mass was considered which turned out to be a cyst containing cheesy pultaceous material. In the other case, a parous lady presented with a mass arising from the posterior fourchette that contained cheesy pultaceous material on excision. In both cases histopathology confirmed it to be epidermal cysts. Epidermal cysts known for its rare incidence by itself is now found to be presenting at rare sites which emphasizes on the need for further research into the etiopathogenesis of these cysts and its development at the various sites of the body. PMID:25478413

Rao, Arun; Rao, Bharathi; Kurian, Maria Joseph; Pai, Radha R

2014-10-01

313

[A new approach for studying the retinal and choroidal circulation].  

PubMed

One advantage of advanced computer technology is the high throughput with which the retinal and the choroidal circulation can be evaluated from new aspects. To study the choroidal circulation, we first reevaluated indocyanine green video angiography to improve the visualization of indocyanine green (ICG) images, then applied computer technology to analyze images obtained by an ICG video camera system. We also developed a new instrument to measure oxygen saturation levels in the fundus using spectral retinal imaging technology. I. Choroidal circulation. 1. Reevaluation of ICG video camera system: For this purpose, the bio-chemical nature of ICG was studied. 1) Spectral absorption of ICG: The peak absorption of ICG in distilled water was 780 nm as measured with a spectrophotometer. Its maximum absorption shifted from 780 nm to 805 nm after gradually mixing ICG with human serum protein. Conjugation time of ICG as well as fluorescein sodium with human serum protein was then measured by a stopped flowmeter. It was found that fluorescein sodium conjugated with human serum protein within a few milliseconds, while ICG required more than 600 seconds before equilibrium of the binding was reached. From these observations, we developed a new ICG video system with dual light sources; one, a 780 nm diode laser for the early dye filling phase, and the other, a 805 nm diode laser for the later phase of ICG angiography. 2) Binding properties of ICG in human blood: Blood samples were obtained from three healthy volunteers after intravenous administration of ICG. The resulting plasma samples were fractionated by agarose gel immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel DISC electrophoresis. The electrophoretic pattern obtained by each method was observed with an ICG fundus video system. We also studied the affinity of ICG for lipids that are common molecular components of lipoproteins such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Four kinds of ICG solutions mixed with phospholipid, free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, and triacrylglycerol were observed with the ICG fundus video system. Both electrophoretic studies showed that ICG bound intensely to HDL and moderately to LDL, and only the solution with phospholipid fluoresced brightly when observed with the ICG fundus video system. 2. Residual fundus ICG fluorescence: Residual fundus fluorescence observed in the late phase of ICG angiography may be delineated differently in normal subjects and in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). We performed ICG angiography on 8 normal subjects aged below 36 years (8 eyes), 9 normal subjects aged above 62 years (9 eyes), and 21 patients with ARMD aged 50 to 88 years (37 eyes). The intensity and pattern of fluorescence from angiograms obtained in the ultra-late phase, 24 hours after dye injection, was recorded and analyzed. In the ultra-late phase, 95% of ARMD eyes with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) showed geographic hypofluorescent lesions. These hypofluorescent lesions occurred in 73% of ARMD eyes without CN, while age-matched normal subjects had no hypofluorescent lesions. The mean intensity of fluorescence in the normal elder subject group was significantly higher than that seen in the normal younger subject group. These findings may reflect aging change and bio-distribution of lipid on the Bruch-RPE complex. 3. The early dye filling pattern of the choroid: We performed ICG angiography on 10 healthy young volunteers aged 22 to 26 years (23.4+/-1.3; mean+/-standard deviation) using an improved ICG video camera system. ICG (50 mg) dissolved in 2 ml in distilled water was injected through the antecubital vein. Although the choroidal dye filling varied among subjects, it always began in the macular area. In the 10 subjects, initial dye filling had two patterns: reticular (n=8) and flush (n=2). The choroidal circulation filled completely before the retinal circulation did. Bright fluorescence in the macula and fast blood flow may be correlated with ample blood volume and abundant blood vessels in the

Yoneya, Shin

2004-12-01

314

Benign neoplasms and cysts of the mediastinum.  

PubMed

Benign neoplasms and cysts are the most common tumors of the mediastinum. However, they are still an infrequent clinical entity. Their diagnosis has been aided by the recent advances in CT scanning, MRI, ultrasonography, radionucleotide scanning, and fine-needle aspiration. The treatment of these benign tumors in children and the majority of adults is excision. In asymptomatic adults, observation or fine-needle aspiration and observation may be considered for pericardial cysts and selected neurogenic tumors and bronchogenic cysts. PMID:1550887

Rice, T W

1992-01-01

315

Diagnosis and evaluation of renal cysts.  

PubMed

Renal cysts are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Although most cysts found on routine imaging studies are benign, there must be an index of suspicion to exclude a neoplastic process or the presence of a multicystic disorder. This article focuses on the more common adult cystic diseases, including simple and complex renal cysts, autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, and acquired cystic kidney disease. PMID:25439536

Waterman, Jack

2014-12-01

316

Sonographic imaging of a spinoglenoid cyst.  

PubMed

Spinoglenoid cysts can be the reason for suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome resulting an isolated atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle. The syndrome usually presents painless and is frequently observed in professional volleyball players. The incidence of these cysts in volleyballplayers is still unknown. Diagnosis is made by neurological examination using electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. Our case shows the potential of ultrasound as a possible imaging method of ganglion cysts that could be used as a screening method to prevent suprascapular neuropathy. PMID:11209727

Weiss, C; Imhoff, A B

2000-12-01

317

Hydatid cyst of fallopian tube.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis is a common disease in the Middle East region and is in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions in patients of this area. Liver and lung are commonly involved. Infection of unusual sites can cause difficulties in diagnosis. Here, we present a patient with echinococcal cyst of the fallopian tube. She had abdominal pain and a cystic lesion in adnexa was found by imaging. She underwent surgery and diagnosis of echinococcosis was established. PMID:25364612

Jafarian, A; Fakhar, N; Parsaei, R

2014-09-01

318

Protein variation in cyst nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of the protein divergence strongly suggests that Globodera<\\/u>rostochiensis<\\/u> and G.<\\/u>pallida<\\/u> have experienced hardly any morphological evolution during a time period of millions of years (chapter II). These morphologically nearly indistinguishable potato cyst nematode species are discriminated from one another by 70 % of their proteins revealed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE), which definitively excludes a recent divergence

J. Bakker

1987-01-01

319

Chemical Assay of Iron in Ovarian Cysts: A New Diagnostic Method to Evaluate Endometriotic Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

CA-125 is abundantly secreted from ovarian endometriotic cysts, but is not specific to endometriosis. In order to develop a new, more specific diagnostic marker for endometriosis, the iron concentrations in various ovarian cysts were assayed. The ovarian cysts were punctured and the contents aspirated laparoscopically, laparotomically, or transvaginally. The iron concentration in the ovarian cystic fluid was assayed using a

Mari Iizuka; Masao Igarashi; Yumiko Abe; Yoshito Ibuki; Yasuki Koyasu; Kenichiro Ikuma

1998-01-01

320

Anatomy of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males.  

PubMed

It is well accepted that the aortic plexus is a network of pre- and post-ganglionic nerves overlying the abdominal aorta, which is primarily involved with the sympathetic innervation to the mesenteric, pelvic and urogenital organs. Because a comprehensive anatomical description of the aortic plexus and its connections with adjacent plexuses are lacking, these delicate structures are prone to unintended damage during abdominal surgeries. Through dissection of fresh, frozen human cadavers (n = 7), the present study aimed to provide the first complete mapping of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males. Using standard histochemical procedures, ganglia of the aortic plexus were verified through microscopic analysis using haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase stains. All specimens exhibited four distinct sympathetic ganglia within the aortic plexus: the right and left spermatic ganglia, the inferior mesenteric ganglion and one previously unidentified ganglion, which has been named the prehypogastric ganglion by the authors. The spermatic ganglia were consistently supplied by the L1 lumbar splanchnic nerves and the inferior mesenteric ganglion and the newly characterized prehypogastric ganglion were supplied by the left and right L2 lumbar splanchnic nerves, respectively. Additionally, our examination revealed the aortic plexus does have potential for variation, primarily in the possibility of exhibiting accessory splanchnic nerves. Clinically, our results could have significant implications for preserving fertility in men as well as sympathetic function to the hindgut and pelvis during retroperitoneal surgeries. PMID:25382240

Beveridge, Tyler S; Johnson, Marjorie; Power, Adam; Power, Nicholas E; Allman, Brian L

2015-01-01

321

Mesenteric cyst-ovarian implant syndrome.  

PubMed

Primary tumors and cysts of the mesentery are quite rare. The cysts are said to be from embryonic, traumatic, or neoplastic origin. Mesenteric cysts of ovarian tissue origin, which, to our knowledge, have been reported only three times, appear under the term ovarian remnant syndrome, and involved patients with previous oophorectomies. It appears that the incidental implantation and growth of the minute portions of the ovarian tissue in the pelvis or lower abdomen is the origin of the syndrome. We describe two cases of the mesenteric cyst-ovarian implant syndrome with a brief review of the literature. PMID:3827533

Payan, H M; Gilbert, E F

1987-03-01

322

Liver cyst with inflammatory hepatic duct polyp.  

PubMed

This is a case report of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with upper abdominal pain, vomiting and two episodes of jaundice in five months. Computerised tomographic scan revealed a cyst in the 4th segment of the liver. Peroperatively it was found to be a simple liver cyst arising from the left hepatic duct. The cyst was excised. Peroperative cholangiogram revealed obstruction in the common hepatic duct. A polyp in the common hepatic duct, causing obstruction, was excised. The presence of liver cyst with hepatic duct polyp is a rare association. PMID:12887848

Hussain, Dildar; Ahmed, Mushtaq

2003-07-01

323

Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery of Rathke's cleft cyst.  

PubMed

Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are benign lesions that originate from remnants of Rathke's pouch. They can compress adjacent structures causing visual loss and endocrine dysfunction. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) has gained popularity in the surgical management of pituitary and parasellar tumors. However, postoperative cyst recurrence and endocrine dysfunction are still major concerns. A retrospective chart review was performed on 11 patients who underwent a purely EETA. Subtotal resection of the cyst wall with drainage of the intracystic contents followed by obliteration of the cyst with a fat graft was performed in all patients. Two patients underwent repeated surgeries for symptomatic cyst recurrence. One patient ultimately underwent extracapsular removal of the entire cyst wall because of multiple recurrences after simple drainage. There were no incidences of new permanent hypopituitarism, visual deficits, or postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. All patients reported an improvement of initial preoperative symptoms. A non-aggressive strategy of partial cyst wall removal and simple drainage of cyst contents via EETA is a viable approach for surgical treatment of RCC with a low rate of postoperative endocrine and visual complications. A more aggressive strategy of extracapsular removal of the cyst wall may be indicated in patients with repeated recurrence. PMID:25284127

Mendelson, Zachary S; Husain, Qasim; Kanumuri, Vivek V; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

2015-01-01

324

Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of mediastinal cysts  

PubMed Central

Introduction Progress in the development of surgical techniques has led to the growing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques in mediastinal cyst treatment. Aim To present our experience of treating mediastinal cysts with the minimally invasive technique. Material and methods Fifty patients with mediastinal cysts were treated from 2001 to 2011. There were 32 women and 18 men. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 72, the mean age being 42 years. All patients underwent basic preoperative diagnostic tests of the chest: X-ray, computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and spirometry; 4 patients underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and 3 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the described lesions. Results The VATS was performed in each case. Conversion was carried out due to superior mediastinal location in 10 cases and pleural adhesions in 3 cases. The partial resection of a cyst was performed in 3 patients. One patient was treated conservatively due to heart failure. In that patient the transthoracic needle aspiration of a cyst under ultrasound guidance using alcoholisation with 76% ethanol with a good effect was performed twice. Cyst recurrence was observed in 1 case. Conclusions The surgical access depends on the location of a cyst. The VATS resection of a superior mediastinal cyst is not always feasible. Surgery of mediastinal cysts is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:25337163

Brzezi?ski, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

2014-01-01

325

Schwannoma arising in a bronchogenic cyst wall.  

PubMed

Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations thought to originate from the primitive ventral foregut, and they are the most common type of mediastinal cystic lesion. The clinical presentation of a bronchogenic cyst is variable, from respiratory distress at birth to late appearance of symptoms. Most bronchogenic cysts originate in the mediastinum, and 15% to 20% occur in the lung parenchyma. Various malignant transformations have been reported in the literature. In this report, we describe a case of schwannoma in an intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst wall in a 38-year-old man, which was found incidentally during a routine examination. PMID:24719160

Aydogdu, Koray; F?nd?k, Gokturk; Kaya, Sadi; Koksal, Deniz; Demirag, Funda

2015-03-01

326

Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts  

PubMed Central

Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid was aspirated from the right cyst. Radiographically, erosion of bone in a “cupping” fashion was observed in the region of left cyst. The cysts were enucleated using intraoral approach. Histopathology of the right-sided cyst revealed a cystic cavity lined by stratified squamous cells along with a few mucosal cells. At few places, stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar epithelia with many cilia and goblet cells were also evident. Capsule was loosely arranged with fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Left-sided cystic specimen showed two or more layered stratified squamous lining epithelium with thin capsule. Diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial/nasoalveolar cysts was confirmed. PMID:24574670

Parwani, Rajkumar; Parwani, Simran; Wanjari, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

327

Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts.  

PubMed

Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid was aspirated from the right cyst. Radiographically, erosion of bone in a "cupping" fashion was observed in the region of left cyst. The cysts were enucleated using intraoral approach. Histopathology of the right-sided cyst revealed a cystic cavity lined by stratified squamous cells along with a few mucosal cells. At few places, stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar epithelia with many cilia and goblet cells were also evident. Capsule was loosely arranged with fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Left-sided cystic specimen showed two or more layered stratified squamous lining epithelium with thin capsule. Diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial/nasoalveolar cysts was confirmed. PMID:24574670

Parwani, Rajkumar; Parwani, Simran; Wanjari, Sangeeta

2013-09-01

328

Lingual thyroglossal duct cyst presenting in infancy.  

PubMed

Lingual thyroglossal duct cysts are a rare form of thyroglossal cysts. We present two infants, 10 and 12 weeks of age, with midline intraoral cystic swellings stretching from the base of the tongue to the thyroid cartilage. Complete excision of the cysts by Sistrunk's procedure were carried out. Both infants are well on follow-up, at 6 months postoperatively. Their unique presentation with regard to age, location, and symptomatology is discussed. Lingual thyroglossal duct cysts large enough to cause dysphagia, stridor, respiratory distress, and failure to thrive in infants have not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:8229561

Samuel, M; Freeman, N V; Sajwany, M J

1993-07-01

329

MRI of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.  

PubMed

Sacral perineural cyst is a relatively rare condition. To our knowledge, reports of MR findings associated with sacral perineural cyst have been limited to only six cases. We present for the first time high field MR findings in a case of sacral perineural cyst. The cyst appeared as a cystic lesion in the sacral spinal canal and had intermediate signal intensity on T1W images and high signal intensity on T2*W images compared with CSF. Slight erosion remodeling of the sacrum was also seen anteriorly. Our case was symptomatic and present with radiculopathy (sciatic pain). Surgical treatment was done to result in dramatic improvement of the sciatic pain. PMID:1337620

Araki, Y; Tsukaguchi, I; Ishida, T; Ootani, M; Yamamoto, T; Tomoda, K; Mitomo, M

1992-01-01

330

Lamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli  

E-print Network

agent, monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) and a high-magnetic-field (11.7 T) scannerLamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli Yen-Yu I. Shih (MRI) of retinal and choroidal responses to visual stimulation of graded luminance, wavelength, and fre

Duong, Timothy Q.

331

Recurrence and massive extraocular extension of choroidal malignant melanoma after vitrectomy and endoresection  

PubMed Central

Vitrectomy and endoresection is an alternative to enucleation for the treatment of large malignant choroidal melanoma. We report a rare case of extensive recurrence of choroidal malignant melanoma with extraocular extension 11 years after surgical endoresection without adjuvant treatment. PMID:25005207

Modarres, Mehdi; Rezanejad, Asgari; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi

2014-01-01

332

Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina choroid in health disease  

PubMed Central

We review the cellular and physiological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of blood flow in the retina and choroid in health and disease. Due to the intrinsic light sensitivity of the retina and the direct visual accessibility of fundus blood vessels, the eye offers unique opportunities for the non-invasive investigation of mechanisms of blood flow regulation. The ability of the retinal vasculature to regulate its blood flow is contrasted with the far more restricted ability of the choroidal circulation to regulate its blood flow by virtue of the absence of glial cells, the markedly reduced pericyte ensheathment of the choroidal vasculature, and the lack of intermediate filaments in choroidal pericytes. We review the cellular and molecular components of the neurovascular unit in the retina and choroid, techniques for monitoring retinal and choroidal blood flow, responses of the retinal and choroidal circulation to light stimulation, the role of capillaries, astrocytes and pericytes in regulating blood flow, putative signaling mechanisms mediating neurovascular coupling in the retina, and changes that occur in the retinal and choroidal circulation during diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. We close by discussing issues that remain to be explored. PMID:22580107

Kur, Joanna; Newman, Eric A.; Chan-Ling, Tailoi

2012-01-01

333

A novel smoothelin-like, actin-binding protein required for choroidal fissure closure in zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene expressed in the choroidal fissure of the zebrafish eye was isolated. This gene, designated #61, contained significant homology with the previously reported actin-binding protein smoothelin. During zebrafish embryogenesis, #61 expression was first detected in the lateral mesoderm of the mid-trunk region, and then strong expression was observed in the choroid fissure of the eye and in a part

Ryo Kurita; Yoko Tabata; Hiroshi Sagara; Ken-ichi Arai; Sumiko Watanabe

2004-01-01

334

Simplified Method to Measure the Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness Using Three-dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate a simplified method to measure peripapillary choroidal thickness using commercially available, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT). Methods 3D-OCT images of normal eyes were consecutively obtained from the 3D-OCT database of Korea University Medical Center On the peripapillary images for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis, choroidal thickness was measured by adjusting the segmentation line for the retinal pigment epithelium to the chorioscleral junction using the modification tool built into the 3D-OCT image viewer program. Variations of choroidal thickness at 12 sectors of the peripapillary area were evaluated. Results We were able to measure the peripapillary choroidal thickness in 40 eyes of our 40 participants, who had a mean age of 41.2 years (range, 15 to 84 years). Choroidal thickness measurements had strong inter-observer correlation at each sector (r = 0.901 to 0.991, p < 0.001). The mean choroidal thickness was 191 ± 62 µm. Choroidal thickness was greatest at the temporal quadrant (mean ± SD, 210 ± 78 µm), followed by the superior (202 ± 66 µm), nasal (187 ± 64 µm), and inferior quadrants (152 ± 59 µm). Conclusions The measurement of choroidal thickness on peripapillary circle scan images for RNFL analysis using the 3D-OCT viewing program was highly reliable and efficient. PMID:23730109

Yoo, Chungkwon; Yun, Cheol Min; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Seong-Woo; Huh, Kuhl

2013-01-01

335

Automated three-dimensional choroidal vessel segmentation of 3D 1060 nm OCT retinal data  

PubMed Central

A fully automated, robust vessel segmentation algorithm has been developed for choroidal OCT, employing multiscale 3D edge filtering and projection of “probability cones” to determine the vessel “core”, even in the tomograms with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Based on the ideal vessel response after registration and multiscale filtering, with computed depth related SNR, the vessel core estimate is dilated to quantify the full vessel diameter. As a consequence, various statistics can be computed using the 3D choroidal vessel information, such as ratios of inner (smaller) to outer (larger) choroidal vessels or the absolute/relative volume of choroid vessels. Choroidal vessel quantification can be displayed in various forms, focused and averaged within a special region of interest, or analyzed as the function of image depth. In this way, the proposed algorithm enables unique visualization of choroidal watershed zones, as well as the vessel size reduction when investigating the choroid from the sclera towards the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an automatic choroidal vessel segmentation algorithm is successfully applied to 1060 nm 3D OCT of healthy and diseased eyes. PMID:23304653

Kaji?, Vedran; Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Glittenberg, Carl; Kraus, Martin F.; Honegger, Joachim; Othara, Richu; Binder, Susanne; Fujimoto, James G.; Drexler, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

336

Repair of ruptured spinal nerve roots in a brachial plexus lesion. Case report.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old woman sustained a brachial plexus injury with supraganglionic rupture of the C-8 and T-1 nerve roots as a result of a traffic accident. She was operated on approximately 1 week following the accident. After a hemilaminectomy, the intradural defects in the ruptured roots were bridged with sural nerve grafts. Within 3 years she recovered function in all muscles supplied from the lower roots in the plexus except for the intrinsic hand muscles, but she had a persisting, complete sensory loss in the ulnar nerve distribution. The possibility for functional gain after repair of spinal root lesions in brachial plexus patients is discussed. PMID:7897534

Carlstedt, T; Norén, G

1995-04-01

337

Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

1989-01-01

338

Ginkgolide B inhibits renal cyst development in in vitro and in vivo cyst models  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease characterized by massive enlargement of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. However, there is no effective therapy yet for this disease. To examine whether ginkgolide B, a natural compound, inhibits cyst development, a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst model, an embryonic kidney cyst model, and a PKD mouse model were used. Interestingly, ginkgolide B significantly inhibited MDCK cyst formation dose dependently, with up to 69% reduction by 2 ?M ginkgolide B. Ginkgolide B also significantly inhibited cyst enlargement in the MDCK cyst model, embryonic kidney cyst model, and PKD mouse model. To determine the underlying mechanisms, the effect of ginkgolide B on MDCK cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, chloride transporter CFTR activity, and intracellular signaling pathways were also studied. Ginkgolide B did not affect cell viability, proliferation, and expression and activity of the chloride transporter CFTR that mediates cyst fluid secretion. Ginkgolide B induced cyst cell differentiation and altered the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginkgolide B inhibits renal cyst formation and enlargement, suggesting that ginkgolide B might be developed into a novel candidate drug for ADPKD. PMID:22338085

Zhou, Hong; Gao, Jinsheng; Zhou, Li; Li, Xin; Li, Weidong; Li, Xuejun; Xia, Yin

2012-01-01

339

A giant plexiform schwannoma of the brachial plexus: case report  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient who noticed muscle weakness in his left arm 5 years earlier. On examination, a biloculate mass was observed in the left supraclavicular area, and Tinel's sign caused paresthesia in his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a continuous, multinodular, plexiform tumor from the left C5 to C7 nerve root along the course of the brachial plexus to the left brachia. Tumor excision was attempted. The median and musculocutaneous nerves were extremely enlarged by the tumor, which was approximately 40 cm in length, and showed no response to electric stimulation. We resected a part of the musculocutaneous nerve for biopsy and performed latissimus dorsi muscle transposition in order to repair elbow flexion. Morphologically, the tumor consisted of typical Antoni A areas, and immunohistochemistry revealed a Schwann cell origin of the tumor cells moreover, there was no sign of axon differentiation in the tumor. Therefore, the final diagnosis of plexiform Schwannoma was confirmed. PMID:22044580

2011-01-01

340

Femoral Nerve Injury Following a Lumbar Plexus Blockade  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar plexus blockade (LPB) combined with sciatic nerve block (SNB) is frequently used for lower extremity surgery. Perioperative nerve injury is a rarely encountered complication of peripheral nerve blocks (PNB). Case Report: Here we report a 44-year-old male patient who developed a partial femoral nerve injury (FNI) following a LPB which was performed before the surgery of a patellar fracture. The clinical and electroneuromyographic findings of the patient were recovered almost completely within the following six months. Conclusion: The presented case demonstrated a FNI despite the absence of any pain or paresthesia sensation, with the disappearance of motor response under 0.3 mA of neurostimulation in the experienced hands. PMID:25207194

Güngör, ?rfan; Zinnuro?lu, Murat; Ta?, Ayça; Tezer, Tolga; Beyazova, Mehmet

2014-01-01

341

INACTIVATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS BY CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was undertaken to determine the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts shed from an asymptomatic carrier and to correlate the chlorine resistance of these cysts with those from a symptomatic carrier and another Giardia species, G. muris, which is infective for mice....

342

[Primitive pleural hydatid cyst: case report].  

PubMed

Even in endemic countries, the primitive pleural hydatid cyst is exceptionnal and it's very difficult to distinguish from other pleural and parietal cystic masses all the more the immunologic tests are negative. We report the case of a primitive pleural hydatid cyst diagnosed in 43 years old man. Throug this case, imaging features are emphasized. PMID:17853674

Harzallah, L; Bacha, M; Garrouche, A; Messak, A; Ben Chérifa, L; Bakir, D; Kraiem, Ch

2007-01-01

343

Hydatid cyst of ovary- a rare entity  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It is prevalent in areas where livestock is raised in association with dogs. Humans are the accidental intermediate host. Primary peritoneal echinococcosis is a rarely observed clinical condition. We report a case of peritoneal hydatid cyst diagnosed incidentally during an operation performed for suspected ovarian cyst. PMID:24591898

Ray, Sailes; Gangopadhyay, Mimi

2010-01-01

344

Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.  

PubMed Central

The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3817589

Morris, D L; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B

1987-01-01

345

Sylvian Fissure Dermoid Cyst - A Rare case  

PubMed Central

Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare tumours which usually occur in the midline. Sylvian fissure is a very unusual site for this lesion. This case presents a patient with unruptured dermoid cyst in the left sylvian fissure who was operated successfully without any residual deficit. PMID:25386502

Anand, Deepak; Soin, Divya; Garg, Ravinder

2014-01-01

346

Inflammatory nevus comedonicus with epidermoid cyst.  

PubMed

We present here a case of inflammatory nevus comedonicus (NC) in a young male distributed along the Blaschko's lines only over the right lower limb and associated with epidermoid cysts. The case was unique in terms of isolated involvement of lower limb and the rare association of epidermoid cyst. PMID:25071281

Chhabra, Namrata; Pandhi, Deepika; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

2014-07-01

347

Isolated Enteric Cyst in the Neck  

PubMed Central

We report an extremely rare case of isolated enteric cyst in the neck region which was diagnosed on the histopathological examination. It was suspected to be duplication cyst on radiology. We have also evaluated the differential diagnosis and management issues. PMID:24868475

Mahore, Amit; Sankhe, Shilpa; Tikeykar, Vishakha

2014-01-01

348

Inflammatory Nevus Comedonicus with Epidermoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

We present here a case of inflammatory nevus comedonicus (NC) in a young male distributed along the Blaschko's lines only over the right lower limb and associated with epidermoid cysts. The case was unique in terms of isolated involvement of lower limb and the rare association of epidermoid cyst. PMID:25071281

Chhabra, Namrata; Pandhi, Deepika; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

2014-01-01

349

Intrapericardial Bronchogenic Cyst: An Unusual Clinical Entity  

PubMed Central

Mediastinal cysts are extremely rare clinical disorders. They usually have a pericardial origin. In this report, we present a 27-year-old male patient with a mediastinal bronchogenic cyst together with clinical presentation and management of the pathology. PMID:25580130

Sayin, Omer Ali; Felten, Matthias; Oztas, Didem Melis; Cakir, Mehmet Semih; Barburoglu, Mehmet; Basaran, Murat; Alpagut, Ufuk; Dayioglu, Enver

2014-01-01

350

Intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst: an unusual clinical entity.  

PubMed

Mediastinal cysts are extremely rare clinical disorders. They usually have a pericardial origin. In this report, we present a 27-year-old male patient with a mediastinal bronchogenic cyst together with clinical presentation and management of the pathology. PMID:25580130

Ugurlucan, Murat; Sayin, Omer Ali; Felten, Matthias; Oztas, Didem Melis; Cakir, Mehmet Semih; Barburoglu, Mehmet; Basaran, Murat; Alpagut, Ufuk; Dayioglu, Enver

2014-01-01

351

Photosensitizer delivery for photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization.  

PubMed

The present review examines the importance of improving photosensitizer delivery for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in light of the clinical impact of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for CNV. An overview of the classes of available photosensitizers is provided and the properties governing photosensitizer uptake and circulation in serum are discussed. Current delivery systems, for example liposomal formulations as well as the use of the promising strategy of antibody targeted delivery as a strategy to improve PDT selectivity and efficiency for CNV treatment are described. A summary of the work using Verteporfin, tin ethyl purpurin and Lu-Tex--photosensitizers currently in clinical trials for CNV--is given. PMID:11672876

Renno, R Z; Miller, J W

2001-10-31

352

Restoration and protection of brachial plexus injury: hot topics in the last decade.  

PubMed

Brachial plexus injury is frequently induced by injuries, accidents or birth trauma. Upper limb function may be partially or totally lost after injury, or left permanently disabled. With the development of various medical technologies, different types of interventions are used, but their effectiveness is wide ranging. Many repair methods have phasic characteristics, i.e., repairs are done in different phases. This study explored research progress and hot topic methods for protection after brachial plexus injury, by analyzing 1,797 articles concerning the repair of brachial plexus injuries, published between 2004 and 2013 and indexed by the Science Citation Index database. Results revealed that there are many methods used to repair brachial plexus injury, and their effects are varied. Intervention methods include nerve transfer surgery, electrical stimulation, cell transplantation, neurotrophic factor therapy and drug treatment. Therapeutic methods in this field change according to the hot topic of research. PMID:25374596

Zhang, Kaizhi; Lv, Zheng; Liu, Jun; Zhu, He; Li, Rui

2014-09-15

353

Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia  

SciTech Connect

Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication.

Shankar, Sridhar, E-mail: shankars@ummhc.org; Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Flanagan, Hugh L. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Whang, Edward E. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Surgery (United States)

2005-06-15

354

Hydatid cyst: unusual presentation as 'breast lump'.  

PubMed

Hydatid cyst in the breast is rare. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the breast in a 30-year-old Indian rural woman who presented with a lump in her left breast. MRI findings showed a cystic lesion in the breast. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with hydatid cyst with surrounding adherent pericystic breast tissue showing fibrocollagenisation and inflammatory response. ELISA for echinococcal antigen was also found to be positive. This case emphasises that preoperative diagnosis of hydatid cyst in the breast is difficult and often missed as the breast is a rare site of echinococcal infection and clinical and imaging findings are wide and non-specific. Cytological diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration may not always be possible. Therefore, hydatid cyst in the breast should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lump and histopathological confirmation is necessary for early and appropriate treatment. PMID:24729121

Afroz, Nishat; Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Maheshwari, Veena; Singh, Geetika

2014-01-01

355

Primary cervical hydatid cyst: a rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease, a parasitic infection is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It has serious impact on health and economy especially in countries where it is endemic. It occurs frequently in liver and lung. The disease is chronic and cyst can localize in different organs. A hydatid cyst occurrence in the head and neck is extremely rare. To know the distribution of disease can help in its control and prevention. We report a case of primary cervical hydatid cyst in 20 year old female. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose hydatid cyst in rare locations like this. Hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of benign swellings of head and neck region, so that it can be managed during surgery to prevent acute anaphylaxis. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915595218376646 PMID:23157817

2012-01-01

356

Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Cisternostomy for Nonneoplastic Sellar Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background and Importance. Sellar arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts are benign lesions that produce similar symptoms, including optochiasmatic compression, pituitary dysfunction, and headache. Studies have reported the use of various surgical treatment methods for treating these symptoms, preventing recurrence, and minimizing operative complications. However, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and recurrence rate remain significant. Clinical Presentation. In this paper, we present 8 consecutive cases involving arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts, which were managed by using drainage and cisternostomy, the intentional fenestration of the cyst into the subarachnoid space, and then meticulously closing sellar floor using dural sutures. The postoperative images, CSF fistula rate, and the recurrence rate were favorable. Conclusion. We report this technique and discuss the benefit of this minimally invasive approach.

Su, Yukai; Ishii, Yudo; Lin, Chien-Min; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

2015-01-01

357

Chylous mesenteric cysts: a rare surgical challenge  

PubMed Central

A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. It is often asymptomatic and therefore it is usually found as an incidental finding. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the correct diagnosis can only be made with histology. The first-choice therapy is the complete removal of the cyst, which must be accurately planned according to the anatomy of the lesion, its dimensions and its relationships with major abdominal structures. We present two clinical cases: the one of a 30-year-old man with a mesenteric cyst that was removed by laparoscopy and the other of a 61-year-old woman who underwent open excision of a huge retroperitoneal cyst. PMID:24876395

Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Perri, Giampaolo; Freschi, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

358

Sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation.  

PubMed

Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Hyeun Sung

2009-03-01

359

Cervicofacial actinomycosis mimicking sebaceous cyst  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis is a rare, torpid, suppurative and chronic granulomatous infection caused by a Gram-positive organism that was initially thought to be a fungus. These organisms normally live as commensals in the human oral cavity, respiratory and digestive tracts, but become invasive when they gain access to the subcutaneous tissue through a musosal lesion, the triggering events being dental caries, dental manipulation and maxillofacial trauma. It is often misdiagnosed as it can mimic numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. We describe an interesting case of cervical actinomycosis that was misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst and precisely identified after histopathological examination of the tissue. PMID:23417945

Jain, Anshu; Narula, Varsha; Alam, Kiran; Shukla, Indu

2013-01-01

360

The rabbit brachial plexus as a model for nerve repair surgery-histomorphometric analysis.  

PubMed

One of the most devastating injuries to the upper limb is trauma caused by the avulsion. The anatomical structure of the rabbit's brachial plexus is similar to the human brachial plexus. The aim of our study was to analyze the microanatomy and provide a detailed investigation of the rabbit's brachial plexus. The purpose of our research project was to evaluate the possibility of utilizing rabbit's plexus as a research model in studying brachial plexus injury. Studies included histomorphometric analysis of sampled ventral branches of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and Th1, the cranial trunk, the medial part of the caudal trunk, the lateral part of the caudal trunk and peripheral nerve. Horizontal and vertical analysis was done considering following features: the axon diameter, fiber diameter and myelin sheath. The number of axons, nerve area, myelin fiber density and minimal diameter of myelin fiber, minimal axon diameter and myelin area was marked for each element. The changes between ventral branches of spinal nerves C5-Th1, trunks and peripheral nerve in which the myelin sheath, axon diameter and fiber diameter was assessed were statistically significant. It was found that the g-ratio has close value in the brachial plexus as in the peripheral nerve. The peak of these parameters was found in nerve trunks, and then decreased coherently with the nerves travelling peripherally. Anat Rec, 298:444-454, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25284580

Reichert, Pawe?; Kie?bowicz, Zdzis?aw; Dzi?giel, Piotr; Pu?a, Bartosz; Kuryszko, Jan; Gosk, Jerzy; Boche?ska, Aneta

2015-02-01

361

A DTC Niche Plexus Surrounds the Germline Stem Cell Pool in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The mesenchymal distal tip cell (DTC) provides the niche for Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells (GSCs). The DTC has a complex cellular architecture: its cell body caps the distal gonadal end and contacts germ cells extensively, but it also includes multiple cellular processes that extend along the germline tube and intercalate between germ cells. Here we use the lag-2 DTC promoter to drive expression of myristoylated GFP, which highlights DTC membranes and permits a more detailed view of DTC architecture. We find that short processes intercalating between germ cells contact more germ cells than seen previously. We define this region of extensive niche contact with germ cells as the DTC plexus. The extent of the DTC plexus corresponds well with the previously determined extent of the GSC pool. Moreover, expression of a differentiation marker increases as germ cells move out of the plexus. Maintenance of this DTC plexus depends on the presence of undifferentiated germ cells, suggesting that germ cell state can influence niche architecture. The roles of this DTC architecture remain an open question. One idea is that the DTC plexus delivers Notch signaling to the cluster of germ cells comprising the GSC pool; another idea is that the plexus anchors GSCs at the distal end. PMID:24586318

Byrd, Dana T.; Knobel, Karla; Affeldt, Katharyn; Crittenden, Sarah L.; Kimble, Judith

2014-01-01

362

Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and there have been no reported cases of such metastasis from early colorectal cancer. We report a case of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 61 year-old-man experienced myodesopsia in the left eye 2 years and 6 months after primary rectal surgery for early cancer, and was diagnosed with left choroidal metastasis and multiple lung metastases. Radiotherapy was initiated for the left eye and systemic chemotherapy is initiated for the multiple lung metastases. The patient is living 2 years and 3 months after the diagnosis of choroidal metastasis without signs of recurrence in the left eye, and continues to receive systemic chemotherapy for multiple lung metastases. DISCUSSION Current literatures have few recommendations regarding the appropriate treatment of choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer, but an aggressive multi-disciplinary approach may be effective in local regression. CONCLUSION This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer. PMID:25460493

Tei, Mitsuyoshi; Wakasugi, Masaki; Akamatsu, Hiroki

2014-01-01

363

Imaging Evidence of Diabetic Choroidopathy In Vivo: Angiographic Pathoanatomy and Choroidal-Enhanced Depth Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the pathoanatomy of diabetic choroidopathy (DC) in pre-diagnosed diabetic retinopathy (DR) cases and to provide angiographic and optical evidence for DC using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT). Methods A retrospective analysis of 80 eyes from 40 DR patients was conducted. In Group One, choroidal vascular abnormalities were evaluated by comparing angiographic findings from simultaneous ICGA with those from fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). In Group Two, EDI SD-OCT was used to evaluate the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and define the choroid boundary in order to acquire the bilateral and symmetric choroidal area (CA). Data were then analyzed by Image Pro Plus 6.0. Results In Group One, choroidal abnormalities that were evident using ICGA but not FFA included early hypofluorescent spots in 47 eyes (75.81%), late hyperfluorescent spots in 37 eyes (59.68%), and late choroidal non-perfusion regions in 32 eyes (51.61%). In particular, a significant difference between proliferative DR (PDR) in 17 of 23 eyes (73.91%) and non-PDR in 16 of 39 eyes (41.03%) was observed in late choroidal non-perfusion regions. Eighteen of 31 eyes (58.06%) also exhibited “inverted inflow phenomena.” In Group Two, both the SFCT and CA of eyes with diabetic macular edema and serous macular detachment were significantly greater than those in the other eyes. The CA in panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) treated cases was also greater than that in non-PRP treated cases. Conclusions Early hypofluorescent spots, late choroidal non-perfusion regions, inverted inflow phenomena, higher SFCT, and larger CA are qualitative and quantitative indexes for DC. Moreover, the late choroidal non-perfusion region is a risk factor for DC with DR. Our study suggests that the supplemental use of ICGA and EDI SD-OCT with FFA is a better choice for DR patients. PMID:24349522

Hua, Rui; Liu, Limin; Wang, Xinling; Chen, Lei

2013-01-01

364

ATP7A Gene Addition to the Choroid Plexus Results in Long-term Rescue of the Lethal Copper Transport Defect in a Menkes Disease Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menkes disease is a lethal infantile neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in a P-type ATPase, ATP7A. Currently available treatment (daily subcutaneous copper injections) is not entirely effective in the majority of affected individuals. The mottled-brindled (mo-br) mouse recapitulates the Menkes phenotype, including abnormal copper transport to the brain owing to mutation in the murine homolog, Atp7a, and

Anthony Donsante; Ling Yi; Patricia M Zerfas; Lauren R Brinster; Patricia Sullivan; David S Goldstein; Joseph Prohaska; Jose A Centeno; Elisabeth Rushing; Stephen G Kaler

2011-01-01

365

Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of

I. Cambianica; M. Bossi; P. Gasco; W. Gonzalez; J. M. Idee; G. Miserocchi; R. Rigolio; M. Chanana; I. Morjan; D. Wang; G. Sancini

2010-01-01

366

Use of systemic therapy in the treatment of choroidal metastases from breast cancer.  

PubMed

This is a case report on the use of systemic therapy to successfully regress choroidal metastases due to breast cancer. The choroid is the commonest site for intraocular metastatic disease. Breast and lung cancer are frequently the primary malignancies. Traditionally, choroidal metastases are treated with local therapy to the eye including using either external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy or, recently, with photodynamic therapy. We report on the impressive results obtained with the use of palliative paclitaxel chemotherapy and trastuzumab after only 8?weeks. Funduscopic images and ultrasound findings support this. PMID:25427924

Alzouebi, Mymoona; Ramakrishnan, Sundareswaran; Rennie, Ian; Salvi, Sachin

2014-01-01

367

Enhanced imaging of choroidal vasculature by high-penetration and dual-velocity optical coherence angiography  

PubMed Central

Dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography (DB-OCA) with a 1-?m-wavelength probe is demonstrated for improved in vivo choroidal angiograms of the human eye. This method utilizes two scanning beams with spatial and temporal separation on the retina, and provides two measurable velocity ranges. The method achieves higher sensitivity to very low velocity flows than conventional Doppler optical coherence tomography. Moreover, longer wavelengths allowing greater penetration, enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels is verified with en-face projection images of the Doppler shift squared. Specifically, better choroidal vasculature visibility is achieved at a wavelength of 1 ?m than at 840 nm. PMID:21559127

Jaillon, Franck; Makita, Shuichi; Min, Eun-Jung; Lee, Byeong Ha; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

2011-01-01

368

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with tapeworm...

2014-01-01

369

9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms...shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with tapeworm...

2013-01-01

370

Pancreatic cyst fluid analysis--a review.  

PubMed

An increased number of pancreatic cysts are being diagnosed due to the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and molecular analysis of these cystic lesions have led to their better detection and characterization. The aim of this review is to assess the value of cyst fluid analysis for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions, in view of the recent progresses of molecular analysis methods. Pancreatic cysts can be either simple (retention) cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms, while these are further subdivided into serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). EUS is now being used to investigate cystic pancreatic lesions, particularly by means of EUS guided cyst aspiration and sampling of the cyst wall or septa, as well as mural nodules. Cyst fluid can be further studied after aspiration in order to analyze cytology, viscosity, extracellular mucin, other tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9,CA 15-3, Ca 72-4, etc.), enzymes (amylase, lipase), as well as DNA analysis of DNA quality/content or mutational analysis to study allelic imbalance/LOH (loss of heterozygosity) and K-ras mutations. After careful review of the published studies, a conclusion was reached that the use of tumor and molecular markers in conjunction with multimodality detection methods such as CT, MR and EUS-FNA allows risk stratification, while being also cost-effective. PMID:21725515

Bhutani, Manoop S; Gupta, Vikas; Guha, Sushovan; Gheonea, Dan Ionu?; Saftoiu, Adrian

2011-06-01

371

Nasolabial cysts: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to review our experience, examine the clinical and pathological features of nasolabial cysts, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment in an Asian population. We made a retrospective review of patients with nasolabial cysts who were treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital between January 1999 and December 2004. Clinical data, presenting symptoms, clinical features, pathological findings, preoperative investigations, treatment, and outcome were analysed for each case. We found 17 patients with nasolabial cysts. The findings of adult onset, higher incidence among women and preponderance on the left side confirmed current opinion. The clinical diagnosis of nasolabial cyst was accurate in all cases. Preoperative computed tomograms (CTs) done for one patient did not alter the management. All patients had the cysts excised completely through a sublabial incision. Breaches of the nasal vestibular mucosa healed spontaneously without repair. Histopathological examination showed that cysts were lined with pseudostratified columnar (n=9), stratified squamous (n=4), mixed respiratory and squamous epithelium (n=3), and simple cuboidal epithelium (n=1). No patient developed complications or recurrences. Nasolabial cysts are relatively common in Singapore, and the diagnosis must be kept in mind if they are to be treated early. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the treatment of choice is complete excision. PMID:17030357

Yuen, Heng-Wai; Julian, Cheow-Yew Lee; Samuel, Chow-Lin Yeak

2007-06-01

372

The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

2013-01-01

373

Esophageal duplication cyst containing a foreign body  

PubMed Central

About 10% to 15% of all duplication cysts in the alimentary tract are esophageal. Esophageal duplication cysts are intimately attached to the alimentary tract, are lined by mucous membrane and have smooth muscle. This paper describes a 2-year-old child who presented with symptoms of progressive respiratory distress. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made. At surgery a low cervical incision was made and the sternal manubrium split, thereby providing adequate exposure. The cyst was then removed. The most useful investigations were chest roentgenography and barium esophagography. Computerized tomography showed a small, round foreign body in the middle of the cyst that was subsequently found to be a bingo chip. Communication between the cyst and the esophagus was not obvious at the time of surgery and had not been demonstrated by barium esophagography. When complete excision of the cyst is not possible because of inflammatory reaction all the mucosa must be removed to prevent recurrence. Careful postoperative respiratory support and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy are recommended. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:3971270

Stringel, Gustavo; Mercer, Stanley; Briggs, Valerie

1985-01-01

374

[Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst].  

PubMed

Spontaneous hepatic hydatid cyst rupture into the biliary tract is unusual. The authors describe a case of a 62-year-old man with a hepatic hydatid cyst, showing that it is possible to confirm rupture into the biliary system with cholangiography-MRI. Surgical treatment remains the best form of management. Endoscopic management is a therapeutic possibility in all cases in which surgery is contraindicated. In the case observed endoscopic sphinctererotomy resolved the biliary obstruction, while the hydatid cyst was treated by transbiliary irrigation with scolicidal solutions and pharmacological therapy. The treatment permitted complete clinical resolution of the hepatic hydatosis. PMID:12038119

Cucinotta, Eugenio; Palmeri, Renato; Lazzara, Salvatore; Melita, Giuseppinella; Melita, Paolo

2002-01-01

375

Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae Woll., to nondamaging levels. The potential of these nematophagous fungi as biocontrol agents is discussed. PMID:19300700

Kerry, Brian

1980-01-01

376

Giant intradiploic arachnoid cyst for 13 years  

PubMed Central

A case of intradiploic arachnoid cyst is reported. The patient presented with a progressively enlarging swelling situated over left frontal region for approximately 13-years following blunt trauma to head. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intradiploic fluid containing cyst having intensity like cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). He underwent craniotomy and successful surgical repair. Intraoperatively CSF cyst was located in the frontal pole with a large defect over inner table and large rent in the dura. It was lined with arachnoid membrane. Pertinent literature is reviewed in brief. PMID:25250069

Verma, Satish Kumar; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

2014-01-01

377

Intratarsal Keratinous Cyst – An Emerging Entity  

PubMed Central

We report two cases of recurrent intratarsal keratinous cysts of the Meibomian gland, a recently described lesion thought to have been previously misdiagnosed. The correct diagnosis can be made based on histopathologic features alone, although expression of cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 in the cyst epithelium is a specific marker of these lesions. Recognition of these lesions, and distinguishing them from other intratarsal cysts that do not recur, is important to guide definitive therapy via full-thickness excision rather than simple incision and drainage. PMID:24403898

Rajaii, Fatemeh; Ghafourian, Abdalhossein; Eberhart, Charles G.

2013-01-01

378

Sacral perineural cysts: imaging and treatment options.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts are an uncommon radiological finding and a rare cause of radicular leg pain. We report the clinical findings, imaging and operative appearances of a patient who presented with radicular leg and perineal pain, which was found to be associated with multiple sacral perineural cysts. The diagnostic and treatment options are explored. In particular, the use of percutaneous fine-needle cyst drainage as a guide to the value of surgery is discussed. Postoperative complications, such as pseudomeningocoele can occur, but may be effectively treated with lumbar drainage. PMID:12046741

Landers, J; Seex, K

2002-04-01

379

Adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase activity in the choroid.  

PubMed

The choroid, a low-resistance vascular structure provides nourishment to and removal of potential toxic waste products from the adjacent non-vascularized outer layers of the retina, macula, and optic disc region and may be involved in the pathology of normal tension glaucoma. This study is aimed at delineating the biochemical pharmacology of vascular tone control in this tissue. By using a procedure to harvest fresh choroidal tissue, we studied some basic characteristics of the adenylyl (AC) and guanylyl cyclase (GC) enzyme systems in this tissue using the 3H-cAMP/32P-ATP tracer method. Compared to respective baseline measurements (100+/-SEM%), AC activity was stimulated (p < 0.05) by forskolin (FSK, 477+/-59%), fluoroaluminate (AlF(4), 360+/-10.3%), isoproterenol (ISO, 129+/-5.5%), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, 132+/-6.1%), calmodulin (CAM)+Mn2+ (196+/-69%), and dose-dependently by prostaglandin (PG) E2 (up to 162+/-3.6%). The antagonist drug calmidazolium inhibited the CAM-dependent increase but also blocked basal activity (47+/-2.0%) without affecting the FSK response. Other CAM blockers (TFP, W5) produced similar results but were not completely selective for CAM-activated cyclase. GDPbetaS, a blocker of G-protein coupling to AC did not affect AC responses to FSK, ISO, and AlF4, but decreased the response to PGE2. N-ethyl-carboxamido adenosine (NECA), which activates adenosine A2 receptors, did not synergize with FSK or add to ISO responses and did not activate AC by itself. In the GC system activity was stimulated (p< 0.05) by CAM+Mn2+ (239+/-27%), by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, up to 143+/-1.4%) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, up to 179+/-1.6%). These results show that choroidal tissue has significant activities of the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase second messenger systems potentially responsive to hormones/neurotransmitters that may control the degree of relaxation in this vascular tissue. PMID:15051471

Schmidt, Karl-Georg; Geyer, Orna; Mittag, T W

2004-05-01

380

Results and current approach for Brachial Plexus reconstruction  

PubMed Central

We review our experience treating 335 adult patients with supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries over a 7-year period at the University of Southern Santa Catarina, in Brazil. Patients were categorized into 8 groups, according to functional deficits and roots injured: C5-C6, C5-C7, C5-C8 (T1 Hand), C5-T1 (T2 Hand), C8-T1, C7-T1, C6-T1, and total palsy. To restore function, nerve grafts, nerve transfers, and tendon and muscle transfers were employed. Patients with either upper- or lower-type partial injuries experienced considerable functional return. In total palsies, if a root was available for grafting, 90% of patients had elbow flexion restored, whereas this rate dropped to 50% if no roots were grafted and only nerve transfers performed. Pain resolution should be the first priority, and root exploration and grafting helped to decrease or eliminate pain complaints within a short time of surgery. PMID:21676269

2011-01-01

381

Surgical and postpartum hereditary brachial plexus attacks and prophylactic immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgery and childbirth can trigger attacks of hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), and inflammation was suggested as a component of the pathogenesis. Methods HBPN patients who underwent surgery or parturition from Jan.1,1996 to Dec.31,2009 were studied. Results Twenty-five HBPN patients underwent 48 surgeries or parturitions. Seventeen patients (68%) had attacks, including 13 periprocedural and 7 postpartum by varied anesthesia types. Three patients who had 8 earlier combined attacks (after thyroidectomy, laminectomy, and Caesarean section) were given prophylactic immunosuppressive therapy (corticosteroids ± immunoglobulin). None suffered postoperative attacks, which is uncharacteristic of their prior experience. Five had perioperative attacks as their first HBPN manifestation. Median follow-up was 11(3-48) months. Attacks occurred in the operated limb (n=6) or distant (n=7) to surgical sites. All attacks interfered with daily living, with frequent incomplete recovery. Five patients had a SEPT9 mutation. Conclusions Corticosteroid may prevent parturition and surgical HBPN attacks in some patients. Diverse surgeries, anesthesia and childbirth frequently trigger HBPN attacks. PMID:23042485

Klein, Christopher J.; Barbara, David W.; Sprung, Juraj; Dyck, Peter J.; Weingarten, Toby N.

2012-01-01

382

Brachial plexus lesions after backpack carriage in young adults.  

PubMed

Carrying a heavy backpack exerts compression on shoulders, with the potential to cause brachial plexopathy. We evaluated the incidence and predisposing factors of compression plexopathy of the shoulder region in 152,095 military conscripts, hypothesizing that a low body mass index and poor physical fitness predispose to the plexus lesion. Reports of conscripts with neural lesions of the upper arm associated with load carriage were reviewed retrospectively for details associated with the condition onset, symptoms, signs, nerve conduction studies, and electromyographic examinations. Height, weight, and physical fitness scores were obtained from their military training data. The incidence of neural compression after shoulder load carriage in Finnish soldiers was 53.7 (95% confidence interval, 39.5-67.8) per 100,000 conscripts per year. The long thoracic nerve was affected in 19, the axillary nerve in 13, the suprascapular nerve in seven, and the musculocutaneous nerve in six patients. Four patients (7%) had hereditary neuropathy with susceptibility to pressure palsies (HNPP). Symptoms were induced by lighter loads in patients with HNPP. Vulnerability to brachial plexopathy was not predictable from body structure or physical fitness level. To prevent these lesions, awareness of the condition and its symptoms should be increased and backpack designs should be improved. PMID:16906084

Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Ramstad, Raimo; Mattila, Ville; Pihlajamäki, Harri

2006-11-01

383

Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model  

PubMed Central

A two stage statistical model based on texture and shape for fully automatic choroidal segmentation of normal and pathologic eyes obtained by a 1060 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is developed. A novel dynamic programming approach is implemented to determine location of the retinal pigment epithelium/ Bruch’s membrane /choriocapillaris (RBC) boundary. The choroid–sclera interface (CSI) is segmented using a statistical model. The algorithm is robust even in presence of speckle noise, low signal (thick choroid), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachments and atrophy, drusen, shadowing and other artifacts. Evaluation against a set of 871 manually segmented cross-sectional scans from 12 eyes achieves an average error rate of 13%, computed per tomogram as a ratio of incorrectly classified pixels and the total layer surface. For the first time a fully automatic choroidal segmentation algorithm is successfully applied to a wide range of clinical volumetric OCT data. PMID:22254171

Kaji?, Vedran; Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Považay, Boris; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L.; Drexler, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

384

Long-term results of intravitreal ranibizumab for osteoma-related choroidal neovascularization in a child.  

PubMed

Though choroidal osteoma is a rare benign tumor, associated choroidal neovascularization (CNV) can be a cause of severe visual loss. A nine-year-old boy presented with one-month history of decreased vision in left eye. Upon a complete ophthalmologic examination, including fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, he was diagnosed with choroidal osteoma-related subfoveal CNV in the left eye. The CNV was associated with subretinal hemorrhage, subretinal fluid, and cystoid macular edema. Owing to the young age and subfoveal localization of the CNV, intravitreal ranibizumab injection was performed on this patient after a detailed discussion with the parents of its safety profile. No local or systemic complications were noted. No recurrence of CNV lesion was noted during 30 months of follow-up, and the vision was maintained. This report shows the favorable outcome of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in choroidal osteoma-related CNV in a child. PMID:25136233

Gupta, Aditi; Gopal, Lingam; Sen, Parveen; Ratra, Dhanashree; Rao, Chetan

2014-05-01

385

[Bronchogenic cysts of the mediastinum in childhood].  

PubMed

Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies result of abnormal development of the tracheobronchial tree. They develop in the lung parenchyma or in the mediastinum. For a period of 17 years (1975-1991) a total of 46 children with bronchogenic cysts have been treated; in 6 the cysts were localized in the mediastinum. Two patients were one-year-old, 3 were in the age group 1 to 3 years and 1 was older than 3 years. Four patients were boys and 2 girls. Two children had hacking cough and attacks of dyspnea; one had swallowing difficulties. In 3 children the disease produced no symptoms and was detected on examination for pneumonia (1 child) and acute upper respiratory tract infection (2 children). All children had conventional X-ray; 5 had esophagography as well, 4--computer axial tomography, 3--echography. All children were operated (total extirpation of the cyst) and left the hospital cured. PMID:8411872

Mikha?lova, V; Drebov, R

1993-01-01

386

Neuroendoscopic Approach to Quadrigeminal Cistern Arachnoid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Objective: The introduction of neuroendoscopy has provided a minimally invasive modality for the surgical treatment of quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts. Three pediatric patients with arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern treated by endoscopic fenestration are reported. Materials and Methods: The hospital records of patients were retrospectively rewieved. All patients had hydrocephalus. A lateral ventricle-cystostomy and endoscopic third ventriculostomy were performed by using rigid neuroendoscopes. Results: There were one boy and two girls with ages 7 months, 9 months and 14 years, respectively. One patient had undergone shunting prior to neuroendoscopic surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful in all cases, with no complications. They showed disappearance of intracranial hypertension symptoms and significant reduction of the cyst size. Conclusion: Neuroendoscopic technique is an effective and suitable method for the treatment of quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cysts and accompanying hydrocephalus.

Sengul, Goksin; Tuzun, Yusuf; Cakir, Murteza; Duman, Sencer; Colak, Abdullah; Kadioglu, Hakan Hadi; Aydin, Ismail Hakki

2012-01-01

387

Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst with back pain.  

PubMed

We report a case of a mediastinal bronchogenic cyst with back pain. The rarity of this lesion and even the more uncommon association of this lesion with symptoms of back pain prompted the report of this case. PMID:20935427

Ibinaiye, P O; Adeyinka, A O; Sogaolu, M; Kajogbola, G A

2010-01-01

388

[Tarlov cysts: report of four cases].  

PubMed

Four perineurial cysts cases (Tarlov's cysts) are reported. The purpose of this study is to describe and to compare them with data from a literature review. The evaluation was performed among 88 adult patients with symptoms of radiculopathy, sacral pain, low back pain. Four patients revealed Tarlov's cysts (4.5%). The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. Four cases underwent sacral laminectomy. Following surgery, the claudication pain resolved with no motor or sensory deficits. Tarlov's cysts should be considered as a differential diagnosis of sacral radiculopathy, sacral or lumbar pain syndromes and mainly to the lumbar disc prolapse. The goal of the surgical treatment is to relieve the neural compression and stop bone erosion. PMID:15334232

Sá, Márcia Cristina da Paixão Rodrigues Miranda de; Sá, Renato Carlos Ferreira Leite Miranda de

2004-09-01

389

Unusual Postrhinoplasty Complication: Nasal Dorsum Cyst  

PubMed Central

Among all the possible complications of aesthetic rhinoplasty, a rare one is the development of cystic masses on the nasal dorsum: several theories suggest that cysts develop commonly by entrapment of nasal mucosa in the subcutaneous space, but they can also originate from foreign body reactions. This report deals with two cases of nasal dorsum cysts with different pathogenesis: both patients had undergone aesthetic rhinoplasty in the past (26 years ago and 14 years ago, resp.). Both cystic masses were removed via a direct open approach and nasal reconstruction was performed successfully with autologous vomer bone. The pathologic investigations showed a foreign body inclusion cyst associated with latex rubber in the first case and a sequestration of a mucosal-lined nasal bone was not removed at the time of primary rhinoplasty in the second case. A brief review of the literature focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment options for nasal dorsal cysts following aesthetic rhinoplasty. PMID:25276458

Giacomini, Pier Giorgio; Topazio, Davide; Di Mauro, Roberta; Mocella, Stelio; Chimenti, Matteo; Di Girolamo, Stefano

2014-01-01

390

A hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis, although eradicated in many countries, is still widespread in communities in which agriculture is dominant, and cystic hydatidosis is a significant public health problem in regions where echinococcosis is endemic. Hydatid cysts may be found in almost any part of the body, but most often in the liver and lungs. Other organs affected occasionally include the brain, muscle, kidney, bone, heart and pancreas. This report documents a rare case with a cystic nodule in the thyroid detected by ultrasonography. The patient was a 40-year-old woman with an euthyroid multinodular goitre. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic nodule, and the ultrasonic appearance of the cyst liquid showed multiple echoes, suggesting that the nodule could be a hydatid cyst. Bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Postoperative examination of the nodule showed it to be a solitary primary thyroid hydatid cyst. PMID:12025531

Capo?lu, I; Unüvar, N; Erdogan, F; Yilmaz, O; Caydere, M

2002-01-01

391

Proton radiation therapy for medium and large choroidal melanoma: preservation of the eye and its functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Evaluation of efficacy and safety of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for medium- and large-size choroidal melanoma with focus on preservation of the eye and its function.Methods: Retrospective review of 78 patients with 60 medium and 18 large-size choroidal melanomas at a median follow-up of 34 months.Results: The 5-year data for local control, metastases-free survival, and disease-specific survival were estimated

Martin Fuss; Lilia N Loredo; Paul A Blacharski; Roger I Grove; Jerry D Slater

2001-01-01

392

A comparative ultrastructural study of primary afferents from the brachial and cervical plexuses to the external cuneate nucleus of gerbils.  

PubMed Central

The synaptic organisation of the primary afferents from the brachial and cervical plexuses to the external cuneate nucleus of gerbils was compared following an intraneural injection of horseradish peroxidase into the musculocutaneous, median, ulnar and radial nerves of the brachial plexus or the main branches of the cervical plexus; 407 labelled primary afferent terminals from the brachial and 459 from the cervical plexus were studied. These boutons made synaptic contacts with 586 and 633 dendritic profiles, respectively. 99.0% of the primary afferent boutons from the brachial plexus contained clear round synaptic vesicles (R boutons); the remaining 1% of boutons contained pleomorphic synaptic vesicles (P boutons). For boutons from the cervical plexus, 95% were R boutons and 5% were P boutons. The labelled R bouton profiles had a wide range of cross-sectional area from 0.4 to 13.1 microns 2, while the P boutonal profiles were of a small variety (range, 0.4-2.3 microns 2; mean, 1.5; S.D., 0.6 micron 2). The R boutons from the brachial plexus (mean, 3.9 microns; S.D., 2.1 microns 2) were generally larger than those from the cervical plexus (mean, 3.3 microns 2; S.D., 1.9 microns 2). On close analysis, 72.4% of R boutons from the brachial plexus were found to synapse on distal dendrites, 15.9% on secondary dendrites, 9.5% on dendritic spines and 2.2% on proximal dendrites. For R boutons from the cervical plexus, 81.1% synapsed on distal dendrites, 12.1% on dendritic spines and 6.8% on secondary dendrites; none was observed on proximal dendrites. Such a different synaptic organisation between the two nerve plexuses may be related to their different perceptuomotor executions. Images Figs 1-3 Figs 4-6 Fig. 7 Figs 8-9 Figs 11-12 PMID:7591972

Lan, C T; Wen, C Y; Tan, C K; Ling, E A; Shieh, J Y

1995-01-01

393

Intracranial Cysts: An Imagery Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Intracerebral cysts and cystic appearing intracerebral masses are common findings at routine cerebral imaging examination. We discuss here the most interesting aspects of some intracerebral cysts encountered in medical practice in terms of imaging, clinical and pathological description, and problems of differential diagnosis. On an almost routine basis, the neurologists have to deal with such differentials. Therefore, we aim to mention here some of the frequently encountered diagnosis problems when a patient presents with a cystic cerebral mass. PMID:23737706

Opri?an, Alexandra

2013-01-01

394

Proton beam irradiation and hyperthermia. Effects on experimental choroidal melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonically induced hyperthermia (4.75 MHz) and proton irradiation (160 meV) were evaluated alone and combined to treat experimental choroidal melanoma in 58 rabbit eyes. Threshold tumoricidal doses were established for each modality. Therapy was performed combining subthreshold doses of heat and radiation. Focused ultrasonic energy via an external beam was found to deliver well-localized heat to an intraocular tumor. Ectopic temperature elevations due to soft-tissue-bone interfaces were alleviated by modifying beam alignment. The results indicate that hyperthermia (43 degrees C for one hour) potentiated the tumoricidal effects of radiation, while sparing normal ocular structures. Therefore, we believe that experimental hyperthermia is suitable as an adjuvant treatment modality. This shows that ultrasound hyperthermia has the potential to increase the efficacy of proton irradiation by lowering radiation doses and thus decreasing posttreatment ocular morbidity in human intraocular malignancies.

Riedel, K.G.; Svitra, P.P.; Seddon, J.M.; Albert, D.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Koehler, A.M.; Coleman, D.J.; Torpey, J.; Lizzi, F.L.; Driller, J.

1985-12-01

395

Sympathetic ophthalmia complicating helium ion irradiation of a choroidal melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Sympathetic ophthalmia was diagnosed 49 months after helium ion irradiation of a left choroidal melanoma. The patient maintained good vision until 18 months after therapy, when she developed neovascular glaucoma. This complication required multiple therapeutic procedures, including topical anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous drops, 360 degrees peripheral panretinal cryoblation, and a single 180 degrees application of inferior cyclocryotherapy over a 2 1/2-year period. Four weeks after the cyclocryotherapy, inflammation was noted in both eyes, and, one month later, enucleation of the left sympathogenic eye was performed. Serial histopathologic sections showed a full-thickness, fibrovascular, scleral scar and tantalum marker ring suture without uveal incarceration. Penetrating surgical trauma, a uveal melanoma, and multiple nonpenetrating treatments resulted in the development of sympathetic ophthalmia.

Fries, P.D.; Char, D.H.; Crawford, J.B.; Waterhouse, W.

1987-11-01

396

Sympathetic ophthalmia complicating helium ion irradiation of a choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed

Sympathetic ophthalmia was diagnosed 49 months after helium ion irradiation of a left choroidal melanoma. The patient maintained good vision until 18 months after therapy, when she developed neovascular glaucoma. This complication required multiple therapeutic procedures, including topical anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous drops, 360 degrees peripheral panretinal cryoblation, and a single 180 degrees application of inferior cyclocryotherapy over a 2 1/2-year period. Four weeks after the cyclocryotherapy, inflammation was noted in both eyes, and, one month later, enucleation of the left sympathogenic eye was performed. Serial histopathologic sections showed a full-thickness, fibrovascular, scleral scar and tantalum marker ring suture without uveal incarceration. Penetrating surgical trauma, a uveal melanoma, and multiple nonpenetrating treatments resulted in the development of sympathetic ophthalmia. PMID:3675290

Fries, P D; Char, D H; Crawford, J B; Waterhouse, W

1987-11-01

397

Demonstration of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from the Anterior Choroidal Artery  

PubMed Central

We present a case of angiographically confirmed transection of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) associated with a severe head trauma in a 15-year old boy. The initial brain computed tomography scan revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pneumocephalus with multiple skull fractures. Subsequent cerebral angiography clearly demonstrated a complete transection of the AChA at its origin with a massive extravasation of contrast medium as a jet trajectory creating a plume. We speculate that severe blunt traumatic force stretched and tore the left AChA between the internal carotid artery and the optic tract. In a simulation of the patient's brain using a fresh-frozen male cadaver, the AChA is shown to be vulnerable to stretching injury as the ipsilateral optic tract is retracted. We conclude that the arterial injury like an AChA rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe traumatic SAH.

Sim, Ki-Bum; Choi, H. Alex; Kim, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

398

Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation of choroidal neovascularizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation, using the dye indocyanine green (ICG), has shown some potential in the treatment of choroidal neovascularizations (CNV). A diode laser system was developed and optimized to emit at the absorption maximum of ICG. In a clinical study at two retinal centers, more than 70 patients, the majority of which had age-related macular degeneration, were treated. Eighteen cases with ill-defined subfoveal CNV were followed an average of 11 months after laser treatment. The results show success in resolving the CNV with an average long-term preservation of visual function equal to or superior to data provided by the Macular Photocoagulation Study for confluent burns of low intensity applied to the CNV. Details of the technique and discussion of the controversies inherent in such a treatment strategy will be presented.

Klingbeil, Ulrich; Puliafito, Carmen A.; McCarthy, Dan; Reichel, Elias; Olk, Joseph; Lesiecki, Michael L.

1994-06-01

399

CD1a-positive cells in odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

Langerhans cells (LC) are bone marrow-derived cells that have a CD1a-positive immunophenotype and are an important portion of the cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was an immunohistochemical evaluation of CD1a positive cells in different types of oral cysts. Fifty-five cysts were studied: 18 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), of which five were orthokeratotic and 13 parakeratotic; 19 radicular cysts; and 18 dentigerous cysts. Positive LC was 80% for orthokeratotic OKC, 33% for parakeratotic OKC, approximately 35% for radicular cysts, and approximately 20% for dentigerous cysts. The results show that OKC with well-differentiated epithelial linings presented a greater number of LC than the other cysts. However, when the cyst wall was inflamed there were no differences in LC expression in the different types of cysts. The data confirm that LC distribution seems to be associated with the degree of differentiation of the epithelia. PMID:12043859

Piattelli, Adriano; Rubini, Corrado; Iezzi, Giovanna; Fioroni, Massimiliano

2002-04-01

400

Gaint Epidermoid Cyst of External Ear– A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Epidermoid cysts are developmental, benign, cutaneous cysts which are commonly found on face followed by trunk and neck. They account for approximately 80% of follicular cysts of the skin. They are slow growing lesions and remain asymptomatic until or unless secondarily infected. They occasionally have tendency to develop into a malignancy. We describe a case of giant epidermoid cyst of posterior part of external ear, a location where very few cases have been reported in the literature. Since cyst was attached to the external ear, esthetics was also one of the important concern apart from the cyst getting infected, as they cause disfigurement of the face. The cyst was excised surgically. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of Epidermoid cyst. Two-years after the resection there was no recurrence. Due to the possibility of the cyst to transform into a malignancy and for appropriate diagnosis, histopathological examination remains a gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis. PMID:24701521

Reddy, G.Siva Prasad; Reddy, N.V.S.Sekhar; Reddy, G.V; K, Sriharsha

2014-01-01

401

N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine proliferated CD34(+) cells from rat choroidal explant in culture.  

PubMed

Action of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine-human serum albumin (CML-HSA) on neovascularization was investigated in cultured rat choroidal explant. Choroidal explants of normal male Wistar rats were cultured in fibrin gel with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing fetal bovine serum in the presence or absence of CML-HSA. Migrated cells were budded from 2nd day in culture and developed from cultured choroidal explants in a time-dependent manner. Budded and developed cells from the choroidal explant had a feature of fibroblasts, which had attenuated long cytoplasmic processes, long ellipsoid nuclei and numerous membrane-bound polymorphic vesicles. Immunostaining of the attenuated cells in fibrin bed with CD34 (a marker protein of vascular endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells) failed to disclose positive result. However the cells which were isolated from fibrin bed by collagenase were specifically stained with anti-CD34 antibody. The isolated cells did not form tube-like structures on collagen gel by 3 weeks in culture. CML-HSA significantly increased the number of total isolated cells and CD34(+) cells as well as the number of vessel-like structures. These results indicate that CML-HSA overproduced immature blood vessels from cultured choroidal explants in fibrin gel, which consisted of CD34(+) cells. The CML-HSA-induced formation of immature blood vessel may be implicated in various choroidal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:15340223

Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Shinohara, Harumichi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Nagai, Ryoji; Horiuchi, Seikoh

2004-09-01

402

Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images  

PubMed Central

Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-definition cross-sectional images of the choroid in vivo, and hence is used in many clinical studies. However, the quantification of the choroid depends on the manual labelings of two boundaries, Bruch’s membrane and the choroidal-scleral interface. This labeling process is tedious and subjective of inter-observer differences, hence, automatic segmentation of the choroid layer is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a fast and accurate algorithm that could segment the choroid automatically. Bruch’s membrane is detected by searching the pixel with the biggest gradient value above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroidal-scleral interface is delineated by finding the shortest path of the graph formed by valley pixels using Dijkstra’s algorithm. The experiments comparing automatic segmentation results with the manual labelings are conducted on 45 EDI-OCT images and the average of Dice’s Coefficient is 90.5%, which shows good consistency of the algorithm with the manual labelings. The processing time for each image is about 1.25 seconds. PMID:23504041

Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Baskaran, Mani; Tun, Tin Aung; Aung, Tin

2013-01-01

403

RAGE Regulates Immune Cell Infiltration and Angiogenesis in Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Purpose RAGE regulates pro-inflammatory responses in diverse cells and tissues. This study has investigated if RAGE plays a role in immune cell mobilization and choroidal neovascular pathology that is associated with the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods RAGE null (RAGE?/?) mice and age-matched wild type (WT) control mice underwent laser photocoagulation to generate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions which were then analyzed for morphology, S100B immunoreactivity and inflammatory cell infiltration. The chemotactic ability of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) towards S100B was investigated. Results RAGE expression was significantly increased in the retina during CNV of WT mice (p<0.001). RAGE?/? mice exhibited significantly reduced CNV lesion size when compared to WT controls (p<0.05). S100B mRNA was upregulated in the lasered WT retina but not RAGE?/? retina and S100B immunoreactivity was present within CNV lesions although levels were less when RAGE?/? mice were compared to WT controls. Activated microglia in lesions were considerably less abundant in RAGE?/? mice when compared to WT counterparts (p<0.001). A dose dependent chemotactic migration was observed in BMDMs from WT mice (p<0.05–0.01) but this was not apparent in cells isolated from RAGE?/? mice. Conclusions RAGE-S100B interactions appear to play an important role in CNV lesion formation by regulating pro-inflammatory and angiogenic responses. This study highlights the role of RAGE in inflammation-mediated outer retinal pathology. PMID:24586862

McVicar, Carmel; Ward, Michael; Colhoun, Liza; Quinn, Michael; Bierhaus, Angelika; Xu, Heping; Stitt, Alan W.

2014-01-01

404

MRI of retinal and choroidal blood flow with laminar resolution  

PubMed Central

The retina is nourished by two distinct circulations: the retinal vessels within the inner retina and the choroidal vessels behind the neural retina. The outer nuclear layer and the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors in between are avascular. The aim of this study was to determine whether arterial spin labeling MRI could provide sufficient resolution to differentiate between quantitative retinal blood flow (rBF) and choroidal blood flow (chBF), and whether this technique is sufficiently sensitive to detect vascular-specific blood flow (BF) changes modulated by anesthetics. Arterial spin labeling MRI was performed at 42 × 42 × 400 µm3 in the mouse retina at 7 T, and was used to investigate the effects of isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine anesthesia on rBF and chBF. MRI yielded unambiguous differentiation of rBF, chBF and the avascular layer in between. Under isoflurane, chBF was 7.7 ± 2.1 mL/g/min and rBF was 1.3 ± 0.44 mL/g/min (mean ± SD, n = 7, p < 0.01). Under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia in the same animals, chBF was 4.3 ± 1.9 mL/g/min and rBF was 0.88 ± 0.22 mL/g/min (p < 0.01). Under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, rBF was lower by 29% (P < 0.01) and chBF by 42% (P < 0.01) relative to isoflurane. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the quantitative imaging of rBF and chBF in vivo, providing a new method to study basal values and alterations of rBF and chBF. PMID:20821409

Muir, Eric R.; Duong, Timothy Q.

2010-01-01

405

IKK2 Inhibition Attenuates Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is aberrant angiogenesis associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Inflammation has been suggested as a risk factor for AMD. The IKK2/NF-?B pathway plays a key role in the inflammatory response through regulation of the transcription of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors. We investigated the functional role of IKK2 in development of the laser-induced CNV using either Ikk2 conditional knockout mice or an IKK2 inhibitor. The retinal neuronal tissue and RPE deletion of IKK2 was generated by breeding Ikk2?/flox mice with Nestin-Cre mice. Deletion of Ikk2 in the retina caused no obvious defect in retinal development or function, but resulted in a significant reduction in laser-induced CNV. In addition, intravitreal or retrobulbar injection of an IKK2 specific chemical inhibitor, TPCA-1, also showed similar inhibition of CNV. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of IKK2 in ARPE-19 cells significantly reduced heat shock-induced expression of NFKBIA, IL1B, CCL2, VEGFA, PDGFA, HIF1A, and MMP-2, suggesting that IKK2 may regulate multiple molecular pathways involved in laser-induced CNV. The in vivo laser-induced expression of VEGFA, and HIF1A in RPE and choroidal tissue was also blocked by TPCA-1 treatment. Thus, IKK2/NF-?B signaling appears responsible for production of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors in laser-induced CNV, suggesting that this intracellular pathway may serve as an important therapeutic target for aberrant angiogenesis in exudative AMD. PMID:24489934

Lu, Huayi; Lu, Qingxian; Gaddipati, Subhash; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Wang, Wei; Pasparakis, Manolis; Kaplan, Henry J.; Li, Qiutang

2014-01-01

406

An immunohistochemical study of the myenteric plexus of the colon in the rat and mouse.  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemical methods were used to determine the localisation of immunoreactivities to a variety of antigens involved in neurotransmission in the myenteric plexus of the colon in the rat and mouse. The findings in the two species were closely similar. Five neuronal types have been identified. (i) The axons of extrinsic noradrenergic sympathetic neurons, immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, supply the ganglia and the circular muscle. (ii) Bombesin immunoreactive intrinsic neurons with unbeaded axons are largely confined to the ganglia and tracts of the plexus. These neurons probably contain gastrin-releasing peptide, which is the mammalian analogue of bombesin. (iii) Somatostatin immunoreactive intrinsic neurons have long, beaded axons within the myenteric plexus and also outside the plexus, between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. (iv) Intrinsic neurons containing opioid peptides (beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin), have beaded axons that cannot be traced for long distances. They contact all the cell bodies in the ganglia and extend also into the interganglionic tracts and the smooth muscle. (v) Substance P immunoreactive somata and axons are present throughout the myenteric plexus and provide dense innervation to the smooth muscle. Extrinsic substance P immunoreactive sensory axons are probably also present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11, 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1701422

Heinicke, E A; Kiernan, J A

1990-01-01

407

Ultrastructural observations of the myenteric plexus of the pylorus in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Myenteric plexuses and smooth muscle of the pylorus obtained by biopsy at pyloro myotomy in 5 infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis were studied by electron microscopy. Animal controls consisted of pyloruses from 2 infant and 2 adult rabbits and 2 adult rats. The principal findings in the plexuses of the patients were moderate numbers of variably sized, swollen degenerating axons that contained dense bodies, lamellated figures, vacuoles, granular or fibrillar material, and swollen mitochondria. The significance of this alteration in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder is not clear. Neurons in the plexuses showed no definite abnormalities. Although these findings do not confirm previous light microscopic observation of neuronal changes in the pyloric myenteric plexuses, they do not exclude a neurogenic mechanism for this disorder. The presence of small immature neurons and large mature neurons suggests that neuronal maturation and development in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis are not impaired as previously reported. No ultrastructural changes were found in interstitial cells of the myenteric plexuses. Except for hypertrophy of the circular smooth muscle layers, no specific alterations were found in muscle fibers of the pylorus. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:879274

Challa, V. R.; Jona, J. Z.; Markesbery, W. R.

1977-01-01

408

Inflamed symptomatic sellar arachnoid cyst: case report.  

PubMed

Sellar arachnoid cysts are rare; an infected arachnoid cyst is extremely rare as only one case has been reported to date in the literature. Here, we report a patient with an infected or inflamed sellar arachnoid cyst that was successfully treated with transsphenoidal surgery (TSA). A 53-year-old female with a history of chronic sinusitis developed a headache 5 months ago, and one month before admission polyuria, polydipsia, and abnormal vaginal bleeding occurred. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a sellar cystic mass with a thickened pituitary stalk. Preoperative hormonal study revealed normal pituitary hormone levels except for a moderate elevation of prolactin. She was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus of the central nervous system origin based on a water-deprivation test. TSA was performed under an impression of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst according to the MRI findings. Intraoperative findings showed confirmation of turbid intracystic contents, but micro-organisms were unidentified on microbial culture. Pathology of the cyst wall revealed inflamed meningoepithelial lining cells compatible with an arachnoid cyst. PMID:24904886

Park, Kwang Hyon; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang Hyun

2013-04-01

409

Residual Cyst Associated with Calcifications in an Elderly Patient  

PubMed Central

A residual cyst, as the name implies, is a radicular, lateral periodotal, dentigerous or any other cyst that has persisted after it’s associated tooth has been lost. Residual cysts show more predilection in males and they commonly affect the maxillary region. Usually, residual cysts are asymptomatic and calcifications occurring in the residual cysts are quite rare. We are reporting a case of symptomatic residual cyst, associated with calcifications involving the anterior region of the body of the mandible in a 60-year-old male patient. The pathogenesis, clinical, radiological features and differential diagnosis have been discussed. PMID:24701547

Sridevi, K; Nandan, S. Ratheesh Kumar; Ratnakar, P.; Srikrishna, K.; Vamsi Pavani, B.

2014-01-01

410

Atlantoaxial Joint Synovial Cyst: Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Synovial cysts at the atlantoaxial level are found uncommonly. Lumbar symptomatic cases are treated by percutaneous cyst aspiration with or without corticoid injection or by surgical resection, but synovial cysts at the C1-C2 level are usually treated by surgery. We report here a 92-year-old woman with a retro-odontoid synovial cyst producing spinal cord compression that was treated by percutaneous aspiration of the cyst under CT guidance. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an atlantoaxial synovial cyst successfully treated with a minimally invasive procedure.

Velan, Osvaldo, E-mail: osvaldo.velan@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Radiology (Argentina); Rabadan, Alejandra, E-mail: alejandra.rabadan@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Neurosurgery (Argentina); Paganini, Lisandro, E-mail: lisandro.paganini@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Radiology (Argentina); Langhi, Luciano, E-mail: luciano.langhi@hospitalitaliano.org.a [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Department of Neurosurgery (Argentina)

2008-11-15

411

The diagnosis and management of synovial cysts: Efficacy of surgery versus cyst aspiration  

PubMed Central

Background: The surgical management of lumbar synovial cysts that have extruded into the spinal canal remains controversial (e.g. decompression with/without fusion). Methods: The neurological presentation, anatomy, pathophysiology, and surgical challenges posed by synovial cysts in the lumbar spine are well known. Neurological complaints typically include unilateral or, more rarely, bilateral radicular complaints, and/or cauda equina syndromes. Anatomically, synovial cysts constitute cystic dilatations of synovial sheaths that directly extrude from facet joints into the spinal canal. Pathophysiologically, these cysts reflect disruption of the facet joints often with accompanying instability, and potentially compromise both the cephalad and caudad nerve roots. Results: Aspiration of lumbar synovial cysts, which are typically gelatinous and non-aspirable, and typically performed by “pain specialists” (e.g. pain management, rehabilitation, radiologists, others) utilizing fluoroscopy or CT-guided aspiration, is associated with 50–100% failure rates. Surgical decompression with/without fusion (as the issue regarding fusion remains unsettled) results in the resolution of back and radicular pain in 91.6–92.5% and 91.1–91.9% of cases, respectively. Conclusions: After a thorough review of the literature, it appears that the treatment with the best outcome for patients with synovial cysts is cyst removal utilizing surgical decompression; the need for attendant fusion remains unsettled. The use of an alternative treatment, percutaneous aspiration of cysts, appears to have a much higher recurrence and failure rate, but may be followed by surgery if warranted. PMID:22905322

Epstein, Nancy E.; Baisden, Jamie

2012-01-01

412

Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

Buesch, Francisca Eugster

2010-01-01

413

Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

2012-01-01

414

Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods - Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991-2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10-20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results - At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9-19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23-25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (? 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation - Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

2014-12-01

415

Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose — The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods — Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991–2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10–20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results — At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9–19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23–25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (? 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation — Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

2014-01-01

416

Lumbar Plexus Block for Management of Hip Surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar plexus block (LPB) is one of the anesthetic options in the elderly patients undergoing hip surgeries. LPB could be safe because it targets somatic nerve in psoas region. Effectiveness of LPB is attributed to the sufficient analgesia provided intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. Adequate muscle relaxation and immobility during surgery refers to its acceptability. Objectives: In this study, LPB was used as the anesthetic method to manage the elderly patients subjected to hip surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients aged 51 to 100 years were enrolled in this study. LPB was accomplished after a mild sedation and with a modified method using patient's fingertip width (FTW) as the distance unit to determine needle entry point under electrical nerve stimulation assistance. After targeted injection, procedure time, establishment time, block duration, surgery time, hemodynamic variables, and surgeon satisfaction score were documented and analyzed. Propofol in trivial doses was infused intraoperatively to provide clinical sedation. Results: Mean patient's age was 73 ± 12 years with ASA II/III. Procedure time was 5.65 ± 1.24 minutes, establishment time was 130 ± 36 seconds, block duration was 13.1 ± 8 hours, surgery time was 149.7 ± 32.2 minutes, and surgeon satisfaction score was 9.8 ± 0.1. There was no complication and no failure. Hemodynamic stability was pleasantly achieved. Conclusions: By preserving hemodynamic stability, LPB in conjunction with a light sedation could be considered as a reliable prudent satisfying anesthetic option in management of hip fractures in the elderly patients with three beneficial characteristics of safety, effectiveness, and acceptability. PMID:25289374

Amiri, Hamid Reza; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Safari, Saeid

2014-01-01

417

Brachial Plexus Neuritis Associated With Streptococcus agalactiae Infection: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus neuritis is reportedly caused by various factors; however, it has not been described in association with Streptococcus agalactiae. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with brachial plexus neuritis associated with pyogenic arthritis of the shoulder. A 57-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of sudden weakness and painful swelling of the left arm. The diagnosis was pyogenic arthritis of the left shoulder, and the patient was treated with open irrigation and debridement accompanied by intravenous antibiotic therapy. S. agalactiae was isolated from a wound culture, and an electrodiagnostic study showed brachial plexopathy involving the left upper and middle trunk. Nine weeks after onset, muscle strength improved in most of the affected muscles, and an electrodiagnostic study showed signs of reinnervation. In conclusion, S. agalactiae infection can lead to various complications including brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:25229037

Seo, Yu Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon

2014-01-01

418

Origin of efferent fibers of the renal plexus in the rat autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

To clarify the origin of efferent nerves containing renal plexus, the retrograde neuronal tracing was utilized with a new exact closed injection system with microcapsules. The microcapsule was positioned in the rat left renal plexus, and the capsule was filled with fluoro-gold. Retrograde labeled cells were observed in the ipsilateral sympathetic trunk, especially T12 and T13, and the ipsilateral suprarenal ganglia (SrG). There were no labeled cells in the parasympathetic nuclei in medulla oblongata and sacral cords. These results indicated that the origins of efferent nerves in the rat renal plexus are almost all sympathetic ganglia, such as sympathetic trunk and SrG, and cells in other ganglia may be secondary or accessory innervations. PMID:24430660

Maeda, Seishi; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Tanaka, Koichi; Hayakawa, Tetsu; Seki, Makoto

2014-05-01

419

Brachial plexus birth palsy: multimodality imaging of spine and shoulder abnormalities in children.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the imaging of brachial plexus palsy, including both pathologic conditions of the spine and shoulder and clinical background and management. CONCLUSION. Brachial plexus birth palsy can result in permanent disability and limb deformity. Identifying the lesion type and associated sequelae is important in clinical management aimed at optimizing outcome. The imaging algorithms used are guided by clinical presentation and are designed to assess the extent of injury to guide possible surgical intervention. PMID:25615781

Menashe, Sarah J; Tse, Raymond; Nixon, Jason N; Ishak, Gisele E; Thapa, Mahesh M; McBroom, Jennifer A; Iyer, Ramesh S

2015-02-01

420

Brachial Plexus Injury as a Complication after Nerve Block or Vessel Puncture  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injury is a potential complication of a brachial plexus block or vessel puncture. It results from direct needle trauma, neurotoxicity of injection agents and hematoma formation. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance or motor loss with poor recovery. The management includes conservative treatment and surgical exploration. Especially if a hematoma forms, it should be removed promptly. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomy and adept skills are crucial to avoid nerve injuries. Whenever possible, the patient should not be heavily sedated and should be encouraged to immediately inform the doctor of any experience of numbness/paresthesia during the nerve block or vessel puncture. PMID:25031806

Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Sang Hyun; Shin, Hye Young

2014-01-01

421

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection in an adult with brachial plexus injury and cervical spinal fractures  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 32 year-old right-hand dominant woman who sustained a right brachial plexus injury, ipsilateral fractures of the cervical spine transverse processes, and vertebral artery dissection. She presented to us four days following the initiating accident. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed normal brachial plexus along with vertebral artery dissection with intramural thrombus and vascular lumen occlusion. The dissection was managed conservatively. A repeat CAT-SCAN Angiography three months later showed healing of the dissection plus vascular lumen re-canalization. There were no sequelae due to the dissection. The details of the case are discussed in this report. PMID:17822530

2007-01-01

422

Antegrade pampiniform plexus venography in recurrent varicocele: Case report and anatomy review  

PubMed Central

Varicoceles are often treated with percutaneous embolization, using fibered coils and sclerosing agents, with the latter targeted at occlusion of pre-existing collateral veins. While various methods of surgical and embolization treatment are available, varicoceles may still recur from venous collateralization. We present a case, where following demonstration of complete occlusion of the right and left gonadal veins, direct puncture of the pampiniform venous plexus under ultrasound guidance revealed recurrent varicoceles supplied by anastomoses from the ipsilateral saphenous and femoral veins to the pampiniform plexus. In doing so, we describe a technique of percutaneous pampiniform venography in a case where the pertinent anatomy was not easily demonstrated by other methods. PMID:21860716

Gendel, Vyacheslav; Haddadin, Ihab; Nosher, John L

2011-01-01

423

Brachial plexus injury in two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

Two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), found near Deltaville, Virginia (USA), were evaluated because of inability to use a wing. Results of needle electromyographic studies of the affected wing muscles in both hawks were compatible with denervation. On euthanasia, one hawk had extensive axon and myelin loss with multifocal perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of its brachial plexus and radial nerve. Demyelination and axon loss in the dorsal white matter of the spinal cord on the affected side also were found at the origin of the brachial plexus. The other hawk's wing had not returned to functional status > 2 yr after injury. PMID:8383253

Shell, L; Richards, M; Saunders, G

1993-01-01

424

Sup-ER orthosis: an innovative treatment for infants with birth related brachial plexus injury.  

PubMed

Impairments in active and passive range of upper extremity supination and shoulder external rotation are common sequelae for children with delayed recovery from birth related brachial plexus injury. Orthotic intervention may complement traditional treatment strategies commonly employed in the newborn period. These authors describe their custom fabricated orthosis designed to balance shoulder growth and muscular function, and improve prognosis of long term functional outcomes for children with birth related brachial plexus injury. - Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:25042285

Durlacher, Kim M; Bellows, Doria; Verchere, Cynthia

2014-01-01

425

Protective Role of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the influence of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) expression in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid tissue using a mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods In this study, GPx4+/?, GPx4+/+, and GPx4-overexpressing transgenic mice were created for comparison. The mRNA and protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in RPE/choroid tissue were evaluated before and after CNV induction by laser. Moreover, we investigated the changes in the VEGF-A mRNA level in RPE/choroid tissue in the CNV model that have not been clearly shown previously. Lipid peroxidation in RPE/choroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibody against 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. To investigate the protective role of GPx4, the size of laser-induced CNV was compared on day 7 among the mice expressing different levels of GPx4. Results In the laser-induced CNV mouse model, laser treatment reduced the VEGF-A mRNA level in RPE/choroid tissue, while it increased the VEGF-A protein level. Evaluation of VEGF-A expression in RPE/choroid tissue of the GPx4+/?, GPx4+/+, and GPx4 transgenic mice revealed that GPx4 increased the VEGF-A protein level under physiological conditions (i.e., without laser treatment), while GPx4 suppressed the increase in the VEGF-A protein level under pathological conditions (i.e., after CNV induction by laser). In addition, GPx4 reduced the CNV size in a dose-dependent manner in vivo. Conclusions GPx4 suppresses the i