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1

Endoscopic treatment of a third ventricle choroid plexus cyst.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus cysts are frequent benign intraventricular lesions that infrequently cause symptoms, usually in the form of obstructive hydrocephalus. These instances are even less common in the adult population. When warranted, treatment seeks to reestablish cerebrospinal fluid flow and does not necessarily require resection of the cyst itself. Hence, endoscopic exploration of the ventricles with subsequent cyst ablation is the current treatment of choice for these lesions. Herein we present the case of a 25-year-old female patient with a 3-week history of intermittent headaches. Investigation with computerized tomography (CT) of the head detected supratentorial hydrocephalus, with enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a homogeneous cystic lesion in the third ventricle. A right-sided, pre-coronal burr hole was carried out, followed by endoscopic exploration of the ventricular system. A third-ventriclostomy was performed. With the aid of the 30-degrees endoscope, a cyst arising from the choroid plexus was visualized along the posterior portion of the third ventricle, obstructing the aqueduct opening. The cyst was cauterized until significant reduction of its dimensions was achieved and the aqueduct opening was liberated. Postoperative recovery was without incident and resolution of the hydrocephalus was confirmed by CT imaging. The patient reports complete improvement of her headaches and has been uneventfully followed since surgery. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/XBtj_SqY07Q. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2013.V1.FOCUS12332) PMID:23282159

de Lara, Danielle; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Muto, Jun; Prevedello, Daniel M

2013-01-01

2

Chromosomal findings in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed cysts of the choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choroid plexus cysts were diagnosed in 25 out of 823 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed abnormalities (growth retardation\\/malformations). Among these, 5 revealed a chromosomal disorder (4 cases with trisomy 18 and one case with a translocation trisomy 21). Additional abnormalities, such as growth retardation, holoprosencephaly, hydrocephalus and club foot, were found in 6 out of the 20 fetuses with no chromosomal

K. Zerres; H. Schiller; U. Gembruch; R. Bald; M. Hansmann; G. Schwanitz

1992-01-01

3

The second-trimester fetus with isolated choroid plexus cysts: a meta-analysis of risk of trisomies 18 and 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the risk of trisomy 18 and trisomy 21 associated with isolated choroid plexus cysts diagnosed by ultrasound in the second trimester.Methods of Study Selection: We reviewed the unabridged PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE databases for articles written in the English language regarding second-trimester fetal isolated choroid plexus cysts and trisomies 18 and 21, published in the period 1987–1997. Selection

Pamela R Yoder; Rudy E Sabbagha; Susan J Gross; Carolyn M Zelop

1999-01-01

4

Choroid Plexus Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are rare, primary brain tumors arising from the neuroepithelium of the choroid plexus. Although\\u000a they may be found in patients of any age, the vast majority occur in the pediatric population. Up to 70% of these neoplasms\\u000a occur in children, with over half arising in children under 2 years of age [39]. The annual incidence for

Paul Kongkham; James T. Rutka

5

Thyroxine transport in choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

The role of the choroid plexus in thyroid hormone transport between body and brain, suggested by strong synthesis and secretion of transthyretin in this tissue, was investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. Rat choroid plexus pieces incubated in vitro were found to accumulate thyroid hormones from surrounding medium in a non-saturable process. At equilibrium, the ratio of thyroid hormone concentration in choroid plexus pieces to that in medium decreased upon increasing the concentration of transthyretin in the medium. Fluorescence quenching of fluorophores located at different depths in liposome membranes showed maximal hormone accumulation in the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. Partition coefficients of thyroxine and triiodothyronine between lipid and aqueous phase were about 20,000. After intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones, choroid plexus and parts of the brain steadily accumulated /sup 125/I-thyroxine, but not (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine, for many hours. The accumulation of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in choroid plexus preceded that in brain. The amount of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in non-brain tissues and the (/sup 125/I)triiodothyronine content of all tissues decreased steadily beginning immediately after injection. A model is proposed for thyroxine transport from the bloodstream into cerebrospinal fluid based on partitioning of thyroxine between choroid plexus and surrounding fluids and binding of thyroxine to transthyretin newly synthesized and secreted by choroid plexus.

Dickson, P.W.; Aldred, A.R.; Menting, J.G.; Marley, P.D.; Sawyer, W.H.; Schreiber, G.

1987-10-15

6

Xanthogranuloma of the choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

Uncommon tumefactions known as xanthogranulomas can occur throughout the body. Some appear to develop as benign or malignant neoplasms. An even less familiar xanthogranuloma occurs within the choroid plexus. Most are tiny plaques only a few millimeters in diameter. However, they can present as masses of significant size within the glomus. When large and unilateral, they are included in the differential diagnosis of choroid plexus tumors. A computed tomographic (CT) study of such a tumor is presented.

Pear, B.L.

1984-08-01

7

Epithelial Pathways in Choroid Plexus Electrolyte Transport  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A stable intraventricular milieu is crucial for maintaining normal neuronal function. The choroid plexus epithelium produces the cerebrospinal fluid and in doing so influences the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid of the brain. Here, we review the molecular pathways involved in transport of the electrolytes Na+, K+, ClÂ?, and HCO across the choroid plexus epithelium.

Helle Damkier (Aarhus University Anatomy)

2010-08-01

8

Cerebrospinal fluid secretion by the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus epithelium is a cuboidal cell monolayer, which produces the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid. The concerted action of a variety of integral membrane proteins mediates the transepithelial movement of solutes and water across the epithelium. Secretion by the choroid plexus is characterized by an extremely high rate and by the unusual cellular polarization of well-known epithelial transport proteins. This review focuses on the specific ion and water transport by the choroid plexus cells, and then attempts to integrate the action of specific transport proteins to formulate a model of cerebrospinal fluid secretion. Significant emphasis is placed on the concept of isotonic fluid transport across epithelia, as there is still surprisingly little consensus on the basic biophysics of this phenomenon. The role of the choroid plexus in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance in the central nervous system is discussed, and choroid plexus dysfunctions are described in a very diverse set of clinical conditions such as aging, Alzheimer's disease, brain edema, neoplasms, and hydrocephalus. Although the choroid plexus may only have an indirect influence on the pathogenesis of these conditions, the ability to modify epithelial function may be an important component of future therapies. PMID:24137023

Damkier, Helle H; Brown, Peter D; Praetorius, Jeppe

2013-10-01

9

Functional and genetic analysis of choroid plexus development in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus, an epithelial-based structure localized in the brain ventricle, is the major component of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus produces the cerebrospinal fluid and regulates the components of the cerebrospinal fluid. Abnormal choroid plexus function is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation in the choroid plexus epithelium, and hydrocephaly. In this study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system to understand the genetic components of choroid plexus development. We generated an enhancer trap line, Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the choroid plexus epithelium. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescent tracers, we demonstrated that the zebrafish choroid plexus possesses brain barrier properties such as tight junctions and transporter activity. Thus, we have established zebrafish as a functionally relevant model to study choroid plexus development. Using an unbiased approach, we performed a forward genetic dissection of the choroid plexus to identify genes essential for its formation and function. Using Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, we isolated 10 recessive mutant lines with choroid plexus abnormalities, which were grouped into five classes based on GFP intensity, epithelial localization, and overall choroid plexus morphology. We also mapped the mutation for two mutant lines to chromosomes 4 and 21, respectively. The mutants generated in this study can be used to elucidate specific genes and signaling pathways essential for choroid plexus development, function, and/or maintenance and will provide important insights into how these genetic mutations contribute to disease. PMID:25426018

Henson, Hannah E.; Parupalli, Chaithanyarani; Ju, Bensheng; Taylor, Michael R.

2014-01-01

10

Choroid plexus in developmental and evolutionary perspective  

PubMed Central

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary is present at the level of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. As one of the sources of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) plays an important role during brain development and function. Its formation has been studied largely in mammalian species. Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo. At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation. Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives. PMID:25452709

Bill, Brent Roy; Korzh, Vladimir

2014-01-01

11

Vectorial Ligand Transport Through Mammalian Choroid Plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, there has been substantial progress in understanding vectorial ligand transport through rodent and human\\u000a choroid plexus (CP), the locus of the blood-CSF interface. In this Review, we enumerate the experimental data required to\\u000a establish vectorial transport through CP and describe transporters involved in vectorial transport across CP. We also note\\u000a how these transporters differ from those

Reynold Spector; Conrad E. Johanson

2010-01-01

12

Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Choroid Plexus Papillomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of 22 cases of papillomas of the choroid plexus diagnosed and managed personally by the author. The angiographic diagnosis and extension of choroid plexus papillomas are described, as is the surgical technique for removing these tumors from the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles. Specific attention is given to using the angiogram as the study of choice

Anthony J. Raimondi; Francisco A. Gutierrez

1975-01-01

13

Choroid Plexus Tumors in Children: Immunohistochemical and Scanning-Electron-Microscopic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 30 choroid plexus tumors recorded in a large pediatric tumor registry were reviewed. The 22 choroid plexus papillomas and 8 choroid plexus carcinomas represented 2.1% of all brain tumors in the registry. The patients (19 boys, 11 girls) were aged 3 months to 12 years (mean: 2 years 9 months). All tumors and four samples of normal choroid plexus

I. Felix; S. Phudhichareonrat; W. C. Halliday; L. E. Becker

1987-01-01

14

Hydrocephalus due to diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

An 8-month-old female presented with hydrocephalus caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overproduction due to bilateral choroid plexus enlargement, which was clinically diagnosed as diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus, but differentiation from bilateral choroid plexus papilloma was difficult. She initially underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery, but developed marked retention of ascites. Therefore, the peritoneal end of the shunt was removed for external drainage, but excessive CSF (1,500 ml/day) was collected. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked symmetric enhancement of the choroid plexuses in the bilateral lateral ventricles. Thallium-201 chloride single-photon emission computed tomography showed pronounced uptake on both early and delayed images, and good washout. CSF examination revealed no abnormalities such as atypical cells, and a ventriculoatrial shunt was inserted, achieving good control of the hydrocephalus. PMID:21701109

Anei, Ryogo; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Hiroshima, Satoru; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Orimoto, Ryosuke; Uemori, Genki; Saito, Masato; Sato, Masao; Wada, Hajime; Hododuka, Akira; Kamada, Kyousuke

2011-01-01

15

Primary choroid plexus papilloma of the sellar region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Choroid plexus papillomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system and are usually confined to the ventricle system.\\u000a We describe a choroid plexus papilloma located in the sella turcica that was identified pathologically. Case description A 49-year-old woman with a 5-year history of progressive visual deterioration in the left eye was admitted to our hospital.\\u000a Neurological examination found

Yue-Hui Ma; Ke Ye; Ren-Ya Zhan; Li-Jun Wang

2008-01-01

16

Water and solute secretion by the choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides mechanical and chemical protection of the brain and spinal cord. This review focusses\\u000a on the contribution of the choroid plexus epithelium to the water and salt homeostasis of the CSF, i.e. the secretory processes\\u000a involved in CSF formation. The choroid plexus epithelium is situated in the ventricular system and is believed to be the major

Jeppe Praetorius

2007-01-01

17

Metastatic atypical choroid plexus papilloma: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare adult tumours and metastatic disease is even less common, more typically associated\\u000a with choroid plexus carcinoma. We present the case of a 32-year-old patient with multiple metastases arising along the length\\u000a of the neuraxis 3 years after resection of an atypical fourth ventricular CPP. Metastatic deposits were found from the mid-brain\\u000a to the lumbar cistern

Christopher E. G. Uff; Malcolm Galloway; Robert Bradford

2007-01-01

18

Development of the choroid plexus and blood-CSF barrier.  

PubMed

Well-known as one of the main sources of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexuses have been, and still remain, a relatively understudied tissue in neuroscience. The choroid plexus and CSF (along with the blood-brain barrier proper) are recognized to provide a robust protective effort for the brain: a physical barrier to impede entrance of toxic metabolites to the brain; a "biochemical" barrier that facilitates removal of moieties that circumvent this physical barrier; and buoyant physical protection by CSF itself. In addition, the choroid plexus-CSF system has been shown to be integral for normal brain development, central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, and repair after disease and trauma. It has been suggested to provide a stem-cell like repository for neuronal and astrocyte glial cell progenitors. By far, the most widely recognized choroid plexus role is as the site of the blood-CSF barrier, controller of the internal CNS microenvironment. Mechanisms involved combine structural diffusion restraint from tight junctions between plexus epithelial cells (physical barrier) and specific exchange mechanisms across the interface (enzymatic barrier). The current hypothesis states that early in development this interface is functional and more specific than in the adult, with differences historically termed as "immaturity" actually correctly reflecting developmental specialization. The advanced knowledge of the choroid plexus-CSF system proves itself imperative to understand a range of neurological diseases, from those caused by plexus or CSF drainage dysfunction (e.g., hydrocephalus) to more complicated late-stage diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's) and failure of CNS regeneration. This review will focus on choroid plexus development, outlining how early specializations may be exploited clinically. PMID:25784848

Liddelow, Shane A

2015-01-01

19

Development of the choroid plexus and blood-CSF barrier  

PubMed Central

Well-known as one of the main sources of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexuses have been, and still remain, a relatively understudied tissue in neuroscience. The choroid plexus and CSF (along with the blood-brain barrier proper) are recognized to provide a robust protective effort for the brain: a physical barrier to impede entrance of toxic metabolites to the brain; a “biochemical” barrier that facilitates removal of moieties that circumvent this physical barrier; and buoyant physical protection by CSF itself. In addition, the choroid plexus-CSF system has been shown to be integral for normal brain development, central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, and repair after disease and trauma. It has been suggested to provide a stem-cell like repository for neuronal and astrocyte glial cell progenitors. By far, the most widely recognized choroid plexus role is as the site of the blood-CSF barrier, controller of the internal CNS microenvironment. Mechanisms involved combine structural diffusion restraint from tight junctions between plexus epithelial cells (physical barrier) and specific exchange mechanisms across the interface (enzymatic barrier). The current hypothesis states that early in development this interface is functional and more specific than in the adult, with differences historically termed as “immaturity” actually correctly reflecting developmental specialization. The advanced knowledge of the choroid plexus-CSF system proves itself imperative to understand a range of neurological diseases, from those caused by plexus or CSF drainage dysfunction (e.g., hydrocephalus) to more complicated late-stage diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's) and failure of CNS regeneration. This review will focus on choroid plexus development, outlining how early specializations may be exploited clinically. PMID:25784848

Liddelow, Shane A.

2015-01-01

20

Expression of cell adhesion molecules in canine choroid plexus tumors  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus tumor (CPT) is a primary intracranial neoplasm of the choroid plexus epithelium in the central nervous system. In the current World Health Organization classification, CPT is classified into two categories; choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) and carcinoma (CPC). In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemical expressions of N-cadherin, E-cadherin and ?-catenin in 5 canine CPT cases (1 disseminated CPC, 2 CPCs and 2 CPPs). One CPP case was positive for N-cadherin and ?-catenin, but negative for E-cadherin. The disseminated CPC case was positive for E-cadherin and ?-catenin, but negative for N-cadherin. The other cases were positive for the three molecules examined. These results suggest that loss of the N-cadherin expression might associate with the spreading of CPC cells. PMID:25373880

HIROSE, Naoki; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; MATSUNAGA, Satoru; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

21

The neural milieu of the developing choroid plexus: neural stem cells, neurons and innervation  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in brain homeostasis both pre and postnatally. In vitro studies have suggested that cells from adult choroid plexus have stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Our initial aim was to investigate whether such a cell population is present in vivo during development of the choroid plexus, focusing mainly on the chick choroid plexus. Cells expressing neural markers were indeed present in the choroid plexus of chick and also those of rodent and human embryos, both within their epithelium and mesenchyme. ß3-tubulin-positive cells with neuronal morphology could be detected as early as at E8 in chick choroid plexus and their morphological complexity increased with development. Whole mount immunochemistry demonstrated the presence of neurons throughout choroid plexus development and they appeared to be mainly catecholaminergic, as indicated by tyrosine-hydroxylase reactivity. The presence of cells co-labeling for BrdU and the neuroblast marker, doublecortin, in organotypic choroid plexus cultures supported the hypothesis that neurogenesis can occur from neural precursors within the developing choroid plexus. Furthermore, we found that extrinsic innervation is present in the developing choroid plexus, unlike previously suggested. Altogether, our data are consistent with the presence of neural progenitors within the choroid plexus, suggest that at least some of the choroid plexus neurons are born locally, and show for the first time that choroid plexus innervation occurs prenatally. Hence, we propose the existence of a complex neural regulatory network within the developing choroid plexus that may play a crucial role in modulating its function during development as well as throughout life.

Prasongchean, Weerapong; Vernay, Bertrand; Asgarian, Zeinab; Jannatul, Nahin; Ferretti, Patrizia

2015-01-01

22

Homeostatic capabilities of the choroid plexus epithelium in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the secretory source of vitamins, peptides and hormones for neurons, the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium critically provides substances for brain homeostasis. This distributive process of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume transmission reaches many cellular targets in the CNS. In ageing and ageing-related dementias, the CP-CSF system is less able to regulate brain interstitial fluid. CP primarily generates CSF bulk flow,

Conrad Johanson; Paul McMillan; Rosemarie Tavares; Anthony Spangenberger; John Duncan; Gerald Silverberg; Edward Stopa

2004-01-01

23

Management of Choroid Plexus Tumours in Children: 20 Years Experience at a Single Neurosurgical Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Tumours of the choroid plexus are rare tumours of neuro-ectodermal origin, accounting for less than 1% of all intracranial tumours. Most cases present in children less than 2 years of age. While choroid plexus carcinomas (CPC) are reported to have an extremely poor prognosis, choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are generally regarded as benign tumours with a very favourable long-term

Andrew W. McEvoy; Brian N. Harding; Kim P. Phipps; David W. Ellison; Andrew J. Elsmore; Dominic Thompson; William Harkness; Richard D. Hayward

2000-01-01

24

An experimental and ultrastructural study on the development of the avian choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid plexus consists of the choroidal epithelium, a derivative of the neural tube, and the choroidal stroma, which originates from the embryonic head mesenchyme. This study deals with epithelio-mesenchymal interactions of these two components leading to the formation of the organ. Grafting experiments of the prospective components have been performed using the quail-chicken marker technique. Prospective choroidal epithelium of

J. Wilting; B. Christ

1989-01-01

25

Human Choroid Plexus Growth Factors: What Are the Implications for CSF Dynamics in Alzheimer's Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid plexus plays a key role in supporting neuronal function by secreting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and may be involved in the regulation of various soluble factors. Because the choroid plexus is involved in growth factor secretion as well as CSF dynamics, it is important to understand how growth factors in CSF interact with the brain parenchyma as well as

Edward G. Stopa; Tyler M. Berzin; Sunyoung Kim; Phillip Song; Victoria Kuo-LeBlanc; Monica Rodriguez-Wolf; Andrew Baird; Conrad E. Johanson

2001-01-01

26

TWIST-1 is overexpressed in neoplastic choroid plexus epithelial cells and promotes proliferation and invasion.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of choroid plexus papillomas, intraventricular papillary neoplasms most often occurring sporadically in children and young adults, remains poorly understood. To identify pathways operative in the development of choroid plexus papillomas, gene expression profiles obtained from laser-microdissected human choroid plexus papilloma cells (n = 7) were compared with that of normal choroid plexus epithelial cells laser microdissected from autopsy tissue (n = 8). On DNA microarray data analysis, 53 probe sets were differentially expressed in choroid plexus papilloma tumor cells (>7-fold). Up-regulation of TWIST1, WIF1, TRPM3, BCLAF1, and AJAP1, as well as down-regulation of IL6ST was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Knockdown of Twist1 gene expression in the rat choroid plexus epithelial cell line Z310 significantly reduced proliferation as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cell invasion in a Matrigel assay, whereas cell migration was not affected. Screening for expressional changes of cancer-related genes upon Twist1 knockdown revealed up-regulation of Cdkn1a, Cflar, and Serpinb2 and down-regulation of Figf. To conclude, using gene expression profiling, several genes differentially expressed in human choroid plexus papillomas could be identified. Among those, TWIST1 is highly expressed in choroid plexus papillomas and promotes proliferation and invasion. PMID:19276370

Hasselblatt, Martin; Mertsch, Sonja; Koos, Björn; Riesmeier, Barbara; Stegemann, Heike; Jeibmann, Astrid; Tomm, Manuel; Schmitz, Nicole; Wrede, Brigitte; Wolff, Johannes E; Zheng, Wei; Paulus, Werner

2009-03-15

27

CNS grafts of rat choroid plexus protect against cerebral ischemia in adult rats.  

PubMed

The present study examined the neuroprotective effects of choroid plexus isolated from adult rats and encapsulated within alginate microcapsules. In vitro, conditioned media from cultured choroid plexus produced a marked, dose-dependent protection of embryonic cortical neurons against serum deprivation-induced cell death. In vivo studies demonstrated that a one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult Wistar rats produced profound motor and neurological impairments 1-3 days after stroke. In contrast, stroke animals transplanted with encapsulated choroid plexus cells displayed a significant reduction in both motor and neurological abnormalities. Histological analysis 3 days post-transplantation revealed that choroid plexus transplants significantly decreased the volume of striatal infarction. This is the first report demonstrating the therapeutic potential of transplanted choroid plexus for stroke. PMID:15232280

Borlongan, C V; Skinner, S J M; Geaney, M; Vasconcellos, A V; Elliott, R B; Emerich, D F

2004-07-19

28

Vascular malformation and choroid plexus adrenal heterotopia: new findings in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome?  

PubMed

Large congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVM) may result in heart failure and death. We are reporting such combination with the AVM localized to the right thoracobrachial region. Remarkable postmortem findings included right renal and adrenal hemihyperplasia; the right adrenal fetal cortex presenting cytomegaly, endocrine pancreas hyperplasia, and heterotopic adrenal cortex with cytomegaly in the left lateral ventricle choroids plexus. The combination appears to be unique. The only previously reported example of adrenal cortex in the choroid plexus presented several features strongly suggestive of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Therefore, we postulate that additional uncommon findings in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome may include arteriovenous malformations and heterotopic adrenal tissue in choroids plexus. PMID:17162526

Drut, Ricardo; Quijano, Graciela; Altamirano, María Eugenia; Jones, Marta C; Maffessoli, Orlando B

2006-01-01

29

A critical role for pannexin-1 in activation of innate immune cells of the choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Epiplexus cells are a population of innate immune cells in the choroid plexus of the brain ventricles. They are thought to contribute to the immune component of the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier (BCSFB). Here we have developed a novel technique for studying epiplexus cells in acutely isolated, live and intact choroid plexus. We show that epiplexus cells are potently activated by exogenous ATP, increasing their motility within the tissue. This ATP-induced chemokinesis required activation of pannexin-1 channels, which are expressed by the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and not the epiplexus cells themselves. Furthermore, ATP acts at least in part through the P2X4 ionotropic purinergic receptor. Thus, the resident immune cells of the choroid plexus appear to be in communication with the epithelial cells through pannexin-1 channels. PMID:24418937

Maslieieva, Valentyna; Thompson, Roger J

2014-01-01

30

The cytologic findings in choroid plexus carcinoma: report of a case with differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinoma is a rare tumor of the choroid plexus that shows frank cytologic features of malignancy including frequent mitoses, increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, loss of papillary architecture, and necrosis. It occurs predominantly in the pediatric population and is associated with a poor prognosis. We report the cerebrospinal fluid and intraoperative squash preparation cytologic findings of a case of choroid plexus carcinoma arising in the lateral ventricle of a 16-year-old girl who developed tumor recurrence in cerebrospinal fluid 6 years after initial resection. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports in the English literature describing the cytologic features of choroid plexus carcinoma. Relevant differentials and the usefulness of ancillary studies in diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:22180231

Savage, Natasha M; Crosby, John H; Reid-Nicholson, Michelle D

2012-01-01

31

The Pro-Antioxidant Role of Zinc Supplementation in Cadmium-Treated Choroid Plexus  

E-print Network

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal with no known physiological function in higher order animals. Previous studies in primary cultures of neonatal rat choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells indicated Cd induced oxidative stress and stimulated apical...

Francis Stuart, Samantha D.

2014-05-06

32

Aberrant MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) promoter methylation in choroid plexus tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant methylation of the MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) DNA-repair gene is a predictive marker for the response\\u000a to chemotherapy with alkylating agents (e.g., temozolomide) in malignant gliomas. Since temozolomide is considered for the\\u000a treatment of choroid plexus tumors, MGMT promoter methylation status was retrospectively assessed in 36 choroid plexus tumors\\u000a using methylation specific PCR, combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA), and clone

Martin Hasselblatt; Jörg Mühlisch; Brigitte Wrede; Birgit Kallinger; Astrid Jeibmann; Ove Peters; Tezer Kutluk; Johannes E. A. Wolff; Werner Paulus; Michael C. Frühwald

2009-01-01

33

Unusual case of extradural choroid plexus papilloma of the sacral canal. Case report.  

PubMed

An unusual case of a sacral, extradural choroid plexus papilloma involving the S1-3 level is described. This 50-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of pain involving her right buttock, perineum, and leg. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine revealed a well-defined, mildly enhancing sacral canal mass at the S1-3 level; its appearance was consistent with that of a benign tumor. Intraoperatively, the lesion was found to be extradural in location and was entwined among nerve roots in the sacral canal. Microscopic examination of the gross totally resected tumor revealed typical features of a choroid plexus papilloma. Despite performing a thorough neuroimaging workup (craniospinal contrast-enhanced MR imaging) for an intracranial or spinal primary mass, none was found. The choroid plexus appeared entirely normal; however, both a cavum septum pellucidum and a cavum vergae were noted. Extraneural choroid plexus papilloma, specifically intrasacral, extradural choroid plexus papilloma has not been previously reported. The present example is thought to have arisen either from ectopic choroid plexus tissue or perhaps by metaplasia from ependymal rests. PMID:12120630

Kurtkaya-Yapicier, Ozlem; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Van Peteghem, Karl Peter; Sawicki, John E

2002-07-01

34

Transcriptomal changes and functional annotation of the developing non-human primate choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexuses are small organs that protrude into each brain ventricle producing cerebrospinal fluid that constantly bathes the brain. These organs differentiate early in development just after neural closure at a stage when the brain is little vascularized. In recent years the plexus has been shown to have a much more active role in brain development than previously appreciated thereby it can influence both neurogenesis and neural migration by secreting factors into the CSF. However, much of choroid plexus developmental function is still unclear. Most previous studies on this organ have been undertaken in rodents but translation into humans is not straightforward since they have a different timing of brain maturation processes. We have collected choroid plexus from three fetal gestational ages of a non-human primate, the baboon, which has much closer brain development to humans. The transcriptome of the plexuses was determined by next generation sequencing and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to annotate functions and enrichment of pathways of changes in the transcriptome. The number of unique transcripts decreased with development and the majority of differentially expressed transcripts were down-regulated through development suggesting a more complex and active plexus earlier in fetal development. The functional annotation indicated changes across widespread biological functions in plexus development. In particular we find age-dependent regulation of genes associated with annotation categories: Gene Expression, Development of Cardiovascular System, Nervous System Development and Molecular Transport. Our observations support the idea that the choroid plexus has roles in shaping brain development.

Ek, C. Joakim; Nathanielsz, Peter; Li, Cun; Mallard, Carina

2015-01-01

35

Proliferation of Cultured Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (ChP) epithelium is a multifunctional tissue found in the ventricles of the brain. The major function of the ChP epithelium is to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that bathes and nourishes the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to the CSF, ChP epithelial cells (CPECs) produce and secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that support brain homeostasis, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Accordingly, damage and dysfunction to CPECs are thought to accelerate and intensify multiple disease phenotypes, and CPEC regeneration would represent a potential therapeutic approach for these diseases. However, previous reports suggest that CPECs rarely divide, although this has not been extensively studied in response to extrinsic factors. Utilizing a cell-cycle reporter mouse line and live cell imaging, we identified scratch injury and the growth factors insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) as extrinsic cues that promote increased CPEC expansion in vitro. Furthermore, we found that IGF-1 and EGF treatment enhances scratch injury-induced proliferation. Finally, we established whole tissue explant cultures and observed that IGF-1 and EGF promote CPEC division within the intact ChP epithelium. We conclude that although CPECs normally have a slow turnover rate, they expand in response to external stimuli such as injury and/or growth factors, which provides a potential avenue for enhancing ChP function after brain injury or neurodegeneration. PMID:25815836

Barkho, Basam Z.; Monuki, Edwin S.

2015-01-01

36

Transmigration of macrophages across the choroid plexus epithelium in response to the feline immunodeficiency virus  

PubMed Central

Although lentiviruses such as human, feline and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, FIV, SIV) rapidly gain access to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the mechanisms that control this entry are not well understood. One possibility is that the virus may be carried into the brain by immune cells that traffic across the blood–CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Since few studies have directly examined macrophage trafficking across the blood–CSF barrier, we established transwell and explant cultures of feline choroid plexus epithelium and measured trafficking in the presence or absence of FIV. Macrophages in co-culture with the epithelium showed significant proliferation and robust trafficking that was dependent on the presence of epithelium. Macrophage migration to the apical surface of the epithelium was particularly robust in the choroid plexus explants where 3-fold increases were seen over the first 24 h. Addition of FIV to the cultures greatly increased the number of surface macrophages without influencing replication. The epithelium in the transwell cultures was also permissive to PBMC trafficking, which increased from 17 to 26% of total cells after exposure to FIV. Thus, the choroid plexus epithelium supports trafficking of both macrophages and PBMCs. FIV significantly enhanced translocation of macrophages and T cells indicating that the choroid plexus epithelium is likely to be an active site of immune cell trafficking in response to infection. PMID:22281685

Meeker, Rick B.; Bragg, D. C.; Poulton, Winona; Hudson, Lola

2013-01-01

37

Expression of regulatory proteins in choroid plexus changes in early stages of Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that the choroid plexus has important physiologic and pathologic roles in Alzheimer disease (AD). To obtain additional insight on choroid plexus function, we performed a proteomic analysis of choroid plexus samples from patients with AD stages I to II (n = 16), III to IV (n = 16), and V to VI (n = 11) and 7 age-matched control subjects. We used 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry to generate a complete picture of changes in choroid plexus protein expression occurring in AD patients. We identified 6 proteins: 14-3-3 ?/?, 14-3-3 ?, moesin, proteasome activator complex subunit 1, annexin V, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which were significantly regulated in AD patient samples (p < 0.05, >1.5-fold variation in expression vs control samples). These proteins are implicated in major physiologic functions including mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis regulation. These findings contribute additional significance to the emerging importance of molecular and functional changes of choroid plexus function in the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:25756589

Krzyzanowska, Agnieszka; García-Consuegra, Inés; Pascual, Consuelo; Antequera, Desiree; Ferrer, Isidro; Carro, Eva

2015-04-01

38

Altered expression of aquaporin 1 and 5 in the choroid plexus following preterm intraventricular hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is a common cause of hydrocephalus in infants. Dysregulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production by the choroid plexus may contribute to the development of PHVD. The aquaporins (AQPs), transmural water transporting proteins, are believed to contribute to CSF production. The aim of the study was to characterize the expression and localization of AQP1, 4 and 5 in the choroid plexus following preterm IVH. Using a preterm rabbit pup model, the mRNA expression, protein level and localization of AQP1, 4 and 5 were investigated in the choroid plexus at 24 and 72 h following IVH with PHVD. Further, AQP1, 4 and 5 expression were characterized in primary human plexus epithelial cells exposed to CSF from preterm human infants with IVH and to hemoglobin metabolites. IVH with PHVD in the immature brain caused a downregulation of AQP1 mRNA, the key AQP in CSF production, but an upregulation of AQP1 protein level with apical epithelial cell localization. Notably, AQP5 was expressed in the choroid plexus with upregulated mRNA expression and protein levels during PHVD with apical epithelial cell localization. Analysis of human choroid plexus epithelial cells in vitro, following exposure to posthemorrhagic CSF and to hemin, displayed results concordant with those observed in vivo, i.e. downregulation of AQP1 mRNA and upregulation of AQP5 mRNA expression. AQP4 was neither detectable in vivo nor in vitro. The changes observed in AQP1 and AQP5 expression in the choroid plexus suggest an adaptive response following IVH with possible functional implications for the development of PHVD. PMID:25342576

Sveinsdottir, Snjolaug; Gram, Magnus; Cinthio, Magnus; Sveinsdottir, Kristbjörg; Mörgelin, Matthias; Ley, David

2014-01-01

39

Aberrant MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) promoter methylation in choroid plexus tumors.  

PubMed

Aberrant methylation of the MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) DNA-repair gene is a predictive marker for the response to chemotherapy with alkylating agents (e.g., temozolomide) in malignant gliomas. Since temozolomide is considered for the treatment of choroid plexus tumors, MGMT promoter methylation status was retrospectively assessed in 36 choroid plexus tumors using methylation specific PCR, combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA), and clone sequencing. By methylation specific PCR, all samples demonstrated a signal for MGMT methylation. COBRA confirmed >10% methylation of CpGs 17 and 31 in 58% of tumors. Clone sequencing of six cases methylated by COBRA confirmed aberrant methylation including a previously recognized enhancer element. In conclusion, MGMT promoter methylation is frequent in choroid plexus tumors and can be quantified using COBRA. Determination of MGMT promoter methylation status might be useful for the stratification of patients for alkylator-based treatments in future clinical trials. PMID:18795231

Hasselblatt, Martin; Mühlisch, Jörg; Wrede, Brigitte; Kallinger, Birgit; Jeibmann, Astrid; Peters, Ove; Kutluk, Tezer; Wolff, Johannes E A; Paulus, Werner; Frühwald, Michael C

2009-01-01

40

OB protein binds specifically to the choroid plexus of mice and rats.  

PubMed Central

Binding studies were conducted to identify the anatomical location of brain target sites for OB protein, the ob gene product. 125I-labeled recombinant mouse OB protein or alkaline phosphatase-OB fusion proteins were used for in vitro and in vivo binding studies. Coronal brain sections or fresh tissue from lean, obese ob/ob, and obese db/db mice as well as lean and obese Zucker rats were probed to identify potential central OB protein-binding sites. We report here that recombinant OB protein binds specifically to the choroid plexus. The binding of OB protein (either radiolabeled or the alkaline phosphatase-OB fusion protein) and its displacement by unlabeled OB protein was similar in lean, obese ob/ob, and obese db/db mice as well as lean and obese Zucker rats. These findings suggest that OB protein binds with high affinity to a specific receptor in the choroid plexus. After binding to the choroid plexus receptor, OB protein may then be transported across the blood-brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid. Alternatively, binding of OB protein to a specific receptor in the choroid plexus may activate afferent neural inputs to the neural network that regulates feeding behavior and energy balance or may result in the clearance or degradation of OB protein. The identification of the choroid plexus as a brain binding site for OB protein will provide the basis for the construction of expression libraries and facilitate the rapid cloning of the choroid plexus OB receptor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8643634

Devos, R; Richards, J G; Campfield, L A; Tartaglia, L A; Guisez, Y; van der Heyden, J; Travernier, J; Plaetinck, G; Burn, P

1996-01-01

41

Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus (CP), the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that are expressed in the CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the CP at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the CP in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier. PMID:24795602

Turner, Cortney A.; Thompson, Robert C.; Bunney, William E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Barchas, Jack D.; Myers, Richard M.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.

2014-01-01

42

The expression of p73 in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and choroid plexus of spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

The p73 proteins are present in different kinds of cells of the central nervous system, such as the choroid plexus, circumventricular structures and neuroepithelium. It has been reported that spontaneously hypertensive rats show ventricular dilation, changes in cerebrospinal fluid proteins and variations in the circumventricular structures such as the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the choroid plexus, which are altered in ventricular dilation. The aim of the present work is to study p73 expression in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the choroid plexus and its variations in high blood pressure. Brains from control Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were used. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the choroid plexus were processed by immunohistochemistry and western blot with anti-TAp73. We found weaker markings in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and stronger markings in the choroid plexus of the hypertensive than the control rats. Therefore, hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rats produces alterations in choroid plexus protein p73 expression that is similar to that described for other circumventricular organs, but it is different in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. We can conclude that the functional balance between p73, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and choroid plexus, which is probably necessary to maintain the normal functioning of these structures, is altered by the hypertension found in these rats. PMID:23354845

Carmona-Calero, E M; Castañeyra-Ruiz, L; González-Toledo, J M; de Paz-Carmona, H; Brage, C; Castañeyra-Ruiz, A; Rancel-Torres, M N; González-Marrero, I; Castañeyra-Perdomo, A

2013-07-01

43

Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

Richardson, Samantha J.; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C.; D'Souza, Damian G.; Darras, Veerle M.; Van Herck, Stijn L. J.

2015-01-01

44

Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

Richardson, Samantha J; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C; D'Souza, Damian G; Darras, Veerle M; Van Herck, Stijn L J

2015-01-01

45

Differential expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors in the developing murine choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid plexuses (CPs) are specialised secretory organs situated within the ventricles of the brain involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the maintenance of the blood–CSF barrier. Abnormal function of the CPs can lead to hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure, pathologies frequently observed in certain craniofacial syndromes caused by single point mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors

Sarah Reid; Patrizia Ferretti

2003-01-01

46

X-ray induced dysplasia in the developing telencephalic choroid plexus of mice exposed in utero  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant NMRI-mice were X-irradiated with single doses of 0.95 Gy (100 R) and 1.9 Gy (200 R) on day of gestation (dg) 12. For sampling, anesthetized animals were perfused with buffered glutaraldehyde solution or fixed by immersion in Karnovsky solution. LM, SEM, and TEM studies were carried out on brains prenatally and up to the age of 20 months to follow the radiation effects on the developing lateral choroid plexus. Radiation-induced changes were found using all three methods and at all stages studied. The normally sickle-shaped and stretched choroid plexus is shortened and irregular, and the dome-shaped plexus cells are flattened. Their superficial fine structures, i.e., the microvilli and cilia, are altered. Three stages of severity can be distinguished and the internal hydromicrocephalus increases from stage I to III. Intercellular spaces of the treated plexus epithelium are often dilated, but the tight junctions at the ventricular surface seem to be intact. The interstitium shows large dilations in comparison with the controls. Thus, gross changes and alterations in the fine structure can be induced in the choroid plexus by doses of 0.95 Gy and 1.9 Gy, which persist throughout postnatal life.

Heinzmann, U.

1982-08-01

47

Iodine 125-lysergic acid diethylamide binds to a novel serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

/sup 125/I-Lysergic acid diethylamide (/sup 125/I-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg of protein, which is 10-fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The choroid plexus site exhibits a novel pharmacology that does not match the properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT1a), 5-HT1b, or 5-HT2 serotonergic sites. /sup 125/I-LSD binding to the choroid plexus site is potently inhibited by mianserin, serotonin, and (+)-LSD. Other serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic agonists and antagonists exhibit moderate to weak affinities for this site. The rat choroid plexus /sup 125/I-LSD binding site appears to represent a new type of serotonergic site which is located on non-neuronal cells in this tissue.

Yagaloff, K.A.; Hartig, P.R.

1985-12-01

48

Differential expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM), neural CAM and epithelial cadherin in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of frozen specimens of 18 ependymomas and 7 choroid plexus tumors were examined for their expression of cell adhesion molecules, such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), its polysialylated isoforms (PSA NCAM), and epithelial (E-) cadherin, and of intermediate filament proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cytokeratin, using various monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Normal choroid

Dominique Figarella-Branger; Hubert Lepidi; Christian Poncet; Danielle Gambarelli; Nicole Bianco; Geneviève Rougon; Jean-François Pellissier

1995-01-01

49

Chronic Hypernatremia Increases the Expression of Vasopressin and Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels in the Rat Choroid Plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium is one of the extrahypothalamic sources of arginine vasopressin (AVP). However, it is unclear whether the regulation of choroidal AVP synthesis in response to pathophysiological stimuli, such as hyperosmotic stress, is similar to that observed in the hypothalamus. In the present study, rats chronically implanted with cisterna magna cannulas, enabling the collection of cerebrospinal fluid

Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Insung Chung; Adam Chodobski

2006-01-01

50

Developmental changes in the transcriptome of the rat choroid plexus in relation to neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexuses are the interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the ventricular spaces of the central nervous system. The tight junctions linking adjacent cells of the choroidal epithelium create a physical barrier to paracellular movement of molecules. Multispecific efflux transporters as well as drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes functioning in these cells contribute to a metabolic barrier. These barrier properties reflect a neuroprotective function of the choroid plexus. The choroid plexuses develop early during embryogenesis and provide pivotal control of the internal environment throughout development when the brain is especially vulnerable to toxic insults. Perinatal injuries like hypoxia and trauma, and exposure to drugs or toxic xenobiotics can have serious consequences on neurogenesis and long-term development. The present study describes the developmental expression pattern of genes involved in the neuroprotective functions of the blood–CSF barrier. Methods The transcriptome of rat lateral ventricular choroid plexuses isolated from fifteen-day-old embryos, nineteen-day old fetuses, two-day old pups, and adults was analyzed by a combination of Affymetrix microarrays, Illumina RNA-Sequencing, and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Genes coding for proteins involved in junction formation are expressed early during development. Overall perinatal expression levels of genes involved in drug metabolism and antioxidant mechanisms are similar to, or higher than levels measured in adults. A similar developmental pattern was observed for multispecific efflux transporter genes of the Abc and Slc superfamilies. Expression of all these genes was more variable in choroid plexus from fifteen-day-old embryos. A large panel of transcription factors involved in the xenobiotic- or cell stress-mediated induction of detoxifying enzymes and transporters is also expressed throughout development. Conclusions This transcriptomic analysis suggests relatively well–established neuroprotective mechanisms at the blood-CSF barrier throughout development of the rat. The expression of many transcription factors early in development raises the possibility of additional protection for the vulnerable developing brain, should the fetus or newborn be exposed to drugs or other xenobiotics. PMID:23915922

2013-01-01

51

Akinetic mutism after fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma: treatment with a dopamine agonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAkinetic mutism is a behavioral state wherein a patient seems to be awake but does not move or speak. Several patients are reported to have developed mutism after posterior fossa surgery. We present a patient who developed akinetic mutism after total excision of a choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle, and who was treated with bromocriptine.CASE DESCRIPTIONAn 18-year-old woman

Hakan Caner; Nur Altinörs; Sibel Benli; Tarkan Çali?aneller; Ahmet Albayrak

1999-01-01

52

Glucocorticoids regulate metallothionein-1/2 expression in rat choroid plexus: effects on apoptosis.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus (CP) participates in the synthesis, secretion and regulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, in the removal of its toxic compounds and in the regulation of the availability of essential metal ions to the brain. It expresses and secretes metallothioneins 1/2 (MT-1/2) which are key components in the maintenance of the central nervous system metal homeostasis and have anti-apoptotic properties, thereby protecting the brain. Glucocorticoids regulate MT-1/2 expression in several brain regions, but within the choroid plexuses (CPs) it remains unknown. Glucocorticoid levels increase in response to stress with implications in apoptosis. Further, CP expresses glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) turning it into likely glucocorticoid responsive structure. Data prompted us to study the regulation of MT-1/2 expression in response to glucocorticoids in the rat CP, and to investigate its implications in apoptosis. MT-1/2 protein and mRNA expression analysis showed that hydrocortisone up-regulates MT-1/2 expression in rat choroid plexus (RCP) cell line and in primary cultures of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPEC) cultures via GR and MR. Also, incubation of RCP cells with hydrocortisone significantly diminished apoptosis, an effect eliminated by the addition of a MT-1/2 antibody. Moreover, induction of psychosocial stress, with concomitant rise of corticosterone levels, increased MT-1/2 expression in liver and in CP of male and female rats, with an exception observed in CP from males subjected to acute stress in which down-regulation in MT-1/2 expression occurred. Altogether, the results obtained demonstrated that stress/glucocorticoids regulate MT-1/2 expression in rat CP, with implications on apoptosis. PMID:23291980

Martinho, A; Gonçalves, I; Santos, C R

2013-04-01

53

Expression of P2X receptors in rat choroid plexus Zhenghua Xiang1,2  

E-print Network

through the aorta with 0.9% NaCl solution and 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer pH 7 the microscope. The choroid plexuses were refixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer pH 7.4 overnight and then transferred to 20% sucrose phosphate- buffered saline (PBS) and kept in the solution

Burnstock, Geoffrey

54

Sodium transport in the choroid plexus and salt-sensitive hypertension.  

PubMed

To elucidate the role of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in Na(+) transport by the choroid plexus, we studied ENaC expression and Na(+) transport in the choroid plexus. Lateral ventricle choroid plexuses were obtained from young male Wistar, Dahl salt-resistant (SS.BN13), and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/MCW) rats on a regular (0.3%) or high- (8.0%) salt diet. The effects of ENaC blocker benzamil and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase blocker ouabain on sodium transport were evaluated by measuring the amounts of retained (22)Na(+) and by evaluating intracellular [Na(+)] with Sodium Green fluorescence. In Wistar rats, ENaC distribution was as follows: microvilli, 10% to 30%; cytoplasm, 60% to 80%; and basolateral membrane, 5% to 10%. Benzamil (10(-8) m) decreased (22)Na(+) retention by 20% and ouabain (10(-3) m) increased retention by 40%, whereas ouabain and benzamil combined caused no change. Similar changes were noted in intracellular [Na(+)]. In Dahl rats on a regular salt diet, intracellular [Na(+)] was similar, but the amount of retained (22)Na(+) was less in sensitive versus resistant rats. High salt did not affect ENaC mRNA or protein, nor the benzamil induced decreases in retained (22)Na(+) or intracellular [Na(+)] in either strain. However, high salt increased intracellular [Na(+)] and attenuated the increase in uptake of (22)Na(+) by ouabain in resistant but not sensitive rats, suggesting a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity only in resistant rats. These findings suggest that both ENaC and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase regulate Na(+) transport in the choroid plexus. Aberrant regulation of Na(+) transport and of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, but not of ENaCs, might contribute to the increase in cerebrospinal fluid [Na(+)] in Dahl salt-sensitive rats on a high-salt diet. PMID:19635991

Amin, Md Shahrier; Reza, Erona; Wang, Hongwei; Leenen, Frans H H

2009-10-01

55

Micronutrient and Urate Transport in Choroid Plexus and Kidney: Implications for Drug Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract  With application of molecular biology techniques, there has been rapid progress in understanding how many drugs and micronutrients (e.g., vitamins) are transferred across the choroid plexus (CP), the main transport locus of the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, and the renal tubular epithelial cells. In many cases, these molecules are transported by separate, specific carriers or receptors on the apical and\\/or

Reynold Spector; Conrad Johanson

2006-01-01

56

Defense of mammalian body against heavy metal-induced toxicities: Sequestration by the choroid plexus and elimination via the bile  

SciTech Connect

Tissue sequestration and biliary elimination are two of the important mechanisms by which mammalian body defends against heavy metal insults. In rats or rabbits that had received Pb, Cd, Hg, As and [sup 210]Po, these metal ions were sequestered in the choroid plexus at concentrations of Pb, Cd, Hg, As and Po that were 57, 33, 12, 13 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those found in the brain cortex. In addition, the concentrations of these heavy metal ions were many fold greater in the choroid plexus than in the CSF or blood. The accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus was dose-dependent and time-related. When the choroid plexus was incubated, in vitro, with ouabain, the latter significantly inhibited the uptake of Cd from the CSF side of the choroid plexus. Cystine concentration was four times greater in the choroid plexus than in brain cortex. Results suggest that the choroid plexus sequesters toxic metal and metalloid ions. It appears to do this in order to protect the CSF and brain from toxic heavy metals in the blood. The effects of N-(2,3-dimercaptopropyl)phthalamidic acid (DMPA), meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid (DMPS) on biliary excretion of Cd was studied in rat chronic intoxication mode. DMPA (0.10 mmol/kg, iv), when given to rats three days after exposure to Cd, elicited within 30 min a 20-fold increase in biliary Cd excretion. GSH in rat bile was also increased three fold as compared to control. Neither DMSA nor DMPS increased biliary Cd or GSH. Upon iv administration, DMPA, not DMSA, appeared in bile. An altered, presumably disulfide, form of DMPS was also found in bile. Incubation of DMPA or DMSA with Cd-saturated MT resulted in the removal of Cd from MT. DMPS, however, promoted the formation of MT polymers. DMPA protected biliary GSH from autoxidation.

Zheng Wei.

1991-01-01

57

Cellular Specificity of the Blood–CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood–CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood–CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub-population of specialised choroid plexus epithelial cells. PMID:25211495

Liddelow, Shane A.; Dzi?gielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Whish, Sophie C.; Noor, Natassya M.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Traweger, Andreas; Bauer, Hannelore; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Saunders, Norman R.

2014-01-01

58

Differential distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase and neural nitric oxide synthase in the rat choroid plexus. A histochemical and immunocytochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry to examine the localization of nitric oxide synthase in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles and the fourth ventricle of rat brain. That the NADPHd reaction product in choroid plexus was specific to nitric oxide synthase was evaluated: (i) by comparison to immunocytochemical labelling for nitric

G. Sancesario; A. Reiner; G. Figueredo-Cardenas; M. Morello; G. Bernardi

1996-01-01

59

Bicarbonate transport across the frog choroid plexus and its control by cyclic nucleotides.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the effects of ions, hormones, diuretics and cyclic nucleotides on the short-circuit current (Isc) across the frog choroid plexus. In normal HCO3 Ringer solution, the trans-epithelial potential difference (p.d.), Isc and resistance (Rt) were -0.8 mV (ventricular side negative with respect to to the blood (serosal) side), 6 microA/cm2 and 170 omega cm2, respectively. Removal of Na, Cl or HCO3 from the solution decreased the Isc to 1.9, 2.3 or -4.6 microA/cm2, respectively. Theophylline, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, isoproterenol, prostaglandin E1, ACTH, cholera toxin and forskolin all significantly increased the Isc. The theophylline-induced change in Isc (delta Itheosc) was reduced by 50% upon Cl substitution with gluconate, and was abolished to less than 12% by Na-free and HCO3-free solutions. pH monitoring of the bathing solutions showed that acidification of the serosal bathing fluid was enhanced by theophylline while that of the ventricular solution was retarded. Ouabain, acetazolamide, SITS, DIDS and furosemide inhibited both Isc and delta Itheosc. We conclude that HCO3 secretion by the choroid plexus into the c.s.f. is controlled by hormones which stimulate the adenylate cyclase system, and propose a model of ion transport across the choroidal epithelium. PMID:6308232

Saito, Y; Wright, E M

1983-01-01

60

ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 are expressed on choroid plexus epithelium but not endothelium and mediate binding of lymphocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in the choroid plexus was studied in normal brain and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the SJL/J mouse during inflammation induced by intracerebral injection of killed Corynebacterium parvum in the C3H/He mouse. Both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not MAdCAM-1, were constitutively expressed on choroid plexus epithelium but not on the fenestrated capillary endothelial cells within the choroid plexus. During EAE, we observed an up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and de novo expression of MAdCAM-1 on choroid plexus epithelial cells. In contrast, endothelial cells in the choroid plexus were not induced to express any of the investigated CAMs. In in situ hybridization analysis we demonstrated that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 were locally synthesized and that the amount of their mRNAs increased in the inflamed choroid plexus. In vitro, primary choroid plexus epithelial cells could be induced to express ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 on their surface after treatment with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate the functional status of the expressed CAMs we performed Stamper-Woodruff binding assays on frozen sections of inflamed and naive brains. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells mediated binding of lymphocytes via their known ligands LFA-1 and alpha4-integrin, respectively. The expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 on choroid plexus epithelial cells together with the lack of their expression on the fenestrated choroid plexus endothelium raises the possibility that the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier plays an important role in the immunosurveillance of the central nervous system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3A Figure 3B Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8669469

Steffen, B. J.; Breier, G.; Butcher, E. C.; Schulz, M.; Engelhardt, B.

1996-01-01

61

A case of difficult management of fluid-electrolyte imbalance in choroid plexus papilloma.  

PubMed

A 22-month-old boy presented with nausea and gradual deterioration of gait disturbance. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an intraventricular mass lesion in the right lateral ventricle. He was referred to our department 3 weeks after onset. Acute hydrocephalus gradually proceeded 4 days after admission, and external ventricular drainage (EVD) was performed. EVD revealed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overproduction (800-1,500 mL/day) under constant pressure of 10 cm H2O above external auditory meatus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a multi-lobular mass in the inferior horn of the right lateral ventricle. A choroid plexus tumor was suspected. The ratio of blood urea nitrogen:creatinine (BUN:Cre) remained between 30 and 40, and hemoglobin was between 14.0-17.0 mg/dL, suggesting marked dehydration. Serum sodium varied between 117 and 140 mmol/L, and serum potassium between 2.2 mmol/L and 6.9 mmol/L. The amount of EVD was unstable and fluid balance management was difficult. Hypotonic fluid with sodium chloride supplement was used to adjust the fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Surgical removal of the tumor was performed 6 days after EVD and tumor was grossly and totally removed. The high BUN:Cre ratio decreased to about 15 and hemoglobin recovered to 7.5-9.0 mg/dL after removal. Electrolytes returned to the normal range. Overproduction of CSF also markedly improved to < 300 mL/day. Histopathological examination diagnosed choroid plexus papilloma.We experienced a case of choroid plexus papilloma associated with fluid-electrolyte imbalance due to over-drainage after EVD, which could not be effectively controlled before tumor removal. Cautious fluid management and emergent surgical resection might be required to manage the overproduction of CSF and fluid-electrolyte imbalance. PMID:24257496

Saito, Atsushi; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Fujita, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

2014-01-01

62

Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters in duodenum, collecting ducts and choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Epithelia cover the internal and external surfaces of the organism and form barriers between the various compartments. Some of these epithelia are specialized for effective transmembrane or even transepithelial movement of acid-base equivalents. Certain epithelia with a high rate of HCO3- transport express a few potent Na+-coupled acid-base transporters to gain a net HCO3- movement across the epithelium. Examples of such epithelia are renal proximal tubules and pancreatic ducts. In contrast, multiple Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters are expressed in other HCO3- secreting epithelia, such as the duodenal mucosa or the choroid plexus, which maintain suitable intracellular pH despite a variable demand for secreting HCO3-. In the duodenum, the epithelial cells must secrete HCO3- for neutralization of the gastric acid, and at the same time prevent cellular acidification. During the neutralization, large quantities of CO2 are formed in the duodenal lumen, which enter the epithelial cells. This would tend to lower intracellular pH and require effective counteracting mechanisms to avoid cell death and to maintain HCO3- secretion. The choroid plexus secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and controls the pH of the otherwise poorly buffered CSF. The pCO2 of CSF fluctuates with plasma pCO2, and the choroid plexus must regulate the HCO3- secretion to minimize the effects of these fluctuations on CSF pH. This is done while maintaining pH neutrality in the epithelial cells. Thus, the Na+-HCO3- cotransporters appear to be involved in HCO3- import in more epithelia, where Na+/H+ exchangers were until recently thought to be sufficient for maintaining intracellular pH. PMID:21170886

Praetorius, Jeppe

2010-01-01

63

Amyloid beta immunization worsens iron deposits in the choroid plexus and cerebral microbleeds.  

PubMed

Anti-amyloid beta (A?) immunotherapy provides potential benefits in Alzheimer's disease patients. Nevertheless, strategies based on A?1-42 peptide induced encephalomyelitis and possible microhemorrhages. These outcomes were not expected from studies performed in rodents. It is critical to determine if other animal models better predict side effects of immunotherapies. Mouse lemur primates can develop amyloidosis with aging. Here we used old lemurs to study immunotherapy based on A?1-42 or A?-derivative (K6A?1-30). We followed anti-A?40 immunoglobulin G and M responses and A? levels in plasma. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology were used to evaluate amyloidosis, neuroinflammation, vasogenic edema, microhemorrhages, and brain iron deposits. The animals responded mainly to the A?1-42 immunogen. This treatment induced immune response and increased A? levels in plasma and also microhemorrhages and iron deposits in the choroid plexus. A complementary study of untreated lemurs showed iron accumulation in the choroid plexus with normal aging. Worsening of iron accumulation is thus a potential side effect of A?-immunization at prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease, and should be monitored in clinical trials. PMID:23796662

Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Dorieux, Olène; Trouche, Stéphanie G; Boutajangout, Allal; Kraska, Audrey; Fontès, Pascaline; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Sigurdsson, Einar M; Mestre-Francés, Nadine; Dhenain, Marc

2013-11-01

64

A? immunization worsens iron deposits in the choroid plexus and cerebral microbleeds  

PubMed Central

Anti-A? immunotherapy provides potential benefits in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Nevertheless, strategies based on A?1-42 peptide induced encephalomyelitis and possible microhemorrhages. These outcomes were not expected from studies performed in rodents. It is critical to determine if other animal models better predict side effects of immunotherapies. Mouse lemur primates can develop amyloidosis with aging. Here we used old lemurs to study immunotherapy based on A?1-42 or A?-derivative (K6A?1-30). We followed anti-A?40 IgG and IgM responses as well as A? levels in plasma. In-vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology were used to evaluate amyloidosis, neuroinflammation, vasogenic edema, microhemorrhages, and brain iron deposits. The animals responded mainly to the A?1-42 immunogen. This treatment induced immune response and increased A? levels in plasma but also microhemorrhages and iron deposits in the choroid plexus. A complementary study of untreated lemurs showed iron accumulation in the choroid plexus with normal aging. Worsening of iron accumulation is thus a potential side effect of A?-immunization at prodromal stages of Alzheimer’s disease, and should be monitored in clinical trials. PMID:23796662

Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Dorieux, Olène; Trouche, Stéphanie G.; Boutajangout, Allal; Kraska, Audrey; Fontès, Pascaline; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Mestre-Francés, Nadine; Dhenain, Marc

2014-01-01

65

Cilia in the choroid plexus: their roles in hydrocephalus and beyond  

PubMed Central

Cilia are whip-like projections that are widely conserved in eukaryotes and function as a motile propeller and/or sensory platform to detect various extracellular stimuli. In vertebrates, cilia are ubiquitously found in most cells, showing structural and functional diversities depending on the cell type. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of cilia in choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs). CPECs form one or two dozen non-motile 9+0 cilia, which display transient acquisition of motility during development. Genetic malfunction of cilia can lead to failure of multiple organs including the brain. Especially, several groups have demonstrated that the defects in CPEC cilia cause the communicating form of hydrocephalus. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hydrocephalus, we have previously demonstrated that the cilia possess an NPFF receptor for autocrine signaling to regulate transepithelial fluid transport. In this perspective, we also discuss the potential involvement of cilia in the other aspects of choroid plexus functions, such as the regulation of brain development and neuroinflammation. PMID:25729351

Narita, Keishi; Takeda, Sen

2015-01-01

66

Cilia in the choroid plexus: their roles in hydrocephalus and beyond.  

PubMed

Cilia are whip-like projections that are widely conserved in eukaryotes and function as a motile propeller and/or sensory platform to detect various extracellular stimuli. In vertebrates, cilia are ubiquitously found in most cells, showing structural and functional diversities depending on the cell type. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of cilia in choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs). CPECs form one or two dozen non-motile 9+0 cilia, which display transient acquisition of motility during development. Genetic malfunction of cilia can lead to failure of multiple organs including the brain. Especially, several groups have demonstrated that the defects in CPEC cilia cause the communicating form of hydrocephalus. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hydrocephalus, we have previously demonstrated that the cilia possess an NPFF receptor for autocrine signaling to regulate transepithelial fluid transport. In this perspective, we also discuss the potential involvement of cilia in the other aspects of choroid plexus functions, such as the regulation of brain development and neuroinflammation. PMID:25729351

Narita, Keishi; Takeda, Sen

2015-01-01

67

The characteristics of nucleobase transport and metabolism by the perfused sheep choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The uptake of nucleobases was investigated across the basolateral membrane of the sheep choroid plexus perfused in situ. The maximal uptake (U(max)) for hypoxanthine and adenine, was 35.51+/-1.50% and 30.71+/-0.49% and for guanine, thymine and uracil was 12.00+/-0.53%, 13.07+/-0.48% and 12.30+/-0.55%, respectively with a negligible backflux, except for that of thymine (35.11+/-5.37% of the U(max)). HPLC analysis revealed that the purine nucleobase hypoxanthine and the pyrimidine nucleobase thymine can pass intact through the choroid plexus and enter the cerebrospinal fluid CSF so the lack of backflux for hypoxanthine was not a result of metabolic trapping in the cell. Competition studies revealed that hypoxanthine, adenine and thymine shared the same transport system, while guanine and uracil were transported by a separate mechanism and that nucleosides can partially share the same transporter. HPLC analysis of sheep CSF collected in vivo revealed only two nucleobases were present adenine and hypoxanthine; with an R(CSF/Plasma) 0.19+/-0.02 and 3.43+/-0.20, respectively. Xanthine and urate, the final products of purine catabolism, could not be detected in the CSF even in trace amounts. These results suggest that the activity of xanthine oxidase in the brain of the sheep is very low so the metabolic degradation of purines is carried out only as far as hypoxanthine which then accumulates in the CSF. In conclusion, the presence of saturable transport systems for nucleobases at the basolateral membrane of the choroidal epithelium was demonstrated, which could be important for the distribution of the salvageable nucleobases, adenine and hypoxanthine in the central nervous system. PMID:11146053

Redzic, Z B; Segal, M B; Gasic, J M; Markovic, I D; Vojvodic, V P; Isakovic, A; Thomas, S A; Rakic, L M

2001-01-01

68

Stress-induced stimulation of choline transport in cultured choroid plexus epithelium exposed to low concentrations of cadmium  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus epithelium forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and accumulates essential minerals and heavy metals. Choroid plexus is cited as being a “sink” for heavy metals and excess minerals, serving to minimize accumulation of these potentially toxic agents in the brain. An understanding of how low doses of contaminant metals might alter transport of other solutes in the choroid plexus is limited. Using primary cultures of epithelial cells isolated from neonatal rat choroid plexus, our objective was to characterize modulation of apical uptake of the model organic cation choline elicited by low concentrations of the contaminant metal cadmium (CdCl2). At 50–1,000 nM, cadmium did not directly decrease or increase 30-min apical uptake of 10 ?M [3H]choline. However, extended exposure to 250–500 nM cadmium increased [3H]choline uptake by as much as 75% without marked cytotoxicity. In addition, cadmium induced heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression and markedly induced metallothionein gene expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Conversely, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) enhanced stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Cadmium also activated ERK1/2 MAP kinase. The MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 diminished ERK1/2 activation and attenuated stimulation of choline uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation abated stimulation of choline uptake in cells exposed to cadmium with BSO. These data indicate that in the choroid plexus, exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may induce oxidative stress and consequently stimulate apical choline transport through activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase. PMID:24401988

Young, Robin K.

2013-01-01

69

Stress-induced stimulation of choline transport in cultured choroid plexus epithelium exposed to low concentrations of cadmium.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus epithelium forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and accumulates essential minerals and heavy metals. Choroid plexus is cited as being a "sink" for heavy metals and excess minerals, serving to minimize accumulation of these potentially toxic agents in the brain. An understanding of how low doses of contaminant metals might alter transport of other solutes in the choroid plexus is limited. Using primary cultures of epithelial cells isolated from neonatal rat choroid plexus, our objective was to characterize modulation of apical uptake of the model organic cation choline elicited by low concentrations of the contaminant metal cadmium (CdCl?). At 50-1,000 nM, cadmium did not directly decrease or increase 30-min apical uptake of 10 ?M [(3)H]choline. However, extended exposure to 250-500 nM cadmium increased [(3)H]choline uptake by as much as 75% without marked cytotoxicity. In addition, cadmium induced heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression and markedly induced metallothionein gene expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Conversely, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) enhanced stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Cadmium also activated ERK1/2 MAP kinase. The MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 diminished ERK1/2 activation and attenuated stimulation of choline uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation abated stimulation of choline uptake in cells exposed to cadmium with BSO. These data indicate that in the choroid plexus, exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may induce oxidative stress and consequently stimulate apical choline transport through activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase. PMID:24401988

Young, Robin K; Villalobos, Alice R A

2014-03-01

70

A morphological and chemical study of calcification of the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Human choroid plexus was submitted to low temperature ashing (LTA) in order to isolate the calcification. The ashing residue was then subjected to morphological, chemical and structural studies using technics such as scanning electron microscopy, flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry, infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Morphologically, the calcification consisted of wound-up fibers forming granules with a diameter of 0.05 to 0.15 mm. The concretions were identified as cristalline Ca3(PO4)2 and hydroxylapatite. The content of trace elements was high, but within the limits found in other biological apatites. In some cases, however, the Fe content exceeded these limit values. PMID:72802

Michotte, Y; Massart, D L; Lowenthal, A; Knaepen, L; Pelsmaekers, J; Collard, M

1977-09-12

71

The choroid plexus and the paradox of interferons in the aging brain.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus (CP) function is largely viewed as the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and as a barrier between the blood and the CSF. Other functions of the CP are becoming increasingly recognized as in the recent publication by Baruch et. al. who demonstrate increased expression of interferon type I mRNA signature (irf7, ifnß and ifit1) in CP of aged brains compared to younger brains, whereas interferon type II dependent genes (icam1, cxcl10, and ccl17) are reduced in the aging CP. The authors speculate an IFN-dependent mechanism that plays a role in the aging process and cognitive decline. This short communication summarizes the findings by the authors and highlights the seemingly paradoxical roles of IFN type I and type II in neuroinflammation. PMID:25510902

Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl

2015-02-01

72

Dysregulated iron metabolism in the choroid plexus in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.  

PubMed

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene that is characterized by progressive action tremor, gait ataxia, and cognitive decline. Recent studies of mitochondrial dysfunction in FXTAS have suggested that iron dysregulation may be one component of disease pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that iron dysregulation is part of the pathogenic process in FXTAS. We analyzed postmortem choroid plexus from FXTAS and control subjects, and found that in FXTAS iron accumulated in the stroma, transferrin levels were decreased in the epithelial cells, and transferrin receptor 1 distribution was shifted from the basolateral membrane (control) to a predominantly intracellular location (FXTAS). In addition, ferroportin and ceruloplasmin were markedly decreased within the epithelial cells. These alterations have implications not only for understanding the pathophysiology of FXTAS, but also for the development of new clinical treatments that may incorporate selective iron chelation. PMID:25498860

Ariza, Jeanelle; Steward, Craig; Rueckert, Flora; Widdison, Matt; Coffman, Robert; Afjei, Atiyeh; Noctor, Stephen C; Hagerman, Randi; Hagerman, Paul; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

2015-02-19

73

The Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid: Emerging Roles in Development, Disease, and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Although universally recognized as the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (ChP) has been one of the most understudied tissues in neuroscience. The reasons for this are multiple and varied, including historical perceptions about passive and permissive roles for the ChP, experimental issues, and lack of clinical salience. However, recent work on the ChP and instructive signals in the CSF have sparked new hypotheses about how the ChP and CSF provide unexpected means for regulating nervous system structure and function in health and disease, as well as new ChP-based therapeutic approaches using pluripotent stem cell technology. This minisymposium combines new and established investigators to capture some of the newfound excitement surrounding the ChP-CSF system. PMID:24198345

Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Holtzman, David M.

2013-01-01

74

Increased selenoprotein P in choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's disease brain.  

PubMed

Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have elevated brain levels of the selenium transporter selenoprotein P (Sepp1). We investigated if this elevation results from increased release of Sepp1 from the choroid plexus (CP). Sepp1 is significantly increased in CP from AD brains in comparison to non-AD brains. Sepp1 localizes to the trans-Golgi network within CP epithelia, where it is processed for secretion. The cerebrospinal fluid from AD subjects also contains increased levels Sepp1 in comparison to non-AD subjects. These findings suggest that AD pathology induces increased levels of Sepp1 within CP epithelia for release into the cerebrospinal fluid to ultimately increase brain selenium. PMID:25298198

Rueli, Rachel H L H; Parubrub, Arlene C; Dewing, Andrea S T; Hashimoto, Ann C; Bellinger, Miyoko T; Weeber, Edwin J; Uyehara-Lock, Jane H; White, Lon R; Berry, Marla J; Bellinger, Frederick P

2015-01-01

75

Choroid Plexus  

MedlinePLUS

... Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Letter from the ... Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor Dictionary Upcoming Webinars Anytime Learning Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors ...

76

Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

1985-02-01

77

KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for normal function and mechanical protection of the CNS. The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms currently not fully understood. Previously, the heteromeric KCNQ1-KCNE2 K+ channel was functionally linked to epithelial processes including gastric acid secretion and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Here, using Kcne2?/? tissue as a negative control, we found cerebral expression of KCNE2 to be markedly enriched in the CPe apical membrane, where we also discovered expression of KCNQ1. Targeted Kcne2 gene deletion in C57B6 mice increased CPe outward K+ current 2-fold. The Kcne2 deletion-enhanced portion of the current was inhibited by XE991 (10 ?M) and margatoxin (10 ?M) but not by dendrotoxin (100 nM), indicating that it arose from augmentation of KCNQ subfamily and KCNA3 but not KCNA1 K+ channel activity. Kcne2 deletion in C57B6 mice also altered the polarity of CPe KCNQ1 and KCNA3 trafficking, hyperpolarized the CPe membrane by 9 ± 2 mV, and increased CSF [Cl?] by 14% compared with wild-type mice. These findings constitute the first report of CPe dysfunction caused by cation channel gene disruption and suggest that KCNE2 influences blood-CSF anion flux by regulating KCNQ1 and KCNA3 in the CPe.—Roepke, T. K., Kanda, V. A., Purtell, K., King, E. C., Lerner, D. J., Abbott, G. W. KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium. PMID:21859894

Roepke, Torsten K.; Kanda, Vikram A.; Purtell, Kerry; King, Elizabeth C.; Lerner, Daniel J.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

2011-01-01

78

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset. PMID:23452162

Millward, Jason M.; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Wuerfel, Jens T.; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

2013-01-01

79

The choroid plexus—a multi-role player during infectious diseases of the CNS  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (CP) is the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and location of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), which is constituted by the epithelial cells of the CP. Several infectious pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites cross the BCSFB to enter the central nervous system (CNS), ultimately leading to inflammatory infectious diseases like meningitis and meningoencephalitis. The CP responds to this challenge by the production of chemokines and cytokines as well as alterations of the barrier function of the BCSFB. During the course of CNS infectious disease host immune cells enter the CNS, eventually contributing to the cellular damage caused by the disease. Additional complications, which are in certain cases caused by choroid plexitis, can arise due to the response of the CP to the pathogens. In this review we will give an overview on the multiple functions of the CP during brain infections highlighting the CP as a multi-role player during infectious diseases of the CNS. In this context the importance of tools for investigation of these CP functions and a possible suitability of the CP as therapeutic target will be discussed.

Schwerk, Christian; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Kim, Kwang Sik; Schroten, Horst

2015-01-01

80

Curcumin downregulates aquaporin-1 expression in cultured rat choroid plexus cells.  

PubMed

Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel that is highly expressed on the apical side of the choroid plexus epithelium (CP) and thought to be one of the major pathways for the high water permeability of this structure. Blockade of AQP1 in the CP reduce the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Downregulation of AQP1 might be protective against some neurological disorders correlated with increased intracranial pressure and/or poor drainage of CSF. Curcumin, the major constituent of the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has been shown to inhibit potassium channels, Na?-K? ATPase, as well as AQP3 in some cells. We therefore speculated that curcumin might be a useful tool to inhibit and/or decrease AQP1, and thus might be useful in the regulation of CSF production in pathophysiological conditions, including traumatic brain injury, hydrocephalus, stroke, systemic hyponatremia, acute cerebral edema, and hypertension. Choroidal epithelial cells of the lateral ventricle of Wistar rats were isolated and grown in in-vitro cultures for 24?h. Curcumin was then added to the medium at different concentrations, and the cell viability tested by the (3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additional wells of cells were tested for AQP1 protein expression using immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry. Our results showed that curcumin treatment decreases AQP1 expression in rat choroid epithelium cells in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that curcumin may be a useful tool to regulate CSF production in pathophysiological conditions such as hydrocephalus, systemic hyponatremia, hypertension, and other neurological conditions. PMID:23735000

Nabiuni, Mohammad; Nazari, Zahra; Safaeinejad, Zahra; Delfan, Bahram; Miyan, Jaleel A

2013-06-01

81

Multi-Sensor Arrays for Online Monitoring of Cell Dynamics in in vitro Studies with Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Sensors and multi-sensor arrays are the basis of new technologies for the non-label monitoring of cell activity. In this paper we show that choroid plexus cells can be cultured on silicon chips and that sensors register in real time changes in their activity, constituting an interesting experimental paradigm for cell biology and medical research. To validate the signals recorded (metabolism = peri-cellular acidification, oxygen consumption = respiration; impedance = adhesion, cell shape and motility) we performed experiments with compounds that act in a well-known way on cells, influencing these parameters. Our in vitro model demonstrates the advantages of multi-sensor arrays in assessment and experimental characterization of dynamic cellular events—in this case in choroid plexus functions, however with applicability to other cell types as well. PMID:22438715

Mestres-Ventura, Pedro; Morguet, Andrea; de las Heras, Soledad García Gómez

2012-01-01

82

Expression and localization of P2 nucleotide receptor subtypes during development of the lateral ventricular choroid plexus of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and regulate the brain's internal environment via the blood-CSF barrier. The permeability properties of the blood-CSF interface have been studied previously in adult and immature brains, however, little is known about the development of CSF secretion and its modulation. ATP influences secretion in other epithelia via ionotropic P2X or metabotropic P2Y receptors. P2

P. A. Johansson; G. Burnstock; K. M. Dziegielewska; E. Guida; P. McIntyre; N. R. Saunders

2007-01-01

83

Polarization of membrane associated proteins in the choroid plexus epithelium from normal and slc4a10 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) has served as a model-epithelium for cell polarization and transport studies and plays a crucial role for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. The normal luminal membrane expression of Na+,K+-ATPase, aquaporin-1 and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 in the choroid plexus is severely affected by deletion of the slc4a10 gene that encodes the bicarbonate transporting protein Ncbe/NBCn2. The causes for these deviations from normal epithelial polarization and redistribution following specific gene knockout are unknown, but may be significant for basic epithelial cell biology. Therefore, a more comprehensive analysis of cell polarization in the choroid plexus is warranted. We find that the cytoskeleton in the choroid plexus contains ?I-, ?II-, ?I-, and ?II-spectrin isoforms along with the anchoring protein ankyrin-3, most of which are mainly localized in the luminal membrane domain. Furthermore, we find ?-adducin localized near the plasma membranes globally, but with only faint expression in the luminal membrane domain. In slc4a10 knockout mice, the abundance of ?1 Na+,K+-ATPase subunits in the luminal membrane is markedly reduced. Anion exchanger 2 abundance is increased in slc4a10 knockout and its anchor protein, ?-adducin is almost exclusively found near the basolateral domain. The ?I- and ?I-spectrin abundances are also decreased in the slc4a10 knockout, where the basolateral domain expression of ?I-spectrin is exchanged for a strictly luminal domain localization. E-cadherin expression is unchanged in the slc4a10 knockout, while small decreases in abundance are observed for its probable adaptor proteins, the catenins. Interestingly, the abundance of the tight junction protein claudin-2 is significantly reduced in the slc4a10 knockouts, which may critically affect paracellular transport in this epithelium. The observations allow the generation of new hypotheses on basic cell biological paradigms that can be tested experimentally in future studies. PMID:24348423

Christensen, Inga B.; Gyldenholm, Tua; Damkier, Helle H.; Praetorius, Jeppe

2013-01-01

84

Inflammation-inducible type 2 deiodinase expression in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and at brain blood vessels in male rodents.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone regulates immune functions and has antiinflammatory effects. In promoter assays, the thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, type 2 deiodinase (D2), is highly inducible by the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-? B (NF-?B), but it is unknown whether D2 is induced in a similar fashion in vivo during inflammation. We first reexamined the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on D2 expression and NF-?B activation in the rat and mouse brain using in situ hybridization. In rats, LPS induced very robust D2 expression in normally non-D2-expressing cells in the leptomeninges, adjacent brain blood vessels, and the choroid plexus. These cells were vimentin-positive fibroblasts and expressed the NF-?B activation marker, inhibitor ? B-? mRNA, at 2 hours after injection, before the increase in D2 mRNA. In mice, LPS induced intense D2 expression in the choroid plexus but not in leptomeninges, with an early expression peak at 2 hours. Moderate D2 expression along numerous brain blood vessels appeared later. D2 and NF-?B activation was induced in tanycytes in both species but with a different time course. Enzymatic assays from leptomeningeal and choroid plexus samples revealed exceptionally high D2 activity in LPS-treated rats and Syrian hamsters and moderate but significant increases in mice. These data demonstrate the cell type-specific, highly inducible nature of D2 expression by inflammation, and NF-?B as a possible initiating factor, but also warrant attention for species differences. The results suggest that D2-mediated T? production by fibroblasts regulate local inflammatory actions in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus and brain blood vessels, and perhaps also in other organs. PMID:24601886

Wittmann, Gábor; Harney, John W; Singru, Praful S; Nouriel, Shira S; Reed Larsen, P; Lechan, Ronald M

2014-05-01

85

The distribution of the anti-HIV drug, tenofovir (PMPA), into the brain, CSF and choroid plexuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, a prodrug of the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir (9-[9(R)-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine; PMPA), was recently approved for use in the combination therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. This study was undertaken to understand PMPA distribution to the virus sanctuary sites located in the brain, CSF and choroid plexuses and to clarify its possible role in reducing the

Christy Anthonypillai; Julie E Gibbs; Sarah A Thomas

2006-01-01

86

The resolution of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration: leukocyte recruitment via the choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is an integral part of the body's physiological repair mechanism, unless it remains unresolved and becomes pathological, as evident in the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Based on studies from outside the central nervous system (CNS), it is now understood that the resolution of inflammation is an active process, which is dependent on well-orchestrated innate and adaptive immune responses. Due to the immunologically privileged status of the CNS, such resolution mechanism has been mostly ignored. Here, we discuss resolution of neuroinflammation as a process that depends on a network of immune cells operating in a tightly regulated sequence, involving the brain's choroid plexus (CP), a unique neuro-immunological interface, positioned to integrate signals it receives from the CNS parenchyma with signals coming from circulating immune cells, and to function as an on-alert gate for selective recruitment of inflammation-resolving leukocytes to the inflamed CNS parenchyma. Finally, we propose that functional dysregulation of the CP reflects a common underlying mechanism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and can thus serve as a potential novel target for therapy. PMID:24357543

Schwartz, Michal; Baruch, Kuti

2014-01-01

87

Intravenously Injected Human Apolipoprotein A?I Rapidly Enters the Central Nervous System via the Choroid Plexus  

PubMed Central

Background Brain lipoprotein metabolism is dependent on lipoprotein particles that resemble plasma high?density lipoproteins but that contain apolipoprotein (apo) E rather than apoA?I as their primary protein component. Astrocytes and microglia secrete apoE but not apoA?I; however, apoA?I is detectable in both cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue lysates. The route by which plasma apoA?I enters the central nervous system is unknown. Methods and Results Steady?state levels of murine apoA?I in cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are 0.664 and 0.120 ?g/mL, respectively, whereas brain tissue apoA?I is ?10% to 15% of its levels in liver. Recombinant, fluorescently tagged human apoA?I injected intravenously into mice localizes to the choroid plexus within 30 minutes and accumulates in a saturable, dose?dependent manner in the brain. Recombinant, fluorescently tagged human apoA?I accumulates in the brain for 2 hours, after which it is eliminated with a half?life of 10.3 hours. In vitro, human apoA?I is specifically bound, internalized, and transported across confluent monolayers of primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells and brain microvascular endothelial cells. Conclusions Following intravenous injection, recombinant human apoA?I rapidly localizes predominantly to the choroid plexus. Because apoA?I mRNA is undetectable in murine brain, our results suggest that plasma apoA?I, which is secreted from the liver and intestine, gains access to the central nervous system primarily by crossing the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier via specific cellular mediated transport, although transport across the blood–brain barrier may also contribute to a lesser extent. PMID:25392541

Stukas, Sophie; Robert, Jerome; Lee, Michael; Kulic, Iva; Carr, Michael; Tourigny, Katherine; Fan, Jianjia; Namjoshi, Dhananjay; Lemke, Kalistyne; DeValle, Nicole; Chan, Jeniffer; Wilson, Tammy; Wilkinson, Anna; Chapanian, Rafi; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N.; Cirrito, John R.; Oda, Michael N.; Wellington, Cheryl L.

2014-01-01

88

Differential expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors in the developing murine choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The choroid plexuses (CPs) are specialised secretory organs situated within the ventricles of the brain involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the maintenance of the blood-CSF barrier. Abnormal function of the CPs can lead to hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure, pathologies frequently observed in certain craniofacial syndromes caused by single point mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). At present, relatively little is known about the embryonic CPs in terms of gene or protein expression, function as the brain develops or on the potential role of FGFRs within this context. Given the limited information available on the regulation of FGFRs during development of the CPs and periventricular tissues, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the localisation of FGFR1, 2, 3 and 4 proteins in these regions of the murine embryo from the time of formation of the CP in the third ventricle at E12.5 throughout the second half of gestation, and examined the expression of different FGFR isoforms at E12.5 by RT-PCR. We show here that FGFR1 and FGFR4 are expressed in murine CPs at E12.5 but not at E15.5 or E18.5, suggesting a role for the signaling pathways transduced by these receptors at early stages of CP development. In contrast, FGFR2 expression is maintained throughout CP development, indicating that this receptor may play a role in the function of immature and mature CP. Also FGFR3 is detected at each developmental stage studied, but surprisingly its expression appears confined to the nuclei of CP cells, suggesting that FGFR3 in the CP does not respond to extracellular FGFs but may act in intracrine fashion. PMID:12644244

Reid, Sarah; Ferretti, Patrizia

2003-03-14

89

Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions. PMID:24391755

Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

2013-01-01

90

Texas Red transport across rat and dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to compare driving forces, specificity, and regulation of transport of the fluorescent organic anion, Texas Red (sulforhodamine 101 free acid; TR), in lateral choroid plexus (CP) isolated from rat and an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate, dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). CP from both species exhibited concentrative, specific, and metabolism-dependent TR transport from bath to subepithelial/vascular space; at steady state, TR accumulation in vascular/subepithelial space was substantially higher than in epithelial cells. In rat CP, steady-state TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces was reduced by Na+-replacement, but was not affected by a 10-fold increase in buffer K+. In shark CP, Na+-replacement did not alter TR accumulation in either tissue compartment; subepithelial/vascular space levels of TR were reduced in high-K+ medium. In both species, steady-state TR accumulation was not affected by p-aminohippurate or leukotriene C4, suggesting that neither organic anion transporters (SLC22A family) nor multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC family) contributed. In rat CP, digoxin was without effect, indicating that organic anion transporting polypeptide isoform 2 was not involved. Several organic anions reduced cellular and subepithelial/vascular space TR accumulation in both tissues, including estrone sulfate, taurocholate, and the Mrp1 inhibitor MK571. In rat CP, TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces increased with PKA activation (forskolin), but was not affected by PKC activation (phorbol ester). In shark, neither PKA nor PKC activation specifically affected TR transport. Thus, rat and dogfish shark CP transport TR but do so using different basic mechanisms that respond to different regulatory signals. PMID:18650317

Reichel, Valeska; Miller, David S.; Fricker, Gert

2008-01-01

91

Active removal of inorganic phosphate from cerebrospinal fluid by the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The P(i) concentration of mammalian cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is about one-half that of plasma, a phenomenon also shown here in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias. The objective of the present study was to characterize the possible role of the choroid plexus (CP) in determining CSF P(i) concentration. The large sheet-like fourth CP of the shark was mounted in Ussing chambers where unidirectional (33)P(i) fluxes revealed potent active transport from CSF to the blood side under short-circuited conditions. The flux ratio was 8:1 with an average transepithelial resistance of 87 ± 17.9 ?·cm(2) and electrical potential difference of +0.9 ± 0.17 mV (CSF side positive). Active P(i) absorption from CSF was inhibited by 10 mM arsenate, 0.2 mM ouabain, Na(+)-free medium, and increasing the K(+) concentration from 5 to 100 mM. Li(+) stimulated transport twofold compared with Na(+)-free medium. Phosphonoformic acid (1 mM) had no effect on active P(i) transport. RT-PCR revealed both P(i) transporter (PiT)1 and PiT2 (SLC20 family) gene expression, but no Na(+)-P(i) cotransporter II (SLC34 family) expression, in the shark CP. PiT2 immunoreactivity was shown by immunoblot analysis and localized by immunohistochemistry in (or near) the CP apical microvillar membranes of both the shark and rat. PiT1 appeared to be localized primarily to vascular endothelial cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the CP actively removes P(i) from CSF. This process has transport properties consistent with a PiT2, Na(+)-dependent transporter that is located in the apical region of the CP epithelium. PMID:24740787

Guerreiro, Pedro M; Bataille, Amy M; Parker, Sonda L; Renfro, J Larry

2014-06-01

92

Comparison between blood and saline perfusion on the uptake of amino acids by choroid plexus of the sheep.  

PubMed

Uptake by the isolated perfused sheep choroid plexus of labelled naturally occurring amino acids, and the analogue MeAIB (methyl amino isobutyric acid) was measured using the single-pass, indicator dilution method. The uptake (Umax) of natural amino acids at the blood face of the choroid plexus, relative to the extracellular marker mannitol, ranged between 26 and 47% when using a saline perfusate. However, when the perfusion fluid was changes to one containing whole blood, uptake of the leucine, phenylalanine, proline, aspartate glutamate and lysine were significantly reduced with Umax now between -1.6 and 19.5%. In contrast the uptake of alanine, glutamine and glycine remained high despite the change in perfusion fluid. All amino acids, which showed uptake from the blood, also demonstrated self-inhibition when an additional 1 mM of the same unlabelled amino acid was added to the perfusion fluid. This indicates saturation of a carrier-mediate uptake process. There was no detectable uptake of the amino acid analogue, MeAIB during perfusion with either medium, confirming the absence of the "A" type amino acid carrier system for which this analogue is specific. PMID:2361466

Segal, M B; Preston, J E; Zlokovic, B

1990-03-01

93

Intracellular localization and subsequent redistribution of metal transporters in a rat choroid plexus model following exposure to manganese or iron  

SciTech Connect

Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) exposure on the subcellular distribution of metal transporting proteins, i.e., divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1), and transferrin receptor (TfR), in the rat intact choroid plexus which comprises the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In control tissue, DMT1 was concentrated below the apical epithelial membrane, MTP1 was diffuse within the cytosol, and TfR was distributed in vesicles around nuclei. Following Mn or Fe treatment (1 and 10 {mu}M), the distribution of DMT1 was not affected. However, MTP1 and TfR moved markedly toward the apical pole of the cells. These shifts were abolished when microtubules were disrupted. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels of TfR but not DMT1 and MTP1 after Mn exposure. These results suggest that early events in the tissue response to Mn or Fe exposure involve microtubule-dependent, intracellular trafficking of MTP1 and TfR. The intracellular trafficking of metal transporters in the choroid plexus following Mn exposure may partially contribute to Mn-induced disruption in Fe homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following Mn exposure.

Wang Xueqian [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Miller, David S. [NIH/NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Zheng Wei [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: wz18@purdue.edu

2008-07-15

94

Ontogeny of specific prolactin binding sites in the rat choroid plexus and their temporal relation to the prolactin short-loop feedback system  

SciTech Connect

The development of prolactin receptors in the choroid plexus of the rat was examined using the in vivo autoradiographic approach employing the principle of competitive binding. Animals aged 0, 10, 14, and 18 days postnatal were perfusion fixed following hormone injection and prepared for light microscopic autoradiography. The choroid plexus first demonstrated specific binding of prolactin at 14 days postnatal. The lactogen specificity of these binding sites was further defined by the ability of I/sup 125/-prolactin to be displaced by unlabelled human growth hormone, which is lactogenic in rats, and not by unlabelled insulin, which is structurally dissimilar to prolactin. Morphometric analysis was performed on electron micrographs of choroid plexus from 10 and 14 day postnatal rats. The volume densities of constituents known to be involved in the synthesis and/or function of polypeptide hormone receptors were measured and differences tested for statistical significance. A semi-quantitative histo-fluorescence technique was used to evaluate the ability of prolactin to stimulate secretion of its inhibiting factor, dopamine, in 10 day postnatal rats. The present findings indicate that the ontogenesis of specific prolactin binding sites is not temporally connected with the establishment of the prolactin short-loop feedback system since activation of the system occurs prior to the establishment of specific prolactin binding at choroid plexus.

Silverman, .F.

1985-01-01

95

The functional and structural borders between the CSF-and blood-dominated milieus in the choroid plexuses and the area postrema of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the borderline area between the hemal milieu of the choroid plexuses (PC) and the interstitial cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) compartment, ground substances displaying increased amounts of basal lamina-like material and containing negatively charged sulfated glycosaminoglycans appear to be endowed with selective properties. They may function as a sieve or filtration barrier gradually controlling the passage of substances between the two milieus,

Brigitte Krisch

1986-01-01

96

Segmental myoclonus as the sole manifestation of a choroid plexus papilloma in the posterior fossa. Case report.  

PubMed

The authors describe the case of a 22-year-old woman with involuntary contractions of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles that resulted in turning movements of the head. The jerks displayed the clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of segmental myoclonus (SM) restricted to muscles supplied bilaterally by the first four cervical segments. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a tumor in the midline above the cisterna magna that was later histologically proven to be a choroid plexus papilloma. The patient's involuntary movements did not extend to other muscle groups or, in particular, to the palate, as one might have expected in the case of brainstem lesions. Myoclonus was the sole clinical manifestation of the tumor in this patient; other signs and symptoms invariably reported in other cases of posterior fossa papilloma, such as increased intracranial pressure or cranial nerve palsies, were absent. Release from suprasegmental control is suggested as a possible pathophysiological mechanism in this case of SM. PMID:11780907

Chroni, E; Paschalis, C; Konstantinou, D; Maraziotis, T; Bonas, M; Papapetropoulos, T

2001-08-01

97

Retinoic acid signaling regulates development of the dorsal forebrain midline and the choroid plexus in the chick.  

PubMed

The developing forebrain roof plate (RP) contains a transient signaling center, perturbations in which have been linked to holoprosencephaly (HPE). Here, we describe a novel domain of retinoic acid (RA) signaling that is specific to the chick RP and demonstrate that RA signaling is sufficient for inducing characteristics of the RP in ectopic locations. We further demonstrate that, unlike what has been observed in the mouse, RA signaling is essential for invagination of the RP in chick, failure of which leads to an HPE-like phenotype. In addition, we found that RA exerts a negative influence on choroid plexus differentiation. Thus, our findings identify RA as a novel regulator of chick forebrain RP development. PMID:25758461

Gupta, Sandeep; Sen, Jonaki

2015-04-01

98

Native Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptors Are Expressed as Homodimers on the Apical Surface of Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a prominent class of plasma membrane proteins that regulate physiologic responses to a wide variety of stimuli and therapeutic agents. Although GPCR oligomerization has been studied extensively in recombinant cells, it remains uncertain whether native receptors expressed in their natural cellular environment are monomers, dimers, or oligomers. The goal of this study was to determine the monomer/oligomer status of a native GPCR endogenously expressed in its natural cellular environment. Native 5-HT2C receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells were evaluated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH). An anti-5-HT2C fragment antigen binding protein was used to label native 5-HT2C receptors. A known monomeric receptor (CD-86) served as a control for decoding the oligomer status of native 5-HT2C receptors by molecular brightness analysis. FCS with PCH revealed molecular brightness values for native 5-HT2C receptors equivalent to the molecular brightness of a homodimer. 5-HT2C receptors displayed a diffusion coefficient of 5 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s and were expressed at 32 receptors/?m(2) on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells. The functional significance and signaling capabilities of the homodimer were investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells using agonists that bind in a wash-resistant manner to one or both protomers of the homodimer. Whereas agonist binding to one protomer resulted in G protein activation, maximal stimulation required occupancy of both protomers. This study is the first to demonstrate the homodimeric structure of 5-HT2C receptors endogenously expressed in their native cellular environment, and identifies the homodimer as a functional signaling unit. PMID:25609374

Herrick-Davis, Katharine; Grinde, Ellinor; Lindsley, Tara; Teitler, Milt; Mancia, Filippo; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E

2015-04-01

99

Choroid plexus dysfunction impairs beta-amyloid clearance in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Compromised secretory function of choroid plexus (CP) and defective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production, along with accumulation of beta-amyloid (A?) peptides at the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), contribute to complications of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The AD triple transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) at 16 month-old mimics critical hallmarks of the human disease: ?-amyloid (A?) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) with a temporal- and regional- specific profile. Currently, little is known about transport and metabolic responses by CP to the disrupted homeostasis of CNS A? in AD. This study analyzed the effects of highly-expressed AD-linked human transgenes (APP, PS1 and tau) on lateral ventricle CP function. Confocal imaging and immunohistochemistry revealed an increase only of A?42 isoform in epithelial cytosol and in stroma surrounding choroidal capillaries; this buildup may reflect insufficient clearance transport from CSF to blood. Still, there was increased expression, presumably compensatory, of the choroidal A? transporters: the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE). A thickening of the epithelial basal membrane and greater collagen-IV deposition occurred around capillaries in CP, probably curtailing solute exchanges. Moreover, there was attenuated expression of epithelial aquaporin-1 and transthyretin (TTR) protein compared to Non-Tg mice. Collectively these findings indicate CP dysfunction hypothetically linked to increasing A? burden resulting in less efficient ion transport, concurrently with reduced production of CSF (less sink action on brain A?) and diminished secretion of TTR (less neuroprotection against cortical A? toxicity). The putative effects of a disabled CP-CSF system on CNS functions are discussed in the context of AD. PMID:25705176

González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Johanson, Conrad E.; Carmona-Calero, Emilia María; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; Brito-Armas, José Miguel; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castro-Fuentes, Rafael

2015-01-01

100

Choroid Plexus Epithelial Expression of MDR1 P Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein Contribute to the Blood-Cerebrospinal-Fluid Drug-Permeability Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-brain barrier and a blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier function together to isolate the brain from circulating drugs, toxins, and xenobiotics. The blood-CSF drug-permeability barrier is localized to the epithelium of the choroid plexus (CP). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating drug permeability across the CP epithelium are defined poorly. Herein, we describe a drug-permeability barrier in human and rodent CP mediated

Vallabhaneni V. Rao; Julie L. Dahlheimer; Mark E. Bardgett; Abraham Z. Snyder; Rick A. Finch; Alan C. Sartorelli; David Piwnica-Worms

1999-01-01

101

Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain.  

PubMed

Neural progenitors in the developing neocortex, neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, have a bipolar shape with a basal process contacting the basal membrane of the meninge and an apical plasma membrane facing the lateral ventricle, which the cerebrospinal fluid is filled with. Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter which appears first during development and works as a diffusible factor to regulate the properties of neural progenitors. In this study, we examined whether GABA can be released from the meninges and the choroid plexus in the developing mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67), both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges. The epithelial cells in the choroid plexus express GAD65. GABA immunoreactivity could be observed beneath the basal membrane of the meninge and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. Expression analyses on Bestrophin-1, which is known as a GABA-permeable channel in differentiated glial cells, suggested that the cells in the meninges and the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus have the channels able to permeate non-synaptic GABA into the extracellular space. Further studies showed that GAD65/67-expressing meningeal cells appear in a manner with rostral to caudal and lateral to dorsal gradient to cover the entire neocortex by E14.5 during development, while the cells in the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle start to express GAD65 on E11-E12, the time when the choroid plexus starts to develop in the developing brain. These results totally suggest that the meninges and the choroid plexus can work as non-neuronal sources for ambient GABA which can modulate the properties of neural progenitors during neocortical development. PMID:23437266

Tochitani, Shiro; Kondo, Shigeaki

2013-01-01

102

A possible role for CSF turnover and choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of late onset Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

According to the amyloid theory, the appearance of amyloid-? (A?) deposits represents a pivotal event in late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Physiologically, A?42 monomers are cleaned by capillary resorption, enzymatic catabolism, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transport. Factors that promote the oligomerization of A?42 must be specified. In vitro, these monomers spontaneously form neurotoxic oligomers whose rate increases with time suggesting that the stasis of CSF favors the oligomerization. In animals, experimental hydrocephalus generates CSF stasis followed by the appearance of amyloid deposits. In normal pressure hydrocephalus, amyloid deposits are common, especially in elderly patients, and the turnover decline has the same order of magnitude as in AD. In this disease, the effects of CSF stasis are potentiated by the decline in the ability of CSF to inhibit the formation of oligomers. CSF originates from choroid plexus (CP). In LOAD, the functions of secretion, synthesis, and transport of CP are impaired and this is related to morphological modifications. These impairments favor the decrease of CSF turnover, the diminished levels of transthyretin, a sequestering protein synthesized by CP, and the oligomerization of A?42. They are potentiated by a reduced enzymatic catabolism and a decreased capillary reabsorption of A?42, both alterations being related to age. PMID:22349684

Serot, Jean-Marie; Zmudka, Jadwiga; Jouanny, Pierre

2012-01-01

103

Expression of hepcidin at the choroid plexus in normal aging rats is associated with IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence has revealed that brain iron concentrations increase with aging, and the choroid plexus (CP) may be at the basis of iron-mediated toxicity and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging. The mechanism involves not only hepcidin, the key hormone in iron metabolism, but also iron-related proteins and signaling-transduction molecules, such as IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway and hepcidin at the CP in normal aging. Quantitative real time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the alterations in specific mRNA and corresponding protein changes at the CP at ages of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 months in Brown-Norway/Fischer (B-N/F) rats. The results demonstrated that hepcidin mRNA level at the CP kept stable in young rats (from 3 to 18 months), and increased with aging (from 21 to 36 months). The alterations of IL-6/p-Stat3 mRNA and protein expressions in normal aging were in accordance with that of hepcidin mRNA. Our data suggest that IL-6 may regulate hepcidin expression at the CP, upon interaction with the cognate cellular receptor, and through the Stat3 signaling transduction pathway. PMID:25516512

Liu, Chong-Bin; Wang, Rui; Dong, Miao-Wu; Gao, Xi-Ren; Yu, Feng

2014-12-25

104

Multiple isoforms of the tumor protein p73 are expressed in the adult human telencephalon and choroid plexus and present in the cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

p73, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor, codes for full-length transactivating (TA) and N-terminally truncated (DeltaN) isoforms, with pro- and anti-apoptotic activities, respectively. We examined the expression of the main p73 isoforms in adult human and mouse telencephalon and choroid plexus by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections, and immunoblotting (IB) of tissue extracts and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using antibodies against different protein domains. Cortical neurons expressed TAp73 predominantly in the cytoplasm and DeltaNp73 mainly in the nucleus, with partial overlap in the cytoplasm. Highest expression was found in the hippocampus. IB showed an array of TAp73 variants in adult human cortex and hippocampus. IB of human choroid plexus and CSF using TAp73-specific antibodies revealed the presence of a approximately 90-kDa protein whose molecular weight was reduced after N-deglycosylation, suggesting that glycosylated TAp73 is exported into the CSF. In the mouse, high expression of TAp73 was also detected in the subcommissural organ (SCO), an ependymal gland absent in adult humans. TAp73 colocalized with anti-fibra-Reissner-antibody (AFRU), which is a marker of Reissner's fiber, the secreted SCO product. p73-deficient mice had generalized cortical hypoplasia and hydrocephalus; in addition, we observed a dramatic size reduction of the choroid plexus. However, the SCOs were apparently unaltered and continued to secrete Reissner's fiber. Our findings point to complex and widespread p73 activities in the maintenance of adult cortical neurons and in brain homeostasis. TAp73 in the CSF may play important roles in the maintenance of the adult ventricular wall as well as in the development of the proliferating neuroepithelium. PMID:16630058

Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Pueyo Morlans, Mercedes; Suarez Sola, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Delgado, Francisco J; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustin; Marin, Maria C; Meyer, Gundela

2006-04-01

105

Fetal Brain-directed AAV Gene Therapy Results in Rapid, Robust, and Persistent Transduction of Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelia.  

PubMed

Fetal brain-directed gene addition represents an under-appreciated tool for investigating novel therapeutic approaches in animal models of central nervous system diseases with early prenatal onset. Choroid plexuses (CPs) are specialized neuroectoderm-derived structures that project into the brain's ventricles, produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and regulate CSF biochemical composition. Targeting the CP may be advantageous for adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy for central nervous system disorders due to its immunoprivileged location and slow rate of epithelial turnover. Yet the capacity of AAV vectors to transduce CP has not been delineated precisely. We performed intracerebroventricular injections of recombinant AAV serotype 5-green fluorescent protein (rAAV5-GFP) or rAAV9-GFP in embryonic day 15 (E15) embryos of CD-1 and C57BL/6 pregnant mice and quantified the percentages of GFP expression in CP epithelia (CPE) from lateral and fourth ventricles on E17, postnatal day 2 (P2), and P22. AAV5 was selective for CPE and showed significantly higher transduction efficiency in C57BL/6 mice (P = 0.0128). AAV9 transduced neurons and glial cells in both the mouse strains, in addition to CPE. We documented GFP expression in CPE on E17, within just 48 hours of rAAV administration to the fetal lateral ventricle, and expression by both the serotypes persisted at P130. Our results indicate that prenatal administration of rAAV5 and rAAV9 enables rapid, robust, and sustained transduction of mouse CPE and buttress the rationale for experimental therapeutics targeting the CP.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e101; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.27; published online 25 June 2013. PMID:23799375

Haddad, Marie Reine; Donsante, Anthony; Zerfas, Patricia; Kaler, Stephen G

2013-01-01

106

Profile of toll-like receptor mRNA expression in the choroid plexus in adult ewes.  

PubMed

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) located in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus (CP) forms the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and pathogen components circulating in the blood. The CP is also implicated in the passage of peripheral immune signals and circulation of immune cells into the central nervous system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are patternrecognition receptors that play a crucial role in the recognition of pathogens and triggering of the innate immune response. In sheep, ten members of the TLR family have been identified and cloned. We used real-time PCR analyses to examine the profiles of TLR mRNA expression in the CP of cerebral ventricles in healthy adult ewes. The transcripts for all ten TLRs except TLR8 were present; however, we observed a high variation in the degree of expression of the TLR5 and TLR1 genes (coefficient of variation: 61% and 46%, respectively) as well as a moderate variation in the expression of the TLR4 (34%), TLR2 (27%) and TLR6 (26%) genes. The TLR9, TLR7, TLR3 and TLR10 genes were the four receptors with relatively invariable expression levels (coefficient of variation: 7%, 8%, 16% and 17%, respectively) across the six adult ewes. The concentration of cortisol in blood collected prior to sacrificing the ewes ranged from 0.18 to 78.9 ng/ml. There was no correlation between cortisol concentration and mRNA expression of any of the examined TLRs. These data suggest that the CP has the potential to sense the presence of many bacterial and viral components and mediate responses for the elimination of invading microorganisms, thereby protecting the brain. PMID:25374259

Skipor, Janina; Szczepkowska, Aleksandra; Kowalewska, Marta; Herman, Andrzej P; Lisiewski, Pawe?

2015-03-01

107

Choroid plexus papilloma-A case highlighting the challenges of extrapolating pediatric chemotherapy regimens to adult populations.  

PubMed

The treatment of adults who present with rare pediatric tumors is not characterized well in the literature. We report an instance of a 40-year-old African American woman with a diagnosis of choroid plexus carcinoma admitted to the intensive care unit for severe sepsis seven days after receiving chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (350?mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 2 plus etoposide 100?mg/m(2) on Days 1-5). Her laboratory results were significant for an absolute neutrophil count of 0/µL and blood cultures positive for Capnocytophagia species. She was supported with broad spectrum antibiotics and myeloid growth factors. She eventually recovered and was discharged in stable condition. The management of adults with malignancies most commonly seen in pediatric populations presents substantial challenges. There are multiple age-specific differences in renal and hepatic function that explain the need for higher dosing in pediatric patients without increasing the risk of toxicity. Furthermore, differences in pharmacokinetic parameters such as absorption, distribution, and clearance are present but are less likely to affect patients. It is expected that the pediatric population will have more bone marrow reserve and, therefore, less susceptible to myelosuppression. The extrapolation of pediatric dosing to an adult presents a problematic situation in treating adults with malignancies that primarily effect pediatric patients. We recommend extrapolating from adult treatment regimens with similar agents rather than extrapolating from pediatric treatment regimens to reduce the risk of toxicity. We also recommend the consideration of adding myeloid growth factors. If the treatment is tolerated without significant toxicity, dose escalation can be considered. PMID:25063761

Barman, Stephen L; Jean, Gary W; Dinsfriend, William M; Gerber, David E

2014-07-25

108

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitope Immunodominance in the Control of Choroid Plexus Tumors in Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

The simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (Tag) is a virus-encoded oncoprotein which is the target of a strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. Three immunodominant H-2b-restricted epitopes, designated epitopes I, II/III, and IV, have been defined. We investigated whether induction of CTLs directed against these Tag epitopes might control Tag-induced tumors in SV11+ (H-2b) mice. SV11+ mice develop spontaneous tumors of the choroid plexus due to expression of SV40 Tag as a transgene. We demonstrate that SV11+ mice are functionally tolerant to the immunodominant Tag CTL epitopes. CTLs specific for the H-2Kb-restricted Tag epitope IV were induced in SV11+ mice following adoptive transfer with unprimed C57BL/6 spleen cells and immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing either full-length Tag or the H-2Kb-restricted epitope IV as a minigene. In addition, irradiation of SV11+ mice prior to adoptive transfer with unprimed C57BL/6 spleen cells led to the priming of epitope IV-specific CTLs by the endogenous Tag. Induction of epitope IV-specific CTLs in SV11+ mice by either approach correlated with increased life span and control of the choroid plexus tumor progression, indicating that CTLs specific for the immunodominant Tag epitope IV control the progressive growth of spontaneous tumors induced by this DNA virus oncogene in transgenic mice. PMID:10364350

Schell, Todd D.; Mylin, Lawrence M.; Georgoff, Ingo; Teresky, Angelica K.; Levine, Arnold J.; Tevethia, Satvir S.

1999-01-01

109

Na+ dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na+ dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed. PMID:24155723

Christensen, Henriette L.; Nguyen, An T.; Pedersen, Fredrik D.; Damkier, Helle H.

2013-01-01

110

Encapsulated living choroid plexus cells: potential long-term treatments for central nervous system disease and trauma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In neurodegenerative disease and in acute brain injury, there is often local up-regulation of neurotrophin production close to the site of the lesion. Treatment by direct injection of neurotrophins and growth factors close to these lesion sites has repeatedly been demonstrated to improve recovery. It has therefore been proposed that transplanting viable neurotrophin-producing cells close to the trauma lesion, or site of degenerative disease, might provide a novel means for continuous delivery of these molecules directly to the site of injury or to a degenerative region. The aim of this paper is to summarize recent published information and present new experimental data that indicate that long-lasting therapeutic implants of choroid plexus (CP) neuroepithelium may be used to treat brain disease. CP produces and secretes numerous biologically active neurotrophic factors (NT). New gene microarray and proteomics data presented here indicate that many other anti-oxidant, anti-toxin and neuronal support proteins are also produced and secreted by CP cells. In the healthy brain, these circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid through the brain and spinal cord, maintaining neuronal networks and associated cells. Recent publications describe how transplanted CP cells and tissue, either free or in an immunoprotected encapsulated form, can effectively deliver therapeutic molecules when placed near the lesion or site of degenerative disease in animal models. Using simple techniques, CP neuroepithelial cell clusters in suspension culture were very durable, remaining viable for 6 months or more in vitro. The cell culture conditions had little effect on the wide range and activity of genes expressed and proteins secreted. Recently, completed experiments show that implanting CP within alginate-poly-ornithine capsules effectively protected these xenogeneic cells from the host immune system and allowed their survival for 6 months or more in the brains of rats, causing no adverse effects. Previously reported evidence demonstrated that CP cells support the survival and differentiation of neuronal cells in vitro and effectively treat acute brain injury and disease in rodents and non-human primates in vivo. The accumulated preclinical data together with the long-term survival of implanted encapsulated cells in vivo provide a sound base for the investigation of these treatments for chronic inherited and established neurodegenerative conditions.

Skinner, S. J. M.; Geaney, M. S.; Lin, H.; Muzina, M.; Anal, A. K.; Elliott, R. B.; Tan, P. L. J.

2009-12-01

111

Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of the models of brain endothelial cells and choroidal plexus epithelial cells in culture has allowed us to investigate into these mechanisms. Our strategy is aimed at exploring different routes to the entrapment of iron oxide NPs in these brain related cells. Here we demonstrated that not only cells endowed with a good phagocytic activity like activated macrophages but also endothelial brain capillary and choroidal plexus epithelial cells do internalize iron oxide NPs. Our study of the intracellular trafficking of NPs by TEM, and confocal microscopy revealed that NPs are mainly internalized by the endocytic pathway. Iron oxide NPs were dispersed in water and coated with 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) using standard procedures. Magnetic lipid NPs were prepared by NANOVECTOR: water in oil in water (W/O/W) microemulsion process has been applied to directly coat different iron based NPs by lipid layer or to encapsulate them into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs). By these coating/loading the colloidal stability was improved without strong alteration of the particle size distribution. Magnetic lipid NPs could be reconstituted after freeze drying without appreciable changes in stability. L-DOPA coated NPs are stable in PBS and in MEM (Modified Eagle Medium) medium. The magnetic properties of these NPs were not altered by the coating processes. We investigated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and interaction of these NPs with rat brain capillary endothelial (REB4) and choroidal plexus epithelial (Z310) cells. By means of widefield, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we studied the cell uptake of magnetic SLNs derivatized with a fluorescent reporter molecule and of L-DOPA-TRITC coated NPs. Inhibition of the caveolae-mediated pathway by preincubation with filipin and nystatin did not modify the cellular uptake of these NPs in both cell lines. Furthermore a mild decrease of the NPs cell uptake was obtained after chlorpromazine and NaN3 pretreatment, which interferes with clathrin and energy-dependent endocytosis, and cytochalasin and amiloride pretreatment which interfere with macropinocytosis. NPs particle size as such can strongly affect the efficiency of cellular uptake and the mode of endocytosis. Considering that our L-DOPA and magnetic SLNs display a medium hydrodynamic size of 120 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.3, we can assume that the cell uptake process of these NPs may develop, depending the particle size, both via clathrin mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis and only to less extent via the pathway of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Taken together these results let us to conclude that SLNs iron loaded and iron based L-DOPA coated NPs are internalized into brain endothelial and choroidal plexus epithelial cells and this might provide the first step of an intracellular trafficking to transport these NPs between blood and brain.

Cambianica, I.; Bossi, M.; Gasco, P.; Gonzalez, W.; Idee, J. M.; Miserocchi, G.; Rigolio, R.; Chanana, M.; Morjan, I.; Wang, D.; Sancini, G.

2010-10-01

112

The characteristics of basolateral nucleoside transport in the perfused sheep choroid plexus and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition on these processes.  

PubMed

The single pass paired dilution technique was used to measure the uptake of nucleosides across the basolateral face of the isolated in situ perfused sheep choroid plexus (CP). The uptake of labelled adenosine and guanosine into the CP was large (approximately 35%) whereas that of thymidine was less (approximately 15%). The addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled adenosine to the perfusate inhibited the uptake of labelled adenosine by 66%, guanosine by 100% and that of thymidine by 50%, whereas the addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled thymidine caused complete self-inhibition. The backflux of adenosine was very small which may indicate a high rate of cellular metabolism or a flux into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The addition of 0.5 mM unlabelled adenosine did not alter the backflux of adenosine, but increased that of guanosine and thymidine. The entry of radioactivity derived from adenosine across the apical side of the CP cells into the newly formed CSF was determined as a 'CSF uptake index' relative to [14C]butanol and found to be about 25%; however, HPLC analysis revealed that the majority of this activity was hypoxanthine, and not adenosine. The complete inhibition of nitric oxide synthase caused a significant reduction in adenosine uptake into the CP and an increase in backflux for this molecule. It would appear that the uptake for adenosine by the CP is governed by the rate of cellular metabolism and not by the rate of transport into the cells of the choroid plexus whereas for guanosine and thymidine, transport is of greater importance. PMID:9365012

Redzi?, Z B; Segal, M B; Markovi?, I D; Gasi?, J M; Vidovi?, V; Raki?, L M

1997-08-29

113

AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE PASSAGE OF COLLOIDAL PARTICLES FROM THE BLOOD VESSELS OF THE CILIARY PROCESSES AND CHOROID PLEXUS OF THE RABBIT  

PubMed Central

The thinnest areas of the capillaries of the choroid plexus and ciliary processes in the eye of the rabbit are characterized by the presence of fenestrae. When various colloidal particles opaque to the electron beam (thorotrast, gold sol, and saccharated iron oxide) were injected into the blood stream, none were found in fenestrae or in areas that might suggest their having passed through fenestrae. The passage of marker particles from the lumen to the surrounding connective tissue does take place on occasion in the areas of thicker walls in the capillaries and venules rather than in the attenuated and fenestrated endothelial walls. The pathway taken by these markers may be either through the cytoplasm of the endothelial cells via membrane-bounded vesicles and vacuoles or through the intercellular spaces of the vessels. An altered aqueous humor (cloudy and plasmoid) was produced by endotoxin injection or by making a draining fistula in rabbit cornea. Both methods gave rise to the same changes in the blood vessels of the ciliary processes. Under such conditions of inflammation the passage of colloidal particles through the thicker walls of the capillaries and venules was greatly increased and occurred primarily as an intercellular passage between the endothelial cells. The attenuated and fenestrated areas of the endothelium of the small capillaries remained unchanged with no particles passing through them. These results on the altered vessels of the ciliary processes parallel those of Majno and Palade (26) on the rat cremaster muscle. PMID:13941333

Pappas, George D.; Tennyson, Virginia M.

1962-01-01

114

ATP7A gene addition to the choroid plexus results in long-term rescue of the lethal copper transport defect in a Menkes disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Menkes disease is a lethal infantile neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in a P-type ATPase, ATP7A. Currently available treatment (daily subcutaneous copper injections) is not entirely effective in the majority of affected individuals. The mottled-brindled (mo-br) mouse recapitulates the Menkes phenotype, including abnormal copper transport to the brain owing to mutation in the murine homolog, Atp7a, and dies by 14 days of age. We documented that mo-br mice on C57BL/6 background were not rescued by peripheral copper administration, and used this model to evaluate brain-directed therapies. Neonatal mo-br mice received lateral ventricle injections of either adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) harboring a reduced-size human ATP7A (rsATP7A) complementary DNA (cDNA), copper chloride, or both. AAV5-rsATP7A showed selective transduction of choroid plexus epithelia and AAV5-rsATP7A plus copper combination treatment rescued mo-br mice; 86% survived to weaning (21 days), median survival increased to 43 days, 37% lived beyond 100 days, and 22% survived to the study end point (300 days). This synergistic treatment effect correlated with increased brain copper levels, enhanced activity of dopamine-?-hydroxylase, a copper-dependent enzyme, and correction of brain pathology. Our findings provide the first definitive evidence that gene therapy may have clinical utility in the treatment of Menkes disease. PMID:21878905

Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Zerfas, Patricia M; Brinster, Lauren R; Sullivan, Patricia; Goldstein, David S; Prohaska, Joseph; Centeno, Jose A; Rushing, Elisabeth; Kaler, Stephen G

2011-12-01

115

Highly activated c-fos expression in specific brain regions (ependyma, circumventricular organs, choroid plexus) of histidine decarboxylase deficient mice in response to formalin-induced acute pain.  

PubMed

Activation of different brain regions for acute pain-related stress induced by a single subcutaneous injection of 4% formalin was investigated in histidine decarboxylase-deficient mice. Besides pain- and stress-related brain areas and the tuberomamillary neurons, strong Fos activation and c-fos mRNA expression were found in distinct brain regions and cell types, which have not been activated in wild type control mice. These structures include the circumventricular organs (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, area postrema), some of the ependymal cells along the wall of the ventricles, tanycytes in the third ventricle's ependyma and the median eminence, as well as in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. All of these areas and cell types are known as compartments of the brain-blood-cerebrospinal fluid interface. The present observations provide strong evidence that an acute stressor, formalin-evoked painful stimulus elicits rapid alterations in the activity of neuroglial elements of histidine decarboxylase-deficient mice that are directly involved in the communication between the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid space. PMID:17544458

Palkovits, Miklós; Deli, Mária A; Gallatz, Katalin; Tóth, Zsuzsanna E; Buzás, Edit; Falus, András

2007-07-01

116

Recovery of neurological functions in non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease by transplantation of encapsulated neonatal porcine choroid plexus cells.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is primarily characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and a loss of their fibre projections in the striatum. We utilized the neonatal porcine choroid plexus (CP), an organ that secretes cerebrospinal fluid containing various types of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, to ameliorate the Parkinsonian symptoms in MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated rhesus monkeys without requiring immunosuppression. We demonstrate that transplanted encapsulated CP clusters (eCPs) significantly improved neurological functions in MPTP-treated monkeys during the course of six months after transplantation (p < 0.001) when compared with monkeys implanted with empty capsules or subjected to sham surgery. The improvement in neurological scores was accompanied by a corresponding improvement in apomorphine-induced circling behaviour (p < 0.001) as well as increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining in the striatum. Our results suggest that eCPs are a promising cell therapeutic agent to treat Parkinson's disease. PMID:24002224

Luo, Xian-Ming; Lin, Hai; Wang, Wei; Geaney, Marilyn S; Law, Lee; Wynyard, Shaun; Shaikh, Shamim B; Waldvogel, Henry; Faull, Richard L M; Elliott, Robert B; Skinner, Stephen J M; Lee, Jacqueline E; Tan, Paul L-J

2013-01-01

117

Stereotactic Radiosurgical Treatment of Brain Metastases to the Choroid Plexus;Renal cell cancer; Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA); Graded prognostic assessment (GPA); Survival and outcomes; Gamma knife  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Choroid plexus metastases (CPM) are uncommon lesions. Consequently, optimal management of CPM is uncertain. We summarize our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of CPM. Methods and Materials: Sixteen consecutive patients with presumed CPM treated with SRS between 1997 and 2007 were examined. Twelve were men with a median age at diagnosis of CPM of 61.9 {+-} 9.9 years; 14 had metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). All patients had controlled primary disease at the time of treatment for CPM. Four patients with RCC and 1 with non-small-cell lung cancer had undergone whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) previously and 2 had received SRS to other brain metastases. The disease-free interval from the primary diagnosis to CPM diagnosis averaged 39.3 {+-} 46.2 months (range, 1.0-156.3). Five patients were asymptomatic; of the remaining 11, none had symptoms related to CPM. All presented with a single CPM. Results: Average maximum diameter of the CPMs was 2.0 {+-} 1.0 cm (range, 0.9-4.1 cm); mean volume was 2.4 {+-} 2.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-9.3). Median SRS dose was 24 Gy to the 53% isodose line (range, 14-24 Gy). Survival after SRS to the CPM was 25.3 {+-} 23.4 months (range, 3.2-101.6). Patients in Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) class I (n = 10) had improved survival compared to those in class II (n = 6), as did those with better GPA scores. There were no local failures. After SRS, 1 patient underwent WBRT, 3 patients had one, and another had two subsequent SRS treatments to other brain lesions. Of the 14 patients who have died, 11 succumbed to systemic disease progression, 2 to progressive, multifocal central nervous system disease, and 1 to systemic disease with concurrent, stable central nervous system disease. There were no complications related to SRS. Conclusions: Most CPMs are associated with RCC. SRS represents a safe and viable treatment option as primary modality for these metastases, with excellent outcomes.

Siomin, Vitaly [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lin, Jennifer L. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Marko, Nicholas F., E-mail: markon@ccf.org [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Barnett, Gene H.; Toms, Steven A. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chao, Samuel T. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Neurological and Taussig Cancer Institutes, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Navaratne, Kapila [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Neurological and Taussig Cancer Institutes, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Weil, Robert J. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-07-15

118

Gene expression-based comparison of the human secretory neuroepithelia of the brain choroid plexus and the ocular ciliary body: potential implications for glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Background The neuroepithelia of the choroid plexus (CP) in the brain and the ciliary body (CB) of the eye have common embryological origins and share similar micro-structure and functions. The CP epithelium (CPE) and the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) of the CB produce the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the aqueous humor (AH) respectively. Production and outflow of the CSF determine the intracranial pressure (ICP); production and outflow of the AH determine the intraocular pressure (IOP). Together, the IOP and ICP determine the translaminar pressure on the optic disc which may be involved in the pathophysiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The aim of this study was to compare the molecular machinery of the secretory neuroepithelia of the CP and CB (CPE versus NPE) and to determine their potential role in POAG. Methods We compared the transcriptomes and functional annotations of healthy human CPE and NPE. Microarray and bioinformatic studies were performed using an Agilent platform and the Ingenuity Knowledge Database (IPA). Results Based on gene expression profiles, we found many similar functions for the CPE and NPE including molecular transport, neurological disease processes, and immunological functions. With commonly-used selection criteria (fold-change?>?2.5, p-value??5, p-value?

2014-01-01

119

Immunization with a Myelin-Derived Antigen Activates the Brain's Choroid Plexus for Recruitment of Immunoregulatory Cells to the CNS and Attenuates Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of ALS.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating fatal motor neuron disease, for which there is currently no cure or effective treatment. In this disease, local neuroinflammation develops along the disease course and contributes to its rapid progression. In several models of CNS pathologies, circulating immune cells were shown to display an indispensable role in the resolution of the neuroinflammatory response. The recruitment of such cells to the CNS involves activation of the choroid plexus (CP) of the brain for leukocyte trafficking, through a mechanism that requires IFN-? signaling. Here, we found that in the mutant SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) mouse model of ALS, the CP does not support leukocyte trafficking during disease progression, due to a local reduction in IFN-? levels. Therapeutic immunization of mSOD1 mice with a myelin-derived peptide led to CP activation, and was followed by the accumulation of immunoregulatory cells, including IL-10-producing monocyte-derived macrophages and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, and elevation of the neurotrophic factors IGF-1 and GDNF in the diseased spinal cord parenchyma. The immunization resulted in the attenuation of disease progression and an increased life expectancy of the mSOD1 mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that recruitment of immunoregulatory cells to the diseased spinal cord in ALS, needed for fighting off the pathology, can be enhanced by transiently boosting peripheral immunity to myelin antigens. PMID:25904790

Kunis, Gilad; Baruch, Kuti; Miller, Omer; Schwartz, Michal

2015-04-22

120

Choroidal melanoma  

PubMed Central

Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intra-ocular malignant tumor and second most common site of ten malignant melanoma sites in the body. Current diagnosis of choroidal melanoma is based on both the clinical experience of the specialist and modern diagnostic techniques such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, A- and B-ultrasonography scans, fundus fluorescein angiography, and transillumination. Invasive studies such as fine needle aspiration cytology can have significant morbidity and should only be considered if therapeutic intervention is indicated and diagnosis cannot be established by any other means. Several modes of treatment are available for choroidal melanoma. Multiple factors are taken into account when deciding one approach over other approaches, such as visual acuity of the affected eye, visual acuity of the contralateral eye, tumor size, location, ocular structures involved and presence of metastases. A comprehensive review of literature available in books and indexed journals was done. This article discusses in detail epidemiology, diagnosis, current available treatment options, and prognosis and survival of choroidal melanoma. PMID:22557869

Singh, Parul; Singh, Abhishek

2012-01-01

121

Choroidal imaging: A review  

PubMed Central

Being the most vascular tissue of the eye, importance of the choroid has been very well established in various retinal and chorio-retinal diseases. Understanding of the choroidal structures has improved significantly since the evolution of enhanced depth imaging. Quantitative assessment of choroidal measurements has been found to be reproducible using different devices. This review article describes factors affecting choroidal thickness and choroidal changes in several diseases and reports its clinical importance. Evaluation of choroid would provide insight into the pathogenesis, treatment planning and follow up in chorioretinal diseases. PMID:24843305

Chhablani, Jay; Wong, Ian Y.; Kozak, Igor

2014-01-01

122

Ovarian cysts  

MedlinePLUS

Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts; Corpus luteum cysts; Follicular cysts ... cyst often contains a small amount of blood. Ovarian cysts are more common in the childbearing years between ...

123

Solitary Idiopathic Choroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background There are multiple conditions associated with the formation of a solitary choroidal granuloma. However, in many cases, solitary choroiditis remains idiopathic in spite of an extensive systemic evaluation. Methods A 26-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic pale choroidal lesion that had the features of solitary idiopathic choroiditis. Results Optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence were performed and showed lesion features. Conclusions Solitary idiopathic choroiditis is a rare condition of unknown aetiology that sometimes can be mistaken as an intraocular tumour. The use of emerging multimodal imaging is of great importance in the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:24575031

Monteiro, Sérgio; Andrews, Richard; Sagoo, Mandeep

2014-01-01

124

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

125

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research ...

126

Serpiginous choroiditis and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis  

PubMed Central

Serpiginous choroiditis (SC) is a posterior uveitis displaying a geographic pattern of choroiditis, extending from the juxtapapillary choroid and intermittently spreading centrifugally. The choroiditis involves the overlying retinal pigment epithelium, and the outer retina. This intraocular inflammation typically involves both eyes in otherwise healthy, middle-aged individuals with no familial or ethnic predilection. Pathogenesis is unclear; however, based on limited histopathologic studies, favorable response to immunosuppressive agents, and the absence of association with systemic or local infectious or noninfectious diseases, an organ-specific autoimmune inflammation seems likely to be the underlying process. Patients, particularly from tuberculosis-endemic regions, may present with fundus changes simulating SC, but show evidence of active tuberculosis and/or the presence of mycobacterial DNA in the aqueous humor. This has been referred to as serpiginous-like choroiditis, but we prefer the description multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC). We present the distinguishing features of SC and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis simulating SC. The distinction is crucial to avoid unnecessarily treating SC with antimicrobial agents. Advances in diagnostic and imaging modalities can help differentiate SC from MSC. Novel local and systemic treatment approaches improve the outcome and preserve vision in SC. PMID:23541041

Nazari, Hossein; Rao, Narsing A

2012-01-01

127

Review of Choroidal Osteomas  

PubMed Central

Choroidal osteomas are rare benign ossifying tumors that appear as irregular slightly elevated, yellow-white, juxtapapillary, choroidal mass with well-defined geographic borders, depigmentation of the overlying pigment epithelium; and with multiple small vascular networks on the tumor surface. Visual loss results from three mechanisms: Atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium overlying a decalcified osteoma; serous retinal detachment over the osteoma from decompensated retinal pigment epithelium, and most commonly from choroidal neovascularization. Recent evidence points to the beneficial effects of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists in improving visual acuity in serous retinal detachment with or without choroidal neovascularization. PMID:25100910

Alameddine, Ramzi M.; Mansour, Ahmad M.; Kahtani, Eman

2014-01-01

128

Review of choroidal osteomas.  

PubMed

Choroidal osteomas are rare benign ossifying tumors that appear as irregular slightly elevated, yellow-white, juxtapapillary, choroidal mass with well-defined geographic borders, depigmentation of the overlying pigment epithelium; and with multiple small vascular networks on the tumor surface. Visual loss results from three mechanisms: Atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium overlying a decalcified osteoma; serous retinal detachment over the osteoma from decompensated retinal pigment epithelium, and most commonly from choroidal neovascularization. Recent evidence points to the beneficial effects of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists in improving visual acuity in serous retinal detachment with or without choroidal neovascularization. PMID:25100910

Alameddine, Ramzi M; Mansour, Ahmad M; Kahtani, Eman

2014-01-01

129

THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL CHOROID  

PubMed Central

The choroid of the eye is primarily a vascular structure supplying the outer retina. It has several unusual features: It contains large membrane-lined lacunae, which, at least in birds, function as part of the lymphatic drainage of the eye and which can change their volume dramatically, thereby changing the thickness of the choroid as much as four-fold over a few days (much less in primates). It contains non-vascular smooth muscle cells, especially behind the fovea, the contraction of which may thin the choroid, thereby opposing the thickening caused by expansion of the lacunae. It has intrinsic choroidal neurons, also mostly behind the central retina, which may control these muscles and may modulate choroidal blood-flow as well. These neurons receive sympathetic, parasympathetic and nitrergic innervation. The choroid has several functions: Its vasculature is the major supply for the outer retina; impairment of the flow of oxygen from choroid to retina may cause Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The choroidal blood flow, which is as great as in any other organ, may also cool and warm the retina. In addition to its vascular functions, the choroid contains secretory cells, probably involved in modulation of vascularization and in growth of the sclera. Finally, the dramatic changes in choroidal thickness move the retina forward and back, bringing the photoreceptors into the plane of focus, a function demonstrated by the thinning of the choroid that occurs when the focal plane is moved back by the wearing of negative lenses, and, conversely, by the thickening that occurs when positive lenses are worn. In addition to focusing the eye, more slowly than accommodation and more quickly than emmetropization, we argue that the choroidal thickness changes also are correlated with changes in the growth of the sclera, and hence of the eye. Because transient increases in choroidal thickness are followed by a prolonged decrease in synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules and a slowing of ocular elongation, and attempts to decouple the choroidal and scleral changes have largely failed, it seems that the thickening of the choroid may be mechanistically linked to the scleral synthesis of macromolecules, and thus may play an important role in the homeostatic control of eye growth, and, consequently, in the etiology of myopia and hyperopia. PMID:20044062

Nickla, Debora L.; Wallman, Josh

2010-01-01

130

Oral Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... that normally forms teeth. This is called an odontogenic cyst. This type of jaw cyst can grow large ... bite (the way teeth come together). A large odontogenic cyst also can weaken the jaw because the cyst ...

131

Single port microsurgical technique for excision of third ventricular colloid cysts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Colloid cysts are benign space-occupying lesions that account for 0.5-1.0% of brain tumors and arise from the velum interpositum or the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. Material and Methods: We are describing a modified surgical technique that combines the positive attributes of being minimalistic, while retaining the effectiveness of microsurgery. In all 20 consecutive symptomatic patients with a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of colloid cyst who came to the senior author between 2008 and 2011 were included in the study. The patient was kept supine with the head positioned neutrally in the sagittal plane and neck flexed at 20°. The tube of a 5 ml plastic syringe having an external diameter of 13 mm and an internal diameter of 12.6 mm was cut toward the nozzle end to the appropriate length depending upon the cortical thickness measured on the preoperative MRI. Results: The average operative time was around 90 min with maximum of 120 min. None of the patients had seizures preoperatively or postoperatively and in all cases antiepileptic medication could be stopped after 3-6 month of surgery. Two patients had short-term memory impairment which returned to near normal by 1-year following surgery. Conclusion: A volume of 5 ml plastic syringe port technique decreases the operative morbidity and operative time. The wider corridor of working makes the simultaneously maneuverability of two surgical instruments feasible enhancing safety and completeness of excision. PMID:25685214

Vaish, Manish; Patir, Rana; Prasad, Rahul; Agrawal, Amit

2014-01-01

132

The Brachial Plexus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to instruct students on the basic anatomy and physiology of the brachial plexus. Through exercises such as matching, coloring and labeling, students are introduced to the brachial plexus and its role in controlling the cutaneous sensation and movement of the upper limbs.

Mr. Samuel J Schwarzlose (Amarillo College Biology)

2010-08-20

133

Regulation of Zinc Transport in the Choroid Plexus  

E-print Network

as extracellular zinc was pharmacologically depleted or supplemented. My second objective was to characterize changes in zinc transporter and MT-1 expression in response to exposure to prolactin. My experimental approach was to analyze gene expression of ZnT1, Zip1...

Aquino, Mayra

2014-07-21

134

[Brachial plexus tumors].  

PubMed

The brachial plexus is a primary site of tumours originating from peripheral nervous system, such as neurilemmoma and neurofibroma. Moreover, the brachial plexus is affected by various neoplasms spreading from the neighbouring anatomic structures. Surgical treatment of neoplasms provoking plexopathy is often realised by multidisciplinary teams. The authors present the series of 7 patients operated on for brachial plexus affection between 1993-2000, the pathologic findings were as follows: neurofibroma, neurilemmoma, lymphogranulomatosis, neurofibrosarcoma, lipoma, chordoma, sarcoma neurogenes. The analysis of clinical course includes: main symptoms, diagnostic procedures and results of treatment. Surgical technique is also described. PMID:12418135

Zapa?owicz, Krzysztof; Radek, Andrzej; ?yczak, Piotr; B?aszczyk, Bogdan; Skiba, Piotr

2002-01-01

135

Ovarian Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on ...

136

Ovarian Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... If you don't ovulate, you won't form functional cysts. Do I need surgery for an ovarian cyst? The treatment for ovarian cysts depends on several things, such as your age, whether you are having ...

137

Ganglion Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... from trauma – whether a single event or repetitive micro-trauma. Symptoms A ganglion cyst is associated with ... the cyst or remove a small amount of fluid from the cyst for evaluation. Your doctor may ...

138

[Amyothropic neuralgy of lumbosacral plexus - case report].  

PubMed

Amyothropic neuralgy is a rare disease witch unknown etiopathogenesis. The main popular theory says that inflammatory and immunomodulatory process is connected with that disease. Diagnosis is made after exclusion of other causes of plexus lumbosacralis damage. The main symptom is neuropathic pain after which there is observed muscle weakness and atrophy. ENG/EMG study and MRI are made to confirm the diagnosis. In this study we described a case of 52 years old female with lower limbs paresis, who was diagnosed few years after first symptoms. Limb paresis was preluded by lumbar pain. MRI study revealed central spinal disc herniations on L1-2, L2-3, L3-4 levels with dura matter compression, L4-5 spinal disc right lateral herniation and synovial cyst. MRI of both lumbar plexuses was also normal. EMG study revealed features of bilateral, chronic damage of lower legs nerves on lumbar plexus level. Patient was treated with physiotherapy and gabapentin with dose of 2x600mg per day. PMID:25771520

Pastuszak, ?anna; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; St?pie?, Adam

2015-02-01

139

A case of cervical juxtafacet cyst with extensive rim enhancement on Gd-DTPA MRI.  

PubMed

The authors reported a case of cervical juxtafacet cyst with extensive rim enhancement on gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacid magnetic resonance imaging. Operative finding revealed the epidural space around the mass filled with abundant venous plexus. Histological examination demonstrated that cyst wall was composed of the well-vascularized fibrous connective tissue with some inflammatory changes. We speculate that extensive rim enhancement of juxtafacet cyst may be attributed not only to the chronic inflammatory changes of cyst wall, but to engorged venous plexus within the widened epidural space. PMID:24332973

Sasamori, Toru; Hida, Kazutoshi; Anzai, Kimio; Yano, Shunsuke; Kato, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Shinya; Saito, Hisatoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

2014-01-01

140

Ovarian Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

What is an ovarian cyst? An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid or other tissue that forms on the ovary . ... FAQ Ovarian Cancer). What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts? Most ovarian cysts are small and do not ...

141

Arachnoid Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... nausea and vomiting, seizures, hearing and visual disturbances, vertigo, and difficulties with balance and walking. Arachnoid cysts ... from other types of cysts. Is there any treatment? There has been active debate about how to ...

142

Scleral buckle hemorrhagic cyst masquerading as an orbital tumor  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 41-year-old man who was referred for evaluation of a choroidal tumor with a remote history of scleral buckle placement for traumatic retinal detachment. Ocular imaging, echography, and magnetic resonance imaging could not rule out a neoplastic process so the patient was taken for surgical exploration where a hemorrhagic cyst was discovered. This is the first case in the literature of a silicone scleral buckle–associated hemorrhagic cyst presenting as orbital mass. PMID:25709397

Almeida, David RP; Chin, Eric K; Boldt, H Culver; Mahajan, Vinit B

2015-01-01

143

Obstetric brachial plexus injury  

PubMed Central

Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI), also known as birth brachial plexus injury (BBPI), is unfortunately a rather common injury in newborn children. Incidence varies between 0.15 and 3 per 1000 live births in various series and countries. Although spontaneous recovery is known, there is a large subset which does not recover and needs primary or secondary surgical intervention. An extensive review of peer-reviewed publications has been done in this study, including clinical papers, review articles and systematic review of the subject. In addition, the authors’ experience of several hundred cases over the last 15 years has been added and has influenced the ultimate text. Causes of OBPI, indications of primary nerve surgery and secondary reconstruction of shoulder, etc. are discussed in detail. Although all affected children do not require surgery in infancy, a substantial proportion of them, however, require it and are better off for it. Secondary surgery is needed for shoulder elbow and hand problems. Results of nerve surgery are very encouraging. Children with OBPI should be seen early by a hand surgeon dealing with brachial plexus injuries. Good results are possible with early and appropriate intervention even in severe cases. PMID:22279269

Thatte, Mukund R.; Mehta, Rujuta

2011-01-01

144

[Diagnostics and treatment of choroidal lymphoma].  

PubMed

Choroidal lymphoma is a rare disease and can be classified into primary and secondary choroidal lymphomas. Primary choroidal lymphoma is a low-grade extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and secondary choroidal lymphomas present ocular manifestations of disseminated systemic lymphomas. Typical clinical features of choroidal lymphoma are multifocal, yellow-whitish choroidal infiltrates. The vitreous body is usually clear and cell-free. Choroidal lymphoma has a tendency to extend through the sclera. In contrast to primary choroidal lymphoma, which is more often unilateral, does not show signs of anterior segment involvement and has a slow progression, secondary choroidal lymphoma is more often bilateral, has a rapidly progressive course with anterior segment and vitreous involvement and belongs to the high-grade lymphomas. The definitive diagnosis of choroidal lymphoma can only be confirmed by histopathological examination of biopsy tissue. The choroidal biopsy is the gold standard in the diagnostics of choroidal lymphoma. To date, no standardized treatment for choroidal lymphoma has been established. The treatment modalities include external beam radiotherapy, immunotherapy with rituximab and chemotherapy. The prognosis for survival of primary choroidal lymphoma is usually good. The prognosis of secondary choroidal lymphoma depends on the malignancy grade of systemic lymphoma. PMID:25693876

Doycheva, D; Zierhut, M; Süsskind, D; Bartz-Schmidt, K U; Deuter, C

2015-03-01

145

Hemodynamics of focal choroidal excavations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamics of focal choroidal excavations (FCEs). Four eyes of four patients with a FCE were studied. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and multi-focal electroretinography (mfERG) were performed to investigate the choroidal hemodynamics and the morphological and functional changes. The mean depth of the FCE determined by OCT was 222.5 ± 49.5 ?m with a range of 164-272 ?m. In one case, subretinal fluid was observed in the excavation, and in three cases, subretinal fluid was not observed. ICGA showed hypofluorescence, and laser flowgraphy (LSFG) showed decreased choroidal blood flow at the excavation in all cases. Three cases were symptomatic, and the amplitudes of the mfERGs were reduced. FCEs cause a decrease of choroidal blood flow. In three of four cases, the mfERGs were depressed over the FCEs leading to symptoms. PMID:25626897

Soma, Ryoko; Moriyama, Muka; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

2015-04-01

146

Inflammatory Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Purpose and Methods: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) can be a severe sight-threatening sequela, which can be secondary to both infectious and noninfectious uveitis. This review summarizes the different diseases associated with CNV, highlighting new treatment modalities and the possible strategies, which could be applied for the therapy of this occurrence. Results: Since CNV can often originate from posterior pole lesions and can be hard to identify, an accurate examination is mandatory in order to identify the correct diagnosis. In the majority of cases, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) enable the determination of the clinical characteristics of the CNV. An infectious disease should be looked for to include a suitable therapy when available. The treatment strategy for CNV secondary to noninfectious uveal inflammations should be directed at controlling the inflammatory process. Systemic corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive agents are indicated even when the CNV occurs with apparently inactive uveitis: Chronic subclinical inflammation can be the basis for the pathogenesis of CNV. Additional therapies aimed directly at the neovascular process, such as the intravitreal anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) agents, are recommended particularly when the therapy shows an insufficient response. Conclusion: CNV secondary to uveitis is a severe sequela leading to significant visual impairment. ICGA is mandatory in order to obtain relevant information about the choroidal status. Several therapeutic options have been considered, but no guidelines are provided at the moment. Moreover, the current data are still only based on case reports or small series. For such reasons, further trials are mandatory to validate the preliminary available results. PMID:20404991

Neri, Piergiorgi; Lettieri, Marta; Fortuna, Cinzia; Manoni, Mara; Giovannini, Alfonso

2009-01-01

147

Choroidal detachment and ocular hypotony: CT evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 20 patients with hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, serous choroidal detachment and/or ocular hypotony are described. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment appeared as an area of high attenuation that was usually localized, uniformly hyperdense, and not position-dependent. Serous choroidal detachment appeared as a convex, thick line of increased density within the vitreous cavity. Inflammatory choroidal detachment produces a diffuse intrauveal and suprachoroidal accumulation of high-density, position-dependent fluid, and uveoscleral thickening and enhancement, which in cross section resembles a ring. CT has proved valuable in localizing and differentiating serous or hemorrhagic choroidal detachment and uveoscleral infolding.

Mafee, M.F.; Peyman, G.A.

1984-12-01

148

Choroidal excavation with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Purpose This is a report of a case of choroidal excavation accompanied by polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and retinal pigment epithelium detachment (PED). Methods A 57-year-old Japanese woman who had begun complaining of metamorphopsia in her left eye 7 months earlier underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (IA), as well as a routine ophthalmological examination. Results The patient’s intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and visual field were within normal range. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a serous macular detachment, soft drusen, exudates, and a reddish-orange elevated lesion in the macula of the left eye. The right eye was normal. SD-OCT revealed two lesions in the left eye. One was a PED accompanied by a notch sign, and the other was a choroidal excavation. Additionally, FA revealed a window defect in the PED, and IA showed typical PCV. Three monthly injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor preserved visual acuity, but failed to have any visible effect on the lesion during the 6-month follow up period. Conclusions This is the first report of choroidal excavation accompanied by PED and PCV. The data suggest that choroidal excavation may be associated with various changes that have not been previously reported. Careful observation of such cases may therefore be necessary. PMID:22969281

Kobayashi, Wataru; Abe, Toshiaki; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Toru

2012-01-01

149

MRI of the brachial plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of first choice for evaluating the anatomy and pathology of the brachial\\u000a plexus. This review discusses the used imaging techniques, the normal anatomy, and a variety of pathologies that can involve\\u000a the brachial plexus. The pathology includes primary and secondary tumors (the most frequent secondary tumors being superior\\u000a sulcus tumor and metastatic breast

H. W. van Es

2001-01-01

150

Kidney Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

151

Thornwaldt cysts.  

PubMed

Thornwaldt cysts are rare and benign congenital cysts in the region of the pharyngeal bursa, formed by a communication between the notochord and the nasopharyngeal endoderm. They result from a mechanical obstruction, inflammation, or abscess of the pharyngeal bursa. They are superficial to the superior constrictor muscle and covered by the nasopharyngeal mucous membrane. Most cases are asymptomatic, and patients may rarely present symptoms such as nasal obstruction, foreign body sensation, hearing loss, and periodic halitosis. Therefore, they are often accidentally diagnosed on MRI. Asymptomatic cysts do not require treatment, whereas symptomatic cases require surgical intervention by endonasal or transoral approach. Marsupialization is the procedure of choice to avoid recurrences. The aim of this article is to present and discuss 2 cases of Thornwaldt cysts. PMID:25148637

Righi, Stefano; Boffano, Paolo; Pateras, Dimitrios; Malvè, Laura; Chiodo, Domenico; Boson, Maurizio

2014-09-01

152

Sebaceous cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... or inflamed, other symptoms may include: Skin redness Tender or sore skin Warm skin in the affected ... that reduces swelling. If the cyst becomes swollen, tender, or large, your doctor may drain it or ...

153

Ovarian Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

154

Choroidal Nevus in an Eye with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report an eye with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and a choroidal nevus. Methods This is an observational case report. Results A healthy 69-year-old woman was referred to the Osaka University Hospital with a diagnosis of a macular tumor. She complained of having distorted vision in her left eye. The medical history of the patient was unremarkable. At the initial examination, her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in both eyes, and the intraocular pressure was 18 mm Hg in both eyes. A slit-lamp examination showed no abnormalities in the anterior segment of both eyes and a fundus examination of the left eye showed a slightly elevated juxtafoveal chorioretinal lesion and polyp-like reddish-orange lesions. The juxtafoveal choroidal lesion was located beneath a choroidal neovascularization (CNV). An optical coherence tomography confirmed CNV with pigment epithelial detachment (PED). Fluorescein angiography showed juxtafoveal hyperfluorescence due to CNV. Indocyanine green angiography demonstrated a branching choroidal vascular network that resembled polypoidal lesions. A fundus autofluorescence showed a mosaic pattern and a slight hyperautofluorescence at the CNV. We diagnosed the patient as having PCV. Aflibercept was injected intravitreally because of her PED. After the injection, PED improved and her visual acuity remained stable during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusions In cases of PCV, FAF images are helpful in determining the status of the posterior pole. Intravitreal injections of aflibercept can improve PED associated with CNV, and the BCVA will remain stable for at least 12 months. PMID:25606040

Asao, Kazunobu; Hashida, Noriyasu; Nishida, Kohji

2014-01-01

155

Sonographic Mapping of the Normal Brachial Plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mapping of the brachial plexus with MR imaging has been reported and may have potential clinical applications (eg, precise localization of traumatic or tumoral nerve lesions, selective anesthesia of the brachial plexus). We sought to demonstrate that mapping of the brachial plexus may be performed by means of sonography. METHODS: Twelve healthy adult volunteers (seven women and

Xavier Demondion; Pascal Herbinet; Nathalie Boutry; Christian Fontaine; Jean-Paul Francke; Anne Cotten

156

Ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block.  

PubMed

The axillary brachial plexus block is the most widely performed upper limb block. It is relatively simple to perform and one of the safest approaches to brachial plexus block. With the advent of ultrasound technology, there is a marked improvement in the success rate of the axillary block. This review will focus on the technique of ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block. PMID:25110766

Ranganath, Anil; Srinivasan, Karthikeyan Kallidaikurichi; Iohom, Gabriella

2014-09-01

157

Biliary cysts.  

PubMed Central

This review brings the total number of biliary cysts reported in the world literature to 955. Eighty-one per cent of patients are females and 61% were discovered before age ten. The classical triad of right upper quadrant pain, right upper quandrant mass, and juandice is present in 38% of cases. The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged from less than one week to more than 40 years. The etiology is multifaceted and evidence of the existence of both acquired and congenital cysts is presented. The most useful diagnostic tool is fiberoptic endoscopy with retrograde contrast injection of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. The incidence of biliary carcinoma in patients with biliary cysts is found to be 2.5%; 24 cases have been reported. Considerable controversy has existed concerning the best operative procedure for biliary cysts; no treatment or medical treatment yielding a 97% mortality rate. In an analysis of 235 patients presented since 1968 with an average followup of 5.2 years, the best procedure appears to be excision with either choledochocholedocostomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The operative mortality for all procedures is now 3 to 4%. PMID:1103760

Flanigan, P D

1975-01-01

158

Role of echography in diagnostic dilemma in choroidal masses  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the role of echography in diagnosis and management of a diverse array of choroidal masses. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two cases of clinically suspected choroidal masses were prospectively analyzed with B-scan (10 Hz), A-scan, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) (50 Hz) after a meticulous history and ocular examination. Ancillary investigations and systemic evaluation were also done. Results: Based on clinical suspicion, acoustic features, response to treatment, and other ancillary tests combined together, the various masses were differentiated. The cases included in the study were as follows: n = 10 malignant melanomas, n = 16 metastasis and infiltrations, n = 9 hemangioma, n = 7 tuberculoma, n = 8 nonspecific inflammatory masses, n = 2 disciform plaques, n = 4 macular cysts or retinoschisis, n = 2 Coat's disease, n = 1 melanocytoma, and n = 2 osteomas. Ultrasonography (USG) alone could identify n = 51 lesions, while UBM in combination with USG was needed in remaining 11 masses. Conclusion: Standardized echography is an important adjunct in the diagnosis and management of eyes with intraocular masses. A better understanding of the clinicopathological and echographic picture of the diverse lesions can help in detection, differentiation, diagnosis, proposing a therapeutic approach, and also monitoring response to treatment. Echography is essential to evaluate tumors for extrascleral and anterior segment extension. PMID:24618487

Mithal, Kopal N; Thakkar, Hansa H; Tyagi, Mudit A; Bharwada, Rekha M; Billore, Puja O

2014-01-01

159

Choroidal Imaging Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

E-print Network

Background: A structurally and functionally normal choroidal vasculature is essential for retinal function. Therefore, a precise clinical understanding of choroidal morphology should be important for understanding many ...

Regatieri, Caio V.

160

Bartholin's Gland Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

... of the glands, the fluid backs up. It causes a round swelling called a cyst (say: "sis- ... cyst and to find out whether it's infected. Causes & Risk Factors Are Bartholin's gland cysts caused by ...

161

Choroidal folds associated with a sellar mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case with progressive visual loss whose ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy and choroidal folds in the left eye. Neuroimaging demonstrated a sellar mass compressing the optic chiasm and the left optic nerve was to be stretched. We assume the traction created on the optic nerve by the mass stretched the optic nerve and caused the choroidal

Meltem F. Söylev; Osman Saatci; Isil Saatci; Ismet Durak; Erkin Kir; Mehmet Ergin

1996-01-01

162

The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error. Subjects and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area. Results The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 ?m, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001) and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02). Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age. Conclusion Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 ?m every year and 14.59 ?m with 1 mm increase in axial length. PMID:25419112

Jirarattanasopa, Pichai; Panon, Nisa; Hiranyachattada, Siriphun; Bhurayanontachai, Patama

2014-01-01

163

Vascular tumors of the choroid and retina  

PubMed Central

Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid can be seen occasionally. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed. PMID:25827544

Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh

2015-01-01

164

Ovarian Cysts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses the types of ovarian cysts, their causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. It also reviews the anatomy of the female reproductive system. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

165

Ganglion Cysts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses ganglion cysts including their anatomy, symptoms, treatments, surgical treatment, and the benefits and risks of surgery. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

166

Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen. PMID:22778458

Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

2012-01-01

167

Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma  

SciTech Connect

The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.

Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.

1988-07-01

168

Transpupillary thermotherapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeVarious treatments have been described for circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. We present our results with transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) with infrared laser that indicate that the therapy is a new, effective treatment for this pathologic condition.

José Garc??a-Arum??; Laura Sararols Ramsay; Borja Corcostegui Guraya

2000-01-01

169

Compact laser Doppler choroidal flowmeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact instrument is described that allows the measurement of the laser Doppler flow parameters, i.e., the velocity, the volume, and flow of blood in the foveal region of the human choroidal vascular system. This new device uses the optical principle of confocality for the delivery of the laser light to the site of measurement and heterodyne detection of the Doppler frequency shifted scattered light. Power of the incident light (785 nm) at the cornea is 90 (mu) W. Measurements were obtained in both eyes of a group of 21 normal volunteers without pupil dilatation. We determined the intrasubject reproducibility and the minimum statistically significant detectable changes in the flow parameters for a group of 21 eyes (one in each subject). Linear correlations were also established between the flow parameters in the right and left eyes.

Geiser, Martial H.; Diermann, Ulrich; Riva, Charles E.

1999-10-01

170

Delayed expulsive choroidal hemorrhage after penetrating keratoplasty.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a late-onset spontaneous choroidal hemorrhage in a patient with a corneal transplant that resulted in rupture of the keratoplasty wound and expulsion of ocular contents. This case is important because it highlights the predisposing factors of a delayed-onset choroidal hemorrhage including anticoagulant therapy, advanced age, glaucoma, and hypertension. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:289-292.]. PMID:25707062

Joag, Madhura G; Galor, Anat; Karp, Carol L

2015-02-01

171

Choroidal metastases: Origin, features, and therapy  

PubMed Central

The choroid is the most common ocular site for metastatic disease, owing to abundant vascular supply. The primary cancers that most commonly lead to choroidal metastases include breast cancer (40-47%) and lung cancer (21-29%). Bilateral, multifocal metastases are most often secondary to breast cancer, whereas unilateral, unifocal metastasis are more commonly found with lung cancer. The treatment of choroidal metastasis depends on the systemic status of the patient and number, location, and laterality of the choroidal tumors. Treatment options include observation in patients with poor systemic status or those with resolved or asymptomatic disease; systemic chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, or whole eye radiotherapy if the metastases are active, multifocal and bilateral; plaque radiotherapy, transpupillary radiotherapy, or photodynamic therapy for active, solitary metastasis; and enucleation for those with blind painful eye. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms “choroidal metastasis,” or “choroidal metastases,” in combination with terms such as “treatment,” “features,” or “diagnosis.” Relevant articles were extracted and reviewed. PMID:25827542

Arepalli, Sruthi; Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L

2015-01-01

172

Simple Kidney Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... of Topics and Titles : Simple Kidney Cysts Simple Kidney Cysts On this page: What are simple kidney ...

173

Baker’s cyst  

MedlinePLUS

Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... Baker's cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid ...

174

Establishing a positional information assay for brain ventricle mutants and investigating the choroid plexuses in zebrafish  

E-print Network

The process by which the neural tube expands into three brain ventricles can be understood through genetic mutant analysis. Within the framework of a characterization of zebrafish mutants with brain ventricle phenotypes, ...

Wolf, Catherine D., 1980-

2004-01-01

175

The role of choroid plexus in IVIG-induced beta-amyloid clearance.  

PubMed

We have shown that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains anti-A? autoantibodies and IVIG could induce beta amyloid (A?) efflux from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood in both Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. However, the molecular mechanism underlying IVIG-induced A? efflux remains unclear. In this study, we used amyloid precursor protein (A?PP) transgenic mice to investigate if the IVIG could induce efflux of A? from the brain and whether low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), a hypothetic A? transporter in blood-CSF barrier (BCB); could mediate this clearance process. We currently provide strong evidence to demonstrate that IVIG could reduce brain A? levels by pulling A? into the blood system in A?PP transgenic mice. In the mechanistic study, IVIG could induce A? efflux through the in vitro BCB membrane formed by cultured BCB epithelial cells. Both receptor-associated protein (RAP; a functional inhibitor of LRP1), and LRP1 siRNA were able to significantly inhibit the A? efflux. Should A? prove to be the underlying cause of AD, our results strongly suggest that IVIG could be beneficial in the therapy for AD by inducing efflux of A? from the brain through the LRP1 in the BCB. PMID:24747018

Gu, H; Zhong, Z; Jiang, W; Du, E; Dodel, R; Liu, J; Farlow, M R; Zheng, W; Du, Y

2014-06-13

176

Esophageal duplication cyst.  

PubMed

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

2015-03-01

177

Ovarian cysts in newborns.  

PubMed

Before the introduction of ultrasonography (US), ovarian cysts in newborns were thought to be rare. With the extended use of real-time US, prenatal detection has increased. There is still considerable controversy regarding the best treatment of these neonatal findings. A total of 27 instances in 24 consecutive newborns of antenatally-diagnosed ovarian cysts were reviewed for US data, management, and outcome to assess the ante- and postnatal evolution of the cyst and establish appropriate therapy. The cysts detected during pregnancy were studied by repeated postnatal US studies. In 10 children (2 with bilateral cysts) the cyst evolved spontaneously toward regression. Fourteen patients were operated upon; 10 had complex and 4 (in 1 bilateral) had simple cysts. Cystectomy was employed when possible to preserve the ovarian parenchyma (3 cases); in the remaining cases oophorectomy was performed. Histologically, the cysts were of follicular origin or necrosis made a diagnosis impossible. US was found to be a helpful diagnostic tool for simple ovarian cysts, but could not reliably distinguish between benign and malignant tumors if a sonographically complex lesion was present. Based on our experience, surgical management of ovarian cysts should be reserved to complex masses. Simple cysts can be monitored safely by close US follow-up; surgery is indicated if the cyst fails to regress after several months or becomes symptomatic. PMID:11315281

Chiaramonte, C; Piscopo, A; Cataliotti, F

2001-03-01

178

Beware the Tarlov cyst.  

PubMed

Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

2009-01-01

179

Beware the Tarlov Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions.

Jane E. Hirst; Hugh Torode; William Sears; Michael J. Cousins

2009-01-01

180

Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.  

PubMed

Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

2013-01-01

181

Brachial plexus injury: treatment options and outcomes.  

PubMed

The brachial plexus is a series of nerves formed by roots of cervical segments 5 to 8 (C5-C8) as well as the first thoracic nerve (T1). It functions to provide sensation and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the chest and upper limb. It does so through different segments: roots, trunks, divisions, and cords. Injuries to the brachial plexus occur relatively frequently and are due mainly to traumatic accidents that lead to traction or compression of the nerve roots. When considering the etiology and treatment of such injuries, it is important to make a distinction between adult versus obstetric brachial plexus injury. Although several surgical treatment options are described and used for patients with brachial plexus injury, no perfect remedy currently exists. Prevention and safety should be the focus. At the same time, high-quality studies and new technology and techniques are needed to determine more effective treatments for this group. PMID:25006897

Arzillo, Samantha; Gishen, Kriya; Askari, Morad

2014-07-01

182

Treatment of vascular activity secondary to atypical choroidal nevus using intravitreal bevacizumab  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of 27 eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for intraretinal and subretinal vascular activity associated with atypical choroidal nevi. Methods This was an Internal Review Board-approved retrospective review of 27 eyes of 27 patients with choroidal nevus treated for secondary vascular activity with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab, performed by a single surgeon (TGM) at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. All patients were rigorously evaluated before the procedure and followed thereafter with ophthalmic examinations, refractive analysis, fundus photos, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ocular echography. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, dates of bevacizumab injections, and spectral-domain (SD)-OCT findings at each injection were recorded. Macular edema was graded as per SD-OCT findings for the initial and final visit. Results The mean age was 66.6 years (range, 40–86 years), with ten males and 17 females. Mean, median, and range baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were 20/53, 20/40, and 20/20–4/200, respectively. After a mean follow up of 29 months, the final BCVA mean, median, and range were 20/50, 20/40, and 20/20–20/400, respectively. The final BCVA ranged from 20/20 to 20/25 in nine eyes, while only six eyes had an initial BCVA within the same range. All patients demonstrated OCT findings of vascular activity suggestive of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Initial SD-OCT findings included intraretinal cysts in eleven eyes, intraretinal fluid in six eyes, subretinal fluid in 14 eyes, pigment epithelial detachment in six eyes, epiretinal membrane in five eyes, and subretinal neovascularization in 14 eyes. On fundus photos, four eyes presented retinal hemorrhage. A mean of eight (range of 1–31) intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 cc) injections were given in all cases. A total of 37% (10/27) of eyes had complete or partial regression of vascular activity. The mean initial OCT classification for macular edema was 3 and a mean grade of 3 was maintained at the final follow-up OCT. All 27 choroidal nevi remained stable, and there were no adverse effects from the bevacizumab injections. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the largest published case series of eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for vascular activity associated with choroidal nevus. Intravitreal bevacizumab seems to be effective in the treatment of CNV secondary to choroidal nevus, and OCT can be a useful tool in the follow up of these patients, to assess the regression of CNV and to monitor macular edema. PMID:25092961

Cavalcante, Milena L; Villegas, Victor M; Gold, Aaron S; Cavalcante, Ludimila L; Lonngi, Marcela; Shah, Nisha V; Murray, Timothy G

2014-01-01

183

MR imaging of the brachial plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study we describe the MR imaging findings in 230 consecutive patients with suspected pathology in or near the brachial plexus. These patients were\\u000astudied from 1991 through to 1996.\\u000aChapter 2 describes the anatomy and the MR imaging techniques. As the anatomy\\u000aof the brachial plexus and the related structures is quite complicated, we eventually\\u000ause as

Hendrik Wouter van Es

1997-01-01

184

Neurinomas of the brachial plexus: case report.  

PubMed

Neurinomas, also referred to as neurilemmomas and schwannomas, are rare benign tumours of the peripheral nerves, a low proportion of which arise from the brachial plexus. Authors report a case of an ancient schwannoma arising from the brachial plexus. The tumour, usually asymptomatic, may cause sensory radicular symptoms, or rarely motor deficits in the involved arm. Enucleation of the tumour from the nerve without damage to any of the fascicles is the correct treatment. PMID:10710825

Forte, A; Gallinaro, L S; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Prece, V; Illuminati, G

1999-01-01

185

Renaissance of supraclavicular brachial plexus block.  

PubMed

Due to frequent complications, especially pneumothorax, supraclavicular brachial plexus block became less popular. Ultrasonography is a very powerful tool in modern medicine and a real milestone in regional anaesthesia. Ultrasound- guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block reduces the probability of major complications occurrence (like pneumothorax, Horner's syndrome, phrenic nerve palsy). In this review we present the usefulness of ultrasonographic imaging and how to perform efficient ultrasound-guided blockade safely. PMID:24643926

Sadowski, Marek; Tu?aza, Bernadeta; Lysenko, Lidia

2014-01-01

186

Semimembranosus ganglion cyst  

PubMed Central

Ganglion cysts are tumor-like lesions in the soft tissues, generated by mucoid degeneration of the joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheaths on the dorsum of hand, wrist and foot. However, an intratendinous origin for a ganglion cyst is extremely rare. During dissection of the popliteal fossa, a cyst of 2.5 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm was observed in the tendon of right semimembranosus, 3.5 cm above the insertion of the muscle. Contrast X-ray revealed the cyst as not communicating with the knee joint or any adjacent bursae. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ganglion cyst. PMID:25276481

Kannadath, Bijun Sai; Soundamourthy, Sandosh; Subramanian, Aruna; Sinhasan, Sankappa P.; Bhat, Ramachandra V.

2014-01-01

187

Nasopalatine Duct Cyst  

PubMed Central

The nasopalatine cyst is the most common epithelial and nonodontogenic cyst of the maxilla. The cyst originates from epithelial remnants from the nasopalatine duct. The cells may be activated spontaneously during life or are eventually stimulated by the irritating action of various agents (infection, etc.). It is different from a radicular cyst. The definite diagnosis should be based on clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. The treatment is enucleation of the cystic tissue, and only in rare cases a marsupialisation needs to be performed. A case of a nasopalatine duct cyst in a 35-year-old male is reviewed. The typical radiologic and histological findings are presented. PMID:24307954

Dedhia, Pratik; Dedhia, Shely; Dhokar, Amol; Desai, Ankit

2013-01-01

188

[Recurrent Baker's cyst].  

PubMed

A 50-year old female patient with unilateral knee pain demonstrated a recurrent ultrasound-proven popliteal cyst (Baker's cyst). Even though a proper differential diagnosis was done, the MRT of the knee showed in a secondary step a tibial fissure as the cause of the treatment-refractory knee pain and Baker's cyst. A fracture of the tibia is a rare cause for a symptomatic Baker's cysts. Mechanical, degenerative or inflamed diseases of the joint are more frequent associated with a Baker's cyst. PMID:21792809

Stöckli, C; Hunziker, R; Tamborrini, G

2011-07-27

189

Two Discrete Choroidal Melanomas in an Eye with Ocular Melanocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of multifocal choroidal melanoma arising in an eye with ocular melanocytosis and review the pertinent literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian male with ocular melanocytosis in the left eye was found to have two discrete choroidal melanomas in the same eye. Histopathology of the enucleated eye confirmed the diagnosis of two discrete choroidal melanomas of mixed cell type

Santosh G Honavar; Carol L Shields; Arun D Singh; Hakan Demirci; Bryan K Rutledge; Jerry A Shields; Ralph C Eagle

2002-01-01

190

Anterior Cervical Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome. PMID:23741550

Sharifi, Give

2013-01-01

191

Choroidal melanoma metastasizing to maxillofacial bones  

PubMed Central

Background Melanomas are malignant neoplasm of melanocytic origin, commonly seen on skin and various mucous membranes. Melanomas are the commonest intraocular malignant tumour in the adults. Case presentation A 50-year-old female presented with complains of painless progressive swelling in right cheek region of two months duration. Examination revealed a 6 × 4 cm bony hard swelling in right zygomatic region near and below lateral canthus of right eye with loss of vision. Investigations revealed it to be a choroidal melanoma metastatising to the zygomatic bone. Patient was successfully treated by surgery. Conclusion Choroidal melanoma, which commonly metastasizes to liver and lungs, never involves the lymph nodes and metastasis to facial bones is rare. Here we report a case of choroidal melanoma metastasizing to maxillofacial bones. PMID:17346341

Pandey, Manoj; Prakash, Om; Mathews, Anitha; Nayak, Nileena; Ramachandran, Krishnankutty

2007-01-01

192

A respiratory epithelial choristomatous cyst of the orbit.  

PubMed

A 23-year-old woman presented with a 19-year history of unilateral, intermittently painful, slowly progressive proptosis. Clinical examination disclosed decreased orbital resiliency and choroidal folds in the posterior pole. Orbital echography revealed an acoustically empty cystic lesion superotemporally. Computerized tomography demonstrated bony molding of the adjacent lateral orbital wall. At operation, a discrete, well-encapsulated mass was found adherent to the periorbita behind the lacrimal gland and extending into the muscle cone. There was no connection with the bony orbit. Histological examination disclosed the well-encapsulated cyst to be lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells and filled with mucoid debris. We postulate that the cyst arose from respiratory epithelium sequestered during the intrauterine development of the paranasal sinuses. PMID:4088630

Newton, C; Dutton, J J; Klintworth, G K

1985-12-01

193

Primary transpupillary thermotherapy for small choroidal melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The treatment of small choroidal melanoma is controversial. Thermal laser-induced treatment is utilized by some centers but\\u000a there is still sparse literature about the subject, mainly with short-term follow-up time. The efficacy of transpupillary\\u000a thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of small choroidal melanomas was evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective nonrandomized study of transpupillary thermotherapy for small (thickness ? 4.0 mm and basal diameter

Martha Motono Chojniak; Rubens Chojniak; Ines Nobuko Nishimoto; Norma Allemann; Clélia Maria Erwenne

194

Chronologic versus Biologic Aging of the Human Choroid  

PubMed Central

Several aspects of chronologic and biologic aging in the human choroid are reviewed from the literature. They often reveal methodological problems for age-dependent changes of the following parameters: choroidal thickness, choroidal pigmentation, choroidal vasculature and blood flow, and choroidal innervation. On reinterpreting some data of studies concerning Bruch's membrane, changes observed at different age points seem more likely to be nonlinear. Concluding from the data presented so far, chronologic aging should not be used as a factor for physiological changes in the human choroid. Longitudinal study designs are necessary to further establish the impact of age. Meanwhile, a more biologic oriented model of aging processes in the choroid should be established, including specified conditions (e.g., light exposure and refractory state). This would help to define more individual strategies for prevention and early stages of a certain defined disease. PMID:24453840

May, Christian Albrecht

2013-01-01

195

Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. PMID:25674524

Cho, Jae Hee

2015-01-01

196

The popliteal cyst.  

PubMed

A popliteal cyst, originally called Baker's cyst, is a synovial fluid-filled mass located in the popliteal fossa. The most common synovial popliteal cyst is considered to be a distension of the bursa located beneath the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Usually, in an adult patient, an underlying intra-articular disorder is present. In children, the cyst can be isolated and the knee joint normal. The anatomy, etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging and treatment modalities of the popliteal cyst are presented. The authors try to answer some questions dealing with this condition. Is the cyst isolated, can it be treated as such, is its origin always well-defined and does surgical excision provide a permanent cure? PMID:16362357

Fritschy, Daniel; Fasel, Jean; Imbert, Jean-Claude; Bianchi, Stefano; Verdonk, René; Wirth, Carl Joachim

2006-07-01

197

Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed. PMID:23308314

Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz

2012-01-01

198

Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed. PMID:23308314

Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz

2012-01-01

199

Laparoscopic Renal Cyst Decortication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Renal cysts are the most common renal masses and occur in up to 50% of individuals over the age of 50 years (1,2). Although\\u000a renal cysts may be either congenital or acquired, most are simple, asymptomatic, and of unknown etiology. Intervention is\\u000a needed when cysts are determined to be complex by radiographic criteria or when they are associated with pain,

Joshua M. Stern; Ilia S. Zeltser; Yair Lotan; Jeffrey A. Cadeddu

200

Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy. PMID:24294463

Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu

2013-01-01

201

ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CHOROIDAL NEUROFIBROMATOSIS  

PubMed Central

We report multimodal imaging findings, including enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography, in an affected child with choroidal neurofibromatosis. We identify novel features such as choroidal vessel compression from NF1-related choroidal nodules and an increased subfoveal choroidal thickness. This is the first report to use EDI-OCT to analyze choroidal features in neurofibromatosis type-1. PMID:25153660

Rao, Rajesh C.; Choudhry, Netan

2015-01-01

202

Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without

A. J. Duggins; J. G. McLeod; J. D. Pollard; L. Davies; F. Yang; E. O. Thompson; J. R. Soper

1999-01-01

203

Choroidal thickness profile in healthy Indian subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim was to study choroidal thickness (CT) and its profile based on location in healthy Indian subjects using Cirrus high definition (HD) optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods: A total of 211 eyes of 115 healthy subjects with no retinal or choroidal disease were consecutively scanned using Cirrus HD 1 line raster scan mode without pupillary dilation. Eyes with any ocular disease or axial length (AXL) >24 mm or <20 mm were excluded. Experienced technician measured CT from the lower border of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the lower border of choroid. CT was measured from the posterior edge of the RPE to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-?m intervals up to 3000 ?m temporal and nasal to the fovea. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation between CT at various locations and age, AXL, spherical equivalent, and macular thickness. Results: Mean age was 42.8 ± 13.6 years. Mean AXL was 22.84 ± 0.78 mm. Median spherical equivalent was 0.16 ± 0.64 D. Mean central macular thickness was 216.4 ± 30.03 ?m. Choroidal was thinnest nasally and thickest subfoveally. On multivariate regression, age was the most significant factor affecting subfoveal CT (P = 0.000). Regression analysis showed an approximate decrease in CT of 1.18 ?m every year. Conclusions: Our study provides CT profile in Indian healthy subjects in various age groups. CT depends on its location, subfoveal being the thickest and nasal being the thinnest. Age is a critical factor, which is negatively correlated with CT. PMID:25494246

Chhablani, Jay; Rao, P Srinivasa; Venkata, Amarnath; Rao, Harsha L; Rao, B Siva Koteswar; Kumar, Uday; Narayanan, Raja; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy

2014-01-01

204

Treatment of Ganglion Cysts  

PubMed Central

Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence. PMID:24967120

Fung, B.; Lung, C. P.

2013-01-01

205

Dermoid cysts in caribou.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous dermoid cysts were identified in eight wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from widely dispersed locations in northern Canada and in one wild caribou from Alaska. The dermoid cysts from Canadian caribou were found among 557 diagnostic specimens that had been detected by hunters and submitted by resource officers and biologists between 1 January 1966 and 15 May 2007. All of the cysts were located in the cervical region, and five of nine cysts were found in the throat area. All of the animals for which the age was known were adult; males and females were equally represented. Dermoid cysts were not diagnosed in any of 1,108 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 293 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 174 elk (Cervus elaphus), or 529 moose (Alces alces) examined during the same period at the Canadian laboratory. PMID:19395761

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Neimanis, A; Beckmen, K B

2009-04-01

206

Morphological structure and variations of lumbar plexus in human fetuses.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to study the anatomy of lumbar plexus on human fetuses and to establish its morphometric characteristics and differences compared with adults. Twenty lumbar plexus of 10 human fetal cadavers in different gestational ages and genders were dissected. Lumbar spinal nerves, ganglions, and peripheral nerves were exposed. Normal anatomical structure and variations of lumbar plexus were investigated and morphometric analyses were performed. The diameters of lumbar spinal nerves increased from L1 to L4. The thickest nerve forming the plexus was femoral nerve, the thinnest was ilioinguinal nerve, the longest nerve through posterior abdominal wall was iliohypogastric nerve, and the shortest nerve was femoral nerve. Each plexus had a single furcal nerve and this arose from L4 nerve in all fetuses. No prefix or postfix plexus variation was observed. In two plexuses, L1 nerve was in the form of a single branch. Also, in two plexuses, genitofemoral nerve arose only from L2 nerve. Accessory obturator nerve was observed in four plexuses. According to these findings, the morphological pattern of the lumbar plexus in the fetus was found to be very similar to the lumbar plexus in adults. PMID:22696243

Yasar, Soner; Kaya, Serdar; Temiz, Ca?lar; Tehli, Ozkan; Kural, Cahit; Izci, Yusuf

2014-04-01

207

The Ordovician Arkonia-Striatotheca acritarch plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original diagnoses, stratigraphical ranges and geographical distribution of all infrageneric taxa attributed to the genera Arkonia Burmann 1970 and Striatotheca Burmann 1970, are critically evaluated in a review of published literature supplemented by studies of new material from Belgium and Germany, including sections from type areas. Arkonia and Striatotheca constitute a very important plexus of Ordovician acritarch taxa. They

Thomas Servais

1997-01-01

208

PLEXUS--The Expert System for Referral.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a description of PLEXUS, an expert system on gardening designed as a referral tool for public libraries by the University of London. Highlights include determining user characteristics, developing the problem statement, the use of semantic categories, and search strategies that modify the original problem statement using Boolean…

Vickery, A.; Brooks, H. M.

1987-01-01

209

Brachial Plexus Injury at Cesarean Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Brachial plexus traction injury can occur at the time of cesarean section delivery. This results from the operator’s failure\\u000a to recognize soft tissue incisional dystocia. Avoiding traction on the infant’s head and enlarging the incision in the uterus\\u000a and\\/or abdominal wall will prevent infant and maternal injury.

Michael S. Kreitzer; James A. O’Leary

210

Brachial plexus injury and obstetrical risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether known historical risk factors of brachial plexus injury differ between affected neonates and healthy controls. Methods: The files of all 62 children with Erb's palsy who were diagnosed after birth were reviewed. The control group consisted of 124 randomly selected uninjured infants born within the same period. Results: Compared with the control group, the mothers of

J Bar; A Dvir; M Hod; R Orvieto; P Merlob; A Neri

2001-01-01

211

Diagnosis of brachial root and plexus lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis and management of lesions of the brachial roots and of the brachial plexus is improved by appropriate investigation, both in acute and chronic disorders. The choice of investigation should be determined by the clinical problem. Since they are relatively non-invasive, electrophysiological investigations are particularly useful. In this review the role of these investigations is considered in relation to

M. Swash

1986-01-01

212

What has changed in brachial plexus surgery?  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injuries, in all their severity and complexity, have been extensively studied. Although brachial plexus injuries are associated with serious and often definitive sequelae, many concepts have changed since the 1950s, when this pathological condition began to be treated more aggressively. Looking back over the last 20 years, it can be seen that the entire approach, from diagnosis to treatment, has changed significantly. Some concepts have become better established, while others have been introduced; thus, it can be said that currently, something can always be offered in terms of functional recovery, regardless of the degree of injury. Advances in microsurgical techniques have enabled improved results after neurolysis and have made it possible to perform neurotization, which has undoubtedly become the greatest differential in treating brachial plexus injuries. Improvements in imaging devices and electrical studies have allowed quick decisions that are reflected in better surgical outcomes. In this review, we intend to show the many developments in brachial plexus surgery that have significantly changed the results and have provided hope to the victims of this serious injury. PMID:23644864

de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Silva, Gustavo Bersani; de Paula, Emygdio José Leomil; Junior, Rames Mattar; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

2013-01-01

213

The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea  

PubMed Central

Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Mejías, Wigberto; Jiménez, Luis B.

2010-01-01

214

Management of adult choledochal cysts.  

PubMed Central

A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

1981-01-01

215

Bronchogenic cyst in the abdomen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bronchogenic cyst was found in the abdomen, in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the superior pancreatic body. The cyst was unilocular and contained about 100 ml pale yellow mucinous fluid. Microscopic examination revealed a pseudostratified columnar ciliated or cuboidal epithelium, seromucous glands, smooth muscle and cartilage, the distinctive features of bronchogenic cysts. This aberrant location of the cyst is explicable

Kinjiro Sumiyoshi; Shuji Shimizu; Munetomo Enjoji; Akinori Iwashita; Katsuhiko Kawakami

1985-01-01

216

Intrathyroidal multiloculated proliferating thymic cyst.  

PubMed

Ectopic thymic tissue in neck is not uncommon; however, ectopic thymic cysts in neck are rare and intrathyroidal thymic cyst is still rarer. Multilocular proliferating thymic cyst is a rare entity and very few cases are described in mediastinum. We present the first case of a 73-year-old male with an intrathyroidal multilocular proliferating thymic cyst mimicking thyroid malignancy radiologically. PMID:25600589

Chaudhari, Jayashri; Fernandez, Gwendolyn; Naik, Leena; Pirosha, Arva

2015-03-01

217

Current perspectives of herpesviral retinitis and choroiditis.  

PubMed

Vision-threatening viral retinitis are primarily caused by members of the herpesvirus family. The biology and molecular characterization of herpesviruses, clinical presentations of retinopathies, pathology and pathogenesis including the host responses, epidemiology and the laboratory methods of aetiological diagnosis of these diseases are described. Clinical syndromes are acute retinal necrosis (ARN), progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, multifocal choroiditis and serpiginous choroiditis besides other viral retinopathies. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) retinitis is more common in immunocompetent persons while varicella zoster virus (VZV) affects both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients equally. CMV retinitis is most common among patients with AIDS. The currently employed laboratory methods of antigen detection, virus isolation and antibody detection by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) have low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the value of diagnosis due to its high clinical sensitivity and absolute specificity in detection of herpesviruses in intraocular specimens. PMID:16295367

Madhavan, H N; Priya, K; Biswas, J

2004-10-01

218

Tarlov Cyst and Infertility  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

2009-01-01

219

Choroidal melanoma: I-125 plaque therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iodine-125 eye plaque was used to treat 58 patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients were followed up for a mean of 48.7 months. Fifty patients had medium-sized lesions (height between 3.1 and 8.0 mm and base diameter less than 16.0 mm), and six patients had large lesions. There were 24 lesions less than 3.0 mm from the optic nerve. The

J. L. Bosworth; S. Packer; M. Rotman; T. Ho; P. T. Finger

1988-01-01

220

Increased macular choroidal blood flow velocity and decreased choroidal thickness with regression of punctate inner choroidopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in choroidal circulation hemodynamics during the course of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate changes in choroidal blood flow velocity by using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) in patients with PIC. Case presentation This PIC patient was initially treated with systemic corticosteroids for 4 months. LSFG measurements were taken 10 consecutive times before treatment and at 1, 3, 12, 20 and 23 months after the initiation of therapy. The mean blur rate (MBR), a quantitative index of relative blood flow velocity, was calculated using LSFG in three regions: Circles 1, 2 and 3 were set at the fovea, a lesion site, and an area of normal-appearing retina, respectively. The PIC lesions scarred after treatment along with improvements in visual function and outer retinal morphology. When the changing rate of macular flow over the 12-month follow-up period was compared with the MBR before treatment (100%), an increase of 16–37%, 24–49% and 15–18% was detected in Circles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At the time of PIC recurrence after 20 months, the MBR decreased temporarily but subsequently increased after retreatment with systemic corticosteroids. This trend was accompanied by a decrease in choroidal thickness at the lesion site after retreatment. Conclusions Macular choroidal blood flow velocity increased and choroidal thickness decreased concurrently with regression of PIC. The present findings suggest that inflammation-related impairments in choroidal circulation may relate to the pathogenesis of PIC, extending over a wider area in the posterior pole than the PIC lesions per se. PMID:24885365

2014-01-01

221

Ossifying trichilemmal cyst.  

PubMed

Although a trichilemmal cyst is a relatively common benign cutaneous condition and ossification has been observed within many cutaneous lesions to our knowledge, the association between ossification and trichilemmal cyst has not been previously reported. We describe for the first time the case of a trichilemmal cyst with marked osseous metaplasia arising on the scalp of a 46 year-old woman. Microscopically the lesion showed the typical features of a trichilemmal cyst with the finding of intra-extraluminal foci of calcification and the exceptional feature of mature bone formation. No areas of mature cartilage were observed near the focus of ossification. The cutaneous bone may have been directly formed from osteogenic stromal elements without a cartilaginous precursor (membranous or mesenchymal ossification). The dystrophic calcification might also contribute to the bone-forming process. PMID:22042263

Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Zorzi, Maria Grazia; Piscioli, Francesco

2011-12-01

222

Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.  

PubMed

The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst. PMID:23667246

Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

2013-01-01

223

Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.  

PubMed

Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458

Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

2012-05-29

224

Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts are rare expanding lesions in the spinal canal. They usually present with progressive signs\\u000a and symptoms caused by spinal cord compression if they enlarge. A comprehensive review about spinal extradural arachnoid cyst\\u000a is made including the author’s own case of a 59-year-old woman with a 6-month history of progressive back pain radiating to\\u000a both legs. Key

J. Y. Choi; S. H. Kim; W. S. Lee; K. H. Sung

2006-01-01

225

Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.  

PubMed

Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

2014-12-01

226

Epithelial cyst of thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benign thyroid cyst lined by thyroid follicular epithelial cells lacking immunoreactivity to thyroglobulin is reported.\\u000a The patient had a 3 yr history of a large cyst in the lateral anterior neck, with no symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hyperparathyroidism.\\u000a Water-clear fluid was repeatedly aspirated; analysis indicated the absence of parathyroid hormone (PTH), T3, and T4. Hemithyroidectomy\\u000a revealed a simple epithelial

Catherine J. Streutker; David Murray; Kalman Kovacs; Hubert P. Higgins

1997-01-01

227

The buccal bifurcation cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst were studied to further define this lesion. The treatment and outcomes were also analyzed.Study design. This prospective study, which spanned 3 years, included 32 patients. Their ages ranged from 5.5 to 11 years (mean of 7.5). A total of 44 buccal bifurcation cysts were treated solely with

Julia R Pompura; George K. B Sándor; Douglas W Stoneman

1997-01-01

228

Epididymal Cyst\\/Epididymectomyn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epididymal cysts are the commonest intrascrotal cystic swellings and are invariably benign. The incidence increases with age\\u000a and the commonest site is the caput epididymidis. The vast majority are asymptomatic and indications for surgery are uncommon\\u000a but can include pain or cosmesis. Surgical extirpation of these cysts risks epididymal obstruction and should not be taken\\u000a lightly in patients who may

Vaithianathan Natarajan; Neil Oakley

229

Congenital lingual cysts.  

PubMed

Congenital lingual cysts are rare congenital tumors of the oropharynx, which should be suspected when the tongue appears enlarged by a mass. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound allows for an optimal management at the time of delivery because the mass can obstruct the airways. Unless the cyst enlarges and hinders feeding or breathing, surgical treatment is indicated only a few months after birth because spontaneous regression can sometimes be observed. PMID:17448749

Karam, Oliver; Pfister, Riccardo E; Extermann, Philippe; La Scala, Giorgio C

2007-04-01

230

Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.  

PubMed

Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment. PMID:20069645

Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

2010-03-01

231

Management of Renal Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy.

Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Ye?il, Süleyman; Zengin, Kür?ad; Yalc?nkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

2015-01-01

232

Long-term outcomes of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal osteoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the outcomes of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with choroidal osteoma. Methods Retrospective consecutive case series. Three eyes of three patients were studied. All patients were treated with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for CNV associated with choroidal osteoma. Best-corrected visual acuity, central foveal thickness, tumor thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and subretinal pigmentation around the CNV were evaluated. Results The mean number of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab was 2.0 (range 1–3). The mean follow-up time was 56.0 months (range 25–99 months). The mean LogMAR visual acuity worsened from 0.1 to 0.6. LogMAR visual acuity loss of 0.7 or worse occurred in two of three eyes. CNV was located in the subfoveal area in two eyes, and CNV was located in the juxtafoveal area in one eye. The mean central foveal thickness decreased from 407 ?m to 251 ?m. The mean tumor thickness decreased from 709 ?m to 608 ?m. All eyes had subretinal pigmentation around the CNV. Conclusion Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for subfoveal CNV associated with decalcified choroidal osteoma resulted in poor visual acuity. PMID:25784788

Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Takahashi, Kanji

2015-01-01

233

Vertikale infraklavikulärePlexus-brachialis-Blockade (VIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Fragestellung. Die vertikale, infraklavikuläre Plexus-brachialis-Blockade (VIP) nach Kilka et al. ist eine Methode, die sich im Vergleich zu anderen periklavikulären Methoden durch ein geringes Pneumothoraxrisiko auszeichnet (0,2%). Dieses Risiko scheint bei asthenischen Patienten erhöht zu sein. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde bei Patienten, bei denen ein VIP durchgeführt werden sollte, untersucht, ob eine leicht veränderte Punktionsortbestimmung zu einer sicheren

M. Neuburger; H. Kaiser; B. Åss; C. Franke; H. Maurer

2003-01-01

234

Treatment Options for Brachial Plexus Injuries  

PubMed Central

The incidence of brachial plexus injuries is rapidly growing due to the increasing number of high-speed motor-vehicle accidents. These are devastating injuries leading to significant functional impairment of the patients. The purpose of this review paper is to present the available options for conservative and operative treatment and discuss the correct timing of intervention. Reported outcomes of current management and future prospects are also analysed. PMID:24967125

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Mazis, George; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

235

Incidental Pancreatic Cysts  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis Widespread use of computed tomography and ultrasound has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with asymptomatic cystic lesions of the pancreas. Design Retrospective case series of patients with pancreatic cystic lesions. Setting University-affiliated tertiary care referral center. Patients Two hundred twelve patients with pancreatic cystic lesions seen in our surgical practice during 5 years (April 1997-March 2002). Main Outcome Measures Presence or absence of symptoms, cyst size and location, cytologic or pathologic diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcome. Results Seventy-eight (36.7%) of 212 patients were asymptomatic. Incidental cysts were smaller (3.3 ± 1.9 vs 4.6 ± 2.7 cm; P<.001) and were found in older patients (65 ± 13 vs 56 ± 15 years; P<.001). Seventy-eight percent of the asymptomatic patients and 87% of those with symptoms underwent surgery, with a single operative death in the entire group (0.5%). Seventeen percent of asymptomatic cysts were serous cystadenomas; 28%, mucinous cystic neoplasms; 27%, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms; and 2.5%, ductal adenocarcinomas. The respective numbers for symptomatic cysts were 7%, 16%, 40%, and 9%. Ten percent of asymptomatic patients had a variety of other cystic lesions, and in 12%, no definitive cytologic or pathologic diagnosis was obtained. Overall, 17% of asymptomatic patients had in situ or invasive cancer, and 42% had a premalignant lesion. When evaluated as a function of size, only 1 (3.5%) of 28 asymptomatic cysts smaller than 2 cm had cancer compared with 13 (26%) of 50 cysts larger than 2 cm (P = .04). The proportion of premalignant lesions, however, remained high in both groups (46% and 38%, respectively). Pseudocysts comprised only 3.8% of asymptomatic cysts compared with 19.4% of symptomatic cysts (P = .003). Conclusions Incidental pancreatic cysts are common, occur in older patients, are smaller than symptomatic cysts, and are unlikely to be pseudocysts. More than half of them are either malignant or premalignant lesions and therefore cannot be dismissed. PMID:12686529

Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos; Targarona, Javier; Thayer, Sarah P.; Rattner, David W.; Brugge, William R.; Warshaw, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

236

Brachial plexus block in a parturient.  

PubMed

We report a novel circumstance of brachial plexus anesthesia in a parturient. A 25-year-old woman at 34 weeks of gestation presented with a pathologic proximal right humerus fracture from an intramedullary mass. She was scheduled for tumor biopsy which was performed using a two-site ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block to maximize odds of complete anesthesia while minimizing the risk of phrenic nerve paresis. After a supraclavicular block with 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL, we translated our ultrasound probe cephalad, inferior to the root of C7 where the divisions of the superior trunk could be seen in a tightly compact arrangement. An additional injection of 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL was administered at this site, and the patient subsequently underwent successful biopsy without sedatives or analgesics, aside from local anesthetics. In the post-anesthesia care unit, she had normal respirations and oxygen saturations breathing room air, denied any shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, and was discharged shortly after her arrival. While we did not pursue radiologic examination to rule out hemidiaphragm paralysis, we assumed, as evidenced in a previous case report, that unlike most healthy patients, a parturient would demonstrate some clinical signs and/or symptoms of hemidiaphragm paralysis, given that the diaphragm is almost totally responsible for inspiration in the term parturient. This represents only the second brachial plexus block in a parturient reported in the literature; the first using ultrasound guidance and without respiratory embarrassment. PMID:24631059

Patzkowski, M; Scheiner, J

2014-05-01

237

The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Choroidal Endothelial Cells and Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Rac1, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, plays an important role in directed endothelial cell motility. We reported previously that Rac1 activation was necessary for choroidal endothelial cell migration across the retinal pigment epithelium, a critical step in the development of vision-threatening neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here we explored the roles of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activation in response to vascular endothelial growth factor treatment in vitro and in a model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. We found that vascular endothelial growth factor induced the activation of Rac1 and of NADPH oxidase in cultured human choroidal endothelial cells. Further, vascular endothelial growth factor led to heightened generation of reactive oxygen species from cultured human choroidal endothelial cells, which was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium, or the antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine. In a model of laser-induced injury, inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels as measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence and the volume of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Mice lacking functional p47phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, had reduced dihydroethidium fluorescence and choroidal neovascularization compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor activates Rac1 upstream from NADPH oxidase in human choroidal endothelial cells and increases generation of reactive oxygen species, contributing to choroidal neovascularization. These steps may contributed to the pathology of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. PMID:20802176

Monaghan-Benson, Elizabeth; Hartmann, John; Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Budd, Steve; Byfield, Grace; Parker, Augustus; Ahmad, Faisal; Huang, Wei; Runge, Marschall; Burridge, Keith; Madamanchi, Nageswara; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

238

Recurrent Annular Peripheral Choroidal Detachment after Trabeculectomy  

PubMed Central

We report a challenging case of recurrent flat anterior chamber without hypotony after trabeculectomy in a 54-year-old Black male with a remote history of steroid-treated polymyositis, cataract surgery, and uncontrolled open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a flat chamber on postoperative day 11, but had a normal fundus exam and intraocular pressure (IOP). Flat chamber persisted despite treatment with cycloplegics, steroids, and a Healon injection into the anterior chamber. A transverse B-scan of the peripheral fundus revealed a shallow annular peripheral choroidal detachment. The suprachoroidal fluid was drained. The patient presented 3 days later with a recurrent flat chamber and an annular peripheral choroidal effusion. The fluid was removed and reinforcement of the scleral flap was performed with the resolution of the flat anterior chamber. A large corneal epithelial defect developed after the second drainage. The oral prednisone was tapered quickly and the topical steroid was decreased. One week later, his vision decreased to count fingers with severe corneal stromal edema and Descemet's membrane folds that improved to 20/50 within 24 h of resumption of the oral steroid and frequent topical steroid. The patient's visual acuity improved to 20/20 following a slow withdrawal of the oral and topical steroid. Eight months after surgery, the IOP was 15 mm Hg without glaucoma medication. The detection of a shallow anterior choroidal detachment by transverse B-scan is critical to making the correct diagnosis. Severe cornea edema can occur if the steroid is withdrawn too quickly. Thus, steroids should be tapered cautiously in steroid-dependent patients. PMID:24348402

Liu, Shaohui; Sun, Lisa L.; Kavanaugh, A. Scott; Langford, Marlyn P.; Liang, Chanping

2013-01-01

239

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology.  

PubMed

Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. PMID:12845468

Graif, Moshe; Martinoli, Carlo; Rochkind, Shimon; Blank, Anat; Trejo, Leonor; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada; Derchi, Lorenzo E

2004-02-01

240

Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours  

PubMed Central

Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

2013-01-01

241

Risk of choroidal neovascularization among the uveitides  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the risk, risk factors, and visual impact of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in uveitis cases. Design Retrospective cohort study Methods Standardized medical record review at five tertiary centers. Results Among 15,137 uveitic eyes (8,868 patients), CNV was rare in the cases of anterior or intermediate uveitis. Among the 4,041 eyes (2,307 patients) with posterior or panuveitis, 81 (2.0%) presented with CNV. Risk factors included posterior uveitis in general and specific uveitis syndromes affecting the outer retina/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid interface. Among the 2,364 eyes (1,357 patients) with posterior or panuveitis and free of CNV at the time of cohort entry, the cumulative two-year incidence of CNV was 2.7% (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.8-3.5%). Risk factors for incident CNV included currently active inflammation (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.13, 95%CI: 1.26-3.60), preretinal neovascularization (aHR 3.19, 95%CI: 1.30-7.80), and prior diagnosis of CNV in the contralateral eye (aHR 5.79, 95%CI: 2.77-12.09). Among specific syndromes, the incidence was greater in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome (aHR 3.37, 95%CI: 1.52-7.46), and punctate inner choroiditis (aHR 8.67, 95%CI: 2.83-26.54). Incident CNV was associated with two lines’ loss of visual acuity (+0.19 logMAR units, 95%CI: 0.079–0.29) from the preceding visit. Conclusions CNV is an uncommon complication of uveitis associated with visual impairment, which more commonly occurs in forms affecting the outer retina/RPE/choroid interface, during periods of inflammatory activity, in association with preretinal neovascularization, and in second eyes of patients with unilateral CNV. Because CNV is treatable, a systematic approach to early detection in high-risk patients may be appropriate. PMID:23795984

Baxter, Sally L.; Pistilli, Maxwell; Pujari, Siddharth S.; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Kempen, John H.

2013-01-01

242

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue.

I. M. Tarlov

1970-01-01

243

Effects of muscarinic agents on chick choroids in intact eyes and eyecups: evidence for a muscarinic mechanism in choroidal thinning  

PubMed Central

Purpose In chicks, ocular growth inhibition is associated with choroidal thickening and growth stimulation with choroidal thinning, suggesting a mechanistic link between the two responses. Because muscarinic antagonists inhibit the development of myopia in animal models by a non-accommodative mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that agonists would stimulate eye growth and thin the choroid. We also hypothesized that the effective growth-inhibiting antagonists would thicken the choroid. Methods Chicks, age 12–16 days, were used. In vivo: Agonists: Single intravitreal injections (20 µL) of oxotremorine (oxo), pilocarpine (pilo), carbachol (carb), or arecaidine (arec) were given to otherwise untreated eyes. A-scan ultrasonography was done prior to injections, and at 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. Antagonists: — 10D lenses were worn on one eye for 4 days. Atropine (atro), pirenzepine (pirz), oxyphenonium (oxy) or dicyclomine (dicy) were injected (20 µL) daily into lens-wearing eyes; saline injections were done as controls. Ultrasonography was done on d1 and on d4; on d4 measurements were done before and 3 h after injections. In vitro Paired eyecups of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroid and sclera were made from 1-week old chicks. All drugs except atropine were tested on one eyecup, its pair in plain medium. Choroidal thickness was measured at various times over 48 h. Results Agonists: In vivo, oxotremorine caused an increase in the rate of axial elongation (drug vs saline: 24–72 h: 338 µm vs 250 µrn; p < 0.001). All except pilocarpine caused choroidal thinning by 24 h (oxo, carb and arec vs saline: ?25, ?35 and ?46 µm vs 3 µm). In vitro, all agonists thinned choroids by 24 h (oxo: ?6 vs 111 µm; pilo: 45 vs 212 µm; carb: ?58 vs 65 µm; arec: 47 vs 139 µm; p < 0.05). Antagonists: Atropine, pirenzepine and oxyphenonium inhibited the development of myopia in negative lens-wearing eyes, and also caused choroidal thickening (drug vs saline: 42, 80, 88 vs 10 µm per 3 h). In vitro, pirenzepine thickened choroids by 3 h (77 vs 2 µm, p < 0.01). Conclusions Muscarinic agonists caused choroidal thinning in intact eyes and eyecups, supporting a role for acetylcholine in the choroidal response to hyperopic defocus or form deprivation. Only oxotremorine stimulated eye growth, which is inconsistent with a muscarinic receptor mechanism for antagonist-induced eye growth inhibition. The dissociation between choroidal thinning and ocular growth stimulation for the other agonists in vivo suggest separate pathways for the two. PMID:23662958

Nickla, Debora L; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wallman, Josh

2013-01-01

244

Dexamethasone Added to Lidocaine Prolongs Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different additives have been used to prolong regional blockade. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexameth- asone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to re- ceive either 34 mL lidocaine

Ali Movafegh; Mehran Razazian; Fatemeh Hajimaohamadi; Alipasha Meysamie

2006-01-01

245

Reaggregation of Rat Dissociated Myenteric Plexus in Extracellular Matrix Gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the growth behavior of freshly dissociated myenteric plexus in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) environment with and without stimulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Therefore, cell suspensions of the dissected myenteric plexus of newborn rats were cultured in freshly prepared gels of commercially available mixtures of collagen, laminin, and hepatoglycans

Karl-Herbert Schãfer; pedro mestres

2000-01-01

246

Distribution and characterisation of rat choroidal mast cells.  

PubMed Central

Despite the implication that choroidal mast cells are involved in the onset of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), a widely used animal model of uveoretinitis, little is known of these cells. In the present study the distribution, total number, regional density, and phenotype of choroidal mast cells were examined in Lewis, Wistar Furth, PVG/c, and brown Norway rats. Choroidal mast cells were predominantly associated with arteries and arterioles of more than 30 microns diameter which lie in the outer (sclerad) choroid. The density of mast cells was greatest in the posterior choroid with density diminishing anteriorly. The choroid of male Lewis rats contained significantly greater number of mast cells than that of females (p < 0.01). Histochemical (Alcian blue/safranin) and immunohistochemical (anti-rat mast cell protease I and II monoclonal antibodies) studies revealed choroidal mast cells were of the connective tissue type. However, granule proteinase content appeared less than that of well characterised connective tissue mast cell populations such as those in mesentery and skin. Lewis rats exhibited the highest density of choroidal mast cells (23.6 (SD 1.2)/mm2), Wistar Furth approximately half that of Lewis (13.5 (0.7)/mm2) while PVG/c and brown Norway rats had very low densities (3.06(0.3); 1.95(0.2/mm2 respectively). These studies provide valuable choroidal mast cell data for rats which may have implications for our understanding of experimental models of intraocular inflammation and clinical uveitis. Images PMID:8148338

Steptoe, R J; McMenamin, P G; McMenamin, C

1994-01-01

247

Lateral periodontal cyst.  

PubMed

The lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) is a harmless developmental aberration derived from odontogenic epithelia lying between the roots of vital teeth. The exact histogenesis of LPC is a matter of debate but therapy is usually only required to maintain stable periodontal conditions and in case of evidence for growth of the cyst. We report on a case of LPC where successful surgical therapy had initialized osseous restoration. We further discuss the value of histological findings to substantiate a clinical and radiological diagnosis. PMID:24982228

Friedrich, Reinhard E; Scheuer, Hanna A; Zustin, Jozef

2014-01-01

248

[Choroidal metastasis as a presenting feature of breast carcinoma].  

PubMed

Choroidal metastasis is a rare presenting feature of breast carcinoma. A 48-year-old woman presented with blurred vision of the right eye related to choroidal metastasis. Diagnostic work-up disclosed breast carcinoma with multiple metastases of the liver and lungs. Initial cerebral computed tomography scan was normal. During the follow-up, generalized seizure leaded to the diagnosis of multiple calcified cerebral metastasis. In 15 to 30 percent of cases, choroidal metastasis reveals a solid tumor, usually of the lung or the breast. Cerebral metastasis are common in breast cancer, but rarely calcified. PMID:17602802

Pugnet, G; Arista, S; Martin-Blondel, G; Roche, H; Arlet-Suau, E; Astudillo, L

2007-11-01

249

Three-Dimensional MR Imaging of the Brachial Plexus.  

PubMed

Pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus often result in serious and disabling complications. With the increasing availability and use of new and powerful MRI sequences and coils, understanding and assessment of the complex anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus have been greatly facilitated. These new technical developments have led to an improved assessment of brachial plexus lesions, thereby improving patient care. In this article we describe various MRI techniques for the evaluation of the brachial plexus obtained at 1.5 T and 3 T, and we explain differences and similarities between sequences and protocols performed on MRI equipment from different vendors. The main characteristics of pathologic conditions affecting the brachial plexus are discussed and illustrated, as well as their differential diagnoses, with an emphasis on key imaging findings and relevance for patient management. Pitfalls related to suboptimal technique and image interpretation are also addressed. PMID:25764238

Vargas, Maria Isabel; Gariani, Joanna; Delattre, Benedicte A; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Lovblad, Karl; Becker, Minerva

2015-04-01

250

Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without hypertrophy demonstrated enhancement. All patients with hypertrophy had a relapsing-remitting course and a significantly longer disease duration. Gross onion-bulb formations were seen in a biopsy of nerve from the brachial plexus in one case with clinically evident nodular hypertrophy. We conclude that spinal root and plexus hypertrophy may be seen on MRI, particularly in cases of CIDP of long duration, and gadolinium enhancement may be present in active disease. PMID:10388803

Duggins, A J; McLeod, J G; Pollard, J D; Davies, L; Yang, F; Thompson, E O; Soper, J R

1999-07-01

251

Adult brachial plexus injury: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury involves injury of the C5-T1 spinal nerves. Common patterns of injury include "upper arm" and "total arm" types. The specific signs of preganglionic avulsion injury infer a poor prognosis for spontaneous recovery and surgery may be needed. Detailed preoperative evaluation is recommended for localization of the lesions. The treatment of upper arm type injury comprises restoration of elbow flexion and shoulder control. Good functional results may be achieved after multiple nerve transfers. The treatment of total arm type includes hand function reconstruction, in addition to shoulder and elbow treatment. Current options for hand function reconstruction include functioning free muscle transfers and nerve transfers. PMID:24095074

Limthongthang, Roongsak; Bachoura, Abdo; Songcharoen, Panupan; Osterman, A Lee

2013-10-01

252

Widespread choroidal thickening and abnormal midperipheral fundus autofluorescence characterize exudative age-related macular degeneration with choroidal vascular hyperpermeability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the clinical findings that characterize exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (CVH). Design Retrospective comparative study. Participants Forty-eight consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of Tokyo University Hospital between May 2013 and July 2013. Methods The presence or absence of CVH was determined with indocyanine green angiography performed at the latest visit. When CVH was observed, the eye was categorized as CVH(+) AMD, otherwise it was categorized as CVH(-) AMD. Using high-penetration optical coherence tomography, we measured choroidal thickness at the fovea and at four midperipheral areas (mean choroidal thickness at points on 6- and 9-papilla diameter circles superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea). Ultrawide field retinal imaging was used to investigate abnormalities in midperipheral fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Choroidal thickness and the proportion of FAF abnormalities were compared between the CVH(+) AMD and CVH(?) AMD eyes and between eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and typical AMD. Multiple regression analysis was used to control for treatment history and other characteristics. Results CVH was observed in 17 cases. Choroidal thickness was higher in the CVH(+) AMD eyes than in the CVH(?) AMD eyes at the fovea (325 ?m versus 229 ?m, respectively; P=0.0010, t-test), superior point (277 ?m versus 215 ?m, respectively; P=0.0021, t-test), inferior point (225 ?m versus 161 ?m, respectively; P=0.0002, t-test), and nasal point (202 ?m versus 165 ?m, respectively; P=0.042, t-test). The significance was maintained after controlling for possible confounders. The choroid was thicker at the fovea and at the inferior point in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy than in typical AMD. The rate of midperipheral FAF abnormality was significantly higher in the CVH(+) AMD eyes than in the CVH(?) AMD eyes (82% versus 48%, respectively; P=0.031). Conclusion AMD with CVH is associated with widespread choroidal thickening and peripheral FAF abnormalities. PMID:25709392

Nomura, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tan, Xue; Obata, Ryo; Yanagi, Yasuo

2015-01-01

253

Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.  

PubMed

Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

2009-12-01

254

Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma  

PubMed Central

We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n = 15; P = 0.001), 105.3 microns at 1 year (n = 10; P = 0.03), and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n = 7; P = 0.08). BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n = 26; P < 0.001), 2.8 lines (n = 20; P = 0.01) at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n = 13; P = 0.049) at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma. PMID:25147732

Mansour, Ahmad M.; Al Kahtani, Eman; Zegarra, Hernando; Anand, Rajiv; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sisk, Robert A.; Mirza, Salman; Tuncer, Samuray; Navea Tejerina, Amparo; Mataix, Jorge; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Pulido, Jose S.; Guthoff, Rainer; Goebel, Winfried; Roh, Young Jung; Banker, Alay S.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Martinez, Isabel Alonso; Morris, Rodney; Panday, Neeraj; Min, Park Jung; Mercé, Emilie; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Massoud, Vicky; Ghazi, Nicola G.

2014-01-01

255

Intradural spinal cysts.  

PubMed

18 cases of benign intradural spinal cyst (9 arachnoidal, 2 neuroepithelial, 7 endodermal) are reported and compared with 94 cases (67 arachnoidal, 7 neuroepithelial, 20 endodermal) obtained from the literature. Arachnoidal intradural cysts (AIC) have no sex preference, occur at around the fourth-fifth decades of life and have characteristic intermittent root symptoms. They prefer the thoracic level and the posterior position. (Myelography images the cystic cavity (diverticular form). Surgical removal is usually easy. Neuroepithelial intradural cysts (NIC) are rare, have a 2:1 predilection for females and occur after the fourth decade. They have a serious clinical course similar to intramedullary or extramedullary tumours. They prefer the conus-cauda and the anterolateral positions. They often give rise to manometric block and to albuminocytological dissociation. There may be substantial adhesions to the cord and roots and the intramedullary variety presents no clear plane of cleavage. Endodermal intradural cysts (EIC) have a 2:1 predilection for males and prefer the second and third decades. They may have an intermittent or serious course with signs of root and cord impairment. They prefer the cervical segment (in the anterior position) and the conus-cauda (in the posterior position). As a rule they present manometric block and albuminocytological dissociation. Their frequent tough adhesions to the roots and cord demand special care during their removal. PMID:6880882

Fortuna, A; Mercuri, S

1983-01-01

256

Abuse-a-Cyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brine shrimp populations survive in some of the harshest environments. In this activity, students subject brine shrimp cysts to extreme conditions then try to hatch them. Students will learn that some organisms have adaptations that allow them to survive in extreme environments.

2012-05-31

257

Renal Cysts and Urinomas  

PubMed Central

Renal cysts are a common imaging finding. Although most cysts never have symptoms, some cause pain, collecting system compression, hematuria, hypertension, and secondary infection. The mere presence of a cyst is not an indication for intervention, but treatment may be indicated in symptomatic patients or those with secondary obstruction. Urinomas generally are a contained collection of urine outside of the normal pathways where urine travels. As such, urinomas can arise anywhere from the upper abdomen down into the low pelvis and have a variety of etiologies. Ureteral obstruction with forniceal rupture and trauma (blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic) are the most common causes of urinomas. When urinomas arise spontaneously, the likely cause varies with the patient's age. Blunt or penetrating trauma can cause perinephric urinomas by two mechanisms—direct disruption of the pelvis or collecting system or by degeneration of nonviable tissue. These urinomas are often perinephric, but can also occur in a subcapsular location. This review will discuss diagnosis, classification, and treatment of renal cysts and urinomas. PMID:23204636

Lee, Jessica; Darcy, Michael

2011-01-01

258

Hatch-a-Cyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the optimal environment for hatching brine shrimp? Using a scaffold, learners design and conduct experiments testing the effect of a single abiotic factor on brine shrimp cyst hatch rate. Pool results from the group to determine the optimal environment for hatching these resilient organisms.

University of Utah

2009-01-01

259

Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography  

E-print Network

We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a ...

Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar

260

Choroidal ganglioneuroma in a patient with orbitopalpebral neurofibromatosis.  

PubMed

Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign tumor originating from the sympathetic ganglion cells. Choroidal ganglioneuroma in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has been reported in a few cases. This study describes a 21-year-old woman with orbitopalpebral NF, who underwent evisceration for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, intractable glaucoma, and absolute painful eyes and who was found to have choroidal ganglioneuroma and retrobulbar plexiform neurofibroma on histologic examination. This case, together with the previously described cases, suggests that eyes with choroidal ganglioneuromas may have some common clinical and prognostic characteristics, although this condition cannot be diagnosed preoperatively. In patients with NF-1 who may undergo eye removal surgery, the possibility of choroidal tumors should be kept in mind. PMID:24833461

Yazici, Bülent; Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Saduman B

2014-01-01

261

Sector iris hemangioma in association with diffuse choroidal hemangioma.  

PubMed

Two patients referred for iris lesions were found to have sector hemangioma of the iris stroma in contiguity with diffuse choroidal hemangioma. Neither patient had other manifestations of Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25727597

Shields, Carol L; Atalay, Hatice Tuba; Wuthisiri, Wadakarn; Levin, Alex V; Lally, Sara E; Shields, Jerry A

2015-02-01

262

Choroidal melanoma: I-125 plaque therapy  

SciTech Connect

An iodine-125 eye plaque was used to treat 58 patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients were followed up for a mean of 48.7 months. Fifty patients had medium-sized lesions (height between 3.1 and 8.0 mm and base diameter less than 16.0 mm), and six patients had large lesions. There were 24 lesions less than 3.0 mm from the optic nerve. The average radiation dose to the apex of the tumor was 8,468 cGy (dose rate, 71 cGy per hour). Initial local disease control was achieved in 50 patients (86.2%). One patient with local treatment failure received another plaque treatment, which controlled disease, so the total disease control rate was 87.9%. Only eight patients died of their disease. Complications were similar to those with other treatment methods, but none of the patients in this study developed optic nerve atrophy.

Bosworth, J.L.; Packer, S.; Rotman, M.; Ho, T.; Finger, P.T.

1988-10-01

263

Treatment of choroid hemangioma with argon laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment effects of 7 cases of choroid hemangioma are reported. Of them, 4 cases were men and 3 cases were women. Ages varied from 34 to 52 years. The mean age was 43 years. All of their eyesight was between 0.01 and 0.4. Six of the seven cases were solitary hemangioma, the other one was Sturge-Weber syndrome. After treatment photography, the color of the hemangioma body gradually got weak and the local presented pigmentation. The results of the fluorescein fundus angiography indicated that the hemangioma body reduced, then got atrophy and fibrosis. In five cases eyesight increased, and it didn't in the other two cases.

Yang, Chuanzhu; Song, Man

1993-03-01

264

Motor Cortex Neuroplasticity Following Brachial Plexus Transfer  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27-year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralized to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain (PLP) before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced PLP. PMID:23966938

Dimou, Stefan; Biggs, Michael; Tonkin, Michael; Hickie, Ian B.; Lagopoulos, Jim

2013-01-01

265

Measurement of Choroidal Perfusion and Thickness Following Systemic Sildenafil (Viagra®)  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate anatomic and physiologic changes in the human choroid following systemic sildenafil citrate (ViagraR) using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound. Methods Seven healthy male subjects (mean age 32.7 years) were evaluated at baseline and two hours after ingesting 50 mg of sildenafil. Swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound and EDI-OCT were utilized to measure choroidal perfusion and thickness, respectively. Results were read by masked observers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and t-test were used to analyze differences in choroidal flow and thickness at baseline and two hours after ingestion of sildenafil. Results Two hours following sildenafil, increased choroidal perfusion was observed in 11 of 12 eyes measured by swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound. The mean increase was 3.46 (±2.00) times baseline with a range of 0.47 to 7.80 times baseline (p=0.004). Increased choroidal thickness was observed in 12 of 12 eyes measured with EDI-OCT. The average choroidal thickness increased by 11.6% temporal to the fovea, 9.3% nasal to the fovea, and 10.7% underneath the fovea (p<0.001 for all values). Conclusions Choroidal perfusion and thickness both increase in response to systemic sildenafil. These changes could secondarily affect retinal function, explain previously reported clinical symptoms, and potentially be a useful adjunct for treatment of ocular diseases that would benefit from increased choroidal blood flow. PMID:22974308

Kim, David Y.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Chan, R.V. Paul; Khanifar, Aziz A.; Rondeau, Mark; Lloyd, Harriet; Schlegel, Peter; Coleman, D. Jackson

2011-01-01

266

Treated Choroidal Melanoma with Late Metastases to the Contralateral Orbit  

PubMed Central

Choroidal melanoma is the commonest adult primary intraocular tumour,1 and usual sites of secondary spread are to liver, bone and lung. Although delayed recurrence of ipsilateral orbital melanoma is well documented, metastasis to the contralateral orbit is a rarely encountered phenomenon. We describe a case of metastatic spread to the contralateral orbit in a patient 12 years after proton beam radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma. PMID:21151543

George, Sonia; Cooke, Carole A.; Mc Ginnity, Gerald F.; White, Steve; Venkatraman, Laksmi

2009-01-01

267

Choroidal thickness measurements during central serous chorioretinopathy treatment.  

PubMed

To determine changes in choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) during the first 3 months after initial diagnosis and assess variable therapeutic interventions via enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). In this prospective study, choroidal thickness was measured via EDI-OCT both in the affected and fellow eyes of 10 patients with CSCR at the fovea, as well as at 500 and 1,000 ?m both temporal and nasal from the centre of the fovea and at the leakage point (if present), visualised via fluorescein angiography. Follow-up measurements were performed after 2-3 weeks, 6-8 weeks and 3 months. Seven of the 10 patients received additional systemic therapy with oral acetazolamide. A control group of eight healthy subjects was recruited to determine normal choroidal thickness in healthy eyes. The mean age of the 10 patients (9 male, 1 female) in the CSCR group was 42.1 (±9.3) years. The choroid in the affected eyes was significantly thickened at baseline compared to fellow eyes and the eyes of healthy subjects. The choroid in the fellow eyes also revealed a slight thickening at baseline compared to normal eyes. During the 3 month follow-up period, the choroidal thickness of the affected eyes showed a highly significant decrease, but did not reach normal levels. Minor changes could also be observed in the fellow eyes but did not reach statistical significance. In patients with CSCR, the average choroidal thickness not only demonstrated a significant thickening at baseline, but also showed a marked decrease after 3 months, yet not reaching normal levels. Our data indicate that after 3 months, normalisation of choroidal thickness is not yet completed. PMID:23572440

Brandl, Caroline; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

2014-02-01

268

Treatment of choroidal neovascularization in high myopia.  

PubMed

High myopia affects approximately 2% of general population, and is a major cause of legal blindness in many developed countries. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the most common vision-threatening complication of high myopia. Different therapeutic approaches have been attempted such as thermal laser photocoagulation, surgery and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT). The visual outcome of these therapies has been reported to be better than the natural history of the condition. However, the limited visual acuity improvement after PDT monotherapy and the appearance of subretinal fibrosis and chorioretinal atrophy prompted the association of other therapies. In the past few years a tremendous advance in the knowledge of the mechanisms underling CNV secondary to high myopia and age related macular degeneration has been achieved, leading to new therapeutic targets and novel drugs and combined therapies. These new therapeutic weapons have been designed to achieve a selective shut down of choroidal new vessels. Recent reviews have been published on the natural history and therapies for myopic CNV. Ohno-Matsui reported on the natural history of the condition as well as the outcome of laser photocoagulation, surgical extraction of CNV, foveal translocation and photodynamic therapy on myopic CNV in the short-term. Soubrane et al reviewed the new advances on surgery, laser photocoagulation and PDT, considering some of the potential effects of triamcinolone, pegaptanib and ranibizumab in CNV secondary to age related macular degeneration (AMD). Novack et al reported on the pharmacological therapy of CNV in AMD. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent advances in myopic CNV pathophysiology and the new therapeutic targets and drugs that are changing the clinical management of myopic CNV. PMID:20196722

Montero, Javier A; Ruiz-Moreno, Jose M

2010-05-01

269

Fetal deformations: a risk factor for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy?  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to discuss the association of brachial plexus palsy and congenital deformations. We reviewed all charts of patients less than 1 year of age with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy evaluated by one of the authors (IA) between January 1998 and October 2005 at Miami Children's Hospital Brachial Plexus Center. Of 158 patients with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, 7 had deformations (4.4%). Deformations were present in 32% of patients delivered by cesarean section, but in only 2% of patients delivered vaginally. The deformations were ipsilateral, involving the chest in two patients, distal arms in two patients, proximal arm in one patient, ear in one patient, and the leg in one patient. All patients with deformations had unilateral Erb's palsies. None had a history of maternal uterine malformation. Two presumptive mechanisms of injury, one causing the deformation (compressive forces) and one causing brachial plexus palsy at the time of delivery (traction forces), were present in all cases. The higher incidence of deformation in patients with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy born by cesarean sections and the presence of two presumptive mechanisms in all of the cases presented here raises the possibility that fetal deformations are a risk factor for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. PMID:16996396

Alfonso, Israel; Diaz-Arca, Gemma; Alfonso, Daniel T; Shuhaiber, Hans H; Papazian, Oscar; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, John A I

2006-10-01

270

Management of traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults.  

PubMed

Adult brachial plexus injury (BPI) is a closed injury. It usually involves a plexus of nerves formed by a number of roots, spinal nerves, trunks, cords, and numerous terminal branches, in a complicated fashion. Successful results in the management of adult BPI are based on the knowledge of anatomic arrangement, pathophysiology considerations, preoperative evaluation and diagnosis, surgical technique, postoperative management, rehabilitation and regular patient follow-up, surgical treatment of sequelae deformities, and factors influencing its results. This article deals with traumatic lesions of the brachial plexus in adults, and focuses on controversial questions and philosophy of treatment of adult BPI. PMID:10563273

Chuang, D C

1999-11-01

271

Brachial Plexus Injuries in Adults: Evaluation and Diagnostic Approach  

PubMed Central

The increased incidence of motor vehicle accidents during the past century has been associated with a significant increase in brachial plexus injuries. New imaging studies are currently available for the evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. Myelography, CT myelography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are indicated in the evaluation of brachial plexus. Moreover, a series of specialized electrodiagnostic and nerve conduction studies in association with the clinical findings during the neurologic examination can provide information regarding the location of the lesion, the severity of trauma, and expected clinical outcome. Improvements in diagnostic approaches and microsurgical techniques have dramatically changed the prognosis and functional outcome of these types of injuries. PMID:24967130

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Mazis, George A.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

272

Electroacupuncture attenuates neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury  

PubMed Central

Electroacupuncture has traditionally been used to treat pain, but its effect on pain following brachial plexus injury is still unknown. In this study, rat models of an avulsion injury to the left brachial plexus root (associated with upper-limb chronic neuropathic pain) were given electroacupuncture stimulation at bilateral Quchi (LI11), Hegu (LI04), Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34). After electroacupuncture therapy, chronic neuropathic pain in the rats’ upper limbs was significantly attenuated. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression of ?-endorphins in the arcuate nucleus was significantly increased after therapy. Thus, experimental findings indicate that electroacupuncture can attenuate neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury through upregulating ?-endorphin expression. PMID:25221593

Zhang, Shenyu; Tang, Hailiang; Zhou, Junming; Gu, Yudong

2014-01-01

273

Massive hemothorax: A rare complication after supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

PubMed Central

Plexus block is the preferred anesthesia plan for upper limb surgeries. Among the known complications, hematoma formation following the vascular trauma is often occur but this complication is frequently underreported. We present a case where a massive hemothorax developed post operatively in a patient who underwent resection of giant cell tumor of the right hand radius bone followed by arthroplasty under brachial plexus block using supraclavicular approach. This case report attempts to highlight the essence of remaining vigilant postoperatively for first initial days after brachial plexus block, especially after failed or multiple attempts. Ultrasound guided technique in combination with nerve stimulator has proven to be more reliable and safer than traditional techniques.

Singh, Shiv Kumar; Katyal, Surabhi; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Pawan

2014-01-01

274

Primary axillary hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (or Taenia echinococcus). The adult form of the parasite lives in the gut of the dog, while the intermediate hosts, where the tapeworm develops to larval stage are cats, cattle, pigs and humans(considered to be accidental intermediate hosts). The parasite has a worldwide distribution, but the endemic areas are Canada and Alaska, Australia, New Zealand, South America and the Mediterranean region. Hydatid cyst can grow many years before the symptoms and clinical signs appear. The liver and the lungs are the most affected organs, but primary location of the hydatid disease in the axilla is extremely rare. In our country we did not find any records of axillary hydatid disease, while the literature contains only 12 cases of axillary location. We present the case of a woman, 60 years old, with a primary axillary location of hydatid cyst, who underwent a total cystectomy. PMID:25149625

Mercu?, D; Andri?oiu, A; Tra?c?, Et; Silo?i, C; Resceanu, A; Mercu?, R

2014-01-01

275

Maxillary Air Cyst  

PubMed Central

Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

2013-01-01

276

[Mesoappendix cyst. A case report].  

PubMed

Mesenteric cysts are lesions that appear very rare. Its incidence ranges from 1:20,000 in children and 1:100,000 in adults. Their clinical manifestations are atypical and they include abdominal pain, vomit, tumor and complications from hemorrhage, peritonitis when there is a rupture of infected cyst, intestinal occlusion, renal failure, volvulus and malignant transformation. We present a case of mesenteric cyst, located in the mesoappendix with slight vascular compromise and chronic symptoms, its treatment and evolution. PMID:19241665

Montiel-Jarquín, José Alvaro; Romero-Morales, Luis Enrique; Enríquez-Adalid, Ramiro Martín; Mendoza-García, Valentín Aurelio; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; López-Colomo, Aurelio

2008-01-01

277

[Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma of the brachial plexus].  

PubMed

Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma that is extremely rare in the brachial plexus. We report a case of a myxoid/round cell liposarcoma originating in the brachial plexus that was surgically resected and evolved well, with no deficit or recurrence after 2 years of follow-up. To date, there has been no other case of this sarcoma in the literature. PMID:25126709

Giner, Javier; Isla, Alberto; Hernández, Borja; Nistal, Manuel

2014-01-01

278

A noninvasive eye fixation monitoring system for CyberKnife radiotherapy of choroidal and orbital tumors  

SciTech Connect

A new noninvasive monitoring system for fixing the eye has been developed to treat orbital and choroidal tumors with CyberKnife-based radiotherapy. This device monitors the eye during CT/MRI scanning and during treatment. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of the fixation light system for CyberKnife-based treatments of orbital and choroidal tumors and supports the idea that larger choroidal melanomas and choroidal metastases could be treated with CyberKnife without implanting fiducial markers.

Daftari, I. K.; Petti, P. L.; Larson, D. A.; O'Brien, J. M.; Phillips, T. L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2009-03-15

279

Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings of Choroidal Osteoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the morphologic features of a choroidal osteoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Methods Two eyes of two cases with a choroidal osteoma were studied using SS-OCT and FAF. Results The location of the tumor was circumpapillary without macular involvement in case 1 and juxtapapillary with macular involvement in case 2. Both cases had a mixture of calcified and decalcified areas, and a concomitant choroidal neovascularization was found in case 2. The FAF images showed decreased autofluorescence in the central decalcified regions and relatively preserved fluorescence in marginal calcified regions in both cases. SS-OCT revealed a normal inner retina and an abnormal outer retina in both cases, and subretinal fluid in case 2. The calcified regions appeared sponge-like and were multilayered in case 2. A lamellar reflective pattern was observed in the decalcified regions in case 1, and hyperreflective mound-like areas were observed in both cases. SS-OCT demonstrated hyperreflective areas above Bruch's membrane accompanied by disruption of Bruch's membrane in case 1. The chorioscleral border was visible in both cases. Conclusions The FAF pattern in the calcified and decalcified areas of the choroidal osteoma may correspond to the different stage of tumor evolution. The SS-OCT findings indicate that choroidal osteomas can have characteristic reflective patterns and alterations of the overlying retina. PMID:25120475

Hayashi, Yuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Egawa, Mariko; Semba, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Toshihiko

2014-01-01

280

Animal Models of Choroidal and Retinal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

There have been numerous types of animal models of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and retinal neovascularization (RNV). Understanding the pathobiology of CNV and RNV is important when evaluating and utilizing these models. Both CNV and RNV are dynamic processes. A break or defect in Bruchs’ membrane is necessary for CNV to develop. This may be induced with a laser, mechanically via surgery, or in the setting of transgenic mice. Some of the transgenic mouse models spontaneously develop RNV and/or retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP)-like lesions. The pathogenesis of RNV is well-known and is generally related to ischemic retinopathy. Models of oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) closely resemble retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The streptozotocin (STZ) rat model develops features similar to diabetic retinopathy. This review summarizes general categories and specific examples of animal models of CNV and RNV. There are no perfect models of CNV or RNV and individual investigators are encouraged to choose the model that best suits their needs. PMID:20488255

Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Kang, Shin J.; Berglin, Lennart

2010-01-01

281

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm{sup 3} (range, 151-1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9-76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong [Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Il, E-mail: jilee@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-01

282

Review of spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of tumors of the choroid  

PubMed Central

Background: Spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) can provide anatomic localization of intraocular tumors. Aims: The aim was to identify topographical and intrinsic patterns of choroidal tumors on EDI-OCT. Settings and Design: Retrospective review. Materials and Methods: Analysis of published reports and personal observations using office based EDI-OCT. Results: Using EDI-OCT, choroidal nevus displayed a smooth, dome-shaped topography with overlying retinal pigment epithelium alterations, drusen, and occasional subretinal cleft demonstrating photoreceptor loss. Small choroidal melanoma showed smooth, moderately dome-shaped topography, commonly with overlying shallow subretinal fluid that often depicted “shaggy” photoreceptors. Choroidal metastasis showed a minimally “lumpy, bumpy” surface topography and with overlying subretinal fluid and shaggy photoreceptors. Choroidal hemangioma showed a smooth, dome-shaped topography, with expansion of the affected small, medium, and large choroidal vessels. Choroidal lymphoma showed varying topography with increasing tumor thickness as “flat, rippled, or undulating (seasick)” surface. Choroidal osteoma displayed a smooth undulating surface with visible intralesional horizontal lines suggestive of bone lamellae and occasional horizontal and vertical tubules with intralesional “spongy” flecks. Choroidal melanocytosis appeared as uniformly thickened choroid with increased stromal density surrounding the normal choroidal vascular structures. Conclusions: Enhanced depth imaging-OCT can depict characteristic patterns that are suggestive of various choroidal tumors. PMID:25827541

Shields, Carol L; Manalac, Janet; Das, Chandana; Saktanasate, Jarin; Shields, Jerry A

2015-01-01

283

CT-revealed Choroidal Effusions as a Sign of Carotid Cavernous Fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Choroidal effusions may appear as subtle ab- normalities on CT scans. Recognition of choroidal effu- sions, however, is critical because they may be an early sign of ocular pathologic abnormality. After detection, the var- ious causes of choroidal effusions, such as carotid cavern- ous fistulas, ocular hypotony, tumors, and inflammatory conditions, should be considered. In a patient who presented

Seema Kumbhat; Suzanne D. LeBlang; Steven Falcone

284

MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo  

E-print Network

MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo William on retinal homeostasis with age and on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. Methods: The distribution, et al. (2012) MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Choroidal venous pulsations at an arterio-venous crossing in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.  

PubMed

It has been reported that pulsations in abnormal vessels are observed on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in half of patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), although the mechanism of the pulsation is unknown. In this study, we report a case of PCV showing venous pulsations at an arterio-venous (A-V) crossing, and discuss a possible mechanism of polypoidal vessel formation and pulsations in PCV. A 66-year-old female presented with a reddish-orange elevated lesion and serous retinal detachment in the macula of her left eye, and was diagnosed as PCV. She was treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and followed-up through routine examinations, including ICG angiography. ICG angiography at presentation showed a branching vascular network and choroidal venules with dye leakage (polypoidal vessels) in the left eye. Pulsations, supposedly of venous origin, were observed at an A-V crossing in the abnormal vessels. Within 3 months after PDT, the polypoidal vessel ceased to leak and the pulsations vanished. The reddish-orange lesion gradually decreased in size with complete disappearance of retinal detachment. This study suggests that an unusual compression at an A-V crossing may make a venule polypoidal, and fluctuations of blood flow and pressure in the venule may cause pulsatile movements of the vessel wall. PMID:24082779

Okubo, Akiko; Sameshima, Munefumi; Sakamoto, Taiji

2013-10-01

286

Morphological Spectrum of Pilar Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background: Cysts of the skin are one of the commonly excised specimens in the surgical outpatient department. A majority of them being clinically diagnosed as sebaceous cysts, their true nature is only discernible on histopathological examination. Closer examination of the type of keratinization involved will throw light into the exact nature of the cyst. Trichilemmal or Pilar cyst is one such entity, which presents in both a non-neoplastic and neoplastic form. Aims: The present retrospective observational study was undertaken to find out the incidence of these cysts in surgical pathology practice in a rural hospital and to enlist the various morphological forms that these cysts may take. Materials and Methods: The histopathology files were reviewed for a period of 6 years for cases coded as pilar cyst. Results: A total of eight cases (5.75%) were identified, which showed features of trichilemmal differentiation. A single case each of proliferating trichilemmal cyst and malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumors were noted. Most of the cases were seen among females on the scalp. Conclusions: Trichilemmal tumor is an uncommon histopathological entity. Many of these lesions may be mistakenly diagnosed due to lack of recognition of the unique type of keratinization. PMID:23641374

Ramaswamy, Anikode Subramanian; Manjunatha, Hanumanthappa Krishnappa; Sunilkumar, Bylappa; Arunkumar, Sulkunte Palaksha

2013-01-01

287

Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola

2014-01-01

288

Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.  

PubMed

We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

2008-05-01

289

Popliteal cysts: a current review.  

PubMed

Baker's cyst, or popliteal cyst, is a fluid-filled mass that is a distention of a preexisting bursa in the popliteal fossa, most commonly the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa. This bursa is unique in that it communicates with the knee joint, unlike other periarticular bursae, via an opening in the joint capsule posterior to the medial femoral condyle. Many have theorized that this opening creates a valve-like mechanism in the presence of effusion that contributes to the formation of these cysts in adults. Popliteal cysts rarely manifest alone and are most often found in conjunction with other intra-articular pathologies and inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis, meniscus tears, and rheumatoid arthritis. In children, popliteal cysts are only occasionally associated with these conditions and are more often an incidental finding discovered during a routine physical examination. Popliteal cysts may present as either a chronically persistent or relapsing condition or as an acute and dramatic condition that can occur in the case of cyst rupture presenting as pseudothrombophlebitis. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proven to be consistent and accurate in the confirmation of popliteal cysts, with magnetic resonance imaging becoming the modern imaging modality of choice. This review discusses the anatomy and etiology of popliteal cysts, describes the common clinical presentations, reviews the differential diagnoses, and provides guidance for proper diagnostic imaging. It also provides a comparison of current conservative, minimally invasive, and invasive treatment options, along with a discussion of results. Postoperative rehabilitation depends largely on the condition associated with the popliteal cyst. PMID:25102502

Herman, Alyssa M; Marzo, John M

2014-08-01

290

The choroidal circulation assessed by laser-targeted angiography.  

PubMed

The choroid plays an important role in supplying nutrients to and removing waste products from the outer region of the retina. Abnormal choroidal blood flow can disrupt normal retinal function and lead to alterations in visual function. Visualization of the choriocapillaris in vivo is a great challenge to understanding its normal physiology and involvement in the disease process. Laser-targeted angiography (LTA) is a relatively new method used to visualize and analyze the choroidal circulation. Carboxyfluorescein (CF), encapsulated in heat-sensitive liposomes, is released locally in the choroid through the application of a heat beam provided by an infrared laser. Video angiograms are generated with excitation illumination provided by an argon laser. Obtained images are highly selective to the choriocapillaris and are sharply contrasted against underlying and overlying structures. The images can be obtained repetitively, during which period the circulating liposome concentration is sufficient to generate adequate angiograms. These high-quality images have revealed three distinct phases (filling, plateau, and draining) of the choriocapillaris. In the plateau phase, a cluster of lobules fed by a common arteriole has been uniformly illuminated. This defined cluster area does not change in size while an infrared laser is continuously applied to the same spot, which demonstrates that each cluster is functionally independent and no physiological communication exists between them. Only in posterior regions do the angiograms demonstrate during the filling and draining phases that each lobule is filled from a central spot and drained along a peripheral ring, showing honeycomb flow patterns. The regional differences in choriocapillaris flow patterns revealed by LTA suggests that the choriocapillaris provides a more highly efficient system of outflow in posterior regions than in peripheral regions. LTA is useful in analyzing choroidal circulation in vivo and has the potential for clinical application in the future. Additionally, LTA has a unique capability to image choroidal neovascularization in animal models and it promises potential application in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PMID:16226483

Hirata, Yuya; Nishiwaki, Hirokazu

2006-03-01

291

MRI of axillary brachial plexus blocks  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Axillary plexus blocks are usually guided by ultrasound, but alternative methods may be used when ultrasound equipment is lacking. For a nonultrasound-guided axillary block, the need for three injections has been questioned. OBJECTIVES Could differences in block success between single, double and triple deposits methods be explained by differences in local anaesthetic distribution as observed by MRI? DESIGN A blinded and randomised controlled study. SETTING Conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2009 to 2011. PATIENTS Forty-five ASA 1 to 2 patients scheduled for surgery were randomised to three equally sized groups. All patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Patients in the single-deposit group had an injection through a catheter parallel to the median nerve. In the double-deposit group the patients received a transarterial block. In the triple-deposit group the injections of the two other groups were combined. Upon completion of local anaesthetic injection the patients were scanned by MRI, before clinical block assessment. The distribution of local anaesthetic was scored by its closeness to terminal nerves and cords of the brachial plexus, as seen by MRI. The clinical effect was scored by the degree of sensory block in terminal nerve innervation areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensory block effect and MRI distribution pattern. RESULTS The triple-deposit method had a higher success rate (100%) than the single-deposit method (67%) and the double-deposit method (67%) in blocking all cutaneous nerves distal to the elbow (P?=?0.04). The patients in the triple-deposit group most often had the best MRI scores. For any nerve or cord, at least one of the single-deposit or double-deposit groups had a similarly high MRI score as the triple-deposit group. CONCLUSION Distal to the elbow, the triple-deposit method had the highest sensory block success rate. This could be explained to some extent by analysis of the magnetic resonance images. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01033006. PMID:25051144

Kjelstrup, Trygve; Hol, Per K.; Courivaud, Frédéric; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Røkkum, Magne; Klaastad, Øivind

2014-01-01

292

Thermoablation of Liver Metastases: Efficacy of Temporary Celiac Plexus Block  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the efficacy of celiac plexus block during thermoablation of liver metastases. Methods. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent thermoablation therapy of liver tumors by laser-induced thermotherapy. Twenty-nine patients received a temporary celiac plexus block, 26 patients acted as control group. In both groups fentanyl and midazolam were administered intravenously upon request of the patient. The duration of the intervention, consumption of opiates, and individual pain sensations were documented. Results. No complications resulting from the celiac plexus block were recorded. Celiac plexus block significantly reduced the amount of pain medication used during thermoablation therapy of liver tumors (with block, 2.45 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight; without block, 3.58 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight, p < 0.05; midazolam consumption was not reduced) in patients with metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule. For metastases farther away from the capsule no significant differences in opiate consumption were seen. Celiac plexus block reduced the time for thermoablation significantly (178 min versus 147 min, p < 0.05) no matter how far the metastases were from the liver capsule. Average time needed to set the block was 12 min (range 9-15 min); additional costs for the block were marginal. As expected (as pain medications were given according to individual patients' needs) pain indices did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion. In patients with liver metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule, celiac plexus block reduces the amount of opiates necessary, simplifying patient monitoring. In addition celiac plexus block reduces intervention time, with positive effects on overall workflow for all patients.

Beck, A.N., E-mail: alexander.beck@charite.de; Schaefer, M.; Werk, M.; Pech, M.; Wieners, G.; Cho, C.; Ricke, J. [Universitaets Medicin Berlin, Charite, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2005-05-15

293

Blake's pouch cyst  

PubMed Central

Background: In 1900, Joseph Blake described a transient posterior evagination of the tela choroidea of the fourth ventricle in the normal 130-day old human embryo. He was the first to recognize and fully elucidate on the real nature of the foramen of Magendie as an aperture, which develops within a saccular expansion of the embryonic fourth ventricular cavity. The persistence of this temporary fourth ventricular outpouching into the postnatal period and its significance either as separate entity or as an entity within the Dandy–Walker continuum has over the years been one of the most controversial topics in both neurosurgical and neuroradiological literature. Methods: A search of the medical literature was conducted for publications addressing the historical, embryological, and neuororadiological features as well as the clinical presentation and management of persistent Blake's pouch. Results: The literature on the various features of Blake's pouch cyst has limited areas of consensus between various authors. Conclusion: Blake's pouch cyst is a rare entity that is thought to belong to the Dandy–Walker continuum. It has a variable clinical presentation and when symptomatic can be treated with an endoscopic third ventriculostomy or shunting. PMID:25101207

Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Elmansoury, Tamer M.; Salaheddin, Waleed; Nasim, Khurram; Parwez, Aslam

2014-01-01

294

Optical coherence angiography for the retina and choroid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noninvasive ophthalmic angiography is demonstrated for the in vivo human. Three-dimensional structural and flow imaging have been performed with a high-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The two methods are presented; (1) Doppler optical coherence angiography: three-dimensional vasculature of retinal and choroidal vessels are visualized by flow imaging; and, (2) scattering optical coherence angiography: the choroidal vasculature is segmented from three-dimensional OCT volume set. By integrating three-dimensional vasculature images, two-dimensional images of blood vessels are obtained. These are corresponding to fluorescein angiogram and indocyanine green angiogram.

Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Youngjoo; Miura, Masahiro; Yamanari, Masahiro; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

2007-07-01

295

Laparoscopic management of ovarian cysts in newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cysts are the most common ovarian masses found in newborn girls. Spontaneous regression, which occurs in ?25–50% of cases,\\u000a is more frequent with smaller cysts. Pre- or postnatal complications are common; these complications may consist of intracystic\\u000a bleeding, torsion of the cyst or corresponding annex, or self-amputation of the cyst. When the cyst is <4 cm it is possible

C. Esposito; V. Garipoli; G. Di Matteo; M. De Pasquale

1998-01-01

296

Giant epithelial cyst of the accessory spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splenic cysts are uncommon, and cysts derived from the accessory spleen are rare. We report a case of a huge splenic cyst\\u000a derived from the accessory spleen in the omentum, concomitant with multiple epithelial cysts of the primary spleen. Both serum\\u000a and cystic fluid concentrations of carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 were markedly elevated. A huge monolocular cyst occupied\\u000a the entire abdomen.

Masaki Mori; Taro Ishii; Toru Iida; Fumihiko Tanaka; Hajime Takikawa; Kota Okinaga

2003-01-01

297

[Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].  

PubMed

Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

2008-01-01

298

Excision of Epididymal Cyst or Spermatocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This is an operation to remove a cyst attached to the epididymis, which in the case of the spermatocele contains sperm and\\u000a in the case of an epididymal cyst, clear-\\/straw-colored fluid. The main indication for operating on an epididymal cyst is\\u000a an increase in size of the cyst, causing discomfort or pain. Cysts rarely cause obstruction of the epididymis, but

Hashim Hashim; Paul Abrams

299

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts  

PubMed Central

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

Tarlov, I. M.

1970-01-01

300

Ependymal cyst of the midbrain.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 30-year-old man who developed an acute hydrocephalus secondary to an obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct by a midbrain cystic lesion. After a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed to relief symptoms of intracranial hypertension, the patient underwent a neuronavigation-assisted endoscopic fenestration of the cyst. A careful immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of an ependymal cyst. An extensive review of the literature has revealed that this is the first report of a periaqueductal ependymal cyst with definite histological diagnosis. This is a rare cause of acute non-communicating hydrocephalus but an important entity in the differential diagnosis. PMID:23254139

Prieto, Ruth; Subhi-Issa, Issa; Pascual, José M

2013-01-01

301

Nasopalatine canal cyst: often missed  

PubMed Central

Nasopalatine canal cyst may occur within the nasopalatine canal or in the soft tissues of the palate, at the opening of the canal, where it is called the ‘cyst of the palatine papilla’. These are normally asymptomatic, constituting casual radiological findings. We present a case report of a male patient with infected nasopalatine canal cyst seen clinically as swelling over palate. Radiographic interpretation should be thoroughly performed for maxillary anterior region and any occlusal radiograph in routine radiography to screen this entity and must be distinguished from other maxillary anterior radiolucencies by the clinician. PMID:23536642

Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Neeta; Agarwal, Rashmi; Pandey, Praveen

2013-01-01

302

Clinical and neuropathological study about the neurotization of the suprascapular nerve in obstetric brachial plexus lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The lack of recovery of active external rotation of the shoulder is an important problem in children suffering from brachial plexus lesions involving the suprascapular nerve. The accessory nerve neurotization to the suprascapular nerve is a standard procedure, performed to improve shoulder motion in patients with brachial plexus palsy. METHODS: We operated on 65 patients with obstetric brachial plexus

Dominique Schaakxs; Jörg Bahm; Bernd Sellhaus; Joachim Weis

2009-01-01

303

Observation of Coiled Blood Plexus in Rat Skin with Diffusive Light Illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood plexuses are characteristic anatomical features of acupuncture points (APs). We developed an optical technique using diffusive light illumination to increase the brightened area of skin for observation of the blood plexuses in skin. We found that the blood plexuses were coiled blood vessels which came out of the perforations in the fascia of muscle. The coiled vessels could be

Vyacheslav Ogay; Flora Min; KwanHyung Kim; JaiSoon Kim; Kyung Hee Bae; Sang Chul Han; Kwang-Sup Soh

2009-01-01

304

Interocular Symmetry in Macular Choroidal Thickness in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective. To report interocular differences in choroidal thickness in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate findings with biometric data. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study included 91 (182 eyes) healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye exam and axial length measurement, high definition macular scans were performed using SD-OCT. Two observers manually measured the choroidal thickness at the foveal center and at 1500?µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Interocular differences were computed; correlations with age, gender, refractive error, and axial length were performed. Results. Mean age was 10.40 ± 3.17 years; mean axial length and refractive error values were similar between fellow eyes. There was excellent correlation between the two observers' measurements. No significant interocular differences were observed at any location. There was only a trend for right eyes to have higher values in all thicknesses, except the superior thickness. Most of the choroidal thickness measurements correlated positively with spherical equivalent but not with axial length, age, or gender. Conclusion. Choroidal thickness measurements in children as performed using SD-OCT revealed a high level of interobserver agreement and consistent interocular symmetry. Values correlated positively with spherical equivalent refraction. PMID:25525509

Al-Haddad, Christiane; El Chaar, Lama; Noureddin, Baha'

2014-01-01

305

Radiotherapy of Choroidal Metastases in Patients with Disseminated Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: >Choroidal metastasis is the most common ocular tumor, in most cases related to breast and lung cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) mostly is the therapy of choice. However, there is a lack of data about the results of uniformly, prospective treated patients. Patients and Methods: Between November 1994 and September 1997, 37 patients with 49 metastatic eyes were enrolled into

D. Bottke; T. Wiegel; K.-M. Kreusel; N. Bornfeld; G. Schaller; W. Hinkelbein

2000-01-01

306

Bilateral Choroidal Metastasis from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast and lung cancers are the most common primary neoplasms to manifest with choroidal metastases. The incidence of choroidal metastases from metastatic lung cancer was reported to be 2–6.7%. We report a case of bilateral choroidal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. A 59-year-old Caucasian female patient, never a smoker, was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pleura, bones, and the brain. Her initial scan of the chest showed innumerable soft tissue nodules and mediastinal adenopathy compatible with metastatic disease. Her initial brain MRI showed numerous small enhancing lesions consistent with extensive disease. Unfortunately, during her follow-up visits, she presented with bulge on her left eye. Simultaneously, her follow-up chest scan showed increase in the size of the lung nodules. She continued to have a reasonable performance status at that time, except for mild increase in her dyspnea. The choroidal metastases require a multidisciplinary care and should be among the differential patients with malignancy who present with ocular symptoms. PMID:25295203

Namad, Tariq; Wang, Jiang; Tilton, Annemarie; Abdel Karim, Nagla

2014-01-01

307

Brachial plexus paresis associated with fetal neck compression from forceps.  

PubMed

Instrumental vaginal deliveries have been associated with higher risks of brachial plexus injuries. The proposed mechanisms involve the indirect association of instrumental deliveries with shoulder dystocia and nerve stretch injuries secondary to rotations of 90 degrees or more. We present a brachial plexus paresis resulting from direct compression of the forceps blade in the fetal neck. A term infant was delivered by a low Kielland forceps rotation. No shoulder dystocia was noted. The immediate neonatal exam revealed an Erb's palsy and an ipsilateral bruise in the lateral aspect of the neck. The paresis resolved during the first day of life. Direct cervical compression of the fetal neck by forceps in procedures involving rotations of the presentation may result in brachial plexus injuries. PMID:14528397

Gei, Alfredo F; Smith, Russell A; Hankins, Gary D V

2003-08-01

308

Recent advances in the management of brachial plexus injuries  

PubMed Central

Management of brachial plexus injury is a demanding field of hand and upper extremity surgery. With currently available microsurgical techniques, functional gains are rewarding in upper plexus injuries. However, treatment options in the management of flail and anaesthetic limb are still evolving. Last three decades have witnessed significant developments in the management of these injuries, which include a better understanding of the anatomy, advances in the diagnostic modalities, incorporation of intra-operative nerve stimulation techniques, more liberal use of nerve grafts in bridging nerve gaps, and the addition of new nerve transfers, which selectively neurotise the target muscles close to the motor end plates. Newer research works on the use of nerve allografts and immune modulators (FK 506) are under evaluation in further improving the results in nerve reconstruction. Direct reimplantation of avulsed spinal nerve roots into the spinal cord is another area of research in brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:25190913

Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay

2014-01-01

309

Suppression of Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization by Curcumin in Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effects of curcumin on the development of experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Methods C57BL/6N mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of curcumin daily for 3 days prior to laser-induced CNV, and the drug treatments were continued until the end of the study. The CNV area was analyzed by fluorescein-labeled dextran angiography of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid flat mounts on day 7 and 14, and CNV leakage was evaluated by fluorescein angiography (FA) on day 14 after laser photocoagulation. The infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages and GR-1 positive granulocytes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on RPE-choroid flat mounts on day 3. Their expression in RPE-choroid complex was quantified by real-time PCR (F4/80) and Western blotting (GR-1) on day 3. RPE-choroid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were examined by ELISA on day 3. Double immunostaining of F4/80 and VEGF was performed on cryo-sections of CNV lesions on day 3. The expression of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)?1? in the RPE-choroid was determined by Western blotting. Results Curcumin-treated mice had significantly less CNV area (P<0.05) and CNV leakage (P<0.001) than vehicle-treated mice. Curcumin treatment led to significant inhibition of F4/80 positive macrophages (P<0.05) and GR-1 positive granulocytes infiltration (P<0.05). VEGF mainly expressed in F4/80 positive macrophages in laser injury sites, which was suppressed by curcumin treatment (P<0.01). Curcumin inhibited the RPE-choroid levels of TNF-? (P<0.05), MCP-1 (P<0.05) and ICAM-1 (P<0.05), and suppressed the activation of NF-?B in nuclear extracts (P<0.05) and the activation of HIF?1? (P<0.05). Conclusion Curcumin treatment led to the suppression of CNV development together with inflammatory and angiogenic processes including NF-?B and HIF?1? activation, the up-regulation of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines, and infiltrating macrophages and granulocytes. This provides molecular and cellular evidence of the validity of curcumin supplementation as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated CNV. PMID:23285282

Xie, Ping; Zhang, WeiWei; Yuan, Songtao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yang, Qin; Yuan, DongQing; Wang, Feng; Liu, QingHuai

2012-01-01

310

Giant adrenal cyst: case study  

PubMed Central

One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61Z–year old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24–h 17–ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is performed and a cyst of 15 cm is removed. The evolution after surgery is good. The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia. The immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for CD34 and ACT in the vessels and VIM in the stroma. The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection. The pathological exam highlights the major aspects. PMID:20945822

Carsote, M; Chirita, P; Terzea, D; Paun, S; Beuran, M

2010-01-01

311

Chocolate cysts from ovarian follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the development of chocolate cysts by serial transvaginal ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles.Design: Retrospective study.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, United Kingdom.Patient(s): We reviewed case notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopy for diathermy to endometriosis\\/ovarian diathermy\\/aspiration of ovarian cysts from 1989 to 1998. Twelve women with histories of infertility and proven chocolate

Smita Jain; Maureen E Dalton

1999-01-01

312

Neuroenteric cyst of the cerebellum.  

PubMed Central

Intracranial neuroenteric cysts are rarely encountered and no more than 13 cases have been reported in the literature. This paper reports another case located in the cerebellum. These occur mostly in adults and there is no typical clinical presentation. The computed tomographic scan shows them as low attenuating lesions with no peripheral contrast enhancement. These cysts are believed to be developmental in origin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6728752

Mehta, V. S.; Chowdhury, C.; Bhatia, R.

1984-01-01

313

Hydatid Cyst of the Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We report our experience in the management of 147 hydatid cysts of the kidney over an 11–year period.Material and Methods: The records of 147 patients operated for hydatid cysts of the kidney between 1985 and 1996 were reviewed in order to address patient’s symptoms at presentation, radiological findings, diagnostic tests and surgical outcome. All patients were managed with open

Ali Horchani; Yassine Nouira; Imed Kbaier; Fethi Attyaoui; Ahmed Said Zribi

2000-01-01

314

Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst  

PubMed Central

A case is presented of an intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst at the L4–5 level. The clinical picture suggested a herniated nucleus pulposus at this level. A myelogram revealed a round lesion almost completely obstructing the flow of Pantopaque at the L4–5 level. A ganglion cyst with a haemorrhage into it and the surrounding tissue was removed, and surgery was followed by complete recovery. Images PMID:4647850

Brish, Adam; Payan, Hushong M.

1972-01-01

315

Intracranial epidermoid cyst: case report.  

PubMed

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are estimated to constitute 0.2 to 1.8% of brain tumours (4) and they can be divided into four categories describing their anatomic origin and frequent primary location: retro-sellar-cerebellopontine angle, parasellar-sylvian fissure, suprasellar-chiasmatic and basilar-posterior fossa. We describe an unusual case of pre-pontine epidermoid cyst arising in the temporal lobe and in inter-peduncles cistern: development and surgical treatment are discussed. PMID:19354040

Ulivieri, Simone; Oliveri, Giuseppe; Filosomi, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia

2008-01-01

316

Epidermoid cyst of the spleen.  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225

Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel

2013-01-01

317

Learn the Brachial Plexus in Five Minutes or Less  

E-print Network

is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the VA Gulf Coast Veterans Health and Rehabilitation Department of Veterans Affairs, Biloxi, Mississippi and Dennis A. Chu, M.D. This material view of the Department of Veterans Affairs of the U.S. Government. #12;The brachial plexus contains

Finley Jr., Russell L.

318

Sacral plexus injury after radiotherapy for carcinoma of cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-year-old woman developed lower extremity weakness and sensory loss 1 year after external and intracavitary radiotherapy for Stage IB carcinoma of cervix. She has been followed for 5 years posttreatment, and the neurologic abnormalities have persisted, but no evidence of recurrent carcinoma has been found. We believe this to be a rare case of sacral plexus radiculopathy developing as

John A. Stryker; Kenneth Sommerville; Ruben Perez; Donald E. Velkley

1990-01-01

319

A New Approach for Brachial Plexus Block Under Fluoroscopic Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed the subclavian perivascular approach to the brachial plexus using contrast medium to confirm the location of the tip of the needle and the spread of the injected solution to obtain a high success rate and to minimize the risk of pneumothorax. Review of the cases led to the hypothesis that the solution injected inside the costal attachment of

Misuzu Nishiyama; Keiko Naganuma; Yoshikiyo Amaki

1999-01-01

320

Management of Uveitis-Related Choroidal Neovascularization: From the Pathogenesis to the Therapy  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization is a severe but uncommon complication of uveitis, more frequent in posterior uveitis such as punctate inner choroidopathy, multifocal choroiditis, serpiginous choroiditis, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Its pathogenesis is supposed to be similar to the wet age related macular degeneration: hypoxia, release of vascular endothelial growth factor, stromal cell derived factor 1-alpha, and other mediators seem to be involved in the uveitis-related choroidal neovascularization. A review on the factors implicated so far in the pathogenesis of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization was performed. Also we reported the success rate of single studies concerning the therapies of choroidal neovascularization secondary to uveitis during the last decade: photodynamic therapy, intravitreal bevacizumab, and intravitreal ranibizumab, besides steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy. Hereby a standardization of the therapeutic approach is proposed. PMID:24868454

D'Ambrosio, Enzo; Tortorella, Paolo

2014-01-01

321

Segmentation of the macular choroid in OCT images acquired at 830nm and 1060nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has rapidly advanced in ophthalmic applications with the broad availability of Fourier domain (FD) technology in commercial systems. The high sensitivity afforded by FD-OCT has enabled imaging of the choroid, a layer of blood vessels serving the outer retina. Improved visualization of the choroid and the choroid-sclera boundary has been investigated using techniques such as enhanced depth imaging (EDI), and also with OCT systems operating in the 1060-nm wavelength range. We report on a comparison of imaging the macular choroid with commercial and prototype OCT systems, and present automated 3D segmentation of the choroid-scleral layer using a graph cut algorithm. The thickness of the choroid is an important measurement to investigate for possible correlation with severity, or possibly early diagnosis, of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.

Lee, Sieun; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

2013-06-01

322

Examining the Choroid in Ocular Inflammation: A Focus on Enhanced Depth Imaging  

PubMed Central

The choroid is the vascular layer that supplies the outer retina and is involved in the pathogenesis of several ocular conditions including choroidal tumors, age related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, and uveitis. Nevertheless, difficulties in the visualization of the choroid have limited our understanding of its exact role in ocular pathology. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherent topography (EDI-OCT) is a novel, noninvasive technique that is used to evaluate choroidal thickness and morphology in these diseases. The technique provides detailed objective in vivo visualization of the choroid and can be used to characterize posterior segment inflammatory disorders, monitor disease activity, and evaluate efficacy of treatment. In this review we summarize the current application of this technique in ocular inflammatory disorders and highlight its utility as an additional tool in monitoring choroidal involvement in ocular inflammation. PMID:25024846

Baltmr, Abeir; Lightman, Sue; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren

2014-01-01

323

Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario,

Sarah M. Nour; John R. Lawrence; Hong Zhu; George D. W. Swerhone; Martha Welsh; Tom W. Welacky; Edward Topp

2003-01-01

324

A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations. PMID:17688070

Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

2007-08-01

325

Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... variety of shapes and sizes. Depending upon the nature of the polyp, it can cause a wide range of voice disturbances. Vocal Cord Cyst A vocal cord cyst is a firm mass of tissue contained within a membrane (sac). ...

326

Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

2011-01-01

327

Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

2011-08-01

328

Mesothelial cyst with endometriosis mimicking a Nuck cyst  

PubMed Central

We report a case of mesothelial cyst protruding from the right femoral ring with suspected endometriosis in a 35-year-old woman, who complained of a lump with a diameter of 6 cm in the right inguinal region. Although she had the hormone therapy during the next 8 months for the diagnosis of extragenital endometriosis, her symptoms did not improve. The clinical suspicion of a Nuck cyst with endometriosis, supported by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, was confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. Authors herein report this unusual case and review the literature. PMID:24973417

Uno, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shintaro; Yano, Fumiaki; Eto, Ken; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

329

Mesothelial cyst with endometriosis mimicking a Nuck cyst.  

PubMed

We report a case of mesothelial cyst protruding from the right femoral ring with suspected endometriosis in a 35-year-old woman, who complained of a lump with a diameter of 6 cm in the right inguinal region. Although she had the hormone therapy during the next 8 months for the diagnosis of extragenital endometriosis, her symptoms did not improve. The clinical suspicion of a Nuck cyst with endometriosis, supported by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, was confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. Authors herein report this unusual case and review the literature. PMID:24973417

Uno, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shintaro; Yano, Fumiaki; Eto, Ken; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

330

Iodine-125 irradiation of choroidal melanoma. Clinical experience  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-nine patients with choroidal melanomas were treated with iodine-125 seeds in gold scleral plaques. Iodine-125 emits low energy 25 KeV photons which are attenuated by the side and back of the plaques so that the radiation is directed towards the choroidal tumor. The anticipated therapeutic benefits of using a low energy isotope and directional applicators have been realized. There has been a marked reduction in ocular complications in the nine medium and 20 large melanomas so treated. The complication rate was 34% with a mean follow-up of 38 months. This is a lower complication rate, with longer follow-up, and in larger tumors than that reported with the use of cobalt-60, ruthenium-106 or ion beam. Three patients with large tumors and two patients with medium tumors died of metastasis. This compares favorably to results of similarly sized melanomas treated by enucleation.

Packer, S.; Rotman, M.; Salanitro, P.

1984-12-01

331

Visualization of human retinal and choroidal vascular networks with phase-variance optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in vivo noninvasive retinal and choroidal perfusion maps with phase-variance optical coherence tomography (pvOCT). We acquired a pvOCT volumetric data set of a normal subject and visualized blood circulation in the retina and the choroid. En face projection views of the retina as well as the choroid were generated from a manually segmented volumetric data set. In addition, the processed pvOCT images were compared to current standard imaging modalities used for retinal and choroidal vasculature visualization in clinical settings, including fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA).

Kim, Dae Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Verma, Malvika; Schwartz, Daniel M.; Werner, John S.; Fraser, Scott E.

2013-03-01

332

Epithelial cysts of the spleen: a minireview.  

PubMed

Primary splenic epithelial cyst is an unusual event in everyday surgical practice with about 800 cases reported until date in the English literature. Splenic cysts may be parasitic or non-parasitic in origin. Nonparasitic cysts are either primary or secondary. Primary cysts are also called true, congenital, epidermoid or epithelial cysts. Primary splenic cysts account for 10% of all benign non-parasitic splenic cysts and are the most frequent type of splenic cysts in children. Usually, splenic cysts are asymptomatic and can be found incidentally during imaging techniques or on laparotomy. The symptoms are related to the size of cysts. When they assume large sizes, they may present with fullness in the left abdomen, local or referred pain, symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures (like nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhoea) or rarely thrombocytopenia, and occasionally complications such as infection, rupture and/or haemorrhage. The preoperative diagnosis of primary splenic cysts can be ascertained by ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, although the wide use of USG today has led to an increase in the incidence of splenic cysts by 1%. However, careful histopathological evaluation along with immunostaining for presence of epithelial lining is mandatory to arrive at the diagnosis. The treatment has changed drastically from total splenectomy in the past to splenic preservation methods recently. PMID:25320525

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge Ingle, Chitra R; Patrike, Swapna

2014-10-14

333

The management of fetal ovarian cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Ovarian torsion causing the loss of an ovary represents the most common complication of fetal ovarian cysts and occurs more frequently before than after birth. Thus, treatment of fetal simple ovarian cysts should be performed antenatally; however, criteria for prenatal decompression still need to be evaluated. Previous experience of the authors showed that large simple cysts have a poor

Pietro Bagolan; Claudio Giorlandino; Antonella Nahom; Elena Bilancioni; Alessandro Trucchi; Claudia Gatti; Vincenzo Aleandri; Vincenzo Spina

2002-01-01

334

Fetal ovarian cyst decompression to prevent torsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Neonates who have ovarian torsion caused by an ovarian cyst often lose their ovary because the torsion and infarction occurred antenatally. Because ultrasound scan has been so effective in diagnosing ovarian cysts in utero, we have a better understanding of their natural history and can select appropriate cases for cyst decompression in utero to prevent torsion. The authors reviewed

Timothy M Crombleholme; Sabrina D Craigo; Sara Garmel; Mary E D'Alton

1997-01-01

335

Ovarian cysts in the pediatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread availability and use of pelvic sonography, the rate at which ovarian cysts are detected in the pediatric population has increased, and such cysts are an important problem encountered in pediatric surgical practice. Rational management should take into account key factors such as symptoms, patient age, menarchal status, cysts size, and character, as well as associated medical conditions.

MA Helmrath; CE Shin; BW Warner

1998-01-01

336

Follicular ovarian cysts in stillbirths and neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the histology of 332 ovaries from stillbirths and neonatal deaths within the first 28 days of life showed that follicular cysts, lined by granulosa epithelium and having a diameter greater than 1 mm on a microscopical section, were present in 113 infants. In 48 cases multiple cysts were present, while in 65 only a single cyst satisfying

D J deSa

1975-01-01

337

Minimally invasive management of dysontogenetic hepatic cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Liver cysts occur with a prevalence of 4%–7% in the general population. Laparoscopic surgery is effective for solitary cysts and in selected patients with polycystic liver disease (PLD). We present our experience in the laparoscopic management of dysontogenetic cysts. Patients and methods Between 1994 and 2002, 36 patients were referred to our centre for the management of dysontogenetic cystic

Peter Kornprat; Herwig Cerwenka; Heinz Bacher; Azab El-Shabrawi; Manfred Tillich; Cord Langner; Hans Joerg Mischinger

2004-01-01

338

Extraneural rupture of intraneural ganglion cysts.  

PubMed

Rupture of simple (extraneural) cysts such as popliteal cysts (Baker's cysts) is a well-known occurrence. The purpose of this report is to introduce the similar occurrence of extraneural rupture of peroneal and tibial intraneural cysts in the knee region, describe the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and identify risk factors. There was MRI evidence of rupture in 20 of 38 intraneural cases reviewed, mainly in the region of the fibular head and popliteal fossa. Ruptured intraneural cysts and simple cysts share these MRI findings: T2 hyperintense fluid within surrounding intermuscular fascial planes and enhancement with intravenous contrast consistent with inflammation. The mean maximal diameter of the ruptured intraneural cysts was statistically significantly smaller than that of the unruptured cysts. The authors believe that extraneural rupture of an intraneural cyst is due to increased intraarticular pressures transmitted within the cyst and/or elevated extrinsic pressure delivered to the cyst, such as by trauma, akin to the etiology of rupture of extraneural ganglion cysts. PMID:21838077

Shahid, Kameron R; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

2011-01-01

339

Epithelial cysts of the spleen: A minireview  

PubMed Central

Primary splenic epithelial cyst is an unusual event in everyday surgical practice with about 800 cases reported until date in the English literature. Splenic cysts may be parasitic or non-parasitic in origin. Nonparasitic cysts are either primary or secondary. Primary cysts are also called true, congenital, epidermoid or epithelial cysts. Primary splenic cysts account for 10% of all benign non-parasitic splenic cysts and are the most frequent type of splenic cysts in children. Usually, splenic cysts are asymptomatic and can be found incidentally during imaging techniques or on laprotomy. The symptoms are related to the size of cysts. When they assume large sizes, they may present with fullness in the left abdomen, local or referred pain, symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures (like nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhoea) or rarely thrombocytopenia, and occasionally complications such as infection, rupture and/or haemorrhage. The preoperative diagnosis of primary splenic cysts can be ascertained by ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, although the wide use of USG today has led to an increase in the incidence of splenic cysts by 1%. However, careful histopathological evaluation along with immunostaining for presence of epithelial lining is mandatory to arrive at the diagnosis. The treatment has changed drastically from total splenectomy in the past to splenic preservation methods recently. PMID:25320525

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R; Patrike, Swapna

2014-01-01

340

Choroidal coloboma in a case of tay-sachs disease.  

PubMed

Coloboma as an ocular finding has been documented in various syndromes. Here we have a case of infantile Tay-Sachs disease associated with unilateral choroidal coloboma. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been documented in the literature. Whether such an association is a matter of chance or signifies the involvement of ganglioside metabolism in ocular embryogenesis remains to be elucidated. PMID:25295204

Ahmed, Nasreen Raees; Tripathy, Koushik; Kumar, Vivek; Gogia, Varun

2014-01-01

341

Leiomyoma of the ciliary body and hemangiopericytoma of the choroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two unusual uveal tumors occurring in eyes enucleated for presumed malignant melanoma are discussed. One was a leiomyoma of\\u000a the ciliary body, affecting a 22-year-old female, the other a hemangiopericytoma of the choroid in an 84-year-old male patient.\\u000a The latter case is the fourth intraocular hemangiopericytoma reported in the literature to date. The histopathologic diagnosis\\u000a was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and

Jeannette Tóth; Ágnes Kerényi; Ildikó Süveges; Gábor Futó

1996-01-01

342

Late onset of subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation following cerebral radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) associated with radiation retinopathy. A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 4-week history of sudden loss of central vision in the left eye, 8.5 years following radical radiotherapy for left tempero-parietal anaplastic astrocytoma. His visual acuity was 6\\/6 in the right eye and 6\\/60 in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy of the left eye showed

Abdul-Jabbar Ghauri; Mohammed Musadiq; Ying Sha; Samer Elsherbiny

2010-01-01

343

Choroidal Coloboma in a Case of Tay-Sachs Disease  

PubMed Central

Coloboma as an ocular finding has been documented in various syndromes. Here we have a case of infantile Tay-Sachs disease associated with unilateral choroidal coloboma. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been documented in the literature. Whether such an association is a matter of chance or signifies the involvement of ganglioside metabolism in ocular embryogenesis remains to be elucidated. PMID:25295204

Ahmed, Nasreen Raees; Kumar, Vivek; Gogia, Varun

2014-01-01

344

Photodynamic therapy of choroidal hemangioma: two case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Photocoagulation, cryotherapy and radiotherapy have been used to treat angiomatous lesions. Depending on the location of\\u000a the angioma, these treatments can cause additional, significant functional damage. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) however, allows\\u000a a selective occlusion of vascular lesions without damaging adjacent retinal structures.?\\u000a Methods: Two patients with isolated choroidal hemangiomas involving the posterior pole were treated with PDT. Treatments were

Irene Barbazetto; Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth

2000-01-01

345

CYSTS OF THE LATERAL MENISCUS  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis and management of knee pain with or without mechanical symptoms challenges the physical therapist's clinical reasoning skills. Meniscal cysts are one relatively rare disorder of the knee that can cause both pain and mechanical symptoms and are frequently associated with a meniscal tear. In patients with suspected meniscal cysts, systematic differential diagnosis and sound clinical reasoning encourages appropriate integration of the clinical examination with diagnostic imaging. These case reports describe two different presentations of lateral parameniscal cysts where integration of the clinical examination with appropriate imaging allowed the physical therapist to provide a timely and appropriate intervention. In both cases, the diagnostic process is described along with the subsequent interventions that lead to positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: 5 (Case Report) PMID:23772349

Westrick, Richard B.; Fogarty, Brian T.

2013-01-01

346

Attenuation of Choroidal Neovascularization by ?2-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonism  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine if ?-adrenergic blockade inhibits choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a mouse model of laser-induced CNV, and to investigate the mechanism by which ?-adrenoreceptor antagonism blunts CNV. Methods The impact of ?-adrenoreceptor blockade on CNV was determined using the laser-induced CNV model. Briefly, mice were subjected to laser burns, inducing CNV, and treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of propranolol. Neovascularization was measured on choroidal-sclera flat mounts using intercellular adhesion molecule-2 immunofluorescence staining. The impact of ?-adrenergic receptor signaling on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was investigated using primary mouse choroidal endothelial cells (ChEC) and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. These cells were incubated with ?-adrenoreceptor agonists and/or antagonists, and assayed for VEGF mRNA and protein levels. Results Propranolol-treated mice demonstrated a 50% reduction in laser-induced CNV. Norepinephrine treatment stimulated VEGF mRNA expression and protein secretion in both ChEC and RPE cells. This effect was blocked by ?2-adrenoreceptor antagonism and mimicked by ?2-adrenergic receptor agonists. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance ?-Adrenergic blockade attenuated CNV. ?2-Adrenergic receptors regulated VEGF expression in ChEC and RPE cells. Antagonists of ?-adrenergic receptors are safe and well tolerated in patients with glaucoma and cardiovascular disease. Thus, blockade of ?-adrenoreceptors may provide a new avenue to inhibit VEGF expression in CNV. PMID:23303344

Lavine, Jeremy A.; Sang, Yanzhi; Wang, Shoujian; Ip, Michael S.; Sheibani, Nader

2013-01-01

347

Large posterior vaginal cyst in pregnancy.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old primigravida presented in labour with a mass protruding from her vagina during uterine contractions. The mass was a large tense cyst measuring 8 × 8 cm arising from the posterior vaginal wall. The cyst was present since puberty but increased in size during pregnancy. It collapsed following aspiration and uneventful vaginal delivery was conducted. Following delivery, the cyst was excised and vaginal wall repaired. On histopathology the cyst was identified as a Müllerian cyst. The patient recovered and remained asymptomatic on follow-up. PMID:25604504

Lallar, Meenakshi; Nandal, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta

2015-01-01

348

[Hydatic cyst of the fallopian tube].  

PubMed

Hydatic cyst of the Fallopian tube is an exceptional localization, the diagnosis of which is frequently confirmed preoperatively. A 44-year-old woman was addressed for pelvic mass with fortuitous discovery. The diagnosis preoperatively confirmed by the extemporaneous histological study was hydatic cyst of the Fallopian tube. Salpingectomy was required. The pelvic hydatic cyst, particularly in the Fallopian tube, is a rare complaint. Clinics and biology were very important for diagnosis but only anatomopathology can confirm diagnosis of hydatic cyst. The treatment of Fallopian tube hydatic cyst is surgival and often radical (salpingectomy). PMID:22440619

Achour, R; Daaloul, W; Ben Hamouda, S; Bouguerra, B; Sfar, R

2014-02-01

349

Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.  

PubMed

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

2012-07-01

350

Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst  

PubMed Central

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

2012-01-01

351

Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Choroidal Thickness in Human Donor Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The choroid plays a vital role in the health of the outer retina. While measurements of choroid using optical coherence tomography show altered thickness in aging and macular disease, detailed histopathologic and proteomic analyses are lacking. In this study we sought to evaluate biochemical differences in human donor eyes between very thin and thick choroids. Methods. One hundred forty-one eyes from 104 donors (mean age ± standard deviation, 81.5 ± 12.2) were studied. Macular sections were collected, and the distance between Bruch's membrane and the inner surface of the sclera was measured in control, early/dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), neovascular AMD, and geographic atrophy eyes. Proteins from the RPE-choroid of eyes with thick and thin choroids were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and/or mass spectrometry. Two proteins with altered abundance were confirmed using Western blot analysis. Results. Donor eyes showed a normal distribution of thicknesses. Eyes with geographic atrophy had significantly thinner choroids than age-matched controls or early AMD eyes. Proteomic analysis showed higher levels of the serine protease SERPINA3 in thick choroids and increased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) in thin choroids. Conclusions. Consistent with clinical imaging observations, geographic atrophy was associated with choroidal thinning. Biochemical data suggest an alteration in the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors in eyes that lie at the extremes of choroidal thickness. An improved understanding of the basic mechanisms associated with choroidal thinning may guide the development of new therapies for AMD. PMID:24519422

Sohn, Elliott H.; Khanna, Aditi; Tucker, Budd A.; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Mullins, Robert F.

2014-01-01

352

Influence of scanning density on macular choroidal volume measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND To evaluate the impact of scanning density on macular choroidal volume measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS Thirty eyes of normal subjects underwent consecutive raster choroidal scanning protocols using SD-OCT in enhanced-depth imaging mode. Manual choroidal segmentation was performed using the built-in automated retinal segmentation software to obtain five analyses with different inter-scan distances including inter-scan distances of 30 microns, 60 microns, 120 microns, 240 microns, and 480 microns. The built-in software of the device automatically generated the choroidal thickness and volume map in the similar manner as for retinal volume map, using the standardized Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid. For each raster scan, mean absolute difference and relative difference of mean foveal choroidal thickness (FCT), foveal choroidal volume (FCV) and total macular choroidal volume (TCV) in comparison to “true value” (i.e., 30-micron inter-scan distance) were calculated. RESULTS The maximum relative differences were 10% and 16% for TCV and FCV, respectively. For mean FCT, the maximum absolute difference was 31 microns, and maximum relative difference was 12.7%. No statistically significant differences were found in measurements of mean foveal choroidal thickness (p=0.912) and volume (p=0.944), as well as macular choroidal volume (p=0.912), with varying inter-scan distance. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that approximately 16 scans over the macula with a inter-scans distance of 480 microns is sufficient to provide clinically relevant and reliable choroidal thickness/volume map. This information could be useful in design of choroidal scanning protocols for future clinical trials. PMID:23142990

Chhablani, Jay; Barteselli, Giulio; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Kozak, Igor; Wang, Haiyan; El-Emam, Sharif; Doede, Aubrey L; Cheng, Lingyun; Freeman, William R

2012-01-01

353

Dentigerous cyst of mandible presenting as sepsis.  

PubMed

Dentigerous cysts are odontogenic cysts that develop by accumulation of fluid between reduced enamel epithelium and a crown of an unerupted tooth. Dentigerous cysts typically are slow growing and incidental findings on radiographic images [1]. These cysts are usually small but when they become large, they will cause a pathologic fracture. Occasionally, they can become painful when infected, which will cause swelling and erythema [1]. We present a rare case of a dentigerous cyst that presented as sepsis. Dentigerous cysts are the most common type of noninflammatory odontogenic cyst [2]. The atypical acute presentation and extent of this patient's soft tissue manifestations resulting in tracheal midline shift and sepsis make this a rare case for presentation. PMID:24985943

Anderson, Dustin W; Evans, David

2014-12-01

354

Syringomyelia Associated with a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

While syringomyelia is not a rare spinal disorder, syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst is very unusual. Here, we report a 62-year-old man who suffered from gait disturbance and numbness of bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a spinal arachnoid cyst between the 7th cervical and 3rd thoracic vertebral segment and syringomyelia extending between the 6th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral segment. The cyst had compressed the spinal cord anteriorly. Syringomyelia usually results from lesions that partially obstruct cerebrospinal fluid flow. Therefore, we concluded that the spinal arachnoid cyst was causing the syringomyelia. After simple excision of the arachnoid cyst, the symptoms were relieved. A follow-up MRI demonstrated that the syringomyelia had significantly decreased in size after removal of the arachnoid cyst. This report presents an unusual case of gait disturbance caused by syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst. PMID:19516954

Kim, Min-Su

2009-01-01

355

Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.  

PubMed

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

2006-07-01

356

Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury: pathological and biomechanical analyses  

PubMed Central

A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were significantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treatment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies. PMID:25657737

Yang, Qi; Luo, Min; Li, Peng; Jin, Hai

2014-01-01

357

Anatomical structure of the brachial plexus in the merlin (Falco columbarius).  

PubMed

This study aimed to document the detailed features of the morphological structure and the innervation areas of the brachial plexus in Merlin (Falco columbarius). The skin and muscles of five adult male Merlins were dissected under the stereo microscope. The Merlin had two plexus trunks. The accessory brachial plexus consisted of ventral rami C10 and C11. C11 was divided into two branches: the cranial and caudal. The brachial plexus was composed of a rather complex network involving the ventral rami of C11-C13, T1 and T2. In addition, a thin branch from the last two cervical sympathetic nerves participated in the plexus formation. C12, C13 and T1 had rather thick trunk. C12, C13 and T1 were also involved in the formation of the brachial plexus emerging after 1 cm from the foramen inter-vertebrale as three trunk roots. PMID:23464686

Çevik-Demirkan, A

2014-02-01

358

The expression of cytokeratin in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst and dermoid cyst.  

PubMed

The epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts exhibits either parakeratosis or orthokeratosis. In 2005, the WHO classified odontogenic keratocysts with parakeratosis as keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). Odontogenic keratocysts with orthokeratosis were not classified as odontogenic tumors, but instead referred to as orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). To clarify the difference between these two lesions, we investigated their biological characteristics using immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins (CK) in KCOT and OOC as well as in dentigerous cysts (DC), radicular cysts (RC) and dermoid cysts (DMC). We examined twenty-five cases of KCOT, fifteen cases each of OOC, DC and RC, and ten cases of DMC. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of CK10, 13, 17 and 19. To evaluate the immunohistochemical staining pattern, we divided the epithelial lining of the lesions into three layers (surface layer: su, spinous layer: sp, basal layer: ba). For CK10, most OOC and DMC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK13 and 19, most KCOT, DC and RC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK17, most KCOT specimens of su and sp were positive. The percentages of total CK expression of su and sp, and ba of CK19 differed significantly between the lesions (P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that OOC originate from not the odontogenic apparatus, but the oral epithelial component. PMID:24092058

Tsuji, Kaname; Wato, Masahiro; Hayashi, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Norihiro; Matsushita, Takumi; Ito, Tomohiko; Gamoh, Shoko; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Akio; Morita, Shosuke

2014-09-01

359

DETERMINATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The principal objective of this research was the development of a sensitive, standardized method of determining whether or not Giardia cysts are viable. The availability of such a method is necessary to determine the effect of chemical and physical agents on the viability of thes...

360

New insights about suprapatellar cyst  

PubMed Central

Suprapatellar bursa is located between the quadriceps tendon and femur, and it develops before the birth as a separate synovial compartment proximal to the knee joint. By the fifth month of fetal life there is a suprapatellar septum between the knee joint cavity and suprapatellar bursa which later perforates and involutes in a way that a normal communication between the cavity of bursa and knee is established. A small portion of the embrionic septum can later lag as more or less expressed suprapatellar plica. In case when suprapatellar plica has a small communication with valve mechanism or in case of complete septum, bursa becomes a separate compartment and potential location for the suprapatellar cyst development. Magnetic resonance imaging is recognised as the gold standard in diagnosis of knee cysts because of its ability to show cystic nature of the lesion, its relationship with other anatomic structures, as well as to establish whether other knee pathologies are present. Considering treatment possibilities, majority of cysts around the knee resolve spontaneously and should be treated by aspiration and application of corticosteroids. Suprapatellar cyst is a very rare knee pathology and it can in some occasions be treated using open or arthroscopic surgery. PMID:22577510

Crnkovi?, Tomislav; Gašpar, Drago; Ðurovi?, Dražen; Podsednik, Dinko; Slišuri?, Ferdinand

2012-01-01

361

The prefixed and postfixed brachial plexus: a review with surgical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of a pre and postfixed brachial plexus is varied in the literature, which results in inconsistent conclusions\\u000a for various studies. As anatomical variation is important both during clinical evaluation and surgical procedures of the brachial\\u000a plexus, a review of this literature was performed. Based on our review, variation in the contribution to the brachial plexus\\u000a is more the

Megan Pellerin; Zachary Kimball; R. Shane Tubbs; Snow Nguyen; Petru Matusz; Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol; Marios Loukas

2010-01-01

362

Reoperation for failed shoulder reconstruction following brachial plexus birth injury  

PubMed Central

Background Various approaches have been developed to treat the progressive shoulder deformity in patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Reconstructive surgery for this condition consists of complex procedures with a risk for failure. Case presentations This is a retrospective case review of the outcome in eight cases referred to us for reoperation for failed shoulder reconstructions. In each case, we describe the initial attempt(s) at surgical correction, the underlying causes of failure, and the procedures performed to rectify the problem. Results were assessed using pre- and post-operative Mallet shoulder scores. All eight patients realized improvement in shoulder function from reoperation. Conclusions This case review identifies several aspects of reconstructive shoulder surgery for brachial plexus birth injury that may cause failure of the index procedure(s) and outlines critical steps in the evaluation and execution of shoulder reconstruction. PMID:23883413

2013-01-01

363

Acromioclavicular joint dislocation with associated brachial plexus injury.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 32-year-old female who sustained a left acromioclavicular (AC) joint type V injury and brachial plexus injury. The patient's AC joint injury was identified 6?days after she was involved in a motorbike accident where she sustained multiple other injuries. She required operative fixation of the AC joint using a locking compression medial proximal tibial plate. At 3?months post operatively, the patient was found to have a subluxed left shoulder as a result of an axonal injury to the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. In addition, the tibial plate had cut out. The plate was subsequently removed. At 8?months the glenohumeral articulation had been restored and the patient had clinically regained significant shoulder function. After 15?months the patient was pain free and could complete all her activities of daily living without impediment. She returned to playing competitive pool after 24?months. PMID:24855076

Gallagher, Charles Alexander; Blakeney, William; Zellweger, René

2014-01-01

364

Lamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli  

E-print Network

agent, monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) and a high-magnetic-field (11.7 T) scannerLamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli Yen-Yu I. Shih (MRI) of retinal and choroidal responses to visual stimulation of graded luminance, wavelength, and fre

Duong, Timothy Q.

365

Photodynamic Therapy With Verteporfin in Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Central Serous Chorioretinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the efficacy and safety of pho- todynamic therapy with verteporfin in the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to cen- tral serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Design: Prospective interventional, noncomparative case series. Methods: After the diagnosis of a subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to CSC, 26 eyes of 24 pa- tients were treated with photodynamic therapy with verte- porfin. Patients

Erdem Ergun; Michael Tittl; Michael Stur

2004-01-01

366

Fungal Infection in Patients with Serpiginous Choroiditis or Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiologies of a number of retinopathies, including serpiginous choroiditis and acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), remain uncertain. Recently, we provided evidence that AZOOR is caused by Candida famata infection. The purpose of this article was to investigate the presence of fungal infection in five patients affected with serpiginous choroiditis and five patients with diagnosis of AZOOR. To assess

Diana Pisa; Marta Ramos; Patricia Garcõ ´; Remberto Escoto; Rafael Barraquer; Susana Molina; Luis Carrasco

2008-01-01

367

Recurrence and massive extraocular extension of choroidal malignant melanoma after vitrectomy and endoresection  

PubMed Central

Vitrectomy and endoresection is an alternative to enucleation for the treatment of large malignant choroidal melanoma. We report a rare case of extensive recurrence of choroidal malignant melanoma with extraocular extension 11 years after surgical endoresection without adjuvant treatment. PMID:25005207

Modarres, Mehdi; Rezanejad, Asgari; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi

2014-01-01

368

SELF-MUTILATION IN CHILDREN WITH OBSTETRIC BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective study, the incidence and clinical presentation of self-mutilation was documented in 127 consecutive cases of obstetric brachial plexus injury. Six out of the 127 cases (4.7%) had clinical evidence of self-mutilation. The incidence of self-mutilation was much higher among children with total palsy (4\\/37) than Erb's palsy (2\\/90). All affected children were able to bring the mutilated

M. M AL-QATTAN

1999-01-01

369

[Traumatic lesions of the brachial plexus. Microsurgical treatment].  

PubMed

Extensive analysis of results of microsurgical treatment of brachial plexus injuries is based on the experience gained by Professor Ezio Morelli, Head of the Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand at the Civil Hospital, Legnano, Italy. The casuistic behind the aim of this report is an attempt to evaluate results obtained which demonstrate the validity of the proposed treatment and supply the elements useful for evaluation in the indications for this treatment. PMID:4044689

Pajardi, G; Morelli, E

1985-05-01

370

Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries  

PubMed Central

This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed. PMID:25593443

Thomas, Jimmy

2014-01-01

371

Thoracic outlet syndrome caused by schwannoma of brachial plexus.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve. PMID:24466527

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann; Lee, Jongeon; Jung, Pil Kyo

2013-12-01

372

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Schwannoma of Brachial Plexus  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve. PMID:24466527

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann; Jung, Pil Kyo

2013-01-01

373

Spinal endodermal cyst resembling an arachnoid cyst in appearance: Pitfalls in intraoperative diagnosis of cystic lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Surgical treatment of endodermal cysts requires total removal of the cyst wall during the first operation to prevent recurrence. Therefore, intraoperative pathological diagnosis plays an important role in determining the optimal surgical strategy. We present a rare case of a spinal endodermal cyst and discuss its diagnostic difficulty during the intraoperative pathological examination. Case Description: An 18-year-old male presented with progressive paraparesis and precordial oppression. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary cystic mass having the same signal intensity as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without gadolinium enhancement at the T1-T2 level. The preoperative diagnosis was an endodermal or arachnoid cyst. The patient underwent surgery. An intraoperative frozen section showed a cyst wall consisting of loose, thin, fibrous tissue intermittently covered by flattened epithelium. The diagnosis was an arachnoid cyst. Accordingly, partial resection of the cyst wall was performed to create CSF communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis from permanent sections was an endodermal cyst, which was lined with ciliated columnar epithelium that was immunopositive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Subsequent paraffin embedding and immunostaining of the intraoperative frozen sample also confirmed patchy cytokeratin expression by all flattened epithelial cells. The patient's cyst had refilled 10 months after surgery, and he subsequently underwent fenestration of the cyst wall and placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt. Conclusion: Examination of multiple samples from multiple sites or intraoperative immunostaining of frozen sections is recommended for accurate intraoperative diagnosis of endodermal cysts. PMID:22937478

Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Nakamizo, Akira; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Tanaka, Shunya; Tsuchimochi, Ryosuke; Amano, Toshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio

2012-01-01

374

Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a 400 kHz A-scan rate is developed for three-dimensional ultrahigh speed imaging of the posterior eye. OCT angiography is used to image three-dimensional vascular structure without the need for exogenous fluorophores by detecting erythrocyte motion contrast between OCT intensity cross-sectional images acquired rapidly and repeatedly from the same location on the retina. En face OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature are visualized by acquiring cross-sectional OCT angiograms volumetrically via raster scanning and segmenting the three-dimensional angiographic data at multiple depths below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fine microvasculature of the choriocapillaris, as well as tightly packed networks of feeding arterioles and draining venules, can be visualized at different en face depths. Panoramic ultra-wide field stitched OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris spanning ?32 mm on the retina show distinct vascular structures at different fundus locations. Isolated smaller fields at the central fovea and ?6 mm nasal to the fovea at the depths of the choriocapillaris and Sattler's layer show vasculature structures consistent with established architectural morphology from histological and electron micrograph corrosion casting studies. Choriocapillaris imaging was performed in eight healthy volunteers with OCT angiograms successfully acquired from all subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ultrahigh speed OCT for in vivo dye-free choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature imaging, in addition to conventional structural imaging. PMID:24349078

Choi, WooJhon; Mohler, Kathrin J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Lu, Chen D.; Liu, Jonathan J.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E.; Duker, Jay S.; Huber, Robert; Fujimoto, James G.

2013-01-01

375

Thyroglossal duct cyst’s inflammation. When do we operate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) disease, one of the most common developmental neck lesion in the pediatric population, often\\u000a presents as infected neck mass. The authors reviewed their experience in the management of inflamed TGDC cases, in order to\\u000a suggest the most efficient approach of these patients regarding the ideal type and time of surgical intervention. The medical\\u000a records of all

Ch. Kaselas; G. Tsikopoulos; Ch. Chortis; B. Kaselas

2005-01-01

376

Electron microscopy of Giardia lamblia cysts.  

PubMed Central

The flagellated protozoan Giardia lamblia is a recognized public health problem. Intestinal infection can result in acute or chronic diarrhea with associated symptoms in humans. As part of a study to evaluate removal of G. lamblia cysts from drinking water by the processes of coagulation and dual-media filtration, we developed a methodology by using 5.0-microns-porosity membrane filters to evaluate the filtration efficiency. We found that recovery rates of G. lamblia cysts by membrane filtration varied depending upon the type and diameter of the membrane filter. Examination of membrane-filtered samples by scanning electron microscopy revealed flexible and flattened G. lamblia cysts on the filter surface. This feature may be responsible for the low recovery rates with certain filters and, moreover, may have implications in water treatment technology. Formation of the cyst wall is discussed. Electron micrographs of cysts apparently undergoing binary fission and cysts exhibiting a possible bacterial association are shown. Images PMID:7425627

Luchtel, D L; Lawrence, W P; DeWalle, F B

1980-01-01

377

Allantoic cyst – an unusual umbilical cord swelling  

PubMed Central

We report a baby with an unusual umbilical cord swelling. On the antenatal scans, a cystic area within the umbilical cord near its insertion onto the abdominal wall was detected. Postnatally an unusually thick umbilical cord with a yellow fluid filled cyst at the base was noted. The fluid from the cyst was confirmed as urine and ultrasound confirmed patent urachus. The baby underwent a cystoscopy and excision of patent urachus with associated allantoic cyst. Allantoic cyst is a rare swelling formed at the base of umbilicus associated with a patent urachus which results from an allantoic remnant. Paediatricians need to be aware about this condition as investigation is required to differentiate allantois cysts from umbilical pseudocysts. A patent urachus with allantoic cyst requires surgical excision. PMID:24950576

Gupta, N; Corbett, H; Ismail, R; Sathanantharajah, R; Sivakumar, S; McCarthy, Liam

2011-01-01

378

[Tarlov's cyst: definition, etiopathogenesis, propaedeutic and treatment].  

PubMed

Tarlov's cyst or perineurial cyst is disease on portion of the posterior nerve root in lumbo-sacral region. The lack of knowledge of physicians around the world about Tarlov's cyst as to their nature, significance and treatment also with differential diagnostics to radiculopathy in legs. With review of literature discuss about definition, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic investigation and treatment clinic and/or surgery. The pathogenesis Tarlov's cyst remains unclear; several cases have history of the trauma, old hemorrhage, congenital and iatrogenic. Cysts provoke low back pain, sacral radiculopathy, dyspareunia, urinary incontence. The magnetic resonance imaging is now the gold standard to diagnose cysts. The treatment is clinic or surgery depending neurologics finding and neuroimage. PMID:18625096

De Sá, Márcia Cristina; D'Angelo, Carla Tereza; Da Ros Malacarne, Guilherme; Neto, Pedro; Pagura, Jorge

2008-01-01

379

Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla.  

PubMed

Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2014-01-01

380

Two Rare Presentations of Epidermal Cyst  

PubMed Central

Epidermal cysts are very rare. It is more common in males than in females and the most common site of presentation are the hairy sites. We came across two rare cases of epidermal cysts. In one case, a parous lady presented with an adnexal mass and D/D of broad ligament fibroid or ovarian mass was considered which turned out to be a cyst containing cheesy pultaceous material. In the other case, a parous lady presented with a mass arising from the posterior fourchette that contained cheesy pultaceous material on excision. In both cases histopathology confirmed it to be epidermal cysts. Epidermal cysts known for its rare incidence by itself is now found to be presenting at rare sites which emphasizes on the need for further research into the etiopathogenesis of these cysts and its development at the various sites of the body. PMID:25478413

Rao, Bharathi; Kurian, Maria Joseph; Pai, Radha R.

2014-01-01

381

Epidermoid Cyst of the Cecum  

PubMed Central

An epidermoid cyst of the cecum is extremely rare; only eight cases have been reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to Kyung Hee University Medical Center with a colonic mass that had been discovered incidentally during a regular health check-up. The radiographic impression was that this mass was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. During surgery, an exophytic mass in the cecal wall was resected by using an ileocecectomy. Based on the macroscopic and the microscopic findings, this case was identified as an epidermoid cyst of the cecal wall. We report this case to discuss the origin of this entity and the unusual nature of our case. PMID:25745626

Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Kil Yeon

2015-01-01

382

Epidermoid cyst of the cecum.  

PubMed

An epidermoid cyst of the cecum is extremely rare; only eight cases have been reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to Kyung Hee University Medical Center with a colonic mass that had been discovered incidentally during a regular health check-up. The radiographic impression was that this mass was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. During surgery, an exophytic mass in the cecal wall was resected by using an ileocecectomy. Based on the macroscopic and the microscopic findings, this case was identified as an epidermoid cyst of the cecal wall. We report this case to discuss the origin of this entity and the unusual nature of our case. PMID:25745626

Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Kil Yeon; Sung, Ji-Youn

2015-02-01

383

Surgical treatment of sacral perineural cyst--case report.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old man presented with persistent penis and scrotum pain due to S-2 and S-3 radiculopathy caused by a sacral perineural cyst. The cyst was treated with microsurgical partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication, together with closure of the point through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowed from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity. His pain resolved without recurrence of the cyst or complications. Symptomatic perineural cysts are quite rare. Surgical closure of the point through which CSF flows from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity is the most important intervention for symptomatic perineural cysts. If the source of CSF leakage cannot be detected, placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt should be considered in addition to partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication. PMID:22198114

Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Miki, Takanori; Miyaji, Yuki; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yamaura, Ikuya; Natsume, Shigeatsu; Yoshida, Kozo

2011-01-01

384

[Vascular complications of Baker's cyst].  

PubMed

The presence of Baker's cyst is clinically demonstrated as compression syndrome of the vessels and nervous stem in the popliteal area. This result frequent in deep venous thrombosis, nervous injuries and blood flow insufficiency distal to the compression site. We present two cases of compression stenosis of the popliteal vessels, clinically manifested. The patients underwent surgical decompression and cystic removal, thus leading to arterial perfusion and/or venous derivation improvement of the lower extremity. PMID:18443539

Govedarski, V; Denchev, B; Nedevska, M; Zakhariev, T; Nachev, G

2007-01-01

385

A rare parapharyngeal space branchial cleft cyst.  

PubMed

The second branchial cleft cyst may arise anywhere from the tonsillar fossa to the supraclavicular area. It usually lies along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle or deep into the muscle. Occurrence of the second branchial cleft cyst in the parapharyngeal space is extremely uncommon. We report one such case of second branchial cleft cyst arising from the parapharyngeal space and discuss its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities in detail. PMID:23632181

Gupta, Manish; Gupta, Monica

2013-01-01

386

Perineural cyst presenting like cubital tunnel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perineural cysts are believed to be asymptomatic; however, they rarely cause symptoms related to nerve root compression. Cervical\\u000a symptomatic perineural cysts are in fact exceedingly rare. There are no reported cervical perineural cysts in the literature\\u000a that present like cubital tunnel syndrome. A patient with motor weakness of the abductor and adductor muscles of the fingers\\u000a of the left hand

Fatih Bayrakli; Murat Kurtuncu; Ercan Karaarslan; Serdar Ozgen

387

Surgical Management of Pulmonary Hydatid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Giant hydatid cysts of the lung (diameter, ?10 cm) are considered more difficult to treat surgically than are smaller cysts. We reviewed our experience with giant pulmonary hydatid cysts, focusing on clinical symptoms, cystic location, extent of surgery, and postoperative complications, according to age, long-term results, and comparison with non-giant cysts. From January 1988 to January 2008, 537 patients underwent surgery for pulmonary hydatid cysts. We separated patients into 2 groups: patients who had cysts <10 cm (group A) and those who had giant cysts (group B). Group B comprised 75 patients (14%). Giant cysts were more common in younger patients (mean age, 30 vs 32 yr; P=0.014). The most frequent complaints were cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. Patients with giant cysts were more often symptomatic at presentation (96% vs 88%; P=0.04). In both groups, lower-lobe locations predominated. Parenchyma-saving operations were almost uniformly performed for each group; however, a higher percentage of patients in group B required anatomic resection (4% vs 1%; P=0.038). Fifty-seven patients (10%) also underwent resection of concomitant liver cysts. Cystic rupture occurred more frequently in group B than in group A (27% vs 15%; P=0.01). There were no deaths in either group, nor were there significant differences in morbidity between groups. In summary, giant hydatid cysts of the lung occurred more often in younger patients and were more often symptomatic at presentation. Regardless of size, the cysts could usually be surgically treated without lung resection, and size did not appear to influence short-term perioperative outcomes. PMID:20844615

Usluer, Ozan; Ceylan, Kenan Can; Kaya, Seyda; Sevinc, Serpil; Gursoy, Soner

2010-01-01

388

Tarlov cysts: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts are common and usually detected incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. Treatment is indicated only when the cyst is symptomatic. We report one such patients presented with cauda equina syndrome and another with low back pain with claudication. They underwent excision and duraplasty; both motor and sensory fibres were carefully separated from the cyst wall using a nerve root retractor and penfield. There was no nerve root damage or neural deficit. Symptoms were relieved postoperatively. PMID:22535818

Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumya

2012-04-01

389

Radicular cyst masquerading as a multilocular radiolucency.  

PubMed

Radicular cysts are the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. Most of these lesions involve the apex of the offending tooth and appear as well-defined periapical radiolucencies. This case presents an unusually large multilocular radicular cyst crossing the midline and involving almost the entire body of the mandible. The clinical and radiographic appearance mimicked an aggressive cyst or benign tumor. The lesion was surgically excised, and the teeth were endodontically treated without any postoperative complications. PMID:23444164

Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Haridas, Sheetal; Garud, Mandavi; Vahanwala, Sonal; Nayak, Chaitanya D; Pagare, Sandeep S

2013-01-01

390

[Bronchogenic cysts in the carina].  

PubMed

Between 1977 and 1990, 11 children with carinal bronchogenic cysts were operated in our institution: 8 girls and 3 boys, ranging in age from 1 month to 5 years. All were symptomatic (acute respiratory distress and recurrent bronchiolitis). Chest X-ray showed an unilateral over distension in 10/11 cases. Barium oesophagogram showed a compression in 6/10 cases. Bronchoscopy noticed an extrinsic compression in 10/11 cases and a tracheal and/or bronchial diskinesia in 5/11 cases. The computed tomography showed a low density mass in 4/4 cases. 9 cysts were left-sided and 2 right-sided. Both children underwent a second surgery for a second cyst. 2 pneumonectomies for complete parenchyma destruction were realised. 1 left pulmonary hypoplasia was noticed. A tracheal and/or bronchial diskinesia in post-operative was noticed in 5/6 cases. The clinical and functional respiratory following was good in 10/11 cases. An early surgery treatment is necessary before definitive sequelae. PMID:1439091

Koskas, M; Tournier, G; Baculard, A; Sardet, A; Boule, M; Gruner, M

1992-01-01

391

OD17-12/2 Page 1 CYSTS OF THE JAWS  

E-print Network

Residual cyst Odontogenic keratocyst Calcifying odontogenic cyst (Gorlin cyst) NONODONTOGENIC CYSTS the same characteristic features as those of odontogenic keratocysts. However, until conclusive proof is established, primordial cysts and odontogenic keratocysts are considered separate entities. Fig. 12

392

Nasoalveolar cyst: an enigma for the dentist.  

PubMed

A nasoalveolar cyst is a rare, non-odontogenic soft tissue cyst encountered in the anterior maxillary labial sulcus as an asymptomatic soft tissue swelling. Often, patients with these cysts report them to the dental clinic where they are mistaken for odontogenic lesions by the dental surgeon, especially if concomitant dental problems are present. They cannot be detected by routine conventional dental radiography as they are peripheral, lying within the mucosa thereby posing a diagnostic challenge. We document a case of a 47-year-old woman with a nasoalveolar cyst. PMID:25566935

Misra, Satya Ranjan; Gopal, Maragathavalli; Mohanty, Neeta; Rastogi, Varun

2015-01-01

393

Multiple Organ Involvement with Hydatid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease is the most common infections worldwide, but it rarely involves multiple organs. Herein, a 12-year-old boy is presented, who was admitted to Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran with symptoms of irritability, sleepless, and weakness of the extremities. Patient's brain computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast media showed large multilocular cystic lesions in right temporal lobe associated with two other smaller similar cystic lesions in centrum semiovale bilaterally. Abdominal sonography revealed intestinal mesenteric and a cardiac cyst. Abdomino-pelvic CT scan showed a cyst medial to the cecum and a cortical cyst in the left kidney as well as a heart cyst. The echocardiography confirmed hydatid cysts at apical and interventricular septum. Serology test was positive for hydatid cyst. Albendazole and praziquantel were started for the patient immediately and right temporal lobe lesions were removed via neurosurgery intervention. After one month, cardiac and mesenteric cysts were operated during two separate surgeries. Pathologic findings of all cysts were compatible with hydatid cyst. Cystic hydatidosis should be suspected in any cystic mass, whilst prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatments are the keys in management of affected patients. PMID:22347246

Sabouni, F; Ferdosian, F; Mamishi, S; Nejat, F; Monnajemzadeh, M; Rezaei, N

2010-01-01

394

Laparoscopic management of huge ovarian cysts.  

PubMed

Objectives. Huge ovarian cysts are conventionally managed by laparotomy. We present 5 cases with huge ovarian cysts managed by laparoscopic endoscopic surgery without any complications. Materials and Methods. We describe five patients who had their surgeries conducted in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (King Fahad Medical City). Results. Patients age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Tumor markers were normal for all patients. The maximum diameter of all cysts ranged between 18 and 42?cm as measured by ultrasound. The cysts were unilocular; in some patients, there were fine septations. All patients had open-entry laparoscopy. After evaluation of the cyst capsule, the cysts were drained under laparoscopic guidance, 1-12 liters were drained from the cysts (mean 5.2?L), and then laparoscopic oophorectomy was done. The final histopathology reports confirmed benign serous cystadenoma in four patients and one patient had a benign mucinous cystadenoma. There was minimal blood loss during surgeries and with no complications for all patients. Conclusion. There is still no consensus for the size limitation of ovarian cysts decided to be a contraindication for laparoscopic management. With advancing techniques, proper patients selection, and availability of experts in gynecologic endoscopy, it is possible to remove giant cyst by laparoscopy. PMID:23766763

Alobaid, A; Memon, A; Alobaid, S; Aldakhil, L

2013-01-01

395

Combined neurolytic block of celiac, inferior mesenteric, and superior hypogastric plexuses for incapacitating abdominal and\\/or pelvic cancer pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five patients with extensive abdominal or pelvic cancer who suffered uncontrolled, diffuse, extensive, and incapacitating pain were treated with a combination of neurolytic celiac plexus block (CPB), inferior mesenteric plexus block (IMPB), and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHGPB). The combination of neurolytic CPB, IMPB, and SHGPB was performed with alcohol, mainly using a transintervetebral disc approach. The combination neurolysis produced

Takeshi Kitoh; Satoshi Tanaka; Koichi Ono; Yukihiro Ohfusa; Hiroaki Ina; Tetsutaro Otagiri

2005-01-01

396

Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: An Update on Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a retinal disease involving the choroidal vasculature characterized by the presence of polypoidal lesions with or without branching vascular network best seen on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Clinical features of PCV include recurrent subretinal hemorrhage; serosanguineous pigment epithelial detachment, subretinal exudation and serous retinal detachment. PCV is more prevalent among Asians and Blacks as compared to Caucasians and has been found to account for 25 to 50% of cases of presumed neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Asian patients. Treatment is indicated in patients with symptomatic PCV due to potentially irreversible visual loss. Various treatment modalities for symptomatic PCV have been described in the literature, including thermal laser photocoagulation, ICGA-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, and combined PDT and anti-VEGF therapy. This review aims to provide an update on the therapeutic options for PCV, with particular reference to recent studies published in the past two years. PMID:24653824

Wong, Raymond L.M.; Lai, Timothy Y.Y.

2013-01-01

397

Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-induced Mouse Model of Choroidal Neovascularization*  

PubMed Central

In this study, we describe a new method for inducing choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in C57BL/6 mice, an animal model of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a disease that causes central blindness in humans. We injected PEG-8 subretinally in different doses (0.125–2 mg) to induce CNV. After PEG-8 injection, we examined CNV at several time points (days 3–42). We also used Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA to examine the complement component C3 split products, C9, VEGF, TGF-?2, and basic FGF. As early as day 1 after treatment, we found that a single subretinal injection of 1 mg of PEG-8 increased the C3 split products and the C9, TGF-?2, and basic FGF levels in the retinal pigment epithelium-choroid tissue. By day 3 after PEG-8 injection, the intraocular activation of the complement system caused induction and progression of CNV, including new vessels penetrating the Bruch's membrane. At day 5 after PEG-8 injection, we observed a fully developed CNV and retinal degeneration. Thus, in this study, we present a new, inexpensive, and accelerated mouse model of CNV that may be useful to study AMD. PMID:21454496

Lyzogubov, Valeriy V.; Tytarenko, Ruslana G.; Liu, Juan; Bora, Nalini S.; Bora, Puran S.

2011-01-01

398

Attenuation of Choroidal Neovascularization by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a blinding complication of age-related macular degeneration that manifests as the growth of immature choroidal blood vessels through Bruch’s membrane, where they can leak fluid or hemorrhage under the retina. Here, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) can down-regulate the pro-angiogenic hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and up-regulate the anti-angiogenic and neuro-protective pigment epithelium derived factor in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Most strikingly, TSA markedly down-regulates the expression of VEGF receptor-2 in human vascular endothelial cells and, thus, can knock down pro-angiogenic cell signaling. Additionally, TSA suppresses CNV-associated wound healing response and RPE epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. In the laser-induced model of CNV using C57Bl/6 mice, systemic administration of TSA significantly reduces fluorescein leakage and the size of CNV lesions at post—laser days 7 and 14 as well as the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, and smooth muscle actin in CNV lesions at post-laser day 7. This report suggests that TSA, and possibly HDACi’s in general, should be further evaluated for their therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNV. PMID:25807249

Chan, Nymph; He, Shikun; Spee, Christine K.; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Hinton, David R.

2015-01-01

399

Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and there have been no reported cases of such metastasis from early colorectal cancer. We report a case of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 61 year-old-man experienced myodesopsia in the left eye 2 years and 6 months after primary rectal surgery for early cancer, and was diagnosed with left choroidal metastasis and multiple lung metastases. Radiotherapy was initiated for the left eye and systemic chemotherapy is initiated for the multiple lung metastases. The patient is living 2 years and 3 months after the diagnosis of choroidal metastasis without signs of recurrence in the left eye, and continues to receive systemic chemotherapy for multiple lung metastases. DISCUSSION Current literatures have few recommendations regarding the appropriate treatment of choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer, but an aggressive multi-disciplinary approach may be effective in local regression. CONCLUSION This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer. PMID:25460493

Tei, Mitsuyoshi; Wakasugi, Masaki; Akamatsu, Hiroki

2014-01-01

400

Two Cases of Focal Choroidal Excavation Detected by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical findings of 2 patients with focal choroidal excavation in the macula detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Three eyes of 2 patients with a focal macular choroidal excavation detected by SD-OCT were studied. The eyes were examined by fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography, fundus-related microperimetry, and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Results In spite of a complaint of metamorphopsia, the visual acuity was normal in 2 eyes. SD-OCT demonstrated a choroidal excavation in the macula but the foveal contour was normal in 3 eyes. The excavation involved the outer retinal layers up to the external limiting membrane in all eyes, and a type 2 secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV) developed in 1 of the 3 eyes. There were areas of hypoautofluorescence in the FAF images, and areas of decreased retinal sensitivity determined by microperimetry. These areas corresponded to the choroidal excavation in all eyes. The P1 amplitudes of the mfERGs were decreased in the fovea of 1 eye without a CNV. Conclusions The choroidal excavation remained stable for 3 years in 2 eyes, a secondary CNV developed in 1 eye during the course of the disease. More cases and longer follow-up periods will be necessary to determine the etiology, clinical course, and visual prognosis of eyes with a choroidal excavation. PMID:23008695

Katome, Takashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Hotta, Fumika; Niki, Masanori; Naito, Takeshi

2012-01-01

401

Spinal Anesthesia as a Complication of Brachial Plexus Block Using the Posterior Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

or surgical procedures of the upper extremities, the brachial plexus block is a suitable technique and offers several advantages for the patient, sur- geon, and anesthesiologist (1). The brachial plexus block can be performed at several sites, but the most frequently used are the axillary, interscalene, infracla- vicular, and supraclavicular approaches (2). Pippa et al. (3) described an alternative, posterior

Majid Aramideh; Huub L. A. van den Oever; Gerard J. Walstra; Misa Dzoljic

2002-01-01

402

Structure of the brachial plexus root and adjacent regions displayed by ultrasound imaging?  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexuses of 110 healthy volunteers were examined using high resolution color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasonic characteristics and anatomic variation in the intervertebral foramen, interscalene, supraclavicular and infraclavicular, as well as the axillary brachial plexus were investigated. Results confirmed that the normal brachial plexus on cross section exhibited round or elliptic hypoechoic texture. Longitudinal section imaging showed many parallel linear hypo-moderate echoes, with hypo-echo. The transverse processes of the seventh cervical vertebra, the scalene space, the subclavian artery and the deep cervical artery are important markers in an examination. The display rates for the interscalene, and supraclavicular and axillary brachial plexuses were 100% each, while that for the infraclavicular brachial plexus was 97%. The region where the normal brachial plexus root traversed the intervertebral foramen exhibited a regular hypo-echo. The display rate for the C5-7 nerve roots was 100%, while those for C8 and T1 were 83% and 68%, respectively. A total of 20 of the 110 subjects underwent cervical CT scan. High-frequency ultrasound can clearly display the outline of the transverse processes of the vertebrae, which were consistent with CT results. These results indicate that high-frequency ultrasound provides a new method for observing the morphology of the brachial plexus. The C7 vertebra is a marker for identifying the position of brachial plexus nerve roots. PMID:25624836

Li, Zhengyi; Xia, Xun; Rong, Xiaoming; Tang, Yamei; Xu, Dachuan

2012-01-01

403

A Fourth Type of Brachial Plexus Lesion: The Intermediate (C7) Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of brachial plexus lesion has been defined to be added to the classical types, i.e. the upper (Duchenne Erb), the lower (Dejerine Klumpke) and the total type. This new type is the intermediate palsy. The lesion is a partial involvement of the plexus, the predominant lesion of which involves C7 with a variable involvement of the upper

G. A. BRUNELLI; G. R. BRUNELLI

1991-01-01

404

Accidental contact burns of the upper limb in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The denervated limb of the child with obstetrical brachial plexus injury is theoretically at risk of contact burns. A prospective study was designed to document the incidence and clinical presentation of these burn injuries in a series of 127 birth palsy cases. The study group included 90 Erb's and 37 total plexus palsy cases. Accidental burns occurred in 11% of

M. M. Al-Qattan

1999-01-01

405

Brachial plexus palsy associated with cesarean section: An in utero injury?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Brachial plexus injury may be unrelated to manipulations performed at the time of delivery, occurring in the absence of shoulder dystocia and in the posterior arm of infants with anterior shoulder dystocia. To further support the hypothesis that some of these nerve injuries appear to be of intrauterine origin, we present a series of brachial plexus palsies associated with

Robert B. Gherman; T. Murphy Goodwin; Joseph G. Ouzounian; David A. Miller; Richard H. Paul

1997-01-01

406

Penile erectile dysfunction after brachial plexus root avulsion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that some male patients suffering from brachial plexus injury, particularly brachial plexus root avulsion, show erectile dysfunction to varying degrees. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the erectile function after establishing brachial plexus root avulsion models with or without spinal cord injury in rats. After these models were established, we administered apomorphine (via a subcutaneous injection in the neck) to observe changes in erectile function. Rats subjected to simple brachial plexus root avulsion or those subjected to brachial plexus root avulsion combined with spinal cord injury had significantly fewer erections than those subjected to the sham operation. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase did not change in brachial plexus root avulsion rats. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly decreased in brachial plexus root avulsion + spinal cord injury rats. These findings suggest that a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis may play a role in erectile dysfunction caused by the combination of brachial plexus root avulsion and spinal cord injury. PMID:25422647

Fu, Guo; Qin, Bengang; Jiang, Li; Huang, Xijun; Lu, Qinsen; Zhang, Dechun; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai; Zheng, Jianwen; Li, Xuejia; Gu, Liqiang

2014-01-01

407

Morphometry by computerized three-dimensional reconstruction of the hypogastric plexus of a human fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological study of the plexus hypogastricus inferior (hypogastric plexus) of a human fetus does not permit the direct appreciation of its spatial configuration and its complicated relations. Developments in the field of computer science and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from serial histological sections have allowed a precise description of its morphometry and relations. The histological sections which were used came

G.-M. Hounnou; J.-F. Uhl; O. Plaisant; V. Delmas

2003-01-01

408

Continuous axillary brachial plexus analgesia in a patient with severe hemophilia.  

PubMed

Until now, the safety of continuous axillary brachial plexus block in a patient with hemophilia has not been reported. We describe the use of continuous axillary brachial plexus block for postoperative pain control in a patient with severe hemophilia after an elbow surgery. PMID:12693408

Kang, Seuk B; Rumball, Kevin M; Ettinger, Robert S

2003-02-01

409

Effect of flaxseed on choroid-sclera complex thickness and on LDL oxidation in the sclera, choroid and retina of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed on choroid-sclera complex thickness and on LDL oxidation in the sclera, choroid and retina of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. New Zealand male albino rabbits (n 21) were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1; n 11), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet, and group 2 (G2; n 10), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet enriched with flaxseed flour. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and fasting blood glucose were determined at the start of the experiment and on the day of killing (8th week). Choroid and sclera samples were subjected to haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses with the anti-oxidised LDL antibody. Sensory retina samples were subjected to an immunohistochemical analysis with the primary monoclonal nitrotyrosine antibody. At the end of the experiment, a significant increase was observed in TC and LDL-C concentrations in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P= 0·008 and P= 0·02, respectively). HE staining revealed a significant increase in choroid-sclera complex thickness in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P< 0·001). Immunohistochemical analysis of choroid and sclera samples with the anti-oxidised LDL marker revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P< 0·001). Immunohistochemical analysis of sensory retina samples with the anti-nitrotyrosine marker revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P= 0·002). Flaxseed reduced the choroid-sclera complex thickness of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits and the expression of oxidised LDL in the choroid-sclera complex as well as the expression of nitrotyrosine in the sensory retina. PMID:25247699

Torres, Rogil José de Almeida; Luchini, Andrea; Both, Alessandro Soares; Precoma, Leonardo Brandao; Champoski, Ana Flavia; Schuh, Maynara Leonardi; Torres, Renan Pedro de Almeida; Noronha, Lucia; Pessoa, Bernardo Molinari; Torres, Lucas Antonio de Almeida; Serci, Nicole Francesca de França; Precoma, Dalton Bertolim

2014-11-14

410

Nerve transfer helps repair brachial plexus injury by increasing cerebral cortical plasticity  

PubMed Central

In the treatment of brachial plexus injury, nerves that are functionally less important are transferred onto the distal ends of damaged crucial nerves to help recover neuromuscular function in the target region. For example, intercostal nerves are transferred onto axillary nerves, and accessory nerves are transferred onto suprascapular nerves, the phrenic nerve is transferred onto the musculocutaneous nerves, and the contralateral C7 nerve is transferred onto the median or radial nerves. Nerve transfer has become a major method for reconstructing the brachial plexus after avulsion injury. Many experiments have shown that nerve transfers for treatment of brachial plexus injury can help reconstruct cerebral cortical function and increase cortical plasticity. In this review article, we summarize the recent progress in the use of diverse nerve transfer methods for the repair of brachial plexus injury, and we discuss the impact of nerve transfer on cerebral cortical plasticity after brachial plexus injury. PMID:25657729

Sun, Guixin; Wu, Zuopei; Wang, Xinhong; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yudong

2014-01-01

411

Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.  

PubMed

Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

2008-09-01

412

Two Cases of Symptomatic Perineural Cysts (Tarlov Cysts) in One Family: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

2008-01-01

413

New vascular system in reptiles: anatomy and postural hemodynamics of the vertebral venous plexus in snakes.  

PubMed

Using corrosion casting, we demonstrate and describe a new vascular system--the vertebral venous plexus--in eight snake species representing three families. The plexus consists of a network of spinal veins coursing within and around the vertebral column and was previously documented only in mammals. The spinal veins of snakes originate anteriorly from the posterior cerebral veins and form a lozenge-shaped plexus that extends to the tip of the tail. Numerous anastomoses connect the plexus with the caval and portal veins along the length of the vertebral column. We also reveal a posture-induced differential flow between the plexus and the jugular veins in two snake species with arboreal proclivities. When these snakes are horizontal, the jugulars are observed fluoroscopically to be the primary route for cephalic drainage and the plexus is inactive. However, head-up tilting induces partial jugular collapse and shunting of cephalic efflux into the plexus. This postural discrepancy is caused by structural differences in the two venous systems. The compliant jugular veins are incapable of sustaining the negative intraluminal pressures induced by upright posture. The plexus, however, with the structural support of the surrounding bone, remains patent and provides a low-pressure route for venous return. Interactions with the cerebrospinal fluid both allow and enhance the role of the plexus, driving perfusion and compensating for a posture-induced drop in arterial pressure. The vertebral venous plexus is thus an important and overlooked element in the maintenance of cerebral blood supply in climbing snakes and other upright animals. PMID:11746458

Zippel, K C; Lillywhite, H B; Mladinich, C R

2001-11-01

414

Dendritic outgrowth of myenteric plexus neurons in primary culture.  

PubMed

Myenteric plexus neurons derived from neonatal guinea pigs, when exposed to serum, demonstrated a characteristic pattern of growth, including a proliferating outgrowth zone of glial cells, peripheral extension of dendritic processes, and progressive dendritic growth. Serum effects upon dendritic growth, measured morphometrically, was strongly dose- and temporally dependent. Dendritic density was increased 10-fold (120 hr) by the addition of 6% serum, while mean dendritic length was increased 3-fold. Development of cholinergic function was reflected by release of [3H]ACh in response to cholecystokinin octapeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (10(-10) and 10(-8) M). PMID:1593870

Mulholland, M W; Romanchuk, G; Flowe, K

1992-04-01

415

The protective effect of brachial plexus palsy in purpura fulminans.  

PubMed

Acute infectious purpura fulminans is reported in a 16-month-old male with a history of posttraumatic asplenia and complete left brachial plexus palsy. This patient developed peripheral necrosis of both lower extremities and the right upper extremity, whereas the left upper extremity was completely spared from ischemia and tissue damage. Amputation of four digits on the right hand and debridement of both lower extremities were required. This patient demonstrated the protective effect of a traumatic sympathectomy, which suggests the requirement of an intact sympathetic reflex in the development of purpura fulminans. PMID:11516614

Willis, T M; Hopp, R J; Romero, J R; Larsen, P D

2001-05-01

416

Massive psoas haematoma causing lumbar plexus palsy: a case report.  

PubMed

An 84-year-old man who was receiving oral anticoagulation therapy presented with complete lumbar plexus palsy caused by a massive psoas haematoma. Conservative treatment rather than drainage of the haematoma was undertaken, because of the risk of bleeding complications and mortality. At the one-year follow-up, the patient had no clinical signs of neurological recovery. The patient died 2 months later due to his concurrent medical problems. A high degree of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis because of the insidiously developing neurological deficit. PMID:22535820

Conesa, Xavier; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto

2012-04-01

417

In Utero Causation of Brachial Plexus Injury: Myth or Mystery?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a In utero causation is a manufactured theory based on speculation that contradicts known anatomic and physiologic principles. Brachial\\u000a plexus injury (BPI) is a very-low-velocity and very-low-impact injury. Adult BPI is a high-velocity and high-impact injury.\\u000a Labor forces are compressive and expulsive, not traction or stretching. “Using a statistical model it is possible to identify\\u000a adverse combinations of factors that are

James A. O’Leary

418

Delayed bilateral spinal anaesthesia following interscalene brachial plexus block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To present a case of delayed neuraxial blockade after interscalene brachial plexus block.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  A 65-yr-old lady presenting for radial head excision underwent a right interscalene block using bupivacaine and lidocaine.\\u000a She experienced excellent anaesthesia and had stable vital signs for the duration of surgery. However, after 65 min, she developed\\u000a signs of bilateral neuraxial block, progressing over the following

Desmond Norris; Andrew Klahsen; Brian Milne

1996-01-01

419

Transient sexual precocity and ovarian cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine girls presenting under the age of 7 years with unsustained sexual precocity are described. Large ovarian cysts were detected by ultrasound in three and laparotomy in one. In two girls the symptoms resolved after surgical removal of the cyst; the other seven had spontaneous remission of symptoms, but in two of these transient breast development and bleeding recurred: further

A J Lyon; R De Bruyn; D B Grant

1985-01-01

420

Ovarian Follicular Cysts in Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that occur in 10 to 13% of dairy cows. This review focuses upon the dynamics of cyst growth, development, and persistence as well as on associated endocrine and cellular mechanisms. During the es- trous cycle of cows, two to four waves of follicular growth occur. From a cohort of recruited follicles, one is

H. Allen Garverick

1997-01-01

421

Sylvian Fissure Dermoid Cyst - A Rare case  

PubMed Central

Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare tumours which usually occur in the midline. Sylvian fissure is a very unusual site for this lesion. This case presents a patient with unruptured dermoid cyst in the left sylvian fissure who was operated successfully without any residual deficit. PMID:25386502

Anand, Deepak; Soin, Divya; Garg, Ravinder

2014-01-01

422

Iatrogenic intradural lumbosacral cyst following epiduroscopy.  

PubMed

We report a rare complication of iatrogenic spinal intradural following minimally invasive extradural endoscopic procedues in the lumbo-sacral spines. To our knowledge, intradural cyst following epiduroscopy has not been reported in the literature. A 65-year-old woman with back pain related with previous lumbar disc surgery underwent endoscopic epidural neuroplasty and nerve block, but her back pain much aggravated after this procedure. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large intradural cyst from S1-2 to L2-3 displacing the nerve roots anteriorly. On T1 and T2-weighted image, the signal within the cyst had the same intensity as cerebrospinal fluid. The patient underwent partial laminectomy of L5 and intradural exploration, and fenestration of the cystic wall was accomplished. During operation, the communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was not identified, and the content of the cyst was the same as that of cerebrospinal fluid. Postoperatively, the pain attenuated immediately. Incidental durotomy which occurred during advancing the endoscope through epidural space may be the cause of formation of the intradural cyst. Intrdural cyst should be considered, if a patient complains of new symptoms such as aggravation of back pain after epiduroscopy. Surgical treatment, simple fenestration of the cyst may lead to improved outcome. All the procedures using epiduroscopy should be performed with caution. PMID:23323173

Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Rathi, Nitesh Kumar; Kim, Geol; Park, Chun-Kun

2012-11-01

423

Iatrogenic Intradural Lumbosacral Cyst Following Epiduroscopy  

PubMed Central

We report a rare complication of iatrogenic spinal intradural following minimally invasive extradural endoscopic procedues in the lumbo-sacral spines. To our knowledge, intradural cyst following epiduroscopy has not been reported in the literature. A 65-year-old woman with back pain related with previous lumbar disc surgery underwent endoscopic epidural neuroplasty and nerve block, but her back pain much aggravated after this procedure. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large intradural cyst from S1-2 to L2-3 displacing the nerve roots anteriorly. On T1 and T2-weighted image, the signal within the cyst had the same intensity as cerebrospinal fluid. The patient underwent partial laminectomy of L5 and intradural exploration, and fenestration of the cystic wall was accomplished. During operation, the communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was not identified, and the content of the cyst was the same as that of cerebrospinal fluid. Postoperatively, the pain attenuated immediately. Incidental durotomy which occurred during advancing the endoscope through epidural space may be the cause of formation of the intradural cyst. Intrdural cyst should be considered, if a patient complains of new symptoms such as aggravation of back pain after epiduroscopy. Surgical treatment, simple fenestration of the cyst may lead to improved outcome. All the procedures using epiduroscopy should be performed with caution. PMID:23323173

Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Rathi, Nitesh Kumar; Kim, Geol

2012-01-01

424

Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.  

PubMed Central

The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3817589

Morris, D L; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B

1987-01-01

425

Spontaneous Resolution of a Prepontine Arachnoid Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prepontine arachnoid cysts are rare developmental anomalies that occur almost exclusively in children. The symptomatic child typically suffers from hydrocephalus, visual impairment, endocrine dysfunction and\\/or cranial neuropathies. Some cysts, however, are discovered incidentally upon prenatal or postnatal imaging for other indications. While there is little doubt that surgical treatment should be initiated to help the symptomatic child, appropriate therapy for

Robert L. Dodd; Patrick D. Barnes; Stephen L. Huhn

2002-01-01

426

REMOVING 'GIARDIA' CYSTS WITH SLOW SAND FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot-plant studies were undertaken to determine the efficiency of slow-rate sand filters in removing Giardia cysts and other substances. The filters removed virtually 100 percent of the Giardia cysts, 96 percent of standard plate count bacteria, and 98 percent of particles. Beca...

427

A pericardial hydatid cyst and pregnancy.  

PubMed

A cardiac hydatid cyst in pregnancy is a very rare condition. Surgical intervention followed by medical therapy is the treatment of choice. A hydatid disease in pregnancy is challenging with a varied presentation and manifestation. A pregnant woman presented with a ruptured pericardial cyst diagnosed by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and serology. Finally, she received medical treatment and no surgical intervention. PMID:21744713

Erol, Tansel; Altay, Hakan; Tarim, Ebru

2011-06-01

428

Ependymal cyst of the thoracic spinal cord  

PubMed Central

A unique case of an ependymal cyst on the anterior aspect of the thoracic spinal cord in a woman aged 68 years is described. Clinical signs were precipitated by trauma. Recovery of function, while incomplete, was remarkably good after extirpation of the cyst. Images PMID:4419009

Gainer, J. V.; Chou, S. M.; Nugent, G. R.; Weiss, V.

1974-01-01

429

Neuroendoscopic surgery of intracranial cysts in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objects The purpose of this study was to describe the indications, surgical techniques and postoperative outcome of neuroendoscopic interventions in a heterogeneous group of intracranial cystic pathologies. Patients and methods Between 1992 and 2003, 127 patients with symptomatic intracranial cysts and cystic tumours underwent neuroendoscopic treatment in our department. In 22 patients indication for surgery was colloid cysts, in 9

Wuttipong Tirakotai; Dirk Michael Schulte; Bernhard L. Bauer; Helmut Bertalanffy; Dieter Hellwig

2004-01-01

430

Proteomic Analyses of Pancreatic Cyst Fluids  

PubMed Central

Objectives There are currently no diagnostic indicators that are consistently reliable, obtainable, and conclusive for diagnosing and risk-stratifying pancreatic cysts. Proteomic analyses were performed to explore pancreatic cyst fluids to yield effective diagnostic biomarkers. Methods We have prospectively recruited 20 research participants and prepared their pancreatic cyst fluids specifically for proteomic analyses. Proteomic approaches applied were: 1) MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry peptidomics with LC/MS/MS (HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry) protein identification. 2) 2D gel electrophoresis. 3) GeLC/MS/MS (tryptic digestion of proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC/MS/MS). Results Sequencing of over 350 free peptides showed that exopeptidase activities rendered peptidomics of cyst fluids unreliable; Protein nicking by proteases in the cyst fluids produced hundreds of protein spots from the major proteins, making 2D gel proteomics unmanageable; GeLC/MS/MS revealed a panel of potential biomarker proteins that correlated with CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen). Conclusions Two homologs of amylase, solubilized molecules of four mucins, four solubilized CEACAMs (CEA-related cell adhesion molecules), and four S100 homologs, may be candidate biomarkers to facilitate future pancreatic cyst diagnosis and risk-stratification. This approach required less than 40 microliters of cyst fluid per sample, offering the possibility to analyze cysts smaller than 1 cm diameter. PMID:19136908

Ke, Eileen; Patel, Bhavinkumar B.; Liu, Tiffany; PhD, Xin-Ming Li; MD, Oleh Haluszka; Hoffman, John P.; MD, Hormoz Ehya; Young, Nancy A.; Watson, James C.; Weinberg, David S.; Nguyen, Minhhuyen T.; Cohen, Steven J.; Meropol, Neal J.; PhD, Samuel Litwin; Tokar, Jeffrey L.; Yeung, Anthony T.

2009-01-01

431

Xanthogranulomatous colloid cyst of the third ventricle  

PubMed Central

Colloid cyst in the third ventricle is a common entity, whereas a variant of it, namely xanthogranulomatous, is quite rare. The closest imaging differential diagnosis is a purely third ventricular craniopharyngioma. We herein describe a case of xanthogranulomatous colloid cyst presenting with hydrocephalus. PMID:23914099

Alugolu, Rajesh; Chandrasekhar, Yandrapati Bala Venkata Krishna; Shukla, Dinesh; Sahu, Barada Prasad; Srinivas, Bheemanathi Hanuman

2013-01-01

432

Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Cisternostomy for Nonneoplastic Sellar Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background and Importance. Sellar arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts are benign lesions that produce similar symptoms, including optochiasmatic compression, pituitary dysfunction, and headache. Studies have reported the use of various surgical treatment methods for treating these symptoms, preventing recurrence, and minimizing operative complications. However, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and recurrence rate remain significant. Clinical Presentation. In this paper, we present 8 consecutive cases involving arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts, which were managed by using drainage and cisternostomy, the intentional fenestration of the cyst into the subarachnoid space, and then meticulously closing sellar floor using dural sutures. The postoperative images, CSF fistula rate, and the recurrence rate were favorable. Conclusion. We report this technique and discuss the benefit of this minimally invasive approach. PMID:25685785

Su, Yukai; Ishii, Yudo; Lin, Chien-Min; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

2015-01-01

433

Choledochal cysts : a review of literature.  

PubMed

Choledochal cysts are cystic dilation of extrahepatic duct, intrahepatic duct, or both that may result in significant morbidity and mortality, unless identified early and managed appropriately. The incidence is common in Asian population compared with western counterpart with more than two third of the cases in Asia being reported from Japan. The traditional anatomic classification system is under debate with more focus on etiopathogenesis and other aspects of choledochal cysts. Even though categorized under the same roof, choledochal cysts vary with respect to their natural course, complications, and management. In this review, with the available literature on choledochal cysts, we discuss different views about the etiopathogenesis along with the natural course, complications, diagnosis, and surgical approach for choledochal cysts, which also explains why the traditional classification is questioned by some authors. PMID:22824764

Bhavsar, Mahendra S; Vora, Hasmukh B; Giriyappa, Venugopal H

2012-01-01

434

Sacral Perineural Cyst Accompanying Disc Herniation  

PubMed Central

Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Hyeun Sung

2009-01-01

435

Groove pancreatitis associated with true pancreatic cyst.  

PubMed

We report a case of groove pancreatitis (GP) associated with a true pancreatic cyst. An 81-year-old man who had suffered epigastric pain for 4 months was referred to Saisekai Kure Hospital. Computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography showed a cystic lesion in the groove area of the pancreas. Serum amylase elevation and imaging findings suggested GP due to the cyst. Six weeks of medical treatment did not improve the clinical symptoms. Therefore, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. Histologic examination revealed a true cyst with intraluminal necrosis, which produced a protein plug that obstructed the Santorini duct. The parenchyma surrounding the groove area showed marked fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. GP due to true pancreatic cyst was diagnosed. Although GP is usually caused by overconsumption of alcohol, which leads to changes in the pancreatic juice and the ultimate blockage of pancreatic outflow, the histologic features in our patient suggest that true pancreatic cyst stands as a secondary cause of GP. PMID:17653641

Sanada, Yuichi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Kunita, Satoko; Jinushi, Kazuto; Matsuura, Hideo

2007-01-01

436

Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization with verteporfin in the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the safety and effect on visual acuity of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis AG) in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS).

David A Saperstein; Philip J Rosenfeld; Neil M Bressler; Robert H Rosa; Michel Sickenberg; Paul Sternberg; Thomas M Aaberg; Troy A Reaves

2002-01-01

437

Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

2014-01-01

438

Demonstration of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from the Anterior Choroidal Artery  

PubMed Central

We present a case of angiographically confirmed transection of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) associated with a severe head trauma in a 15-year old boy. The initial brain computed tomography scan revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pneumocephalus with multiple skull fractures. Subsequent cerebral angiography clearly demonstrated a complete transection of the AChA at its origin with a massive extravasation of contrast medium as a jet trajectory creating a plume. We speculate that severe blunt traumatic force stretched and tore the left AChA between the internal carotid artery and the optic tract. In a simulation of the patient's brain using a fresh-frozen male cadaver, the AChA is shown to be vulnerable to stretching injury as the ipsilateral optic tract is retracted. We conclude that the arterial injury like an AChA rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe traumatic SAH. PMID:25628818

Sim, Ki-Bum; Choi, H. Alex; Kim, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

439

Failure of choroidal melanoma to respond to helium ion therapy  

SciTech Connect

Helium ion irradiation is a promising alternative therapy for choroidal melanoma. In short-term follow-up (less than 5 years), more than 90% (18/19) of treated patients demonstrated tumor regression. Researchers had to enucleate five eyes after helium ion therapy either because of continued tumor growth (four patients) or other complications (one patient). Two melanomas continued to grow and seemed to be radioresistant. In two other tumors it retrospectively seemed that the entire lesion was not inside the radiation field. In one patient total retinal detachment and glaucoma developed; enucleation was performed because of a painful eye. Metastatic disease developed in no patients. The treatment failures emphasize that there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the use of charged-particle irradiation in the treatment of melanoma. Further studies must be performed to answer these questions and better delineate the use of these newer forms of therapy.

Char, D.H.; Crawford, J.B.; Castro, J.R.; Woodruff, K.H.

1983-02-01

440

Sympathetic ophthalmia complicating helium ion irradiation of a choroidal melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Sympathetic ophthalmia was diagnosed 49 months after helium ion irradiation of a left choroidal melanoma. The patient maintained good vision until 18 months after therapy, when she developed neovascular glaucoma. This complication required multiple therapeutic procedures, including topical anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous drops, 360 degrees peripheral panretinal cryoblation, and a single 180 degrees application of inferior cyclocryotherapy over a 2 1/2-year period. Four weeks after the cyclocryotherapy, inflammation was noted in both eyes, and, one month later, enucleation of the left sympathogenic eye was performed. Serial histopathologic sections showed a full-thickness, fibrovascular, scleral scar and tantalum marker ring suture without uveal incarceration. Penetrating surgical trauma, a uveal melanoma, and multiple nonpenetrating treatments resulted in the development of sympathetic ophthalmia.

Fries, P.D.; Char, D.H.; Crawford, J.B.; Waterhouse, W.

1987-11-01

441

Radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. An 18-year experience with radon  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three patients were treated with radon therapy for choroidal melanoma at the Ohio State University Hospitals, Columbus, between 1968 and 1976. We present an 18-year experience, including follow-up of at least eight years, in all those receiving therapy. Three patients (13%) died of metastatic disease. Four patients (17.4%) died of other causes. Sixteen patients (69.6%) were alive, with no signs of metastatic disease. Eight patients subsequently required enucleation due to inadequate tumor response. Of the 15 patients who demonstrated successful tumor destruction and retained their eyes, 13 (86.7%) developed substantial irradiation-induced retinopathy, including hard exudates, telangiectasias, neovascularization, microaneurysms, intraretinal and vitreous hemorrhages, secondary glaucoma, and irradiation-induced cataract. Our long-term results indicate a high incidence of both vascular complications and decreased visual acuity.

Davidorf, F.H.; Pajka, J.T.; Makley, T.A. Jr.; Kartha, M.K.

1987-03-01

442

[Central serous choroiditis. Possible allergic etiopathogenesis] Preliminary report].  

PubMed

We performed a study of all patients with Central Serous Choroiditis that were attended in Ophthalmology consultation, both on ambulatory and emergency services, as well as in Allergy-Ophthalmology inter-consultations at the Provincial Educational Hospital "Saturnino Lora" in Santiago de Cuba, from January 1982 until July 1984. These patients were divided in two groups: A and B; the former was treated with suppression and challenge diets, and with antihistaminic drugs: the latter with conventional therapeutic agents. We established several criteria for the evaluation of results as: Good, Fair and Bad. We followed a similar procedure in evaluating the inflammatory state of the eye fundus as Discreet, Moderate and Severe. With the first evaluation of treatment at 15 days, we observed greater improvement in patients from group A than with patients from group B. PMID:2863967

Estruch Fajardo, I M; Rodríguez Villalón, C H; Dorado García, A; Gómez Echevarría, A H

1985-01-01

443

Long term ultrasonic follow up of choroidal naevi and their transformation to melanomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To compare ultrasonographic (US) predicting factors for conversion of choroidal naevi into melanomas.Methods: 659 consecutive eyes with choroidal naevi were examined between 1984 and 2004. 165 clinically suspicious naevi were followed clinically and ultrasonographically (thickness, base diameters, internal reflectivity and location in the eye) for 5.08 (SE 0.24) years.Results: 17 naevi (2.6% of all naevi, 10.3% of suspicious naevi)

I Kaiserman; N Kaiserman; J Pe’er

2006-01-01

444

Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Optic Nerve Head Drusen Treated with Anti-VEGF Agents  

PubMed Central

Optic nerve head drusen can be associated with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization, in both the pediatric and adult population. These membranes can involve the macula, causing significant visual loss. Herein, we present a case that required treatment with an anti-VEGF agent. The patient failed to respond to the initial agent, but subsequently responded to a change of agent. Adult patients with macular degeneration involving peripapillary choroidal neovascularization associated with optic nerve head drusen may require individualized treatment plans. PMID:25802505

Saffra, Norman A.; Reinherz, Benjamin J.

2015-01-01

445