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1

The second-trimester fetus with isolated choroid plexus cysts: a meta-analysis of risk of trisomies 18 and 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the risk of trisomy 18 and trisomy 21 associated with isolated choroid plexus cysts diagnosed by ultrasound in the second trimester.Methods of Study Selection: We reviewed the unabridged PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE databases for articles written in the English language regarding second-trimester fetal isolated choroid plexus cysts and trisomies 18 and 21, published in the period 1987–1997. Selection

Pamela R Yoder; Rudy E Sabbagha; Susan J Gross; Carolyn M Zelop

1999-01-01

2

Choroid Plexus Papilloma of the Cerebellopontine Angle  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a transdural choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle in a 23-year-old woman. Choroid plexus papillomas are rare intracranial tumors, usually occurring intraventricularly. Those found in the cerebellopontine angle are uncommon and almost always subdural. The investigation, treatment, and follow-up are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p156-cFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170859

Panizza, B. J.; Jackson, A.; Ramsden, R. T.; Lye, R. H.

1992-01-01

3

Functional and genetic analysis of choroid plexus development in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus, an epithelial-based structure localized in the brain ventricle, is the major component of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus produces the cerebrospinal fluid and regulates the components of the cerebrospinal fluid. Abnormal choroid plexus function is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation in the choroid plexus epithelium, and hydrocephaly. In this study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system to understand the genetic components of choroid plexus development. We generated an enhancer trap line, Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the choroid plexus epithelium. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescent tracers, we demonstrated that the zebrafish choroid plexus possesses brain barrier properties such as tight junctions and transporter activity. Thus, we have established zebrafish as a functionally relevant model to study choroid plexus development. Using an unbiased approach, we performed a forward genetic dissection of the choroid plexus to identify genes essential for its formation and function. Using Et(cp:EGFP)sj2, we isolated 10 recessive mutant lines with choroid plexus abnormalities, which were grouped into five classes based on GFP intensity, epithelial localization, and overall choroid plexus morphology. We also mapped the mutation for two mutant lines to chromosomes 4 and 21, respectively. The mutants generated in this study can be used to elucidate specific genes and signaling pathways essential for choroid plexus development, function, and/or maintenance and will provide important insights into how these genetic mutations contribute to disease.

Henson, Hannah E.; Parupalli, Chaithanyarani; Ju, Bensheng; Taylor, Michael R.

2014-01-01

4

Expression of EAAT-1 distinguishes choroid plexus tumors from normal and reactive choroid plexus epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic distinction of normal choroid plexus (CP) from choroid plexus tumors (CPT) may be difficult, especially in small\\u000a samples of well-differentiated CP papillomas. So far, there are no established markers that reliably distinguish normal and\\u000a neoplastic CP epithelium. Recently, a correlation between expression\\/function of glial glutamate transporters EAAT-1 (GLAST)\\u000a and EAAT-2 (Glt-1) and tumor proliferation has been reported. Furthermore, we

Rudi Beschorner; Georgios Pantazis; Astrid Jeibmann; Jana Boy; Richard Meyermann; Michel Mittelbronn; Jens Schittenhelm

2009-01-01

5

Choroid plexus in developmental and evolutionary perspective  

PubMed Central

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary is present at the level of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. As one of the sources of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) plays an important role during brain development and function. Its formation has been studied largely in mammalian species. Lately, progress in other model animals, in particular the zebrafish, has brought a deeper understanding of CP formation, due in part to the ability to observe CP development in vivo. At the same time, advances in comparative genomics began providing information, which opens a possibility to understand further the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of the CP and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid boundary formation. Hence this review focuses on analysis of the CP from developmental and evolutionary perspectives.

Bill, Brent Roy; Korzh, Vladimir

2014-01-01

6

Childhood choroid plexus papillomas: operative complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

MethodsEight children (below 12 years of age) operated on for intraventricular choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) were retrospectively reviewed to identify the factors responsible for their high postoperative morbidity and mortality. Seven of these patients were aged between 2 months and 2 years and 1 was aged 12 years. Six CPP lesions were in the lateral ventricles and the remaining 2 were in the anterior

Raj Kumar; Surendra Singh

2005-01-01

7

The choroid plexuses and their impact on developmental neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

During brain development the neural stem cells are regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic sources. One site of origin of extrinsic regulation is the developing choroid plexuses, primely situated inside the cerebral ventricles. The choroid plexuses are very active in terms of both secretion and barrier function as soon as they appear during development and control the production and contents of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This suggests that regulated secretion of signaling molecules from the choroid plexuses into CSF can regulate neural stem cell behavior (as they are in direct contact with CSF) and thereby neurogenesis and brain development. Here, choroid plexus development, particularly with regards to molecular regulation and specification, is reviewed. This is followed by a review and discussion of the role of the developing choroid plexuses in brain development. In particular, recent evidence suggests a region-specific reciprocal regulation between choroid plexuses and the neural stem cells. This is accomplished by site-specific secretion of signaling molecules from the different choroid plexuses into CSF, as well as brain region specific competence of the neural stem cells to respond to the signaling molecules present in CSF. In conclusion, although in its infancy, the field of choroid plexus regulation of neurogenesis has already and will likely continue to shed new light on our understanding of the control and fine-tuning of overall brain development. PMID:25386116

Johansson, Pia A.

2014-01-01

8

Effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to examine effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus. The authors used microspheres to measure blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum in anesthetized dogs and rabbits. A critical assumption of the microsphere method is that microspheres do not pass through arteriovenous shunts. Blood flow values obtained with simultaneous injection of 15- and 50-{mu}m microspheres were similar, which suggest that shunting of 15-{mu}m microspheres was minimal. Blood flow to choroid plexus under control conditions was 287 {plus minus} 26 (means {plus minus} SE) ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in dogs and 385 {plus minus} 73 ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in rabbits. Consecutive measurements under control conditions indicated that values for blood flow are reproducible. Adenosine did not alter blood flow to cerebrum but increased blood flow to choroid plexus two- to threefold in dogs and rabbits. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not affect blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum but decreased blood flow to choroid plexus by {approx} 50%. The authors suggest that (1) the microsphere method provides reproducible valid measurements of blood flow to the choroid plexus in dogs and rabbits and (2) vasoactive stimuli may have profoundly different effects on blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum.

Faraci, F.M.; Mayhan, W.G.; Williams, J.K.; Heistad, D.D. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (USA))

1988-02-01

9

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with

Y. Kaneko; T. Iwaki; T. Matsushima; M. Fukui

1991-01-01

10

Prolactin enhancement of its own uptake at the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus contains PRL receptors that function in part to transport PRL from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The blood PRL concentration of female rats was altered by 1) three daily injections of haloperidol (chronic hyperprolactinemia) with or without bromocriptine administration 4 h before death, 2) bromocriptine alone for 4 h (acute hypoprolactinemia), and 3) a single vascular injection of ovine PRL (acute hyperprolactinemia). Changes in the uptake of PRL by the choroid plexus was assessed by quantitative in vivo autoradiography after the injection of radiolabeled PRL. Correlation of changes in PRL uptake at the choroid plexus with changes in PRL transport from blood to CSF was evaluated by subjecting CSF samples to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after vascular injection of radiolabeled PRL. Autoradiography revealed that both chronic and acute hyperprolactinemia resulted in a significant increase in the uptake of radiolabeled PRL by the choroid plexus compared to that in untreated control animals. In contrast, bromocriptine had no effect on PRL uptake at the choroid plexus relative to that in control (untreated) animals. Chronic hyperprolactinemia, but not acute hyperprolactinemia, resulted in a significant increase in the transport of radiolabeled PRL from the blood to the CSF compared to that in untreated controls. The results are consistent with the up-regulation of PRL receptors in the choroid plexus by circulating PRL and the consequent augmentation of transport of PRL from blood to CSF. PMID:1639017

Mangurian, L P; Walsh, R J; Posner, B I

1992-08-01

11

Tubular (acinar) transformation of the choroid plexus epithelium.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus in the normal state shows a beautiful papillary (or villous) architecture supported by the intricately ramifying, thin fibrovascular stroma. This configuration is retained in benign and malignant neoplasms derived therefrom. The choroid plexus was involved in the pathological process of leukemic cell infiltration in one case reported here and in chronic cryptococcal leptomeningitis in the other case. The epithelial cells of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle were arranged extensively in a tubular (acinar) configuration, in association with remarkable stromal fibrosis caused by an infiltration of leukemic or inflammatory cells. In addition, choroid plexus epithelial cells in the first case contained a moderate amount of intracytoplasmic glycogen. These two cases indicate that the non-neoplastic choroid plexus epithelium can undergo transformation into a tubular (acinar) structure as a response or adaptation to the fibrotic processes of the stroma. This finding should be differentiated from metastatic adenocarcinoma. This finding also provides some suggestions as to the pathogenesis of "tubular (acinar) adenoma," a rare variant of benign choroid plexus neoplasm. PMID:12455886

Shintaku, Masayuki

2002-01-01

12

Giant choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral ventricle in fetus  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare tumors having bimodal distribution. Pediatric CPPs are commonly present in supratentorial compartment and most commonly located in lateral ventricle and usually present at 16-18 months. Authors could find only one case report of fetal choroid plexus papilloma in the literature. In the present case, authors illustrate an unusual presentation of CPP with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) since birth, the need for proper preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, and intensive intra operative monitoring for normothermia, fluid-electrolyte balance, and blood replacement for achieving excellent results. PMID:25250084

Verma, Satish Kumar; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

2014-01-01

13

Immunohistochemical localization of nitric oxide synthase in rat anterior choroidal artery, stromal blood microvessels, and choroid plexus epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been shown to regulate blood flow to choroid plexus, a specialized brain structure responsible for production of most of cerebrospinal fluid. In the present study, we used a specific polyclonal rabbit antibody against the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (NOS), a synthetic enzyme for NO, to determine the localization of NOS in the choroid plexus

Anne Y.-J. Lin; Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Michael P. Rahman; Bernd Mayer; Paul R. Monfils; Conrad E. Johanson; Yow-Pin Lim; Stephanie Corsetti; Adam Chodobski

1996-01-01

14

Extensive neuroprotection by choroid plexus transplants in excitotoxin lesioned monkeys.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) results from degeneration of striatal neurons. Choroid plexus (CP) cells secrete neurotrophic factors, and CP transplants are neuroprotective in rat models of HD. To determine if similar neuroprotective effects could be obtained in primates, porcine CP was encapsulated in alginate capsules. PCR confirmed that the CP cells expressed transthyretin and immunocytochemistry demonstrated typical ZO-1 and tubulin staining. In vitro, CP conditioned media enhanced the survival and preserved neurite number and length on serum deprived neurons. Cynomolgus primates were transplanted with CP-loaded capsules into the caudate and putamen followed by quinolinic acid (QA) lesions 1 week later. Control monkeys received empty capsules plus QA. Choroid plexus transplants significantly protected striatal neurons as revealed by stereological counts of NeuN-positive neurons (8% loss vs. 43% in controls) and striatum volume (10% decrease vs. 40% in controls). These data indicate that CP transplants might be useful for preventing the degeneration of neurons in HD. PMID:16777422

Emerich, Dwaine F; Thanos, Christopher G; Goddard, Moses; Skinner, Stephen J M; Geany, Marilyn S; Bell, William J; Bintz, Briannan; Schneider, Patricia; Chu, Yaping; Babu, Rangasamy Suresh; Borlongan, Cesario V; Boekelheide, Kim; Hall, Susan; Bryant, Bronwyn; Kordower, Jeffrey H

2006-08-01

15

Management of Choroid Plexus Tumours in Children: 20 Years Experience at a Single Neurosurgical Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Tumours of the choroid plexus are rare tumours of neuro-ectodermal origin, accounting for less than 1% of all intracranial tumours. Most cases present in children less than 2 years of age. While choroid plexus carcinomas (CPC) are reported to have an extremely poor prognosis, choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are generally regarded as benign tumours with a very favourable long-term

Andrew W. McEvoy; Brian N. Harding; Kim P. Phipps; David W. Ellison; Andrew J. Elsmore; Dominic Thompson; William Harkness; Richard D. Hayward

2000-01-01

16

Choroid plexus thrombosis and hemorrhage caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation in Down's syndrome.  

PubMed

This report concerns an unusual case of thrombosis and hemorrhage in the choroid plexus caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The case is of special interest because it occurred in a patient with Down's syndrome. Nevertheless, there is no causal relation between Down's syndrome and the choroid plexus lesion except that mongols are susceptible to infections that trigger DIC. The association of choroid plexus thrombosis-hemorrhage and Down's syndrome is coincidental and does not indicate a basic vascular defect. PMID:6230303

Deshpande, V; Levine, S

1984-02-01

17

Mechanisms of 5-aminolevulinic acid uptake at the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a precursor of porphyrins and heme that has been implicated in the neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with porphyrias. It is also being used clinically to delineate malignant gliomas. The blood-CSF barrier may be an important interface for 5-ALA transport between blood and brain as in vivo studies have indicated 5-ALA is taken up by the choroid plexuses whereas the normal blood-brain barrier appears to be relatively impermeable. This study examines the mechanisms of 5-[(3)H]ALA uptake into isolated rat lateral ventricle choroid plexuses. Results suggest that there are two uptake mechanisms. The first was a Na(+)-independent uptake system that was pH dependent (being stimulated at low pH). Uptake was inhibited by the dipeptide Gly-Gly and by cefadroxil, an alpha-amino-containing cephalosporin. These properties are the same as the proton-dependent peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2, which have recently been shown to transport 5-ALA in frog oocyte expression experiments. Choroid plexus uptake was not inhibited by captopril, a PEPT1 inhibitor, suggesting PEPT2-mediated uptake. The presence of PEPT2 and absence of PEPT1 in the choroid plexus were confirmed by western blotting. The second potential mechanism was both Na(+) and HCO(3)(-) dependent and appears to be an organic anion transporter, although it is possible that removal of Na(+) and HCO(3)(-) may indirectly affect PEPT2 by affecting intracellular pH. The presence of PEPT2 and a putative Na(+)/HCO(3)(-)-dependent organic anion transporter is important not only for an understanding of 5-ALA movement between blood and brain but also because these transporters may affect the distribution of a number of drugs between blood and CSF. PMID:10854277

Novotny, A; Xiang, J; Stummer, W; Teuscher, N S; Smith, D E; Keep, R F

2000-07-01

18

Effect of molecular charge on choroid-plexus permeability: Tracer studies with cationized ferritins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability of the choroid plexus and renal glomerulus to intravenously injected native, anionic ferritin and various cationic ferritin derivatives was studied in normal rats by electron microscopy. In both structures, anionic, native ferritin was largely confined to the circulatory compartment while the cationic forms penetrated and accumulated within the filtration barriers. In the choroid plexus, cationic ferritin concentrated in

Nancy S. Peress; David Tompkins

1981-01-01

19

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation.  

PubMed

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with Ricinus communis (RCA-I). Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Limax flavus (LFA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), while Arachis hypoaea (PNA) stained them only after the removal of sialic acid. Human fetal choroid plexus cells at 8 weeks gestation already showed the same lectin-binding patterns as adult ones. All CPNs were stained by RCA-I and Con A in a similar manner as the normal choroid plexus cells. Although seven CPNs were positive for LFA, two CPCs were not stained by LFA, which bound to sialic acid. Two LFA-positive CPPs were stained by PNA before the removal of sialic acid. Moreover, unlike the normal choroid plexus cells, Ulex europaeus-, Glycine maximus- and Dolichos biflorus-binding sites often appeared, and WGA-binding sites of three CPNs remained even after sialic acid removal. In conclusion, the glycosialylation in normal choroid plexus cells was completed during the early embryonic stage. The lectin-binding patterns of CPNs were heterogenous in each case. The alternation of the glycosialylation and/or acquisition of binding sites for some lectins was sometimes observed through a neoplastic transformation. PMID:1927268

Kaneko, Y; Iwaki, T; Matsushima, T; Fukui, M

1991-01-01

20

Unique serotonin receptor (5HT-1C) in choroid plexus is linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The binding of /sup 125/I-LSD to the 5HT-1C site and of /sup 3/H-ket-anserin to the 5HT-2 site was determined in choroid plexus and cerebral cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. As an index of phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, whole choroid plexus and cerebral cortex slices were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and serotonin (5HT) stimulated release of /sup 3/H-inositol-1-phosphate was measured. 5HT stimulated PI hydrolysis in choroid plexus (6-fold) and in cerebral cortex (2.5-fold). 5HT was more potent in choroid plexus (EC/sub 50/ = 46 nM) consistent with the involvement of the 5HT-1C site. 5HT antagonists, ketanserin, mianserin and spiperone, inhibited the response to 5HT with different potencies in the two tissues. In cerebral cortex all 3 antagonists had nM affinities and a rank order (spiperone > ketanserin > mianserin) consistent with the 5HT-2 site. In choroid plexus, however, the rank order (mianserin > ketanserin > spiperone) and absolute potencies agreed with binding to the 5HT-1C site. These data suggest that the 5HT-1C site is a functional receptor which utilizes PI hydrolysis as its biochemical effector system.

Sanders-Bush, E.; Conn, P.J.; Hoffman, B.J.; Hartig, P.R.

1986-03-01

21

Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus (CP), the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that are expressed in the CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the CP at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the CP in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier. PMID:24795602

Turner, Cortney A.; Thompson, Robert C.; Bunney, William E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Barchas, Jack D.; Myers, Richard M.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.

2014-01-01

22

Transcriptome signature of the adult mouse choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Background Although the gene expression profile of several tissues in humans and in rodent animal models has been explored, analysis of the complete choroid plexus (CP) transcriptome is still lacking. A better characterization of the CP transcriptome can provide key insights into its functions as one of the barriers that separate the brain from the periphery and in the production of cerebrospinal fluid. Methods This work extends further what is known about the mouse CP transcriptome through a microarray analysis of CP tissue from normal mice under physiological conditions. Results We found that the genes most highly expressed are those implicated in energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis) and in ribosomal function, which is in agreement with the secretory nature of the CP. On the other hand, genes encoding for immune mediators are among those with lower expression in basal conditions. In addition, we found genes known to be relevant during brain development, and not previously identified to be expressed in the CP, including those encoding for various axonal guidance and angiogenesis molecules and for growth factors. Some of these are known to influence the neural stem cell niche in the subventricular zone, highlighting the involvement of the CP as a likely modulator of neurogenesis. Interestingly, our observations confirm that the CP transcriptome is unique, displaying low homology with that of other tissues. Of note, we describe here that the closest similarity is with the transcriptome of the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Conclusions Based on the data presented here, it will now be possible to further explore the function of particular proteins of the CP secretome in health and in disease. PMID:21349147

2011-01-01

23

Human choroid plexus papilloma cells efficiently transport glucose and vitamin C.  

PubMed

In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the basolateral membrane of choroid plexus cells, which is in contact with blood vessels, is involved in the uptake of the reduced form of vitamin C, ascorbic acid (AA), through the sodium-vitamin C cotransporter, (SVCT2). Moreover, very low levels of vitamin C were observed in the brains of SVCT2-null mice. The oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), is incorporated through the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). In this study, the contribution of SVCT2 and GLUT1 to vitamin C uptake in human choroid plexus papilloma (HCPP) cells in culture was examined. Both the functional activity and the kinetic parameters of GLUT1 and SVCT2 in cells isolated from HCPP were observed. Finally, DHA uptake by GLUT1 in choroid plexus cells was assessed in the presence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-activated human neutrophils. A marked increase in vitamin C uptake by choroid plexus cells was observed that was associated with superoxide generation and vitamin C oxidation (bystander effect). Thus, vitamin C can be incorporated by epithelial choroid plexus papilloma cells using the basolateral polarization of SVCT2 and GLUT1. This mechanism may be amplified with neutrophil infiltration (inflammation) of choroid plexus tumors. In choroid plexus papilloma cells, the vitamin C transporters SVCT2 and GLUT1 are polarized to the basolateral epithelial membrane, where SVCT2 is essential for AA flux from the blood vessels into the brain. However, neutrophils, attracted by inflammation or the tumor microenvironment, can oxidize extracellular AA to DHA, thereby enabling its uptake through GLUT1. For the first time, we show the in vivo and in vitro basolateral co-distribution of functional SVCT2 and GLUT1 in epithelial cells. We postulate that patients with choroid plexus papillomas may continue to transport vitamin C from the blood to CSF. However, increased transport of oxidized vitamin C could generate pro-oxidative conditions that may help control tumor growth. PMID:23647458

Ulloa, Viviana; García-Robles, María; Martínez, Fernando; Salazar, Katterine; Reinicke, Karin; Pérez, Fernando; Godoy, David F; Godoy, Alejandro S; Nualart, Francisco

2013-11-01

24

Covert Transport Dysfunc- tion in the Choroid Plexus as a Possible Cause of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia and certain forms of idiopathic mental retardation may result from covert immune complex disease of the basal lamina of the choroid plexus, a process already known to cause covert transport dysfunction in similar structures of, for example, skin, bowel, kidney, and endocrines. Plexial attack could lead to cerebrospinal fluid contami- nation and then, via an \\

Donald O. Rudln

1979-01-01

25

Regional surface changes during the development of the telencephalic choroid plexus in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface morphology of the developing chick telencephalic choroid plexus (TCP) was examined by scanning electron and light microscopy. A blunt evagination develops rostro-cranially to the foramen of Monro on the medial telencephalic septum. The pseudostratified TCP epithelium differs in its surface morphology from that of the surrounding ependyma. Subsequently the TCP becomes elongated and branches. On the 9th embryonic

S. el-Gammal

1983-01-01

26

Choroid plexus papilloma of the third ventricle: A rare infantile brain tumor  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) represents an uncommon pediatric brain tumor with an overall incidence less than 1% of all intracranial tumors. Most of these tumors occur in the lateral ventricles in neonates. Third ventricular location is uncommon, limited to a few case reports. These highly vascular tumors retain the physiological function of choroid plexus and thus lead to overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), besides obstructing the CSF pathway. Imaging is fairly sensitive and specific in affording the diagnosis of this tumor. Surgical approaches differ according to the site of tumor and aim is complete removal of tumor. We present an interesting report of an infant who presented to our department for cranial sonography that lead to suspicion of this tumor, later confirmed by other imaging modalities and histopathology. PMID:24470825

Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Mohindra, Sandeep; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Das, Ashim; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2013-01-01

27

Expression of junctional proteins in choroid plexus epithelial cell lines: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in using choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines to study the properties of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Currently, there are three major CP-derived cell lines available. Z310 and TR-CSFB3, two immortalized cell lines carrying the simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene, were derived from rat CP epithelium, whereas the CPC-2 cell line was

Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Crissey L Pascale; Andrew N Pfeffer; Cassaundra Coulter; Adam Chodobski

2007-01-01

28

Restraint stress enhances the gene expression of prolactin receptor long form at the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Hormonal control of brain functions is considered to be important in the tolerance of stress, and it is now established that stress elevates serum PRL levels in male or cycling female rats. To investigate whether or how serum PRL acts on the brain during exposure to stress, we analyzed serum PRL levels and the gene expression of brain PRL receptors in rats subjected to restraint stress in the water (RSW). The serum PRL concentration was remarkably increased within 30 min in the rats by exposure to RSW and decreased to the initial level after 4 h of RSW, remaining at this level for up to 7 h of RSW. After the rats were released from the stress, the serum PRL level was significantly lowered in 6 h. Ribonuclease protection assay and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for the long form PRL receptor [PRL-R(L)] was remarkably induced in the rat choroid plexus in 2 h of RSW. The high expression level of PRL-R(L) mRNA in the region was reduced after the rats were released from the stress. PRL-R(L) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was at lower levels than those in the choroid plexus before and during the RSW treatment. The short form PRL receptor mRNA expression in the rat brain was considerably lower than expression of the long form receptor mRNA before or during RSW. The results indicated that the restraint stress caused a rapid increase in serum PRL and induced the gene expression for PRL-R(L) in the choroid plexus, suggesting stress-induced and choroid plexus PRL-R(L)-mediated transport of serum PRL into the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:7588315

Fujikawa, T; Soya, H; Yoshizato, H; Sakaguchi, K; Doh-Ura, K; Tanaka, M; Nakashima, K

1995-12-01

29

The ontogeny of specific prolactin binding sites in the rat choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The development of prolactin receptors in the choroid plexus of the rat was examined using the in vivo autoradiographic approach employing the principle of competitive binding. Experimental animals were injected with [125I]prolactin alone (total binding) while control animals received [125I]prolactin and a 500-fold excess of unlabelled prolactin (non-specific binding). Newborns as well as animals 10, 14 and 18 days postnatal were studied. Three minutes following hormone injection animals received an intracardiac perfusion with fixative and tissues were prepared for quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. The choroid plexus first demonstrated specific binding of prolactin, i.e. a statistically significant difference in the autoradiographic reactions between experimental and control animals, at 14 days postnatal. The lactogen specificity of these binding sites was further defined by the ability of [125I]prolactin to be displaced by unlabelled human growth hormone, which is lactogenic in rats, and not by unlabelled insulin, which is structurally dissimilar to prolactin. Morphometric analyses were performed on electron micrographs of choroid plexus from 10- and 14-day postnatal rats. The volume densities of constituents known to be enriched in polypeptide hormone receptors were measured and compared. Small cytoplasmic vesicles and tubules were statistically significantly more abundant in 10-day-old rats than in 14-day-old animals. It is conjectured that these vesicles and tubules contain an intracellular pool of prolactin receptors whose decrease at 14 days parallels the expression of specific binding sites at the cell surface. PMID:3004665

Silverman, W F; Walsh, R J; Posner, B I

1986-01-01

30

THE RELATION OF THE MENINGES AND CHOROID PLEXUS TO POLIOMYELITIC INFECTION.  

PubMed

Among the mechanisms which defend the body from infection with the virus of poliomyelitis is the meningeal-choroid plexus complex, which normally is capable of excluding the circulating virus from the central nervous organs. The complex plays a part also in preventing infection from virus present upon the nasal mucosa. Aseptic fluids which irritate, inflame, or even slightly alter the integrity of the meninges and choroid plexus diminish or remove their protective function. Normal monkey or horse serum, isotonic salt solution, and Ringer's and Locke's solutions, when injected into the meninges, promote infection with the virus of poliomyelitis introduced into the blood, the nose, or the subcutaneous tissues. Simple lumbar puncture and the withdrawal and return of the cerebrospinal fluid in normal monkeys, hemorrhage having been absolutely avoided, do not promote infection with virus injected into the blood; while the replacement of the cerebrospinal fluid of one monkey with that of another does in some instances lead to infection. Simple lumbar puncture attended with even very slight hemorrhage opens the way for the passage of the virus from the blood into the central nervous tissues, and thus promotes infection. Hence, changes in the structure or function of the meningealchoroid plexus complex, too slight to be detected by chemical and cellular changes in the cerebrospinal fluid or by morphological alterations, suffice to diminish in an essential manner its protective powers. Of all the irritant fluids tested, immune serum alone injected into the meninges is not succeeded by infection from the virus introduced into the blood. The protective property of the immune serum is capable of overcoming the promoting action of normal monkey and horse serum and the other irritants mentioned. The importance first of the meningeal-choroid plexus complex in preventing infection with the virus of poliomyelitis, and next of immune serum in offsetting the disadvantages and dangers arising from defects in the mechanism is apparent, as is the bearing of the experiments reported on the serum therapy of epidemic poliomyelitis. PMID:19868106

Flexner, S; Amoss, H L

1917-04-01

31

A case of difficult management of fluid-electrolyte imbalance in choroid plexus papilloma.  

PubMed

A 22-month-old boy presented with nausea and gradual deterioration of gait disturbance. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an intraventricular mass lesion in the right lateral ventricle. He was referred to our department 3 weeks after onset. Acute hydrocephalus gradually proceeded 4 days after admission, and external ventricular drainage (EVD) was performed. EVD revealed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overproduction (800-1,500 mL/day) under constant pressure of 10 cm H2O above external auditory meatus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a multi-lobular mass in the inferior horn of the right lateral ventricle. A choroid plexus tumor was suspected. The ratio of blood urea nitrogen:creatinine (BUN:Cre) remained between 30 and 40, and hemoglobin was between 14.0-17.0 mg/dL, suggesting marked dehydration. Serum sodium varied between 117 and 140 mmol/L, and serum potassium between 2.2 mmol/L and 6.9 mmol/L. The amount of EVD was unstable and fluid balance management was difficult. Hypotonic fluid with sodium chloride supplement was used to adjust the fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Surgical removal of the tumor was performed 6 days after EVD and tumor was grossly and totally removed. The high BUN:Cre ratio decreased to about 15 and hemoglobin recovered to 7.5-9.0 mg/dL after removal. Electrolytes returned to the normal range. Overproduction of CSF also markedly improved to < 300 mL/day. Histopathological examination diagnosed choroid plexus papilloma.We experienced a case of choroid plexus papilloma associated with fluid-electrolyte imbalance due to over-drainage after EVD, which could not be effectively controlled before tumor removal. Cautious fluid management and emergent surgical resection might be required to manage the overproduction of CSF and fluid-electrolyte imbalance. PMID:24257496

Saito, Atsushi; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Fujita, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

2014-01-01

32

Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters in duodenum, collecting ducts and choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Epithelia cover the internal and external surfaces of the organism and form barriers between the various compartments. Some of these epithelia are specialized for effective transmembrane or even transepithelial movement of acid-base equivalents. Certain epithelia with a high rate of HCO3- transport express a few potent Na+-coupled acid-base transporters to gain a net HCO3- movement across the epithelium. Examples of such epithelia are renal proximal tubules and pancreatic ducts. In contrast, multiple Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters are expressed in other HCO3- secreting epithelia, such as the duodenal mucosa or the choroid plexus, which maintain suitable intracellular pH despite a variable demand for secreting HCO3-. In the duodenum, the epithelial cells must secrete HCO3- for neutralization of the gastric acid, and at the same time prevent cellular acidification. During the neutralization, large quantities of CO2 are formed in the duodenal lumen, which enter the epithelial cells. This would tend to lower intracellular pH and require effective counteracting mechanisms to avoid cell death and to maintain HCO3- secretion. The choroid plexus secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and controls the pH of the otherwise poorly buffered CSF. The pCO2 of CSF fluctuates with plasma pCO2, and the choroid plexus must regulate the HCO3- secretion to minimize the effects of these fluctuations on CSF pH. This is done while maintaining pH neutrality in the epithelial cells. Thus, the Na+-HCO3- cotransporters appear to be involved in HCO3- import in more epithelia, where Na+/H+ exchangers were until recently thought to be sufficient for maintaining intracellular pH. PMID:21170886

Praetorius, Jeppe

2010-01-01

33

Selective localization of bone marrow-derived ramified cells in the brain adjacent to the attachments of choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Although the immune system modulates higher functions of the brain under non-inflammatory conditions, how immune cells interact with brain parenchymal cells remains to be determined. Using bone marrow chimeric mice in which the recipients' immune system was reconstituted by marrow cells derived from GFP-transgenic mice by syngeneic intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) and by intravenous (IV)-BMT, we examined the distribution, density and differentiation of donor-derived marrow cells in the brain parenchyma 2 weeks and 1, 4 and 8 months after BMT. Marrow-derived cells started to populate discrete brain regions from 1 to 4 months after BMT, exhibited ramified morphology and expressed Iba-1. The ramified marrow-derived cells were distributed in more brain regions and for a longer time after IBM-BMT than IV-BMT. Most of these discrete regions were adjacent to the attachments of choroid plexus that comprised thinned brain parenchyma consisting of astroglial processes in the narrow channel between the ependyma and pia. These specific portions of astroglial processes expressed fractalkine. In the choroid plexus stroma, not only Iba-1+ myeloid cells but also non-myeloid CXCL12-expressing cells were of bone marrow-origin. Transcripts of fractalkine, CXCL12 and their related molecules such as CX3CR1, ADAM10 and CXCR4 were detected in the tissue consisting of the choroid plexus, the attachments and adjacent brain parenchyma. Thus, bone marrow cells selectively enter the discrete brain regions adjacent to the attachments of choroid plexus and differentiate into ramified myeloid cells. Fractalkine in the attachments of choroid plexus and CXCL12 in the choroid plexus stroma may be involved in these brain-immune interactions. PMID:23270678

Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Inaba, Muneo; Li, Ming; Shi, Ming; Kawamura, Noriko; Takei, Shiro; Chiba, Yoichi; Hosokawa, Masanori; Ikehara, Susumu

2013-03-01

34

Synchrotron radiation dichromographic imaging of the extra- and intracranial arterial circulations and choroid plexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication proposes the use of synchrotron radiation based k-edge dichromographic imaging for the simultaneous study of the extracranial and intracranial arterial circulations following a single peripheral intravenous injection of a contrast agent. This approach can provide images of the vertebral arteries, the common, external and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries, during a single scanning procedure, lasting only a few seconds, requiring an X-ray exposure on the order of about 30 mGy/image. The method has specific advantages for the evaluation of the perfusion of the choroid plexus.

Rubenstein, E.

2002-05-01

35

Rare intraparenchymal choroid plexus carcinoma resembling atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor diagnosed by immunostaining for INI1 protein.  

PubMed

The authors present the case of a rare extraventricular, intraparenchymal choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC). This 6-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Imaging studies revealed an intraaxial cystic and solid mass located in the right frontal lobe with central nodular enhancement and minimally enhancing cyst walls. Gross-total resection was accomplished via craniotomy without complications. The initial pathological diagnosis was atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT); however, immunostaining for INI1 protein (using the BAF47/SNF5 antibody) showed retention of nuclear staining in the tumor cells, resulting in a change in the diagnosis to CPC. There was no evidence of recurrence at the last follow-up 2.5 years after treatment, which supports the diagnosis of CPC over AT/RT. This case emphasizes the importance of immunostaining for INI1 protein for distinguishing CPC from AT/RT in cases with atypical or indeterminate features. PMID:19795969

Stevens, E Andrew; Stanton, Constance A; Nichols, Kyle; Ellis, Thomas L

2009-10-01

36

Regulation and role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) in drug delivery at the choroid plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic anion-transporting polypeptides (rodents: Oatps; human: OATPs) belong to the growing family of organic anion\\/prostaglandin transporters and are important components of the active efflux transport system at the choroid plexus epithelial cells. OATPs facilitate the elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous waste from the cerebrospinal fluid and prevent waste accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). This review summarizes the

Hao Zhang; Yu-Ning Song; Wei-Guo Liu; Xiu-Li Guo; Lu-Gang Yu

2010-01-01

37

Demonstration of a Coupled Metabolism-Efflux Process at the Choroid Plexus as a Mechanism of Brain Protection Toward Xenobiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain homeostasis depends on the composition of both brain interstitial fluid and CSF. Whereas the former is largely con- trolled by the blood-brain barrier, the latter is regulated by a highly specialized blood-CSF interface, the choroid plexus ep- ithelium, which acts either by controlling the influx of blood- borne compounds, or by clearing deleterious molecules and metabolites from CSF. To

Nathalie Strazielle; Jean-Francois Ghersi-Egea

38

Expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the choroid plexuses from buffalo brain.  

PubMed

Choroid plexuses (CPs) play pivotal roles in a wide range of processes that establish, survey, and maintain the biochemical and cellular status of the central nervous system. Mammalian CPs contain a very high density of serotonin receptors, and serotonin has been shown to affect CP functions. The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates the entire serotonergic system, including serotonin receptors by means of modulation of serotonin concentration in the extracellular fluid. In this study, the expression of SERT in the CPs from the brain of a mammalian species, Bubalis bubalis, was established. By immunogold labeling in scanning electron microscopy, SERT immunoreactivity was found to be localized on the apical surface of the choroid epithelium. In particular, SERT positivity was detected on the apical portion of villi, and both on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of grouped cells on the surface of the choroid epithelium. Significantly, no SERT was detected in blood vessels irrigating the CPs. The expression of SERT mRNA transcripts of 440 bp in the CPs was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting analysis revealed the presence of three isoforms of the protein with molecular masses of approximately 70, 80, and 140 kDa, respectively, probably corresponding to differently glycosylated SERT. Our findings provide the first report of SERT detection in the CPs of buffalo brain and indicate that this protein is locally synthesized from the choroid epithelial cells. We suggest that SERT might have an important role in mammalian CPs, possibly regulating the serotonin flow between brain and rest of the body. PMID:17957753

Pavone, Luigi M; Tafuri, Simona; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Morte, Rossella Della; Lombardi, Pietro; Avallone, Luigi; Maharajan, Veeramani; Staiano, Norma; Scala, Gaetano

2007-12-01

39

Choroid Plexus  

MedlinePLUS

Donate Donate One Time Monthly Event Tribute For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Email: ABTAcares@abta.org Donate Now Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types ...

40

A morphological and chemical study of calcification of the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Human choroid plexus was submitted to low temperature ashing (LTA) in order to isolate the calcification. The ashing residue was then subjected to morphological, chemical and structural studies using technics such as scanning electron microscopy, flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry, infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Morphologically, the calcification consisted of wound-up fibers forming granules with a diameter of 0.05 to 0.15 mm. The concretions were identified as cristalline Ca3(PO4)2 and hydroxylapatite. The content of trace elements was high, but within the limits found in other biological apatites. In some cases, however, the Fe content exceeded these limit values. PMID:72802

Michotte, Y; Massart, D L; Lowenthal, A; Knaepen, L; Pelsmaekers, J; Collard, M

1977-09-12

41

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood-brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset. PMID:23452162

Millward, Jason M; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Wuerfel, Jens T; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

2013-01-01

42

KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for normal function and mechanical protection of the CNS. The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms currently not fully understood. Previously, the heteromeric KCNQ1-KCNE2 K+ channel was functionally linked to epithelial processes including gastric acid secretion and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Here, using Kcne2?/? tissue as a negative control, we found cerebral expression of KCNE2 to be markedly enriched in the CPe apical membrane, where we also discovered expression of KCNQ1. Targeted Kcne2 gene deletion in C57B6 mice increased CPe outward K+ current 2-fold. The Kcne2 deletion-enhanced portion of the current was inhibited by XE991 (10 ?M) and margatoxin (10 ?M) but not by dendrotoxin (100 nM), indicating that it arose from augmentation of KCNQ subfamily and KCNA3 but not KCNA1 K+ channel activity. Kcne2 deletion in C57B6 mice also altered the polarity of CPe KCNQ1 and KCNA3 trafficking, hyperpolarized the CPe membrane by 9 ± 2 mV, and increased CSF [Cl?] by 14% compared with wild-type mice. These findings constitute the first report of CPe dysfunction caused by cation channel gene disruption and suggest that KCNE2 influences blood-CSF anion flux by regulating KCNQ1 and KCNA3 in the CPe.—Roepke, T. K., Kanda, V. A., Purtell, K., King, E. C., Lerner, D. J., Abbott, G. W. KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium. PMID:21859894

Roepke, Torsten K.; Kanda, Vikram A.; Purtell, Kerry; King, Elizabeth C.; Lerner, Daniel J.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

2011-01-01

43

Comparison of the global gene expression of choroid plexus and meninges and associated vasculature under control conditions and after pronounced hyperthermia or amphetamine toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background The meninges (arachnoid and pial membranes) and associated vasculature (MAV) and choroid plexus are important in maintaining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) generation and flow. MAV vasculature was previously observed to be adversely affected by environmentally-induced hyperthermia (EIH) and more so by a neurotoxic amphetamine (AMPH) exposure. Herein, microarray and RT-PCR analysis was used to compare the gene expression profiles between choroid plexus and MAV under control conditions and at 3?hours and 1?day after EIH or AMPH exposure. Since AMPH and EIH are so disruptive to vasculature, genes related to vasculature integrity and function were of interest. Results Our data shows that, under control conditions, many of the genes with relatively high expression in both the MAV and choroid plexus are also abundant in many epithelial tissues. These genes function in transport of water, ions, and solutes, and likely play a role in CSF regulation. Most genes that help form the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and tight junctions were also highly expressed in MAV but not in choroid plexus. In MAV, exposure to EIH and more so to AMPH decreased the expression of BBB-related genes such as Sox18, Ocln, and Cldn5, but they were much less affected in the choroid plexus. There was a correlation between the genes related to reactive oxidative stress and damage that were significantly altered in the MAV and choroid plexus after either EIH or AMPH. However, AMPH (at 3?hr) significantly affected about 5 times as many genes as EIH in the MAV, while in the choroid plexus EIH affected more genes than AMPH. Several unique genes that are not specifically related to vascular damage increased to a much greater extent after AMPH compared to EIH in the MAV (Lbp, Reg3a, Reg3b, Slc15a1, Sct and Fst) and choroid plexus (Bmp4, Dio2 and Lbp). Conclusions Our study indicates that the disruption of choroid plexus function and damage produced by AMPH and EIH is significant, but the changes may not be as pronounced as they are in the MAV, particularly for AMPH. Expression profiles in the MAV and choroid plexus differed to some extent and differences were not restricted to vascular related genes. PMID:23497014

2013-01-01

44

Expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in human choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Background Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) 1-3 and human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs) 1-3 in the human choroid plexus (hCP) play a role in the homeostasis of adenosine and other naturally occurring nucleosides in the brain; in addition, hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 mediate membrane transport of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that could be used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine and 2'3'-dideoxyinosine. This study aimed to explore the expression levels and functional activities of hENTs 1-3 and hCNTs 1-3 in human choroid plexus. Methods Freshly-isolated pieces of lateral ventricle hCP, removed for various clinical reasons during neurosurgery, were obtained under Local Ethics Committee approval. Quantification of mRNAs that encoded hENTs and hCNTs was performed by the hydrolysis probes-based reverse transcription real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); for each gene of interest and for 18 S ribosomal RNA, which was an endogenous control, the efficiency of PCR reaction (E) and the quantification cycle (Cq) were calculated. The uptake of [3H]inosine by the choroid plexus pieces was investigated to explore the functional activity of hENTs and hCNTs in the hCP. Results RT-qPCR revealed that the mRNA encoding the intracellularly located transporter hENT3 was the most abundant, with E-Cq value being only about 40 fold less that the E-Cq value for 18 S ribosomal RNA; mRNAs encoding hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 were much less abundant than mRNA for the hENT3, while mRNAs encoding hCNT1 and hCNT2 were of very low abundance and not detectable. Uptake of [3H]inosine by the CP samples was linear and consisted of an Na+-dependent component, which was probably mediated by hCNT3, and Na+-independent component, mediated by hENTs. The latter component was not sensitive to inhibition by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), when used at a concentration of 0.5 ?M, a finding that excluded the involvement of hENT1, but it was very substantially inhibited by 10 ?M NBMPR, a finding that suggested the involvement of hENT2 in uptake. Conclusion Transcripts for hENT1-3 and hCNT3 were detected in human CP; mRNA for hENT3, an intracellularly located nucleoside transporter, was the most abundant. Human CP took up radiolabelled inosine by both concentrative and equilibrative processes. Concentrative uptake was probably mediated by hCNT3; the equilibrative uptake was mediated only by hENT2. The hENT1 transport activity was absent, which could suggest either that this protein was absent in the CP cells or that it was confined to the basolateral side of the CP epithelium. PMID:20150980

2010-01-01

45

Effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation on overall survival in children with choroid plexus carcinoma.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPCs) is a rare, malignant, primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Currently, there is no consensus on the use of adjuvant therapy, and few large-scale studies focus exclusively on the pediatric population. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of pediatric CPCs to determine the effects of various adjuvant therapy modalities on overall survival (OS). A literature search was performed to identify studies reporting children with CPC who underwent surgical resection. Only patients who had clearly received adjuvant therapy, or were described as not selected for adjuvant therapy were analyzed in our comparison groups. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression survival analyses were performed to determine the effects of different types of adjuvant therapies on OS. A total of 135 children (age ? 18 years) with CPC who had known adjuvant therapy status and OS were identified from 53 articles. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that while adjuvant therapy overall improved OS (p = 0.001), different modes of adjuvant therapies had varying effects on OS (p = 0.034). Specifically, combined chemo-radiotherapy as well as chemotherapy alone improved OS (p = 0.001), but radiation did not (p = 0.129). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for confounding factors showed that combined therapy was associated with better OS compared to chemotherapy alone (HR: 0.291, p = 0.027). Both chemotherapy alone and combined chemo-radiation improved OS independent of age, gender, tumor location and extent of resection, while radiation alone did not. PMID:25106865

Sun, Matthew Z; Ivan, Michael E; Oh, Michael C; Delance, Arthur R; Clark, Aaron J; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Taemin; Kaur, Gurvinder; Molinaro, Annette; Gupta, Nalin; Parsa, Andrew T

2014-11-01

46

VEGF/VEGFR-2 changes in frontal cortex, choroid plexus, and CSF after chronic obstructive hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Chronic Hydrocephalus (CH) is often associated with decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen levels. While the exact pathophysiology is not clear, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) may be involved. Because the choroid plexus (CP) is involved in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and secretes numerous growth factors including VEGF, it is important to understand VEGF/VEGFR-2 levels in the CP–CSF circulatory system. Our results showed significant decreases in CBF and VEGFR-2 levels in frontal cortex (FC) in CH compared with SC; there were no significant changes in VEGF levels. CBF change in FC was positively correlated with VEGFR-2 levels (P=0.024). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed robust expression of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in CP. After CH induction, ventricular CSF volume and VEGF levels significantly increased. These results suggest that the decreased VEGFR-2 levels in FC may be contributed to decreased CBF and increased ventricular CSF-VEGF levels possibly reflected a hypoxic response and/or accumulation of VEGF from CP secretion after blockage of CSF outlet. Further investigation into CSF-VEGF levels in different sites may provide a better understanding of VEGF/VEGFR-2 modulation in the normal and hydrocephalic brain, and may represent a feasible approach to potential therapeutic options for hydrocephalus. PMID:20619858

Yang, Jun; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Deshpande, Abhishek; Krajcir, Natalie; Luciano, Mark G

2010-01-01

47

Modulation of iron metabolism in aging and in Alzheimer's disease: relevance of the choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for mammalian cellular homeostasis. However, in excess, it promotes free radical formation and is associated with aging-related progressive deterioration and with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are no mechanisms to excrete iron, which makes iron homeostasis a very tightly regulated process at the level of the intestinal absorption. Iron is believed to reach the brain through receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-bound transferrin by the brain barriers, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, formed by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Importantly, the CP epithelial cells are responsible for producing most of the CSF, the fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. Recently, the finding that the CP epithelial cells display all the machinery to locally control iron delivery into the CSF may suggest that the general and progressive senescence of the CP may be at the basis of the impairment of regional iron metabolism, iron-mediated toxicity, and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging and, particularly, in AD. PMID:22661928

Mesquita, Sandro D.; Ferreira, Ana C.; Sousa, Joao C.; Santos, Nadine C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

2012-01-01

48

Choroid plexus implants rescue Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies by modulating amyloid-? degradation.  

PubMed

The choroid plexuses (CP) release numerous biologically active enzymes and neurotrophic factors, and contain a subpopulation of neural progenitor cells providing the capacity to proliferate and differentiate into other types of cells. These characteristics make CP epithelial cells (CPECs) excellent candidates for cell therapy aiming at restoring brain tissue in neurodegenerative illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, using in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that CP were able to diminish amyloid-? (A?) levels in cell cultures, reducing A?-induced neurotoxicity. For in vivo studies, CPECs were transplanted into the brain of the APP/PS1 murine model of AD that exhibits advanced A? accumulation and memory impairment. Brain examination after cell implantation revealed a significant reduction in brain A? deposits, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and astrocytic reactivity. Remarkably, the transplantation of CPECs was accompanied by a total behavioral recovery in APP/PS1 mice, improving spatial and non-spatial memory. These findings reinforce the neuroprotective potential of CPECs and the use of cell therapies as useful tools in AD. PMID:24343520

Bolos, Marta; Antequera, Desireé; Aldudo, Jesús; Kristen, Henrike; Bullido, María Jesús; Carro, Eva

2014-08-01

49

KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for normal function and mechanical protection of the CNS. The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms currently not fully understood. Previously, the heteromeric KCNQ1-KCNE2 K(+) channel was functionally linked to epithelial processes including gastric acid secretion and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Here, using Kcne2(-/-) tissue as a negative control, we found cerebral expression of KCNE2 to be markedly enriched in the CPe apical membrane, where we also discovered expression of KCNQ1. Targeted Kcne2 gene deletion in C57B6 mice increased CPe outward K(+) current 2-fold. The Kcne2 deletion-enhanced portion of the current was inhibited by XE991 (10 ?M) and margatoxin (10 ?M) but not by dendrotoxin (100 nM), indicating that it arose from augmentation of KCNQ subfamily and KCNA3 but not KCNA1 K(+) channel activity. Kcne2 deletion in C57B6 mice also altered the polarity of CPe KCNQ1 and KCNA3 trafficking, hyperpolarized the CPe membrane by 9 ± 2 mV, and increased CSF [Cl(-)] by 14% compared with wild-type mice. These findings constitute the first report of CPe dysfunction caused by cation channel gene disruption and suggest that KCNE2 influences blood-CSF anion flux by regulating KCNQ1 and KCNA3 in the CPe. PMID:21859894

Roepke, Torsten K; Kanda, Vikram A; Purtell, Kerry; King, Elizabeth C; Lerner, Daniel J; Abbott, Geoffrey W

2011-12-01

50

The path from the choroid plexus to the subventricular zone: go with the flow!  

PubMed

IN ADULT MAMMALS, UNDER PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS, NEUROGENESIS, THE PROCESS OF GENERATING NEW FUNCTIONAL NEURONS FROM PRECURSOR CELLS, OCCURS MAINLY IN TWO BRAIN AREAS: the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the brain lateral ventricles. Taking into account the location of the SVZ and the cytoarchitecture of this periventricular neural progenitor cell niche, namely the fact that the slow dividing primary progenitor cells (type B cells) of the SVZ extend an apical primary cilium toward the brain ventricular space which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it becomes likely that the composition of the CSF can modulate both self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of SVZ neural stem cells. The major site of CSF synthesis is the choroid plexus (CP); quite surprisingly, however, it is still largely unknown the contribution of molecules specifically secreted by the adult CP as modulators of the SVZ adult neurogenesis. This is even more relevant in light of recent evidence showing the ability of the CP to adapt its transcriptome and secretome to various physiologic and pathologic stimuli. By giving particular emphasizes to growth factors and axonal guidance molecules we will illustrate how CP-born molecules might play an important role in the SVZ niche cell population dynamics. PMID:22907990

Falcão, Ana Mendanha; Marques, Fernanda; Novais, Ashley; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A; Sousa, João Carlos

2012-01-01

51

Identification and properties of a novel variant of NBC4 (Na(+)/HCO(3)- co-transporter 4) that is predominantly expressed in the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Secretion of HCO(3)- at the apical side of the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus is an essential step in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid. Anion conductance with a high degree of HCO(3)- permeability has been observed and suggested to be the major pathway for HCO(3)- transport across the apical membrane. Recently, it was found that NBC (Na(+)/HCO(3)- co-transporter) 4, an electrogenic member of the NBC family, was expressed in the choroid plexus. We found that a novel variant of the NBC4 [NBC4g/Slc4a5 (solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate co-transporter, member 5)] is almost exclusively expressed in the apical membrane of rat choroid plexus epithelium at exceptionally high levels. RNA interference-mediated knockdown allowed the functional demonstration that NBC4g is the major player in the HCO(3)- transport across the apical membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium. When combined with a recent observation that in choroid plexus epithelial cells electrogenic NBC operates with a stoichiometry of 3:1, the results of the present study suggest that NBC4g mediates the efflux of HCO(3)- and contributes to cerebrospinal fluid production. PMID:23205667

Fukuda, Hidekazu; Hirata, Taku; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Kato, Akira; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

2013-02-15

52

Dysmorphic choroid plexuses and hydrocephalus associated with increased nuchal translucency: Early ultrasound markers of de novo thanatophoric dysplasia type II with cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel).  

PubMed

Prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type II presenting in the first trimester with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel) have been scantly reported in the medical record. Abnormal choroid plexus has been seen in association with fetal anomalies. Here we described a case of increased NT associated with indented choroid plexuses, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull in a fetus subsequently diagnosed at early second trimester to carry a de novo mutation encoding for TD type II. The findings of dysmorphic choroid plexus, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull at first trimester scan may be early, useful ultrasound markers of TD type II. Molecular analysis to control for possible overlapping syndromes were performed and resulted negative. Postmortem X-ray and 3D-CT scan confirmed the cloverleaf skull, narrow thorax, straight femur with rhizomelic shortening of the limbs and the presence of a communicating hydrocephalus. PMID:24517215

Tonni, Gabriele; Palmisano, Marcella; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Ventura, Alessandro; Baldi, Maurizia; Baffico, Ave Maria

2014-11-01

53

Properties of the cAMP-activated C1- current in choroid plexus epithelial cells isolated from the rat.  

PubMed

1. This study used whole-cell patch clamp and RNA in situ hybridization experiments to determine whether the cAMP-activated C1- current expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells was carried by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. 2. In patch clamp experiments, inclusion of 0.25 mM cAMP and 375 protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA) in the electrode solution caused activation of an inwardly rectifying current (21/23 cells). This current was C1- selective, since the current reversal potential (Erev) was -31 +/- 3 mV with equilibrium potential values for C1- (EC1) and Na+ (ENa) of -44 and 0 mV, respectively. 3. In anion substitution experiments, the relative anion permeability sequence for the inward rectifier was: I- (3.5) > HCO3-(1.5) = C1-(1.0) > Br-(0.6) > aspartate (0.2). 4. The inward rectifier was sensitive to inhibition by a range of known channel inhibitors, including: glibenclamide (100 microns), DIDS (100 and 500 microns), NPPB (100 microns) and Ba2+ (1 mM). 5. In RNA in situ hybridization experiments, using two independent rat CFTR cRNA probes, expression of CFTR could not be detected in epithelial cells from the rat choroid plexus. 6. In conclusion, the cAMP-dependent whole-cell C1- current present in choroid plexus epithelial cells from the rat has properties which are distinctly different from those of CFTR. PMID:8910197

Kibble, J D; Trezise, A E; Brown, P D

1996-10-01

54

The Impact of Radiotherapy Fields in the Treatment of Patients With Choroid Plexus Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a comprehensive literature review and analysis of cases dealing with choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) to determine the optimal radiotherapy (RT) treatment field. Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1979 to 2008 was performed, yielding 33 articles with 56 patients who had available data regarding RT treatment field. The median age at diagnosis was 2.7 years (range, 1 month-53 years). Of 54 patients with data regarding type of surgery, 21 (38.9%) had complete resection. Chemotherapy was delivered to 27 (48%) as part of initial therapy. The RT treatment volume was the craniospinal axis in 38 (68%), whole brain in 9 (16%), and tumor/tumor bed in 9 (16%). Median follow-up for surviving patients was 40 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 59.5% and 37.2%, respectively. Complete resection (p = 0.035) and use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI; p = 0.025) were found to positively affect PFS. The 5-year PFS for patients who had CSI vs. whole brain and tumor/tumor bed RT were 44.2% and 15.3%. For the 19 patients who relapsed, 9 (47%) had a recurrence in the RT field, 6 (32%) had a recurrence outside the RT field, and 4 (21%) had a recurrence inside and outside the irradiated field. Conclusion: Patients with CPC who received CSI had better PFS compared with those receiving less than CSI. This study supports the use of CSI in the multimodality management of patients with CPC.

Mazloom, Ali [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Wolff, Johannes E. [Department of Pediatrics, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-09-01

55

Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions. PMID:24391755

Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

2013-01-01

56

Active removal of inorganic phosphate from cerebrospinal fluid by the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The P(i) concentration of mammalian cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is about one-half that of plasma, a phenomenon also shown here in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias. The objective of the present study was to characterize the possible role of the choroid plexus (CP) in determining CSF P(i) concentration. The large sheet-like fourth CP of the shark was mounted in Ussing chambers where unidirectional (33)P(i) fluxes revealed potent active transport from CSF to the blood side under short-circuited conditions. The flux ratio was 8:1 with an average transepithelial resistance of 87 ± 17.9 ?·cm(2) and electrical potential difference of +0.9 ± 0.17 mV (CSF side positive). Active P(i) absorption from CSF was inhibited by 10 mM arsenate, 0.2 mM ouabain, Na(+)-free medium, and increasing the K(+) concentration from 5 to 100 mM. Li(+) stimulated transport twofold compared with Na(+)-free medium. Phosphonoformic acid (1 mM) had no effect on active P(i) transport. RT-PCR revealed both P(i) transporter (PiT)1 and PiT2 (SLC20 family) gene expression, but no Na(+)-P(i) cotransporter II (SLC34 family) expression, in the shark CP. PiT2 immunoreactivity was shown by immunoblot analysis and localized by immunohistochemistry in (or near) the CP apical microvillar membranes of both the shark and rat. PiT1 appeared to be localized primarily to vascular endothelial cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the CP actively removes P(i) from CSF. This process has transport properties consistent with a PiT2, Na(+)-dependent transporter that is located in the apical region of the CP epithelium. PMID:24740787

Guerreiro, Pedro M; Bataille, Amy M; Parker, Sonda L; Renfro, J Larry

2014-06-01

57

Alterations in tight junction protein and IgG permeability accompany leukocyte extravasation across the choroid plexus during neuroinflammation.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus (CP) is considered to be a point of leukocyte entry into the CNS during normal immune surveillance and in neuroinflammatory diseases. The structural and functional alterations within the CP that support this migration are not understood. We used quantitative, high-resolution, 3-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging to analyze CP alterations associated with inflammatory responses in C57/Bl6 mice after the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and complete Freund adjuvant/pertussis toxin (MOG-CFA/PTX) or adjuvants alone (CFA-PTX). The MOG-CFA/PTX and CFA/PTX produced similar effects, although those caused by the former were consistently more marked. Both treatments resulted in the accumulation of serum immunoglobulin G and leukocytes in the CP stroma, consistent with elevated stromal capillary permeability. They also provoked distortions and diminished immunostaining patterns of the tight junction adaptor protein ZO-1 in the choroidal epithelium but no obvious change in the patterns of the tight junction associated protein claudin-2. Only MOG-CFA/PTX triggered visible extravasation of immunoglobulin G and leukocytes across the choroidal epithelium. Our results suggest that CFA/PTX primes the CP for neuroinflammation by inducing structural changes that are exacerbated when there is an immune response to MOG and reinforce the CP as a gateway for leukocytes to enter the CNS by accessing the CSF and leptomeninges. PMID:25289890

Shrestha, Bandana; Paul, Debayon; Pachter, Joel S

2014-11-01

58

Distinct neural stem cell tropism, early immune activation, and choroid plexus pathology following coxsackievirus infection in the neonatal central nervous system.  

PubMed

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are both neurotropic RNA viruses, which can establish a persistent infection and cause meningitis and encephalitis in the neonatal host. Utilizing our neonatal mouse model of infection, we evaluated the consequences of early viral infection upon the host central nervous system (CNS) by comparing CVB3 and LCMV infection. Both viruses expressed high levels of viral protein in the choroid plexus and subventricular zone (SVZ), a region of neurogenesis. LCMV infected a greater number of cells in the SVZ and targeted both nestin(+) (neural progenitor cell marker) and olig2(+) (glial progenitor marker) cells at a relatively equal proportion. In contrast, CVB3 preferentially infected nestin(+) cells within the SVZ. Microarray analysis revealed differential kinetics and unique host gene expression changes for each infection. MHC class I gene expression, several developmental-related Hox genes, and transthyretin (TTR), a protein secreted in the cerebrospinal fluid by the choroid plexus, were specifically downregulated following CVB3 infection. Also, we identified severe pathology in the choroid plexus of CVB3-infected animals at 48?h post infection accompanied by a decrease in the level of TTR and carbonic anhydrase II. These results demonstrate broader neural progenitor and stem cell (NPSC) tropism for LCMV in the neonatal CNS, whereas CVB3 targeted a more specific subset of NPSCs, stimulated a distinct early immune response, and induced significant acute damage in the choroid plexus. PMID:24378643

Puccini, Jenna M; Ruller, Chelsea M; Robinson, Scott M; Knopp, Kristeene A; Buchmeier, Michael J; Doran, Kelly S; Feuer, Ralph

2014-02-01

59

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

This video presentation was created to show a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures, not residing within the brain proper, that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis. The tissue harvested is suitable for biochemical and physiological analysis, and the MAV has been shown to be sensitive to damage produced by amphetamine and hyperthermia 1,2. As well, the major and minor cerebral vasculatures harvested in MAV are of potentially high interest when investigating concussive types of head trauma. The MAV dissected in this presentation consists of the pial and some of the arachnoid membrane (less dura) of the meninges and the major and minor cerebral surface vasculature. The choroid plexus dissected is the structure that resides in the lateral ventricles as described by Oldfield and McKinley3,4,5,6. The methods used for harvesting these two tissues also facilitate the harvesting of regional cortical tissue devoid of meninges and larger cerebral surface vasculature, and is compatible with harvesting other brain tissues such as striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, etc. The dissection of the two tissues takes from 5 to 10 min total. The gene expression levels for the dissected MAV and choroid plexus, as shown and described in this presentation can be found at GSE23093 (MAV) and GSE29733 (choroid plexus) at the NCBI GEO repository. This data has been, and is being, used to help further understand the functioning of the MAV and choroid plexus and how neurotoxic events such as severe hyperthermia and AMPH adversely affect their function. PMID:23183685

Bowyer, John F.; Thomas, Monzy; Patterson, Tucker A.; George, Nysia I.; Runnells, Jeffrey A.; Levi, Mark S.

2012-01-01

60

A Rare Case of Pericallosal Lipoma Associated with Bilaterally Symmetrical Lateral Ventricular Choroid Plexus Lipomas without Corpus Callosal Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Lipomas constitute less than 5% of primary brain tumors. Pericallosal lipomas (PCLp) constitute almost half of all intracranial lipomas. Corpus callosal anomalies commonly occur in cases with PCLps. Although PCLp is often described as corpus callosal lipoma, it is most often pericallosal in location. PCLps may have calcification in the periphery and may continue into lateral ventricles, which is a very rare presentation. We observed a case of PCLp with peripheral calcifications associated with PCLp continuing as bilaterally symmetrical lateral ventricular choroid plexus lipomas (CPLp) without any corpus callosal or other central nervous system anomalies, and as this is not been previously reported, we are presenting it. The appearance of PCLp in this case does not correspond to the descriptions of any of the existing morphological types (anterior and posterior) of classification of PCLps; it is rather mixed, where PCLp occupies both anterior and posterior locations around the corpus callosum. PMID:24605264

Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.; Hasan, Islam Ali

2013-01-01

61

?-Secretase binding sites in aged and Alzheimer's disease human cerebrum: The choroid plexus as a putative origin of CSF A?  

PubMed Central

Deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides, cleavage products of ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase-1 (BACE1) and ?-secretase, is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ?-Secretase inhibition is a therapeutical anti-A? approach, although less is clear about the change of the enzyme’s activity in AD brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A? peptides are considered to derive from brain parenchyma, thus may serve as biomarkers for assessing cerebral amyloidosis and anti-A? efficacy. The present study compared active ?-secretase binding sites with A? deposition in aged and AD human cerebrum, and explored a possibility of A? production and secretion by the choroid plexus (CP). Specific binding density of [3H]-L-685,458, a radiolabeled high affinity ?-secretase inhibitor, in the temporal neocortex and hippocampal formation was similar for AD and control cases with comparable ages and postmortem delays. The CP in postmortem samples exhibited exceptionally high [3H]-L-685,458 binding density, with the estimated maximal binding sites (Bmax) reduced in the AD relative to control groups. Surgically resected human CP exhibited APP, BACE1 and presenilin-1 immunoreactivity, and ?-site APP cleavage enzymatic activity. In primary culture, human CP cells also expressed these amyloidogenic proteins but released A?40 and A?42 into the medium. These results suggest that ?-secretase activity appears not altered in the cerebrum in AD related to aged control, nor correlated with regional amyloid plaque pathology. The choroid plexus appears to represent a novel non-neuronal source in the brain that may contribute A? into cerebrospinal fluid, probably at reduced levels in AD. PMID:23432732

Liu, Fei; Xue, Zhi-Qin; Deng, Si-Hao; Kun, Xiong; Luo, Xue-Gang; Patrylo, Peter R.; Rose, Gregory M.; Cai, Huaibin; Struble, Robert G.; Cai, Yan; Yan, Xiao-Xin

2013-01-01

62

Choroid Plexus Epithelial Expression of MDR1 P Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein Contribute to the Blood-Cerebrospinal-Fluid Drug-Permeability Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-brain barrier and a blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier function together to isolate the brain from circulating drugs, toxins, and xenobiotics. The blood-CSF drug-permeability barrier is localized to the epithelium of the choroid plexus (CP). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating drug permeability across the CP epithelium are defined poorly. Herein, we describe a drug-permeability barrier in human and rodent CP mediated

Vallabhaneni V. Rao; Julie L. Dahlheimer; Mark E. Bardgett; Abraham Z. Snyder; Rick A. Finch; Alan C. Sartorelli; David Piwnica-Worms

1999-01-01

63

Traumatic brain injury and recovery mechanisms: peptide modulation of periventricular neurogenic regions by the choroid plexus-CSF nexus  

PubMed Central

In traumatic brain injury (TBI), severe disruptions occur in the choroid plexus (CP)–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nexus that destabilize the nearby hippocampal and subventricular neurogenic regions. Following invasive and non-invasive injuries to cortex, several adverse sequelae harm the brain interior: (i) structural damage to CP epithelium that opens the blood–CSF barrier (BCSFB) to protein, (ii) altered CSF dynamics and intracranial pressure (ICP), (iii) augmentation of leukocyte traffic across CP into the CSF–brain, (iv) reduction in CSF sink action and clearance of debris from ventricles, and (v) less efficient provision of micronutritional and hormonal support for the CNS. However, gradual post-TBI restitution of the injured CP epithelium and ependyma, and CSF homeostatic mechanisms, help to restore subventricular/subgranular neurogenesis and the cognitive abilities diminished by CNS damage. Recovery from TBI is faciltated by upregulated choroidal/ependymal growth factors and neurotrophins, and their secretion into ventricular CSF. There, by an endocrine-like mechanism, CSF bulk flow convects the neuropeptides to target cells in injured cortex for aiding repair processes; and to neurogenic niches for enhancing conversion of stem cells to new neurons. In the recovery from TBI and associated ischemia, the modulating neuropeptides include FGF2, EGF, VEGF, NGF, IGF, GDNF, BDNF, and PACAP. Homeostatic correction of TBI-induced neuropathology can be accelerated or amplified by exogenously boosting the CSF concentration of these growth factors and neurotrophins. Such intraventricular supplementation via the CSF route promotes neural restoration through enhanced neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuroprotective effects. CSF translational research presents opportunities that involve CP and ependymal manipulations to expedite recovery from TBI. PMID:20936524

Stopa, Edward; Baird, Andrew; Sharma, Hari

2010-01-01

64

Increased beta-amyloid levels in the choroid plexus following lead exposure and the involvement of low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus, a barrier between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is known to accumulate lead (Pb) and also possibly function to maintain brain's homeostasis of Abeta, an important peptide in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate if Pb exposure altered Abeta levels at the blood-CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Rats received ip injection of 27 mg Pb/kg. Twenty-four hours later, a FAM-labeled Abeta (200 pmol) was infused into the lateral ventricle and the plexus tissues were removed to quantify Abeta accumulation. Results revealed a significant increase in intracellular Abeta accumulation in the Pb-exposed animals compared to controls (p<0.001). When choroidal epithelial Z310 cells were treated with 10 microM Pb for 24 h and 48 h, Abeta (2 microM in culture medium) accumulation was significantly increased by 1.5 fold (p<0.05) and 1.8 fold (p<0.05), respectively. To explore the mechanism, we examined the effect of Pb on low-density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 (LRP1), an intracellular Abeta transport protein. Following acute Pb exposure with the aforementioned dose regimen, levels of LRP1 mRNA and proteins in the choroid plexus were decreased by 35% (p<0.05) and 31.8% (p<0.05), respectively, in comparison to those of controls. In Z310 cells exposed to 10 microM Pb for 24 h and 48 h, a 33.1% and 33.4% decrease in the protein expression of LRP1 was observed (p<0.05), respectively. Knocking down LRP1 resulted in even more substantial increases of cellular accumulation of Abeta, from 31% in cells without knockdown to 72% in cells with LRP1 knockdown (p<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that the acute exposure to Pb results in an increased accumulation of intracellular Abeta in the choroid plexus; the effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of LRP1 production following Pb exposure. PMID:19501112

Behl, Mamta; Zhang, Yanshu; Monnot, Andrew D; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

2009-10-15

65

Cotransport of K+, Cl- and H2O by membrane proteins from choroid plexus epithelium of Necturus maculosus.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction between K+, Cl- and H2O fluxes was studied in the ventricular membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium from Necturus maculosus by means of ion-selective microelectrodes. 2. Three experimental strategies were adopted: the osmolarity of the ventricular solution was increased abruptly by addition of (i) mannitol or (ii) KCl; (iii) Na+ in the ventricular solution was replaced isosmotically by K+. 3. The mannitol experiments showed that H2O had two pathways across the ventricular membrane. One was purely passive, with a water permeability, L'p, of 0.64 x 10(-4) cm s-1 (osmol l-1)-1. This operated in parallel with an ion-dependent pathway of similar magnitude which was abolished in Cl(-)-free solutions. 4. When KCl was added there was a flow of H2O into the cell. Surprisingly, this took place despite the osmotic gradient which favoured an efflux of H2O. The effect was blocked by frusemide (furosemide), in which case KCl had the same effects as applications of NaCl or mannitol. 5. Replacement of Na+ with K+ caused an influx of H2O. This flux could proceed against osmotic gradients implemented by mannitol. 6. The present data and those of earlier publications show that the interdependence of the fluxes of K+, Cl- and H2O in the exit membrane can be described as cotransport. The fluxes have a fixed stoichiometry of 1:1:500, the flux of one species is able to energize the flux of the two others, and the transport exhibits saturation and is specific for K+ and Cl-. 7. A molecular model based upon a mobile barrier in a membrane spanning protein gives an accurate quantitative description of the data. PMID:7965842

Zeuthen, T

1994-01-01

66

Transduction of the choroid plexus and ependyma in neonatal mouse brain by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentivirus and adeno-associated virus type 5 vectors.  

PubMed

Evaluation of gene transfer into the developing mouse brain has shown that when adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) or AAV2 vectors are injected into the cerebral lateral ventricles at birth, widespread parenchymal transduction occurs. Lentiviral vectors have not been tested by this route. In this study, we found that injection of lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) resulted in targeted transduction of the ependymal cells lining the ventricular system and the choroid plexus along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the brain, whereas a Mokola pseudotype transduced only a few cells after injection into the neonatal ventricle. In contrast, when lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with either VSV-G or Mokola glycoprotein are injected into the adult mouse brain, they transduce similar patterns of cells. An Ebola-Zaire-pseudotyped vector did not transduce any neonatal CNS cells, as was also the case for adult parenchymal injections. Long-term gene expression (12 months) occurred with a constitutively active mammalian promoter and a self-inactivating long terminal repeat (LTR), whereas the cytomegalovirus promoter in a vector with an intact LTR was expressed only in short-term experiments. We found that an AAV5 vector also targeted the ependymal and choroid plexus cells throughout the ventricular system. This vector exhibited limited penetration from the ventricle to other structures, which was significantly different from the previously reported patterns of transduction after intraventricular injection of AAV1 and AAV2 vectors. PMID:15703488

Watson, Deborah J; Passini, Marco A; Wolfe, John H

2005-01-01

67

C-C chemokine receptor 6-regulated entry of TH-17 cells into the CNS through the choroid plexus is required for the initiation of EAE.  

PubMed

Interleukin 17-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) are important in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but their route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and their contribution relative to that of other effector T cells remain to be determined. Here we found that mice lacking CCR6, a chemokine receptor characteristic of T(H)-17 cells, developed T(H)-17 responses but were highly resistant to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Disease susceptibility was reconstituted by transfer of wild-type T cells that entered into the CNS before disease onset and triggered massive CCR6-independent recruitment of effector T cells across activated parenchymal vessels. The CCR6 ligand CCL20 was constitutively expressed in epithelial cells of choroid plexus in mice and humans. Our results identify distinct molecular requirements and ports of lymphocyte entry into uninflamed versus inflamed CNS and suggest that the CCR6-CCL20 axis in the choroid plexus controls immune surveillance of the CNS. PMID:19305396

Reboldi, Andrea; Coisne, Caroline; Baumjohann, Dirk; Benvenuto, Federica; Bottinelli, Denise; Lira, Sergio; Uccelli, Antonio; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Engelhardt, Britta; Sallusto, Federica

2009-05-01

68

Combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization as primary treatment for infant hydrocephalus: a prospective North American series.  

PubMed

Object Combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) enhances the likelihood of shunt freedom over ETV alone, and thus avoidance of shunt-related morbidity, in hydrocephalic infants. To date, virtually all published reports describe experiences in Africa, thus hampering generalization to other parts of the world. Here, the authors report the first North American prospective series of this combined approach to treat hydrocephalus of various etiologies in infants. Methods A prospective series of 50 boys and 41 girls (mean and median ages 4.7 and 3.2 months, respectively) with hydrocephalus underwent ETV/CPC performed by the senior author at Boston Children's Hospital from August 2009 through March 2014. Success data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results The 91 patients treated included those with aqueductal stenosis (23), myelomeningocele (23), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (25), Dandy-Walker complex (6), post-infectious hydrocephalus (6), and other conditions (8). Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, 57% of patients required no further hydrocephalus treatment at 1 year. Moreover, 65% remained shunt free to the limit of available follow-up (maximum roughly 4 years). A Cox proportional hazards model identified the following independent predictors of ETV/CPC failure: post-infectious etiology, age at treatment younger than 6 months, prepontine cistern scarring, and prior CSF diversion. Of patients with at least 6 months of follow-up, the overall ETV/CPC success at 6 months (59%) exceeded that predicted by the ETV Success Score (45%). Complications included 1 CSF leak and 1 transient syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and there were no deaths. Conclusions ETV/CPC is an effective, safe, and durable treatment for infant hydrocephalus in a North American population, with 1-year success rates similar to those reported in Africa and equivalent to those for primary shunt placement in North America. These findings underscore the need for prospective multicenter studies of the outcomes, quality of life, and economic impact of the procedure compared with primary shunt insertion. PMID:25171723

Stone, Scellig S D; Warf, Benjamin C

2014-11-01

69

The distributional nexus of choroid plexus to cerebrospinal fluid, ependyma and brain: toxicologic/pathologic phenomena, periventricular destabilization, and lesion spread.  

PubMed

Bordering the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are epithelial cells of choroid plexus (CP), ependyma and circumventricular organs (CVOs) that contain homeostatic transporters for mediating secretion/reabsorption. The distributional pathway ("nexus") of CP-CSF-ependyma-brain furnishes peptides, hormones, and micronutrients to periventricular regions. In disease/toxicity, this nexus becomes a conduit for infectious and xenobiotic agents. The sleeping sickness trypanosome (a protozoan) disrupts CP and downstream CSF-brain. Piperamide is anti-trypanosomic but distorts CP epithelial ultrastructure by engendering hydropic vacuoles; this reflects phospholipidosis and altered lysosomal metabolism. CP swelling by vacuolation may occlude CSF flow. Toxic drug tools delineate injuries to choroidal compartments: cyclophosphamide (vasculature), methylcellulose (interstitium), and piperazine (epithelium). Structurally perturbed CP allows solutes to penetrate the ventricles. There, CSF-borne pathogens and xenobiotics may permeate the ependyma to harm neurogenic stem cell niches. Amoscanate, an anti-helmintic, potently injures rodent ependyma. Ependymal/brain regions near CP are vulnerable to CSF-borne toxicants; this proximity factor links regional barrier breakdown to nearby periventricular pathology. Diverse diseases (e.g., African sleeping sickness, multiple sclerosis) take early root in choroidal, circumventricular, or perivascular loci. Toxicokinetics informs on pathogen, anti-parasitic agent, and auto-antibody distribution along the CSF nexus. CVOs are susceptible to plasma-borne toxicants/pathogens. Countering the physico-chemical and pathogenic insults to the homeostasis-mediating ventricle-bordering cells sustains brain health and fluid balance. PMID:21189316

Johanson, Conrad; Stopa, Edward; McMillan, Paul; Roth, Daniel; Funk, Juergen; Krinke, Georg

2011-01-01

70

Impaired Monoamine and Organic Cation Uptake in Choroid Plexus in Mice with Targeted Disruption of the Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter (Slc29a4) Gene*  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (CP) forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and protects the brain from circulating metabolites, drugs, and toxins. The plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT, SLC29A4) is a new polyspecific organic cation transporter that transports a wide variety of organic cations including biogenic amines, cationic drugs, and neurotoxins. PMAT is known to be expressed in the CP, but its specific role in CP transport of organic cations has not been clearly defined. Here we showed that PMAT transcript is highly expressed in human and mouse CPs, whereas transcripts of other functionally related transporters are minimally expressed in the CPs. Immunofluorescence staining further revealed that PMAT protein is localized to the apical (CSF-facing) membrane of the CP epithelium, consistent with a role of transporting organic cations from the CSF into CP epithelial cells. To further evaluate the role of PMAT in the CP, mice with targeted deletion of the Slc29a4 gene were generated and validated. Although Pmat?/? mice showed no overt abnormalities, the uptake of monoamines and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium was significantly reduced in CP tissues isolated from the knock-out mice. Together, our data demonstrated that PMAT is a major transporter for CP uptake of bioactive amines and xenobiotic cations. By removing its substrates from the CSF, PMAT may play an important role in protecting the brain from cationic neurotoxins and other potentially toxic organic cations. PMID:23255610

Duan, Haichuan; Wang, Joanne

2013-01-01

71

Changes in apical organization of choroidal cells in rats adapted to spaceflight or head-down tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes observed in choroid plexuses from rats dissected aboard a space shuttle, on day 13 of an orbital flight (NASA STS-58 mission, SLS-2 Experiments) demonstrated that choroidal epithelial cells display a modified organization in a microgravitational environment. Results were compared with ultrastructural observations of choroid plexus from rats maintained under anti-orthostatic restraint (head-down tilt) for 14 days. In both

J. Gabrion; D. Maurel; B. Clavel; J. Davet; J. Fareh; S. Herbute´; K. O'Mara; C. Gharib; W. Hinds; I. Krasnov; A. Guell

1996-01-01

72

Solitary Idiopathic Choroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background There are multiple conditions associated with the formation of a solitary choroidal granuloma. However, in many cases, solitary choroiditis remains idiopathic in spite of an extensive systemic evaluation. Methods A 26-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic pale choroidal lesion that had the features of solitary idiopathic choroiditis. Results Optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence were performed and showed lesion features. Conclusions Solitary idiopathic choroiditis is a rare condition of unknown aetiology that sometimes can be mistaken as an intraocular tumour. The use of emerging multimodal imaging is of great importance in the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:24575031

Monteiro, Sergio; Andrews, Richard; Sagoo, Mandeep

2014-01-01

73

Serpiginous choroiditis and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis  

PubMed Central

Serpiginous choroiditis (SC) is a posterior uveitis displaying a geographic pattern of choroiditis, extending from the juxtapapillary choroid and intermittently spreading centrifugally. The choroiditis involves the overlying retinal pigment epithelium, and the outer retina. This intraocular inflammation typically involves both eyes in otherwise healthy, middle-aged individuals with no familial or ethnic predilection. Pathogenesis is unclear; however, based on limited histopathologic studies, favorable response to immunosuppressive agents, and the absence of association with systemic or local infectious or noninfectious diseases, an organ-specific autoimmune inflammation seems likely to be the underlying process. Patients, particularly from tuberculosis-endemic regions, may present with fundus changes simulating SC, but show evidence of active tuberculosis and/or the presence of mycobacterial DNA in the aqueous humor. This has been referred to as serpiginous-like choroiditis, but we prefer the description multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC). We present the distinguishing features of SC and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis simulating SC. The distinction is crucial to avoid unnecessarily treating SC with antimicrobial agents. Advances in diagnostic and imaging modalities can help differentiate SC from MSC. Novel local and systemic treatment approaches improve the outcome and preserve vision in SC. PMID:23541041

Nazari, Hossein; Rao, Narsing A

2012-01-01

74

Review of Choroidal Osteomas  

PubMed Central

Choroidal osteomas are rare benign ossifying tumors that appear as irregular slightly elevated, yellow-white, juxtapapillary, choroidal mass with well-defined geographic borders, depigmentation of the overlying pigment epithelium; and with multiple small vascular networks on the tumor surface. Visual loss results from three mechanisms: Atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium overlying a decalcified osteoma; serous retinal detachment over the osteoma from decompensated retinal pigment epithelium, and most commonly from choroidal neovascularization. Recent evidence points to the beneficial effects of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists in improving visual acuity in serous retinal detachment with or without choroidal neovascularization. PMID:25100910

Alameddine, Ramzi M.; Mansour, Ahmad M.; Kahtani, Eman

2014-01-01

75

THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL CHOROID  

PubMed Central

The choroid of the eye is primarily a vascular structure supplying the outer retina. It has several unusual features: It contains large membrane-lined lacunae, which, at least in birds, function as part of the lymphatic drainage of the eye and which can change their volume dramatically, thereby changing the thickness of the choroid as much as four-fold over a few days (much less in primates). It contains non-vascular smooth muscle cells, especially behind the fovea, the contraction of which may thin the choroid, thereby opposing the thickening caused by expansion of the lacunae. It has intrinsic choroidal neurons, also mostly behind the central retina, which may control these muscles and may modulate choroidal blood-flow as well. These neurons receive sympathetic, parasympathetic and nitrergic innervation. The choroid has several functions: Its vasculature is the major supply for the outer retina; impairment of the flow of oxygen from choroid to retina may cause Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The choroidal blood flow, which is as great as in any other organ, may also cool and warm the retina. In addition to its vascular functions, the choroid contains secretory cells, probably involved in modulation of vascularization and in growth of the sclera. Finally, the dramatic changes in choroidal thickness move the retina forward and back, bringing the photoreceptors into the plane of focus, a function demonstrated by the thinning of the choroid that occurs when the focal plane is moved back by the wearing of negative lenses, and, conversely, by the thickening that occurs when positive lenses are worn. In addition to focusing the eye, more slowly than accommodation and more quickly than emmetropization, we argue that the choroidal thickness changes also are correlated with changes in the growth of the sclera, and hence of the eye. Because transient increases in choroidal thickness are followed by a prolonged decrease in synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules and a slowing of ocular elongation, and attempts to decouple the choroidal and scleral changes have largely failed, it seems that the thickening of the choroid may be mechanistically linked to the scleral synthesis of macromolecules, and thus may play an important role in the homeostatic control of eye growth, and, consequently, in the etiology of myopia and hyperopia. PMID:20044062

Nickla, Debora L.; Wallman, Josh

2010-01-01

76

Choroidal folds and papilloedema  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To assess the clinical and fluorescein angiographic features of choroidal folds seen in association with papilloedema.?METHODS—In a retrospective study, the clinical data from a database on patients with choroidal folds (1963-97), including fundus photography and fluorescein angiography, from 32 patients (64 eyes) with choroidal folds in association with papilloedema were reviewed. The clinical and fluorescein angiographic features and the clinical course of choroidal folds in these patients are described.?RESULTS—32 patients had choroidal folds associated with papilloedema. Folds of two distinct categories were observed, either coarse folds or wrinkles. The folds persisted in all cases, even after resolution of papilloedema. Follow up ranged from 1 month to 20 years. Only one patient suffered permanent visual impairment as a result of a choroidal fold.?CONCLUSIONS—Choroidal folds exist in two forms, coarse folds and wrinkles. They persist even after papilloedema has resolved. Final visual acuity did not appear to be affected by the presence of choroidal folds in the majority of patients.?? PMID:10502574

Cassidy, L.; Sanders, M.

1999-01-01

77

The multifunctional choroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choroid of the eye is primarily a vascular structure supplying the outer retina. It has several unusual features: It contains large membrane-lined lacunae, which, at least in birds, function as part of the lymphatic drainage of the eye and which can change their volume dramatically, thereby changing the thickness of the choroid as much as four-fold over a few

Debora L. Nickla; Josh Wallman

2010-01-01

78

Ovarian Cysts  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, ... and cause pain. Endometriomas. These cysts develop in women who have endometriosis, when tissue from the lining ...

79

Blake's pouch cyst: an entity within the Dandy-Walker continuum.  

PubMed

Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections within the posterior fossa are defined by the Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) and by arachnoid cysts (AC). The DWC includes the Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), the Dandy-Walker variant (DWV) and the mega-cisterna magna (MCM). In addition, Tortori-Donati et al. added persistent Blake's pouch cyst (BPC) as an independent entity within the DWC. BPC represents a posterior ballooning of the superior medullary velum into the cisterna magna. All of these malformations are overlapping developmental anomalies characterized by varying degrees of malformation of the medullary vela, the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres, the fourth ventricle choroid plexus, the posterior fossa subarachnoid cisterns and the enveloping meningeal structures. We present two cases of persistent BPC detected in two adult women without history of gestational or subsequent growth problems. They underwent neuroradiological investigation because of headache and because of recurrent episodes of loss of consciousness, respectively. The MRI findings included tetraventricular hydrocephalus, wide communication of the fourth ventricle and the cystic posterior fossa (i.e. BPC), inferior posterior fossa mass effect with or without hypoplasia of both the cerebellar vermis and the medial aspects of the cerebellar hemispheres, and absence of communication between fourth ventricle and the basal subarachnoid space in the midline posteriorly. Persistent BPC is defined by a failure of embryonic assimilation of the area membranacea anterior within the tela choroidea associated with imperforation of the foramen of Magendie. Typically this condition becomes symptomatic early in life. In the current cases the normal function of the laterally positioned foramina of Luschka probably helped to maintain some CSF flow between intraventricular and subarachnoid spaces, with the establishment of a precarious equilibrium characterized by a compensatory enlargement of the cerebral ventricular system (i.e. hydrocephalus). PMID:10872175

Calabrò, F; Arcuri, T; Jinkins, J R

2000-04-01

80

[Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy].  

PubMed

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is characterized by a branching vascular network with polypoidal lesions under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In Japan, it is classified as a specific form of exudative age-related macular degeneration. However, several issues which we investigated regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of PCV remain unresolved. We investigated the pathogenesis, clinical findings and treatment of PCV. 1. Indocyanine green angiographic findings. There were two different patterns on indocyanine green angiograms. In the first pattern, both feeder and draining vessels were visible and network vessels showed characteristic findings of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Points of focal dilatation on marginal vessels were comprised of polypoidal lesions. In the second pattern, neither feeder nor draining vessels were visible and there were few network vessels. The points of deformation of network vessels appeared to be polypoidal lesions. The former represents a deformation of CNV, i.e. polypoidal CNV; the latter is thought to result from abnormalities of the choroidal vessels, i.e. PCV in the strict sense. 2. Pathological findings of PCV in the strict sense. The histopathological characteristics of PCV in the strict sense, which had been eliminated by vitrectomy, were dilatation and hyalinization of vessels, massive exudative changes in blood plasma, basement membrane-like deposits and scant granulomatous tissue. These vessels were located beneath Bruch's membrane. The findings indicate that PCV in the strict sense arises from hyalinized arteriolosclerosis of choroidal vessels. 3. Optical coherence tomographic findings. A break was found in the high reflective line which revealed Bruch's membrane. Low reflective tissue was observed at the break corresponding to a feeder vessel. The high reflective line which corresponded to the retinal pigment epithelium was uneven, and highly elevated portions of the RPE corresponded to thick network vessels and polypoidal lesions. Feeder vessels are thought to invade via Bruch's membrane to form network vessels and polypoidal lesions at the termini of the network vessels, both of which push the RPE upward. Therefore, polypoidal CNV is thought to represent a deformation of the CNV under the RPE. In PCV in the strict sense, an irregular thickened line with highly reflective substances adhering to the lower portion of it, curved downward corresponding to the site at which the network vessel filling began. A dimple in the RPE was observed which paralleled the curve of the line. The RPE was pushed upward, corresponding to the network vessels. Judging from the results of histopathological studies, abnormal vessels may be pushed up the RPE secondary to an increase in intravascular pressure due to the presence of several dilated vessels and by massive exudation from these vessels within the choroid at network vessels. The dimple in the RPE might be attributable to intra-choroidal pressure being decreased at the point at which network vessel filling began. 4. Genetic findings. There were significant differences in all distributions of ARMS 2 (A69S) between the polypoidal CNV and control groups. In contrast, the distribution of ARMS 2 (A69S) did not differ between the PCV in the strict sense group and the control group. The ARMS 2 (A69S) gene is closely related to age-related macular degeneration. Polypoidal CNV was thought to be associated with age-related macular degeneration. 5. Treatment of subfoveal PCV. Mean visual acuity improved 1 year after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Good visual acuity, small lesion size of the network of vessels with polypoidal lesions, and the absence of subfoveal polypoidal lesions were pre-PDT predictors that corresponded to the improvement in vision. However, mean visual acuity had decreased to a level similar to that prior to PDT at 2 and 3 years after treatment. In PCV in the strict sense, the branching vascular network persisted after PDT, and polypoidal lesions frequently recurred at the termini. The branching vascular network someti

Yuzawa, Mitsuko

2012-03-01

81

MR imaging of the brachial plexus.  

PubMed

Continuous improvements in magnetic resonance scanner, coil, and pulse sequence technology have resulted in the ability to perform routine, high-quality imaging of the brachial plexus. With knowledge of the anatomy of the plexus, and a familiarity with common pathologic conditions affecting this area, radiologists can provide valuable imaging evaluation of patients with brachial plexus pathologies. PMID:24210315

Lutz, Amelie M; Gold, Garry; Beaulieu, Christopher

2014-02-01

82

Nocardia choroidal abscess.  

PubMed

Nocardia is a Gram positive, aerobic, filamentous branching micro-organism that rarely causes human infection. When infection does occur it usually takes the form of a subcutaneous abscess or a pneumonia-like illness. We describe a case of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who developed painless loss of vision in the right eye secondary to a choroidal abscess after a prolonged course of treatment on several immunosuppressive agents. The patient also complained of right shoulder pain that was unresponsive to conventional therapy, and had been admitted and treated for several episodes of 'pneumonia'. A diagnostic transvitreal fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the ocular lesion was performed which demonstrated Nocardia asteroides. This allowed for appropriate antibiotic therapy to be instituted early in the course of the infection and prompted the systemic work-up which also demonstrated central nervous system and arthropic nocardial infection. PMID:1477051

Phillips, W B; Shields, C L; Shields, J A; Eagle, R C; Masciulli, L; Yarian, D L

1992-11-01

83

Inflammatory Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Purpose and Methods: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) can be a severe sight-threatening sequela, which can be secondary to both infectious and noninfectious uveitis. This review summarizes the different diseases associated with CNV, highlighting new treatment modalities and the possible strategies, which could be applied for the therapy of this occurrence. Results: Since CNV can often originate from posterior pole lesions and can be hard to identify, an accurate examination is mandatory in order to identify the correct diagnosis. In the majority of cases, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) enable the determination of the clinical characteristics of the CNV. An infectious disease should be looked for to include a suitable therapy when available. The treatment strategy for CNV secondary to noninfectious uveal inflammations should be directed at controlling the inflammatory process. Systemic corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive agents are indicated even when the CNV occurs with apparently inactive uveitis: Chronic subclinical inflammation can be the basis for the pathogenesis of CNV. Additional therapies aimed directly at the neovascular process, such as the intravitreal anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) agents, are recommended particularly when the therapy shows an insufficient response. Conclusion: CNV secondary to uveitis is a severe sequela leading to significant visual impairment. ICGA is mandatory in order to obtain relevant information about the choroidal status. Several therapeutic options have been considered, but no guidelines are provided at the moment. Moreover, the current data are still only based on case reports or small series. For such reasons, further trials are mandatory to validate the preliminary available results. PMID:20404991

Neri, Piergiorgi; Lettieri, Marta; Fortuna, Cinzia; Manoni, Mara; Giovannini, Alfonso

2009-01-01

84

Oral Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... a result of an infection in the tooth pulp, or nerve. This infection typically is caused by decay. A dentigerous cyst forms at the crown of a tooth that has not yet come into the mouth. This type of cyst can cause roots of already erupted teeth in the area to resorb (dissolve). Symptoms A ...

85

Tarlov Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... the herpes simplex virus, which thrives in an alkaline environment, can cause Tarlov cysts to become symptomatic. Making the body less alkaline, through diet or supplements, may lessen symptoms. Microsurgical ...

86

[Parathyroid cysts].  

PubMed

The Authors review the world literature on parathyroid cysts and report a case of this uncommon disease. The importance of an early pre-operative diagnosis by ultrasound, blood calcium level and parathyroid hormone assay with fine needle aspiration biopsy is pointed out. According to several surgeons, only the functioning parathyroid cysts require operation; needle aspiration may be appropriate therapy for the nonfunctioning ones. PMID:1758642

De Toma, G; Gabriele, R; Campli, M; Sgarzini, G; De Cesare, E

1991-09-15

87

[Nasolabial cyst].  

PubMed

Nasolabial cyst is a rare epithelial and non-odontogenic cyst of the jaw. It is situated behind the ala nasi, extending backwards into the inferior nasal meatus and forward into the labio-gingival sulcus. Predominant symptoms are swelling of the nasal vestibule, local pain, and nasal obstruction. Radiology is not specific and CT scan may be contributive. Surgical excision is the first line treatment; it proves the diagnosis and prevents recurrence. PMID:19800645

Ben Slama, L; Zaghbani, A; Zoghbani, A; Hidaya, S

2009-12-01

88

Metastatic carcinoid to the choroid.  

PubMed

This article describes the seventh published case of metastatic carcinoid to the choroid. Only two prior cases have been treated conservatively, one using chemotherapy and the other using photocoagulation and proton beam irradiation. Our patient was unique since she was the first to have conservative therapy by implantation of a radon ring. Initial results were clinically promising, although repeated ultrasound testing actually showed minimal decrease in tumor size. Subsequently, a large retinal detachment caused marked visual deterioration. Persistent pain from neovascular glaucoma prompted later enucleation, and silver staining as well as electron microscopic studies were performed on the choroidal lesion. It was found that the radon ring had little histologic effect on the viability of the tumor cells. This contrasted with an earlier report of the successful treatment of two much smaller choroidal lesions, using external proton beam irradiation. From our pathologic evaluation, we believe that the metastatic carcinoid tumor should be considered relatively radioresistant. PMID:6101129

Minning, C A; Davidorf, F H; Makley, T A; Bruce, R A

1982-01-01

89

Brachial plexus anatomy: normal and variant.  

PubMed

Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "brachial plexus", "median nerve", "ulnar nerve", "radial nerve", "axillary nerve", and "musculocutanous nerve". Each of these was then paired with the MESH terms "anatomy", "nerve block", "anomaly", "variation", and "ultrasound". Resulting articles were hand searched for additional relevant literature. A total of 68 searches were conducted, with a total of 377 possible articles for inclusion. Of these, 57 were found to provide substantive information for this review. The normal anatomy of the brachial plexus is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on those features revealed by use of imaging technologies. Anomalies of the anatomy that might affect the conduct of the various brachial plexus blocks are noted. Brachial plexus blockade has been effectively utilized as a component of anesthesia for upper extremity surgery for a century. Over that period, our understanding of anatomy and its variations has improved significantly. The ability to explore anatomy at the bedside, with real-time ultrasonography, has improved our appreciation of brachial plexus anatomy as well. PMID:19412559

Orebaugh, Steven L; Williams, Brian A

2009-01-01

90

Choledochal cysts  

PubMed Central

Much about the etiology, pathophysiology, natural course and optimal treatment of cystic disease of the biliary tree remains under debate. Gastroenterologists, surgeons and radiologists alike still strive to optimize their roles in the management of choledochal cysts. To that end, much has been written about this disease entity, and the purpose of this 3-part review is to organize the available literature and present the various theories currently argued by the experts. In part 1, we discuss the background of the disease, describing the etiology, classification, pathogenesis and malignant potential of choledochal cysts. PMID:19865581

Singham, Janakie; Yoshida, Eric M.; Scudamore, Charles H.

2009-01-01

91

Mucous cyst  

MedlinePLUS

A mucous cyst is a painless, thin sac on the inner surface of the lips. It contains clear fluid. ... A thin, fluid-filled sac appears on the inside of the lip. The sac is bluish and clear. It is painless, but it can be ...

92

Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated state-of-the-art ultrasound technology for supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks in 40 outpatients. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injec- tion. The block technique we describe

Vincent W. S. Chan; Anahi Perlas; Regan Rawson; Olusegun Odukoya

2003-01-01

93

Segmental nature of the choroidal vasculature.  

PubMed Central

The various in vivo studies on posterior ciliary arteries and choroidal vasculature reported piecemeal by the author over the past few years have now been collated. A coherent picture of the vasculature emerges which is of considerable clinical significance. The observations show that the posterior ciliary arteries and their branches right down to the terminal choroidal arterioles, the choriocapillaris, and the vortex veins have a segmental distribution in the choroid, and that the posterior ciliary arteries and choroidal arteries function as end-arteries. No special mascular artery supplying the submacular choroid has been found. The posterior ciliary arteries have only supply the choroid but are also the main source of blood supply to the anterior part of the optic nerve, and have an important role in the blood supply of the retina. The clinical significance of this segmental distribution of the uveal vasculature is discussed. Images PMID:812547

Hayreh, S. S.

1975-01-01

94

Choroidal Imaging Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

E-print Network

Background: A structurally and functionally normal choroidal vasculature is essential for retinal function. Therefore, a precise clinical understanding of choroidal morphology should be important for understanding many ...

Regatieri, Caio V.

95

The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error. Subjects and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area. Results The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 ?m, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001) and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02). Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age. Conclusion Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 ?m every year and 14.59 ?m with 1 mm increase in axial length.

Jirarattanasopa, Pichai; Panon, Nisa; Hiranyachattada, Siriphun; Bhurayanontachai, Patama

2014-01-01

96

Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior choroidal artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this study, the authors present the results of 50 dissections of the anterior choroidal a. in man. Fifty cerebral hemispheres were prepared with the classic techniques of preservation and vascular injection. An ectopic origin was observed in 4% of cases. The intracisternal segment of the anterior choroidal a. forms a neurovascular bundle with the optic tract and basal

X Morandi; G Brassier; P Darnault; Ph Mercier; JM Scarabin; JM Duval

1996-01-01

97

Choroidal neovascularization after intraocular foreign body  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual case of choroidal neovascularization secondary to intraocular foreign body (IOFB) penetrating trauma. A 44-year-old man was referred to our department for IOFB trauma in the right eye. Vitrectomy and IOFB extraction was performed with good visual results. However, 2 months after surgery, he returned complaining of a drop in visual acuity. Choroidal neovascularization originating from a direct choroidal rupture at the IOFB impact site was observed. The patient was treated with 6-monthly intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor, and showed regression of neovascularization and a final visual acuity of 20/80. IOFB trauma is a serious condition, indeed in spite of initially good results after a favorable surgical outcome. Choroidal neovascularization after direct traumatic choroidal rupture is usually aggressive and requires more active antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. PMID:24876760

Fernandez-Lopez, Ester; Desco-Esteban, Mari Carmen; Fandino-Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez-Diaz, Mikhail; Navea, Amparo

2014-01-01

98

Renaissance of supraclavicular brachial plexus block.  

PubMed

Due to frequent complications, especially pneumothorax, supraclavicular brachial plexus block became less popular. Ultrasonography is a very powerful tool in modern medicine and a real milestone in regional anaesthesia. Ultrasound- guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block reduces the probability of major complications occurrence (like pneumothorax, Horner's syndrome, phrenic nerve palsy). In this review we present the usefulness of ultrasonographic imaging and how to perform efficient ultrasound-guided blockade safely. PMID:24643926

Sadowski, Marek; Tu?aza, Bernadeta; Lysenko, Lidia

2014-01-01

99

Brachial Plexus Injuries Peripheral Nerve Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Evolving microsurgical techniques have significantly changed our attitude to surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerve lesions,\\u000a including those of the brachial plexus. However, because of the considerable distance the nerves have to regenerate after\\u000a restoring anatomical continuity in the brachial plexus, the results in adults have been modest, despite the more sophisticated\\u000a methods available. In contrast, similar methods in children give

Alain L. Gilbert; Rolfe Birch

100

MR imaging of the brachial plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study we describe the MR imaging findings in 230 consecutive patients with suspected pathology in or near the brachial plexus. These patients were\\u000astudied from 1991 through to 1996.\\u000aChapter 2 describes the anatomy and the MR imaging techniques. As the anatomy\\u000aof the brachial plexus and the related structures is quite complicated, we eventually\\u000ause as

Hendrik Wouter van Es

1997-01-01

101

Establishing a positional information assay for brain ventricle mutants and investigating the choroid plexuses in zebrafish  

E-print Network

The process by which the neural tube expands into three brain ventricles can be understood through genetic mutant analysis. Within the framework of a characterization of zebrafish mutants with brain ventricle phenotypes, ...

Wolf, Catherine D., 1980-

2004-01-01

102

Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed

The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada. PMID:3174030

Straatsma, B R; Fine, S L; Earle, J D; Hawkins, B S; Diener-West, M; McLaughlin, J A

1988-07-01

103

Delayed brachial plexus paralysis due to subclavian after clavicular fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries to the brachial plexus and subclavian artery are serious complications of shoulder girdle trauma. Due to the close anatomical relationship between the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery in the thoracic outlet, both structures are often simultaneously involved in shoulder girdle injuries. Isolated lesions of the subclavian artery or the brachial plexus can also occur, especially with clavicular fractures.

B. Hansky; E. Murray; K. Minami; R. Kiirfer

104

Anatomy of the presacral venous plexus: implications for rectal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presacral venous plexus results from anastomoses between the lateral and median sacral veins, and courses into the pelvic fascia covering the anterior aspect of the body of the sacrum. The presacral venous plexus is not directly visible during rectal surgery, and injuries to this plexus may be life-threatening. Dissection of the retrorectal plane or anchoring of the rectum to

P. Baqué; B. Karimdjee; A. Iannelli; E. Benizri; A. Rahili; D. Benchimol; J.-L. Bernard; E. Sejor; S. Bailleux; F. de Peretti; A. Bourgeon

2004-01-01

105

Congenital iris cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral, spontaneous, non-pigmented iris cysts appeared before the age of 2 years in four patients. Histopathological specimens obtained in three cases showed stratified to cuboidal, non-pigmented, epithelial lined cysts. Goblet cells were recognised in two of the three specimens. The clinical features and histopathological findings indicate that these cysts are derived from surface ectoderm and may be congenital.

R D Grutzmacher; T D Lindquist; M E Chittum; A H Bunt-Milam; R E Kalina

1987-01-01

106

Beware the Tarlov Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions.

Jane E. Hirst; Hugh Torode; William Sears; Michael J. Cousins

2009-01-01

107

Beware the Tarlov cyst.  

PubMed

Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

2009-01-01

108

Absence of upper trunk of the brachial plexus.  

PubMed

The brachial plexus is a complicated plexus supplying the upper limb. The brachial plexus is of great practical importance to the surgeon. It is encountered during operations upon the root of the neck, and hence it is in danger. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus are common; and knowledge of the variation of the brachial plexus may be useful for surgeons, for improved guidance during supraclavicular block procedures, and for surgical approaches for brachial plexus. Here we report a case in which the superior trunk of the brachial plexus was found to be absent on the right side during a study on the cadaver-neck specimens in the Department of Anatomy. PMID:23776793

Adam, Ali H; Mohammed, Ammar M A; Grebballa, Abbas; Rizig, Sahar

2011-07-01

109

The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea  

PubMed Central

Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

Diaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Mejias, Wigberto; Jimenez, Luis B.

2010-01-01

110

Diagnosis of brachial root and plexus lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis and management of lesions of the brachial roots and of the brachial plexus is improved by appropriate investigation, both in acute and chronic disorders. The choice of investigation should be determined by the clinical problem. Since they are relatively non-invasive, electrophysiological investigations are particularly useful. In this review the role of these investigations is considered in relation to

M. Swash

1986-01-01

111

Semimembranosus ganglion cyst.  

PubMed

Ganglion cysts are tumor-like lesions in the soft tissues, generated by mucoid degeneration of the joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheaths on the dorsum of hand, wrist and foot. However, an intratendinous origin for a ganglion cyst is extremely rare. During dissection of the popliteal fossa, a cyst of 2.5 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm was observed in the tendon of right semimembranosus, 3.5 cm above the insertion of the muscle. Contrast X-ray revealed the cyst as not communicating with the knee joint or any adjacent bursae. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ganglion cyst. PMID:25276481

Ananthi Kumarasamy, Suba; Kannadath, Bijun Sai; Soundamourthy, Sandosh; Subramanian, Aruna; Sinhasan, Sankappa P; Bhat, Ramachandra V

2014-09-01

112

Semimembranosus ganglion cyst  

PubMed Central

Ganglion cysts are tumor-like lesions in the soft tissues, generated by mucoid degeneration of the joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheaths on the dorsum of hand, wrist and foot. However, an intratendinous origin for a ganglion cyst is extremely rare. During dissection of the popliteal fossa, a cyst of 2.5 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm was observed in the tendon of right semimembranosus, 3.5 cm above the insertion of the muscle. Contrast X-ray revealed the cyst as not communicating with the knee joint or any adjacent bursae. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ganglion cyst.

Kannadath, Bijun Sai; Soundamourthy, Sandosh; Subramanian, Aruna; Sinhasan, Sankappa P.; Bhat, Ramachandra V.

2014-01-01

113

Peripapillary and Macular Choroidal Thickness in Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare choroidal thickness (CT) between individuals with and without glaucomatous damage and to explore the association of peripapillary and submacular CT with glaucoma severity using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Ninety-one eyes of 20 normal subjects and 43 glaucoma patients from the UCLA SD-OCT Imaging Study were enrolled. Imaging was performed using Cirrus HD-OCT. Choroidal thickness was measured at four predetermined points in the macular and peripapillary regions, and compared between glaucoma and control groups before and after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results The average (± standard deviation) mean deviation (MD) on visual fields was ?0.3 (±2.0) dB in controls and ?3.5 (±3.5) dB in glaucoma patients. Age, axial length and their interaction were the most significant factors affecting CT on multivariate analysis. Adjusted average CT (corrected for age, axial length, their interaction, gender and lens status) however, was not different between glaucoma patients and the control group (P=0.083) except in the temporal parafoveal region (P=0.037); nor was choroidal thickness related to glaucoma severity (r=?0.187, P=0.176 for correlation with MD, r=?0.151, P=0.275 for correlation with average nerve fiber layer thickness). Conclusions Choroidal thickness of the macular and peripapillary regions is not decreased in glaucoma. Anatomical measurements with SD-OCT do not support the possible influence of the choroid on the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

Hosseini, Hamid; Nilforushan, Naveed; Moghimi, Sasan; Bitrian, Elena; Riddle, Jay; Lee, Gina Yoo; Caprioli, Joseph; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros

2014-01-01

114

Choroidal thickness changes with photodynamic therapy for a diffuse choroidal hemangioma in Sturge–Weber syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) changes associated with visual function following photodynamic therapy (PDT) for a diffuse choroidal hemangioma in Sturge–Weber syndrome. We report a case of Sturge–Weber syndrome and symptomatic serous retinal detachment (SRD) with diffuse choroidal hemangioma treated with PDT. Visual acuity (VA), macular sensitivity measured by means of MP1 microperimeter (Nidek Technologies, Padova, Italy), retinal and CT, measured by means of enhanced depth optical coherence tomography (EDI–OCT, Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) were analyzed at baseline, 3 and 12 months follow-up.After the PDT VA and macular sensitivity improved.The OCT examination showed the resolution of SRD. The choroid was measured after PDT using EDI–OCT. At baseline, the subfoveal CT showed a progressive thickness reduction from 251 to 83 lm during follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CT changes after PDT for a diffuse choroidal hemangioma in Sturge–Weber syndrome in a longterm follow-up. The CT measurement represents a potential parameter to better follow choroidal hemangiomas and their response to treatment. However,the long-term choroidal changes should be carefully taken into account. PMID:24658736

Cacciamani, Andrea; Scarinci, Fabio; Parravano, Mariacristina; Giorno, Paola; Varano, Monica

2014-10-01

115

Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cysts.  

PubMed

The lumbar intraspinal epidural ganglion cyst has been a rare cause of the low back pain or leg pain. Ganglion cysts and synovial cysts compose the juxtafacet cysts. Extensive studies have been performed about the synovial cysts, however, very little has been known about the ganglion cyst. Current report is about two ganglion cysts associated with implicative findings in young male patients. We discuss about the underlying pathology of the ganglion cyst based on intraoperative evidences, associated disc herniation at the same location or severe degeneration of the ligament flavum that the cyst originated from in young patients. PMID:19707495

Cho, Sung Min; Rhee, Woo Tack; Choi, Soo Jung; Eom, Dae Woon

2009-07-01

116

Vertikale infraklavikulärePlexus-brachialis-Blockade (VIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Fragestellung. Die vertikale, infraklavikuläre Plexus-brachialis-Blockade (VIP) nach Kilka et al. ist eine Methode, die sich im Vergleich zu anderen periklavikulären Methoden durch ein geringes Pneumothoraxrisiko auszeichnet (0,2%). Dieses Risiko scheint bei asthenischen Patienten erhöht zu sein. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde bei Patienten, bei denen ein VIP durchgeführt werden sollte, untersucht, ob eine leicht veränderte Punktionsortbestimmung zu einer sicheren

M. Neuburger; H. Kaiser; B. Åss; C. Franke; H. Maurer

2003-01-01

117

Endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have evaluated the safety and efficacy of performing endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS CPN) in patients with pain due to intra-abdominal malignancies. Methods: Thirty patients with upper abdominal pain requiring narcotic analgesia and suspected or known intra-abdominal malignancy were selected for EUS CPN. This group included 25 patients with pancreas carcinoma and 5 patients with intra-abdominal metastases. Using

Maurits J. Wiersema; Lisa M. Wiersema

1996-01-01

118

Brachial plexus block in a parturient.  

PubMed

We report a novel circumstance of brachial plexus anesthesia in a parturient. A 25-year-old woman at 34 weeks of gestation presented with a pathologic proximal right humerus fracture from an intramedullary mass. She was scheduled for tumor biopsy which was performed using a two-site ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block to maximize odds of complete anesthesia while minimizing the risk of phrenic nerve paresis. After a supraclavicular block with 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL, we translated our ultrasound probe cephalad, inferior to the root of C7 where the divisions of the superior trunk could be seen in a tightly compact arrangement. An additional injection of 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL was administered at this site, and the patient subsequently underwent successful biopsy without sedatives or analgesics, aside from local anesthetics. In the post-anesthesia care unit, she had normal respirations and oxygen saturations breathing room air, denied any shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, and was discharged shortly after her arrival. While we did not pursue radiologic examination to rule out hemidiaphragm paralysis, we assumed, as evidenced in a previous case report, that unlike most healthy patients, a parturient would demonstrate some clinical signs and/or symptoms of hemidiaphragm paralysis, given that the diaphragm is almost totally responsible for inspiration in the term parturient. This represents only the second brachial plexus block in a parturient reported in the literature; the first using ultrasound guidance and without respiratory embarrassment. PMID:24631059

Patzkowski, M; Scheiner, J

2014-05-01

119

Diarrhoea--an unrecognised hazard of coeliac plexus block.  

PubMed

Coeliac plexus block is a safe procedure with relatively few side-effects. We report two cases of persistent severe diarrhoea following coeliac plexus block and explore the possible reasons for this previously unrecognised side-effect. We postulate that somatostatin analogue may be useful as treatment for diarrhoea following neurolytic coeliac plexus block that is unresponsive to conventional anti-diarrhoeal agents. PMID:2036077

Dean, A P; Reed, W D

1991-02-01

120

Pineal cysts in children.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of pineal cysts found on MRI in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric study of all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed under the same technical conditions for checking the idiopathic nature of short stature (ISS group, n?=?116) and for the investigation of central precocious puberty (CPP) over a 3-year period (n?=?56). Dimensions, wall and septal thickness, number of locules, signal intensity, and the presence of a solid component were analysed. Ten of 19 cysts were re-evaluated (follow-up interval 4-28 months). The prevalence of the pineal cysts was compared between the two groups using ?2 and Fisher's exact tests, and a significance threshold of p?cysts was comparable in the two groups, CPP (10.7%) and ISS (11.2%). Cyst characteristics were similar in the two groups and 74% had thin septations. None of the cysts changed on follow-up. None of the children with pineal cysts exhibited neurological signs. CONCLUSION: Benign pineal cysts are a common finding in young children. High-resolution MRI demonstrates that these cysts are often septated. This pattern is a normal variant and does not require follow-up MR imaging or IV contrast media. PMID:22347985

Lacroix-Boudhrioua, V; Linglart, A; Ancel, P Y; Falip, C; Bougnères, P F; Adamsbaum, C

2011-12-01

121

Parameatal urethral cyst.  

PubMed

Cyst formation in the parameatal area of the urethra is an uncommon entity. It was first reported in two male cases as recently as 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. Further reports have been rare. Herein, we report a case of a 21 year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling 1 cm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis of parameatal urethral cyst was made and the cyst was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a monolocular cyst lined with transitional cells. The postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:18814338

Aggarwal, Kamal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Goel, Ashish

2008-01-01

122

Photodynamic Therapy of Symptomatic Choroidal Nevi  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for patients with symptomatic choroidal nevi involving the fovea or located near the fovea with subretinal fluid extending to the fovea. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of five patients who underwent PDT for choroidal nevi at two separate centers in Ankara and Barcelona. Results: The mean initial logMAR visual acuity was 0.5 (range: 0 to 1.5). The mean largest tumor base diameter was 3.2 mm (range: 2.1–4.5 mm) and the mean tumor thickness was 1.1 mm (range: 0.7–1.6 mm). The mean number of PDT sessions was 1.6 (range:1–3). The mean final tumor thickness was 1.0 mm (range: 0–1.6 mm) at a mean follow-up of 19 months (range: 12–32 months). The mean final logMAR visual acuity was 0.4 (range: 0–1.5). Subfoveal fluid disappeared or decreased significantly in 4 of 5 eyes (80%) after PDT. Conclusions: PDT led to resolution of subretinal fluid with preservation of visual acuity in many symptomatic choroidal nevi in this study. Careful case selection is important as PDT of indeterminate pigmented tumors may delay the diagnosis and treatment of an early choroidal melanoma and thereby increase the risk for metastasis. PMID:22224021

Amselem, Luis; Gunduz, Kaan; Adan, Alfredo; Karsl?oglu, Melisa Zisan; Rey, Amanda; Sabater, Noelia; Valldeperas, Xavier

2011-01-01

123

Lumbar synovial cysts.  

PubMed

Synovial spinal cysts are typically found in the lumbar spine, most often at the L4-L5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic imaging of choice in the workup of suspected synovial cysts. This study consisted of 24 patients with lumbar synovial cysts treated by cyst excision and nerve root decompression through partial or complete facetectomy and primary posterolateral fusion. The most common location of the cysts was the L4-L5 segment. Synovial tissue was found in histological sections of 18 cysts. At a mean follow-up of 12 (range, 8 to 24) months, 20 patients (83%) had excellent or good results; two patients (8.3%) had fair and two patients (8.3%) had poor improvement. Operative complications included dural tear in two patients and postoperative wound dehiscence in one patient, which were treated accordingly. To eliminate the risk of recurrence synovial cyst excision through partial or complete facetectomy is required. In addition, since synovial cysts reflect disruption of the facet joint and some degree of instability, primary spinal fusion is recommended. PMID:23327848

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Sapkas, George S; Korres, Demetrios S; Pneumaticos, Spyridon G

2012-01-01

124

Dermoid cysts in caribou.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous dermoid cysts were identified in eight wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from widely dispersed locations in northern Canada and in one wild caribou from Alaska. The dermoid cysts from Canadian caribou were found among 557 diagnostic specimens that had been detected by hunters and submitted by resource officers and biologists between 1 January 1966 and 15 May 2007. All of the cysts were located in the cervical region, and five of nine cysts were found in the throat area. All of the animals for which the age was known were adult; males and females were equally represented. Dermoid cysts were not diagnosed in any of 1,108 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 293 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 174 elk (Cervus elaphus), or 529 moose (Alces alces) examined during the same period at the Canadian laboratory. PMID:19395761

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Neimanis, A; Beckmen, K B

2009-04-01

125

Multiple intratesticular cysts.  

PubMed

Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made between neoplastic and non-neoplastic testicular cysts. However, in view of the benign nature of such cysts, even repeated ultrasound scanning may not be necessary and may be considered over-treatment. In this study we present clinical and morphological characteristics of multiple cysts in the right testicle in a 62-year-old patient, where a slightly nodular lesion in the right testicle was detected. PMID:23658871

Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Woo; Chon, Won Hee; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Hyun Jun

2013-04-01

126

Multiple Intratesticular Cysts  

PubMed Central

Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made between neoplastic and non-neoplastic testicular cysts. However, in view of the benign nature of such cysts, even repeated ultrasound scanning may not be necessary and may be considered over-treatment. In this study we present clinical and morphological characteristics of multiple cysts in the right testicle in a 62-year-old patient, where a slightly nodular lesion in the right testicle was detected. PMID:23658871

Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Woo; Chon, Won Hee; Park, Nam Cheol

2013-01-01

127

MRI of the brachial plexus: A pictorial review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus is the imaging modality of first choice for depicting anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. The anatomy of the roots, trunks, divisions and cords is very well depicted due to the inherent contrast differences between the nerves and the surrounding fat. In this pictorial review the technique and the anatomy will

Hendrik W. van Es; Thomas L. Bollen; Hans P. M. van Heesewijk

2010-01-01

128

Management of adult choledochal cysts.  

PubMed Central

A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

1981-01-01

129

Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst  

PubMed Central

Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst. PMID:23346004

Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar

2013-01-01

130

Bronchogenic cyst in the abdomen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bronchogenic cyst was found in the abdomen, in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the superior pancreatic body. The cyst was unilocular and contained about 100 ml pale yellow mucinous fluid. Microscopic examination revealed a pseudostratified columnar ciliated or cuboidal epithelium, seromucous glands, smooth muscle and cartilage, the distinctive features of bronchogenic cysts. This aberrant location of the cyst is explicable

Kinjiro Sumiyoshi; Shuji Shimizu; Munetomo Enjoji; Akinori Iwashita; Katsuhiko Kawakami

1985-01-01

131

Hepatic Cysts: Treatment with Alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six patients with hepatic cysts were successfully treated with percutaneous aspiration and temporary direct injection of sterile alcohol U.S.P. (95% ethanol) into the cyst cavities through an aspiration catheter. Five cysts were treated percutaneously using sonographic guidance, and one cyst was treated under direct vision during a cholecys- tectom?. It is ideal to treat with 25% replacement volume of alcohol.

William J. Bean; Bruce A. Rodan

132

Unilateral Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia with Choroidal Neovascularization.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man with decreasing visual acuity in his left eye over 1 year, diagnosed elsewhere as vein occlusion and treated unsuccessfully by systemic steroids was reported. Retrospective analysis of available previous imaging studies was undertaken, and a retrospective diagnosis of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) was made. Examination revealed subfoveal neovascularization and retinochoroidal anastomosis (RCA) in his left eye with macular edema and exudates surrounding it. The right eye was normal. Current fluorescein angiography (FA) confirmed the presence of choroidal neovascularization and RCA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated cystoid macular edema and subfoveal neovascularization.The patient was diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic macular telangiectasia complicated by subretinal neovascularization. The presences of a choroidal neovascularization process and an RCA have not, to our knowledge, been reported in this type of IMT. PMID:20337307

Mezad-Koursh, Daphna; Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Barak, Adiel; Loewenstein, Anat

2010-03-01

133

Tarlov Cyst and Infertility  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

2009-01-01

134

[Intraventricular arachnoid cyst].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Intracranial arachnoids cysts are considered benign developmental anomalies that occur within the arachnoid membrane and generally contain clear and colourless fluid resembling cerebrospinal fluid. The prevalence of these cysts is higher in the first two decades of life, and the incidence is widely quoted as approximately 1% of all space-occupying intracranial lesions. Arachnoids cysts in the elderly person are a rare occurrence. We report the unusual presentation of a woman with an intraventricular arachnoid cyst treated with endoscopic technique. CASE REPORT. A 75-year-old woman presented with progressive hemiparesis of two years duration. Cranial MR imaging showed a right parieto-occipital intraventricular cyst with local mass effect and moderate dilatation of lateral ventricles. A right-sided burr hole was made and the arachnoids cyst was reached and cysto-ventricle shunting was realized. This was followed by a septum pellucidum fenestration. There were no complications during the surgery and the patient presented no symptoms at time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS. The neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular arachnoid cysts was effective with few complications. PMID:23799598

Rico-Cotelo, María; Diaz-Cabanas, Lucía; Allut, Alfredo G; Gelabert-Gonzalez, Miguel

2013-07-01

135

Bilateral Testicular Epidermoid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Testicular epidermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors of the testes, but account for only 1-2% of all testicular tumors. In a young man presenting with a testicular mass, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the malignant testicular germ cell tumor, which is 50-times more common than testicular epidermoid cyst. Bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts are a very rare condition, with only a few reports in the literature. It is extremely important in this condition to make a correct pre-operative diagnosis on imaging to enable a testis-sparing surgery. PMID:21915385

Loberant, Norman; Bhatt, Shweta; Messing, Edward; Dogra, Vikram S.

2011-01-01

136

Hemorrhagic lumbar synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are an uncommon cause of back and radicular pain. These cysts most frequently present as back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms secondary to spinal canal compromise. Although less common, they can also present with acute spinal cord or root compression symptoms. We report of a case in which hemorrhaging into a right L2-3 facet synovial cyst caused an acute onset of back pain and radiculopathy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:23346333

Park, Hyun Seok; Sim, Hong Bo; Kwon, Soon Chan; Park, Jun Bum

2012-12-01

137

Hemorrhagic Lumbar Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are an uncommon cause of back and radicular pain. These cysts most frequently present as back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms secondary to spinal canal compromise. Although less common, they can also present with acute spinal cord or root compression symptoms. We report of a case in which hemorrhaging into a right L2-3 facet synovial cyst caused an acute onset of back pain and radiculopathy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:23346333

Park, Hyun Seok; Kwon, Soon Chan; Park, Jun Bum

2012-01-01

138

Nerve transfer in brachial plexus traction injuries.  

PubMed

Brachial plexus palsy due to traction injury, especially spinal nerve-root avulsion, represents a severe handicap for the patient. Despite recent progress in diagnosis and microsurgical repair, the prognosis in such cases remains unfavorable. Nerve transfer is the only possibility for repair in cases of spinal nerve-root avulsion. This technique was analyzed in 37 patients with 64 reinnervation procedures of the musculocutaneous and/or axillary nerve using upper intercostal, spinal accessory, and regional nerves as donors. The most favorable results, with an 83.8% overall rate of useful functional recovery, were obtained in patients with upper brachial plexus palsy in which regional donor nerves, such as the medial pectoral, thoracodorsal, long thoracic, and subscapular nerves, had been used. The overall rates of recovery for the spinal accessory and upper intercostal nerves were 64.3% and 55.5%, respectively, which are significantly lower. The authors evaluate the results of nerve transfer and analyze different donor nerves as factors influencing the prognosis of surgical repair. PMID:1730947

Samardzic, M; Grujicic, D; Antunovic, V

1992-02-01

139

Motor Cortex Neuroplasticity Following Brachial Plexus Transfer  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27-year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralized to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain (PLP) before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced PLP. PMID:23966938

Dimou, Stefan; Biggs, Michael; Tonkin, Michael; Hickie, Ian B.; Lagopoulos, Jim

2013-01-01

140

The basiepithelial nerve plexus of the viscera and coelom of eleutherozoan echinodermata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organisation of the basiepithelial nerve plexus in the alimentary canal of a starfish and the water vascular system of a sea-urchin is described. The plexus contains varicose aminergic neurones which terminate adjacent to the ciliated epithelial cells. It is proposed that the basiepithelial plexus innervates these cells and controls ciliary beating. The distribution of the basiepithelial plexus in various

J. L. S. Cobb; A. M. Raymond

1979-01-01

141

A prospective study of EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis for pancreatic cancer pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Celiac plexus neurolysis, a chemical splanchnicectomy of the celiac plexus, is used to treat pain caused by pancreatic cancer. Most commonly, celiac plexus neurolysis is performed percutaneously under CT or fluoroscopic guidance, but can also be performed with EUS. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the efficacy of EUS celiac plexus neurolysis in the management of

Naresh T. Gunaratnam; Aruna V. Sarma; Ian D. Norton; Maurits J. Wiersema

2001-01-01

142

Rotifers ingest Giardia cysts.  

PubMed

Seven species of rotifers representing 6 genera, Epiphanes, Plationus, Asplanchna, Philodina species A, Philodina species B. Platyias, and Brachionus, were exposed to Giardia cysts isolated from the feces of experimentally infected holstein calves. Giardia cysts were prestained with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody and mixed with viable rotifers on 3-well Teflon-coated microscope slides. Organisms were observed with phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Five rotifer species, Epiphanes brachionus, Plationus patulus, Philodina (both A and B), and Platyias quadricornis, ingested varying numbers of cysts, which were retained within the rotifers' bodies throughout the observation period. Rotifer ingestion of Giardia cysts may represent a means of reducing water contamination. PMID:12435156

Trout, J M; Walsh, E J; Fayer, R

2002-10-01

143

Abuse-a-Cyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine how brine shrimp populations can survive in some of the harshest environments. Learners subject brine shrimp cysts to extreme conditions to evaluate the hardiness of these creatures.

Utah, University O.

2009-01-01

144

Cervical thymic cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymic cysts are rare embryonic remnants along the course of thymic migration in the neck or the anterior mediastinum which\\u000a may result in cervical masses in children, often misdiagnosed. We present the experience gained by three European tertiary\\u000a care medical centers in the treatment of thymic cysts as well as the current data on the embryology, clinical presentation,\\u000a diagnosis and

Bruno Cigliano; Nikolaos Baltogiannis; Marianna De Marco; Elsa Faviou; Dimitrios Antoniou; Ugo De Luca; Michail Soutis; Alesandro Settimi

2007-01-01

145

Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.  

PubMed

Abstract Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

2014-12-01

146

Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is a rare, benign, most often solitary and unilocular, rarely multilocular cyst made up of a\\u000a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, a subepitheial connective tissue layer, a smooth muscle layer and an outer\\u000a fibrous capsule. The lesion is usually found incidentally by ultrasonography, during surgical exploration or autopsy. Recent\\u000a publications characterizes of its fine needle aspiration biopsy

Barna Bogner; Géza Hegedûs

2002-01-01

147

Periscapular bronchogenic cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periscapular location of bronchogenic cysts is extremely rare with four cases reported in literature. We report a relatively\\u000a late presentation in a ten-year-old boy that was clinically mistaken for a typical sebaceous cyst. The definitive treatment\\u000a is total excision after preoperative imaging to detect the occassional intrathoracic extension. Histologically they are lined\\u000a by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, which can rarely

K. Das; P. B. Jackson; A. J. D’Cruz

2003-01-01

148

Rathke's cleft cyst.  

PubMed

Rathke's cleft cysts are benign sellar and suprasellar lesions arising from epithelial remnants of Rathke's pouch with a peak incidence at 30-50 years of age. The majority are between 10 and 20mm in diameter and contain mucoid or gelatinous material encapsulated in a thin cyst wall of simple or pseudostratified cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Symptomatic cases are rare, but incidental lesions are found in 11% of unselected postmortem cases. The pathogenesis of these lesions is uncertain, but they may occasionally share histopathologic features with (papillary) craniopharyngiomas. The most common presenting symptoms include headaches, visual disturbance, and pituitary hormone abnormalities. MRI reveals well-demarcated homogenous lesions with variable intensity that is highly dependent on cyst contents, which can range from clear, CSF-like fluid to thick, mucoid material. Treatment is almost invariably surgical with the aim of draining the cyst contents and removing the surrounding capsule. The recurrence rate is uncertain due to a lack of studies with long follow-up periods, but risk factors associated with increased likelihood of recurrence include cyst size, presence of squamous metaplasia of the cyst wall, incomplete resection or intraoperative CSF leak, and the need for an abdominal fat graft or sellar packing. PMID:25248592

Larkin, Sarah; Karavitaki, Niki; Ansorge, Olaf

2014-01-01

149

Electroacupuncture attenuates neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury.  

PubMed

Electroacupuncture has traditionally been used to treat pain, but its effect on pain following brachial plexus injury is still unknown. In this study, rat models of an avulsion injury to the left brachial plexus root (associated with upper-limb chronic neuropathic pain) were given electroacupuncture stimulation at bilateral Quchi (LI11), Hegu (LI04), Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34). After electroacupuncture therapy, chronic neuropathic pain in the rats' upper limbs was significantly attenuated. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression of ?-endorphins in the arcuate nucleus was significantly increased after therapy. Thus, experimental findings indicate that electroacupuncture can attenuate neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury through upregulating ?-endorphin expression. PMID:25221593

Zhang, Shenyu; Tang, Hailiang; Zhou, Junming; Gu, Yudong

2014-07-15

150

Brachial Plexus Injuries in Adults: Evaluation and Diagnostic Approach  

PubMed Central

The increased incidence of motor vehicle accidents during the past century has been associated with a significant increase in brachial plexus injuries. New imaging studies are currently available for the evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. Myelography, CT myelography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are indicated in the evaluation of brachial plexus. Moreover, a series of specialized electrodiagnostic and nerve conduction studies in association with the clinical findings during the neurologic examination can provide information regarding the location of the lesion, the severity of trauma, and expected clinical outcome. Improvements in diagnostic approaches and microsurgical techniques have dramatically changed the prognosis and functional outcome of these types of injuries. PMID:24967130

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Mazis, George A.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

151

Choroidal Metastasis from Follicular Cell Thyroid Carcinoma Masquerading as Circumscribed Choroidal Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Choroidal metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma are uncommon and usually present as an amelanotic lesion against a background of known systemic disease. We present the case of a 56-year-old woman with a thyroid metastatic focus with unusual clinical presentation, systemic involvement, and early response to systemic treatment. A review of the literature accompanies this case presentation. PMID:24744926

Papastefanou, V. P.; Arora, A. K.; Hungerford, J. L.; Cohen, V. M. L.

2014-01-01

152

Choroidal metastasis from follicular cell thyroid carcinoma masquerading as circumscribed choroidal haemangioma.  

PubMed

Choroidal metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma are uncommon and usually present as an amelanotic lesion against a background of known systemic disease. We present the case of a 56-year-old woman with a thyroid metastatic focus with unusual clinical presentation, systemic involvement, and early response to systemic treatment. A review of the literature accompanies this case presentation. PMID:24744926

Papastefanou, V P; Arora, A K; Hungerford, J L; Cohen, V M L

2014-01-01

153

In Vivo Human Choroidal Thickness Measurements: Evidence for Diurnal Fluctuations  

PubMed Central

Purpose The authors applied partial coherence interferometry (PCI) to estimate the thickness of the human choroid in vivo and to learn whether it fluctuates during the day. Methods By applying signal processing techniques to existing PCI tracings of human ocular axial length measurements, a signal modeling algorithm was developed and validated to determine the position and variability of a postretinal peak that, by analogy to animal studies, likely corresponds to the choroidal/scleral interface. The algorithm then was applied to diurnal axial eye length datasets. Results The postretinal peak was identified in 28% of subjects in the development and validation datasets, with mean subfoveal choroidal thicknesses of 307 and 293 ?m, respectively. Twenty-eight of 40 diurnal PCI datasets had at least two time points with identifiable postretinal peaks, yielding a mean choroidal thickness of 426 ?m and a mean high-low difference in choroidal thickness of 59.5 ± 24.2 ?m (range, 25.9–103 ?m). The diurnal choroidal thickness fluctuation was larger than twice the SE of measurement (24.5 ?m) in 16 of these 28 datasets. Axial length and choroidal thickness tended to fluctuate in antiphase. Conclusions Signal processing techniques provide choroidal thickness estimates in many, but not all, PCI datasets of axial eye measurements. Based on eyes with identifiable postretinal peaks at more than one time in a day, choroidal thickness varied over the day. Because of the established role of the choroid in retinal function and its possible role in regulating eye growth, further development and refinement of clinical methods to measure its thickness are warranted. PMID:18719079

Brown, Jamin S.; Flitcroft, D. Ian; Ying, Gui-shuang; Francis, Ellie L.; Schmid, Gregor F.; Quinn, Graham E.; Stone, Richard A.

2014-01-01

154

Risk of choroidal neovascularization among the uveitides  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the risk, risk factors, and visual impact of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in uveitis cases. Design Retrospective cohort study Methods Standardized medical record review at five tertiary centers. Results Among 15,137 uveitic eyes (8,868 patients), CNV was rare in the cases of anterior or intermediate uveitis. Among the 4,041 eyes (2,307 patients) with posterior or panuveitis, 81 (2.0%) presented with CNV. Risk factors included posterior uveitis in general and specific uveitis syndromes affecting the outer retina/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid interface. Among the 2,364 eyes (1,357 patients) with posterior or panuveitis and free of CNV at the time of cohort entry, the cumulative two-year incidence of CNV was 2.7% (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.8-3.5%). Risk factors for incident CNV included currently active inflammation (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.13, 95%CI: 1.26-3.60), preretinal neovascularization (aHR 3.19, 95%CI: 1.30-7.80), and prior diagnosis of CNV in the contralateral eye (aHR 5.79, 95%CI: 2.77-12.09). Among specific syndromes, the incidence was greater in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome (aHR 3.37, 95%CI: 1.52-7.46), and punctate inner choroiditis (aHR 8.67, 95%CI: 2.83-26.54). Incident CNV was associated with two lines’ loss of visual acuity (+0.19 logMAR units, 95%CI: 0.079–0.29) from the preceding visit. Conclusions CNV is an uncommon complication of uveitis associated with visual impairment, which more commonly occurs in forms affecting the outer retina/RPE/choroid interface, during periods of inflammatory activity, in association with preretinal neovascularization, and in second eyes of patients with unilateral CNV. Because CNV is treatable, a systematic approach to early detection in high-risk patients may be appropriate. PMID:23795984

Baxter, Sally L.; Pistilli, Maxwell; Pujari, Siddharth S.; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Kempen, John H.

2013-01-01

155

Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.  

PubMed

Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

2013-02-01

156

Choroid Development and Feasibility of Choroidal Imaging in the Preterm and Term Infants Utilizing SD-OCT  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine whether choroidal imaging is feasible in preterm and term infants using an 840-nm portable spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system without the use of enhanced-depth imaging techniques and to assess choroidal development by comparing choroidal thickness of preterm infants, term infants, and adults. Methods. SD-OCT images were obtained from 86 preterm infants, 59 term infants, and nine adults using a portable SD-OCT system plus nine adults using a tabletop system. An unprocessed image across the macula from one randomly selected eye of each participant was selected for determination of whether the choroidal-scleral junction (CSJ) could be visualized and for measurement of choroidal thickness. Results. Subfoveal CSJ was visualized in 96% of young-preterm infants (imaged from 30–36 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA]); 78% of term-aged preterm infants (imaged from 37–42 weeks PMA); 49% of term infants; and 39% of adult subjects. Racial pigmentation did not affect CSJ visibility in young-preterm infants (P = 0.57). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in young-preterm infants, term-aged preterm infants, term infants, and adults was 176 ± 53 ?m, 289 ± 92 ?m, 329 ± 66 ?m, and 258 ± 66 ?m, respectively, and these were all statistically significantly different from one another except term-aged preterms to adults. Conclusions. Infant choroid can be imaged with a portable SD-OCT system without enhanced depth imaging. Melanin in the RPE and choroid does not hinder outer choroidal imaging in young-preterm infants without advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In preterm infants, choroidal thickness increased with age but was thinner when compared to term infants suggesting delayed development due to ROP. PMID:23652488

Moreno, Tomas A.; O'Connell, Rachelle V.; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Farsiu, Sina; Cabrera, Michelle T.; Maldonado, Ramiro S.; Tran-Viet, Du; Freedman, Sharon F.; Wallace, David K.; Toth, Cynthia A.

2013-01-01

157

[Parameatal cysts of the penis].  

PubMed

Parameatal cysts of the penis are highly infrequent, benign cysts of varied sizes usually unilateral. Contribution of two cases of parameatal cysts of the penis, one and epidermoid inclusion, allegedly post hypospadias surgery, while the other one is similar to the middle raphe cysts and appears to derive from the endodermal debris following a defective closure of the urogenital folds. Treatment is by surgical excision; simple aspiration or marsupialization may result in relapse and unsatisfactory cosmetic results. PMID:9949581

Peyrí, E; Paga, J; Mira, X; Martínez, M; Sanmartí, B

1998-01-01

158

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue.

I. M. Tarlov

1970-01-01

159

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (mycotic cyst).  

PubMed

Phaeohyphomycosis designates fungal infections caused by pheoid or melanized fungi and characterized histopathologically by the presence of septate hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts. Etiologic agents include Exophiala, Phoma, Bipolaris, Phialophora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Alternaria, Exserohilum, and Phialemonium sp. The most common are Exophiala jeanselmei and Wangiella dermatitidis. The clinical presentation depends on the immune status of the host: superficial (tinea nigra and black piedra); cutaneous (scytalidiosis) and corneal; subcutaneous (mycotic cyst); and systemic phaeohyphomycosis in the immunocompromised host. The mycotic cyst is a localized form, characterized by subcutaneous asymptomatic nodular lesions that develop after traumatic implantation of fungi, especially on the extremities. The average size of the cysts is 2.5 cm. KOH examination reveals pigmented yeasts, pseudohyphae, and hyphae. A cutaneous biopsy specimen usually shows an abscess or a suppurative granuloma with pigmented yeasts and pseudohyphae. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but additional anti-fungal therapy is recommended for recurrent cases and immunocompromised patients. PMID:22682192

Isa-Isa, Rafael; García, Carlos; Isa, Mariel; Arenas, Roberto

2012-01-01

160

Bilateral lambdoid dermoid cyst.  

PubMed

Generally, dermoid and epidermoid cysts arise as a result of incomplete separation of the neuroectoderm from the superficial ectoderm with displacement of ectodermal elements along their lines of fusion during development. Dermoid cysts of the posterior head are rare lesions composed of epidermal and mesodermal elements. Furthermore, dermoid cysts in the occipital area are extremely rare. The presence of synchronous, bilateral occipital dermoids is quite rare and has not been reported previously. A unique case of lambdoidal dermoids in a 75-year-old woman is presented. Large right lesion was excised concurrently through direct skin incision, and a very small left mass was observed. And the etiology, natural history, management, and prognosis of dermoids are reviewed. PMID:24978680

Choi, Hwan Jun

2014-07-01

161

Giant intraabdominal endometrial cyst.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is the condition where endometrium gets implanted and flourishes outside the uterine cavity, most commonly in ovary and on the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity and viscera. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way similar to the endometrium inside the uterus. Symptoms often worsen with the menstrual cycle. We present a case of 50 years old female who presented with gross abdominal distension and abdominal pain over years. CT scan showed a huge intraabdominal cyst of unknown origin which was compressing adjacent structures. Patient underwent a high risk operation and whole cyst weighing 214 kg (471 lbs) was removed along with both ovaries and uterus. Histopathologically, it was reported as endometrial cyst. PMID:24953922

Shah, Azhar Ali; Soomro, Niaz Ahmed; Talib, Rabender Kumar; Sadhayo, Asif Nabi; Soomro, Suhail Ahmed

2014-06-01

162

Effects of muscarinic agents on chick choroids in intact eyes and eyecups: evidence for a muscarinic mechanism in choroidal thinning  

PubMed Central

Purpose In chicks, ocular growth inhibition is associated with choroidal thickening and growth stimulation with choroidal thinning, suggesting a mechanistic link between the two responses. Because muscarinic antagonists inhibit the development of myopia in animal models by a non-accommodative mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that agonists would stimulate eye growth and thin the choroid. We also hypothesized that the effective growth-inhibiting antagonists would thicken the choroid. Methods Chicks, age 12–16 days, were used. In vivo: Agonists: Single intravitreal injections (20 µL) of oxotremorine (oxo), pilocarpine (pilo), carbachol (carb), or arecaidine (arec) were given to otherwise untreated eyes. A-scan ultrasonography was done prior to injections, and at 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. Antagonists: — 10D lenses were worn on one eye for 4 days. Atropine (atro), pirenzepine (pirz), oxyphenonium (oxy) or dicyclomine (dicy) were injected (20 µL) daily into lens-wearing eyes; saline injections were done as controls. Ultrasonography was done on d1 and on d4; on d4 measurements were done before and 3 h after injections. In vitro Paired eyecups of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroid and sclera were made from 1-week old chicks. All drugs except atropine were tested on one eyecup, its pair in plain medium. Choroidal thickness was measured at various times over 48 h. Results Agonists: In vivo, oxotremorine caused an increase in the rate of axial elongation (drug vs saline: 24–72 h: 338 µm vs 250 µrn; p < 0.001). All except pilocarpine caused choroidal thinning by 24 h (oxo, carb and arec vs saline: ?25, ?35 and ?46 µm vs 3 µm). In vitro, all agonists thinned choroids by 24 h (oxo: ?6 vs 111 µm; pilo: 45 vs 212 µm; carb: ?58 vs 65 µm; arec: 47 vs 139 µm; p < 0.05). Antagonists: Atropine, pirenzepine and oxyphenonium inhibited the development of myopia in negative lens-wearing eyes, and also caused choroidal thickening (drug vs saline: 42, 80, 88 vs 10 µm per 3 h). In vitro, pirenzepine thickened choroids by 3 h (77 vs 2 µm, p < 0.01). Conclusions Muscarinic agonists caused choroidal thinning in intact eyes and eyecups, supporting a role for acetylcholine in the choroidal response to hyperopic defocus or form deprivation. Only oxotremorine stimulated eye growth, which is inconsistent with a muscarinic receptor mechanism for antagonist-induced eye growth inhibition. The dissociation between choroidal thinning and ocular growth stimulation for the other agonists in vivo suggest separate pathways for the two. PMID:23662958

Nickla, Debora L; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wallman, Josh

2013-01-01

163

Lumbosacral perineural cysts as a cause for neurogenic muscular hypertrophy.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 40 year-old man with a severe lesion of the anterior rami of the left spinal nerves L5 and S1 who showed hypertrophy of the leg and atrophy of the intrinsic foot and gluteal muscles. In the biopsy of the hypertrophied gastrocnemius muscle, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates were observed, apart from atrophied and hypertrophied muscle fibres. Electromyography revealed no pathologic spontaneous activity but chronic neurogenic changes. The precise site of the lesion was predicted by electrophysiologic investigations. The lesion was caused by two perineural cysts in the region of the upper sacral plexus, as demonstrated by MRI and CT of the small pelvis and confirmed at operation. Three years earlier, when almost only L5 muscles were affected, an intervertebral disc prolapse L5/S1 had been suspected on myelography and CT but could not have been confirmed at operation. PMID:9298339

Amoiridis, G; Wöhrle, J; Heye, N; Przuntek, H

1997-08-01

164

Spontaneous thoracic duct cyst.  

PubMed

Spontaneous and asymptomatic supraclavicular thoracic duct cysts (lymphoceles ) are rare. Only five cases have been reported so far. They are more common after surgery or trauma and have been reported in the abdomen, mediastinum, pelvis and neck. They must be differentiated from other neck cysts as failure to recognise their attachment may result in the disastrous consequence of chylothorax. A high index of suspicion is necessary, and diagnosis usually can be established by fine-needle aspiration and suitable imaging. This case is reported along with a review of the literature and management options, including that of inadvertent damage to the thoracic duct. PMID:12750920

Ray, J; Braithwaite, D; Patel, P J

2003-05-01

165

MRI of axillary brachial plexus blocks  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Axillary plexus blocks are usually guided by ultrasound, but alternative methods may be used when ultrasound equipment is lacking. For a nonultrasound-guided axillary block, the need for three injections has been questioned. OBJECTIVES Could differences in block success between single, double and triple deposits methods be explained by differences in local anaesthetic distribution as observed by MRI? DESIGN A blinded and randomised controlled study. SETTING Conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2009 to 2011. PATIENTS Forty-five ASA 1 to 2 patients scheduled for surgery were randomised to three equally sized groups. All patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Patients in the single-deposit group had an injection through a catheter parallel to the median nerve. In the double-deposit group the patients received a transarterial block. In the triple-deposit group the injections of the two other groups were combined. Upon completion of local anaesthetic injection the patients were scanned by MRI, before clinical block assessment. The distribution of local anaesthetic was scored by its closeness to terminal nerves and cords of the brachial plexus, as seen by MRI. The clinical effect was scored by the degree of sensory block in terminal nerve innervation areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensory block effect and MRI distribution pattern. RESULTS The triple-deposit method had a higher success rate (100%) than the single-deposit method (67%) and the double-deposit method (67%) in blocking all cutaneous nerves distal to the elbow (P?=?0.04). The patients in the triple-deposit group most often had the best MRI scores. For any nerve or cord, at least one of the single-deposit or double-deposit groups had a similarly high MRI score as the triple-deposit group. CONCLUSION Distal to the elbow, the triple-deposit method had the highest sensory block success rate. This could be explained to some extent by analysis of the magnetic resonance images. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01033006. PMID:25051144

Kjelstrup, Trygve; Hol, Per K.; Courivaud, Frederic; Smith, Hans-J?rgen; R?kkum, Magne; Klaastad, ?ivind

2014-01-01

166

Thermoablation of Liver Metastases: Efficacy of Temporary Celiac Plexus Block  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the efficacy of celiac plexus block during thermoablation of liver metastases. Methods. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent thermoablation therapy of liver tumors by laser-induced thermotherapy. Twenty-nine patients received a temporary celiac plexus block, 26 patients acted as control group. In both groups fentanyl and midazolam were administered intravenously upon request of the patient. The duration of the intervention, consumption of opiates, and individual pain sensations were documented. Results. No complications resulting from the celiac plexus block were recorded. Celiac plexus block significantly reduced the amount of pain medication used during thermoablation therapy of liver tumors (with block, 2.45 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight; without block, 3.58 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight, p < 0.05; midazolam consumption was not reduced) in patients with metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule. For metastases farther away from the capsule no significant differences in opiate consumption were seen. Celiac plexus block reduced the time for thermoablation significantly (178 min versus 147 min, p < 0.05) no matter how far the metastases were from the liver capsule. Average time needed to set the block was 12 min (range 9-15 min); additional costs for the block were marginal. As expected (as pain medications were given according to individual patients' needs) pain indices did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion. In patients with liver metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule, celiac plexus block reduces the amount of opiates necessary, simplifying patient monitoring. In addition celiac plexus block reduces intervention time, with positive effects on overall workflow for all patients.

Beck, A.N., E-mail: alexander.beck@charite.de; Schaefer, M.; Werk, M.; Pech, M.; Wieners, G.; Cho, C.; Ricke, J. [Universitaets Medicin Berlin, Charite, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2005-05-15

167

Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma.  

PubMed

We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n = 15; P = 0.001), 105.3 microns at 1 year (n = 10; P = 0.03), and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n = 7; P = 0.08). BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n = 26; P < 0.001), 2.8 lines (n = 20; P = 0.01) at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n = 13; P = 0.049) at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma. PMID:25147732

Mansour, Ahmad M; Arevalo, J Fernando; Al Kahtani, Eman; Zegarra, Hernando; Abboud, Emad; Anand, Rajiv; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sisk, Robert A; Mirza, Salman; Tuncer, Samuray; Navea Tejerina, Amparo; Mataix, Jorge; Ascaso, Francisco J; Pulido, Jose S; Guthoff, Rainer; Goebel, Winfried; Roh, Young Jung; Banker, Alay S; Gentile, Ronald C; Martinez, Isabel Alonso; Morris, Rodney; Panday, Neeraj; Min, Park Jung; Mercé, Emilie; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Massoud, Vicky; Ghazi, Nicola G

2014-01-01

168

Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.  

PubMed

Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

2009-12-01

169

Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study reported here was to assess choroidal thickness (CT) and central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Materials and methods A total of 151 eyes from 80 patients from the retina department of Istanbul Training and Research Hospital who had type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy were studied retrospectively in this cross-sectional research. Patients were divided into three groups: mild–moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy without macular edema (NPDR), mild–moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (DME), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In addition, 40 eyes of 20 healthy individuals comprised a control group. Choroidal thickness was measured from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-?m intervals up to 1,500 ?m temporal and nasal to the fovea. The CMT measurement was obtained for each eye. Serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Results The study included 191 eyes, comprising 151 eyes of 80 patients and 40 eyes of 20 healthy individuals. Of the 151 patient eyes, 61 had NPDR, 62 had PDR, and 28 eyes had DME. There was no statistically significant difference in age between the groups (P>0.05). In both the PDR and DME groups, the CT was statistically significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.001, P<0.001 for the PDR and DME groups, respectively). The mean CMT in the DME group was increased significantly compared with both the NPDR and PDR groups (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). In all three groups, serum HbA1c levels were found to be increased significantly compared with the control group (P=0.000). We found a statistically weak–moderate negative correlation between central macular and foveal CT (r=?289, P=0.000). There was a statistically strong correlation between CMT and HbA1c levels (r=0.577, P=0.483) and a statistically weak–moderate negative correlation between the central CT and HbA1c levels (r=?0.331, P<0.001). Conclusion Diabetes changes the CT. CT was found to be significantly decreased in the DME and PDR groups. PMID:24707168

Unsal, Erkan; Eltutar, Kadir; Zirtiloglu, Sibel; Dincer, Nurhan; Ozdogan Erkul, Sezin; Gungel, Hulya

2014-01-01

170

Iatrogenic Intraspinal Epidermoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right extremity as well as urinary dysfunction and sphincter dysfunction. She had a lumbar puncture three times due to Pneumococcal meningitis when she was 13 years old. The well-circumscribed intradural extramedullary mass of 1.8×1.6×4 cm size was found on the L4-5 in a magnetic resonance image. Gross total tumor removal was garried out after the total laminectomy L5 and partial laminectomy L4. The tumor mass was gray-colored and so fragile that it was easy to be removed. The histological diagnosis confirmed epidermoid cyst without malignancy. After the operation, the patient progressively showed remarkable neurological recovery. In this case, the cause of epidermoid cyst is considered iatrogenic concerning history of several times of lumbar puncture as meningitis.

Park, Min Ho; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-01-01

171

Hatch-a-Cyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the optimal environment for hatching brine shrimp? Using a scaffold, learners design and conduct experiments testing the effect of a single abiotic factor on brine shrimp cyst hatch rate. Pool results from the group to determine the optimal environment for hatching these resilient organisms.

Utah, University O.

2009-01-01

172

Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography  

E-print Network

We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a ...

Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar

173

Intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage in the Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe a patient with Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome who developed a nonsimultaneous intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage in each eye.METHOD: Interventional case report. A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome developed a choroidal hemorrhage in the left eye during vitrectomy for a complicated retinal detachment with a poor visual outcome. Fifteen years later, she developed a macula on retinal detachment in the

Tamer H Mahmoud; Vincent A Deramo; Terry Kim; Sharon Fekrat

2002-01-01

174

Retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report a case of retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization.METHODS: Case report. A 74-year-old woman with exudative age-related macular degeneration and classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization RE underwent photodynamic therapy with verteporfin.RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography RE disclosed a retinal pigment epithelial tear in the area of photodynamic therapy.CONCLUSION: This case presents the first report

Faik Gelisken; Werner Inhoffen; Michael Partsch; Ulrike Schneider; Ingrid Kreissig

2001-01-01

175

Automatic segmentation of choroidal thickness in optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

The assessment of choroidal thickness from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human choroid is an important clinical and research task, since it provides valuable information regarding the eye’s normal anatomy and physiology, and changes associated with various eye diseases and the development of refractive error. Due to the time consuming and subjective nature of manual image analysis, there is a need for the development of reliable objective automated methods of image segmentation to derive choroidal thickness measures. However, the detection of the two boundaries which delineate the choroid is a complicated and challenging task, in particular the detection of the outer choroidal boundary, due to a number of issues including: (i) the vascular ocular tissue is non-uniform and rich in non-homogeneous features, and (ii) the boundary can have a low contrast. In this paper, an automatic segmentation technique based on graph-search theory is presented to segment the inner choroidal boundary (ICB) and the outer choroidal boundary (OCB) to obtain the choroid thickness profile from OCT images. Before the segmentation, the B-scan is pre-processed to enhance the two boundaries of interest and to minimize the artifacts produced by surrounding features. The algorithm to detect the ICB is based on a simple edge filter and a directional weighted map penalty, while the algorithm to detect the OCB is based on OCT image enhancement and a dual brightness probability gradient. The method was tested on a large data set of images from a pediatric (1083 B-scans) and an adult (90 B-scans) population, which were previously manually segmented by an experienced observer. The results demonstrate the proposed method provides robust detection of the boundaries of interest and is a useful tool to extract clinical data. PMID:24409381

Alonso-Caneiro, David; Read, Scott A.; Collins, Michael J.

2013-01-01

176

Automatic segmentation of choroidal thickness in optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

The assessment of choroidal thickness from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human choroid is an important clinical and research task, since it provides valuable information regarding the eye's normal anatomy and physiology, and changes associated with various eye diseases and the development of refractive error. Due to the time consuming and subjective nature of manual image analysis, there is a need for the development of reliable objective automated methods of image segmentation to derive choroidal thickness measures. However, the detection of the two boundaries which delineate the choroid is a complicated and challenging task, in particular the detection of the outer choroidal boundary, due to a number of issues including: (i) the vascular ocular tissue is non-uniform and rich in non-homogeneous features, and (ii) the boundary can have a low contrast. In this paper, an automatic segmentation technique based on graph-search theory is presented to segment the inner choroidal boundary (ICB) and the outer choroidal boundary (OCB) to obtain the choroid thickness profile from OCT images. Before the segmentation, the B-scan is pre-processed to enhance the two boundaries of interest and to minimize the artifacts produced by surrounding features. The algorithm to detect the ICB is based on a simple edge filter and a directional weighted map penalty, while the algorithm to detect the OCB is based on OCT image enhancement and a dual brightness probability gradient. The method was tested on a large data set of images from a pediatric (1083 B-scans) and an adult (90 B-scans) population, which were previously manually segmented by an experienced observer. The results demonstrate the proposed method provides robust detection of the boundaries of interest and is a useful tool to extract clinical data. PMID:24409381

Alonso-Caneiro, David; Read, Scott A; Collins, Michael J

2013-01-01

177

Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks: review and current practice.  

PubMed

This article reviews the possible revival of the supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade due to the use of ultrasound guidance. The brachial plexus is a complex network of nerves, extending from the neck to the axilla, which supplies motor and sensory fibers to the upper extremity. Understanding the complexities of the formation and structure of the brachial plexus remains a cornerstone for effective regional anaesthesia. On the level of the supraclavicular fossa, the plexus is most compactly arranged. The supraclavicular approach of the brachial plexus has a high success rate including blockade of the ulnar and musculocutaneous nerve, which can be missed respectively with the interscalene and axillary approach. However, because of the proximity of the pleura, most anaesthesiologists have been reluctant to perform this supraclavicular approach. The introduction of ultrasound guidance techniques not only reduces the possible risk of pneumothorax but also allows a faster onset time of the block with a reduction of the local anaesthetic dose. This makes the supraclavicular approach a valuable alternative to the axillary, interscalene and infraclavicular approach for upper limb surgery. PMID:22783706

Vermeylen, K; Engelen, S; Sermeus, L; Soetens, F; Van de Velde, M

2012-01-01

178

Celiac plexus block in the management of chronic abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain is a devastating problem for patients and providers, due to the difficulty of effectively treating the entity. Both benign and malignant conditions can lead to chronic abdominal pain. Precision in diagnosis is required before effective treatment can be instituted. Celiac Plexus Block is an interventional technique utilized for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the treatment of abdominovisceral pain. The richly innervated plexus provides sensory input about pathologic processes in the liver, pancreas, spleen, omentum, alimentary tract to the mid-transverse colon, adrenal glands, and kidney. Chronic pancreatitis and chronic pain from pancreatic cancer have been treated with celiac plexus block to theoretically decrease the side effects of opioid medications and to enhance analgesia from medications. Historically, the block was performed by palpation and identification of bony and soft tissue anatomy; currently, various imaging modalities are at the disposal of the interventionalist for the treatment of pain. Fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT) guidance and endoscopic ultrasound assistance may be utilized to aid the practitioner in performing the blockade of the celiac plexus. The choice of radiographic technology depends on the specialty of the interventionalist, with gastroenterologists favoring endoscopic ultrasound and interventional pain physicians and radiologists preferring CT guidance. A review is presented describing the indications, technical aspects, and agents utilized to block the celiac plexus in patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain. PMID:24414338

Rana, Maunak V; Candido, Kenneth D; Raja, Omar; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

2014-02-01

179

Rehabilitation of brachial plexus injuries in adults and children.  

PubMed

Management of brachial plexus injury sequelae is a challenging issue in neurorehabilitation. In the last decades great strides have been made in the areas of early diagnosis and surgical techniques. Conversely, rehabilitation of brachial plexus injury is a relatively unexplored field. Some critical aspects regarding brachial plexus injury rehabilitation have to be acknowledged. First, brachial plexus injury may result in severe and chronic impairments in both adults and children, thus requiring an early and long-lasting treatment. Second, nerve damage causes a multifaceted clinical picture consisting of sensorimotor disturbances (pain, muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, secondary deformities) as well as reorganization of the Central Nervous System that may be associated with upper limb underuse, even in case of peripheral injured nerves repair. Finally, psychological problems and a lack of cooperation by the patient may limit rehabilitation effects and increase disability. In the present paper the literature concerning brachial plexus injury deficits and rehabilitation in both adults and children was reviewed and discussed. Although further research in this field is recommended, current evidence supports the potential role of rehabilitation in reducing both early and long-lasting disability. Furthermore, the complexity of the functional impairment necessitates an interdisciplinary approach incorporating various health professionals in order to optimizing outcomes. PMID:23075907

Smania, N; Berto, G; La Marchina, E; Melotti, C; Midiri, A; Roncari, L; Zenorini, A; Ianes, P; Picelli, A; Waldner, A; Faccioli, S; Gandolfi, M

2012-09-01

180

Choroidal Excavation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of choroidal excavation accompanied by Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH). Methods A 54-year-old Japanese woman who was complaining of bilateral blurring of vision associated with headache underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography as well as a routine ophthalmological examination. Results Fundoscopy showed papilloedema and serous retinal detachment in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography detected bilateral multifocal leakage with pooling of dye in the subretinal space. Indocyanine green angiography showed patches of hyperfluorescence and hypofluorescent spots bilaterally. A diagnosis of VKH was reached soon afterwards. OCT of the left eye revealed the presence of a unilateral choroidal excavation under the fovea and subretinal fibrin over the site of the excavation. Treatment successfully resolved VKH symptoms with gradual resolution of subretinal fibrin and fluid; however, the choroidal excavation remained. Conclusions This case is the first report of choroidal excavation associated with VKH. Our results suggest that choroidal excavation can be induced by choroidal inflammation caused by VKH. PMID:25202266

Hashida, Noriyasu; Fok, Andrew; Nishida, Kohji

2014-01-01

181

Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods This is an observational case report. Results A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS) line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field. PMID:24987363

Asao, Kazunobu; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nakada, Atsuko; Kawasaki, Yoshimi

2014-01-01

182

Calretinin expression in odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein with a possible role as a calcium buffer, calcium-sensor, or regulator of apoptosis. Calretinin is expressed in neural tissue, is a specific marker of mesothelial cells, and has been demonstrated in the odontogenic epithelium during odontogenesis in rat molar tooth germs. Moreover, it has been found to be expressed in a high proportion of solid, unicystic, and multicystic ameloblastomas, whereas, on the contrary, no positive staining has been found in odontogenic keratocysts, residual cysts, and dentigerous cysts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate calretinin expression in radicular cysts, follicular cysts, orthokeratinized keratocysts, and parakeratinized keratocysts. A total of 70 odontogenic cysts, 24 radicular cysts, 24 follicular cysts, and 22 odontogenic keratocysts (10 orthokeratinized keratocysts, 12 parakeratinized keratocysts) were evaluated. All the radicular cysts, follicular cysts, and orthokeratinized keratocysts were negative. However in 8 of 12 parakeratinized keratocysts, there was a positivity to calretinin in the parabasal-intermediate layers of the cyst epithelium. This positivity to calretinin in the parabasal layers in parakeratinized keratocysts, similar to that found for other markers like PCNA and p53, could point to an abnormal control of the cell cycle and could help to explain the differences in the clinical and pathologic behavior of odontogenic keratocysts, in particular the differences found between orthokeratinized keratocysts and parakeratinized keratocysts. PMID:12814222

Piattelli, Adriano; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Rubini, Corrado

2003-06-01

183

Respiratory arrest in patients undergoing arteriovenous graft placement with supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a case series.  

PubMed

Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is commonly used for upper extremity surgery. Respiratory arrest in three patients with end-stage renal disease after ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block for creation of an arteriovenous graft over a 6-month period is presented. Patients with renal failure may represent a group at particular risk for respiratory failure following supraclavicular brachial plexus block. PMID:23830847

Afonso, Anoushka; Beilin, Yaakov

2013-06-01

184

Primary axillary hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (or Taenia echinococcus). The adult form of the parasite lives in the gut of the dog, while the intermediate hosts, where the tapeworm develops to larval stage are cats, cattle, pigs and humans(considered to be accidental intermediate hosts). The parasite has a worldwide distribution, but the endemic areas are Canada and Alaska, Australia, New Zealand, South America and the Mediterranean region. Hydatid cyst can grow many years before the symptoms and clinical signs appear. The liver and the lungs are the most affected organs, but primary location of the hydatid disease in the axilla is extremely rare. In our country we did not find any records of axillary hydatid disease, while the literature contains only 12 cases of axillary location. We present the case of a woman, 60 years old, with a primary axillary location of hydatid cyst, who underwent a total cystectomy. PMID:25149625

Mercu?, D; Andri?oiu, A; Tra?c?, Et; Silo?i, C; Resceanu, A; Mercu?, R

2014-01-01

185

Intraspinal Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of juxtafacet cysts is closely related to degenerative instability of the lumbar spine and degenerative changes in the ligamentum flavum and the facet joint. A 56-year-old man presented with severe right thigh pain and numbness for 1 month after a laminar fracture of the L4 spine. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogenous cystic mass surrounding the facet joint between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae on the right side. Conservative therapy was unsuccessful and the lesion was removed by surgical decompression alone without fusion. The histological examination showed a fragmented, cystic wall-like structure composed of myxoid degenerative tissue without lining epithelium. Here we present this case of a ganglion cyst that appeared to be associated with facet joint instability. PMID:23323226

Mun, Jong Hyeon; Lim, Byung Chan; Lim, Jun Seob; Cho, Kyu Yong

2012-01-01

186

Intraspinal ganglion cyst.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of juxtafacet cysts is closely related to degenerative instability of the lumbar spine and degenerative changes in the ligamentum flavum and the facet joint. A 56-year-old man presented with severe right thigh pain and numbness for 1 month after a laminar fracture of the L4 spine. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogenous cystic mass surrounding the facet joint between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae on the right side. Conservative therapy was unsuccessful and the lesion was removed by surgical decompression alone without fusion. The histological examination showed a fragmented, cystic wall-like structure composed of myxoid degenerative tissue without lining epithelium. Here we present this case of a ganglion cyst that appeared to be associated with facet joint instability. PMID:23323226

Mun, Jong Hyeon; Lee, Rae Seop; Lim, Byung Chan; Lim, Jun Seob; Cho, Kyu Yong

2012-12-01

187

Maxillary Air Cyst  

PubMed Central

Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

2013-01-01

188

Cervical synovial cyst: case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old female school teacher with a six-week history of left-sided scapular and arm pain is presented. We report her evaluation and treatment Although lumbar degenerative synovial cysts have been reported over 200 times in the literature,6 cervical synovial cysts are much more rare. This case reports a cervicothoracic junction degenerative synovial cyst presenting as radiculopathy. PMID:22096444

Found, Ernest; Bewyer, Dennis

2011-01-01

189

[Mesenteric cysts (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Mesenteric cysts belong to the rare abdominal diseases. Histomorphologically, they are classified as cystic lymphangiomas. Even though most frequently localized in the mesentery of the small intestine, they can originate from any part of the abdominal cavity with two peritoneal linings. The content of the cysts is either serous or chylous possessing immunologic active proteins. This is demonstrated by its highly antibacterial activity. Whereas in children the onset of symptoms is acute due to intestinal obstruction, in adults it is mainly chronic abdominal pains without exact localisation and often in combination with a longstanding palpable tumour. In addition to routine procedure the diagnostics includes sonography, cavography and barium meal radiography of the stomach and intestines. In some cases, especially those with solid parts angiography and computer-tomography are of additional value. Surgery is the therapeutic method of choice. Preference is given to enucleation and resection with or without removal of part of the intestine corresponding to the mesentery baring the cyst. Drainage methods are of historical interest only. In our 9 cases (3 children and 6 adults) resection was performed in 7 and enucleation in 2 cases. The postoperative courses were uneventful. PMID:7269838

Pfeiffer, M; Lambrecht, W; de Heer, K

1981-01-01

190

Nonsurgical treatment for symptomatic nonparasitic liver cyst.  

PubMed

Liver cysts seldom become symptomatic. For the few requiring intervention, various surgical modalities have been described. Cyst fluid has been removed by simple needle aspiration. Injection of formalin into echinococcus cysts at time of operation is not uncommon. In an analogy to the treatment of kidney cysts, we evacuated a large symptomatic liver cyst by percutaneous drainage and instilled alcohol as a sclerosing agent. This simple procedure may be sufficient treatment for selected symptomatic nonparasitic liver cysts. PMID:3901732

Trinkl, W; Sassaris, M; Hunter, F M

1985-11-01

191

A noninvasive eye fixation monitoring system for CyberKnife radiotherapy of choroidal and orbital tumors  

SciTech Connect

A new noninvasive monitoring system for fixing the eye has been developed to treat orbital and choroidal tumors with CyberKnife-based radiotherapy. This device monitors the eye during CT/MRI scanning and during treatment. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of the fixation light system for CyberKnife-based treatments of orbital and choroidal tumors and supports the idea that larger choroidal melanomas and choroidal metastases could be treated with CyberKnife without implanting fiducial markers.

Daftari, I. K.; Petti, P. L.; Larson, D. A.; O'Brien, J. M.; Phillips, T. L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2009-03-15

192

Myenteric plexus neuropathy in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myenteric plexus and intramuscular nerve bundles in the circular muscle layer of the pylorus from 37 children with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) obtained at pyloromyotomy were studied by light and electron microscopy and compared to six control cases without clinical evidence of IHPS. In certain IHPS cases degenerative alterations of the axons predominated. The axonal changes consisted of

R. Dieler; J. M. Schröder

1989-01-01

193

Learn the Brachial Plexus in Five Minutes or Less  

E-print Network

is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the VA Gulf Coast Veterans Health and Rehabilitation Department of Veterans Affairs, Biloxi, Mississippi and Dennis A. Chu, M.D. This material view of the Department of Veterans Affairs of the U.S. Government. #12;The brachial plexus contains

Finley Jr., Russell L.

194

Lumbar plexus block: Safe anesthesia for hip surgery  

PubMed Central

General anesthesia and neuraxial blockade have their own advantages and disadvantages over each other when used for hip surgery. Single shot lumbar plexus block can be the choice of the anesthetic technique for postrenal transplant, immunocompromised, postspinal surgery patient to undergo dynamic hip screw surgery.

Sarkar (Mitra), T.; Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, G.; Rupert, E.

2012-01-01

195

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm{sup 3} (range, 151-1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9-76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong [Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Il, E-mail: jilee@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-01

196

Role of NO in Choroidal Blood Flow Regulation during Isometric Exercise in Healthy Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of basal choroidal blood flow. Animal experiments indicate that NO is also involved in choroidal blood flow regulation during changes in ocular perfusion pressure and inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) has been reported to shift choroidal pressure- flow curves to the right. The hypothesis for the study was that inhibition of NOS

Alexandra Luksch; Elzbieta Polska; Andrea Imhof; Joanne Schering; Gabriele Fuchsjager-Mayrl; Michael Wolzt; Leopold Schmetterer

2003-01-01

197

MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo  

E-print Network

MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization in vivo William on retinal homeostasis with age and on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. Methods: The distribution, et al. (2012) MFGE8 Does Not Influence Chorio-Retinal Homeostasis or Choroidal Neovascularization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Blood Flow MRI of the Human Retina/Choroid during Rest and Isometric Exercise  

E-print Network

Retina Blood Flow MRI of the Human Retina/Choroid during Rest and Isometric Exercise Yi Zhang,1. To investigate blood flow (BF) in the human retina/ choroid during rest and handgrip isometric exercise using acquisition (every 4.6 seconds). RESULTS. Robust BF of the unanesthetized human retina/ choroid was detected

Duong, Timothy Q.

199

Method for surgical access to the brachial plexus.  

PubMed

Problem of brachial plexus injuries is deemed one of the most topical in contemporary surgery. Irrespective of the newest achievements in medical science and technique, outcomes of treatment of brachial plexus injuries are yet incapable to be estimated as satisfactory. Quality of technical performance in many respects depends on convenience of access to the structures to be operated. The deficiency of the offered methods is that they are incapable to ensure sufficiently wide access to indicated structures, thus making operation more complicated and long and depressing functional and esthetical outcomes of the surgical treatment. The method, offered by us, is deemed to be solution of the above-mentioned problems. The core of the method is making of additional incision along lateral side of the horizontal wound, cutting out collarbone segment along the sides of wound and peeling up the formed rectangular clout, ensuring the wide access to the appropriate structures. We have examined and operated 59 patients with pathologies of brachial plexus and nearby structures. In 22 cases, where we applied the methodology offered by us, the above-mentioned complications did not arise: wide access facilitated technical aspect of the operation, reducing the duration of corresponding operation by in average 13-20%. Healing of wounds in both cases -- singularity-free. Controlling X-ray have shown successful coalescence of cut-off segments of collarbone without any deformation along axis. Method for ensuring access to brachial plexus, offered by us, provides more extensive and easier mobilization of plexus elements and nearby structures, facilitates technical side of the operation, shortens duration of surgical operation, and, finally, improves outcomes of treatment. PMID:16510901

Pheradze, I; Pheradze, T; Baratashvili, M

2006-01-01

200

Simple cyst of urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure. PMID:25125900

Bo, Yang

2014-07-01

201

Scintigraphic features of choledochal cyst  

SciTech Connect

The scintigraphic appearances of 12 surgically proven cases of choledochal cyst were retrospectively reviewed. In seven of 12 cases, radionuclide accumulated in the choledochal cyst (i.e., the dilated common bile duct) in less than 1 hr. In three additional cases, delayed accumulation (1-24 hr) within the cyst was seen. In two of the 12 cases, no ductal activity appeared and the diagnosis of choledochal cyst could not be made, although in one of these two cases delayed images were not obtained. Other frequent findings included delayed or nonvisualization of the gallbladder (11 of 12) and the appearance of prominent intrahepatic ducts (five of 12). We conclude that hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a noninvasive test useful in the diagnosis of choledochal cyst.

Camponovo, E.; Buck, J.L.; Drane, W.E.

1989-05-01

202

Photocoagulation of choroidal neovascular membranes with a diode laser.  

PubMed Central

Nine eyes with parafoveal choroidal neovascular membranes due to age-related macular degeneration or angioid streaks were treated with a diode laser and were followed up to 40 weeks (mean 26 weeks). Angiographically proved closure of the membrane was achieved in seven eyes. Four lesions needed a second treatment for growth of subretinal neovascular tissue. Post-treatment visual acuity ranged from 6/9 to 6/60. Two eyes developed subfoveal membranes resulting in poor visual acuity. The morphology of the diode laser lesions differed from that of the argon green laser and was more similar to that of the krypton laser, producing a 'black hole' on the fluorescein positive print. In one particular eye fluorescein angiography revealed subfoveal choroidal non-perfusion next to the site of the diode lesion suggesting choroidal vascular closure. Images PMID:7684256

Ulbig, M W; McHugh, D A; Hamilton, A M

1993-01-01

203

Diagnosis and Monitoring of Choroidal Osteoma through Multimodal Imaging  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old Caucasian female with a 6-month history of decreased visual acuity and metamorphopsia in the left eye is reported. The fundus of the left eye revealed a well defined lesion in the macula region. Diagnosis of choroidal osteoma was established using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICG), and B-scan ultrasonography. Subretinal fluid (SRF) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachment were noted in the absence of obvious classic choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). The patient was followed up for over 13 months without any treatment in the interim and the lesion was noted to have enlarged but visual acuity and SRF had remained stable. We report an interesting case where subretinal fluid was noted in the absence of evident choroidal neovascularisation and provide an example of the imaging modalities application in the era of “optical biopsy.” PMID:25276141

Empeslidis, Theodoros; Imrani, Usman; Mushtaq, Fizza; Fotiou, Pandelis; Kumar, Periyasami; Banerjee, Somnath; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T.

2014-01-01

204

Popliteal cysts: a current review.  

PubMed

Baker's cyst, or popliteal cyst, is a fluid-filled mass that is a distention of a preexisting bursa in the popliteal fossa, most commonly the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa. This bursa is unique in that it communicates with the knee joint, unlike other periarticular bursae, via an opening in the joint capsule posterior to the medial femoral condyle. Many have theorized that this opening creates a valve-like mechanism in the presence of effusion that contributes to the formation of these cysts in adults. Popliteal cysts rarely manifest alone and are most often found in conjunction with other intra-articular pathologies and inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis, meniscus tears, and rheumatoid arthritis. In children, popliteal cysts are only occasionally associated with these conditions and are more often an incidental finding discovered during a routine physical examination. Popliteal cysts may present as either a chronically persistent or relapsing condition or as an acute and dramatic condition that can occur in the case of cyst rupture presenting as pseudothrombophlebitis. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proven to be consistent and accurate in the confirmation of popliteal cysts, with magnetic resonance imaging becoming the modern imaging modality of choice. This review discusses the anatomy and etiology of popliteal cysts, describes the common clinical presentations, reviews the differential diagnoses, and provides guidance for proper diagnostic imaging. It also provides a comparison of current conservative, minimally invasive, and invasive treatment options, along with a discussion of results. Postoperative rehabilitation depends largely on the condition associated with the popliteal cyst. PMID:25102502

Herman, Alyssa M; Marzo, John M

2014-08-01

205

Alternative filtration methods for removal of Giardia cysts and cyst models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent occurrence of waterborne glardiasis outbreaks has spurred renewed interest in water filtration for cyst removal. Studies with cyst models and Giardia muris cysts suggest that properly operated water filtration plants should be able to remove a high percentage of G. lamblia cysts. For effective cyst removal, diatomaceous earth (DE) filters need 1.0 kg\\/m² diatomite precoat plus body feed,

Gary S. Logsdon; James M. Symons; Robert L. Hoye Jr.; Michael M. Arozarena

1981-01-01

206

Idiopathic choroidal neovascular membrane in a young female  

PubMed Central

A case of idiopathic choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) is described in a 17-year-old female patient. On initial examination her vision was counting fingers at one meter in the left eye (OS) and Fluorescein angiography showed a well-defined hyperfluorescent area corresponding to the CNVM. Intravitreal bevacizumab was injected into OS, and at a five-week follow-up visit, visual acuity improved to 20/100 OS. This case is unusual, in that the CNVM developed in a young lady with no significant past medical history and with the absence of a choroidal or retinal pigment epithelial disease process that may be associated with a CNVM. PMID:20927211

Waheeb, Saad Abdullah; Showail, Mahmood Jameel

2009-01-01

207

Choroidal schwannoma in a 6-month-old girl.  

PubMed

Choroidal schwannomas are exceedingly rare in children, with only 6 cases reported in children younger than 18 years of age and none in those younger than 9 years. We report a 6-month-old infant presenting with a large noncalcified amelanotic mass with secondary glaucoma that mimicked an atypical retinoblastoma, leading to emergent enucleation for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Pathology revealed a total retinal detachment, glaucomatous damage, and a large mass arising from the peripapillary posterior choroid with areas of Antoni A pattern and S-100 staining consistent with the diagnosis of an intraocular schwannoma. This is the first intraocular schwannoma described in an infant. PMID:24698624

Chen, John J; Kamberos, Natalie L; O'Dorisio, M Sue; Syed, Nasreen A; Boldt, Culver

2014-04-01

208

Blake's pouch cyst  

PubMed Central

Background: In 1900, Joseph Blake described a transient posterior evagination of the tela choroidea of the fourth ventricle in the normal 130-day old human embryo. He was the first to recognize and fully elucidate on the real nature of the foramen of Magendie as an aperture, which develops within a saccular expansion of the embryonic fourth ventricular cavity. The persistence of this temporary fourth ventricular outpouching into the postnatal period and its significance either as separate entity or as an entity within the Dandy–Walker continuum has over the years been one of the most controversial topics in both neurosurgical and neuroradiological literature. Methods: A search of the medical literature was conducted for publications addressing the historical, embryological, and neuororadiological features as well as the clinical presentation and management of persistent Blake's pouch. Results: The literature on the various features of Blake's pouch cyst has limited areas of consensus between various authors. Conclusion: Blake's pouch cyst is a rare entity that is thought to belong to the Dandy–Walker continuum. It has a variable clinical presentation and when symptomatic can be treated with an endoscopic third ventriculostomy or shunting. PMID:25101207

Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Elmansoury, Tamer M.; Salaheddin, Waleed; Nasim, Khurram; Parwez, Aslam

2014-01-01

209

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts  

PubMed Central

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

Tarlov, I. M.

1970-01-01

210

[Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].  

PubMed

Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

2008-01-01

211

Pericardial cyst simulating intracardiac mass  

SciTech Connect

Although pericardial celomic or mesothelial cysts are infrequent mediastinal lesions, they represent the most common benign mass lesion of the pericardium. Most often they are located at the right cardiophrenic junction. As a rule, they are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally on routine chest radiography. A symptomatic pericardial cyst is described in a patient with congestive cardiomyopathy, causing progressive atypical chest pain, dyspnea, and palpitation. On computer tomography (CT) and other imaging methods, the lesion simulated a cardiac mass. Thoracotomy revealed a large hemorrhagic pericardial celomic cyst compressing and displacing the heart and midmediastinal vasculature.

Patel, B.K.; Markivee, C.R.; George, E.A.

1983-08-01

212

Calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with an orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst.  

PubMed

Odontogenic tumors composed of two or more distinct types of lesions are unusual. In this paper, a case of an odontogenic lesion characterized by simultaneous occurrence of areas of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) and orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is described. The lesion was asymptomatic and presented at the radiographic examination as a unilocular well-delimited radiolucency extending from left incisor to right premolar area in the mandible. To date, this is the first report of COC associated with an OOC. PMID:20614303

de Fátima Bernardes, Vanessa; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; de Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

2008-12-01

213

Anatomical structure of the brachial plexus in the merlin (Falco columbarius).  

PubMed

This study aimed to document the detailed features of the morphological structure and the innervation areas of the brachial plexus in Merlin (Falco columbarius). The skin and muscles of five adult male Merlins were dissected under the stereo microscope. The Merlin had two plexus trunks. The accessory brachial plexus consisted of ventral rami C10 and C11. C11 was divided into two branches: the cranial and caudal. The brachial plexus was composed of a rather complex network involving the ventral rami of C11-C13, T1 and T2. In addition, a thin branch from the last two cervical sympathetic nerves participated in the plexus formation. C12, C13 and T1 had rather thick trunk. C12, C13 and T1 were also involved in the formation of the brachial plexus emerging after 1 cm from the foramen inter-vertebrale as three trunk roots. PMID:23464686

Çevik-Demirkan, A

2014-02-01

214

Pigment Epithelium Endoscopic Laser Surgery for Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To present a new concept and technique for subretinal surgery. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were included in this study. Nine patients were operated on in Mexico City by one surgeon, 15 patients in Frankfurt by another surgeon. The retina at the posterior pole was detached and subretinal thermal photocoagulation of the CNVs

Frank H. J. Koch; Hugo Quiroz-Mercado; Lars-Olof Hattenbach; Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo; Itamr Yesurun; Albert Augustin; K. Peter Luloh; Christian Ohrloff

2004-01-01

215

Complete infarction of the eye complicating a choroidal malignant melanoma.  

PubMed Central

Infarction of malignant melanoma of the choroid has been previously reported, but infarction of the whole eye in association with infarction of melanoma is a rare event that has not been previously described. We present such a case and discuss the possible pathogenesis. Images PMID:1873265

Jones, H; Manners, R; Elkington, A R; Weller, R O

1991-01-01

216

Vascular adhesion protein-1 blockade suppresses choroidal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial cell adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte recruitment. Leukocytes and, in particular, macrophages play an important role in the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), an integral component of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previously, we showed a role for VAP-1 in ocular inflammation. Here, we investigate the expression of VAP-1 in the choroid and its role in CNV development. VAP-1 was expressed in the choroid, exclusively in the vessels, and colocalized in the vessels of the CNV lesions. VAP-1 blockade with a novel and specific inhibitor significantly decreased CNV size, fluorescent angiographic leakage, and the accumulation of macrophages in the CNV lesions. Furthermore, VAP-1 blockade significantly reduced the expression of inflammation-associated molecules such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -?, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) -1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) -1. This work provides evidence for an important role of VAP-1 in the recruitment of macrophages to CNV lesions, establishing a novel link between VAP-1 and angiogenesis. Inhibition of VAP-1 may become a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AMD.—Noda, K., She, H., Nakazawa, T., Hisatomi, T., Nakao, S., Almulki, L., Zandi, S., Miyahara, S., Ito, Y., Thomas, K. L., Garland, R. C., Miller, J. W., Gragoudas, E. S., Mashima, Y., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Vascular adhesion protein-1 blockade suppresses choroidal neovascularization. PMID:18436961

Noda, Kousuke; She, Haicheng; Nakazawa, Toru; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakao, Shintaro; Almulki, Lama; Zandi, Souska; Miyahara, Shinsuke; Ito, Yasuhiro; Thomas, Kennard L.; Garland, Rebecca C.; Miller, Joan W.; Gragoudas, Evangelos S.; Mashima, Yukihiko; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

2008-01-01

217

Central areolar choroidal dystrophy with associated dominant drusen  

PubMed Central

Introduction Central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD) is a rare, inherited disease that can lead to profound visual disturbance. It is characterized by atrophic changes, particularly in the macula. Specific genotypic mutations are responsible for the autosomal dominant form of this disease. However, there is a distinct retinal dystrophy that combines central areolar choroidal dystrophy with autosomal dominantly inherited drusen. It has been proposed that patients with a specific mutation in the peripherin/RDS gene may manifest a combined presentation. Case report Here we describe a case of a patient who reported with significantly decreased best-corrected visual acuity of fifteen years of duration in the right eye more than the left. Dilated fundus examination found macular changes that were consistent with central areolar choroidal dystrophy. In addition, there was evidence of surrounding congenital drusen throughout the arcades of both eyes. Electrodiagnostics, optical coherence tomography, and fundus fluorescein angiography were used to confirm the diagnosis of CACD. Conclusion Central areolar choroidal dystrophy normally presents without drusen. However, in patients manifesting a specific mutation, central areolar choridal dystrophy may present in conjunction with drusen. It appears that the Arg142Trp mutation is one of the factors predisposing to drusen formation.

Rodman, Julie; Black, Greg; Woods, Albert

2012-01-01

218

Bilateral Choroidal Metastasis from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast and lung cancers are the most common primary neoplasms to manifest with choroidal metastases. The incidence of choroidal metastases from metastatic lung cancer was reported to be 2–6.7%. We report a case of bilateral choroidal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. A 59-year-old Caucasian female patient, never a smoker, was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pleura, bones, and the brain. Her initial scan of the chest showed innumerable soft tissue nodules and mediastinal adenopathy compatible with metastatic disease. Her initial brain MRI showed numerous small enhancing lesions consistent with extensive disease. Unfortunately, during her follow-up visits, she presented with bulge on her left eye. Simultaneously, her follow-up chest scan showed increase in the size of the lung nodules. She continued to have a reasonable performance status at that time, except for mild increase in her dyspnea. The choroidal metastases require a multidisciplinary care and should be among the differential patients with malignancy who present with ocular symptoms. PMID:25295203

Namad, Tariq; Wang, Jiang; Tilton, Annemarie; Abdel Karim, Nagla

2014-01-01

219

Measurement of choroidal blood flow in zero gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present preliminary measurements on the effects of zero gravity environment on the choroidal blood flow on human volunteer subjects. These experiments were conducted, for the first time, on-board a wide body aircraft (KC-135) during parabolic flight trajectories (0g to 2g environment) using a head-mounted miniature laser Doppler flowmeter.

Rafat R. Ansari; Kwang I. Suh; Fabrice Moret; Russell K. Messer; Francis K. Manuel

2003-01-01

220

Radiotherapy of Choroidal Metastases in Patients with Disseminated Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: >Choroidal metastasis is the most common ocular tumor, in most cases related to breast and lung cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) mostly is the therapy of choice. However, there is a lack of data about the results of uniformly, prospective treated patients. Patients and Methods: Between November 1994 and September 1997, 37 patients with 49 metastatic eyes were enrolled into

D. Bottke; T. Wiegel; K.-M. Kreusel; N. Bornfeld; G. Schaller; W. Hinkelbein

2000-01-01

221

[Cilia and renal cysts].  

PubMed

Advances in genomics, bioinformatics and the creation of model organisms have identified many genes associated with polycystic kidney diseases. Historically, these genes were not necessarily associated with ciliopathies, but it appeared that many connections can be made between the cystic kidney disease and function of the primary cilium. Indeed, the proteins encoded by these genes are localized to the cilium itself, to the basal body or are known to regulate the expression and localization of ciliary proteins. The goal of this article is to describe the multiple cellular processes that may lead to the development of renal cysts if they are deregulated. These include changes in proliferation rate, cell polarity or signaling pathways involved in embryonic kidney development. To highlight the role of the primary cilium in cystogenesis, I will discuss several studies investigating the function of ciliary genes and cilia in the kidneys of different model organisms. PMID:25388585

Paces-Fessy, Mélanie

2014-11-01

222

Brachial Plexus Impingement: An Unusual Complication of Bilateral Breast Augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures, with many studies documenting the early and\\u000a long-term complications that might be expected. This report describes the case of an active young woman who experienced severe\\u000a pain, particularly with movement. Surgical exploration showed the cause of this pain to be impingement of the patient’s lower\\u000a brachial plexus by the

MG Berry; J. J. Stanek

2008-01-01

223

Scapular deformity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a new finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients recover arm and hand function, the residual nerve weakness leads to muscle\\u000a imbalances about the shoulder which may cause bony deformities. In this paper we describe abnormalities in the developing\\u000a scapula and the glenohumeral joint. We introduce a classification for the deformity which we term Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation\\u000a and Rotation. Multiple anatomic parameters

Rahul K. Nath; Melia Paizi

2007-01-01

224

Surgical treatment of brachial plexus injuries in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a retrospective review of 32 consecutive patients (30 adults and two children) with total or partial lesions\\u000a of the brachial plexus who had surgical repair using nerve grafting, neurotisation, and neurolysis between January 1991 and\\u000a December 2003. The outcome measures of muscular strength were correlated with the type of lesion, age, preoperative time,\\u000a length and number of

Monreal Ricardo

2005-01-01

225

Suppression of Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization by Curcumin in Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effects of curcumin on the development of experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Methods C57BL/6N mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of curcumin daily for 3 days prior to laser-induced CNV, and the drug treatments were continued until the end of the study. The CNV area was analyzed by fluorescein-labeled dextran angiography of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid flat mounts on day 7 and 14, and CNV leakage was evaluated by fluorescein angiography (FA) on day 14 after laser photocoagulation. The infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages and GR-1 positive granulocytes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on RPE-choroid flat mounts on day 3. Their expression in RPE-choroid complex was quantified by real-time PCR (F4/80) and Western blotting (GR-1) on day 3. RPE-choroid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were examined by ELISA on day 3. Double immunostaining of F4/80 and VEGF was performed on cryo-sections of CNV lesions on day 3. The expression of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)?1? in the RPE-choroid was determined by Western blotting. Results Curcumin-treated mice had significantly less CNV area (P<0.05) and CNV leakage (P<0.001) than vehicle-treated mice. Curcumin treatment led to significant inhibition of F4/80 positive macrophages (P<0.05) and GR-1 positive granulocytes infiltration (P<0.05). VEGF mainly expressed in F4/80 positive macrophages in laser injury sites, which was suppressed by curcumin treatment (P<0.01). Curcumin inhibited the RPE-choroid levels of TNF-? (P<0.05), MCP-1 (P<0.05) and ICAM-1 (P<0.05), and suppressed the activation of NF-?B in nuclear extracts (P<0.05) and the activation of HIF?1? (P<0.05). Conclusion Curcumin treatment led to the suppression of CNV development together with inflammatory and angiogenic processes including NF-?B and HIF?1? activation, the up-regulation of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines, and infiltrating macrophages and granulocytes. This provides molecular and cellular evidence of the validity of curcumin supplementation as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated CNV. PMID:23285282

Xie, Ping; Zhang, WeiWei; Yuan, Songtao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yang, Qin; Yuan, DongQing; Wang, Feng; Liu, QingHuai

2012-01-01

226

Scapular deformity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a new finding.  

PubMed

While most obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients recover arm and hand function, the residual nerve weakness leads to muscle imbalances about the shoulder which may cause bony deformities. In this paper we describe abnormalities in the developing scapula and the glenohumeral joint. We introduce a classification for the deformity which we term Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation and Rotation. Multiple anatomic parameters were measured in bilateral CT images and three-dimensional CT reconstruction of the shoulder girdle of 30 obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients (age range 10 months-10.6 years). The affected scapulae were found to be hypoplastic by an average of 14% while the ratio of the height to the width of the body of scapula (excluding acromion) were not significantly changed, the acromion was significantly elongated by an average of 19%. These parameters as well as subluxation of the humeral head (average 14%) and downward rotation in the scapular plane were found to correlate with the area of scapula visible over the clavicle. This finding provides a classification tool for diagnosis and objective evaluation of the bony deformity and its severity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients. PMID:17262175

Nath, Rahul K; Paizi, Melia

2007-03-01

227

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Schwannoma of Brachial Plexus  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve. PMID:24466527

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann; Jung, Pil Kyo

2013-01-01

228

Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst  

PubMed Central

A case is presented of an intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst at the L4–5 level. The clinical picture suggested a herniated nucleus pulposus at this level. A myelogram revealed a round lesion almost completely obstructing the flow of Pantopaque at the L4–5 level. A ganglion cyst with a haemorrhage into it and the surrounding tissue was removed, and surgery was followed by complete recovery. Images PMID:4647850

Brish, Adam; Payan, Hushong M.

1972-01-01

229

Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst: MRI Findings  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a 36-year-old female. She presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An MRI scan revealed an 8?cm cystic lesion in the left upper retroperitoneum, with intermediate signal on T2-weighted images, high signal on T1 weighted images, and lack of internal enhancement after gadolinium. After laparoscopic excision, the histology findings were compatible with a bronchogenic cyst, which is extremely uncommon in the retroperitoneum. PMID:24381777

Castro, R.; Oliveira, M. I.; Fernandes, T.; Madureira, A. J.

2013-01-01

230

Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report  

PubMed Central

Bronchogenic cysts are among developmental disorders of the primitive foregut which are typically found above the diaphragm. Bronchial cysts discovered in the abdominal cavity or retroperitoneum are extremely rare. We present a rare case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst which was incidentally detected after a wrestling injury in a 23-year-old man who had a negative medical history. Although initial imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumor, histopathological analysis provided a definite diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst. Though rare, bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions. This is the first case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst reported in Iran.

Mirsadeghi, Ali; Farrokhi, Farid; Fazli-Shahri, Azadeh; Gholipour, Bahareh

2014-01-01

231

Determination of Spread of Injectate After Ultrasound-guided Interscalene and Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block: A Fresh Cadaveric Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this anatomical study was to establish the likely spread of local anesthetics in vivo and the segmental nerve involvement resulting from ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus blocks and supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks.

Jimmy Ong; Hsien-Yong Lai; Li-Fu Cheng; Pei-Chin Lin; Chia-Ling Lee; Tsung-Ying Chen; Po-Kai Wang

2010-01-01

232

Dramatic regression of amelanotic choroidal melanoma with PDT following poor response to brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for treatment of choroidal neovascular membrane from exudative macular degeneration. Other applications include treatment of some intraocular tumors, such as choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, and choroidal osteoma. The authors report the effect of PDT for amelanotic choroidal melanoma. A 40-year-old woman with an amelanotic choroidal melanoma of 6.5 mm thickness showed poor response to iodine brachytherapy (80 Gy apical dose) with no reduction in thickness at 16 months of follow-up. There was prominent residual tumor. The amelanotic tumor was treated with verteporfin PDT using three overlapping spots (8,600 microns), with avoidance of the optic disc using standard treatment parameters. Dramatic tumor regression over 2 months to a completely flat scar (1.3 mm thickness) was documented and remained stable at 50 months of follow-up. Amelanotic choroidal melanoma with incomplete response following conventional plaque radiotherapy can be treated with verteporfin PDT for consolidation. PMID:22589358

Tuncer, Samuray; Kir, Nur; Shields, Carol L

2012-01-01

233

Examining the Choroid in Ocular Inflammation: A Focus on Enhanced Depth Imaging  

PubMed Central

The choroid is the vascular layer that supplies the outer retina and is involved in the pathogenesis of several ocular conditions including choroidal tumors, age related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, and uveitis. Nevertheless, difficulties in the visualization of the choroid have limited our understanding of its exact role in ocular pathology. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherent topography (EDI-OCT) is a novel, noninvasive technique that is used to evaluate choroidal thickness and morphology in these diseases. The technique provides detailed objective in vivo visualization of the choroid and can be used to characterize posterior segment inflammatory disorders, monitor disease activity, and evaluate efficacy of treatment. In this review we summarize the current application of this technique in ocular inflammatory disorders and highlight its utility as an additional tool in monitoring choroidal involvement in ocular inflammation. PMID:25024846

Baltmr, Abeir; Lightman, Sue; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren

2014-01-01

234

Segmentation of the macular choroid in OCT images acquired at 830nm and 1060nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has rapidly advanced in ophthalmic applications with the broad availability of Fourier domain (FD) technology in commercial systems. The high sensitivity afforded by FD-OCT has enabled imaging of the choroid, a layer of blood vessels serving the outer retina. Improved visualization of the choroid and the choroid-sclera boundary has been investigated using techniques such as enhanced depth imaging (EDI), and also with OCT systems operating in the 1060-nm wavelength range. We report on a comparison of imaging the macular choroid with commercial and prototype OCT systems, and present automated 3D segmentation of the choroid-scleral layer using a graph cut algorithm. The thickness of the choroid is an important measurement to investigate for possible correlation with severity, or possibly early diagnosis, of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.

Lee, Sieun; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

2013-06-01

235

A prospective randomized comparison of endoscopic ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided celiac plexus block for managing chronic pancreatitis pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Computed tomography (CT)-guided celiac plexus neurolysis has been used for controlling the chronic abdominal pain associated with intra-abdominal malignancy and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided celiac plexus neurolysis has been reported to have some success in controlling pain from pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of EUS-guided celiac plexus block versus CT-guided celiac plexus

Frank Gress; Colleen Schmitt; Stuart Sherman; Steven Ikenberry; Glen Lehman

1999-01-01

236

Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... variety of shapes and sizes. Depending upon the nature of the polyp, it can cause a wide range of voice disturbances. Vocal Cord Cyst A vocal cord cyst is a firm mass of tissue contained within a membrane (sac). ...

237

A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations. PMID:17688070

Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

2007-08-01

238

Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand  

MedlinePLUS

... In many cases, the ganglion cyst returns a er an aspiration procedure. Aspiration procedures are most frequently ... nonsurgical methods, or if the ganglion returns a er aspiration. The procedure to remove a ganglion cyst ...

239

Giant petroclival endodermal cyst with xanthogranulomatous changes.  

PubMed

Endodermal cyst is a rare developmental cyst of the CNS, such as a Rathke cleft and colloid cyst lined by columnar epithelium of presumed endodermal origin. Intracranial endodermal cysts are rare, and most are found in the posterior fossa. The authors report a case of petroclival endodermal cyst with extensive bone destruction. A 12-year-old boy presented with transient facial weakness and headache. Imaging revealed a 3 × 3 × 4-cm, partial rim, enhanced cystic lesion in the petroclival area that was isointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense in T2-weighted imaging. The cyst wall was partially removed and the cyst was obliterated using a lateral approach. Histological examination revealed ciliated, simple-to-pseudostratified cuboidal epithelium with a basement membrane that was consistent with an endodermal cyst, with the rare finding of xanthogranulomatous changes. PMID:23848288

Choi, Ji Eun; Seol, Ho Jun; Cho, Yang-Sun

2013-09-01

240

Penile erectile dysfunction after brachial plexus root avulsion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that some male patients suffering from brachial plexus injury, particularly brachial plexus root avulsion, show erectile dysfunction to varying degrees. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the erectile function after establishing brachial plexus root avulsion models with or without spinal cord injury in rats. After these models were established, we administered apomorphine (via a subcutaneous injection in the neck) to observe changes in erectile function. Rats subjected to simple brachial plexus root avulsion or those subjected to brachial plexus root avulsion combined with spinal cord injury had significantly fewer erections than those subjected to the sham operation. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase did not change in brachial plexus root avulsion rats. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly decreased in brachial plexus root avulsion + spinal cord injury rats. These findings suggest that a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis may play a role in erectile dysfunction caused by the combination of brachial plexus root avulsion and spinal cord injury.

Fu, Guo; Qin, Bengang; Jiang, Li; Huang, Xijun; Lu, Qinsen; Zhang, Dechun; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai; Zheng, Jianwen; Li, Xuejia; Gu, Liqiang

2014-01-01

241

Compromising abnormalities of the brachial plexus as displayed by magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of brachial plexus anatomy bilaterally, not possible by plain radiographs or CT, were presented to the Vascular Surgery, Neurology, and the Neurosurgery departments. Patients were requested for MRI of their brachial plexus. They were referred for imaging and the imaging results were presented to the faculty and housestaff. Our technique was accepted and adopted to begin

James D. Collins; Marla L. Shaver; Anthony C. Disher; Theodore Q. Miller

1995-01-01

242

Relationship between Nailfold Plexus Visibility and Clinical, Neuropsychological, and Brain Structural  

E-print Network

Relationship between Nailfold Plexus Visibility and Clinical, Neuropsychological, and Brain- formance on tasks thought to be sensitive to frontal dysfunction. An inverse relationship between plexus (1976) found that 78% of high PVS non­psychiatric teenagers had at least one parent with high PVS. Only

Curtis, Clayton

243

Schwannoma of the brachial plexus; report of two cases involving the C7 root  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus schwannomas are rare tumors. They are benign nerve sheath tumors and only about 5% of Schwannoma arise from the brachial plexus. They pose a great challenge to surgeons due to their rare occurrence and complex anatomical location. We present two cases who presented with a supraclavicular swelling, that were proven to be schwannoma on histopathology. PMID:24180468

2013-01-01

244

3 T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: Structural and microstructural evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial

Ammar Mallouhi; Wolfgang Marik; Daniela Prayer; Franz Kainberger; Gerd Bodner; Gregor Kasprian

245

3T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: structural and microstructural evaluation.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus. PMID:21763092

Mallouhi, Ammar; Marik, Wolfgang; Prayer, Daniela; Kainberger, Franz; Bodner, Gerd; Kasprian, Gregor

2012-09-01

246

Self-mutilation in young children following brachial plexus birth injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brachial plexus injury in adults commonly produces persistent pain. Pediatric textbooks and case series suggest that perinatal brachial plexus injury is very rarely associated with pain, though this is difficult to determine in preverbal infants. Some of these young children self-mutilate the affected extremity, which may or may not reflect pain. This study was designed to characterize the clinical presentation

Mary Ellen McCann; Peter Waters; Liliana C Goumnerova; Charles Berde

2004-01-01

247

Mesothelial cyst with endometriosis mimicking a Nuck cyst  

PubMed Central

We report a case of mesothelial cyst protruding from the right femoral ring with suspected endometriosis in a 35-year-old woman, who complained of a lump with a diameter of 6 cm in the right inguinal region. Although she had the hormone therapy during the next 8 months for the diagnosis of extragenital endometriosis, her symptoms did not improve. The clinical suspicion of a Nuck cyst with endometriosis, supported by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, was confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. Authors herein report this unusual case and review the literature. PMID:24973417

Uno, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shintaro; Yano, Fumiaki; Eto, Ken; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

248

Uveal Melanoma in the Peripheral Choroid Masquerading as Chronic Uveitis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To describe a case of uveal melanoma in the peripheral choroid masquerading as chronic uveitis and to raise awareness about malignant masquerade syndromes. Case Report A 36-year-old Chinese woman presented from an outside ophthalmologist with a 6-month history of unilateral chronic uveitis unresponsive to medical therapy in the left eye. She was found to have a uveal melanoma in the retinal periphery and underwent successful enucleation of her left eye. The histopathological diagnosis confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Conclusions When uveal melanoma presents in an atypical way, the diagnosis is more difficult. This case highlights the uncommon presentations of malignant melanoma of the choroid. It provides valuable information on how peripheral uveal melanoma can present with clinical signs consistent with an anterior uveitis. PMID:25036546

Feng, Lei; Zhu, Jiang; Gao, Tao; Li, Baizhou; Yang, Yabo

2014-01-01

249

Transscleral Diode Photocoagulation of Large Retinal and Choroidal Vascular Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background Transscleral retinal photocoagulation with a diode laser is used in glaucoma refractory to medical and surgical treatment. Our main research question was how the technique performed in large vascular lesions associated with hemangiomas of the retina and choroid. Methodology/Clinical Findings Patient charts were retrieved from the hospital files for patients who underwent the procedure and were followed for at least 24 months. Five patients (6 eyes) fit the criteria. Cases included Von Hippel’s disease (2 eyes), Coats’ disease (1 eye) and choroidal hemangioma (3 cases). Transscleral diode laser treatment was performed under retrobulbar and topical anesthesia with a retinopexy probe (IRIS DioPexy, IRIS Medical Instruments, Mountain View, CA) applied transsclerally under indirect ophthalmoscope visualization. We found an improvement in best-corrected visual acuity at 24 months postoperatively. Conclusions/Significance Transscleral photocoagulation may have a clinical application in these diseases as an alternate to the high cost of photodynamic therapy with photosensitizing agents. PMID:22792170

Feng, Yun; Ma, Zhizhong

2012-01-01

250

Argon green laser treatment of peripapillary choroidal neovascular membranes.  

PubMed

Of 27 eyes with peripapillary choroidal neovascular membranes (PPCNM), 17 (63%) had age-related macular degeneration and ten (37%) were idiopathic. PPCNM were treated in 25 eyes using the monochromatic green argon laser. Two eyes were untreatable. After an average follow-up of 37.7 months, successful closure of the choroidal new vessels was obtained in 23 eyes (92%), and visual acuity was stabilized or improved in 20 (80%). Seven eyes (28%) had recurrences; in four, the new vessels extended into the macula. Post-treatment, three eyes ultimately had dry macular scars, and one had an exudative macular scar. Of these four eyes, only the one with a dry macular scar showed visual improvement. No treated cases showed arcuate scotoma. PMID:2467241

Cialdini, A P; Jalkh, A E; Trempe, C L; Nasrallah, F P; Schepens, C L

1989-02-01

251

Percutaneous treatment of hydatid cysts (Echinococcus Granulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method called PAIR (Puncture-Aspiration of cyst contents—Injection of hypertonic saline solution—Reaspiration) was used\\u000a as a percutaneous treatment of hydatid cysts. In 37 patients, 120 cysts were punctured. All patients had not been considered\\u000a surgical candidates. The cysts were localized in the liver, peritoneum, spleen, kidneys, muscles, and bones. In 70% of patients,\\u000a good results were obtained. Recurrence occurred

Moncef Gargouri; Nejet Ben Amor; Ferid Ben Chehida; Azza Hammou; Hassen A. Gharbi; Mohamed Ben Cheikh; Hefdi Kchouk; Kamel Ayachi; Jean Yves Golvan

1990-01-01

252

Evaluation of Treatment for Removing Giardia Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Giardia cysts by three small (0.01-to 0.57-mgd) treatment plants—one with conventional filtration, one with in-line filtration, and one with diatomaceous earth filtration— was studied. Turbidity and cyst removals for each were compared with those of parallel pilot filters (1 gpm) seeded with Giardia cysts and with and without optimization of chemical treatment. Cyst removal efficiencies ranged from

Jerry E. Ongerth

1990-01-01

253

Pigmented free-floating iris cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-floating iris cysts are rare. These cysts may be located in the vitreous or the anterior chamber. Anterior chamber cysts can be idiopathic or induced by trauma or surgery. Vitreous cysts may be associated with the remnants of the hyaloid system and therefore be congenital, or can result from trauma or ocular disease.Case 1: An 8-year-old girl presented for routine

Gurdeep Singh; Kalpana Narendran; Veerappan R Saravanan; V Narendran

2007-01-01

254

Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

2011-01-01

255

Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

2011-08-01

256

Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst  

PubMed Central

Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. PMID:24822143

Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Banno, Tomohiro; Ushirozako, Hiroki; Koide, Yoichi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

257

“Primary Omental Hydatid Cyst”: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Hydatid cyst is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus commonly seen in temperate regions. Primary omental hydatid cyst is rare entity. Diagnosis can be achieved with contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis along with serology. Eosinophilia is a strong pointer to hydatid cyst as a differential diagnosis. Open or laparoscopic excision of the cyst along with medical therapy remains the treatment of choice. PMID:23050190

Sable, Shailesh; Mehta, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudeep; Jategaokar, Priyadarshan; Haldar, Premashish J.

2012-01-01

258

Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

2009-01-01

259

Combined photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for choroidal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo examine combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Richard F Spaide; John Sorenson; Leandro Maranan

2003-01-01

260

Visualization of human retinal and choroidal vascular networks with phase-variance optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in vivo noninvasive retinal and choroidal perfusion maps with phase-variance optical coherence tomography (pvOCT). We acquired a pvOCT volumetric data set of a normal subject and visualized blood circulation in the retina and the choroid. En face projection views of the retina as well as the choroid were generated from a manually segmented volumetric data set. In addition, the processed pvOCT images were compared to current standard imaging modalities used for retinal and choroidal vasculature visualization in clinical settings, including fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA).

Kim, Dae Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Verma, Malvika; Schwartz, Daniel M.; Werner, John S.; Fraser, Scott E.

2013-03-01

261

Association between hyperacuity defects and retinal microstructure in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To improve our understanding of hyperacuity defects measured with preferential hyperacuity perimetry (PHP) by correlating PHP findings with the retinal microstructural changes visible on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with PCV were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR) testing, PHP, and OCT. The functional ‘PHP test score’ and ‘total volume of hyperacuity defect zone’ were also analyzed. Results: Patients were classified based on the hyperacuity defect by PHP, as follows: Hyperacuity defect (n = 17 eyes) group and hyperacuity intact (n = 11 eyes) group. The mean best-corrected visual acuity in the hyperacuity intact group (0.46 ± 0.39) was better than that in the hyperacuity defect group (0.82 ± 0.37) (P = 0.014). The presence of serous retinal detachment and retinal pigment epithelial detachment did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.120 and P = 0.689, respectively). A disrupted photoreceptor layer was more common in the hyperacuity defect group compared with the hyperacuity intact group (P = 0.0001). Among 17 eyes with a hyperacuity defect, 9 eyes showing intra-retinal pathology (intra-retinal cyst or hard exudates) and had a significantly higher PHP test score and larger total volume of the hyperacuity defect zone than 8 eyes without intra-retinal pathology (P = 0.006 and P = 0.021, respectively). Conclusion: A hyperacuity defect in PCV was associated with photoreceptor disarrangement. Furthermore, PCV lesions on the inner retina that invaded the photoreceptor layer were associated with a more severe hyperacuity defect. PMID:24212209

Kim, Moosang; Yu, Seung-Young; Kwak, Hyung-Woo

2014-01-01

262

Vascular adhesion protein-1 blockade suppresses choroidal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial cell adhesion molecule involved in leu- kocyte recruitment. Leukocytes and, in particular, mac- rophages play an important role in the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), an integral com- ponent of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previously, we showed a role for VAP-1 in ocular inflammation. Here, we investigate the expression of VAP-1 in the

Kousuke Noda; Haicheng She; Toru Nakazawa; Toshio Hisatomi; Shintaro Nakao; Lama Almulki; Souska Zandi; Shinsuke Miyahara; Yasuhiro Ito; Kennard L. Thomas; Rebecca C. Garland; Joan W. Miller; Evangelos S. Gragoudas; Yukihiko Mashima; Ali Hafezi-Moghadam

2008-01-01

263

Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization: clinical and angiographic examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Conventional photocoagulation of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is often accompanied by visual\\u000a loss due to thermal damage to adjacent retinal structures. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) allows vascular occlusion by selective\\u000a photochemical destruction of vascular endothelial cells only. In a pilot study we evaluated the use of PDT in CNV. Methods:\\u000a In a clinical phase I\\/II trial, patients with subfoveal CNV

Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth; Joan Miller; Michel Sickenberg; Arnd Bunse; Horst Laqua; Evangelos Gragoudas; Leonidas Zografos; Reginald Birngruber; Hubert van den Bergh; Andrew Strong; Ulrike Manjuris; Mario Fsadni; Bertrand Piguet; Neil M. Bressler

1998-01-01

264

Optical coherence tomography findings following photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) classification system that monitors the response of eyes treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) from age-related macular degeneration (AMD).DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series.METHODS: Ninety eyes (88 patients) with AMD and predominantly classic subfoveal CNV treated with PDT using verteporfin were identified by a laser log and

Adam H Rogers; Adam Martidis; Paul B Greenberg; Carmen A Puliafito

2002-01-01

265

Multifocal choroiditis in patients with familial juvenile systemic granulomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To document clinical features of uveitis in patients with familial juvenile systemic granulomatosis.DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.METHODS: Ophthalmologic examination, medical history, and clinical course in 16 patients from eight families examined at six academic medical centers.RESULTS: Of the 16 patients, 15 had evidence of panuveitis with multifocal choroiditis. One patient had only an anterior uveitis. Ischemic optic neuropathy, presumably due

Paul A Latkany; Douglas A Jabs; Justine R Smith; James T Rosenbaum; Howard Tessler; Ivan R Schwab; R. Christopher Walton; Jennifer E Thorne; Albert M Maguire

2002-01-01

266

Choroidal Coloboma in a Case of Tay-Sachs Disease  

PubMed Central

Coloboma as an ocular finding has been documented in various syndromes. Here we have a case of infantile Tay-Sachs disease associated with unilateral choroidal coloboma. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been documented in the literature. Whether such an association is a matter of chance or signifies the involvement of ganglioside metabolism in ocular embryogenesis remains to be elucidated. PMID:25295204

Ahmed, Nasreen Raees; Kumar, Vivek; Gogia, Varun

2014-01-01

267

Brachial plexus blocks for upper extremity orthopaedic surgery.  

PubMed

Regional anesthesia of the upper extremity has several clinical applications and is reported to have several advantages over general anesthesia for orthopaedic surgery. These advantages, such as improved postoperative pain, decreased postoperative opioid administration, and reduced recovery time, have led to widespread acceptance of a variety of regional nerve blocks. Interscalene block is the most commonly used block for shoulder surgery. Other brachial plexus nerve blocks used for orthopaedic surgery of the upper extremity are supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and axillary. Several practical and theoretical aspects of regional nerve blocks must be considered to optimize the beneficial effects and minimize the risk of complications. PMID:22207517

Bruce, Benjamin G; Green, Andrew; Blaine, Theodore A; Wesner, Lee V

2012-01-01

268

Magnetic resonance neurography of the pelvis and lumbosacral plexus.  

PubMed

Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have revolutionized peripheral nerve imaging and made high-resolution acquisitions a clinical reality. High-resolution dedicated MR neurography techniques can show pathologic changes within the peripheral nerves as well as elucidate the underlying disorder or cause. Neurogenic pain arising from the nerves of the pelvis and lumbosacral plexus poses a particular diagnostic challenge for the clinician and radiologist alike. This article reviews the advances in MR imaging that have allowed state-of-the-art high-resolution imaging to become a reality in clinical practice. PMID:24210317

Delaney, Holly; Bencardino, Jenny; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka

2014-02-01

269

Constipation and congenital disorders of the myenteric plexus.  

PubMed Central

Full-thickness muscle biopsies have been taken from patients with severe disabling chronic constipation that has not responded to conservative measures. Assessment by neurohistochemical techniques has revealed that a range of neuronal dysplasias of the myenteric plexus are responsible in many cases; these include aganglionosis (Hirschsprung's disease), hypoganglionosis and hyperganglionosis. In cases considered unlikely to be Hirschsprung's disease on clinical grounds, the procedure used has often been anorectal myectomy; this has not only provided tissue for diagnosis but has also been of therapeutic value in most cases of hypoganglionosis and some cases reported as 'normal'. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:6471056

Howard, E R; Garrett, J R; Kidd, A

1984-01-01

270

Evaluation and management of brachial plexus birth palsy.  

PubMed

Brachial plexus birth palsy can result in permanent lifelong deficits and unfortunately continues to be relatively common despite advancements in obstetric care. The diagnosis can be made shortly after birth by physical examination, noting a lack of movement in the affected upper extremity. Treatment begins with passive range-of-motion exercises to maintain flexibility and tactile stimulation to provide sensory reeducation. Primary surgery consists of microsurgical nerve surgery, whereas secondary surgery consists of alternative microsurgical procedures, tendon transfers, or osteotomies, all of which improve outcomes in the short term. However, the long-term outcomes of current treatment recommendations remain unknown. PMID:24684916

Abzug, Joshua M; Kozin, Scott H

2014-04-01

271

Reinnervation of avulsed brachial plexus using the spinal accessory nerve.  

PubMed

The use of the accessory nerve as a donor is one of the possibilities for the reinnervation of the brachial plexus in cases of paralysis due to root avulsion. In this paper, an analysis of the reinnervation of the musculocutaneous or axillary nerve using the spinal accessory nerve is made on 13 cases, 8 of total and 5 of upper partial avulsion. In all cases, Allieu's technique was used, but in seven cases reinnervation was supplemented by upper intercostal nerves when there was total avulsion and/or by the medial pectoral nerve when there was partial avulsion. The methods are discussed and compared with the intercostobrachial anastomosis. PMID:2154041

Samardzic, M; Grujicic, D; Antunovic, V; Joksimovic, M

1990-01-01

272

Quantitation of Giardia cysts by membrane filtration.  

PubMed Central

A method of fixing and staining Giardia cysts on a membrane filter is reported. This procedure appears to be a reliable method for the recovery and detection of cysts and also for the determination of cyst densities. Evaluation and possible applications of the technique are described. Images PMID:6195183

Spaulding, J J; Pacha, R E; Clark, G W

1983-01-01

273

Dinoflagellate cysts from Recent Danish marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three different cyst types were found in a survey of dinoflagellate resting stages (cysts) in sediment samples from two sites in Danish waters: Øresund (The Sound) and Aarhus Bay. This is the first survey of its kind from Danish waters. The cyst types found were: Diplopsalis lenticula, Gymnodinium catenatum, Polykrikos schwartzii, Scrippsiella trochoidea, four species of Gonyaulax, ten species of

Marianne Ellegaard; Niels F. Christensen; Øjvind Moestrup

1994-01-01

274

Laparoscopic excision of hepatoduodenal ligament cyst  

PubMed Central

Hepatoduodenal ligament cysts are rare. These may be confused with hepatic cysts even on advanced investigative modalities like Computerized tomography scanning or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Diagnosis is often an intraoperative surprise. Laparoscopic treatment of such hepatoduodenal cysts is not described in available medical literature. We report one such case treated laparoscopically PMID:22837598

Deshpande, Aparna; Dalvi, Abhay N; Thanky, Harsh B; Khobragade, Krunal

2012-01-01

275

Epithelial cysts of the spleen: A minireview  

PubMed Central

Primary splenic epithelial cyst is an unusual event in everyday surgical practice with about 800 cases reported until date in the English literature. Splenic cysts may be parasitic or non-parasitic in origin. Nonparasitic cysts are either primary or secondary. Primary cysts are also called true, congenital, epidermoid or epithelial cysts. Primary splenic cysts account for 10% of all benign non-parasitic splenic cysts and are the most frequent type of splenic cysts in children. Usually, splenic cysts are asymptomatic and can be found incidentally during imaging techniques or on laprotomy. The symptoms are related to the size of cysts. When they assume large sizes, they may present with fullness in the left abdomen, local or referred pain, symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures (like nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhoea) or rarely thrombocytopenia, and occasionally complications such as infection, rupture and/or haemorrhage. The preoperative diagnosis of primary splenic cysts can be ascertained by ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, although the wide use of USG today has led to an increase in the incidence of splenic cysts by 1%. However, careful histopathological evaluation along with immunostaining for presence of epithelial lining is mandatory to arrive at the diagnosis. The treatment has changed drastically from total splenectomy in the past to splenic preservation methods recently. PMID:25320525

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R; Patrike, Swapna

2014-01-01

276

Unusual case of lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial cysts are extradural degenerative lesions associated with symptoms of lower back pain and radiculopathy. To our knowledge, all the reported cases of synovial cysts in literature were posterolateral in location (1–4). This case report describes the previously unreported midline location of the synovial cyst in the spinal canal and to increase the level of awareness of diagnosing these lesions

V. K Gheyi; R. N Uppot; C Flores; Y. U Koyfman

1999-01-01

277

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and\\/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal\\u000a compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage\\u000a into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature.

Marta CicuendezJose; Jose F. Alen; Ana Ramos; Ramiro D. Lobato; Alfonso Lagares

2010-01-01

278

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature. PMID:20174835

Cicuendez, Marta; Alen, Jose F; Ramos, Ana; Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso

2010-07-01

279

Cyst arising in a free bone graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyst which arose in an autogenous iliac crest bone graft is presented. The cyst developed unilaterally 8 years following secondary alveolar bone grafting. The cyst, which was lined by a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, is believed to be the result of implantation of small particles of nasal epithelium into the bone transplant during the grafting procedure.

C. Lekkas; L. M. H. Smets; F. van Hoeken

2001-01-01

280

Resolution of brachial plexus palsy due to hemangioma after intravenous corticosteroid therapy.  

PubMed

The authors report a 7-day-old girl born with a hemangioma involving the right side of the scalp and neck who developed ipsilateral brachial plexus palsy at 5 days of age. Imaging studies confirmed the presence of a cavernous hemangioma in the vicinity of the brachial plexus. She was treated with intravenous corticosteroids and her palsy resolved in 5 days. Only 1 prior case of hemangioma producing brachial plexus palsy has been reported; this patient was not treated with corticosteroids and had a partial recovery. The authors believe that the quick recovery after initiating systemic steroids was due to relief of nerve compression (neuropraxia) resulting from shrinkage of the cavernous hemangioma. The purpose of this article is to describe an uncommon cause of neonatal brachial plexus palsy and to report the effectiveness of early intravenous corticosteroid treatment in a patient with brachial plexus palsy due to a cavernous hemangioma. PMID:18660479

Naqvi, Ali H; Alfonso, Daniel T; Flores, Patricia; Grossman, John A I; Restrepo, Ricardo; Alfonso, Israel

2008-08-01

281

CYSTS OF THE LATERAL MENISCUS  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis and management of knee pain with or without mechanical symptoms challenges the physical therapist's clinical reasoning skills. Meniscal cysts are one relatively rare disorder of the knee that can cause both pain and mechanical symptoms and are frequently associated with a meniscal tear. In patients with suspected meniscal cysts, systematic differential diagnosis and sound clinical reasoning encourages appropriate integration of the clinical examination with diagnostic imaging. These case reports describe two different presentations of lateral parameniscal cysts where integration of the clinical examination with appropriate imaging allowed the physical therapist to provide a timely and appropriate intervention. In both cases, the diagnostic process is described along with the subsequent interventions that lead to positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: 5 (Case Report) PMID:23772349

Westrick, Richard B.; Fogarty, Brian T.

2013-01-01

282

Relationship of Simple Renal Cyst to Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Simple renal cyst is the most common cystic deformation found in adults. However, there were a few systematic Korean reports for the clinical symptoms and complications of simple renal cysts. The author's purpose was to determine the relationship between simple renal cysts diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and hypertension. Methods Among 13,482 persons who took a routine physical examination at Ulsan University Hospital in 2002, 5,127 persons who took medical examinations again in 2010 were selected. We excluded persons who had renal cyst, hypertension, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, thyroid disease, and cancer in 2002. Analysis was conducted for 505 subjects with newly diagnosed simple renal cyst and 2,744 subjects without renal cyst in 2010. The simple renal cyst group was compared to a control group without renal cyst. Results Among 3,249 subjects, simple renal cyst and hypertension were newly diagnosed in 505 subjects and 503 subjects. The subjects who had simple renal cysts had significantly higher hypertension incidence (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.94). Significant hypertension incidence was observed especially when the subjects had cysts located on both kidneys (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.12 to 5.71), two (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.84 to 5.15) or more cysts (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.38 to 7.04), and larger cysts more than 1 cm in diameter (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.07). Conclusion The presence of simple renal cysts was significantly positively related to the incidence of hypertension. Bilateral distribution, two or more number, and larger size than 1 cm diameter were the characteristics of simple renal cyst related to hypertension. PMID:25309704

Kim, Su-Mi; Oh, Myoung-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Gul; Bae, Sung-Jin

2014-01-01

283

Choroidal thinning in high myopia measured by optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the rate of choroidal thinning in highly myopic eyes. Patients and methods A retrospective observational study of 37 eyes of 26 subjects (nine males and 17 females, mean age 39.6 ± 7.7 years) with high myopia but no pathologies who had undergone spectral domain optical coherence tomography and repeated the test 1 year later (1 ± 0.25 year) at Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Patients older than 50 years with visual acuity worse than 20/40 or with whitish chorioretinal atrophy involving the macula were excluded. Two masked raters measured the choroidal thicknesses (CTs) at the fovea, 3 mm superiorly, inferiorly, temporally, and nasally on the images and averaged the values. The second examination was about 365 days after the baseline examination. The CT reduction per year (CTRPY) was defined as (CT 1 year after – baseline CT)/days between the two examinations × 365. The retinal thicknesses were also investigated. Results The CTRPY at the fovea was ?1.0 ± 22.0 ?m (range ?50.2 to 98.5) at the fovea, ?6.5 ± 24.3 ?m (range ?65.8 to 90.2) temporally, ?0.5 ± 22.3 ?m (range ?27.1 to 82.5) nasally, ?9.7 ± 21.7 ?m (range ?40.1 to 60.1) superiorly, and ?1.4 ± 25.5 ?m (range ?85.6 to 75.2) inferiorly. There were no significant differences in the CTRPY at each location (P = 0.34). The CT decreased significantly (P < 0.05) only superiorly. The superior CTRPY was negatively correlated with the axial length (P < 0.05). The retinal thickness at the fovea did not change. Stepwise analysis for CTRPY selected axial length (P = 0.04, R2 = 0.13) and age (P = 0.08, R2 = 0.21) as relevant factors. Conclusions The highly myopic choroid might gradually thin and be affected by many factors. Location and axial length are key factors to regulate the rate of choroidal thinning in highly myopic eyes. Overall choroidal thickness was not found to change significantly. Longer follow-ups are needed. PMID:23696696

Ikuno, Yasushi; Fujimoto, Satoko; Jo, Yukari; Asai, Tomoko; Nishida, Kohji

2013-01-01

284

Pericyst: the outermost layer of hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease, caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus, mostly affects the liver and the lungs with hydatid cysts which consist of three layers: (1) the outer pericyst; (2) the middle laminated membrane; and (3) the inner germinal layer. Pericyst, as the outermost layer of the hydatid cyst, is made by host cells encasing the hydatid cyst. An extremely close interaction exists between this host tissue and the parasite, and any degenerative changes of the pericyst would result in hydatid cyst degeneration or rupture. The pericyst plays an undeniably important role in the development and survival of the hydatid cyst. PMID:24574815

Golzari, Samad E J; Sokouti, Mohsen

2014-02-01

285

Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.  

PubMed

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

2012-07-01

286

Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst  

PubMed Central

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

2012-01-01

287

Prenatal diagnosis of a paraurethral cyst.  

PubMed

Paraurethral cysts arising from Skene's gland are a rare cause of urogenital masses in the neonate. We report the case of a pelvic mass noted at the vaginal introitus on prenatal ultrasound that following delivery was found to be a paraurethral cyst. On prenatal ultrasound, there was no evidence of involvement of the urinary, gastrointestinal, or upper genital tract. Serial ultrasounds demonstrated slight enlargement of the cyst without other changes. The patient delivered at 33 weeks and postnatal evaluation demonstrated a paraurethral cyst. The cyst was managed expectantly and drained spontaneously on the second day of life with complete resolution. PMID:23146295

Johnson, Clark T; Millard, Sarah E; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Ehsanipoor, Robert M

2013-02-01

288

Diagnosis and treatment of midline prostatic cysts.  

PubMed

We report three patients with midline prostatic cysts (simple, n=1; complex, n=2) that presented with low ejaculate volume and hematospermia. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) revealed a midline prostatic cystic structure that could represent either an ejaculatory duct cyst or a Müllerian duct cyst. In one patient, the ejaculatory duct cyst was confirmed by identification of spermatozoa at microscopic analysis of fluid obtained by TRUS-guided needle aspiration. The two other patients underwent transurethral incision of the cyst with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:12504321

Moukaddam, Hicham A; Haddad, Maurice C; El-Sayyed, Khaled; Wazzan, Wassim

2003-01-01

289

Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

2014-01-01

290

Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.  

PubMed

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

2006-07-01

291

Laparoscopic Management of a Cystic Duct Cyst  

PubMed Central

Background: Choledochal cysts are rare cystic dilatations of the biliary tree. Though their cause is uncertain, these cysts are usually referred for surgical resection because of their association with developing malignancy. Traditionally, choledochal cysts have been classified under 5 main types. Not included in this classification are cysts of the cystic duct, a condition that is even rarer, with only 14 cases reported in the literature to date. We describe one such rare case of a cyst of the cystic duct that we successfully treated via laparoscopic resection. Methods and Results: A 41-year-old male was found to have a biliary abnormality on a routine follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan for an unrelated medical condition. Further magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) imaging identified a cystic dilation consistent with a Type II choledochal cyst. Laparoscopic resection was performed using a total of 5 trocars, at which time a cyst of the cystic duct was found instead of the expected Type II choledochal cyst. Intraoperative cholangiography was used as a surgical adjunct to confirm the anatomy, and resection of the cyst was completed without complications. Conclusions: Our case adds to the body of reports showing that cysts of the cystic duct, while extremely rare, do occur and need to be recognized. Given the preoperative similarity between cystic duct cysts and other choledochal cysts, proposal for a new “Type VI” category for choledochal cysts may be considered so that clinicians can be prepared for this variation. Once recognized, cysts of the cystic duct can be safely and effectively removed by laparoscopic excision, as we have demonstrated. PMID:19793491

Chan, Edward S.; Auyang, Edward D.

2009-01-01

292

First reported cases of gyrate atrophy of the choroid from Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sisters previously diagnosed as having retinitis pigmentosa presented with complaints of frequent change of glasses. On ocular examination, the fundus showed the appearance of confluent arcuate equatorial full thickness lesions of the choroid and retina, sparing some of the large choroidal vessels, and separated from one another by thin margins of pigment, in both the sisters. Serum analysis was

Sachet Prabhat Shrestha; Reema Arora; Rajesh Pradhan; Subramaniam Bhatt

2010-01-01

293

CD36 Deficiency Leads to Choroidal Involution via COX2 Down-Regulation in Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the Western world, a major cause of blindness is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent research in angiogenesis has furthered the understanding of choroidal neovascularization, which occurs in the “wet” form of AMD. In contrast, very little is known about the mechanisms of the predominant, “dry” form of AMD, which is characterized by retinal atrophy and choroidal involution. The aim

Marianne Houssier; William Raoul; Sophie Lavalette; Nicole Keller; Xavier Guillonneau; Barbara Baragatti; Laurent Jonet; Jean-Claude Jeanny; Francine Behar-Cohen; Flavio Coceani; Daniel Scherman; Pierre Lachapelle; Huy Ong; Sylvain Chemtob; Florian Sennlaub

2008-01-01

294

Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina choroid in health disease  

PubMed Central

We review the cellular and physiological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of blood flow in the retina and choroid in health and disease. Due to the intrinsic light sensitivity of the retina and the direct visual accessibility of fundus blood vessels, the eye offers unique opportunities for the non-invasive investigation of mechanisms of blood flow regulation. The ability of the retinal vasculature to regulate its blood flow is contrasted with the far more restricted ability of the choroidal circulation to regulate its blood flow by virtue of the absence of glial cells, the markedly reduced pericyte ensheathment of the choroidal vasculature, and the lack of intermediate filaments in choroidal pericytes. We review the cellular and molecular components of the neurovascular unit in the retina and choroid, techniques for monitoring retinal and choroidal blood flow, responses of the retinal and choroidal circulation to light stimulation, the role of capillaries, astrocytes and pericytes in regulating blood flow, putative signaling mechanisms mediating neurovascular coupling in the retina, and changes that occur in the retinal and choroidal circulation during diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. We close by discussing issues that remain to be explored. PMID:22580107

Kur, Joanna; Newman, Eric A.; Chan-Ling, Tailoi

2012-01-01

295

Comparison of Peroxidases in the Retina, Choroid and Red Blood Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the peroxidase activity in the bovine retina is specific to glutathione (GSH) while the choroid contains both GSH peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase. The GSH peroxidase was clearly separated from ascorbate peroxidase on a cation exchange column. The nonspecific peroxidase activity of hemoproteins accounts for the peroxidase activity detected by ascorbate oxidation. All choroidal hemoproteins contain sub-units very similar

Lu Wang; Kwok-Wai Lam; Tim T. Lam; Randolph D. Glickman

1994-01-01

296

In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid.  

PubMed

For the first time in vivo retinal imaging has been performed with a new compact, low noise Yb-based ASE source operating in the 1 microm range (NP Photonics, lambdac = 1040 nm, Deltalambda = 50 nm, Pout = 30 mW) at the dispersion minimum of water with ~7 microm axial resolution. OCT tomograms acquired at 800 nm are compared to those achieved at 1040 nm showing about 200 microm deeper penetration into the choroid below the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal OCT at longer wavelengths significantly improves the visualization of the retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillaris/choroids interface and superficial choroidal layers as well as reduces the scattering through turbid media and therefore might provide a better diagnosis tool for early stages of retinal pathologies such as age related macular degeneration which is accompanied by choroidal neovascularization, i.e., extensive growth of new blood vessels in the choroid and retina. PMID:19495226

Unterhuber, Angelika; Povazay, B; Hermann, B; Sattmann, H; Chavez-Pirson, A; Drexler, W

2005-05-01

297

Cerebral arachnoid cyst: A lesion of the child's brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

39 patients with 42 arachnoid cysts have been reviewed in a retrospective study. All kinds of arachnoid cysts reported in the literature were also found in this study. These consist mainly of congenital primary and posttraumatic secondary cysts. Cysts which cause no major neurological deficits require conservative treatment of symptoms only. Cysts which cause major symptoms because of their space

Kwesi Dei-Anang; Dieter Voth

1989-01-01

298

Relationship of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to capillary dropout in the human diabetic choroid.  

PubMed Central

Capillary dropout is an initial event in diabetic retinopathy, but the etiology is unknown. Recent evidence suggests that similar events may occur in the diabetic choroid. We have developed a method to evaluate the relationship between the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and capillary dropout in the human diabetic choroid using alkaline phosphatase (APase) histochemistry to label blood vessels and nonspecific esterase activity to identify PMNs. The number and distribution of PMNs in diabetic and nondiabetic choroidal capillaries (choriocapillaris) were analyzed in the flat perspective and the tissue then flat embedded in glycol methacrylate for histological sectioning. The total number of PMNs was increased within the choriocapillaris in five diabetic eyes (170.9 +/- 12.9 PMNs/mm2 of choroid) compared with five nondiabetic eyes (84.2 +/- 16.9 PMNs/mm2; P < 0.001). PMNs were almost always within blood vessel lumens and not in interstitial tissue. In the diabetic choroid, increased numbers of PMNs were present in areas of choriocapillaris with pathological changes (loss in APase activity and choroidal neovascularization) compared with nonpathological choriocapillaris (205.1 +/- 46.9 PMNs/mm2 in pathological versus 152.3 +/- 23.4 PMNs/mm2 in nonpathological areas; P < 0.001). PMNs were often queued up within the lumens of capillaries, demonstrating loss in APase activity. We have observed an increased number of PMNs in diabetic choroid compared with control nondiabetic choroids, and PMNs in diabetic choroid were associated with loss in APase activity, which was related to loss in viable endothelial cells. The results suggest that PMNs contribute to vaso-occlusive processes and endothelial cell injury in the diabetic choroid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9284819

Lutty, G. A.; Cao, J.; McLeod, D. S.

1997-01-01

299

Pineal gland cysts--an overview.  

PubMed

Pineal cysts occur in all ages, predominantly in adults in the fourth decade of life. In series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the prevalence of pineal cysts ranged between 1.3% and 4.3% of patients examined for various neurologic reasons and up to 10.8% of asymptomatic healthy volunteers. The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area. A recent study demonstrated the findings obtained by transcranial sonography to correspond to those obtained by MRI in the detection of both pineal gland cyst and pineal gland itself, and could be used in the future mainly as follow up examination. Pineal cysts usually have no clinical implications and remain asymptomatic for years. The most common symptoms include headache, vertigo, visual and oculomotor disturbances, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Less frequently, patients present with ataxia, motor and sensory impairment, mental and emotional disturbances, epilepsy, circadian rhythm disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction of precocious puberty, and recently described occurrence of secondary parkinsonism. Symptomatic cysts vary in size from 7 mm to 45 mm, whereas asymptomatic cysts are usually less than 10 mm in diameter, although a relationship between the cyst size and the onset of symptoms has been proved to be irrelevant in many cases. There is agreement that surgical intervention should be undertaken in patients presenting with hydrocephalus, progression of neurologic symptoms, or cyst enlargement. Tissue sample of the pineal lesion can be obtained by open surgery, stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy. PMID:20055263

Bosnjak, Jelena; Budisi?, Mislav; Azman, Drazen; Strineka, Maja; Crnjakovi?, Miljenko; Demarin, Vida

2009-09-01

300

Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a 400 kHz A-scan rate is developed for three-dimensional ultrahigh speed imaging of the posterior eye. OCT angiography is used to image three-dimensional vascular structure without the need for exogenous fluorophores by detecting erythrocyte motion contrast between OCT intensity cross-sectional images acquired rapidly and repeatedly from the same location on the retina. En face OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature are visualized by acquiring cross-sectional OCT angiograms volumetrically via raster scanning and segmenting the three-dimensional angiographic data at multiple depths below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fine microvasculature of the choriocapillaris, as well as tightly packed networks of feeding arterioles and draining venules, can be visualized at different en face depths. Panoramic ultra-wide field stitched OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris spanning ?32 mm on the retina show distinct vascular structures at different fundus locations. Isolated smaller fields at the central fovea and ?6 mm nasal to the fovea at the depths of the choriocapillaris and Sattler's layer show vasculature structures consistent with established architectural morphology from histological and electron micrograph corrosion casting studies. Choriocapillaris imaging was performed in eight healthy volunteers with OCT angiograms successfully acquired from all subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ultrahigh speed OCT for in vivo dye-free choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature imaging, in addition to conventional structural imaging. PMID:24349078

Choi, WooJhon; Mohler, Kathrin J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Lu, Chen D.; Liu, Jonathan J.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E.; Duker, Jay S.; Huber, Robert; Fujimoto, James G.

2013-01-01

301

Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography.  

PubMed

We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a 400 kHz A-scan rate is developed for three-dimensional ultrahigh speed imaging of the posterior eye. OCT angiography is used to image three-dimensional vascular structure without the need for exogenous fluorophores by detecting erythrocyte motion contrast between OCT intensity cross-sectional images acquired rapidly and repeatedly from the same location on the retina. En face OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature are visualized by acquiring cross-sectional OCT angiograms volumetrically via raster scanning and segmenting the three-dimensional angiographic data at multiple depths below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fine microvasculature of the choriocapillaris, as well as tightly packed networks of feeding arterioles and draining venules, can be visualized at different en face depths. Panoramic ultra-wide field stitched OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris spanning ?32 mm on the retina show distinct vascular structures at different fundus locations. Isolated smaller fields at the central fovea and ?6 mm nasal to the fovea at the depths of the choriocapillaris and Sattler's layer show vasculature structures consistent with established architectural morphology from histological and electron micrograph corrosion casting studies. Choriocapillaris imaging was performed in eight healthy volunteers with OCT angiograms successfully acquired from all subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ultrahigh speed OCT for in vivo dye-free choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature imaging, in addition to conventional structural imaging. PMID:24349078

Choi, WooJhon; Mohler, Kathrin J; Potsaid, Benjamin; Lu, Chen D; Liu, Jonathan J; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Duker, Jay S; Huber, Robert; Fujimoto, James G

2013-01-01

302

Choroidal detachment in perforated corneal ulcers: frequency and management  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the frequency of choroidal detachment (CD) in eyes with non?traumatic corneal ulcer perforation and, also, to assess the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate glue in sealing corneal perforations. Methods 18 eyes of 17 patients were studied. Inclusion criterion was any patient with a non?traumatic perforated corneal ulcer. All patients had a thorough history taken and complete ophthalmic examination including B?scan ultrasonography. Patient demographics, presence of CD, and efficacy of corneal gluing were assessed. Results Eight of the 18 eyes (44%) were documented to have a CD. Among perforations of >2?mm2, six eyes (75%) were documented to have CD compared with two eyes (20%) with perforations of ?2?mm2 (p?=?0.054). No correlation could be determined between perforation duration and incidence of CD. Of the 15 eyes that underwent gluing, there were 13 successes (87%) and two failures (13%). Within the successes four patients (27%) required re?gluing because of infection (one patient) or progression of melt and glue loosening (three patients). Failure was the result of severe progression of melting (one patient) and a very large perforation (one patient). Conclusion Choroidal detachment following corneal ulcer perforation is common and is more likely in larger corneal perforations. Preoperative B?scan should be considered in cases of large corneal perforations requiring therapeutic keratoplasty to document choroidal detachment, which if large may require drainage. Cyanoacrylate glue is an effective and safe method for sealing small corneal perforations. A vigil must be maintained for infection while the glue and bandage contact lens are in situ. PMID:16723362

Singh, R; Umapathy, T; Abedin, A; Eatamadi, H; Maharajan, S; Dua, H S

2006-01-01

303

Brachial plexus injury in adults: Diagnosis and surgical treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

Adult post traumatic Brachial plexus injury is unfortunately a rather common injury in young adults. In India the most common scenario is of a young man injured in a motorcycle accident. Exact incidence figures are not available but of the injuries presenting to us about 90% invole the above combination This article reviews peer-reviewed publications including clinical papers, review articles and Meta analysis of the subject. In addition, the authors? experience of several hundred cases over the last 15 years has been added and has influenced the ultimate text. Results have been discussed and analysed to get an idea of factors influencing final recovery. It appears that time from injury and number of roots involved are most crucial. PMID:23661959

Thatte, Mukund R.; Babhulkar, Sonali; Hiremath, Amita

2013-01-01

304

Brachial plexus injury: a descriptive study of American football.  

PubMed

A stinger is a common, yet understudied, injury that involves stretching or compression of the brachial plexus, often occurring during contact sports. Five football teams, including high school, collegiate, and professional teams, completed questionnaires. Questions were designed to obtain descriptive information regarding the nature and consequence of this injury and assess effectiveness of current preventive measures. Three hundred and four surveys were returned with 153 players reporting a stinger in their career (50.3%). The prevalence increased with years played and was most common in running backs (69%), defensive linemen (60%), linebackers (55%), and defensive secondary (54%). Current protective equipment and neck-strengthening programs did not provide protective benefits. Players at greatest risk of developing a stinger include those having played 3 or more years and players whose primary position is running back, defensive back, or defensive lineman. Further study is needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of current preventive measures. PMID:24875339

Starr, Harlan M; Anderson, Blake; Courson, Ron; Seiler, John G

2014-01-01

305

Neonatal brachial plexus palsy: Incidence, prevalence, and temporal trends.  

PubMed

Epidemiological knowledge of the incidence, prevalence, and temporal changes of neonatal brachial plexuses palsy (NBPP) should assist the clinician, avert unnecessary interventions, and help formulate evidence-based health policies. A summary of 63 publications in the English language with over 17 million births and 24,000 NBPPs is notable for six things. First, the rate of NBPP in the US and other countries is comparable: 1.5 vs. 1.3 per 1000 total births, respectively. Second, the rate of NBPP may be decreasing: 0.9, 1.0 and 0.5 per 1,000 births for publications before 1990, 1990-2000, and after 2000, respectively. Third, the likelihood of not having concomitant shoulder dystocia with NBPP was 76% overall, though it varied by whether the publication was from the US (78%) vs. other countries (47%). Fourth, the likelihood of NBPP being permanent (lasting at least 12 months) was 10-18% in the US-based reports and 19-23% in other countries. Fifth, in studies from the US, the rate of permanent NBPP is 1.1-2.2 per 10,000 births and 2.9-3.7 per 10,000 births in other nations. Sixth, we estimate that approximately 5000 NBPPs occur every year in the US, of which over 580-1050 are permanent, and that since birth, 63,000 adults have been afflicted with persistent paresis of their brachial plexus. The exceedingly infrequent nature of permanent NBPP necessitates a multi-center study to improve our understanding of the antecedent factors and to abate the long-term sequela. PMID:24863027

Chauhan, Suneet P; Blackwell, Sean B; Ananth, Cande V

2014-06-01

306

An unusual presentation of a retroperitoneal cyst.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old woman presented to the surgical assessment unit with severe right loin to groin pain. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen revealed a complex cyst in the right iliac fossa and a subsequent CT scan revealed a 7.5?cm retroperitoneal cystic lesion below the lower pole of the right kidney. The patient also had MRI of the kidneys, which confirmed the finding. The image showed the cyst was not attached to the kidneys and was clearly separate. She underwent a laparoscopic excision of the cyst. Histopathology revealed a cyst lined by a single layer of mucinous epithelium of endocervical type with foci of calcification and hyalinisation on the wall. The cyst was thought to be a benign cyst of Mullerian origin. PMID:25368127

Sarkar, Debashis; Gulur, Dev; Patel, Snehal; Nambirajan, Thiagarajan

2014-01-01

307

[Tarlov's cyst: definition, etiopathogenesis, propaedeutic and treatment].  

PubMed

Tarlov's cyst or perineurial cyst is disease on portion of the posterior nerve root in lumbo-sacral region. The lack of knowledge of physicians around the world about Tarlov's cyst as to their nature, significance and treatment also with differential diagnostics to radiculopathy in legs. With review of literature discuss about definition, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic investigation and treatment clinic and/or surgery. The pathogenesis Tarlov's cyst remains unclear; several cases have history of the trauma, old hemorrhage, congenital and iatrogenic. Cysts provoke low back pain, sacral radiculopathy, dyspareunia, urinary incontence. The magnetic resonance imaging is now the gold standard to diagnose cysts. The treatment is clinic or surgery depending neurologics finding and neuroimage. PMID:18625096

De Sá, Márcia Cristina; D'Angelo, Carla Tereza; Da Ros Malacarne, Guilherme; Neto, Pedro; Pagura, Jorge

2008-01-01

308

Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

1981-01-01

309

Torsion of an ovarian cyst mimicking enteric duplication cyst on transabdominal ultrasound: two cases.  

PubMed

We describe two girls with abdominal cysts which demonstrated the "double wall" or "muscular rim" sign. On the basis of this, the diagnosis of duplication cyst was made in each case. At surgery, both were found to have ovarian cysts, and histology revealed prominent haemorrhage within the cyst wall. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of a false-positive "double wall sign". PMID:9561537

Godfrey, H; Abernethy, L; Boothroyd, A

1998-03-01

310

Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia  

SciTech Connect

Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication.

Shankar, Sridhar, E-mail: shankars@ummhc.org; Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Flanagan, Hugh L. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Whang, Edward E. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Surgery (United States)

2005-06-15

311

Restoration and protection of brachial plexus injury: hot topics in the last decade  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injury is frequently induced by injuries, accidents or birth trauma. Upper limb function may be partially or totally lost after injury, or left permanently disabled. With the development of various medical technologies, different types of interventions are used, but their effectiveness is wide ranging. Many repair methods have phasic characteristics, i.e., repairs are done in different phases. This study explored research progress and hot topic methods for protection after brachial plexus injury, by analyzing 1,797 articles concerning the repair of brachial plexus injuries, published between 2004 and 2013 and indexed by the Science Citation Index database. Results revealed that there are many methods used to repair brachial plexus injury, and their effects are varied. Intervention methods include nerve transfer surgery, electrical stimulation, cell transplantation, neurotrophic factor therapy and drug treatment. Therapeutic methods in this field change according to the hot topic of research. PMID:25374596

Zhang, Kaizhi; Lv, Zheng; Liu, Jun; Zhu, He; Li, Rui

2014-01-01

312

Neurolymphomatosis of Brachial Plexus in Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare clinical disease where neoplastic cells invade the cranial nerves and peripheral nerve roots, plexus, or other nerves in patients with hematologic malignancy. Most NL cases are caused by B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Diagnosis can be made by imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We experienced two cases of NL involving the brachial plexus in patients with NHL. One patient, who had NHL with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, experienced complete remission after 8 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy but relapsed into NL of the brachial plexus 5 months later. The other patient, who suffered from primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), had been undergoing chemoradiotherapy but progressed to NL of the brachial plexus. PMID:24324902

Shin, Jung A.; Cho, Joong-Yang; Yi, Seong Yoon; Lee, Hye Ran

2013-01-01

313

75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. APHIS-2010-0010] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY...quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined...INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a...

2010-03-10

314

Surgical treatment of sacral perineural cyst--case report.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old man presented with persistent penis and scrotum pain due to S-2 and S-3 radiculopathy caused by a sacral perineural cyst. The cyst was treated with microsurgical partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication, together with closure of the point through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowed from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity. His pain resolved without recurrence of the cyst or complications. Symptomatic perineural cysts are quite rare. Surgical closure of the point through which CSF flows from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity is the most important intervention for symptomatic perineural cysts. If the source of CSF leakage cannot be detected, placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt should be considered in addition to partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication. PMID:22198114

Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Miki, Takanori; Miyaji, Yuki; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yamaura, Ikuya; Natsume, Shigeatsu; Yoshida, Kozo

2011-01-01

315

Synovial cyst in juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small synovial cysts are a common manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis; large brachial cysts, however, are a rare\\u000a sign of the disease and they must be differentiated from other soft tissue swelling which are not related to articular involvement.\\u000a We describe the case of three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who came to our attention with large synovial cysts.\\u000a Ultrasonographic

L. Dell’Era; P. Vercellesi; L. V. Forzenigo; V. Carnelli; F. Corona

2008-01-01

316

Tarlov cysts: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts are common and usually detected incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. Treatment is indicated only when the cyst is symptomatic. We report one such patients presented with cauda equina syndrome and another with low back pain with claudication. They underwent excision and duraplasty; both motor and sensory fibres were carefully separated from the cyst wall using a nerve root retractor and penfield. There was no nerve root damage or neural deficit. Symptoms were relieved postoperatively. PMID:22535818

Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumya

2012-04-01

317

Intratesticular Epidermoid Cyst: A Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Testicular epidermoid cyst is extremely rare injury, which in recent studies has been regarded as a tumor. Some authors consider this lesion as a cystic monodermal teratoma, the histogenesis remains controversial. In this study we provide clinical and morphological characteristics of an epidermoid cyst in the left testicle in a 16 years old patient, where apparently a nodular lesion in the left testicle was detected. Keywords Cyst; Epidermoid; Intratesticular PMID:22043263

Aneiros-Fernandez, Jose; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Cancela-Diez, Barbara; O'Valle, Francisco; Cachaza, Jose Aneiros

2010-01-01

318

Spontaneous Resolution of an Intraspinal Synovial Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report a case of lumbar facet joint synovial cyst at L5-S1 with clinically significant radicular pain di- agnosed by means of MR imaging. This cyst spontaneously resolved, as determined on follow-up MR images obtained 18 months later. The patient's clinical symptoms substan- tially improved after conservative medical treatment. Approximately 180 case reports of synovial cysts of the vertebral

Paul G. Swartz; F. Reed Murtagh

319

Hemidiaphragmatic paresis can be avoided in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is associated with 50% to 67% incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis as a result of phrenic nerve block. We examined whether ultrasound-guided compared with nerve stimulation supraclavicular brachial plexus block using 0.75% ropivacaine results in a lower incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis. METHODS: In a prospective randomized observer-blinded controlled trial, 60 patients scheduled for elective

Steven H. Renes; Hubertus H. Spoormans; Mathieu J. Gielen; Harald C. Rettig; Geert J. van Geffen

2009-01-01

320

Color Doppler Ultrasound-guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block to Prevent Vascular Injection  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are quickly becoming integrated into emergency medicine practice for pain control and as an alternative to procedural sedation. Common, but potentially catastophic errors have not been reported outside of the anesthesiology literature. Evaluation of the brachial plexus with color Doppler should be standard for clinicians performing a supraclavicular brachial plexus block to determine ideal block location and prevention of inadvertant intravascular injection. PMID:25247047

Hahn, Christopher; Nagdev, Arun

2014-01-01

321

Color Doppler Ultrasound-guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block to Prevent Vascular Injection.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are quickly becoming integrated into emergency medicine practice for pain control and as an alternative to procedural sedation. Common, but potentially catastophic errors have not been reported outside of the anesthesiology literature. Evaluation of the brachial plexus with color Doppler should be standard for clinicians performing a supraclavicular brachial plexus block to determine ideal block location and prevention of inadvertant intravascular injection. PMID:25247047

Hahn, Christopher; Nagdev, Arun

2014-09-01

322

Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block in pediatric patients -A report of four cases-  

PubMed Central

Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks are not common in pediatric patients due to the risk of pneumothorax. Ultrasonography is an important tool for identifying nerves during regional anesthesia. Directly visualizing the target nerves and monitoring the distribution of the local anesthetic are potentially significant. In addition, ultrasound monitoring helps avoid complications, such as inadvertent intravascular injection or pneumothorax. This paper reports four cases of pediatric patients who received ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgery. PMID:21286471

Yang, Chun Woo; Kwon, Hee Uk; Roh, Jae Young; Heo, Youn Moo; Ahn, Sung-Min

2010-01-01

323

Plexus structure imaging with thin slab MR neurography: rotating frames, fly-throughs, and composite projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored multiple image processing approaches by which to display the segmented adult brachial plexus in a three-dimensional manner. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) 1.5-Tesla scans with STIR sequences, which preferentially highlight nerves, were performed in adult volunteers to generate high-resolution raw images. Using multiple software programs, the raw MRN images were then manipulated so as to achieve segmentation of plexus

David T. Raphael; Diane McIntee; Jay S. Tsuruda; Patrick Colletti; Raymond Tatevossian; James Frazier

2006-01-01

324

Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis and Choroidal Neovascularization by Endogenous Angioinhibitors  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from parent blood vessels, which is a prerequisite for many physiological and pathological conditions and is regulated by a balance between endogenous angioinhibitors and angioactivators or angiogenic factors. Imbalance between angioinhibitors and angioactivators is associated with neovascularization capacity during progression of tumor development and Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV). Normalization of pathological angiogenesis is considered as an alternative strategy to prevent the tumor growth in cancer progression or retinal damage in CNV. Various angioinhibitors are being identified and evaluated for their pathological angiogenesis regulation, of which endogenous angioinhibitors are one class derived either from extra cellular matrix or from non-extra cellular matrix of human origin. Endogenous angioinhibitors are gaining much significance as they interact with proliferating endothelial cells by binding to distinct integrins and non-integrin receptors, regulating different intracellular signaling mechanisms leading to inhibition of choroidal neovascularization and tumor growth. This review will focus on endogenous angioinhibitors and their receptor(s) mediated angioinhibitory signaling, which are of major concern in angiogenesis and their clinical and pharmaceutical implications.

Gunda, Venugopal; Sudhakar, Yakkanti A

2014-01-01

325

Laparoscopic Management of Huge Ovarian Cysts  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Huge ovarian cysts are conventionally managed by laparotomy. We present 5 cases with huge ovarian cysts managed by laparoscopic endoscopic surgery without any complications. Materials and Methods. We describe five patients who had their surgeries conducted in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (King Fahad Medical City). Results. Patients age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Tumor markers were normal for all patients. The maximum diameter of all cysts ranged between 18 and 42?cm as measured by ultrasound. The cysts were unilocular; in some patients, there were fine septations. All patients had open-entry laparoscopy. After evaluation of the cyst capsule, the cysts were drained under laparoscopic guidance, 1–12 liters were drained from the cysts (mean 5.2?L), and then laparoscopic oophorectomy was done. The final histopathology reports confirmed benign serous cystadenoma in four patients and one patient had a benign mucinous cystadenoma. There was minimal blood loss during surgeries and with no complications for all patients. Conclusion. There is still no consensus for the size limitation of ovarian cysts decided to be a contraindication for laparoscopic management. With advancing techniques, proper patients selection, and availability of experts in gynecologic endoscopy, it is possible to remove giant cyst by laparoscopy. PMID:23766763

Alobaid, A.; Memon, A.; Alobaid, S.; Aldakhil, L.

2013-01-01

326

Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of mediastinal cysts  

PubMed Central

Introduction Progress in the development of surgical techniques has led to the growing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques in mediastinal cyst treatment. Aim To present our experience of treating mediastinal cysts with the minimally invasive technique. Material and methods Fifty patients with mediastinal cysts were treated from 2001 to 2011. There were 32 women and 18 men. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 72, the mean age being 42 years. All patients underwent basic preoperative diagnostic tests of the chest: X-ray, computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and spirometry; 4 patients underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and 3 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the described lesions. Results The VATS was performed in each case. Conversion was carried out due to superior mediastinal location in 10 cases and pleural adhesions in 3 cases. The partial resection of a cyst was performed in 3 patients. One patient was treated conservatively due to heart failure. In that patient the transthoracic needle aspiration of a cyst under ultrasound guidance using alcoholisation with 76% ethanol with a good effect was performed twice. Cyst recurrence was observed in 1 case. Conclusions The surgical access depends on the location of a cyst. The VATS resection of a superior mediastinal cyst is not always feasible. Surgery of mediastinal cysts is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:25337163

Brzezi?ski, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

2014-01-01

327

Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts.  

PubMed

Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid was aspirated from the right cyst. Radiographically, erosion of bone in a "cupping" fashion was observed in the region of left cyst. The cysts were enucleated using intraoral approach. Histopathology of the right-sided cyst revealed a cystic cavity lined by stratified squamous cells along with a few mucosal cells. At few places, stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar epithelia with many cilia and goblet cells were also evident. Capsule was loosely arranged with fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Left-sided cystic specimen showed two or more layered stratified squamous lining epithelium with thin capsule. Diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial/nasoalveolar cysts was confirmed. PMID:24574670

Parwani, Rajkumar; Parwani, Simran; Wanjari, Sangeeta

2013-09-01

328

MRI of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.  

PubMed

Sacral perineural cyst is a relatively rare condition. To our knowledge, reports of MR findings associated with sacral perineural cyst have been limited to only six cases. We present for the first time high field MR findings in a case of sacral perineural cyst. The cyst appeared as a cystic lesion in the sacral spinal canal and had intermediate signal intensity on T1W images and high signal intensity on T2*W images compared with CSF. Slight erosion remodeling of the sacrum was also seen anteriorly. Our case was symptomatic and present with radiculopathy (sciatic pain). Surgical treatment was done to result in dramatic improvement of the sciatic pain. PMID:1337620

Araki, Y; Tsukaguchi, I; Ishida, T; Ootani, M; Yamamoto, T; Tomoda, K; Mitomo, M

1992-01-01

329

A DTC Niche Plexus Surrounds the Germline Stem Cell Pool in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The mesenchymal distal tip cell (DTC) provides the niche for Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells (GSCs). The DTC has a complex cellular architecture: its cell body caps the distal gonadal end and contacts germ cells extensively, but it also includes multiple cellular processes that extend along the germline tube and intercalate between germ cells. Here we use the lag-2 DTC promoter to drive expression of myristoylated GFP, which highlights DTC membranes and permits a more detailed view of DTC architecture. We find that short processes intercalating between germ cells contact more germ cells than seen previously. We define this region of extensive niche contact with germ cells as the DTC plexus. The extent of the DTC plexus corresponds well with the previously determined extent of the GSC pool. Moreover, expression of a differentiation marker increases as germ cells move out of the plexus. Maintenance of this DTC plexus depends on the presence of undifferentiated germ cells, suggesting that germ cell state can influence niche architecture. The roles of this DTC architecture remain an open question. One idea is that the DTC plexus delivers Notch signaling to the cluster of germ cells comprising the GSC pool; another idea is that the plexus anchors GSCs at the distal end. PMID:24586318

Byrd, Dana T.; Knobel, Karla; Affeldt, Katharyn; Crittenden, Sarah L.; Kimble, Judith

2014-01-01

330

Phospholemman, a Single-Span Membrane Protein, Is an Accessory Protein of Na,K-ATPase in Cerebellum and Choroid Plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholemman (FXYD1) is a homolog of the Na,K-ATPase subunit (FXYD2), a small accessory protein that modulates ATPase activity. Here we show that phospholemman is highly expressed in selected structures in the CNS. It is most abundant in cerebellum, where it was detected in the molecular layer, in Purkinje neurons, and in axons traversing the granule cell layer. Phospholemman was particularly

Marina S. Feschenko; Claudia Donnet; Randall K. Wetzel; Natalya K. Asinovski; Larry R. Jones; Kathleen J. Sweadner

331

Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of

I. Cambianica; M. Bossi; P. Gasco; W. Gonzalez; J. M. Idee; G. Miserocchi; R. Rigolio; M. Chanana; I. Morjan; D. Wang; G. Sancini

2010-01-01

332

Effect of flaxseed on choroid-sclera complex thickness and on LDL oxidation in the sclera, choroid and retina of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed on choroid-sclera complex thickness and on LDL oxidation in the sclera, choroid and retina of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. New Zealand male albino rabbits (n 21) were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1; n 11), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet, and group 2 (G2; n 10), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet enriched with flaxseed flour. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and fasting blood glucose were determined at the start of the experiment and on the day of killing (8th week). Choroid and sclera samples were subjected to haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses with the anti-oxidised LDL antibody. Sensory retina samples were subjected to an immunohistochemical analysis with the primary monoclonal nitrotyrosine antibody. At the end of the experiment, a significant increase was observed in TC and LDL-C concentrations in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P= 0·008 and P= 0·02, respectively). HE staining revealed a significant increase in choroid-sclera complex thickness in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P< 0·001). Immunohistochemical analysis of choroid and sclera samples with the anti-oxidised LDL marker revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P< 0·001). Immunohistochemical analysis of sensory retina samples with the anti-nitrotyrosine marker revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P= 0·002). Flaxseed reduced the choroid-sclera complex thickness of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits and the expression of oxidised LDL in the choroid-sclera complex as well as the expression of nitrotyrosine in the sensory retina. PMID:25247699

de Almeida Torres, Rogil José; Luchini, Andrea; Both, Alessandro Soares; Precoma, Leonardo Brandao; Champoski, Ana Flavia; Schuh, Maynara Leonardi; de Almeida Torres, Renan Pedro; Noronha, Lucia; Pessoa, Bernardo Molinari; de Almeida Torres, Lucas Antonio; de França Serci, Nicole Francesca; Precoma, Dalton Bertolim

2014-11-01

333

Acetazolamide-induced cilio-choroidal effusion after cataract surgery: unusual posterior involvement  

PubMed Central

Idiosyncratic reactions to a large number of drugs have been reported to cause choroidal detachment and secondary angle-closure glaucoma (ACG). We report a case of bilateral acute ACG and peculiar choroidal effusion following administration of oral acetazolamide immediately after cataract surgery. Few cases of acute secondary ACG with choroidal effusion and anterior shift of the lens-iris diaphragm have been associated with acetazolamide compared with other sulfonamides. As far as we are aware, posterior involvement with retinal folds and papillary edema due to acetazolamide has not been described before. PMID:23378740

Malagola, Romualdo; Arrico, Loredana; Giannotti, Rossella; Pattavina, Luigi

2013-01-01

334

Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.  

PubMed

Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

2008-09-01

335

Two Cases of Symptomatic Perineural Cysts (Tarlov Cysts) in One Family: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

2008-01-01

336

Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To demonstrate the three-dimensional choroidal volume distribution in healthy subjects using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to evaluate its association with age, sex, and axial length. Design Retrospective case series. Participants One hundred and seventy six eyes from 114 subjects with no retinal or choroidal disease. Methods EDI SD-OCT imaging studies for healthy patients who had undergone a 31-raster scanning protocol on a commercial SD-OCT device were reviewed. Manual segmentation of the choroid was performed by two retinal specialists. Macular choroidal volume map and three-dimensional topography were automatically created by the built-in software of the device. Mean choroidal volume was calculated for each Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfield. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between macular choroidal volume and age, sex, and axial length. Main Outcome Measures Three-dimensional topography and ETDRS-style volume map of the choroid. Results Three-dimensional topography of the choroid and volume map was obtained in all cases. The mean choroidal volume was 0.228 ± 0.077 mm3 for the center ring and 7.374 ± 2.181 mm3 for the total ETDRS grid. The nasal quadrant showed the lowest choroidal volume, and the superior quadrant the highest. The temporal and inferior quadrants did not show different choroidal volume values. Choroidal volume in all the EDTRS rings was significantly correlated with axial length after adjustment for age (P<0.0001), with age after adjustment for axial length (P<0.0001) and with sex after adjustment for axial length (P<0.05). Choroidal volume decreases by 0.54 mm3 (7.32%) for every decade and by 0.56 mm3 (7.59%) for every mm of axial length. Males have a 7.37% greater choroidal volume compared to that of females. Conclusions EDI SD-OCT is non-invasive and well-tolerated procedure with an excellent ability to visualize three-dimensional topography of the choroid and to measure choroidal volume at the posterior pole using manual segmentation. Age and axial length are inversely correlated with choroidal volume, most likely leading to changes in retinal metabolic support in old and high myopic patients. Sexual differences should be considered when interpreting an EDI SD-OCT scan of the choroid. PMID:22921388

Barteselli, Giulio; Chhablani, Jay; El-Emam, Sharif; Wang, Haiyan; Chuang, Janne; Kozak, Igor; Cheng, Lingyun; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Freeman, William R.

2012-01-01

337

Ruptured Corpus Luteal Cyst: CT Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Materials and Methods Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. Results The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. Conclusion In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa. PMID:12679633

Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong

2003-01-01

338

Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.  

PubMed Central

The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3817589

Morris, D L; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B

1987-01-01

339

Lipids status in human breast cyst fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign mammary gross cystic disease is the most common breast lesion; women with apocrine changes of epithelium lining the cysts are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than the normal population. Total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins fractions, triglycerides and phospholipids, lipase activity and total lipid concentrations were measured in cyst fluids and sera from 89 women affected by

F. Mannello; G. D. Bocchiotti; F. Pignatti Morano; L. M. Fratepietro; G. Gazzanelli

1996-01-01

340

Parameatal urethral cysts of the glans penis.  

PubMed

Parameatal urethral cysts are uncommon in the male. We have seen 9 cases and have reviewed these and the 35 cases reported in Japan between 1919 and 1984. The cysts recurred after rupture or aspiration in 3 cases and complete excision is recommended. PMID:2310917

Koga, S; Arakaki, Y; Matsuoka, M; Ohyama, C

1990-01-01

341

Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst  

PubMed Central

Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:21915386

Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

2011-01-01

342

Synovial cysts: Clinical and neuroradiological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lumbar and intraneural synovial cysts are uncommon lesions, although their incidence has increased since the introduction of MRI. The authors describe the results of a study comprising 23 patients with synovial cyst (5 lumbar, 19 intraneural). Neuroradiological investigations included CT scan and MRI; however, it was not always possible to diagnose the nature of the lesion. In 18 cases

M. Artico; L. Cervoni; S. Carloia; G. Stevanato; M. Mastantuono; F. Nucci

1997-01-01

343

Spontaneous Resolution of a Prepontine Arachnoid Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prepontine arachnoid cysts are rare developmental anomalies that occur almost exclusively in children. The symptomatic child typically suffers from hydrocephalus, visual impairment, endocrine dysfunction and\\/or cranial neuropathies. Some cysts, however, are discovered incidentally upon prenatal or postnatal imaging for other indications. While there is little doubt that surgical treatment should be initiated to help the symptomatic child, appropriate therapy for

Robert L. Dodd; Patrick D. Barnes; Stephen L. Huhn

2002-01-01

344

Nasolabial cysts: Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to review our experience, examine the clinical and pathological features of nasolabial cysts, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment in an Asian population. We made a retrospective review of patients with nasolabial cysts who were treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital between January 1999 and December

Heng-Wai Yuen; Cheow-Yew Lee Julian; Chow-Lin Yeak Samuel

2007-01-01

345

Congenital cervical bronchogenic cyst in a calf.  

PubMed

The present report describes an extrathoracic bronchogenic cyst in a 30-day-old female calf. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined by a layer of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with peripheral arrangement of cartilage, glands, and smooth muscle fascicles. The mass was successfully removed by simple surgical excision. PMID:20453234

Lee, Jae Y; Yoon, In H; Cho, Seong W; Jeong, Seong M; Park, Chang S; Kim, Myung C

2010-05-01

346

INACTIVATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS BY CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was undertaken to determine the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts shed from an asymptomatic carrier and to correlate the chlorine resistance of these cysts with those from a symptomatic carrier and another Giardia species, G. muris, which is infective for mice....

347

Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

1982-08-01

348

Chylous mesenteric cysts: a rare surgical challenge  

PubMed Central

A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. It is often asymptomatic and therefore it is usually found as an incidental finding. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the correct diagnosis can only be made with histology. The first-choice therapy is the complete removal of the cyst, which must be accurately planned according to the anatomy of the lesion, its dimensions and its relationships with major abdominal structures. We present two clinical cases: the one of a 30-year-old man with a mesenteric cyst that was removed by laparoscopy and the other of a 61-year-old woman who underwent open excision of a huge retroperitoneal cyst. PMID:24876395

Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Perri, Giampaolo; Freschi, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

349

Borderline paratubal cyst: a case report.  

PubMed

Borderline para-ovarian cysts (PCs) are rare entities. They are commonly present in the third decade. Borderline PCs are often discovered fortuitously on routine ultrasound examination or they are common incidental findings during a laparotomy. They must be differentiated from simple ovarian cysts, peritoneal inclusion cysts and hydrosalpinges on ultrasound sonography. Papillary projections on the cyst wall should be searched carefully to suggest diagnosis. The treatment is surgical including fertility -sparing operation or more radical surgery depending on the case. The prognosis is good because borderline PCs are usually early-stage at diagnosis. Here is a report of a 38- year old woman with a borderline paratubal cyst. Adnexal torsion of hydrosalpinx was suspected; thus, she underwent an urgent surgery. Cystectomy was performed without rupture. The final diagnosis revealed a borderline PC. The patient underwent a radical surgery. Currently, she has had no evidence of disease recurrence. PMID:23330044

Alaoui, Fatima Zohra Fdili; El Fatemi, Hinde; Chaara, Hekmat; Melhouf, Molay Abdilah; Amarti, Afaf

2012-01-01

350

Sacral Perineural Cyst Accompanying Disc Herniation  

PubMed Central

Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Hyeun Sung

2009-01-01

351

Hydatid cyst: unusual presentation as 'breast lump'.  

PubMed

Hydatid cyst in the breast is rare. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the breast in a 30-year-old Indian rural woman who presented with a lump in her left breast. MRI findings showed a cystic lesion in the breast. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with hydatid cyst with surrounding adherent pericystic breast tissue showing fibrocollagenisation and inflammatory response. ELISA for echinococcal antigen was also found to be positive. This case emphasises that preoperative diagnosis of hydatid cyst in the breast is difficult and often missed as the breast is a rare site of echinococcal infection and clinical and imaging findings are wide and non-specific. Cytological diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration may not always be possible. Therefore, hydatid cyst in the breast should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lump and histopathological confirmation is necessary for early and appropriate treatment. PMID:24729121

Afroz, Nishat; Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Maheshwari, Veena; Singh, Geetika

2014-01-01

352

Oral foregut cyst in a neonate.  

PubMed

Oral foregut cysts are congenital choristomas that arise in the oral cavity during embryonic development from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium. This is an unusual report of a neonate with a large congenital sublingual cystic lesion, extending superficially from the left ventral tongue to the anterior floor of the mouth, impeding breast-feeding. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, mucous retention cyst, and oral lymphangioma. The treatment of choice was enucleation under general anesthesia. Histology showed a cystic lesion with a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 and negative for cytokeratin 20, resulting in a final diagnosis of an oral foregut cyst. Three weeks after surgery, the tongue had healed with good mobility, and breast-feeding could be established. No recurrence was present at 6 months of follow-up. PMID:24220427

Rosa, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Hiramatsu, Daniel Martins; de Moraes, Fábio Roberto Ruiz; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Soares, Andresa Borges

2013-11-01

353

Sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation.  

PubMed

Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Hyeun Sung

2009-03-01

354

Arachnoid Cyst in Oculomotor Cistern  

PubMed Central

Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor cistern, precise evaluation with proper MRI sequence should be performed to rule out tumorous condition and prevent injury of the oculomotor nerve. PMID:24043981

Kim, Min-Kyun; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

2013-01-01

355

First reported cases of gyrate atrophy of the choroid from Nepal.  

PubMed

Two sisters previously diagnosed as having retinitis pigmentosa presented with complaints of frequent change of glasses. On ocular examination, the fundus showed the appearance of confluent arcuate equatorial full thickness lesions of the choroid and retina, sparing some of the large choroidal vessels, and separated from one another by thin margins of pigment, in both the sisters. Serum analysis was done for ornithine levels, which showed hyperornithinaemia (741 and 462 µmol/l in the elder and younger sister, respectively) consistent with gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid. Both the sisters were prescribed vitamin B(6) and a restricted protein diet to which they responded very well. This case highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and prompt management in diagnosed cases. These are the first reported cases of GA of choroid from Nepal. PMID:22798087

Shrestha, Sachet Prabhat; Arora, Reema; Pradhan, Rajesh; Bhatt, Subramaniam

2010-01-01

356

Long-term results of intravitreal ranibizumab for osteoma-related choroidal neovascularization in a child  

PubMed Central

Though choroidal osteoma is a rare benign tumor, associated choroidal neovascularization (CNV) can be a cause of severe visual loss. A nine-year-old boy presented with one-month history of decreased vision in left eye. Upon a complete ophthalmologic examination, including fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, he was diagnosed with choroidal osteoma-related subfoveal CNV in the left eye. The CNV was associated with subretinal hemorrhage, subretinal fluid, and cystoid macular edema. Owing to the young age and subfoveal localization of the CNV, intravitreal ranibizumab injection was performed on this patient after a detailed discussion with the parents of its safety profile. No local or systemic complications were noted. No recurrence of CNV lesion was noted during 30 months of follow-up, and the vision was maintained. This report shows the favorable outcome of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in choroidal osteoma-related CNV in a child. PMID:25136233

Gupta, Aditi; Gopal, Lingam; Sen, Parveen; Ratra, Dhanashree; Rao, Chetan

2014-01-01

357

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in a case with retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed

There have been no reports describing polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A 63-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having RP was referred to us because of sudden onset of blurred vision in her right eye. Funduscopic examination revealed retinal findings typical of RP in both eyes. The macular area of the right fundus showed polypoidal lesions with massive hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography showed multiple polypoidal lesions. Optical coherence tomography showed a large hemorrhagic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment and polypoidal lesions. The PCV subsided after three applications of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy and a single application of photodynamic therapy, but "mottled lesions" with hyper- and hypofluorescence appeared temporal to the macula after disappearance of hemorrhage. We present a case of PCV in an eye with RP. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether anti-VEGF therapies could affect RPE status in eyes with RP. PMID:23132213

Ishida, Tomoka; Moriyama, Muka; Morohoshi, Kei; Furuse, Yuu; Fukuda, Taiko; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

2013-06-01

358

Choroidal Neovascularization in a Patient with Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a patient with Crohn's disease (CD) and to discuss a possible association between these two conditions. Methods This is an observational case report. Results A 69-year-old male affected by CD was referred to our department because of sudden visual acuity drop in the left eye. A subfoveal CNV was diagnosed based on slit-lamp fundus biomicroscopy and fluorescein angiography. Color fundus photography, infrared autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of both eyes were also performed. Following six intravitreal ranibizumab injections, visual improvement was obtained with no related adverse events. Conclusion We report a case of CNV as a possible rare extraintestinal manifestation of CD. The use of ranibizumab successfully impacted on CNV, while not affecting CD, which remained quiescent. PMID:25232338

Casalino, Giuseppe; Querques, Giuseppe; Corvi, Federico; Borrelli, Enrico; Triolo, Giacinto; Ramirez, Giuseppe Alvise; Bandello, Francesco

2014-01-01

359

Celiac plexus neurolysis in pancreatic cancer: The endoscopic ultrasound approach  

PubMed Central

Pain in pancreatic cancer is often a major problem of treatment. Administration of opioids is frequently limited by side effects or insufficient analgesia. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) represents an alternative for the palliative treatment of visceral pain in patients with pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on the indications, technique, outcomes of EUS-CPN and predictors of pain relief. EUS-CPN should be considered as the adjunct method to standard pain management. It moderately reduces pain in pancreatic cancer, without eliminating it. Nearly all patients need to continue opioid use, often at a constant dose. The effect on quality of life is controversial and survival is not influenced. The approach could be done in the central position of the celiac axis, which is easy to perform, or in the bilateral position of the celiac axis, with similar results in terms of pain alleviation. The EUS-CPN with multiple intraganglia injection approach seems to have better results, although extended studies are still needed. Further trials are required to enable more confident conclusions regarding timing, quantity of alcohol injected and the method of choice. Severe complications have rarely been reported, and great care should be taken in choosing the site of alcohol injection. PMID:24415863

Seicean, Andrada

2014-01-01

360

Propranolol and atropine do not alter choroidal blood flow regulation during isometric exercise in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that the human choroid has a considerable capacity to keep blood flow constant despite exercise-induced increases in perfusion pressure. The mechanisms underlying this vasoconstrictor response remain unclear. We hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of the autonomic nervous system may alter the choroidal pressure\\/flow relationship during squatting. To test this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover

Elzbieta Polska; Alexandra Luksch; Joanne Schering; Barbara Frank; Andrea Imhof; Gabriele Fuchsjäger-Mayrl; Michael Wolzt; Leopold Schmetterer

2003-01-01

361

Central nervous system involvement in gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinaemia (GA), a genetically determined deficiency of ornithine {3}d-aminotransferase activity leads to high ornithine concentrations in body fluids. GA is characterized by centripetally progressing retinal and choroidal destruction and selective atrophy with tubular aggregates in type II skeletal muscle fibres. These findings have been suggested to be mediated by hyperornithinaemia-induced deficiency

M. Valtonen; K. Näntö-Salonen; S. Jääskeläinen; K. Heinänen; A. Alanen; O. J. Heinonen; N. Lundbom; M. Erkintalo; O. Simell

1999-01-01

362

Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation  

PubMed Central

AIM—To assess the effectiveness of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of classic and occult choroidal neovascularisation (CNV).?METHOD—In a retrospective, case selected, open label trial 44 eyes of 42 patients with CNV secondary to age related macular degeneration (ARMD) were studied. 44 eyes with angiographically defined CNV were treated with diode laser (810 nm) TTT. Laser beam sizes ranged between 0.8 and 3.0 mm and power settings between 250-750 mW. Treatment was given in one area for 1 minute, the end point being no visible change, or a slight greying of the retina. Outcome was assessed with Snellen visual acuity and clinical examination; in 24/44 patients angiographic follow up was available.?RESULTS—12 predominantly classic CNV and 32 predominantly occult membranes were followed up for a mean of 6.1 months (range 2-19). Mean change in vision for classic membranes was ?0.75 (SD 1.75) Snellen lines and occult membranes was ?0.66 Snellen lines (2.1) (p>0.05). Predominantly classic membranes were closed in 75% (95% CI: 62.5-87.5) of eyes, remained persistent in 25% (95% CI: 12.5-37.5); no recurrences occurred. Predominantly occult membranes were closed in 78% (95% CI: 70.1-85.3) of eyes, remained persistent in 12.5% (95% CI: 6.6-18.5), and were recurrent in 5.1% (95% CI: 4.2-14.3).?CONCLUSIONS—Transpupillary thermotherapy is a potential treatment for CNV. It is able to close choroidal neovascularisation while maintaining visual function in patients with classic and occult disease. Further trials of TTT are needed to compare this intervention with the natural history and other treatment modalities.?? PMID:11159481

Newsom, R; McAlister, J; Saeed, M; McHugh, J

2001-01-01

363

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Vascular Leakage and Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone with diuretic, natriuretic, and vasodilatory properties. ANP blocks vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and signaling in vitro; however, its role in vascular leakage and angiogenesis is unknown. In vitro, retinal barrier permeability (transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)) was measured in cultured retinal endothelial (HuREC) and retinal epithelial (ARPE-19) cells with VEGF (10 ng/ml), ANP (1 pM to 1 ?mol/L), and/or isatin, an ANP receptor antagonist. In vivo, blood-retinal barrier (BRB) leakage was studied using the Evans Blue dye technique in rats treated with intravitreal injections of ANP, VEGF, or vehicle. Choroidal neovascularization was generated by laser injury, and 7 days later, lesion size and leakage was quantitated. ANP significantly reversed VEGF-induced BRB TEER reduction in both HuREC and ARPE-19 cells, modeling the inner and the outer BRB, respectively. Isatin, a specific ANP receptor antagonist, reversed ANP’s effect. ANP reduced the response of ARPE-19 cells to VEGF apically but not basolaterally, suggesting polarized expression of the ANP receptors in these cells. ANP’s TEER response was concentration but not time dependent. In vivo, ANP significantly reduced VEGF-induced BRB leakage and the size of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization lesions. In sum, ANP is an effective inhibitor of VEGF-induced vascular leakage and angiogenesis in vivo. These results may lead to new treatments for ocular diseases where VEGF plays a central role, such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. PMID:19910509

Lara-Castillo, Nuria; Zandi, Souska; Nakao, Shintaro; Ito, Yasuhiro; Noda, Kousuke; She, Haicheng; Ahmed, Muna; Frimmel, Sonja; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

2009-01-01

364

Rapid regression of choroidal metastasis from lung cancer using erlotinib (Tarceva)  

PubMed Central

Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is the primary source for choroidal metastasis in over 20% cases. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases. Patients with metastatic NSCLC have a median survival of one year. Successful treatment of systemic metastasis from NSCLC using erlotinib has been documented. The effect of oral erlotinib on choroidal metastasis has been rarely reported. We document a case and study the effect of oral erlotinib on choroidal metastasis from NSCLC. A 48-year-old Caucasian female presented with biopsy-proven primary NSCLC with systemic metastasis and solitary choroidal metastasis of 4.8 mm thickness in the right eye. The patient was treated with 100 mg daily dose of oral erlotinib. Two weeks after starting erlotinib therapy, the patient showed complete regression of choroidal metastasis to a flat scar with resolution of subretinal fluid and improvement of visual acuity from 20/100 to 20/25. There was no evidence of recurrence at five-month follow-up. Erlotinib is an alternative therapy for choroidal metastasis from NSCLC. PMID:25136232

Ye, Xuemei; Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L.

2014-01-01

365

Elastin-Mediated Choroidal Endothelial Cell Migration: Possible Role in Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose Endothelial cell (EC) migration is a key event in angiogenesis, and is likely to play an important role in choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Altered elastin metabolism has been described in AMD, and the present study sought to determine the effects of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) on choroidal EC migration and proliferation. Methods Migration of the chorioretinal EC line Rf/6a and a primary culture of human choroidal ECs through polycarbonate membrane inserts was quantified in the presence of elastin bioactive hexapeptides (BPs), EDPs, bovine serum albumin (BSA), or balanced salt solution. Proliferation assays and in vitro wound closure experiments were also performed in the presence of elastin fragments or balanced salt solution (control). Elastin overlay experiments were performed on sections of human eyes. Results For both Rf/6a and human primary choroidal ECs exposed to EDPs or BPs, the number of ECs that migrated through the polycarbonate membrane was significantly higher than ECs exposed to balanced salt solution alone or to BSA (P < 0.05) in all experiments. In contrast, the rate of EC proliferation did not significantly change in comparison to controls. Elastin binding sites were identified on choroidal ECs in human eyes. Conclusions Elastin fragments increase choroidal EC migration, whereas they do not appear to increase or decrease EC proliferation. Local or systemic abnormalities in elastin physiology may participate in pathologic neovascular membrane formation in AMD. PMID:18708613

Skeie, Jessica M.; Mullins, Robert F.

2008-01-01

366

[Giant branchial cyst with infection in newborn infant: case report].  

PubMed

Branchial cyst is a rarely seen inheritent cyst commonly located in the lateral face and neck.A giant branchial cyst with infection in a newborn infant was reported in this paper. Surgical enucleate of the cyst was performed at 17 days of the infant with good result. The patient has been followed up for 2 years without recurrence. PMID:15133556

Luo, Xian-feng; Chen, Guo-ying

2004-04-01

367

Cyst formation and growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyst formation and growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Previous morphologic studies on kidneys from adult patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) indicates that the cysts developed from nephrons and collecting ducts in association with hyperplasia of epithelial cells lining the cyst walls. In the present study, we systematically evaluated by scanning electron microscopy 387 cysts in

Jared J Grantham; James L Geiser; Andrew P Evan

1987-01-01

368

Choroidal neovascularization following implantation of verisyse™ iris-supported phakic intraocular lens in a pregnant myopic patient.  

PubMed

Both choroidal neovascularization during pregnancy, and choroidal neovascularization following implantation of phakic intraocular lenses have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of a gravid woman developing choroidal neovascularization in an eye with a phakic intraocular lens. A 31-year-old woman became aware of her pregnancy three weeks after placement of the Verisyse™ iris-supported phakic intraocular lens. She was at 15 weeks gestation when she developed a Fuch's spot consistent with choroidal neovascularization. By eight months gestation, her symptoms nearly resolved. While the development of choroidal neovascularization in this patient may appear incidental, women of childbearing age considering phakic intraocular lenses warrant additional discussion on the possible increased likelihood of choroidal neovascularization. PMID:22529884

Betts, Brent S; Oberg, Thomas J; Hsu, Maylon; Moshirfar, Majid

2012-01-01

369

Choroidal Neovascularization Following Implantation of Verisyse(TM) Iris-Supported Phakic Intraocular Lens in a Pregnant Myopic Patient  

PubMed Central

Both choroidal neovascularization during pregnancy, and choroidal neovascularization following implantation of phakic intraocular lenses have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of a gravid woman developing choroidal neovascularization in an eye with a phakic intraocular lens. A 31-year-old woman became aware of her pregnancy three weeks after placement of the Verisyse™ iris-supported phakic intraocular lens. She was at 15 weeks gestation when she developed a Fuch’s spot consistent with choroidal neovascularization. By eight months gestation, her symptoms nearly resolved. While the development of choroidal neovascularization in this patient may appear incidental, women of childbearing age considering phakic intraocular lenses warrant additional discussion on the possible increased likelihood of choroidal neovascularization. PMID:22529884

Betts, Brent S; Oberg, Thomas J; Hsu, Maylon; Moshirfar, Majid

2012-01-01

370

[Mediastinal cysts: clinical approach and treatment].  

PubMed

Mediastinal cysts (MC), mainly from embryonic origin, are benign and rare malformative lesions, gathering several varieties according to tissue origin. Diagnosis is mostly obtained thanks to tomodensitometry performance and sometimes by magnetic resonance imaging. It may be more difficult in some atypical topographies and in case of bulky MC. The most frequent, springing from division abnormality from embryonic foregut ("foregut cysts" in English literature), are primarily bronchogenic cysts (50 to 60 % of MC), which are symptomatic in 30 to 80 % of cases. Coelomic cysts, lined by a mesothelium, result from embryologic abnormality by incomplete fusion of mesenchymal coelomic lacunae. Rarely symptomatic, excepted in cases of very large cysts, they are mainly pleuropericardic cysts (PPC) that represent 30 % of MC. Thymic cysts, around 15 % of MC, are most often asymptomatic. Cystic lymphangiomas (CL) are congenital lymphatic malformations more frequent and symptomatic in children. Diagnosed in older patients, they are most often acquired and asymptomatic. The only radical and definitive treatment is complete surgical resection of the cyst. It allows suppression of symptoms, procurement of a formal diagnosis and prevention of complications. This resection, generally indicated for all symptomatic cysts, large-sized even asymptomatic and in case of non formal diagnosis, is now recommended for all kinds of cysts except for asymptomatic PPC. This strategy is justified considering morbidity and mortality rising rates in patients treated by surgical resection at time of local complications of the cyst. Surgery is commonly performed by videothoracoscopy or by video-assisted mini-thoracotomy, mainly for PPC and CL. The more conventional thoracotomy is performed in surgery for cysts, which are adhesive to nearby structures. PPC just need a simple follow-up, and surgery is required only in case of symptoms and increasing size. In total, surgical indications for MC are large and accepted because of null postoperative mortality and very low rate of morbidity thanks to mini-invasive surgery. This militates for early surgery, without waiting for cystic complications leading to peroperative difficulties and increasing risks. This review presents the characteristics of those different cysts and the strategies currently acknowledged for the treatment. PMID:20207297

Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Cazes, A; Bagan, P; Badia, A; Vlas, C; Hernigou, A; Pricopi, C; Riquet, M

2010-02-01

371

The suprasacral parallel shift vs lumbar plexus blockade with ultrasound guidance in healthy volunteers - a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Surgical anaesthesia with haemodynamic stability and opioid-free analgesia in fragile patients can theoretically be provided with lumbosacral plexus blockade. We compared a novel ultrasound-guided suprasacral technique for blockade of the lumbar plexus and the lumbosacral trunk with ultrasound-guided blockade of the lumbar plexus. The objective was to investigate whether the suprasacral technique is equally effective for anaesthesia of the terminal lumbar plexus nerves compared with a lumbar plexus block, and more effective for anaesthesia of the lumbosacral trunk. Twenty volunteers were included in a randomised crossover trial comparing the new suprasacral with a lumbar plexus block. The primary outcome was sensory dermatome anaesthesia of L2-S1. Secondary outcomes were peri-neural analgesic spread estimated with magnetic resonance imaging, sensory blockade of dermatomes L2-S3, motor blockade, volunteer discomfort, arterial blood pressure change, block performance time, lidocaine pharmacokinetics and complications. Only one volunteer in the suprasacral group had sensory blockade of all dermatomes L2-S1. Epidural spread was verified by magnetic resonance imaging in seven of the 34 trials (two suprasacral and five lumbar plexus blocks). Success rates of the sensory and motor blockade were 88-100% for the major lumbar plexus nerves with the suprasacral technique, and 59-88% with the lumbar plexus block (p > 0.05). Success rate of motor blockade was 50% for the lumbosacral trunk with the suprasacral technique and zero with the lumbar plexus block (p < 0.05). Both techniques are effective for blockade of the terminal nerves of the lumbar plexus. The suprasacral parallel shift technique is 50% effective for blockade of the lumbosacral trunk. PMID:24974961

Bendtsen, T F; Pedersen, E M; Haroutounian, S; Søballe, K; Moriggl, B; Nikolajsen, L; Hasselstrøm, J B; Fisker, A K; Strid, J M C; Iversen, B; Børglum, J

2014-11-01

372

Colorectal and uterine movement and tension of the inferior hypogastric plexus in cadavers  

PubMed Central

Background Hypotheses on somatovisceral dysfunction often assume interference by stretch or compression of the nerve supply to visceral structures. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of pelvic visceral movement to create tension of the loose connective tissue that contains the fine branches of the inferior hypogastric nerve plexus. Methods Twenty eight embalmed human cadavers were examined. Pelvic visceral structures were displaced by very gentle 5?N unidirectional tension and the associated movement of the endopelvic fascia containing the inferior hypogastric plexus that this caused was measured. Results Most movement of the fascia containing the inferior hypogastric plexus was obtained by pulling the rectosigmoid junction or broad ligament of the uterus. The plexus did not cross any vertebral joints and the fascia containing it did not move on pulling the hypogastric nerve. Conclusions Uterine and rectosigmoid displacement produce most movement of the fascia containing the hypogastric nerve plexus, potentially resulting in nerve tension. In the living this might occur as a consequence of menstruation, pregnancy or constipation. This may be relevant to somatovisceral reflex theories of the effects of manual therapy on visceral conditions. PMID:22520735

2012-01-01

373

Pancreatic cyst fluid analysis--a review.  

PubMed

An increased number of pancreatic cysts are being diagnosed due to the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and molecular analysis of these cystic lesions have led to their better detection and characterization. The aim of this review is to assess the value of cyst fluid analysis for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions, in view of the recent progresses of molecular analysis methods. Pancreatic cysts can be either simple (retention) cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms, while these are further subdivided into serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). EUS is now being used to investigate cystic pancreatic lesions, particularly by means of EUS guided cyst aspiration and sampling of the cyst wall or septa, as well as mural nodules. Cyst fluid can be further studied after aspiration in order to analyze cytology, viscosity, extracellular mucin, other tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9,CA 15-3, Ca 72-4, etc.), enzymes (amylase, lipase), as well as DNA analysis of DNA quality/content or mutational analysis to study allelic imbalance/LOH (loss of heterozygosity) and K-ras mutations. After careful review of the published studies, a conclusion was reached that the use of tumor and molecular markers in conjunction with multimodality detection methods such as CT, MR and EUS-FNA allows risk stratification, while being also cost-effective. PMID:21725515

Bhutani, Manoop S; Gupta, Vikas; Guha, Sushovan; Gheonea, Dan Ionu?; Saftoiu, Adrian

2011-06-01

374

Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst invading splenic hilum.  

PubMed

Introduction. Hydatid disease (HD) is an infestation that is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The liver is affected in approximately two-thirds of patients, the lungs in 25%, and other organs in a small proportion. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is extremely rare. The most common complaint is abdominal pain; however, the clinical features of HD may be generally dependent on the location of the cyst. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old female was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain. Her physical examination was normal. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 17 × 11?cm cystic lesion, with a thick and smooth wall that is located among the left liver lobe, diaphragm, spleen, tail of the pancreas, and transverse colon and invading the splenic hilum. Total cystectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathological examination was reported as cyst hydatid. Discussion. Cysts in the peritoneal cavity are mainly the result of the spontaneous or traumatic rupture of concomitant hepatic cysts or surgical inoculation of a hepatic cyst. Serological tests contribute to diagnosis. In symptomatic and large hydatid peritoneal cysts, surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Total cystectomy is the gold standard. Albendazole or praziquantel is indicated for inoperable and disseminated cases. Percutaneous aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) technique is another nonsurgical option. PMID:24790764

Ozturk, Safak; Unver, Mutlu; Kibar Ozturk, Burcin; Kebapci, Eyup; Bozbiyik, Osman; Erol, Varl?k; Zalluhoglu, Nihat; Olmez, Mustafa

2014-01-01

375

Management of choledochal cysts and their complications.  

PubMed

Choledochal cysts are increasingly reported in adults. The presence of cyst-related complications alters its presentation and complicates the management. We reviewed our experience to find the clinical presentation, complications, and the management of choledochal cysts. The records of 132 patients with choledochal cysts presented to us between 2003 and 2010 maintained as a prospective database were analyzed for demography, clinical presentation, radiological investigation, management, and outcome. There were 12 children and 120 adults. Based on preoperative cholangiogram, 93 (71%) patients had Type I and 39 (29%) Type IVA cysts. The overall incidence of complicated choledochal cyst was 4 of 12 (33%) in children and 85 of 120 (71%) in adults. The most common complication was cystolithiasis (49%) followed by cholangitis (32%), acute pancreatitis (10%), hepatolithiasis (7%), malignancy (3%), portal hypertension (2%), and chronic pancreatitis (2%). Acute pancreatitis and cholangitis were managed conservatively. Endoscopic stenting was performed in patients with cholangitis and those requiring staged treatment as a result of portal hypertension. Overall 114 patients underwent cyst excision with Roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. The overall morbidity was 17.5 per cent (wound infection 13% and bilioenteric anastomotic leak 7%). There was one postoperative death resulting from cardiac failure. Three patients developed anastomotic stricture and underwent redo hepaticojejunostomy. Choledochal cysts in adults are often associated with complications. Complications are more common in adults compared with children. Acute pancreatitis, cholangitis and portal hypertension are managed conservatively and then followed up by definitive surgery. Cyst excision with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is necessary to prevent the recurrence of complications. PMID:22524764

Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Nayeem, Mohammed; Sharma, Barjesh Chander; Bora, Giriraj; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

2012-03-01

376

Management of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background There has been no consensus on the optimal treatment of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Most previous reports concerning the management methods were either sporadic case reports or a series of limited cases. This study is to further optimize the management for patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts by analyzing the outcomes of a cohort of patients who were treated with different strategies. Methods and Findings We reviewed the outcomes of 15 patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts who were managed by three different modalities from 1998 through 2010. Six patients underwent microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication. Seven patients underwent a modified surgical procedure, during which the cerebrospinal fluid leak aperture was located and repaired. Two patients were treated with medication and physical therapy. Outcomes of the patients were assessed by following up (13 months to 10 years). All of the six patients treated with microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication experienced complete or substantial relief of their preoperative symptoms. However, the symptoms of one patient reappeared eight months after the operation. Another patient experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six of the seven patients treated with the modified surgical operation experienced complete or substantial resolution of their preoperative symptoms, with only one patient who experienced temporary worsening of his preoperative urine incontinence, which disappeared gradually one month later. No new postoperative neurological deficits, no cerebrospinal fluid leaks and no recurrence were observed in the seven patients. The symptoms of the two patients treated with conservative measures aggravated with time. Conclusions Microsurgical operation should be a treatment consideration in patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Furthermore, the surgical procedure with partial cyst removal and aperture repair for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage seemed to be more simple and effective. PMID:22768183

Xu, Jianqiang; Sun, Yongdong; Huang, Xin; Luan, Wenzhong

2012-01-01

377

[Large dentigerous cyst caused by retained tooth 25].  

PubMed

Follicular cysts are benign, non-inflammatory odontogenic cysts, usually painless and discovered during routine radiographic examination. The article describes a case of a large follicular cyst with retained tooth 25. Pantomographic x ray showed the presence of a large follicular cyst located on the side of the impacted 25 tooth. The cyst has been enucleated and the tooth extracted surgically with subsequent closure of oro-antral communication. After 3 months orthodontic treatment was initiated. PMID:25182400

Janas, Anna; Stelmach, Rafa?; Osica, Piotr

2014-01-01

378

Rare mandibular surgical ciliated cysts: report of two new cases.  

PubMed

The surgical ciliated cyst, also known as the "postoperative maxillary cyst" or "implantation cyst," occurs as a result of iatrogenic implantation of respiratory epithelium into a noncontiguous surgical site after sinus surgery. It typically presents as a well-defined radiolucency in the maxilla in young adults. Histopathologically, the cyst is lined by ciliated columnar, cuboidal, or pseudostratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells. We report two rare cases of a surgical ciliated cyst located in the mandible. PMID:25109584

Li, Chia-Cheng; Feinerman, David M; MacCarthy, Killian D; Woo, Sook-Bin

2014-09-01

379

Lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine that can present with neurological symptoms or be discovered accidentally. Intradural location of such cysts especially in the lumbosacral region is relatively rare. The association of such cysts with other congenital anomalies such as tethered cord lends evidence to the developmental origin of arachnoid cysts. We report a case of lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord in a 6-year-old male child and discuss the etiopathogenesis and management options. PMID:24082689

Jain, S. K.; Sundar, I. Vijay; Sharma, Vinod; Goel, Ravishankar S.

2012-01-01

380

Non-infected and Infected Bronchogenic Cyst: The Correlation of Image Findings with Cyst Content  

PubMed Central

We hereby report a case on bronchogenic cyst which is initially non-infected, then becomes infected after bronchoscopic ultrasound (US)-guided transesophageal fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The non-infected bronchogenic cyst appears to be filled with relatively echogenic materials on US, and the aspirate is a whitish jelly-like fluid. Upon contrast-enhanced MRI of the infected bronchogenic cyst, a T1-weighted image shows low signal intensity and a T2-weighted image shows high signal intensity, with no enhancements of the cyst contents, but enhancements of the thickened cystic wall. The patient then undergo video-assisted thoracic surgery 14 days after the FNA. The cystic mass is known to be completely removed, and the aspirate is yellowish and purulent. To understand the image findings that pertain to the gross appearance of the cyst contents will help to diagnose bronchogenic cysts in the future. PMID:24624219

Jeon, Hong Gil; Park, Ju Hwan; Park, Hye Min; Kwon, Woon Jung; Cha, Hee Jeong; Lee, Young Jik; Park, Chang Ryul; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong-Joon

2014-01-01

381

Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

Buesch, Francisca Eugster

2010-01-01

382

Advanced radiological work-up as an adjunct to decision in early reconstructive surgery in brachial plexus injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As neurophysiologic tests may not reveal the extent of brachial plexus injury at the early stage, the role of early radiological work-up has become increasingly important. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concordance between the radiological and clinical findings with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injuries. METHODS: Seven consecutive male patients (median

Kasim Abul-Kasim; Clas Backman; Anders Björkman; Lars B Dahlin

2010-01-01

383

Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

2012-01-01

384

Structural Characteristics of the Subscapularis Muscle in Children With Medial Rotation Contracture of the Shoulder After Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the cause of the medial rotation contracture of the shoulder after obstetric brachial plexus lesions by studying the morphology of the shortened subscapularis muscle. Muscle biopsy specimens were harvested from 13 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent corrective surgery for the rotation contracture. The majority of

T. Hultgren; F. Einarsson; E. Runesson; C. Hemlin; J. Fridén; B.-O. Ljung

2010-01-01

385

Intratesticular epidermoid cyst: is radiological diagnosis enough?  

PubMed Central

Intratesticular epidermoid cysts are rare solid tumorlike lesions. They constitute 1% of all testicular tumors. Major advances have been achieved during the last decades, shifting the management of epidermoid cysts to a more conservative approach. We present a case of a 20-year-old male who was referred to the urology department with a two-year history of a gradually increasing painless right-sided scrotal lump. We will discuss the diagnostic work up of intratesticular epidermoid cyst, with the operative management and literature review. PMID:24578907

Thwaini, Ali; Devlin, Brendan; Dooher, Maeve; Schattka, Franz

2011-01-01

386

Bronchogenic cyst in the intradiaphragmatic location.  

PubMed

Bronchogenic cysts are congenital foregut malformations thought to develop due to abnormal budding of tracheal diverticulumand proximal bronchial structures during embryologic development. The cyst is lined by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and the wall contains cartilage and layers of smooth muscle. These lesions most commonly are seen in the mediastinum, lung, or pleural spaces. The intradiaphragmatic location of the bronchogenic cyst rarely has been reported in the literature. We report the clinical presentation and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a pediatric patient who presented with left-sided chest pain and was found to have a mass in the region of the diaphragm. PMID:24511867

Subramanian, Subramanian; Chandra, Tushar; Whitehouse, Jill; Suchi, Mariko; Arca, Marjorie; Maheshwari, Mohit

2013-12-01

387

Sacral perineural cysts: imaging and treatment options.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts are an uncommon radiological finding and a rare cause of radicular leg pain. We report the clinical findings, imaging and operative appearances of a patient who presented with radicular leg and perineal pain, which was found to be associated with multiple sacral perineural cysts. The diagnostic and treatment options are explored. In particular, the use of percutaneous fine-needle cyst drainage as a guide to the value of surgery is discussed. Postoperative complications, such as pseudomeningocoele can occur, but may be effectively treated with lumbar drainage. PMID:12046741

Landers, J; Seex, K

2002-04-01

388

Lumbar Plexus Block for Management of Hip Surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar plexus block (LPB) is one of the anesthetic options in the elderly patients undergoing hip surgeries. LPB could be safe because it targets somatic nerve in psoas region. Effectiveness of LPB is attributed to the sufficient analgesia provided intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. Adequate muscle relaxation and immobility during surgery refers to its acceptability. Objectives: In this study, LPB was used as the anesthetic method to manage the elderly patients subjected to hip surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients aged 51 to 100 years were enrolled in this study. LPB was accomplished after a mild sedation and with a modified method using patient's fingertip width (FTW) as the distance unit to determine needle entry point under electrical nerve stimulation assistance. After targeted injection, procedure time, establishment time, block duration, surgery time, hemodynamic variables, and surgeon satisfaction score were documented and analyzed. Propofol in trivial doses was infused intraoperatively to provide clinical sedation. Results: Mean patient's age was 73 ± 12 years with ASA II/III. Procedure time was 5.65 ± 1.24 minutes, establishment time was 130 ± 36 seconds, block duration was 13.1 ± 8 hours, surgery time was 149.7 ± 32.2 minutes, and surgeon satisfaction score was 9.8 ± 0.1. There was no complication and no failure. Hemodynamic stability was pleasantly achieved. Conclusions: By preserving hemodynamic stability, LPB in conjunction with a light sedation could be considered as a reliable prudent satisfying anesthetic option in management of hip fractures in the elderly patients with three beneficial characteristics of safety, effectiveness, and acceptability. PMID:25289374

Amiri, Hamid Reza; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Safari, Saeid

2014-01-01

389

Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods - Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991-2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10-20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results - At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9-19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23-25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (? 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation - Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

2014-12-01

390

Different Learning Curves for Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: Ultrasound Guidance versus Nerve Stimulation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the learning of the skills needed to perform ultrasound- or nerve stimulator-guided peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to compare the learning curves of residents trained in ultrasound guidance versus residents trained in nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus block. Ten residents with no previous experience with using ultrasound received ultrasound training and another ten residents with no previous experience with using nerve stimulation received nerve stimulation training. The novices' learning curves were generated by retrospective data analysis out of our electronic anaesthesia database. Individual success rates were pooled, and the institutional learning curve was calculated using a bootstrapping technique in combination with a Monte Carlo simulation procedure. The skills required to perform successful ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block can be learnt faster and lead to a higher final success rate compared to nerve stimulator-guided axillary brachial plexus block. PMID:21318138

Luyet, C; Schüpfer, G; Wipfli, M; Greif, R; Luginbühl, M; Eichenberger, U

2010-01-01

391

Different Learning Curves for Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: Ultrasound Guidance versus Nerve Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the learning of the skills needed to perform ultrasound- or nerve stimulator-guided peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to compare the learning curves of residents trained in ultrasound guidance versus residents trained in nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus block. Ten residents with no previous experience with using ultrasound received ultrasound training and another ten residents with no previous experience with using nerve stimulation received nerve stimulation training. The novices' learning curves were generated by retrospective data analysis out of our electronic anaesthesia database. Individual success rates were pooled, and the institutional learning curve was calculated using a bootstrapping technique in combination with a Monte Carlo simulation procedure. The skills required to perform successful ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block can be learnt faster and lead to a higher final success rate compared to nerve stimulator-guided axillary brachial plexus block. PMID:21318138

Luyet, C.; Schupfer, G.; Wipfli, M.; Greif, R.; Luginbuhl, M.; Eichenberger, U.

2010-01-01

392

Brachial plexus palsy following a training run with a heavy backpack.  

PubMed

A 23-year-old male British soldier developed a progressive sensory loss and weakness in his right arm during a 12?km training run with a load of approximately 70?kg. There was no recovery of his symptoms within 3?months and both MRI and USS did not demonstrate a site of compression within the brachial plexus. An infraclavicular brachial plexus exploration was performed 11?months after injury that indicated an ischaemic neuropathy with post-injury fibrosis. Injuries of the brachial plexus secondary to carrying a heavy backpack during prolonged periods of exercise are rare, particularly in the infraclavicular region. Cases such as this highlight that training regimens within the military population should be appraised due to the risk of similar injuries occurring. PMID:24125801

McCulloch, Robert; Sheena, Y; Simpson, C; Power, D

2014-12-01

393

Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

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394

Real-time mapping of the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to produce two-dimensional reconstruction maps of the living corneal sub-basal nerve plexus by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy in real time. CLSM source data (frame rate 30Hz, 384x384 pixel) were used to create large-scale maps of the scanned area by selecting the Automatic Real Time (ART) composite mode. The mapping algorithm is based on an affine transformation. Microscopy of the sub-basal nerve plexus was performed on normal and LASIK eyes as well as on rabbit eyes. Real-time mapping of the sub-basal nerve plexus was performed in large-scale up to a size of 3.2mm x 3.2mm. The developed method enables a real-time in vivo mapping of the sub-basal nerve plexus which is stringently necessary for statistically firmed conclusions about morphometric plexus alterations.

Guthoff, Rudolf F.; Zhivov, Andrey; Stachs, Oliver

2010-02-01

395

Quantitative changes of nitrergic neurons during postnatal development of chicken myenteric plexus*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Information regarding the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is important for understanding the functional abnormalities of the gut. Because fertilized chicken eggs provide easy access to embryos, chicken models have been widely used to study embryonic development of myenteric plexus; however, no study has been focused on the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of developing chickens in the postnatal period. Methods: Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were made in 7-d, 15-d, and 40-d old (adult) chickens of either sex (n=15). The myenteric plexus was studied after nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry using light microscopy, digital photography, and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. The numbers of positively stained neurons and ganglia were counted in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, and colon in the different age groups. Data were expressed as mean±standard deviation (SD), and statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: The positively stained neurons showed various morphologies and staining intensities, and formed bead-shaped and U-shaped arrangements in the myenteric plexus. The densities of neurons and ganglia increased with age. However, the number of positive neurons per ganglion increased. The number of NADPH-d-positive neurons was highest in the colon, followed by the ileum, the jejunum, the duodenum, and the caeca in all age groups. Conclusions: Developmental changes in the myenteric plexus of chickens continue in the postnatal period, indicating that the maturation process of the gastrointestinal function is gradual. In addition, no significant difference is happening among different intestinal segments during postnatal development, suggesting that the function of different intestinal segments had been determined after birth. PMID:24101205

Yang, Ping; Gandahi, Jameel Ahmed; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lin-li; Bian, Xun-guang; Wu, Li; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qiu-sheng

2013-01-01

396

Brachial Plexus Tumors in a Consecutive Series of Twenty One Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective This is a retrospective review of 22 surgically treated benign and malignant tumors of brachial plexus region to describe clinical presentation, the characteristics of brachial plexus tumor and clinical outcomes with a literature review. Methods Twenty-one patients with consecutive 22 surgeries for primary brachial plexus tumors were enrolled between February 2002 and November 2011 were included in this study. The medical records of all patients were reviewed. Results Eleven male and 10 female patients were enrolled. Mean age was 39 years. Three patients had brachial plexus tumor associated with neurofibromatosis (13.6%). Presenting signs and symptoms included parenthesis and numbness (54.5%), radiating pain (22.7%), direct tenderness and pain (27.2%), palpable mass (77.3%). Twelve patients presented preoperative sensory deficit (54.5%) and 9 patients presented preoperative motor deficit (40.9%). Twenty tumors (90.9%) were benign and 2 tumors (9.1%) were malignant. Benign tumors included 15 schwannomas (68.2%), 4 neurofibromas (18.2%) and 1 granular cell tumor (4.5%). There were 1 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and 1 malignant granular cell tumor. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 patients (72.7%), including all schwannomas, 1 neurofibroma. Subtotal resection was performed in 6 tumors (27.3%), including 3 neurofibromatosis associated with brachial plexus neurofibromas, 1 MPNST and 2 granular cell tumor in one patient. Conclusion Resection of tumor is the choice of tumor in the most of benign and malignant brachial plexus tumors. Postoperative outcomes are related to grade of resection at surgery and pathological features of tumor. PMID:23091673

Go, Myeong Hoon; Cho, Ki Hong

2012-01-01

397

Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of Maxilla  

PubMed Central

Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare developmental lesion that is considered a distinct entity because of its uncommon histopathological characteristics. It has morphological similarities to other lesions, which makes its diagnosis challenging for pathologists. It strikes distinct age groups, with an average patient age being 50 years. This lesion can involve either jaw, but the anterior region of the mandible is the most commonly affected area. It exhibits a tendency toward recurrence when conservative treatment is administered. It is believed that the low prevalence of GOC in the literature is due not only to its rarity, but also to the fact that its main characteristics are also found in other pathological entities. We report here radiologic-pathologic features of GOC of the maxilla in a 17-year-old female patient. PMID:22267989

Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

2011-01-01

398

Perivascular Mural Cells of the Mouse Choroid Demonstrate Morphological Diversity That Is Correlated to Vasoregulatory Function  

PubMed Central

Objective Perivascular mural cells of the choroid have been implicated in physiological functioning as well as in retinal disease pathogenesis. However details regarding their form and function are not well understood. We aim to characterize choroidal mural cells in the adult mouse choroid in terms of their distribution and morphology, and correlate these to their contractile behavior. Methods Sclerochoroidal flat-mounted explants were prepared from albino transgenic mice in which the ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) promoter drives the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). ?-SMA-expressing smooth muscle cells and pericytes in the living choroid were thereby rendered fluorescent and imaged with confocal microscopy and live-cell imaging in situ. Results Choroidal perivascular mural cells demonstrate significant diversity in terms of their distribution and morphology at different levels of the vasculature. They range from densely-packed circumferentially-oriented cells that provide complete vascular coverage in primary arteries to widely-spaced stellate-shaped cells that are distributed sparsely over terminal arterioles. Mural cells at each level are immunopositive for contractile proteins ?-SMA and desmin and demonstrate vasoconstrictory contractile movements in response to endothelin-1 and the calcium ionophore, A23187, and vasodilation in response to the calcium chelator, BAPTA. The prominence of vasoregulatory contractile responses varies with mural cell morphology and density, and is greater in vessels with dense coverage of mural cells with circumferential cellular morphologies. In the choriocapillaris, pericytes demonstrate a sparse, horizontal distribution and are selectively distributed only to the scleral surface of the choriocapillaris. Conclusions Diversity and regional specialization of perivascular mural cells may subserve varying requirements for vasoregulation in the choroid. The model of the ?-SMA-GFP transgenic albino mouse provides a useful and intact system for the morphological and functional study of choroidal mural cells. PMID:23308209

Condren, Audrey B.; Kumar, Anil; Mettu, Pradeep; Liang, Katharine J.; Zhao, Lian; Tsai, Jen-yue; Fariss, Robert N.; Wong, Wai T.

2013-01-01

399

VEGF-Production by CCR2-Dependent Macrophages Contributes to Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most prevalent cause of blindness in the elderly, and its exsudative subtype critically depends on local production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF). Mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and microglia cells, can produce VEGF. Their precursors, for example monocytes, can be recruited to sites of inflammation by the chemokine receptor CCR2, and this has been proposed to be important in AMD. To investigate the role of macrophages and CCR2 in AMD, we studied intracellular VEGF content in a laser-induced murine model of choroidal neovascularisation. To this end, we established a technique to quantify the VEGF content in cell subsets from the laser-treated retina and choroid separately. 3 days after laser, macrophage numbers and their VEGF content were substantially elevated in the choroid. Macrophage accumulation was CCR2-dependent, indicating recruitment from the circulation. In the retina, microglia cells were the main VEGF+ phagocyte type. A greater proportion of microglia cells contained VEGF after laser, and this was CCR2-independent. On day 6, VEGF-expressing macrophage numbers had already declined, whereas numbers of VEGF+ microglia cells remained increased. Other sources of VEGF detectable by flow cytometry included in dendritic cells and endothelial cells in both retina and choroid, and Müller cells/astrocytes in the retina. However, their VEGF content was not increased after laser. When we analyzed flatmounts of laser-treated eyes, CCR2-deficient mice showed reduced neovascular areas after 2 weeks, but this difference was not evident 3 weeks after laser. In summary, CCR2-dependent influx of macrophages causes a transient VEGF increase in the choroid. However, macrophages augmented choroidal neovascularization only initially, presumably because VEGF production by CCR2-independent eye cells prevailed at later time points. These findings identify macrophages as a relevant source of VEGF in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization but suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of CCR2-inhibition might be limited. PMID:24714223

Krause, Torsten A.; Alex, Anne F.; Engel, Daniel R.; Kurts, Christian; Eter, Nicole

2014-01-01

400

The Whole Macular Choroidal Thickness in Subjects with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the whole macular choroidal thickness in subjects with glaucoma in order to evaluate the effects of glaucoma and glaucoma visual field damage on the choroidal thickness. Subjects and Methods We examined 40 primary open angle glaucoma patients with only superior visual field defects and 48 normal controls. The macular choroidal thickness was measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography according to the three-dimensional raster scan protocol (6×6 mm). We used the choroidal thickness within a 1.0-mm circle measured on ETDRS grids as the central sector and then used a 6×6 rectangular grid to divide the area into six sectors. Results No significant differences were found in the choroidal thickness values between the glaucoma and normal subjects in any of the sectors after adjusting for the age and axial length (all P>0.4, ANCOVA). According to a stepwise analysis of the glaucoma subjects performed using the parameters of age, axial length, central corneal thickness and mean deviation (MD value) obtained by static perimetry, age was the most predictive and significant factor in all sectors (coefficient ?=??3.091 to ?4.091 and F value ?=?15.629 to 22.245), followed by axial length (coefficient ?=??10.428 to ?23.458 and F value ?=?2.454 to 6.369). The central corneal thickness and MD values were not significant predictive factors in any of the sectors. No significant predictive factors were found for the differences in the choroidal thickness values observed between the superior and inferior field sectors. Conclusions Neither the glaucoma-related visual field damage nor glaucoma itself have any apparent associations with the whole macular choroidal thickness. Trial Registration Japan Clinical Trials Register (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ number, UMIN 000012527). PMID:25350379

Nakakura, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Minami; Terao, Etsuko; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

401

[Clinico-epidemiological analysis of choroidal melanoma in Split Area, Croatia].  

PubMed

Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumour in adults. The aim of the study was to examine epidemiological characteristics of choroidal melanoma in Split-Dalmatia County from 1990 to 2009. In this retrospective study, data on 46 patients from medical documentation of the University Department of Ophthalmology, Split University Hospital Center, were analyzed. According to 2001 census, the Split-Dalmatia County population was 467,676 inhabitants. The incidence of choroidal melanoma was 0.49 per 100,000 inhabitants, which is somewhere in the middle of the incidence between south and north Europe. Choroidal melanoma most commonly appeared in the 7th decade of life. The average dimensions of choroidal melanoma (basis x height) were 13.4 x 8.0 mm. Histopathologic findings according to Callender classification showed the following types of melanoma: epithelioid cell type 8%, spindle cell type 40%, and mixed type 52%. The most common forms of therapy were enucleation 47.8% and brachytherapy 28.3%, which means that patients presented relatively late when choroidal melanoma advanced in size. The Split-Dalmatia County has 1/10 of the Croatian population, so it could be supposed that approximately 25 new cases of malignant melanoma of the choroid are discovered annually in Croatia. For early detection of the disease, regular and complete checkups are necessary, especially in presbyopic population. Study results enabled better evaluation of the disease and better planning of ophthalmologic service in the treatment of this serious eye disease. PMID:22359894

Ivanisevi?, Petar; Boji?, Lovro; Tomi?, Snjezana; Bucan, Kajo; Ivanisevi?, Milan; Lesin, Mladen; Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Stani?, Robert

2011-01-01

402

Clinical and optic coherence tomography findings of focal choroidal excavation in Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of focal choroidal excavation in Chinese patients. Methods Retrospectively, thirty-seven eyes (in 31 patients) that demonstrated focal choroidal excavation on spectral-domain OCT were collected. Their clinical characteristics and other features were also collected and analyzed. Results In total, 42 focal choroidal excavations were identified in 31 patients, including 25 unilateral and 6 bilateral (37 eyes). The abnormal changes in these eyes with choroidal excavation were more prominent at the outer part of the neuro-retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid. The average transverse diameter and depth of the excavations were 670.8 ?m and 106.9 ?m, respectively. In addition to the conforming and nonconforming types, the excavations could also be classified into 2 types according to their shape: type 1 – small with a sharp, cut-down contour; and type 2 – slightly larger with a gradual edge. The transverse diameter/depth ratio of the two types were significantly different (type1: 4.57?±?1.65, type 2: 10.0?±?5.2; p?=?0.000). Four central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) cases were confirmed by fluorescein angiography; in these cases, the retinal detachment was larger than the area of excavation, and the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) and external limiting membrane (ELM) were above those of the normal part. Concomitant CNV was also found in another 2 cases. Conclusions Focal choroidal excavation was not uncommon in Chinese patients. The choroid and the RPE at the excavation were impaired or vulnerable to other damage. Additionally, OCT might be useful in the differentiation between nonconforming excavations and ones with CSCR. PMID:24886645

2014-01-01

403

Brachial plexus injury in two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

Two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), found near Deltaville, Virginia (USA), were evaluated because of inability to use a wing. Results of needle electromyographic studies of the affected wing muscles in both hawks were compatible with denervation. On euthanasia, one hawk had extensive axon and myelin loss with multifocal perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of its brachial plexus and radial nerve. Demyelination and axon loss in the dorsal white matter of the spinal cord on the affected side also were found at the origin of the brachial plexus. The other hawk's wing had not returned to functional status > 2 yr after injury. PMID:8383253

Shell, L; Richards, M; Saunders, G

1993-01-01

404

Can bilateral bronchospasm be a sign of unilateral phrenic nerve palsy after supraclavicular brachial plexus block?  

PubMed

Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks facilitate ambulatory anesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Unilateral phrenic nerve blockade is a common complication after interscalene brachial plexus block, rather than the supraclavicular block. We report a case of severe respiratory distress and bilateral bronchospasm following ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patient did not have clinical features of pneumothorax or drug allergy and was managed with oxygen therapy and salbutamol nebulization. Chest X-ray revealed elevated right hemidiaphragm confirming unilateral phrenic nerve paresis. PMID:22557755

Chaudhuri, Souvik; Gopalkrishna, Md; Paul, Cherish; Kundu, Ratul

2012-04-01

405

Brachial Plexus Injury as a Complication after Nerve Block or Vessel Puncture  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injury is a potential complication of a brachial plexus block or vessel puncture. It results from direct needle trauma, neurotoxicity of injection agents and hematoma formation. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance or motor loss with poor recovery. The management includes conservative treatment and surgical exploration. Especially if a hematoma forms, it should be removed promptly. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomy and adept skills are crucial to avoid nerve injuries. Whenever possible, the patient should not be heavily sedated and should be encouraged to immediately inform the doctor of any experience of numbness/paresthesia during the nerve block or vessel puncture. PMID:25031806

Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Sang Hyun; Shin, Hye Young

2014-01-01

406

Severe stridor and marked respiratory difficulty after right-sided supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brachial plexus block is commonly used for upper limb surgery. Although the procedure is safe, it may be associated with some\\u000a life-threatening complications. We performed right-sided supraclavicular brachial plexus block for below-elbow amputation\\u000a in a 45-year-old female. At completion of the block the patient developed marked respiratory difficulty with audible inspiratory\\u000a stridor. Although SpO2 decreased to 82% initially, it was

Sohan Lal Solanki; Amit Jain; Jeetinder Kaur Makkar; Sapna Annaji Nikhar

2011-01-01

407

[Prolonged blocking of the brachial plexus by axillary approach in children].  

PubMed

Surgical interventions were carried out under combined total anesthesia with prolonged blocking of the brachial plexus via axillary approach in 40 children aged 4-14 years with surgical diseases of the arms. Prolonged axillary blockade maintained adequate analgesia in the lower third of the brachial bone, ulnar joint, forearm, and hand for 24-48 h. The proposed protocols of lidocaine and bupivacaine infusion into the axillary space of the brachial plexus caused no toxic reactions in children of this age group. The method can be used in children during and after surgery. PMID:10584368

Leshkevich, A I; Razhev, S V; Lukin, G I; Sidorov, V A

1999-01-01

408

Plexus structure imaging with thin slab MR neurography: rotating frames, fly-throughs, and composite projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explored multiple image processing approaches by which to display the segmented adult brachial plexus in a three-dimensional manner. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) 1.5-Tesla scans with STIR sequences, which preferentially highlight nerves, were performed in adult volunteers to generate high-resolution raw images. Using multiple software programs, the raw MRN images were then manipulated so as to achieve segmentation of plexus neurovascular structures, which were incorporated into three different visualization schemes: rotating upper thoracic girdle skeletal frames, dynamic fly-throughs parallel to the clavicle, and thin slab volume-rendered composite projections.

Raphael, David T.; McIntee, Diane; Tsuruda, Jay S.; Colletti, Patrick; Tatevossian, Raymond; Frazier, James

2006-03-01

409

Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the sacral plexus with unidirectional motion probing gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This technical note introduces diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) of the sacral plexus with unidirectional motion\\u000a probing gradients (MPGs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This is compared with DW MRN with three-directional and six-directional MPGs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and conclusion  This paper indicates that DW MRN of the sacral plexus should be performed with unidirectional MPGs.

Taro Takahara; Jeroen Hendrikse; Thomas C. Kwee; Tomohiro Yamashita; Marc Van Cauteren; Daniel Polders; Vincent Boer; Yutaka Imai; Willem P. Th. M. Mali; Peter R. Luijten

2010-01-01

410

Magnetic resonance neurography in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) enables visualization of peripheral nerves. Clinical examination and electrodiagnostic\\u000a studies have been used in the evaluation of birth-related brachial plexus injury. These are limited in their demonstration\\u000a of anatomic detail and severity of injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  We investigated the utility of MRN in evaluating birth-related brachial plexus injury in pediatric patients, and assessed\\u000a the degree of correlation between

Alice B. Smith; Nalin Gupta; Jonathan Strober; Cynthia Chin

2008-01-01

411

Blood Flow Velocity in the Choroid in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy and Vogt-Koyanagi Disease:. and Multifractal Analysis of Choroidal Blood Flow in Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the important role of the choroidal circulation has been recognized in various fundus diseases, such as punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). An apparatus based on the laser speckle phenomenon, which we call laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) has been used to measure the blood flow velocity in the retina and choroid with the diode laser. PIC presents in myopic women who complain of decreased visual acuity. VKH disease is a bilateral, granulomatous chorioretinitis. The composite map of the LSFG represent that blood flow velocity in the choroid was decreased in PIC and VKH. After the treatment, blood flow velocity in this area was increased in both disease and visual acuity recovered. LSFG appears to be a safe and sensitive means to evaluate these disease progression and response to therapy. A multifractal analysis has been performed for blood flow data in the composite map of the LSFG. In consequence, multifractality becomes clearly worse for the AMD patient compared to normal choroidal blood flows. The multifractal analysis of LSFG data represents an additional useful method to detect the early stage of AMD.

Yoshida, K.; Saito, W.; Fujii, H.; Yakubo, K.

2007-07-01

412

[Large articular geode cyst in rheumatoid polyarthritis].  

PubMed

A case of a large bone cyst in the tibial condyle of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis is reported. The etiology and pathology are discussed, and preventive surgical treatment is recommended. PMID:2801089

Sabri, F; Calmes, D; Muller, M J

1989-01-01

413

Surgical results of sacral perineural (Tarlov) cysts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes and to determine indicators of the necessity of surgical intervention. Twelve consecutive patients harboring symptomatic sacral perineural cysts were treated between 1995 and 2003. All patients were assessed for neurological deficits and pain by neurological examination. Magnetic resonance of imaging, computerized tomography, and myelography were performed to detect signs of delayed filling of the cysts. We performed a release of the valve and imbrication of the sacral cysts with laminectomies in 8 cases or recapping laminectomies in 4 cases. After surgery, symptoms improved in 10 (83%) of 12 patients, with an average follow-up of 27 months. Ten patients had sacral perineural cysts with signs of positive filling defect. Two (17%) of 12 patients experienced no significant improvement. In one of these patients, the filling defect was negative. In conclusion, a positive filling defect may become an indicator of good treatment outcomes. PMID:16508691

Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ito, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Ikuma, Hisanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi

2006-02-01

414

[Tarlov cysts: report of four cases].  

PubMed

Four perineurial cysts cases (Tarlov's cysts) are reported. The purpose of this study is to describe and to compare them with data from a literature review. The evaluation was performed among 88 adult patients with symptoms of radiculopathy, sacral pain, low back pain. Four patients revealed Tarlov's cysts (4.5%). The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. Four cases underwent sacral laminectomy. Following surgery, the claudication pain resolved with no motor or sensory deficits. Tarlov's cysts should be considered as a differential diagnosis of sacral radiculopathy, sacral or lumbar pain syndromes and mainly to the lumbar disc prolapse. The goal of the surgical treatment is to relieve the neural compression and stop bone erosion. PMID:15334232

Sá, Márcia Cristina da Paixão Rodrigues Miranda de; Sá, Renato Carlos Ferreira Leite Miranda de

2004-09-01

415

The Drosophila cyst stem cell lineage  

PubMed Central

In all animals, germline cells differentiate in intimate contact with somatic cells and interactions between germline and soma are particularly important for germline development and function. In the male gonad of Drosophila melanogaster, the developing germline cells are enclosed by somatic cyst cells. The cyst cells are derived from cyst stem cells (CySCs) of somatic origin and codifferentiate with the germline cells. The fast generation cycle and the genetic tractability of Drosophila has made the Drosophila testis an excellent model for studying both the roles of somatic cells in guiding germline development and the interdependence of two separate stem cell lineages. This review focuses on our current understanding of CySC specification, CySC self-renewing divisions, cyst cell differentiation, and soma-germline interactions. Many of the mechanisms guiding these processes in Drosophila testes are similarly essential for the development and function of tissues in other organisms, most importantly for gametogenesis in mammals. PMID:23087834

Zoller, Richard; Schulz, Cordula

2012-01-01

416

[Testicular epidermoid cyst. A case report].  

PubMed

Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare, begnin intratesticular tumor. Through a case report of a patient who underwent an orchidectomy, we study clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects and particularities of this pathology. PMID:17722800

Sallami, Satâa; Attyaoui, Fethi; Zribi, Riadh; Chtourou, Maher; Horchani, Ali

2003-10-01

417

Hydatid Cyst of Spleen: A Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Although splenic involvement alone in hydatid disease is very rare, spleen is the third most common organ involved in hydatid disease. The rarity of splenic hydatid disease poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, particularly in non-endemic areas. As the hydatid cyst can present as a simple cyst without having the classic serological and imaging features, and later can lead to life-threatening complications like anaphylaxis, hydatid disease of spleen should be considered in differential in every patient in endemic areas with cystic lesion of spleen until proved otherwise. The author used the keyword “splenic hydatid cyst” in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 1965 to June 2012. The present review is to accentuate the incidence, classification, clinical and pathophysiological features, differential diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and treatment choices of hydatid cyst of spleen along with follow-up strategy and newer treatment approaches. PMID:23378949

Rasheed, Khalid; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Telwani, Ajaz Ahmed

2013-01-01

418

Anaphylactic Shock During Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by a tapeworm Echinococcusgranulosus. Humans are accidental hosts and infected after digestion of foods contaminated to fecal matter of definite hosts. The most affected organs are liver and lungs. Rupture of cyst (spontaneous rupture or rupture due to trauma or surgery) can cause anaphylactic reactions. Even considered as a rare event during anesthesia, it can be life threatening with the manifestations of severe hypotension and circulatory shock. Thus, immediate and proper treatment is necessary . Case Presentation: We report a case of anaphylactic shock during surgery of pulmonary Hydatid cyst in a 42 year old woman and its management. Conclusions: During the surgery of hydatid cyst, any hemodynamic instability should raise the suspension of anaphylaxis and early resuscitation should be instituted.

Marashi, Shaqayeq; Hosseini, Vahideh Sadat; Saliminia, Alireza; Yaghooti, Amirabbas

2014-01-01

419

Unusual Postrhinoplasty Complication: Nasal Dorsum Cyst  

PubMed Central

Among all the possible complications of aesthetic rhinoplasty, a rare one is the development of cystic masses on the nasal dorsum: several theories suggest that cysts develop commonly by entrapment of nasal mucosa in the subcutaneous space, but they can also originate from foreign body reactions. This report deals with two cases of nasal dorsum cysts with different pathogenesis: both patients had undergone aesthetic rhinoplasty in the past (26 years ago and 14 years ago, resp.). Both cystic masses were removed via a direct open approach and nasal reconstruction was performed successfully with autologous vomer bone. The pathologic investigations showed a foreign body inclusion cyst associated with latex rubber in the first case and a sequestration of a mucosal-lined nasal bone was not removed at the time of primary rhinoplasty in the second case. A brief review of the literature focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment options for nasal dorsal cysts following aesthetic rhinoplasty.

Giacomini, Pier Giorgio; Topazio, Davide; Di Mauro, Roberta; Mocella, Stelio; Chimenti, Matteo; Di Girolamo, Stefano

2014-01-01

420

Intracranial Cysts: An Imagery Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Intracerebral cysts and cystic appearing intracerebral masses are common findings at routine cerebral imaging examination. We discuss here the most interesting aspects of some intracerebral cysts encountered in medical practice in terms of imaging, clinical and pathological description, and problems of differential diagnosis. On an almost routine basis, the neurologists have to deal with such differentials. Therefore, we aim to mention here some of the frequently encountered diagnosis problems when a patient presents with a cystic cerebral mass. PMID:23737706

Oprisan, Alexandra

2013-01-01

421

Intraosseous Ganglion Cyst of the Lunate  

PubMed Central

Intraosseous ganglia can affect the carpal bones of the hand and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of wrist pain. A 38-year-old female presented with a 14-month history of left wrist pain and a radiolucent cystic lesion was seen computed tomography (CT) scanning. Characteristic radiographic findings of a cyst in association with a fine sclerotic rim was apparent. We report an unusual presentation of a ganglion cyst in the lunate bone with excellent treatment outcome. PMID:24749102

Nazerani, Shahram; Ebrahimpour, Adel; Najafi, Arvin; Shams Koushki, Ehsan

2012-01-01

422

Association of spondylarthropathies with lumbar synovial cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspinal synovial cysts presenting with lower back pain and radiculopathy are well known but rare. They are associated\\u000a with facet joint arthopathy, generally degenerative in nature. Spinal synovial cysts have not been described in spondyloarthropathies\\u000a (SpA). We report a case of a 66-year-old man with a chronic undifferentiated SpA who presented with severe weakness of both\\u000a legs. A centrally located

A. Finckh; J. Gerster; A. K. So

2003-01-01

423

Epidermal inclusion cyst of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidermal inclusion cysts are uncommon in the breast, but the consequences can be severe when these cysts occur in the breast\\u000a parenchyma. Here, we report two such cases. The patient in case 1 was an 85-year-old woman with a 3-cm palpable mass in the\\u000a right breast. Mammography revealed a round and smoothly outlined mass, which indicated a benign tumor, and

Naruto Taira; Kenjiro Aogi; Shozo Ohsumi; Shigemitsu Takashima; Susumu Kawamura; Rieko Nishimura

2007-01-01

424

Hyperdense renal masses: a CT manifestation of hemorrhagic renal cysts  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients with sharply circumscribed round to ovoid renal cysts measuring 70-90 H on CT are reported. The cysts were hyperdense on unenhanced scans, measuring 30-60 H greater than the adjacent parenchyma, and either hypodense, isodense, or hyperdense on enhanced scans. Four patients had polycystic kidney disease; of the other 7 patients, the cysts were cortical in 6 and parapelvic in 1. Eight patients had a solitary cyst and 3 had multiple cysts. Sonography demonstrated internal echoes and/or lack of increased through-transmission in 6 patients. Pathological analysis was available in 6 cases and indicated a benign, hemorrhagic renal cyst. This hyperdense CT appearance is characteristic of some hemorrhagic renal cysts, though differentiation between benign and malignant cysts requires cyst puncture and/or surgery.

Sussman, S.; Cochran, S.T.; Pagani, J.J.; McArdle, C.; Wong, W.; Austin, R.; Curry, N.; Kelly, K.M.

1984-01-01

425

Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)  

PubMed Central

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 ± 0.5) × 105 bacteria (mean ± standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and Streptomyces. A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:12514048

Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward

2003-01-01

426

Primary hydatid cyst in gastrocnemius muscle.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis, which is caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus, results from the presence of one or more massive cysts or hydatids, and can involve any organ, including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, and long bones. Muscle hydatidosis is usually secondary in nature, resulting from spread of larval tissue from a primary site after spontaneous or trauma-induced cyst rupture or after release of viable parasite material during invasive treatment procedures. Primary muscle hydatidosis is extremely uncommon, because implantation at this site would require passage through the filters of the liver and lung. Intramuscular hydatid cyst can cause a variety of diagnostic problems, especially in the absence of typical radiologic findings. We present an unusual case of a primary hydatid cyst found in the popliteal fossa of the right knee of a 52-year-old woman, presenting as an enlarging soft-tissue tumor for 6 months associated with pain. The mass initially was diagnosed to be Backer's cyst by ultrasonography, but later it was confirmed postoperatively through histopathological studies to be due to hydatid disease. In regions where hydatidosis is endemic, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of any unusual muscular mass. PMID:24027387

Bharati, Saswata; Pal, Mrityunjay

2012-01-01

427

Perineural cyst presenting like cubital tunnel syndrome.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts are believed to be asymptomatic; however, they rarely cause symptoms related to nerve root compression. Cervical symptomatic perineural cysts are in fact exceedingly rare. There are no reported cervical perineural cysts in the literature that present like cubital tunnel syndrome. A patient with motor weakness of the abductor and adductor muscles of the fingers of the left hand and hypoesthesia in the hypothenar region of the left hand presented at our clinic. A neurological examination, and neuroradiological and electrophysiological evaluations supported the finding that the patient's clinical condition was caused by a perineural cyst located around the C8 neural root. The neurological symptoms of the patient markedly improved after medical treatment. We reported the first cervical perineural cyst as presenting like cubital tunnel syndrome patient in the literature. The visualization of perineural cyst may need extra magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sections in order to view the nerve root through the neural foramen or extraforaminal area. These lesions are benign, and the appropriate treatment is curative. PMID:21574015

Bayrakli, Fatih; Kurtuncu, Murat; Karaarslan, Ercan; Ozgen, Serdar

2012-06-01

428

Effects of a human VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab) on deprivation myopia and choroidal thickness in the chicken.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a dimeric glycoprotein which is responsible for neovascularization and fenestrations of the choriocapillaris. In neovascular maculopathies secondary to age-related degeneration (nAMD) or pathologic myopia (PM-CNV), its inhibition by humanized antibodies is currently the most successful therapy. The choroid has an important role in maintaining retinal health and its thickness declines with age and with myopia. Since choroidal thickness depends on its perfusion rate, one would expect that anti-VEGF agents can also change choroidal thickness. We have tested the hypothesis in the chicken model, using a humanized antibody, Bevacizumab, and also studied the distribution of VEGF-A in the chicken fundal layers by immunohistochemical techniques. Even though it was raised against human VEGF, Bevacizumab had several long lasting effects in the chicken eye (1) after a single unilateral intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg, it partially suppressed the development of deprivation myopia, similarly in both eyes, (2) it completely suppressed choroidal thickening that normally occurs when eyes recover from induced myopia over a time period of about 10 days, (3) it had little effect on the choroidal thickness in eyes that had normal visual experience, (4) VEGF-A was absent in sclera, but highly expressed in the walls of choroidal blood vessels and presumed nerve fiber bundles, as well as in retinal photoreceptors and cells of the inner and outer nuclear layer. One day after the injection of Bevacizumab, the immunoreactivity against VEGF-A had largely disappeared. In conclusion, Bevacizumab is similary effective in human and chicken tissue, has similar time constants (few days), has almost symmetrical effects on myopia in both eyes even after monocular application, and fully suppresses choroidal thickening that normally occurs during recovery from deprivation myopia. The mechanisms by which Bevacizumab acts on the choroidal thickness are perhaps most interesting, both to better understand the role of the choroid in myopia development but also to clarify its potential side effects during nAMD and PM-CNV treatment in the clinics. PMID:25094067

Mathis, Ute; Ziemssen, Focke; Schaeffel, Frank

2014-10-01

429

Origin of Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerves from the Supraclavicular Part of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Importance - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of normal and anomalous formation of brachial plexus and its branches is of utmost importance to anatomists, clinicians, anesthesiologists and surgeons. Possibility of variations in the origin, course and distribution of branches of brachial plexus must be kept in mind during anesthetizing the brachial plexus, mastectomy and plastic surgery procedures. In the current case, the medial pectoral nerve arose directly from the middle trunk of the brachial plexus and the lateral pectoral nerve arose from the anterior division of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. The lateral pectoral nerve supplied the pectoralis major and the medial pectoral nerve supplied pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles through two separate branches. PMID:24701504

Shetty, Prakashchandra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Kumar, Naveen; Thangarajan, Rajesh; D'Souza, Melanie Rose

2014-01-01

430

Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the ability of ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image small choroidal blood vessels below the highly reflective and absorbing retinal pigment epithelium is demonstrated for the first time. A new light source (lc= 1050 nm, Dl = 165 nm, Pout= 10 mW), based on a photonic crystal fiber pumped by a compact, self-starting Ti:Al2O3 laser has therefore been developed. Ex-vivo ultrahigh resolution OCT images of freshly excised pig retinas acquired with this light source demonstrate enhanced penetration into the choroid and better visualization of choroidal vessels as compared to tomograms acquired with a state-of-the art Ti:Al2O3 laser (Femtolasers Compact Pro, lc= 780 nm, Dl= 160 nm, Pout= 400 mW), normally used in clinical studies for in vivo ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT imaging. These results were also compared with retinal tomograms acquired with a novel, spectrally broadened fiber laser (MenloSystems, lc= 1350 nm, Dl= 470 nm, Pout = 4 mW) permitting even greater penetration in the choroid. Due to high water absorption at longer wavelengths retinal OCT imaging at ~1300 nm may find applications in animal ophthalmic studies. Detection and follow-up of choroidal neovascularization improves early diagnosis of many retinal pathologies, e.g. age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy and can aid development of novel therapy approaches.

Povazay, B.; Bizheva, K.; Hermann, B.; Unterhuber, A.; Sattmann, H.; Fercher, A. F.; Drexler, W.; Schubert, C.; Ahnelt, P. K.; Mei, M.; Holzwarth, R.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Knight, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.

2003-08-01

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