This article focuses on two of the earlier works in the Makiguchi corpus, "Kyoju no togo chushin toshiteno kyodoka kenkyu" ("Research into Community Studies as the Integrating Focus of Instruction," 1912/1987; hereafter "Community Studies"), and "Chiri kyoju no hoho oyobi naiyo no kenkyu" ("Research into the Methods and Content of Geography…
Kleiber, Tomasz; Calomme, Mario; Borowiak, Klaudia
The aim of experiments was to assess the efficiency of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA; complex of orthosilicic acid with choline and a bioavailable source of silicon) application under increasing manganese (Mn) stress on the micronutritional composition and yielding of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cvs. 'Alboney F1' and 'Emotion F1'). Plants were grown in rockwool with the application of a nutrient solution varied the Mn concentrations (in mg dm(-3)): 9.6 and 19.2 which cause strong oxidative stress of plants comparing with optimal concentration of that microelement in nutrient solution. The effect of ch-OSA application (at Si concentration of 0.3 mg dm(-3) nutrient solution) was investigated at both Mn-levels. Increasing Mn stress modified the concentration of microelements and silicon (Si) in tomato leaves. Application of ch-OSA also influenced the concentration of nutrients, but the determined changes were generally multidirectional and varied depending on Mn-level and cultivar. Under the increasing Mn stress a significant downward trend was observed for the mean concentration of Fe (in both cultivars) in fruits--but changes of Mn, Zn and Cu were varied depend on cultivar. In the case of cv. 'Alboney F1' ch-OSA application caused an increase the mean concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu, while in the case of cv. 'Emotion F1' the reduction of mean concentrations of Zn and Cu was recorded. Ch-OSA treatment did not influence on the Mn concentrations in fruits. A beneficial role of ch-OSA was also found in photosynthesis activity. This was especially valid for lower levels of Mn. Application of ch-OSA improved significantly the marketable yield of tomato under stress by a low Mn level. PMID:26285179
Matoba, Masami; Sarkar Arani Mohammed Reza
In this paper, we examine how journal and ethnography field notes in Jugyou Kenkyu (lesson study) help teachers to understand the diverse range of talents and abilities of their students. Especially, we focus on how ethnography field note and reflective papers (karate) help teachers to change their assumptions about student learning. The data…
Spataro, B.; Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V.; Dolgashev, V.; Haase, A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Marrelli, C.; Mostacci, A.; Parodi, R.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC
Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.
Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Dissayabutr, Wacharee; Anderson, Simon H C; Thompson, Richard P H; Powell, Jonathan J
Dietary Si (orthosilicic acid; OSA) appears important in connective tissue health, and although the sources and intakes of Si are well established, its absorption is not. Si absorption was measured from eight high-Si-containing sources: alcohol-free beer; OSA solution (positive control); bananas; green beans; supplemental choline-stabilised OSA (ChOSA); supplemental monomethyl silanetriol (MMST); supplemental colloidal silica (CS); magnesium trisilicate British Pharmacopoeia antacid (MTBP). Two of the supplements and the antacid were pre-selected following an in vitro dissolution assay. Fasting, healthy subjects (CS, n 3; others, n > or = 5) each ingested two of the sources separated by a 1-week wash-out period. Blood and urine were collected and measured for total Si concentrations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Absorption, based on urinary Si excretion, was highest for MMST and alcohol-free beer (64% of dose), followed by green beans (44%), OSA (43%), ChOSA (17%), bananas and MTBP (4%) and CS (1%). Peak serum concentrations occurred by 0.5 h for MMST and green beans, 1.5 h for OSA and alcohol-free beer, 2 h for ChOSA and CS, and 4 h for MTBP. Area under the serum curves correlated positively with urinary Si output (r 0.82; P < 0.0001). Absorption of Si from supplements and antacids was consistent with their known chemical speciation and kinetics of dissolution under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Monomeric silicates were readily absorbed, while particulate silicates were decreasingly well absorbed with increasing polymerisation. The present results highlight the need to allow for relative absorption of Si from different foods or supplements in subsequent epidemiological and intervention studies. PMID:19356271
(Abstract only) Japan has about 100 years of history of variable star observing since Naozo Ichinohe, professional astronomer in Tokyo Observatory, observed d Cep in 1906. The first amateur variable star observer is Yoshihiko Kasai, who began observing variable stars in 1918. I introduce a brief history of Japanese amateur variable star observation, including topics of variable star organizations, nova and supernova hunters, collaborations with the AAVSO and the world, PEP and CCD observations. I also introduce the most active variable star observer, Hiroaki Narumi, who made over 260,000 visual estimates since 1975. VSOLJ was established in 1987 in collaborations with the variable star sections of Nihon Tenmon Kenkyu-kai (NTK) and the Oriental Astronomical Association (OAA). VSOLJ maintains a database of Japanese variable star observations (http://vsolj.cetus-net.org) and publishes the Variable Star Bulletin in English.
Walther, Christa G; Whitfield, Robert; James, David C
The biopharmaceutical production process relies upon mammalian cell technology where single cells proliferate in suspension in a chemically defined synthetic environment. This environment lacks exogenous growth factors, usually contributing to proliferation of fibroblastic cell types such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Use of CHO cells for production hence requires a lengthy 'adaptation' process to select clones capable of proliferation as single cells in suspension. The underlying molecular changes permitting proliferation in suspension are not known. Comparison of the non-suspension-adapted clone CHO-AD and a suspension-adapted propriety cell line CHO-SA by flow cytometric analysis revealed a highly variable bi-modal expression pattern for cell-to-cell contact proteins in contrast to the expression pattern seen for integrins. Those have a uni-modal expression on suspension and adherent cells. Integrins showed a conformation distinguished by regularly distributed clusters forming a sphere on the cell membrane of suspension-adapted cells. Actin cytoskeleton analysis revealed reorganisation from the typical fibrillar morphology found in adherent cells to an enforced spherical subcortical actin sheath in suspension cells. The uni-modal expression and specific clustering of integrins could be confirmed for CHO-S, another suspension cell line. Cytochalasin D treatment resulted in breakdown of the actin sheath and the sphere-like integrin conformation demonstrating the link between integrins and actin in suspension-adapted CHO cells. The data demonstrates the importance of signalling changes, leading to an integrin rearrangement on the cell surface, and the necessity of the reinforcement of the actin cytoskeleton for proliferation in suspension conditions. PMID:26679704
Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika
test in Tokyo: Hideo MAEDA (Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Government). 2. Contact investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak: Kenichi MIYAMOTO (Takaido Community Health Center). We have experienced a TB outbreak in integrated junior and senior high school in Tokyo. Index patient was a student with persistent respiratory symptoms for six months before diagnosis of sputum smear-positive TB. Public health center started contact investigation immediately. QFT-positive rates were high in close contacts, especially in classmates. Additionally, a student outside of contact investigation was diagnosed as TB and considered to be infected from the first patient by VNTR analysis. Therefore, public health center expanded QFT-tests to all students and teachers in this school. Finally, 9 students and 2 teachers in this school were diagnosed as sputum smear-negative TB by contact investigation. 3. Utilization of molecular epidemiological procedure in contact investigation in Kyoto City: Masahiro ITO (Public Health Center of Kyoto City) Molecular epidemiological procedure using VNTR analysis has been used for contact investigation of tuberculosis since January 2011 in Kyoto City. One hundred forty four strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with tuberculosis were investigated and 130 strains were fully analyzed. Fourteen clusters were found and the number of strains included in the cluster was ranged from two to 11. Epidemiological relationship between patients in one cluster was found, however, significant relationship in another clusters was not demonstrated. It was suggested that VNTR analysis is useful for molecular epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis. 4. The population based molecular epidemiological studies and QFT test in a contact examination: Riyo FUJIYAMA, Keisuke MATSUBAYASHI, Setsuko MIZUSHIRI, Junko HIGUCHIL Chika SHIRAI, Yuko KATAGAMI, Mieko CHIHARA, Akihiro IJICHI (Kobe City Public Health Center), Kentaro ARIKAWA, Noriko
László, Márton, ,, Dr.
varieties, estimated at 85-100 t/ha for potato, 75-85 t/ha for beet and 12-15 t/ha for wheat (Evans 1977). These are far higher than the yields commonly obtained in practice. World average yields were only 1/6th of the potential for potato, 1/6th for wheat and 2/5th for sugar beet in 1995. Utilization of the crop The major part of potato production is usually used for human consumption. Human consumption of potatoes however has declined in the industrialised countries as the standard of living has increased. In these countries an increasing proportion of the crop is used for manufacturing products such as crisp, oven-ready chips, dehydrated potato powder. Thus, in Hungary the consumption of potatoes per person decreased from 110 kg in 1951/1960 to 60 kg in 1995, whereas the consumption of processed potatoes increased from 1 to 15 kg/person during this period. Uptake of potassium Potassium is the nutrient taken up by potato in the greatest quantity, it also takes up much nitrogen and appreciable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Perrenoud 1993). Maximum uptakes by different varieties in Japan range between 140 and 267 K2O (Kali Kenkyu Kai 1980). In England, potatoes grown on the " blueprint" system and giving the very high yield of 77.7 t/ha took up 450 kg/ha K2O (Anderson and Hewgill 1978). Brazílian experiments with 6 varieties showed the following uptakes (kg/ha): potassium 207-367 (Motta 1976). Removal of potassium by tubers 23 experimental crops in France (Loué 1977), -with a mean yield of 37.3 t/ha tubers removed: 196 kg K2O, respectively. It is equal to 5.3 kg K2O per 1 tonne tuber. Motta Macedo (1976) reports the following removals in kg/ha for 6 varieties grown in Brazíl: K2O: 118-192. In 14 experiments in India (Grewal and Singh 1979) a mean yield of 28.8 t/ha tuber was obtained which removed an average of 91 kg/ha K2O. At very high yield level, nutrient removal in tuber is very high. Anderson and Hewgill (1978) report a yield of 90 t