Science.gov

Sample records for chosen pedal rate

  1. The muscle force component in pedaling retains constant direction across pedaling rates.

    PubMed

    Loras, Havardn; Ettema, Gertjan; Leirdal, Stig

    2009-02-01

    Changes in pedaling rate during cycling have been found to alter the pedal forces. Especially, the force effectiveness is reduced when pedaling rate is elevated. However, previous findings related to the muscular force component indicate strong preferences for certain force directions. Furthermore, inertial forces (due to limb inertia) generated at the pedal increase with elevated pedaling rate. It is not known how pedaling rate alters the inertia component and subsequently force effectiveness. With this in mind, we studied the effect of pedal rate on the direction of the muscle component, quantified with force effectiveness. Cycle kinetics were recorded for ten male competitive cyclists at five cadences (60-100 rpm) during unloaded cycling (to measure inertia) and at a submaximal load (~260 W). The force effectiveness decreased as a response to increased pedaling rate, but subtracting inertia eliminated this effect. This indicates consistent direction of the muscle component of the foot force. PMID:19299833

  2. Effect of pedalling rates on physiological response during endurance cycling.

    PubMed

    Lepers, R; Millet, G Y; Maffiuletti, N A; Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of different pedalling cadences upon various physiological responses during endurance cycling exercise. Eight well-trained triathletes cycled three times for 30 min each at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their maximal aerobic power output. The first test was performed at a freely chosen cadence (FCC); two others at FCC - 20% and FCC + 20%, which corresponded approximately to the range of cadences habitually used by road racing cyclists. The mean (SD) FCC, FCC - 20% and FCC + 20% were equal to 86 (4), 69 (3) and 103 (5) rpm respectively. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), minute ventilation (VE) and respiratory exchange ratio (R) were analysed during three periods: between the 4th and 5th, 14th and 15th, and 29th and 30th min. A significant effect of time (P < 0.01) was found at the three cadences for HR, VO2. The VE and R were significantly (P < 0.05) greater at FCC + 20% compared to FCC - 20% at the 5th and 15th min but not at the 30th min. Nevertheless, no significant effect of cadence was observed in HR and VO2. These results suggest that, during high intensity exercise such as that encountered during a time-trial race, well-trained triathletes can easily adapt to the changes in cadence allowed by the classical gear ratios used in practice. PMID:11560096

  3. On voluntary rhythmic leg movement behaviour and control during pedalling.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E A

    2015-06-01

    The overall purpose of the present dissertation was to contribute to the understanding of voluntary human rhythmic leg movement behaviour and control. This was achieved by applying pedalling as a movement model and exposing healthy and recreationally active individuals as well as trained cyclists to for example cardiopulmonary and mechanical loading, fatiguing exercise, and heavy strength training. As a part of the background, the effect of pedalling frequency on diverse relevant biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysiological variables as well as on performance was initially explored. Freely chosen pedalling frequency is considerably higher than the energetically optimal pedalling frequency. This has been shown by others and was confirmed in the present work. As a result, pedal force is relatively low while rates of VO2 and energy turnover are relatively high during freely chosen pedalling as compared to a condition where a lower and more efficient pedalling frequency is imposed. The freely chosen pedalling frequency was in the present work, and by others, found to most likely be less advantageous than the lower energetically optimal pedalling frequency with respect to performance during intensive cycling following prolonged submaximal cycling. This stimulates the motivation to understand the behaviour and control of the freely chosen pedalling frequency during cycling. Freely chosen pedalling frequency was in the present work shown to be highly individual. In addition, the pedalling frequency was shown to be steady in a longitudinal perspective across 12 weeks. Further, it was shown to be unaffected by both fatiguing hip extension exercise and hip flexion exercise as well as by increased loading on the cardiopulmonary system at constant mechanical loading, and vice versa. Based on this, the freely chosen pedalling frequency is considered to be characterised as a highly individual, steady, and robust innate voluntary motor rhythm under primary influence of

  4. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake () during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants’ (age 19–48 years) were recruited and their steady-state was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of . Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg−1 min−1) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. PMID:26371230

  5. Inorganic nitrate supplementation improves muscle oxygenation, O₂ uptake kinetics, and exercise tolerance at high but not low pedal rates.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen J; Varnham, Richard L; DiMenna, Fred J; Breese, Brynmor C; Wylie, Lee J; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that inorganic nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation would improve muscle oxygenation, pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics, and exercise tolerance (Tlim) to a greater extent when cycling at high compared with low pedal rates. In a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study, seven subjects (mean ± SD, age 21 ± 2 yr, body mass 86 ± 10 kg) completed severe-intensity step cycle tests at pedal cadences of 35 rpm and 115 rpm during separate nine-day supplementation periods with NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice (BR) (providing 8.4 mmol NO3 (-)/day) and placebo (PLA). Compared with PLA, plasma nitrite concentration increased 178% with BR (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in muscle oxyhemoglobin concentration ([O2Hb]), phase II V̇o2 kinetics, or Tlim between BR and PLA when cycling at 35 rpm (P > 0.05). However, when cycling at 115 rpm, muscle [O2Hb] was higher at baseline and throughout exercise, phase II V̇o2 kinetics was faster (47 ± 16 s vs. 61 ± 25 s; P < 0.05), and Tlim was greater (362 ± 137 s vs. 297 ± 79 s; P < 0.05) with BR compared with PLA. These results suggest that short-term BR supplementation can increase muscle oxygenation, expedite the adjustment of oxidative metabolism, and enhance exercise tolerance when cycling at a high, but not a low, pedal cadence in healthy recreationally active subjects. These findings support recent observations that NO3 (-) supplementation may be particularly effective at improving physiological and functional responses in type II muscle fibers. PMID:25858494

  6. Cycling Wheelchair Provides Enjoyable Pedaling Exercises with Increased Physiological Indexes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yuya; Misu, Shogo; Sawa, Ryuichi; Nakatsu, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kazuya; Takamori, Kumi; Ono, Kumiko; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Yasunobu; Ono, Rei

    2016-01-01

    The cycling wheelchair (CWC) can be used as a pedaling exercise machine. However, physiological indexes in the CWC at various pedaling rates and the difference between the CWC and the existing pedaling machines such as the portable ergometer (ERG) are unclear. The aim of this study was to measure physiological indexes in the CWC at various pedaling rates and compare the CWC to the ERG, focusing on psychological stress. The present non-randomized crossover study included ten healthy men (22.3 ± 1.2 years) who performed pedaling exercise with the CWC and the ERG. Both experiments were composed of three pedaling exercise sessions (40, 60, and 80 rpm). Physiological indexes, consisting of oxygen consumption, heart rate, perceived breathlessness and leg fatigue, and salivary amylase activity (SAA), an index of psychological stress, were measured. The metabolic equivalent (METs) and the rate of change in SAA from rest to immediately after each pedaling session (ΔSAA) were calculated. In the CWC, all physiological indexes significantly increased with pedaling rates. The METs were 2.2 ± 0.3, 2.7 ± 0.4, and 3.5 ± 0.4 at 40, 60, and 80 rpm, respectively. In comparison between the CWC and the ERG, ΔSAA was lower in the CWC than in the ERG at 60 and 80 rpm. Our results indicate that the CWC pedaling can provide low or moderate intensity exercises with adjusting pedaling rates and is less stressful than the ERG. Thus, the CWC is a useful pedaling machine to promote regular and enjoyable exercises. PMID:26672774

  7. The Analysis of Pedaling Techniques with Platform Pedals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępniewski, A. A.; Grudziński, J.

    2014-08-01

    The paper analyzes a pedaling technique with platform pedals in which the influence of the geometric and tribological parameters on the torque course of the active forces in the crank rotation axis is determined. Distribution of forces of feet acting on pedals as a function of the crank rotation angle was performed and on this basis the specific pedaling zones and their ranges and the courses of the value of variable active torque and pedaling work during the full cycle were determined. The course of changes in the movements in the ankle joint is described with a function depending on the crank and limb position and loading of the joint. A numerical example has also been presented and a discussion of the results has been carried out

  8. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  9. The relationship between cadence, pedalling technique and gross efficiency in cycling.

    PubMed

    Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2011-12-01

    Technique and energy saving are two variables often considered as important for performance in cycling and related to each other. Theoretically, excellent pedalling technique should give high gross efficiency (GE). The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between pedalling technique and GE. 10 well-trained cyclists were measured for GE, force effectiveness (FE) and dead centre size (DC) at a work rate corresponding to ~75% of VO(2)max during level and inclined cycling, seat adjusted forward and backward, at three different cadences around their own freely chosen cadence (FCC) on an ergometer. Within subjects, FE, DC and GE decreased as cadence increased (p < 0.001). A strong relationship between FE and GE was found, which was to great extent explained by FCC. The relationship between cadence and both FE and GE, within and between subjects, was very similar, irrespective of FCC. There was no difference between level and inclined cycling position. The seat adjustments did not affect FE, DC and GE or the relationship between them. Energy expenditure is strongly coupled to cadence, but force effectiveness, as a measure for pedalling technique, is not likely the cause of this relationship. FE, DC and GE are not affected by body orientation or seat adjustments, indicating that these parameters and the relationship between them are robust to coordinative challenges within a range of cadence, body orientation and seat position that is used in regular cycling. PMID:21437606

  10. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  11. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  12. Sensor-based nitrogen applications out-performed producer-chosen rates for corn in on-farm demonstrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate for corn (Zea mays L.) and other crops can vary substantially within and among fields. Current N management practices do not address this variability. Crop reflectance sensors offer the potential to diagnose crop N need and control N application rates at a fine s...

  13. Analysis of the part-pedaling effect in the piano.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Heidi-Maria; Askenfelt, Anders; Välimäki, Vesa

    2009-08-01

    This letter reports basic acoustic phenomena related to part-pedaling in the piano. With part-pedaling, the piano tone can be divided into three distinct time intervals: initial free vibration, damper-string interaction, and final free vibration. Varying the distance of the damper from the string, the acoustic signal and the damper acceleration were measured for several piano tones. During the damper-string interaction, the piano tone decay is rapid and the timbre of the tone is affected by the nonlinear amplitude limitation of the string motion. During the final free decay, the string continues to vibrate freely with a lower decay rate. PMID:19640015

  14. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for...

  15. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for...

  16. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for...

  17. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for...

  18. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for...

  19. A Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Transport Aircraft Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a fixed-base research simulator to assess the directional handling qualities for various rudder pedal feel characteristics for commercial transport airplanes. That is, the effects of static pedal force at maximum pedal travel, breakout force, and maximum pedal travel on handling qualities were studied. An artificial maneuver with a severe lateral wind shear and requiring runway tracking at an altitude of 50 feet in a crosswind was used to fully exercise the rudder pedals. Twelve active airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew approximately 500 maneuvers. The pilots rated the maneuver performance with various rudder pedal feel characteristics using the Cooper- Harper rating scale. The test matrix had 15 unique combinations of the 3 static pedal feel characteristics. A 10-term, second-order equation for the Cooper-Harper pilot rating as a function of the 3 independent pedal feel parameters was fit to the data. The test matrix utilized a Central Composite Design that is very efficient for fitting an equation of this form. The equation was used to produce contour plots of constant pilot ratings as a function of two of the parameters with the third parameter held constant. These contour plots showed regions of good handling qualities as well as regions of degraded handling qualities. In addition, a numerical equation solver was used to predict the optimum parameter values (those with the lowest pilot rating). Quantitative pilot performance data were also analyzed. This analysis found that the peak values of the cross power spectra of the pedal force and heading angle could be used to quantify the tendency toward directional pilot induced oscillations (PIO). Larger peak values of the cross power spectra were correlated with larger (degraded) Cooper-Harper pilot ratings. Thus, the subjective data (Cooper-Harper pilot ratings) were consistent with the objective data (peak values of the cross power

  20. Performance of a constant torque pedal device.

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, K.

    1979-01-01

    A constant-torque oscillatory pedal-crank device using vertical movement of the feet is described and its performance compared to a conventional rotational cycle. Using a generator to measure the power output the constant-torque device produced 33% less power and thus has no practical value as an alternative to the conventional pedal-crank system. Images Figure 3 PMID:526783

  1. Safety Pedal for Foot-Operated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ninged structure prevents inadvertent use. Forward motion of foot on yoke plate necessary to operate brake pedal. Downward force on yoke plate turns locking/releasing laver, which then pushes locking pin into indexing hole. New pedal improves both productivity and safety of power brakes and such other machines as metal shearers and punch presses.

  2. Asymptomatic Congenital Absence of Lateral Pedal Rays.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio; Roda, Simone; Chessa, Angelo; Pezzoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Complete absence of 1 or more pedal rays is a rare condition. In the present report, the case of an adult male with complete congenital absence of his right fourth and fifth pedal rays is described. The condition had been asymptomatic until he had sustained an acute third metatarsal fracture and was satisfactorily treated with cast immobilization. PMID:26359621

  3. Pedal Away from Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159835.html Pedal Away From Type 2 Diabetes Study finds biking may help adults avoid ... TUESDAY, July 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Opting for two wheels rather than four could lower your risk ...

  4. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  5. Performance stability in simultaneous tasks of pedalling and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Arcelin, R; Brisswalter, J

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the within-subject variability in heart rate, pedal rate, choice reaction time, and error rate during simultaneous tasks of cycling and reaction time. Students in physical education classes exercised a 10-min. submaximal cycloergometer test at a relative power output corresponding to 60% of their own maximal aerobic power, in a replication procedure. Concomitantly, the subjects performed a 2-choice reaction time task from Min. 3 of the exercise bout. No significant differences (p > .05) were found between the individual means in the tests for the diverse parameters. The total intraindividual variability averaged 1.3% for heart rate, 2.2% for pedal rate, and 13.3% for choice reaction time. Because wide within-subject variability was observed (from 7.7 to 16.7%), the reliability of choice reaction time was low. These data suggest that it is necessary to quantify more accurately the intraindividual differences of reaction time measures for the interpretation of exercise-changes in cognitive functioning. PMID:10485101

  6. Evaluation of mechanical tractor pedal extensions.

    PubMed

    Kelso, S A; Stangherlin, A M; Mann, D D

    2008-10-01

    Many farmers with disabilities choose to modify their work environments to accommodate their personal abilities; however, modified tractors may present greater risk to the operator as they are often one-of-a-kind designs that have not been subjected to rigorous safety testing. The objective of this research was to evaluate mechanical tractor pedal , extensions from a safety perspective. This objective was achieved by identifying potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab environment so that both existing and novel designs could be compared using a common methodology. Based on review of the published literature, 19 potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab of a tractor were identified. A hazard self-assessment worksheet (HSAW), created based on the 19 hazards, was validated through a pilot study. The overall inter-rater reliability and concurrent criterion validity proved to be acceptable. With the use of the HSAW six pedal extensions (three existing designs and three novel designs) were evaluated by 14 experts. Statistical analysis of the results did not identify a "best" design; however, several important trends were observed. Four of the six designs tended to block access to the exit path. The two designs that did not block access to the exit path might be considered to be the best designs for the tractors used in this study, but other designs likely would have been acceptable if they had been custom-fit for these tractors. The results of this research suggest that custom fabrication of pedal extensions for each specific tractor will likely yield the safest work environment for those who choose to use this assistive technology. PMID:19044171

  7. Pedal edema associated with atypical antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, Santanu; Mukherjee, Shatavisa; Saha, Indranil; Sen, Sukanta

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a patient diagnosed as a case of bipolar affective disorder complaining of bothersome incidence of pedal edema 1 month after the initiation of atypical antipsychotic regimen with risperidone and quetiapine. All hematological and biochemical profiles were found to be normal. On discontinuation of risperidone, the condition remained unresolved even after 2 weeks, and the edema progressed reaching her calves. On tapering the dose of quetiapine, she started showing gradual improvement in edematous condition. Quetiapine was slowly discontinued. No further recurrence of edema occurred, and hence, no further medication changes were implemented. Pedal edema was found to be resolved within weeks of dechallenge of the regimen. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale gave a score of 7 which denotes “probable” adverse drug reaction with quetiapine. PMID:26997731

  8. Voluntary Movement Frequencies in Submaximal One- and Two-Legged Knee Extension Exercise and Pedaling.

    PubMed

    Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared

  9. Voluntary Movement Frequencies in Submaximal One- and Two-Legged Knee Extension Exercise and Pedaling

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared

  10. A pedal dynamometer for off-road bicycling.

    PubMed

    Rowe, T; Hull, M L; Wang, E L

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the design and accuracy evaluation of a dynamometric pedal, which measures the two pedal force components in the plane of the bicycle. To realize a design that could be used during actual off-road cycling, a popular clipless pedal available commercially was modified so that both the form and the function of the original design were maintained. To measure the load components of interest, the pedal spindle was replaced with a spindle fixed to the pedal body and instrumented with eight strain gages connected into two Wheatstone bridge circuits. The new spindle is supported by bearings in the crank arm. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check revealed root mean square errors of less than 1 percent full scale (FS) when only the force components of interest were applied. Application of unmeasured load components created an error less than 2 percent FS. The natural frequency with half the weight of a 75 kgf person standing on the pedal was greater than 135 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer suitable for measuring either pedaling loads due to the rider's muscular action or inertial loads due to surface-induced acceleration. To demonstrate this suitability, sample pedal load data are presented both for steady-state ergometer cycling and coasting over a rough surface while standing. PMID:9675695

  11. Piezogenic Pedal Papules with Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Altin, Cihan; Askin, Ulku; Gezmis, Esin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Piezogenic pedal papules (PPP) are herniations of subcutaneous adipose tissue into the dermis. PPP are skin-colored to yellowish papules and nodules on lateral surfaces of feet that typically become apparent when the patient stands flat on his/her feet. Some connective tissue diseases and syndromes have been reported in association with PPP. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. MVP may be isolated or part of a heritable connective tissue disorder. PPP, which is generally considered as an isolated lesion, might be also a predictor of some cardiac diseases associated with connective tissue abnormalities such as MVP. A detailed systemic investigation including cardiac examination should be done in patients with PPP. Since in the literature, there are no case reports of association of PPP with MVP, we report these cases. PMID:27057041

  12. Piezogenic Pedal Papules with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Altin, Cihan; Askin, Ulku; Gezmis, Esin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Piezogenic pedal papules (PPP) are herniations of subcutaneous adipose tissue into the dermis. PPP are skin-colored to yellowish papules and nodules on lateral surfaces of feet that typically become apparent when the patient stands flat on his/her feet. Some connective tissue diseases and syndromes have been reported in association with PPP. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. MVP may be isolated or part of a heritable connective tissue disorder. PPP, which is generally considered as an isolated lesion, might be also a predictor of some cardiac diseases associated with connective tissue abnormalities such as MVP. A detailed systemic investigation including cardiac examination should be done in patients with PPP. Since in the literature, there are no case reports of association of PPP with MVP, we report these cases. PMID:27057041

  13. Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in the Commander's Satiation on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. The rudder pedals command orbiter acceleration in yaw by positioning the rudder during atmospheric flight. However, because the flight control software automatically performs turn coordination during banking maneuvers, the rudder pedals are not operationally used during glided flight. It is not until after touchdown that the crew uses them for nose wheel steering during rollout. Depressing the upper portion of the rudder pedals provides braking. Differential braking may also be used for directional control during rollout. This view was take at Johnson Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks

    PubMed Central

    Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)—long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance. PMID:24009587

  15. EEG during pedaling: Evidence for cortical control of locomotor tasks

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sanket; Gourab, Krishnaj; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila; Schmit, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study characterized the brain electrical activity during pedaling, a locomotor-like task, in humans. We postulated that phasic brain activity would be associated with active pedaling, consistent with a cortical role in locomotor tasks. Methods Sixty four channels of electroencephalogram (EEG) and 10 channels of electromyogram (EMG) data were recorded from 10 neurologically-intact volunteers while they performed active and passive (no effort) pedaling on a custom-designed stationary bicycle. Ensemble averaged waveforms, 2 dimensional topographic maps and amplitude of the β (13–35 Hz) frequency band were analyzed and compared between active and passive trials. Results The peak-to-peak amplitude (peak positive–peak negative) of the EEG waveform recorded at the Cz electrode was higher in the passive than the active trials (p < 0.01). β-band oscillations in electrodes overlying the leg representation area of the cortex were significantly desynchronized during active compared to the passive pedaling (p < 0.01). A significant negative correlation was observed between the average EEG waveform for active trials and the composite EMG (summated EMG from both limbs for each muscle) of the rectus femoris (r = −0.77, p < 0.01) the medial hamstrings (r = −0.85, p < 0.01) and the tibialis anterior (r = −0.70, p < 0.01) muscles. Conclusions These results demonstrated that substantial sensorimotor processing occurs in the brain during pedaling in humans. Further, cortical activity seemed to be greatest during recruitment of the muscles critical for transitioning the legs from flexion to extension and vice versa. Significance This is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of EEG recording during pedaling, and owing to similarities between pedaling and bipedal walking, may provide valuable insight into brain activity during locomotion in humans. PMID:23036179

  16. Intermuscular coherence contributions in synergistic muscles during pedaling.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Severini, Giacomo; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    The execution of rhythmical motor tasks requires the control of multiple skeletal muscles by the Central Nervous System (CNS), and the neural mechanisms according to which the CNS manages their coordination are not completely clear yet. In this study, we analyze the distribution of the neural drive shared across muscles that work synergistically during the execution of a free pedaling task. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from eight lower limb muscles of eleven healthy untrained participants during an unconstrained pedaling exercise. The coordinated activity of the lower limb muscles was described within the framework of muscle synergies, extracted through the application of nonnegative matrix factorization. Intermuscular synchronization was assessed by calculating intermuscular coherence between pairs of EMG signals from co-active, both synergistic and non-synergistic muscles within their periods of co-activation. The spatiotemporal structure of muscle coordination during pedaling was well represented by four muscle synergies for all the subjects. Significant coherence values within the gamma band (30-60 Hz) were identified only for one out of the four extracted muscle synergies. This synergy is mainly composed of the activity of knee extensor muscles, and its function is related to the power production and crank propelling during the pedaling cycle. In addition, a significant coherence peak was found in the lower frequencies for the GAM/SOL muscle pair, possibly related to the ankle stabilizing function of these two muscles during the pedaling task. No synchronization was found either for the other extracted muscle synergies or for pairs of co-active but non-synergistic muscles. The obtained results seem to suggest the presence of intermuscular synchronization only when a functional force production is required, with the observed gamma band contribution possibly reflecting a cortical drive to synergistic muscles during pedaling. PMID:25821181

  17. A nonsurgical approach to painful piezogenic pedal papules.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; Holmes, James; Leonard, James A

    2004-05-01

    For more than 3 decades, piezogenic pedal papules have been described in the literature. While many individuals with these papules are asymptomatic, patients with trauma or connective tissue diseases can experience pain. In our case study, we describe a unique, nonsurgical approach that abates the pain of painful piezogenic pedal papule (PPPP). Three injections of a solution of equal parts betamethasone (Celestone) and bupivacaine (Marcaine) were curative in a male patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III with PPPP. In addition, combination steroid/anesthetic injection provides another method of treatment in the management of PPPP. PMID:15186050

  18. Muscle synergies are consistent when pedaling under different biomechanical demands.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, C; Castronovo, A M; Bibbo, D; Schmid, M; Conforto, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the muscle coordination underlying the execution of a pedaling exercise across different biomechanical demands, by using the muscle synergies paradigm. 9 non professional subjects performed a cycling exercise using their preferred pedaling strategy (Preferred Strategy, PS) and then, through the use of a feedback based on the presentation of a real-time index of mechanical efficiency determined by means of instrumented pedals, they were helped to optimize their pedaling technique (Effective Strategy, ES). EMG activity was recorded from 8 muscles of the dominant leg. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. 4 modules were sufficient to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activations for all the subjects during PS condition, and these modules were found consistent across all the subjects (correlation > 83%). 5 muscle synergies were necessary for the characterization in ES condition; 4 out of these modules were shared with PS condition, and the resulting additional module appeared subject-specific. These preliminary results support the existence of a modular motor control in humans. PMID:23366633

  19. Pedal symphalangism in modern American and Japanese skeletons.

    PubMed

    Case, D T; Heilman, J

    2005-01-01

    Pedal symphalangism is a surprisingly common heritable trait of the human foot. In individuals exhibiting the trait, the joint between the intermediate and distal phalanges of one or more lateral toes never develops, resulting in toes with two phalanges rather than three. This study was undertaken to explore variation in the frequency of pedal symphalangism among groups with widely different geographic ancestry, and to consider the applicability of this trait to skeletal biological distance studies. A total of 460 Euro-American, 191 African-American and 99 Japanese skeletons were examined for presence of pedal symphalangism. The American individuals date to the first half of the 20th c, while the Japanese individuals date to the late 19th and early 20th c. Although the country of ancestry is unknown for most of the American individuals, the Euro-Americans appear to be largely northern European, with roots in Germany, Ireland and Scandinavia, while the African-Americans are primarily descendants of slaves with roots in west African countries such as Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Sierra Leone. Frequencies of fifth toe pedal symphalangism were calculated and compared among all three samples and found to be significantly higher in modern Japanese (83.7%) than in either Euro-Americans (46.4%) or African-Americans (44.0%). The Euro- and African-American frequencies were statistically indistinguishable for symphalangism of the fifth toe. In the fourth toe, however, the opposite result was found. The African-American frequency (7.9%) was significantly higher than the Euro-American frequency (2.6%), while no difference was found between the African-Americans and Japanese (11.7%). Since fourth toe pedal symphalangism has never been observed in the absence of fifth toe involvement, some of the same genes are clearly involved in producing the trait in both toes. However, differences in the pattern of fourth and fifth toe expression among the three groups identified in this

  20. Generator and rechargeable battery system for pedal powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.

    1985-11-26

    A generator and rechargeable battery system for use with pedal powered vehicles, such as bicycles, and where either the generator or battery can intermittently power a load such as a lighting system of the vehicle in one mode of operation, and in which the generator can recharge the battery in another mode of operation. A simple selection switch which is manually operable by the operator of the vehicle enables selection between powering of the load or recharging of the battery.

  1. Successful Coronary Stent Retrieval From a Pedal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, Enrica Versaci, Francesco; Gandini, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Vito, Livio; Romeo, Francesco

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to report complications from a coronary drug-eluting stent lost in the peripheral circulation. We report the case of successful retrieval of a sirolimus coronary stent from a pedal artery in a young patient who underwent coronary angiography for previous anterior myocardial infarction. Recognition of stent embolization requires adequate removal of the device to avoid unwelcome clinical sequelae.

  2. Direction of foot force for pushes against a fixed pedal: role of effort level.

    PubMed

    Gruben, Kreg G; Rogers, Lynn M; Schmidt, Matthew W

    2003-07-01

    Control of the force exerted by the foot on the ground is critical to human locomotion. During running on a treadmill and pushing against a fixed pedal, humans increased foot force in a linear manner in sagittal plane force space. However, for pushes against a moving pedal, force output was linear for some participants but slightly curved for others. A primary difference between the static and dynamic pedaling studies was that the dynamic study required participants to push with varying peak effort levels, whereas a constant peak effort level was used for the fixed pedal pushes. The present study evaluated the possibility that force direction varied with level of effort. Seated humans pushed against a fixed pedal to a series of force magnitude targets. The force direction varied systematically with effort level consistent with the force path curvature observed for dynamic pedaling. PMID:12893955

  3. A novel fMRI paradigm suggests that pedaling-related brain activation is altered after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Promjunyakul, Nutta-on; Schmit, Brian D.; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    regions were examined separately, reduced brain activation volume reached statistical significance in BA6 [p = 0.04; 4,350 (2,347) μL stroke; 6,938 (3,134) μL control] and cerebellum [p = 0.001; 4,591 (1,757) μL stroke; 8,381 (2,835) μL control]. Regardless of whether activated regions were examined together or separately, there were no significant between-group differences in brain activation intensity [p = 0.17; 1.30 (0.25)% stroke; 1.16 (0.20)% control]. Reduced volume in the stroke group was not observed during lower limb tapping and could not be fully attributed to differences in head motion or movement rate. There was a tendency for pedaling-related brain activation volume to increase with increasing work performed by the paretic limb during pedaling (p = 0.08, r = 0.525). Hence, the results of this study provide two original and important contributions. First, we demonstrated that pedaling can be used with fMRI to examine brain activation associated with lower limb movement in people with stroke. Unlike previous lower limb movements examined with fMRI, pedaling involves continuous, reciprocal, multijoint movement of both limbs. In this respect, pedaling has many characteristics of functional lower limb movements, such as walking. Thus, the importance of our contribution lies in the establishment of a novel paradigm that can be used to understand how the brain adapts to stroke to produce functional lower limb movements. Second, preliminary observations suggest that brain activation volume is reduced during pedaling post-stroke. Reduced brain activation volume may be due to anatomic, physiology, and/or behavioral differences between groups, but methodological issues cannot be excluded. Importantly, brain action volume post-stroke was both task-dependent and mutable, which suggests that it could be modified through rehabilitation. Future work will explore these possibilities. PMID:26089789

  4. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayagalingam, T.

    1980-06-01

    High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

  5. Comparison of joint kinematics and pedaling force in the young and the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Kang, Dong-Won; Choi, Jin-Seung; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pedaling posture can improve muscle strength and cardiopulmonary function. To investigate proper pedaling posture for the elderly, this study compared the pedaling efficiency of the elderly with that of the young by using an index of effectiveness (IE) and kinematic results. [Subjects and Methods] Eight adults in their twenties and eight in their seventies participated in 3-min, 40 rpm cycle pedaling tests, with the same load and cadence. The joint angle, range of motion (ROM), and IE were compared by measuring 3-dimensional motion and 3-axis pedal-reaction force during 4 pedaling phases (Phase 1: 330–30°, Phase 2: 30–150°, Phase 3: 150–210°, and Phase 4: 210–330°). [Results] The knee and ankle ROM, maximum knee extension, and maximum ankle dorsiflexion in the elderly were significantly decreased compared with those in the young. Moreover, there were significant differences in IE for the total phase, Phase 1, and Phase 4 between the elderly and young. IE of the young was greater than that of the elderly, except in Phase 3. [Conclusion] Joint movement in the elderly during pedaling was limited. This study provides information that will facilitate the proposal of an efficient pedaling method for the elderly.

  6. Technologies for Safe Water Supply in Arsenic Affected Villages of Bangladesh Utilizing a Pedal Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Wahidul K.; Leslie, Greg

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents information on the socio-techno-economic aspects of a water purification system for the arsenic contaminated villages of Bangladesh. The proposed system which is based on hollow fiber membranes and granular activated carbon columns can be used to harvest potable water from ponds without many of the problems inherent in the conventional pond sand filters. This paper also examines the possible application of human operated pedal pump, instead of diesel or electricity driven pump, for pumping water from ponds to overcome limitations in existing water technologies in the arsenic-contaminated villages in Bangladesh. A market model of this technology has been suggested that allows the rural poor to access to safe water at affordable monthly rate.

  7. Modulation of the soleus H-reflex during pedalling in normal humans and in patients with spinal spasticity.

    PubMed

    Boorman, G; Becker, W J; Morrice, B L; Lee, R G

    1992-12-01

    Soleus H-reflexes were recorded in 10 normal subjects and seven patients with spasticity caused by incomplete spinal cord injury while they pedalled on a stationary bicycle which had been modified to trigger electrical stimuli to the tibial nerve at eight precise points in the pedal cycle. Stimulus strength was adjusted to yield M-waves of constant amplitude at each pedal position. During active pedalling, all normal subjects showed modulation of the H-reflex with the amplitude being increased during the downstroke portion of the pedal cycle and the reflex suppressed or absent during the upstroke. This modulation was not present during passive pedalling, with the experimenter cranking the pedals by hand, or when the pedals were locked at each of the eight positions. In five of the seven patients with spasticity, there was reduced or absent modulation of the H-reflex during active pedalling and the reflex remained large during pedal upstroke. It is concluded that descending motor commands that produce patterned voluntary activity during pedalling normally cause cyclical gating of spinal reflexes by either presynaptic or postsynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. Loss of supraspinal control over these spinal inhibitory systems could result in failure to produce appropriate suppression of reflexes during patterned voluntary movements such as pedalling or walking, and may be an important factor contributing to the functional disability in spasticity. PMID:1479394

  8. Energy biomass characteristics of chosen plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszlak-Bargłowicz, J.; Zając, G.; Piekarski, W.

    2012-04-01

    The chosen energy plants species: willow, mallow and Miscanthus are presented. Result of analysis of combustion heat and heating value of these species biomass indicate on possibility of their utilization as fuel for combustion and energy and heat production.

  9. Symmetry breaking in gastropod locomotion through acceleration or deceleration of the pedal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lai, Janice; Shepherd, Robert D.; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2008-03-01

    Marine and terrestrial gastropods move by gliding over a ventral foot that is lubricated by secreted mucus (terrestrial) or simply by water (marine). The rim of the ventral foot generates suction forces that keep the animal adhered to the substrate. The central part of the foot produces a forward traction force by generating trains of pedal waves through periodic muscle contractions. Recent experiments show that, in some gastropods, these pedal waves become faster and longer as they move forward, suggesting a mechanism for breaking the symmetry in the flow between the pedal waves and the substrate. To investigate this mechanism, we have analyzed theoretically a two-dimensional lubrication layer between a train of waves of slowly varying length and speed, and a flat, rigid, impermeable surface. The inhomogeneity of the pedal waves has been modeled through multiple-scale asymptotics. We have considered a Newtonian fluid to separate the effect of this inhomogeneity from the viscoelastic symmetry breaking reported in previous works.

  10. Controllability of the better chosen partial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueming; Pan, Linqiang

    2016-08-01

    How to control large complex networks is a great challenge. Recent studies have proved that the whole network can be sufficiently steered by injecting control signals into a minimum set of driver nodes, and the minimum numbers of driver nodes for many real networks are high, indicating that it is difficult to control them. For some large natural and technological networks, it is impossible and not feasible to control the full network. For example, in biological networks like large-scale gene regulatory networks it is impossible to control all the genes. This prompts us to explore the question how to choose partial networks that are easy for controlling and important in networked systems. In this work, we propose a method to achieve this goal. By computing the minimum driver nodes densities of the partial networks of Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks, scale-free (SF) networks and 23 real networks, we find that our method performs better than random method that chooses nodes randomly. Moreover, we find that the nodes chosen by our method tend to be the essential elements of the whole systems, via studying the nodes chosen by our method of a real human signaling network and a human protein interaction network and discovering that the chosen nodes from these networks tend to be cancer-associated genes. The implementation of our method shows some interesting connections between the structure and the controllability of networks, improving our understanding of the control principles of complex systems.

  11. Effects of foot-pedal positions by inexperienced cyclists at the highest aerobic level.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane; Rubbelke, Sara; Mullin, Tom; Keener, John; Swetkovich, Ryan

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the platform foot-pedal position affected maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max) at the highest aerobic demand in cycling. 21 inexperienced cyclists completed two exercise tests, one in the "normal" platform foot-pedal position and the other in the Biopedal forefoot varus foot-pedal position, cycling on an exercise ergometer. The time between tests ranged from 1 to 3 days depending on the subject's reported fatigue and muscle soreness. The highest aerobic demand was the subject's VO2 max at the point just below the subject's anaerobic threshold. A one-way analysis of variance indicated that the subject's VO2 max performance was similar between the foot-pedal positions. These results did not support the assumption that the Biopedal forefoot varus foot-pedal position would enable the cyclist to be more efficient at the highest aerobic demand when compared to a standard platform foot-pedal position. PMID:15209323

  12. Value of the pinnal-pedal reflex in the diagnosis of canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Shipstone, M

    2001-05-19

    The potential value of the pinnal-pedal scratch reflex as an aid to diagnosing canine scabies was assessed in 588 dogs with skin disease. The reflex was assessed by vigorously rubbing the tip of one earflap on to the base of the ear for five seconds, and it was considered positive if the ipsilateral hind leg made a scratching movement. A diagnosis of scabies was based on the dog's history, a physical examination and either positive skin scrapings or the complete resolution of pruritus and dermatitis after treatment with ivermectin or milbemycin, with no relapse for at least 12 months. Scabies was diagnosed in 55 of the dogs, allergic skin disease in 463, and 70 had other miscellaneous skin diseases. There was a positive pinnal-pedal scratch reflex in 45 (82 per cent) of the 55 dogs with scabies. Forty (73 per cent) of the dogs with scabies had pinnal dermatitis, and 36 (90 per cent) of these had a positive pinnal-pedal scratch reflex. There was a positive pinnal-pedal scratch reflex in 33 (6.2 per cent) of the other 533 dogs. On the basis of these results, the specificity of testing for scabies by the pinnal-pedal scratch reflex was 93.8 per cent, and the sensitivity was 81.8 per cent The test's positive predictive value was 0.57 and its negative predictive value was 0.98. PMID:11394797

  13. Neuro-mechanics of muscle coordination during recumbent pedaling in post-acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, C; Ambrosini, E; Schmid, M; Monticone, M; Pedrocchi, A; Ferrigno, G; D'Alessio, T; Conforto, S; Ferrante, S

    2015-01-01

    Motor impairment after stroke has been hypothesized to be related, among others, to impairments in the modular control of movement. In this study we analyzed muscle coordination and pedal forces during a recumbent pedaling exercise from a sample of post-acute stroke patients (n=5) and a population of age-matched healthy individuals (n=4). Healthy subjects and the less impaired patients showed a shared modular organization of pedaling based on 4 similar muscle synergies. The most impaired patient, characterized by a Motricity Index of 52/100, showed a reduced complexity (only 2 muscle synergies for the affected side). Differences between healthy subjects and post-stroke patients in the execution of the task were identified in terms of unbalance in mechanical work production, which well corresponded to the level of impairment. This pedaling unbalance could be traced back to different activation strategies of the 4 identified modules. Investigation on a more representative sample will provide a full characterization of the neuro-mechanics of pedaling after stroke, helping our understandings of the disruption of motor coordination at central level after stroke and of the most effective solutions for functional recovery. PMID:26736246

  14. Characteristics of the force applied to a pedal during human pushing efforts: emergent linearity.

    PubMed

    Gruben, K G; López-Ortiz, C

    2000-06-01

    The force seated humans exert on a translationally fixed pedal (foot force) may be directed at any angle because the fixed distance between the seat and the pedal axis kinematically constrains the lower limb. The authors' objective in the present work was to characterize such force. Participants (N = 7) generated force with their lower limb by pushing against the pedal in the most comfortable manner. Pushing efforts were repeated randomly 3 times at each of 97 sagittal-plane pedal axis positions and 10 additional times in 9 of those positions (2,895 total pushes). In 87% of the pushes, the measured sagittal-plane force exerted on the pedal by the foot changed magnitude and direction through time, such that the path of the head of the force vector traced a straight line. The linearity of the foot force paths reflected directional invariance in the changes of the foot force vector as the magnitude of the vector increased. The orientation of those linear force paths varied with limb posture in a similar manner across participants. The authors conclude that the emergent linearity of the force path is consistent with minimization of path length in foot force space. Alternatively, the linearity of the force paths suggests a motor control strategy that simplifies the control to a monoparametric form. PMID:11697301

  15. Effects of passive pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Bathke, Arne C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Cortical reorganization can be induced by exercise below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of passive and active pedaling exercise on leg motor cortical area excitability of subjects with traumatic SCI. Ten subjects with chronic cervical or thoracic SCI were enrolled in the study. We found a significant effect of pedaling on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), which did not interact with the experimental condition (active vs. passive). This corresponded to a significant reduction of SICI in the subjects with SCI, together with no evidence that this pattern differed for passive vs. active pedaling. We found no significant effect of pedaling on intracortical facilitation. Our results showed that also passive cycling may be beneficial in activating motor cortical regions and possibly also facilitating motor recovery after SCI. The present study confirms and extends the findings of previous studies that have observed task-specific cortical activation during passive pedaling. Therefore passive exercise therapies when applied below the level of the lesion in subjects with SCI could promote cortical neuroplastic reorganization. PMID:27108543

  16. Suppose Freud had chosen Orestes instead.

    PubMed

    Clark, Margaret

    2009-04-01

    The paper argues that the story of Oedipus, however understood, conveys psychic truth of no greater or more central importance to human development than do the stories of many other myths. A distinction is made between sophisticated theories developed out of Freud's original concept of the Oedipus complex, and the adherence by some clinicians to his original sexual theory. The meaning of Sophocles' play Oedipus the King is found to lie in the clash between Oedipus' omnipotent narcissism (hubris) and the power of the unconscious psyche, rather than in cross-generational sex. Emphasis is placed on the clinical usefulness of understanding all myths symbolically. The Oresteia by Aeschylus is offered as a story about pre-Oedipal (in the Freudian sense) psychic states. This trilogy shows symbolically the developing of an ego, the establishment of moral judgement and the integration of our shadow (the Furies). It also shows the parallel development of structures of law in society to replace instinctive blood feuds. It is suggested that had Freud chosen Orestes instead of Oedipus, the course of both psychoanalysis and of Western society would have had a different emphasis. PMID:19344316

  17. Plantar pressure of clipless and toe-clipped pedals in cyclists - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrea; Pemberton, Troy; Ghosh, Subhajit; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2011-01-01

    Summary To determine the effect of clipless and toe-clipped pedals on plantar foot pressure while cycling. Seven bikers and 11 healthy volunteers were tested on a Giant ATX Team mountain bike, Tekscan Clinical 5.24 F-scan® system with an inner sole pressure sensor, a Tacx Cycle force One Turbo Trainer and a Cateye Mity 8 computerized speedometer were used. The subjects wore Shimano M037 shoes and used a standard clipless and toe-clipped pedal. The seat height was set at 100% of subject’s trochanteric height. Plantar pressures were recorded over 12 consecutive crank cycles at a constant speed for each of the power outputs. The videos were analysed to record the pressure exerted at 12 positions on the foot for each variable. Whether there is any dominance of any of the metatarsals, and any difference in plantar pressures between clipped and clipless pedal. There was a significant difference in the pressure at many positions of the foot, but the sites were different for each individual. General regression analysis indicated that pedal type had a statistically significant effect on plantar pressure at the sites of 1st metatarsal (p=0.042), 3rd metatarsal (p<0.001), 5th metatarsal (<0.001), 2nd (p=0.018) and 5th toe (p<0.001), lateral midfoot (p<0.001) and central heel (p<0.001) areas. Clipless pedals produce higher pressures which are more spread across the foot than toe-clipped pedals. This may have implications for their use in the prevention and/or management of overuse injuries in the knee and foot. PMID:23738240

  18. Plantar pressure of clipless and toe-clipped pedals in cyclists - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrea; Pemberton, Troy; Ghosh, Subhajit; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of clipless and toe-clipped pedals on plantar foot pressure while cycling. Seven bikers and 11 healthy volunteers were tested on a Giant ATX Team mountain bike, Tekscan Clinical 5.24 F-scan® system with an inner sole pressure sensor, a Tacx Cycle force One Turbo Trainer and a Cateye Mity 8 computerized speedometer were used. The subjects wore Shimano M037 shoes and used a standard clipless and toe-clipped pedal. The seat height was set at 100% of subject's trochanteric height. Plantar pressures were recorded over 12 consecutive crank cycles at a constant speed for each of the power outputs. The videos were analysed to record the pressure exerted at 12 positions on the foot for each variable. Whether there is any dominance of any of the metatarsals, and any difference in plantar pressures between clipped and clipless pedal. There was a significant difference in the pressure at many positions of the foot, but the sites were different for each individual. General regression analysis indicated that pedal type had a statistically significant effect on plantar pressure at the sites of 1(st) metatarsal (p=0.042), 3(rd) metatarsal (p<0.001), 5(th) metatarsal (<0.001), 2(nd) (p=0.018) and 5(th) toe (p<0.001), lateral midfoot (p<0.001) and central heel (p<0.001) areas. Clipless pedals produce higher pressures which are more spread across the foot than toe-clipped pedals. This may have implications for their use in the prevention and/or management of overuse injuries in the knee and foot. PMID:23738240

  19. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  20. Using Accelerator Pedal Force to Increase Seat Belt Use of Service Vehicle Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in…

  1. Guillain-Barré syndrome. Review and presentation of a case with pedal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Viegas, G V

    1997-05-01

    Guillan-Barré syndrome is an acute, symmetrical polyneuropathy with distinctive features. The early clinical course involves painful paresthesia that is usually followed by proximal motor weakness. Albuminocytologic dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid is considered diagnostically important. Therapy ranges from supportive measures including physical therapy to surgical intervention for residual deformities. A case with pedal manifestations is presented. PMID:9158314

  2. PyPedal, an open source software package for pedigree analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The open source software package PyPedal (http://pypedal.sourceforge.net/) was first released in 2002, and provided users with a set of simple tools for manipulating pedigrees. Its flexibility has been demonstrated by its used in a number of settings for large and small populations. After substantia...

  3. A state-space analysis of mechanical energy generation, absorption, and transfer during pedaling.

    PubMed

    Fregly, B J; Zajac, F E

    1996-01-01

    Seated ergometer pedaling is a motor task ideal for studying basic mechanisms of human bipedal coordination because, in contrast to standing and walking, fewer degrees of freedom are being controlled and upright balance is not a factor. As a step toward understanding how individual muscles coordinate pedaling, we investigated how individual net muscle joint torques and non-muscular (e.g. centripetal, coriolis, and gravity) forces of the lower limbs generate, absorb, and transfer mechanical energy in order to propel the crank and recover the limb. This was accomplished using a mechanical power analysis derived entirely from the closed-form state-space dynamical equations of a two-legged pedaling model that accounted for both the limb segmental and crank load dynamics. Based on a pedaling simulation that reproduced experimental kinematic and kinetic trajectories, we found that the net ankle and hip extensor joint torques function 'synergistically' to deliver energy to the crank during the downstroke. The net hip extensor joint torque generates energy to the limb, while the net ankle extensor joint torque transfers this energy from the limb to the crank. In contrast, net knee extensor and flexor joint torques function 'independently' by generating energy to the crank through the top and bottom of the stroke, respectively. The net ankle joint torque transfers and the net knee joint torque generates energy to the crank by contributing to the driving component of the pedal reaction force. During the upstroke, net ankle extensor joint torque transfers energy from the crank to the limb to restore the potential energy of the limb. In both halves of the crank cycle, gravity forces augment the crank-limb energy transfer performed by the net ankle extensor joint torque. PMID:8839020

  4. Influence of Pedaling Cadence and Incremental Protocol on the Estimation of EMGFT.

    PubMed

    Duff, Timothy M; Fournier, Hallie; Hopp, Orie B; Ochshorn, Eli; Sanders, Eric S; Stevens, Rachel E; Malek, Moh H

    2016-08-01

    Duff, TM, Fournier, H, Hopp, OB, Ochshorn, E, Sanders, ES, Stevens, RE, and Malek, MH. Influence of pedaling cadence and incremental protocol on the estimation of EMGFT. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2206-2211, 2016-Theoretically, the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) is the highest exercise intensity that an individual can exercise at indefinitely without an increase in electromyography (EMG) amplitude. This index is estimated from a single incremental test. There are, however, factors that may influence EMG amplitude such as pedaling cadence or the incremental protocol used. The purposes of this study were to determine whether different pedaling cadences and/or incremental protocols influence the estimation of the EMGFT. Eight healthy college-aged men performed incremental cycle ergometry on three separate visits. The participants exercised using the following combinations of pedaling cadences and incremental protocols in random order: 25 W at 70 RPM; 13 W at 70 RPM; and 25 W at 100 RPM. The EMGFT value was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle of each participant for each of the three conditions. Separate 1-way repeated measures analysis of variances were performed to determine mean differences for various outcome indices. The mean maximal power output for the 13 W at 70 RPM condition was significantly lower than the two other conditions. There were, however, no significant mean differences (F (2,14) = 2.03; p = 0.169) for EMGFT between the three conditions. The findings of this study indicated that different pedaling cadences and incremental protocols did not influence the estimation of the EMGFT. PMID:26677833

  5. Tailored Therapy Versus Empiric Chosen Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han; Dang, Yini; Zhou, Xiaoying; Liu, Bingtuan; Liu, Shiyu; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although various regimens are empirically accepted for Helicobacter pylori eradication, the efficacy might be declined by multiple individual factors. The necessity of a personalized eradication therapy still remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare tailored therapy with empiric chosen regimens. Databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, and MEDLINE were searched for eligible studies, published up to October 2015. All relevant controlled clinical trials were included. A random-effect model was applied to compare pooled relative risk (RR) with related 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen controlled clinical trials integrating 3512 participants were assessed. Overall, the pooled eradication rates of tailored groups were higher than those of empiric ones (intention-to-treat: RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.10–1.22; preprotocol: RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.08–1.21). In subgroup analysis, tailored therapy was superior to 7-day standard triple therapy (RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.16–1.29) and bismuth-quadruple therapy (RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07–1.22) on eradication rates; first-line tailored therapy achieved higher eradication rates than first-line empirical regimens (pooled RR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.14–1.22), whereas tailored rescue regimen showed no difference with empirical ones (pooled RR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.96–1.39). Moreover, among different tailored designs, susceptibility-guided tailored therapy obtained higher eradication rates than empiric groups, independent of CYP2C19 genotype detection (with CYP: RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.09–1.23; without CYP: RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28). Both molecular test-based and culture-based tailored groups were better on eradication rates than empiric groups (molecular: RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.11–1.35; culture: RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.20). Compared with empiric chosen treatments, tailored therapy is a better alternative for H pylori eradication. PMID:26886617

  6. A cycle ergometer mounted on a standard force platform for three-dimensional pedal forces measurement during cycling.

    PubMed

    Mornieux, Guillaume; Zameziati, Karim; Mutter, Elodie; Bonnefoy, Régis; Belli, Alain

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a new method allowing to measure the three-dimensional forces applied on right and left pedals during cycling. This method is based on a cycle ergometer mounted on a force platform. By recording the forces applied on the force platform and applying the fundamental mechanical equations, it was possible to calculate the instantaneous three-dimensional forces applied on pedals. It was validated by static and dynamic tests. The accuracy of the present system was -7.61 N, -3.37 N and -2.81 N, respectively, for the vertical, the horizontal and the lateral direction when applying a mono-directional force and -4.52 N when applying combined forces. In pedaling condition, the orientation and magnitude of the pedal forces were comparable to the literature. Moreover, this method did not modify the mechanical properties of the pedals and offered the possibility for pedal force measurement with materials often accessible in laboratories. Measurements obtained showed that this method has an interesting potential for biomechanical analyses in cycling. PMID:15923007

  7. The control of brain mitochondrial energization by cytosolic calcium: the mitochondrial gas pedal.

    PubMed

    Gellerich, Frank Norbert; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Gainutdinov, Timur; Muth, Katharina; Seppet, Enn; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vielhaber, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    This review focuses on problems of the intracellular regulation of mitochondrial function in the brain via the (i) supply of mitochondria with ADP by means of ADP shuttles and channels and (ii) the Ca(2+) control of mitochondrial substrate supply. The permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane for adenine nucleotides is low. Therefore rate dependent concentration gradients exist between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytosol. The existence of dynamic ADP gradients is an important precondition for the functioning of ADP shuttles, for example CrP-shuttle. Cr at mM concentrations instead of ADP diffuses from the cytosol through the porin pores into the intermembrane space. The CrP-shuttle isoenzymes work in different directions which requires different metabolite concentrations mainly caused by dynamic ADP compartmentation. The ADP shuttle mechanisms alone cannot explain the load dependent changes in mitochondrial energization, and a complete model of mitochondrial regulation have to account the Ca(2+) -dependent substrate supply too. According to the old paradigmatic view, Ca(2+) (cyt) taken up by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter activates dehydrogenases within the matrix. However, recently it was found that Ca(2+) (cyt) at low nM concentrations exclusively activates the state 3 respiration via aralar, the mitochondrial glutamate/aspartate carrier. At higher Ca(2+) (cyt) (> 500 nM), brain mitochondria take up Ca(2+) for activation of substrate oxidation rates. Since brain mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation is only slightly influenced by Ca(2+) (cyt) , it was proposed that the cytosolic formation of pyruvate from its precursors is tightly controlled by the Ca(2+) dependent malate/aspartate shuttle. At low (50-100 nM) Ca(2+) (cyt) the pyruvate formation is suppressed, providing a substrate limitation control in neurons. This so called "gas pedal" mechanism explains why the energy metabolism of neurons in the nucleus suprachiasmaticus could be down

  8. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Richard A; Young, Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    "Unintended-acceleration" automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications - where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended - have been linked to these accidents (Schmidt, 1989, 1993) which, in the 1980s, were thought to occur only at the start of a driving cycle (and/or with the car in Park). But, in 1997, we identified over 200 pedal errors as the cause of accidents reported in the North Carolina database; these crashes occurred during the driving cycle (Schmidt et al., 1997), and/or with the vehicle in a gear other than Park. Our present work provides a more thorough analysis of these North Carolina Police Accident Reports from 1979 to 1995. The vast majority of pedal misapplications (over 92%) (a) occurred during the driving cycle, (b) were generally in "unhurried" conditions, and (c) were categorically separate from those events referred to as unintended-acceleration episodes at start-up. These ideas are explanatory for the recent (2009-2010) surge of unintended-acceleration reports, perhaps even suggesting that all of these crashes are caused by pedal errors, and that none of them are based on some vehicle defect(s). PMID:21833265

  9. STS-56 MS2 Cockrell pedals reclining cycle ergometer on OV-103 middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Kenneth D. Cockrell, holding checklist, pedals reclining cycle ergometer during an exercise session on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Behind Cockrell is the port side wall with the middeck accomodations rack (MAR) and stowed Development Test Objective (DTO) 653, Evaluation of the MK1 rowing machine, equipment. At Cockrell's right is the open airlock hatch with stowed equipment.

  10. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Richard A.; Young, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    “Unintended-acceleration” automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications – where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended – have been linked to these accidents (Schmidt, 1989, 1993) which, in the 1980s, were thought to occur only at the start of a driving cycle (and/or with the car in Park). But, in 1997, we identified over 200 pedal errors as the cause of accidents reported in the North Carolina database; these crashes occurred during the driving cycle (Schmidt et al., 1997), and/or with the vehicle in a gear other than Park. Our present work provides a more thorough analysis of these North Carolina Police Accident Reports from 1979 to 1995. The vast majority of pedal misapplications (over 92%) (a) occurred during the driving cycle, (b) were generally in “unhurried” conditions, and (c) were categorically separate from those events referred to as unintended-acceleration episodes at start-up. These ideas are explanatory for the recent (2009–2010) surge of unintended-acceleration reports, perhaps even suggesting that all of these crashes are caused by pedal errors, and that none of them are based on some vehicle defect(s). PMID:21833265

  11. Differences in pedalling technique between road cyclists of different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    García-López, Juan; Díez-Leal, Sergio; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Larrazabal, Josu; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the pedalling technique in road cyclists of different competitive levels. Eleven professional, thirteen elite and fourteen club cyclists were assessed at the beginning of their competition season. Cyclists' anthropometric characteristics and bike measurements were recorded. Three sets of pedalling (200, 250 and 300 W) on a cycle ergometer that simulated their habitual cycling posture were performed at a constant cadence (~90 rpm), while kinetic and kinematic variables were registered. The results showed no differences on the main anthropometric variables and bike measurements. Professional cyclists obtained higher positive impulse proportion (1.5-3.3% and P < 0.05), mainly due to a lower resistive torque during the upstroke (15.4-28.7% and P < 0.05). They also showed a higher ankle range of movement (ROM, 1.1-4.0° and P < 0.05). Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were found between the cyclists' body mass and the kinetic variables of pedalling: positive impulse proportion (r = -0.59 to -0.61), minimum (r = -0.59 to -0.63) and maximum torques (r = 0.35-0.47). In conclusion, professional cyclists had better pedalling technique than elite and club cyclists, because they opted for enhancing pulling force at the recovery phase to sustain the same power output. This technique depended on cycling experience and level of expertise. PMID:26703374

  12. USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

  13. The role of the ventral pedal waves in the locomotion of terrestrial gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Janice; Shepherd, Robert D.; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2008-03-01

    The locomotion of terrestrial gastropods exhibits unique characteristics which allow these animals to crawl on steep surfaces. Gastropods move by gliding over a ventral foot lubricated by mucus. They generate trains of pedal waves through periodic muscle contractions in the central portion of the ventral foot, producing a forward traction, while the rim of the foot adheres to the substrate and generates suction forces. We analyzed the kinematics and dynamics of locomotion by conducting two sets of experiments. In the first set, we used digital image processing to correlate the frequency and wavelength of the pedal waves to the migration velocity. In the second set, we computed the traction and adhesion forces produced by these animals from measurements of the deformation of an elastic substrate of known properties. We found that the strain energy exerted by the animal on the substrate is quasi-periodic, and explored a possible correlation between the mean speed of migration and the period of this energy fluctuation. In addition, we found that the pedal waves accelerate as they move forward along the ventral foot producing the symmetry break necessary for the generation of a net traction force.

  14. Effect of Pedal Deformity on Gait in a Patient With Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wynes, Jacob; Lamm, Bradley M; Bhave, Anil; Elmallah, Randa K; Mont, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the case of an 81-year-old man who, despite an anatomically aligned total knee arthroplasty, continued to have knee pain. The patient's ipsilateral rigid flatfoot caused by an earlier partial pedal amputation resulted in a valgus moment during gait, thus creating clinical symptoms in the total knee arthroplasty. Because of the deformity and scarring within the flatfoot, this valgus deformity was corrected through a varus distal femoral osteotomy. The result was normalization of the mechanical axis of the lower limb and a pain-free total knee arthroplasty with an excellent clinical outcome. This case shows the importance of comprehensive lower-extremity clinical and radiographic examination as well as gait analysis to understand the biomechanical effect on total knee arthroplasty. Recognition of pedal deformities and lower limb malalignment is paramount for achieving optimal outcomes and long-term success of total knee arthroplasty. The authors show that a rigid or nonflexible pedal deformity can have negative biomechanical effects on total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26709556

  15. Morphological changes in pedal phalanges through ornithopod dinosaur evolution: a biomechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Carrano, Matthew T; Snyder, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of ornithopod dinosaurs provides a well-documented example of the transition from digitigrady to subunguligrady. During this transition, the ornithopod pes was drastically altered from the plesiomorphic dinosaurian morphology (four digits, claw-shaped unguals, strongly concavo-convex joints, phalanges longer than wide, excavated collateral ligament fossae, presence of sagittal ridge, and prominent processes for the attachment of tendons) to a more derived condition (tridactyly, modification of the unguals into hooves, phalanges wider and thinner than long, lack of collateral ligament fossae, loss of sagittal ridge and tendon attachment processes, relatively flattened articular surfaces). These changes are particularly noteworthy given the overall conservatism in pedal morphology seen across Dinosauria. But what are the functional consequences of these specific morphological transitions? To study them, we examine a wide range of pedal morphologies in four non-avian dinosaurs and two birds. Our analyses of the external morphology, two-dimensional models (using Finite Element Analysis), and internal bone structure demonstrate that this evolutionary shift was accompanied by a loss of digit mobility and flexibility. In addition, pedal posture was modified to better align the pes with the main direction of the ground reaction force, thus becoming well suited to support high loads. These conclusions can be applied to other, parallel evolutionary changes (in both dinosaurs and mammals) that involved similar transitions to a subunguligrade posture. PMID:17146773

  16. Surgical treatment of limb- and life-threatening infections in the feet of patients with diabetes and at least one palpable pedal pulse: successes and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L; Hernández-Herrero, Cristina; Campillo-Vilorio, Nalini; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; García-Morales, Esther; Hernández-Herrero, Maria J

    2011-12-01

    Outcomes of surgically treated limb- and life-threatening infections in patients with diabetes and a well-vascularized foot based only on the palpation of foot pulses are not well known. The authors retrospectively studied a series of 173 patients with diabetes and limb- (moderate) or life- (severe) threatening infections with at least one palpable pedal pulse who were admitted to their department for the treatment of infected diabetic foot from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2009. A total of 141 patients (81.5%) presented with limb-threatening/moderate infections and 32 (18.5%) with life-threatening/severe infections. In all, 49 patients (28.3%) presented with soft tissue infections only, 90 (52%) with osteomyelitis and 34 (19.7%) with a combined infection. Amputation was needed in 74 patients (42.7%), of whom 6 needed a major amputation (3.5% of overall). A total of 99 (57.2%) patients were treated by conservative surgery. Four patients (2.3%) died during the postoperative period (30 days). Limb salvage was achieved in 167 (96.5%) of the patients who were followed up until healing. Healing of the wounds by secondary intention was achieved in a median of 72 days. Clinical results permit the observation that a high rate of limb salvage can be achieved after the surgical treatment of limb- and life-threatening infections in patients with at least one palpable pedal pulse. PMID:22019554

  17. Pedaling power and speed production vs. technical factors and track difficulty in bicycle motocross cycling.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Manuel; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Zabala, Mikel

    2011-12-01

    Mateo, M, Blasco-Lafarga, C, and Zabala, M. Pedaling power and speed production vs. technical factors and track difficulty in BMX cycling. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3248-3256, 2011-This article analyzes whether there is a determined profile in the production of cyclic and acyclic periods in relation to the phases of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race and whether this profile is related to the variables, Difficulty of track and Techniques used. After an initial test for determining maximum pedaling power (Pmax), 9 athletes belonging to the Spanish national team completed 3 series of 3 different types of races: (a) Complete track without pedaling; (b) Track, pedaling only at the gate start; and (c) track with free pedaling. The triple test was carried out over 3 days and on different level tracks: (a) high difficulty (HD), (b) medium difficulty (MD), and (c) low difficulty (LD). Our results show that average peak power applied in the BMX race was 85.21 ± 2.15% Pmax, coming down to 73.02 ± 18.38% at the gate start and to 51.37 ± 15.84% on the first straight. On the other hand, mean power (MP) in the BMX race is 33.79 ± 8.60% MPmax, with statistically significant differences in relation to the difficulty of the track (p < 0.000; 0.009; higher in the easiest). The mean velocity developed is 34.21 ± 1.0 km·h with significant differences (p < 0.000) in relation to the difficulty of the track. Acyclic efforts accounted for 86.3%, and cyclic efforts accounted for the remaining 16.7% of the overall performance in the race, with differences in relation to the difficulty of the track (p ≤ 0.003). Both power profile and performance (measured as velocity) are dependent on the phases and techniques of the race and are significantly affected by the level of difficulty of the track. The greater the technical level of the track, the lesser the possibility of developing cyclic power and vice versa. PMID:21804428

  18. Development and evaluation of a new bicycle instrument for measurements of pedal forces and power output in cycling.

    PubMed

    Stapelfeldt, B; Mornieux, G; Oberheim, R; Belli, A; Gollhofer, A

    2007-04-01

    Determination of pedal forces is a prerequisite to analyse cycling performance capability from a biomechanical point of view. Comparing existing pedal force measurement systems, there are methodological or practical limitations regarding the requirements of scientific sports performance research and enhancement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and to validate a new bicycle instrument that enables pedal forces as well as power output measurements with a free choice of pedal system. The instrument (Powertec-System) is based on force transducer devices, using the Hall-Effect and being mounted between the crank and the pedal. Validation of the method was evaluated by determining the accuracy, the cross talk effect, the influence of lateral forces, the reproducibility and, finally, a possible drift under static conditions. Dynamic tests were conducted to validate the power output measurement in reference to the SRM-System. The mean error of the present system was -0.87 +/- 4.09 % and -1.86 +/- 6.61 % for, respectively, the tangential and radial direction. Cross talk, lateral force influence, reproducibility and drift mean values were < +/- 7 %, < or = 2.4 %, < 0.8 % and 0.02 N x min (-1), respectively. In dynamic conditions, the power output measurement error could be kept below 2.35 %. In conclusion, this method offers the possibility for both valid pedal forces and power output measurements. Moreover, the instrument allows measurements with every pedal system. This method has an interesting potential for biomechanical analyses in cycling research and performance enhancement. PMID:17024643

  19. The influence of seat configuration on maximal average crank power during pedaling: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    Manipulating seat configuration (i.e., seat tube angle, seat height and pelvic orientation) alters the bicycle-rider geometry, which influences lower extremity muscle kinematics and ultimately muscle force and power generation during pedaling. Previous studies have sought to identify the optimal configuration, but isolating the effects of specific variables on rider performance from the confounding effect of rider adaptation makes such studies challenging. Of particular interest is the influence of seat tube angle on rider performance, as seat tube angle varies across riding disciplines (e.g., road racers vs. triathletes). The goals of the current study were to use muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of pedaling to 1) identify the overall optimal seat configuration that produces maximum crank power and 2) systematically vary seat tube angle to assess how it influences maximum crank power. The simulations showed that a seat height of 0.76 m (or 102% greater than trochanter height), seat tube angle of 85.1 deg, and pelvic orientation of 20.5 deg placed the major power-producing muscles on more favorable regions of the intrinsic force-length-velocity relationships to generate a maximum average crank power of 981 W. However, seat tube angle had little influence on crank power, with maximal values varying at most by 1% across a wide range of seat tube angles (65 to 110 deg). The similar power values across the wide range of seat tube angles were the result of nearly identical joint kinematics, which occurred using a similar optimal seat height and pelvic orientation while systematically shifting the pedal angle with increasing seat tube angles. PMID:21245509

  20. Retrograde Pedal/Tibial Artery Access for Treatment of Infragenicular Arterial Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Hosam F.

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular intervention has emerged as an accepted modality for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. However, this therapy poses multiple challenges to the interventionalist due to the presence of widespread multilevel disease, long and complex occlusive lesions, and the common involvement of the tibial vessels. Retrograde pedal/tibial access is a relatively new technique that allows the treatment of tibial occlusive lesions when conventional endovascular techniques fail. This article reviews the technical details and published data regarding this technique and evaluates its use in this difficult-to-treat patient population. PMID:23805338

  1. Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  2. 3D DCE-MRA of pedal arteries in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamyshevskaya, M.; Zavadovskaya, V.; Zorkaltsev, M.; Udodov, V.; Grigorev, E.

    2016-02-01

    Purpose was identification and evaluation of pedal vascularization in diabetic patients of using contrast MR-angiography (3D DCE-MRA). 23 diabetic feet of 23 patients (15 male, 8 female; mean age 56 ± 14.6) underwent 3D DCE-MRA (Gadobutrol 15ml) at 1.5 T. Imaging analysis included blood-flow's speed, vascular architectonic's condition and character of contrast's accumulation. Osteomyelitis was verified by surgery in 15 cases. All patients were divided in 3 groups: neuropathic, neuroischemic, ischemic forms of diabetic foot. First- pass MRA detected significant delay of contrast's arrival in ischemic group. There were no significant differences between the values of neuropathic and neuroischemic forms of diabetic foot. Pedal vessels in patients were absent. Contrast MRA revealed three types of contrast distribution in soft tissues: uniform, local increase and local absence. Osteomyelitis was associated with diffuse enhanced contrast accumulation in all cases. In summary, MRI blood vessel imaging is a promising and valuable method for examining peripheral arterial changes in diabetic foot and might be useful for treatment planning in different forms of diabetic foot.

  3. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  4. The force output of handle and pedal in different bicycle-riding postures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Wu, Yu-Kuang; Chan, Ming-Sheng; Shih, Yo; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the force output of handle and pedal as well as the electromyography (EMG) of lower extremity in different cycling postures. Bilateral pedalling asymmetry indices of force and EMG were also determined in this study. Twelve healthy cyclists were recruited for this study and tested for force output and EMG during steady state cycling adopting different pedalling and handle bar postures. The standing posture increased the maximal stepping torque (posture 1: 204.2 ± 47.0 Nm; posture 2: 212.5 ± 46.1 Nm; posture 3: 561.5 ± 143.0 Nm; posture 4: 585.5 ± 139.1 Nm), stepping work (posture 1: 655.2 ± 134.6 Nm; posture 2: 673.2 ± 116.3 Nm; posture 3: 1852.3 ± 394.4 Nm; posture 4: 1911.3 ± 432.9 Nm), and handle force (posture 1: 16.6 ± 3.6 N; posture 2: 16.4 ± 3.6 N; posture 3: 26.5 ± 8.2 N; posture 4: 41.4 ± 11.1 N), as well as muscle activation (posture 1: 13.6-25.1%; posture 2: 13.0-23.9%; posture 3: 23.6-61.8%; posture 4: 22.5-65.8%) in the erector spine, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and soleus. However, neither a sitting nor a standing riding posture affected the hamstring. The riding asymmetry was detected between the right and left legs only in sitting conditions. When a cyclist changes posture from sitting to standing, the upper and lower extremities are forced to produce more force output because of the shift in body weight. These findings suggest that cyclists can switch between sitting and standing postures during competition to increase cycling efficiency in different situations. Furthermore, coaches and trainers can modify sitting and standing durations to moderate cycling intensity, without concerning unbalanced muscle development. PMID:26967311

  5. Foot force direction control during leg pushes against fixed and moving pedals in persons post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Rogers, L M; Brown, D A; Gruben, K G

    2004-02-01

    The component of foot force generated by muscle action (F(m)) during pedaling in healthy humans has a nearly constant direction with increasing force magnitude. The present study investigated the effect of stroke on the control of foot force. Ten individuals with hemiparesis secondary to a cerebral vascular accident performed pushing efforts against translationally fixed and moving pedals on a custom stationary cycle ergometer. We found that while F(m) direction remained constant with increasing effort in both the fixed- and moving-crank conditions for both limbs, the orientation of that force component differed between limbs. The non-paretic limb produced the same F(m) orientation as seen previously in healthy humans. However, relative to the non-paretic limb, the paretic limb force line-of-action was shifted away from the hip and closer to the knee in the sagittal-plane for both pedal motion conditions. In the frontal plane, the paretic limb force line-of-action was shifted laterally, closer to parallel to the midline, for both pedal motion conditions. These shifts were consistent with previously reported lower limb muscle weakness and alterations in muscle activation observed during pedaling tasks following stroke. The finding of similar orientations for static and dynamic pushing efforts suggests that limb posture could be a trigger for relative muscle activation levels. The preservation of a constant direction in F(m) with increasing force magnitude post-stroke, despite an orientation shift, suggests that control of lower limb force may be organized by magnitude and direction and that these two aspects are differentially affected by stroke. PMID:14741304

  6. The unique sound of the uni-vibe pedal: Part II. Transient behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius F.; Rothe, Hendrik

    2013-09-01

    The Uni-Vibe is an effect pedal mostly used by electric guitar players. It is based on an opto-electronically controlled all-pass chain. In last year's paper on the subject an idealized system model was derived, which lead to deeper discussion of the musical consequences of the effect in terms of harmonic analysis of single tones and chords in clean and distorted mode. As a direct continuation the present paper deals with the transient behaviour of the device. The transient response is essential for understanding the special sound character, the reaction on picking techniques and the interaction with certain instruments. Therefore the system model is expanded and the pulse response of the idealized time invariant system is derived.

  7. Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: Striking vehicle or road?

    PubMed

    Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Lenard, James

    2013-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of vehicle-based secondary safety systems for the protection of pedestrians and pedal cyclists is related to the proportion of cases where injury arises by contact with the road or ground rather than with the striking vehicle. A detailed case review of 205 accidents from the UK On-the-Spot study involving vulnerable road users with head injuries or impacts indicated that contact with the road was responsible in 110 cases. The vehicle however was associated with a majority of more serious casualties: 31 (vehicle) compared with 26 (road) at AIS 2+ head injury level and 20 (vehicle) compared with 13 (road) at AIS 3+ level. Further analysis using a multivariate classification model identified several factors that correlated with the source of injury, namely the type of interaction between the striking vehicle and vulnerable road user, the age of the vulnerable road user and the nature of injury. PMID:23046694

  8. Encouraging obese students with intellectual disabilities to engage in pedaling an exercise bike by using an air mouse combined with preferred environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Lin, Yen-Chung

    2014-12-01

    This study extended research into the application of high-tech products in the field of special education, using a standard air mouse with a newly developed pedal detection program (PDP) software. PDP is a new software program used to turn a standard air mouse into a pedal detector in order to evaluate whether two obese students with intellectual disabilities (ID) would be able to actively perform the activity of pedaling an exercise bike in order to control their preferred environmental stimulation. This study was performed according to an ABAB design. The data showed that both participants had more willingness to engage in the pedaling activity to activate the environmental stimulation in the intervention phases than in the baseline phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25181361

  9. A split-crank bicycle ergometer uses servomotors to provide programmable pedal forces for studies in human biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Worthen-Chaudhari, Lise; Schwandt, Douglas; Bevly, David M; Kautz, Steven A

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a novel computer-controlled bicycle ergometer, the TiltCycle, for use in human biomechanics studies of locomotion. The TiltCycle has a tilting (reclining) seat and backboard, a split pedal crankshaft to isolate the left and right loads to the feet of the pedaler, and two belt-driven, computer-controlled motors to provide assistance or resistance loads independently to each crank. Sensors measure the kinematics and force production of the legs to calculate work performed, and the system allows for goniometric and electromyography signals to be recorded. The technical description presented includes the mechanical design, low-level software and control algorithms, system identification and validation test results. PMID:20378483

  10. Cultural differences in music chosen for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Good, M; Picot, B L; Salem, S G; Chin, C C; Picot, S F; Lane, D

    2000-09-01

    Nurses use music therapeutically but often assume that all patients will equally appreciate the same type of music. Cultural differences in music preferences are compared across five pain studies. Music preferences for pain relief are described as the most frequently chosen type of music for each culture. Findings indicate that in four studies, musical choices were related to cultural background (p = .002 to .049). Although the majority in each group chose among the other types of music, Caucasians most frequently chose orchestra music, African Americans chose jazz, and Taiwanese chose harp music. For culturally congruent care, nurses should become aware of cultural differences in music preference and provide culturally specific selections among other music expected to have a therapeutic effect. PMID:11847812

  11. ac susceptibility of chosen chromium compounds with noncollinear spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczyk, S.; Gogołowicz, M.

    1993-11-01

    Results from the preliminary ac susceptibility χ ac( T) measurements at H( rms)=80 A/ m and ƒ=1 kHz on the chosen chromate Zn 1- xA xCr 2Se 4 with noncollinear spin structure for A=Cu and Ga {2}/{3} are presented. From the temperature position peak of the in-phase (real, χ') part of the complex susceptibility the transition temperatures from a magnetically ordered phase to a paramagnetic one have been determined. The out-of-phase (imaginary of absorptive, χ″) peak is discussed in terms of different spin-lattice relaxation processes causing a dissipation of energy. A proposal that in both the real and imaginary part of the ac susceptibility a significant role can be played by a skin size effect is also presented.

  12. Silicon Nanowire Growth at Chosen Positions and Orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    It is now possible to grow silicon nanowires at chosen positions and orientations by a method that involves a combination of standard microfabrication processes. Because their positions and orientations can be chosen with unprecedented precision, the nanowires can be utilized as integral parts of individually electronically addressable devices in dense arrays. Nanowires made from silicon and perhaps other semiconductors hold substantial promise for integration into highly miniaturized sensors, field-effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, and other electronic devices. Like bulk semiconductors, inorganic semiconducting nanowires are characterized by electronic energy bandgaps that render them suitable as means of modulating or controlling electronic signals through electrostatic gating, in response to incident light, or in response to molecules of interest close to their surfaces. There is now potential for fabricating arrays of uniform, individually electronically addressable nanowires tailored to specific applications. The method involves formation of metal catalytic particles at the desired positions on a substrate, followed by heating the substrate in the presence of silane gas. The figure illustrates an example in which a substrate includes a silicon dioxide surface layer that has been etched into an array of pillars and the catalytic (in this case, gold) particles have been placed on the right-facing sides of the pillars. The catalytic thermal decomposition of the silane to silicon and hydrogen causes silicon columns (the desired nanowires) to grow outward from the originally catalyzed spots on the substrate, carrying the catalytic particles at their tips. Thus, the position and orientation of each silicon nanowire is determined by the position of its originally catalyzed spot on the substrate surface, and the orientation of the nanowire is perpendicular to the substrate surface at the originally catalyzed spot.

  13. INTERVENTION AT THE FOOT-SHOE-PEDAL INTERFACE IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Vicenzino, Bill; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Competitive cyclists are susceptible to injury from the highly repetitive nature of pedaling during training and racing. Deviation from an optimal movement pattern is often cited as a factor contributing to tissue stress with specific concern for excessive frontal plane knee motion. Wedges and orthoses are increasingly used at the foot-shoe-pedal-interface (FSPI) in cycling shoes to alter the kinematics of the lower limb while cycling. Determination of the effect of FSPI alteration on cycling kinematics may offer a simple, inexpensive tool to reduce anterior knee pain in recreational and competitive cyclists. There have been a limited number of experimental studies examining the effect of this intervention in cyclists, and there is little agreement upon which FSPI interventions can prevent or treat knee injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a broader review of the literature than has been performed to date, and to critically examine the literature examining the evidence for FSPI intervention in competitive cyclists. Methods Current literature examining the kinematic response to intervention at the FSPI while cycling was reviewed. A multi-database search was performed in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus. Eleven articles were reviewed, and a risk of bias assessment performed according to guidelines developed by the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. Papers with a low risk of bias were selected for review, but two papers with higher risk of bias were included as there were few high quality studies available on this topic. Results Seven of the eleven papers had low bias in sequence generation i.e. random allocation to the test condition, only one paper had blinding to group allocation, all papers had detailed but non-standardized methodology, and incomplete data reporting, but were generally free of other bias sources. Conclusions Wedges and orthoses at the FSPI alter kinematics of the lower limb while cycling, although conclusions

  14. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae): analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Alex G.; Klinkhamer, Ada J.; Elliott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu) was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes. PMID:27547591

  15. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae): analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Cook, Alex G; Klinkhamer, Ada J; Elliott, David A

    2016-01-01

    The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu) was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes. PMID:27547591

  16. Quantitative reflection imaging of fixed Aplysia californica pedal ganglion neurons on nanostructured plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Le, An-Phong; Kang, Somi; Thompson, Lucas B; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rogers, John A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2013-10-24

    Studies of the interactions between cells and surrounding environment including cell culture surfaces and their responses to distinct chemical and physical cues are essential to understanding the regulation of cell growth, migration, and differentiation. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of a label-free optical imaging technique-surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-to quantitatively investigate the relative thickness of complex biomolecular structures using a nanoimprinted plasmonic crystal and laboratory microscope. Polyelectrolyte films of different thicknesses deposited by layer-by-layer assembly served as the model system to calibrate the reflection contrast response originating from SPRs. The calibrated SPR system allows quantitative analysis of the thicknesses of the interface formed between the cell culture substrate and cellular membrane regions of fixed Aplysia californica pedal ganglion neurons. Bandpass filters were used to isolate spectral regions of reflected light with distinctive image contrast changes. Combining of the data from images acquired using different bandpass filters leads to increase image contrast and sensitivity to topological differences in interface thicknesses. This SPR-based imaging technique is restricted in measurable thickness range (∼100-200 nm) due to the limited plasmonic sensing volume, but we complement this technique with an interferometric analysis method. Described here simple reflection imaging techniques show promise as quantitative methods for analyzing surface thicknesses at nanometer scale over large areas in real-time and in physicochemical diverse environments. PMID:23647567

  17. Effect of seat positions on discomfort, muscle activation, pressure distribution and pedal force during cycling.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rachita; Hansen, Ernst A; de Zee, Mark; Madeleine, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and analyse discomfort and biomechanics of cycling, i.e., muscle activation, centre of pressure of seat pressure profiles and pedal forces as a function of seat position. Twenty-one recreationally active individuals cycled for 10min at 100W on an ergometer cycle using five different seat positions. The neutral position was considered as basic seat position and was compared with upward, downward, forward and backward seat positions. The initial bout was repeated at the end of the recording session. Discomfort increased for upward and backward condition compared with neutral (P<0.05). Normalized surface electromyography from gastrocnemius decreased in the downward and forward position but increased in the upward and backward position. The minimum force became less negative for forward position compared with neutral seat position (P<0.05). The degree of variability of centre of pressure increased in the upward and backward position and the entropy of the centre of pressure of sitting posture for backward position decreased compared with neutral seat position (P<0.05). The present study revealed that consecutive changes of seat position over time lead to increase in discomfort as well as alterations of the biomechanics of cycling. PMID:26938676

  18. Assessment of arterial stiffness from pedal artery Korotkoff sound recordings: feasibility and potential utility.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Muhammad; Nunez, Arismendy; Liu, Yang; Ahmed, Faraz; Patel, Harsh; Sharma, Navneet; Diaz, Marco; Stewart, Mark; Naggar, Isaac; Salciccioli, Louis; Lazar, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Brachial artery (BA) Korotkoff sound (KS) timing reflects arterial stiffness. We recorded pedal artery (PA) KS in 68 healthy subjects using an electronic stethoscope and electrocardiography. Intervals between QRS complex of the electrocardiogram and KS waveform peaks (termed the QKD interval) were measured for 60 seconds, averaged, and QKD velocity (v) calculated. Carotid-BA and carotid-PA pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured by applanation tonometry. Analyzable KS recordings were obtained from BA and PA in 100% and 92% subjects. PA QKDv decreased less than BA QKDv with progressive cuff inflation. At diastolic blood pressure + 20 mm Hg (maximal yield), BA QKDv was independently associated with weight and pulse pressure, whereas PA QKDv was related to weight and age. PA QKDv correlated with its corresponding PWV stronger than BA QKDv. In conclusion, PA KS is optimally recorded at diastolic blood pressure + 20 mm Hg; PA QKDv is correlated with age and better correlates with PWV than does BA QKDv. This technique may provide a simple arterial stiffness measure. PMID:26672909

  19. A Review of Cyanoacrylate Liquid Skin Protectant and Its Efficacy on Pedal Fissures

    PubMed Central

    Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Hinton, Elizabeth A.; Chakravarthy, Debashish; Fleck, Cynthia Ann

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Skin fissures are a common dermatologic condition caused by excessive dry skin, numerous systemic diseases, and backless shoe gear. They are defects in skin that fall into the category of damaged, partial-thickness skin wounds, as opposed to full-thickness wounds. Patients with heel fissures are at an increased risk for developing infection, which could cause more severe issues, especially in patients with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. Methods Five patients from Temple Foot and Ankle Institute, Philadelphia, PA, with a total of 8 heel fissures and 2 hallux fissures, were studied. Patients were dispensed 9 vials of a cyanoacrylate liquid skin protectant (Marathon™, Medline Industries, Inc, Mundelein, IL) to be applied to the fissure every 3 days. Patients returned every 2 weeks for follow-up in clinic. Results The hallux fissures and 4 of the heel fissures went to complete closure after 2 weeks. There was an average decrease of 1.16 cm in length of the heel fissure dimensions after 2 weeks and an average decrease of 1.1 cm in length of the hallux fissures. Conclusion This novel skin protectant proved to be a comfortable, easy, and effective tool in aiding the resolution of pedal skin fissures. PMID:24527155

  20. Diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients using current scintigraphic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, A.M.; Tindel, N.L.; Alavi, A. )

    1989-10-01

    Seventy-seven diabetic patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the foot were evaluated by three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS), indium 111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS), roentgenography, or some combination thereof. Retrospective analysis after clinical and pathologic follow-up indicated that the sensitivity of TPBS alone in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis was 100%, with a specificity of only 38% and an accuracy of 63%; the sensitivity of WBCS alone was 100%, with a specificity of 78% and an accuracy of 87%; and the combination of TPBS and WBCS yielded a sensitivity of 100%, with a specificity of 79% and an accuracy of 87%. Roentgenography yielded a sensitivity of 69%, with a specificity of 82% and an accuracy of 76%. The results of this study demonstrate that WBCS is superior to TPBS in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot, and TPBS adds little when viewed in conjunction with WBCS. Based on our observations and because of the high prevalence of neuropathic joint disease and other causes of false-positive bone scans, we believe that WBCS alone is adequate for evaluation of suspected pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients, particularly when the suspected lesion is located in the tarsometatarsal region in contrast to the toe region (7% vs 44% specificity and 28% vs 69% accuracy, respectively, for TPBS in these two regions, compared with 100% vs 68% specificity and 100% vs 80% accuracy, respectively, for WBCS in the same two regions).

  1. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  2. Use of MR imaging in diagnosing diabetes-related pedal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Andrea; Schweitzer, Mark E

    2010-05-01

    The clinical diagnosis of diabetes-related osteomyelitis relies on the identification and characterization of an associated foot ulcer, a method that is often unreliable. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for imaging evaluation of pedal osteomyelitis. Because MR imaging allows the extent of osseous and soft-tissue infection to be mapped preoperatively, its use may limit the extent of resection. At MR imaging, the simplest method to determine whether osteomyelitis is present is to follow the path of an ulcer or sinus tract to the bone and evaluate the signal intensity of the bone marrow. Combined findings of low signal intensity in marrow on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity in marrow on T2-weighted images, and marrow enhancement after the administration of contrast material are indicative of osteomyelitis. Secondary signs of osteomyelitis include periosteal reaction, a subtending skin ulcer, sinus tract, cellulitis, abscess, and a foreign body. The location of a marrow abnormality is a key distinguishing feature of osteomyelitis: Whereas neuroarthropathy most commonly affects the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints, osteomyelitis occurs distal to the tarsometatarsal joint, in the calcaneus and malleoli. In the midfoot, secondary signs of infection help differentiate between neuroarthropathy and a superimposed infection. PMID:20462990

  3. Analyses of scattering characteristics of chosen anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszczuk, Miroslawa; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Muzal, Michal

    2008-10-01

    In the work, analyses of scattering profile of chosen anthropogenic aerosols for two wavelengths (λ1 = 1064 nm and λ2 = 532 nm) were made. As an example of anthropogenic aerosol three different pyrotechnic mixtures (DM11, M2, M16) were taken. Main parameters of smoke particles were firstly analyzed and well described, taking particle shape and size into special consideration. Shape of particles was analyzed on the basis of SEM pictures, and particle size was measured. Participation of particles in each fixed fraction characterized by range of sizes was analyzed and parameters of smoke particles of characteristic sizes and function describing aerosol size distribution (ASD) were determinated. Analyses of scattering profiles were carried out on the basis of both model of scattering on spherical and nonspherical particles. In the case of spherical particles Rayleigh-Mie model was used and for nonspherical particles analyses firstly model of spheroids was used, and then Rayleigh-Mie one. For each characteristic particle one calculated value of four parameters (effective scattering cross section σSCA, effective backscattering cross section σBSCA, scattering efficiency QSCA, backscattering efficiency QBSCA) and value of backscattering coefficient β for whole particles population. Obtained results were compared with the same parameters calculated for natural aerosol (cirrus cloud).

  4. A kinematic comparison of alterations to knee and ankle angles from resting measures to active pedaling during a graded exercise protocol.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Willard W; Shew, Brandy; Johnson, Samantha; Palmer, Thomas G

    2012-11-01

    Saddle height is one of the most researched areas of bike fit. The current accepted method for adjusting saddle height involves the use of a goniometer to adjust saddle height so that a knee angle between 25° and 35° is obtained. This measurement is taken while the cyclist maintains a static position with the pedal at the 6-o'-clock position. However, the act of pedaling is dynamic, and angles may alter during movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the alterations to knee and ankle angle occurring from static measures to active pedaling across intensities experienced by cyclists during a graded exercise protocol. Thirty-four recreational to highly trained cyclists were evaluated using 2D analysis of stationary position and 3 active levels (level 1, respiratory exchange ratio of 1.00, and max). Dependent measures were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.05). When examining the results, it is evident that significant alterations to pedal stroke occur from stationary measures to active pedaling and as intensity increases toward maximal. Plantar flexion increased when moving from stationary measures to active pedaling, which resulted in an increase in knee angle. Although still greater than stationary measures, less plantar flexion occurred at higher intensities when compared with lower intensity cycling. Less plantar flexion at higher intensities is most likely a result of application of a larger downward torque occurring because of greater power requirements at higher intensities. There appeared to be greater variability in angle when examining novice cyclists in relation to more experienced cyclists. Although stationary measures are where a bike fit session will begin, observation during the pedal cycle may be needed to fine-tune the riders' fit. PMID:22158094

  5. Comparing the Effects of Active and Passive Intradialytic Pedaling Exercises on Dialysis Efficacy, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Soleimani, Alireza; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Baseri, Alimohammad; Savari, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of exercise during hemodialysis has been a controversial issue, however, there are just few studies about the effect of active exercise during hemodialysis. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of passive and active intradialytic pedaling exercises on dialysis efficacy, electrolytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood pressure and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 16 hemodialysis patients in Akhavan hemodialysis center in Kashan from April to November 2013. Active or passive intradialytic pedaling exercise was performed using a Mini-Bike for 30 minutes during the first two hours of the dialysis sessions. The quality of life (QOL) was assessed before and after the intervention. Blood pressure was examined at the beginning and then hourly during the dialysis sessions. Dialysis efficacy, levels of phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured at the end of the intervention. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t test, Wilcoxon signed rank and Friedman tests and repeated measure analysis of variancewere used to analyze the data. Results: No significant changes were observed in serum potassium, phosphorus and calcium levels at the end of the passive exercise program compared to the baseline. However, phosphorus levels were significantly decreased in the active exercise program (P < 0.05). Moreover, the mean diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after the passive exercise (P = 0.039). Passive exercise did not significantly change the dialysis efficacy, urea reduction rate, hemoglobin and calcium levels. The mean overall QOL was 63.78 ± 21.15 at the beginning of the study, which was increased to 77.07 ± 21.14 at the end of eight weeks of the intradialytic exercise (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The passive intradialytic exercise had a positive effect on blood pressure. The active exercise could decrease

  6. The Effects of Wearing High Heels while Pressing a Car Accelerator Pedal on Lower Extremity Muscle Activation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaemin; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of wearing high heels while driving on lower extremity muscle activation. [Subjects] The subjects of this experimental study were 14 healthy women in their 20s who normally wear shoes with high heels. [Methods] The subjects were asked to place their shoes on an accelerator pedal with the heel touching the floor and then asked to press the pedal with as much pressure as possible for 3 seconds before removing their feet from the pedal. A total of 3 measurements were taken for each heel height (flat, 5 cm, 7 cm), and the heel height was randomly selected. [Results] The levels of muscle activity, indicated as the percentage of reference voluntary contraction, for gastrocnemius muscle in the flat, 5 cm, and 7 cm shoes were 180.8±61.8%, 285.4±122.3%, and 366.2±193.7%, respectively, and there were significant differences between groups. Those for the soleus muscle were 477.3±209.2%, 718.8±380.5%, and 882.4±509.9%, and there were significant differences between groups. [Conclusion] To summarize the results of this study, it was found that female drivers require greater lower extremity muscle activation when wearing high heels than when wearing low heels. Furthermore, instability and muscle fatigue of the ankle joint, which results from wearing high heels on a daily basis, could also occur while driving. PMID:25435684

  7. The necessity of physiological muscle parameters for computing the muscle forces: application to lower extremity loading during pedalling.

    PubMed

    Cadová, Michala; Vilímek, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how the use of physiological parameters of muscles is important. This work is focused on musculoskeletal loading analysis during pedalling adopting two approaches: without (1) and with (2) the use of physiological parameters of muscles. The static-optimization approach together with the inverse dynamics problem makes it possible to obtain forces in individual muscles of the lower extremity. Input kinematics variables were examined in a cycling experiment. The significant difference in the resultant forces in one-joint and two-joint muscles using the two different approaches was observed. PMID:20131752

  8. Composted municipal waste effect on chosen properties of calcareous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidpour, M.; Afyuni, M.; Khadivi, E.; Zorpas, A.; Inglezakis, V.

    2012-10-01

    A 3-year field study was conducted to assess effects of composted municipal waste on some properties, distribution of Zn, Cu in a calcareous soil and uptake of these metals by wheat. The treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of municipal solidwastewhichwas applied in three consecutive years. The application of composted municipal waste increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the aggregate stability,the organic carbon content and electrical conductivity, whereas it slightly decreased the soil pH and bulk density. A significant increase in the concentration of Zn and Cu were observed with increasing number and rate of compost application. The distribution of Zn and Cu between the different fractions in untreated and treated soils showed that the majority of Zn and Cu were in the residual form. Finally, the levels of Zn and Cu were higher in grains of wheat grown in composttreated plots compared to that grown in the control plots.

  9. Integrated inertial sensors and mobile computing for real-time cycling performance guidance via pedaling profile classification.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Nan, Xiaomeng; Ebken, Victor; Wang, Yan; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2015-03-01

    Today, the bicycle is utilized as a daily commute tool, a physical rehabilitation asset, and sporting equipment, prompting studies into the biomechanics of cycling. Of the number of important parameters that affect cycling efficiency, the foot angle profile is one of the most important as it correlates directly with the effective force applied to the bike. However, there has been no compact and portable solution for measuring the foot angle and for providing the cyclist with real-time feedback due to a number of difficulties of the current tracking and sensing technologies and the myriad types of bikes available. This paper presents a novel sensing and mobile computing system for classifying the foot angle profiles during cycling and for providing real-time guidance to the user to achieve the correct profile. Continuous foot angle tracking is firstly converted into a discrete problem requiring only recognition of acceleration profiles of the foot using a single shoe mounted tri-axial accelerometer during each pedaling cycle. A classification method is then applied to identify the pedaling profile. Finally, a mobile solution is presented to provide real-time signal processing and guidance. PMID:24833607

  10. Tailored Therapy Versus Empiric Chosen Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Dang, Yini; Zhou, Xiaoying; Liu, Bingtuan; Liu, Shiyu; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-02-01

    Although various regimens are empirically accepted for Helicobacter pylori eradication, the efficacy might be declined by multiple individual factors. The necessity of a personalized eradication therapy still remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare tailored therapy with empiric chosen regimens. Databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, and MEDLINE were searched for eligible studies, published up to October 2015. All relevant controlled clinical trials were included. A random-effect model was applied to compare pooled relative risk (RR) with related 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Thirteen controlled clinical trials integrating 3512 participants were assessed. Overall, the pooled eradication rates of tailored groups were higher than those of empiric ones (intention-to-treat: RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.10-1.22; preprotocol: RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.08-1.21). In subgroup analysis, tailored therapy was superior to 7-day standard triple therapy (RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.16-1.29) and bismuth-quadruple therapy (RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22) on eradication rates; first-line tailored therapy achieved higher eradication rates than first-line empirical regimens (pooled RR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.14-1.22), whereas tailored rescue regimen showed no difference with empirical ones (pooled RR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.39). Moreover, among different tailored designs, susceptibility-guided tailored therapy obtained higher eradication rates than empiric groups, independent of CYP2C19 genotype detection (with CYP: RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23; without CYP: RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Both molecular test-based and culture-based tailored groups were better on eradication rates than empiric groups (molecular: RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.35; culture: RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20). Compared with empiric chosen treatments, tailored therapy is a better alternative for H pylori eradication. PMID:26886617

  11. Chosen-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Vargas, Carlos; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate that optical encryption methods based on the joint transform correlator architecture are vulnerable to chosen-plaintext attack. An unauthorized user, who introduces three chosen plaintexts in the accessible encryption machine, can obtain the security key code mask. In this contribution, we also propose an alternative method to eliminate ambiguities that allows obtaining the right decrypting key.

  12. Method for producing solid or hollow spherical particles of chosen chemical composition and of uniform size

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is provided for producing commercially large quantities of high melting temperature solid or hollow spherical particles of a predetermined chemical composition and having a uniform and controlled size distribution. An end (18, 50, 90) of a solid or hollow rod (20, 48, 88) of the material is rendered molten by a laser beam (14, 44, 82). Because of this, there is no possibility of the molten rod material becoming contaminated with extraneous material. In various aspects of the invention, an electric field is applied to the molten rod end (18, 90), and/or the molten rod end (50, 90) is vibrated. In a further aspect of the invention, a high-frequency component is added to the electric field applied to the molten end of the rod (90). By controlling the internal pressure of the rod, the rate at which the rod is introduced into the laser beam, the environment of the process, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the molten rod end, the electric field intensity applied to the molten rod end, and the frequency and intensity of the component added to the electric field, the uniformity and size distribution of the solid or hollow spherical particles (122) produced by the inventive method is controlled. The polarity of the electric field applied to the molten rod end can be chosen to eliminate backstreaming electrons, which tend to produce run-away heating in the rod, from the process.

  13. Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Gráinne L; Curran, H Valerie

    2010-08-01

    Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of cannabis in humans. A total of 94 cannabis users were tested 7 days apart, once while non-intoxicated and once while acutely under the influence of their own chosen smoked cannabis on dependence-related measures. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of cannabis (as well as saliva) was collected from each user and analyzed for levels of cannabinoids. On the basis of CBD : THC ratios in the cannabis, individuals from the top and bottom tertiles were directly compared on indices of the reinforcing effects of drugs, explicit liking, and implicit attentional bias to drug stimuli. When intoxicated, smokers of high CBD : THC strains showed reduced attentional bias to drug and food stimuli compared with smokers of low CBD : THC. Those smoking higher CBD : THC strains also showed lower self-rated liking of cannabis stimuli on both test days. Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders. PMID:20428110

  14. The locomotion of marine and terrestrial gastropods: can the acceleration of the ventral pedal waves contribute to the generation of net propulsive forces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodroguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lai, Janice; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2008-11-01

    Marine and terrestrial gastropods move by gliding over a ventral foot that is lubricated by secreted mucus (terrestrial) or simply by water (marine). The rim of the ventral foot generates suction forces that keep the animal adhered to the substrate. The central part of the foot produces a net propulsive force by generating trains of pedal waves through periodic muscle contractions. Recent experiments show that, in some gastropods, these pedal waves become faster and longer as they move forward, suggesting a mechanism for the generation of net propulsive forces by building a pressure difference across consecutive waves. We have investigated the efficiency of this mechanism through a theoretical analysis of a two-dimensional lubrication layer between a train of waves of slowly varying length and speed, and a flat, rigid, impermeable surface. The inhomogeneity of the speed and length of the pedal waves has been modeled through multiple-scale asymptotics. We have considered a Newtonian fluid to separate the effect of this inhomogeneity from the viscoelastic propulsion reported in previous works.

  15. Investigating pianists' individuality in the performance of five timbral nuances through patterns of articulation, touch, dynamics, and pedaling

    PubMed Central

    Bernays, Michel; Traube, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Timbre is an essential expressive feature in piano performance. Concert pianists use a vast palette of timbral nuances to color their performances at the microstructural level. Although timbre is generally envisioned in the pianistic community as an abstract concept carried through an imaged vocabulary, performers may share some common strategies of timbral expression in piano performance. Yet there may remain further leeway for idiosyncratic processes in the production of piano timbre nuances. In this study, we examined the patterns of timbral expression in performances by four expert pianists. Each pianist performed four short pieces, each with five different timbral intentions (bright, dark, dry, round, and velvety). The performances were recorded with the high-accuracy Bösendorfer CEUS system. Fine-grained performance features of dynamics, touch, articulation and pedaling were extracted. Reduced PCA performance spaces and descriptive performance portraits confirmed that pianists exhibited unique, specific profiles for different timbral intentions, derived from underlying traits of general individuality, while sharing some broad commonalities of dynamics and articulation for each timbral intention. These results confirm that pianists' abstract notions of timbre correspond to reliable patterns of performance technique. Furthermore, these effects suggest that pianists can express individual styles while complying with specific timbral intentions. PMID:24624099

  16. Investigating pianists' individuality in the performance of five timbral nuances through patterns of articulation, touch, dynamics, and pedaling.

    PubMed

    Bernays, Michel; Traube, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Timbre is an essential expressive feature in piano performance. Concert pianists use a vast palette of timbral nuances to color their performances at the microstructural level. Although timbre is generally envisioned in the pianistic community as an abstract concept carried through an imaged vocabulary, performers may share some common strategies of timbral expression in piano performance. Yet there may remain further leeway for idiosyncratic processes in the production of piano timbre nuances. In this study, we examined the patterns of timbral expression in performances by four expert pianists. Each pianist performed four short pieces, each with five different timbral intentions (bright, dark, dry, round, and velvety). The performances were recorded with the high-accuracy Bösendorfer CEUS system. Fine-grained performance features of dynamics, touch, articulation and pedaling were extracted. Reduced PCA performance spaces and descriptive performance portraits confirmed that pianists exhibited unique, specific profiles for different timbral intentions, derived from underlying traits of general individuality, while sharing some broad commonalities of dynamics and articulation for each timbral intention. These results confirm that pianists' abstract notions of timbre correspond to reliable patterns of performance technique. Furthermore, these effects suggest that pianists can express individual styles while complying with specific timbral intentions. PMID:24624099

  17. A Fast and Key-Efficient Reduction of Chosen-Ciphertext to Known-Plaintext Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Ueli; Sjödin, Johan

    Motivated by the quest for reducing assumptions in security proofs in cryptography, this paper is concerned with designing efficient symmetric encryption and authentication schemes based on any weak pseudorandom function (PRF) which can be much more efficiently implemented than PRFs. Damgård and Nielsen (CRYPTO '02) have shown how to construct an efficient symmetric encryption scheme based on any weak PRF that is provably secure against chosen-plaintext attacks. The main ingredient is a range-extension construction for weak PRFs. By using well-known techniques, they also showed how their scheme can be made secure against the stronger chosen-ciphertext attacks.

  18. A dynamic open framework exhibiting guest- and/or temperature-induced bicycle-pedal motion in single-crystal to single-crystal transformation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manish K; Bharadwaj, Parimal K

    2011-03-01

    A ligand bis(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)diazene (azim) incorporating an azo moiety at the center and two imidazole groups at the terminals forms two coordination polymers {[Co(azim)(2)(DMF)(2)]·(ClO(4))(2)·2DMF}(n) (1) and {[Cd(azim)(2)(DMF)(2)]·(ClO(4))(2)·2DMF}(n) (2) (DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide) at room temperature. Both 1 and 2 are isostructural with rhombic two-dimensional sheets stacking in ABAB... fashion resulting in large voids that contain DMF and ClO(4)¯ as guests. In 1, the azo groups and phenyl rings are disordered over two positions and as in usual cases, the pedal motion cannot be discerned. Upon heating, 1 turns amorphous. In the case of 2, however, heat treatment does not lead to loss of crystallinity. Thus, when a crystal of 2 (mother crystal) is heated slowly, it causes substantial movement or escape of both metal-bound and lattice DMF besides movement of ClO(4)¯ anions to give daughter crystals 2a, 2b, and 2c without losing crystallinity (single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) transformation). Most interestingly, the X-ray structures of 2 and its daughter products reveal stepwise reversible bicycle-pedal or crankshaft motion of the azo group. When a crystal of 2c is kept in DMF for 10 h, crystal 2' is formed whose structure is similar to that of 2 with slight changes in the bond distances and angles. Also, crystals of 2 are converted to 3 and 4 upon being kept in acetone or DEF (DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), respectively, for 10 h at ambient temperature in SC-SC transformation. In 3, each lattice DMF molecule is replaced by an acetone molecule, leaving the two coordinated DMF molecules intact. However, in 4, all lattice and coordinated DMF molecules are replaced by equal number of DEF molecules. Both in 3 and 4, the azo moieties show bicycle-pedal motion. Thus, bicycle-pedal motion that normally cannot be observed is shown here to be triggered by heat as well as guest molecules in SC-SC fashion. PMID:21254778

  19. Student Self-Efficacy in a Chosen Business Career Path: The Influence of Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Joseph T.; Czyzewski, Alan; Sherwood, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    An important dimension of university students' academic success is retention in their chosen major. When students do switch majors or interrupt their education, it is largely due to their lack of confidence about doing well academically, as well as perceived chances of success in the career area related to university major. A term often used for…

  20. Chosen-Prefix Collisions for MD5 and Colliding X.509 Certificates for Different Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Marc; Lenstra, Arjen; de Weger, Benne

    We present a novel, automated way to find differential paths for MD5. As an application we have shown how, at an approximate expected cost of 250 calls to the MD5 compression function, for any two chosen message prefixes P and P', suffixes S and S' can be constructed such that the concatenated values P||S and P'||S' collide under MD5. Although the practical attack potential of this construction of chosen-prefix collisions is limited, it is of greater concern than random collisions for MD5. To illustrate the practicality of our method, we constructed two MD5 based X.509 certificates with identical signatures but different public keys and different Distinguished Name fields, whereas our previous construction of colliding X.509 certificates required identical name fields. We speculate on other possibilities for abusing chosen-prefix collisions. More details than can be included here can be found on www.win.tue.nl/hashclash/ChosenPrefixCollisions/.

  1. 25 CFR 170.164 - How are tribal representatives nominated and chosen for the selection committee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the selection committee? 170.164 Section 170.164 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... chosen for the selection committee? In its written notice to tribal governments announcing opportunities... representatives to serve on the selection committee. Forty-five days after receiving the request for...

  2. On the security of gyrator transform-based image encryption by chosen-plaintext attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.; Cai, Bin

    2016-04-01

    For the gyrator transform-based image encryption, besides the random operations, the rotation angles used in the gyrator transforms are also taken as the secret keys, which makes such cryptosystems to be more secure. To analyze the security of such cryptosystems, one may start from analyzing the security of a single gyrator transform. In this paper, the security of the gyrator transform-based image encryption by chosen-plaintext attack was discussed in theory. By using the impulse functions as the chosen-plaintext, it was concluded that: (1) For a single gyrator transform, by choosing a plaintext, the rotation angle can be obtained very easily and efficiently; (2) For image encryption with a single random phase encoding and a single gyrator transform, it is hard to find the rotation angle directly with a chosen-plaintext attack. However, assuming the value of one of the elements in the random phase mask is known, the rotation angle can be obtained very easily with a chosen-plaintext attack, and the random phase mask can also be recovered. Furthermore, by exhaustively searching the value of one of the elements in the random phase mask, the rotation angle as well as the random phase mask may be recovered. By obtaining the relationship between the rotation angle and the random phase mask for image encryption with a single random phase encoding and a single gyrator transform, it may be useful for further study on the security of the iterative random operations in the gyrator transform domains.

  3. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  4. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  5. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  6. A method to determine the kinematics of the lower limbs of a subject pedaling a bicycle using encoders and accelerometers. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shih-Ching

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine kinematic parameters of the lower limbs of a subject pedaling a bicycle. An existing measurement system was used as the basis to develop the model to determine position and acceleration of the limbs. The system consists of an ergometer instrumented to provide position of the pedal (foot), accelerometers to be attached to the lower limbs to measure accelerations, a recorder used for filtering, and a computer instrumented with an A/D board and a decoder board. The system is designed to read and record data from accelerometers and encoders. Software has been developed for data collection, analysis and presentation. Based on the measurement system, a two dimensional analytical model has been developed to determine configuration (position, orientation) and kinematics (velocities, accelerations). The model has been implemented in software and verified by simulation. An error analysis to determine the system's accuracy shows that the expected error is well within the specifications of practical applications. When the physical hardware is completed, NASA researchers hope to use the system developed to determine forces exerted by muscles and forces at articulations. This data will be useful in the development of countermeasures to minimize bone loss experienced by astronauts in microgravity conditions.

  7. MNDO barrier heights for catalyzed bicycle-pedal, hula-twist, and ordinary cis-trans isomerizations of protonated retinal Schiff base

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, S.

    1987-03-18

    Energy barriers to dark cis-trans isomerization in a protonated retinal Schiff base model in the presence and absence of electrostatic and nucleophilic catalysts have been calculated by the MNDO method. Three general processes - ordinary double bond isomerization, concerted isomerization about two double bonds by bicycle-pedal motion, and one-step double bond and adjacent single bond isomerization by hula-twist motion - are considered. Point negative charges or negatively charged nucleophiles near the protonated nitrogen substantially increase the barrier to cis-trans isomerization over what they would be in the absence of these agents. Negative charge or a nucleophile near C13 lowers the barrier to bicycle-pedal isomerization. Dark isomerization by a hula-twist motion required greater energy and is not substantially aided by the placement of a negative charge or nucleophile near any of the skeletal atoms in the isomerizing system. The importance of this to the mechanism of dark-light adaptation of bacteriorhodopsin is discussed.

  8. Vulnerability to chosen-plaintext attack of optoelectronic information encryption with phase-shifting interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wan; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2011-06-01

    The optical cryptosystem based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) is one of the most interesting optical cryptographic schemes in recent years. However, we find that the PSI technique provides an attractive method to record the ciphertext, but contributes little to the security level of the cryptosystem. From the cryptanalysis point of view, in a certain simplified case, an attacker is only required to crack two equivalent decryption keys instead of the original random phase keys and geometric key. Moreover, a chosen-plaintext attack method is proposed, in which an impulse function is chosen as a known plaintext. By using this attack, the attacker can effectively recover any plaintext from the corresponding ciphertext. The validity of the attack is verified by computer simulations.

  9. Vulnerability to chosen-cyphertext attacks of optical encryption schemes based on double random phase keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnicer, Arturo; Montes-Usategui, Mario; Arcos, Sergio; Juvells, Ignacio

    2005-07-01

    We show how optical encryption methods based on double random phase keys are vulnerable to an organized attack of the chosen-ciphertext type. The decryption key can be easily obtained by an opponent who has repeated access to either the encryption or decryption machines. However, we have also devised a solution that prevents the attack. Our results cast doubts on the present security of these techniques.

  10. Given and chosen: youth-led research on family-supported conversations about sexuality.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Nikki; Martin, Paula; Messinger, Joy

    2015-01-01

    The Youth Leadership Council supported by the Illinois Caucus for Adolescent Health completed a Community-Based Participatory Research study to assess the perceived barriers and benefits to conversations about sex and sexuality between youth and their given and chosen families. This mixed-methods research project defines given families as the family youths are born into or live at home with, and chosen families as those youths choose to surround themselves with such as friends or mentors. The Youth Leadership Council found that youths discuss sex and sexuality with both given and chosen families, but a majority felt that they received only "somewhat accurate" information. This project builds on current and past research by allowing youths to disclose their gender identity and sexual orientation, which showed a clear need for more education around asexual identities especially within given family settings. As a Community Based Participatory Research study, pragmatic next steps based on the finding are included for practitioners and researchers who work in the area of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. PMID:25423251

  11. Neural networks type MLP in the process of identification chosen varieties of maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R.

    2011-06-01

    During the adaptation process of the weights vector that occurs in the iterative presentation of the teaching vector, the the MLP type artificial neural network (MultiLayer Perceptron) attempts to learn the structure of the data. Such a network can learn to recognise aggregates of input data occurring in the input data set regardless of the assumed criteria of similarity and the quantity of the data explored. The MLP type neural network can be also used to detect regularities occurring in the obtained graphic empirical data. The neuronal image analysis is then a new field of digital processing of signals. It is possible to use it to identify chosen objects given in the form of bitmap. If at the network input, a new unknown case appears which the network is unable to recognise, it means that it is different from all the classes known previously. The MLP type artificial neural network taught in this way can serve as a detector signalling the appearance of a widely understood novelty. Such a network can also look for similarities between the known data and the noisy data. In this way, it is able to identify fragments of images presented in photographs of e.g. maze's grain. The purpose of the research was to use the MLP neural networks in the process of identification of chosen varieties of maize with the use of image analysis method. The neuronal classification shapes of grains was performed with the use of the Johan Gielis super formula.

  12. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only. PMID:27454867

  13. Canonical Naimark extension for generalized measurements involving sets of Pauli quantum observables chosen at random

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparaciari, Carlo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We address measurement schemes where certain observables Xk are chosen at random within a set of nondegenerate isospectral observables and then measured on repeated preparations of a physical system. Each observable has a probability zk to be measured, with ∑kzk=1, and the statistics of this generalized measurement is described by a positive operator-valued measure. This kind of scheme is referred to as quantum roulettes, since each observable Xk is chosen at random, e.g., according to the fluctuating value of an external parameter. Here we focus on quantum roulettes for qubits involving the measurements of Pauli matrices, and we explicitly evaluate their canonical Naimark extensions, i.e., their implementation as indirect measurements involving an interaction scheme with a probe system. We thus provide a concrete model to realize the roulette without destroying the signal state, which can be measured again after the measurement or can be transmitted. Finally, we apply our results to the description of Stern-Gerlach-like experiments on a two-level system.

  14. What is chosen first, the hand used for reaching or the target that is reached?

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Rosenbaum, David A

    2014-02-01

    Models of information processing generally assume that stimuli are processed before actions are selected, at least in typical laboratory experiments where stimuli are presented and responses follow. In everyday life, however, there are generally fewer constraints on the ordering of decisions pertaining to stimuli and actions. This raises the question of which sorts of decisions normally precede which others. To address this question, we asked participants to aim for either of two targets with either hand on the basis of whichever combination seemed easiest. We analyzed the choices made in this free condition with choices made when the hand was specified or when the target was specified. We found that a model assuming similar selection processes in the hand-specified condition and the free condition provided the best account for the data. The data accord with the hypothesis that hand was generally chosen first in the free-choice condition. PMID:23918627

  15. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  16. Caught between intending and doing: older people ideating on a self-chosen death

    PubMed Central

    van Wijngaarden, Els; Leget, Carlo; Goossensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to provide insight into what it means to live with the intention to end life at a self-chosen moment from an insider perspective. Setting Participants who lived independent or semidependent throughout the Netherlands. Participants 25 Dutch older citizens (mean age of 82 years) participated. They were ideating on a self-chosen death because they considered their lives to be no longer worth living. Inclusion criteria were that they: (1) considered their lives to be ‘completed’; (2) suffered from the prospect of living on; (3) currently wished to die; (4) were 70 years of age or older; (5) were not terminally ill; (6) considered themselves to be mentally competent; (7) considered their death wish reasonable. Design In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were carried out in the participants’ everyday home environment (median lasting 1.56 h). Verbatim transcripts were analysed based on the principles of phenomenological thematic analysis. Results The liminality or ‘in-betweenness’ of intending and actually performing self-directed death (or not) is characterised as a constant feeling of being torn explicated by the following pairs of themes: (1) detachment and attachment; (2) rational and non-rational considerations; (3) taking control and lingering uncertainty; (4) resisting interference and longing for support; (5) legitimacy and illegitimacy. Conclusions Our findings show that the in-between period emerges as a considerable, existential challenge with both rational and non-rational concerns and thoughts, rather than a calculative, coherent sum of rational considerations. Our study highlights the need to take due consideration of all ambiguities and ambivalences present after a putatively rational decision has been made in order to develop careful policy and support for this particular group of older people. PMID:26781505

  17. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81–96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103–11). A total of 272 families with an 11–12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  18. Student-Chosen Criteria for Peer Assessment of Tertiary Rock Groups in Rehearsal and Performance: What's Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana; Encarnacao, John

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates criteria chosen by music students for peer and self assessment of both the rehearsal process and performance outcome of their rock groups. The student-chosen criteria and their explanations of these criteria were analysed in relation to Birkett's skills taxonomy of "soft" and "hard" skills. In the rehearsal process, students…

  19. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? (a) To receive approval of a State..., membership, authority, and duty requirements of this part. (For the AAE, a State must demonstrate why it...

  20. ToF-SIMS and SEM-EDS analysis of the surface of chosen bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkowska, M. I.; Pawlaczyk, A.; Rogowski, J.

    2008-12-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and scanning electron microscopy with field emission equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) were applied in order to investigate the surface of chosen biological indicators such as bark, needles and hair. All samples were collected from the urban areas of the Lodz city region, recognized as one of the most polluted in Poland. The high resolution of the applied techniques provides good separation of signals from different chemical species. High detection sensitivity enables an analysis of crucial elements and/or molecules. It was found that the surface of the materials studied was in general covered by many exogenous particles, suggesting, from the monitoring purpose point of view, their possible anthropogenic origin. The preliminary results obtained revealed that these techniques can be successfully used in environmental analysis of various biological samples and can provide detailed information about distribution and composition of airborne pollutants within the sample surfaces studied as well as initiate a renewed interest in the exposure study.

  1. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  2. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  3. Randomly chosen chaotic maps can give rise to nearly ordered behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarsky, Abraham; Góra, Paweł; Islam, Md. Shafiqul

    2005-10-01

    Parrondo’s paradox [J.M.R. Parrondo, G.P. Harmer, D. Abbott, New paradoxical games based on Brownian ratchets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000), 5226-5229] (see also [O.E. Percus, J.K. Percus, Can two wrongs make a right? Coin-tossing games and Parrondo’s paradox, Math. Intelligencer 24 (3) (2002) 68-72]) states that two losing gambling games when combined one after the other (either deterministically or randomly) can result in a winning game: that is, a losing game followed by a losing game = a winning game. Inspired by this paradox, a recent study [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] asked an analogous question in discrete time dynamical system: can two chaotic systems give rise to order, namely can they be combined into another dynamical system which does not behave chaotically? Numerical evidence is provided in [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] that two chaotic quadratic maps, when composed with each other, create a new dynamical system which has a stable period orbit. The question of what happens in the case of random composition of maps is posed in [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] but left unanswered. In this note we present an example of a dynamical system where, at each iteration, a map is chosen in a probabilistic manner from a collection of chaotic maps. The resulting random map is proved to have an infinite absolutely continuous invariant measure (acim) with spikes at two points. From this we show that the dynamics behaves in a nearly ordered manner. When the foregoing maps are applied one after the other, deterministically as in [O.E. Percus, J.K. Percus, Can two wrongs make a right? Coin-tossing games and Parrondo’s paradox, Math. Intelligencer 24 (3) (2002) 68-72], the resulting composed map has a periodic orbit

  4. An evaluation of the Exer-Genie exerciser and the Collins pedal mode ergometer for developing physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments that were conducted over a 52-month period showed that isometric and isotonic training on the Exer-Genie gave negligible increases in cardiorespiratory fitness whereas training on the ergometer at a programmed pulse rate increased fitness moderately.

  5. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  6. Don’t Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even “mere choice” that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132

  7. 20 CFR 218.7 - When chosen annuity beginning date is more than three months after filing date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... than three months after filing date. 218.7 Section 218.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD....7 When chosen annuity beginning date is more than three months after filing date. If the applicant... applicant's compensation, chooses an annuity beginning date in a month which is more than three months...

  8. Redox cycling metals: Pedaling their roles in metabolism and their use in the development of novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Danuta S; Stefani, Christian; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ganz, Tomas; Anderson, Gregory J; Subramaniam, Nathan V; Trinder, Debbie; Olynyk, John K; Chua, Anita; Jansson, Patric J; Sahni, Sumit; Lane, Darius J R; Merlot, Angelica M; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Huang, Michael L H; Lee, C Soon; Richardson, Des R

    2016-04-01

    Essential metals, such as iron and copper, play a critical role in a plethora of cellular processes including cell growth and proliferation. However, concomitantly, excess of these metal ions in the body can have deleterious effects due to their ability to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the human body has evolved a very well-orchestrated metabolic system that keeps tight control on the levels of these metal ions. Considering their very high proliferation rate, cancer cells require a high abundance of these metals compared to their normal counterparts. Interestingly, new anti-cancer agents that take advantage of the sensitivity of cancer cells to metal sequestration and their susceptibility to ROS have been developed. These ligands can avidly bind metal ions to form redox active metal complexes, which lead to generation of cytotoxic ROS. Furthermore, these agents also act as potent metastasis suppressors due to their ability to up-regulate the metastasis suppressor gene, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1. This review discusses the importance of iron and copper in the metabolism and progression of cancer, how they can be exploited to target tumors and the clinical translation of novel anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:26844773

  9. 2010 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    NASA has announced the selection of the 2010 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2010. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Simona Giacintucci (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Boaz Katz (Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, N.J.) * Matthew Kerr (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.) * Matthew Kistler (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Emily Levesque (University of Colorado, Boulder) * Xin Liu (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.) * Tony Mroczkowski (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) * Ryan O'Leary (University of California at Berkeley) * Dov Poznanski (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, Calif.) * Nicolas Yunes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) The Einstein Fellowships are administered for NASA by the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Along with the Hubble and Sagan Fellowships, the Einstein Fellowships are made possible by the Astrophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/CfPfellow.2009.html

  10. Top STS Winners Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the first, second, and third place winners in the 47th annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Describes student research projects dealing with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, cryptosporidiosis (a chronic diarrhea), and genetic factors of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (TW)

  11. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  12. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  13. Making pedaling a bit easier

    SciTech Connect

    Diuru, B.

    1997-01-01

    The market for electrically-assisted bicycles is discussed in the article. Several manufacturers of electric motors are listed with product descriptions. US and international market factors are discussed; the market is expect to experience rapid growth. Regulations and environmental impacts are also described.

  14. What's on Your Mind? Conversation Topics Chosen by People With Degenerative Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders for Communication Boards

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Darlene; Ettinger, Olivia; Mooney, Aimee; Noethe, Glory; Rowland, Charity

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conversational topics chosen by a group of adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for personalized communication board development were examined. The patient-generated themes commonly selected are presented to guide treatment planning and communication board development. Method Communication boards were created for 109 adults as part of a larger research project. One autobiographical topic that each participant would enjoy discussing multiple times was represented on each communication board with 16 pictures and word labels. For this review, topics were collapsed into general themes through a consensus process and examined by gender and age. Results Sixty unique conversational topics were identified from 109 participants and collapsed into 9 general themes: Hobbies, Family, Travel, Work, Home/Places I've Lived, Sports/Fitness, Religion, Animals, and World War II. Age and gender produced variations in themes chosen, though no significance in rank orders was found across groups. Conclusions Topics selected by adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for communication boards resemble common conversational adult themes and do not center around basic needs or medical issues. Differences in gender and age for topic selection tend to be based on traditional roles. These general themes should be used when creating personalized communication boards for those who benefit from conversational aids. PMID:25835511

  15. [Chosen dietary habits in a cohort of students of the Medical University of Bialystok in the years 2000-2003].

    PubMed

    Czapska, Danuta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Stefańska, Ewa; Karczewski, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate chosen dietary habits of a cohort of students in the years 2000-2003. The frequency of the intake of chosen groups of food products, the number of meals and snacks between meals were considered. The highest percentage of both male and female students involved in the questionnaire investigations in the study period consumed three meals a day. The number of students having snacks between meals (every third person) did not change during that period. However, the decrease was observed in drinking by students one glass of milk a day. In the years 2000-2003, the reduction in the frequency of consumption of whole-grain breads and cereals in female students and its increase in male students was noted. The number of men consuming meat and its products was increased. More than half of the students of both sexes consumed fish once a week and this tendency was maintained for the whole study period. An increase was noted in the percentage of female students consuming vegetable salads and in the percentage of male students eating fruit. PMID:16252806

  16. Impact of the chosen turbulent flow empirical model on the prediction of sound radiation and vibration by aircraft panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Joana

    2016-07-01

    A precise definition of the turbulent boundary layer excitation is required to accurately predict the sound radiation and surface vibration levels, produced by an aircraft panel excited turbulent flow during flight. Hence, any existing inaccuracy on turbulent boundary layer excitation models leads to an inaccurate prediction of the panel response. A number of empirical models have been developed over the years to provide the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectral density. However, different empirical models provide dissimilar predictions for the wall pressure spectral density. The objective of the present study is to investigate and quantify the impact of the chosen empirical model on the predicted radiated sound power, and on the predicted panel surface acceleration levels. This study provides a novel approach and a detailed analysis on the use of different turbulent boundary layer wall pressure empirical models, and impact on mathematical predictions. Closed-form mathematical relationships are developed, and recommendations are provided for the level of deviation and uncertainty associated to different models, in relation to a baseline model, both for panel surface acceleration and radiated sound power.

  17. Chosen risk factors for osteoporosis and the level of knowledge about the disease in peri- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Teresa; Dziedzic, Małgorzata A.; Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis as a chronic disease, affecting especially women in postmenopausal age, is an important, social and economic health problem especially of women of today's world. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of women in the peri- and postmenopausal period about the prevention of osteoporosis and show the influence of chosen risk factors on the level of this knowledge. Material and methods A group of 300 women aged 45-65, being patients of healthcare centres in Chełm, Lublin and Zamość (Lublin voivodeship, south-eastern Poland) were included in the study. The purposive sampling was used. Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) 2011 was the research tool. Gathered material was subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. Tukey's test, t-student test and variance analysis (ANOVA) were all applied. An accepted p materiality level was < 0.05 and p < 0.01. Results Respondents presented the average level of knowledge about the role of physical activity in the prevention of osteoporosis (M = 13.93) and a low level of knowledge about well-balanced diet rich in calcium (M = 9.77). The knowledge about risk factors, screening and treatment remained on the average level (M = 8.00). An influence of socio-demographic factors on the level of knowledge was shown. Also some behaviours, associated with the lifestyle indeed influenced the level of this knowledge. Conclusions Professional educational programs on osteoporosis should be implemented in the population of Polish peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327885

  18. Muscular efficiency during steady-rate exercise: effects of speed and work rate.

    PubMed

    Gaesser, G A; Brooks, G A

    1975-06-01

    In a comparison of traditional and theoretical exercise efficiency calculations male subjects were studied during steady-rate cycle ergometer exercises of "0," 200, 400, 600, and 800 kgm/min while pedaling at 40, 60, 80, and 100 rpm. Gross (no base-line correction), net (resting metabolism as base-line correction), work (unloading cycling as base-line correction), and delta (measurable work rate as base-line correction) efficiencies were computed. The result that gross (range 7.5-20.4%) and net (9.8-24.1%) efficiencies increased with increments in work rate was considered to be an artifact of calculation. A LINEAR OR SLIGHTLY EXPONENTIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALORIC OUTPUT AND WORK RATE DICTATES EITHER CONSTANT OR DECREASING EFFICIENCY WITH INCREMENTS IN WORK. The delta efficiency (24.4-34.0%) definition produced this result. Due to the difficulty in obtaining 0 work equivalents, the work efficiency definition proved difficult to apply. All definitions yielded the result of decreasing efficiency with increments in speed. Since the theoretical-thermodynamic computation (assuming mitochondrial P/O = 3.0 and delta G = -11.0 kcal/mol for ATP) holds only for CHO, the traditional mode of computation (based upon VO2 and R) was judged to be superior since R less than 1.0. Assuming a constant phosphorylative-coupling efficiency of 60%, the mechanical contraction-coupling efficiency appears to vary between 41 and 57%. PMID:1141128

  19. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    SciTech Connect

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi Ali, Anizah Md.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-11

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1{sup st} June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that

  20. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Ali, Anizah Md.

    2015-12-01

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1st June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that the

  1. The Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs on CD(34+) Stem Cells and Chosen Physiological Variables.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Mohammed Nader; Saad, Mohammed; Akar, Samy; Reda, Mubarak Abdelreda Ali; Shalgham, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Exercise is one of the most powerful non-pharmacological strategies, which can affect nearly all cells and organs in the body. Changes in the behavior of adult stem cells have been shown to occur in response to exercise. Exercise may act on regenerative potential of tissues by altering the ability to generate new stem cells and differentiated cells that are able to carry out tissue specific functions. The purpose of this study was to reveal the role of aerobic and anaerobic training programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and chosen physiological variables. Twenty healthy male athletes aged 18-24 years were recruited for this study. Healthy low active males and BMI matched participants (n=10) aged 20-22 years were recruited as controls. Aerobic and anaerobic training programs for 12 weeks were conducted. VO2max pulse observation was carried out using the Astrand Rhyming protocol. RBCs, WBCs, HB and hematocrit were estimated using a coulter counter, lactate by the Accusport apparatus, CD34+ stem cells by flow cytometry. VO2max was increased significantly in case of the aerobic training program compared to anaerobic one (62±2.2 ml/kg/min vs. 54±2.1 ml/kg/min). Haemotological values increased significantly in the anaerobic program when compared to the aerobic one, RBCs (5.3±0.3 and 4.9±0.2 mln/ul), WBCs (6.6±0.5 and 6.1±0.4 thous/ul), HB (15.4±0.4 and 14.2±0.5 g/de), Hematocrit (4.6±1.2 and 4.4±1.1 %), CD34+ stem cells count increased significantly in case of the anaerobic program compared to the aerobic (251.6±21.64 and 130±14.61) and sedentary one (172±24.10). These findings suggest that anaerobic training programs provoke better adaptation to exercise and stem cell counts may differ between trained and sedentary subjects. Circulating immature cells are likely to be involved in angiogenesis and repair process, both mechanisms being associated with strenuous exercise. Knowledge of the physiological effects of training on stem cells might be of potential clinical

  2. Working environment and specialty of choice chosen by the dental students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sam, George; Alghmlas, Abdullah Saud; Alrashed, Muath I.; Alaskar, Ziyad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in a Saudi Arabia dental college. Materials and Methods: Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj among male students (men's college) for a period of 2 months. The data were analyzed using the statistical software program, predictive analytics software Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A hundred and seven of the 120 students took part in the study. A passion for orthodontics (42.9%) was reported to be the most important factor that influenced the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics followed by intellectual stimulation/challenge (25%). The decision to pursue orthodontics was made by 32.1% of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7% took the decision after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3% during a dental residency, whereas 3.6% had already decided before initiating their dental school studies. Working in a private practice environment was preferred by 11 residents (39.3%). Only four residents indicated that they would most likely be practicing in an academic setting while 10 were undecided. Conclusions: The zest for nonclinical specialties is less among students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University's dental college, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27195220

  3. The effect of low- vs high-cadence interval training on the freely chosen cadence and performance in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Anthony G; Murphy, Aron J; Coutts, Aaron J; Watsford, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high- and low-cadence interval training on the freely chosen cadence (FCC) and performance in endurance-trained cyclists. Sixteen male endurance-trained cyclists completed a series of submaximal rides at 60% maximal power (Wmax) at cadences of 50, 70, 90, and 110 r·min(-1), and their FCC to determine their preferred cadence, gross efficiency (GE), rating of perceived exertion, and crank torque profile. Performance was measured via a 15-min time trial, which was preloaded with a cycle at 60% Wmax. Following the testing, the participants were randomly assigned to a high-cadence (HC) (20% above FCC) or a low-cadence (LC) (20% below FCC) group for 18 interval-based training sessions over 6 weeks. The HC group increased their FCC from 92 to 101 r·min(-1) after the intervention (p = 0.01), whereas the LC group remained unchanged (93 r·min(-1)). GE increased from 22.7% to 23.6% in the HC group at 90 r·min(-1) (p = 0.05), from 20.0% to 20.9% at 110 r·min(-1) (p = 0.05), and from 22.8% to 23.2% at their FCC. Both groups significantly increased their total distance and average power output following training, with the LC group recording a superior performance measure. There were minimal changes to the crank torque profile in both groups following training. This study demonstrated that the FCC can be altered with HC interval training and that the determinants of the optimal cycling cadence are multifactorial and not completely understood. Furthermore, LC interval training may significantly improve time-trial results of short duration as a result of an increase in strength development or possible neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:27175601

  4. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Sazhin, Sergiy V.; Jamison, David K.; Michelbacher, Christopher J.; Liaw, Bor Yann; Dubarry, Matthieu; Cugnet, Mikael

    There is a growing need to explore path dependence of aging processes in batteries developed for long-term usage, such as lithium-ion cells used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) or plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) applications that may then be "retired" to be utilized in grid applications. To better understand the foremost influences on path dependence in the PHEV context, this work aims to bridge the gap between ideal laboratory test conditions and PHEV field conditions by isolating the predominant aging factors in PHEV service, which would include, for example, the nature and frequency of duty cycles, as well as the frequency and severity of thermal cycles. These factors are studied in controlled and repeatable laboratory conditions to facilitate mechanistic evaluation of aging processes. This work is a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI). Commercial lithium-ion cells of the Sanyo Y type (18650 configuration) are used in this work covering two initial independent studies of path dependence issues. The first study considers how the magnitude of power pulses and charging rates affect the aging rate, while the second seeks to answer whether thermal cycling has an accelerating effect on cell aging. While this work is in early stages of testing, initial data trends show that cell aging is indeed accelerated under conditions of high discharge pulse power, higher charge rates, and thermal cycling. Such information is useful in developing accurate predictive models for estimating end-of-life conditions.

  5. Factors That Female Higher Education Faculty in Select Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields Perceive as Being Influential to Their Success and Persistence in Their Chosen Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opare, Phyllis Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors female higher education faculty in select science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields perceived as influential to their success and persistence in their chosen professions. Females are underrepresented in STEM professions including academia, despite the fact that female…

  6. Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols (paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Gering

    2011-04-01

    Path dependence is emerging as a premier issue of how electrochemical cells age in conditions that are diverse and variable in the time domain. For example, lithium-ion cells in a vehicle configuration will experience a variable combination of usage and rest periods over a range of temperature and state of charge (SOC). This is complicated by the fact that some aging can actually become worse (or better) when a lithium-ion cell is idle for extended periods under calendar-life (calL) aging, as opposed to cycle-life (cycL) conditions where the cell is used within a predictable schedule. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between highly idealized and controlled laboratory test conditions and actual field conditions regarding PHEV applications, so that field-type aging mechanisms can be mimicked and quantified in a repeatable laboratory setting. The main parameters are the magnitude and frequency of the thermal cycling, looking at isothermal, mild, and severe scenarios. To date, little is known about Li-ion aging effects caused by thermal cycling superimposed onto electrochemical cycling, and related path dependence. This scenario is representative of what Li-ion batteries will experience in vehicle service, where upon the typical start of a HEV/PHEV, the batteries will be cool or cold, will gradually warm up to normal temperature and operate there for a time, then will cool down after the vehicle is turned off. Such thermal cycling will occur thousands of times during the projected life of a HEV/PHEV battery pack. We propose to quantify the effects of thermal cycling on Li-ion batteries using a representative chemistry that is commercially available. The secondary Li-ion cells used in this study are of the 18650 configuration, have a nominal capacity rating of 1.9 Ah, and consist of a {LiMn2O4 + LiMn(1/3)Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)O2} cathode and a graphite anode. Electrochemical cycling is based on PHEV-relevant cycle-life protocols that are a combination of charge

  7. A Choice for the Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons for opposition to school-choice programs by the American Jewish Congress and the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith. There is skepticism that more Jewish families would send their children to separate schools, and there is concern that government aid would foster a more religious tone in the country. Suggests that these…

  8. AGU Congressional Science Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    AGU announces its two newest Congressional Science Fellows—Laura Sherman and Charles Podolak—who will work on science issues in a congressional office from September 2014 until August 2015. The program is run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and trains scientists in the inner workings of congressional offices before helping them find a position. AGU has sponsored fellows in the program for 37 years, during which AGU fellows have worked on climate change, energy, water, security, and many more critical issues that rely on scientific understanding and affect the lives of the general public every day.

  9. Attenuation of the influence of cardiolocomotor coupling in heart rate variability interpretation during exercise test.

    PubMed

    Hernando, A; Hernando, D; Garatachea, N; Casajus, J A; Bailon, R

    2015-08-01

    During exercise test, cardiolocomotor coupling related components appear in heart rate variability (HRV), blurring its interpretation as autonomic nervous system (ANS) marker. These cardiolocomotor coupling related components are centered at the pedalling and running stride frequency, as well as at their aliases, and may overlap with the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of HRV. In this work cardiolocomotor-related HRV components are studied during maximal exercise test on treadmill and cycle ergometer. Power in the bands related to cardiolocomotor coupling increases with exercise intensity in cycle ergometer but not in treadmill exercise test, where it displays higher values for all exercise intensities. A method is proposed to reduce the effect of this coupling in the interpretation of HRV. Evolution of the power in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands are studied after the proposed reduction of cardiolocomotor coupling, showing more significant changes with exercise intensity than before the method is applied. PMID:26736557

  10. Heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer exercise via bio-feedback.

    PubMed

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Hung Nguyen; Celler, Branko G

    2015-08-01

    This paper explains our developed control system which regulates the heart rate (HR) to track a desired trajectory. The controller is indeed a non-conventional non-model-based proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller. The controller commands are interpreted as biofeedback auditory commands. These commands can be heard and implemented by the exercising subject as a part of the control-loop. However, transmitting a feedback signal while the pedals are not in the appropriate position to efficiently exert force may lead to a cognitive disengagement of the user from the feedback controller. This note explains a novel form of control system regarding as "actuator-based event-driven control system", designed specifically for the purpose of this project. We conclude that the developed event-driven controller makes it possible to precisely regulate HR to a predetermined HR profile. PMID:26737328

  11. The AL 333-160 fourth metatarsal from Hadar compared to that of humans, great apes, baboons and proboscis monkeys: non-conclusive evidence for pedal arches or obligate bipedality in Hadar hominins.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P J; Sarmiento, E E; Meldrum, D J

    2012-10-01

    Based on comparisons to non-statistically representative samples of humans and two great ape species (i.e. common chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla), Ward et al. (2011) concluded that a complete hominin fourth metatarsal (4th MT) from Hadar, AL 333-160, belonged to a committed terrestrial biped with fixed transverse and longitudinal pedal arches, which was no longer under selection favoring substantial arboreal behaviors. According to Ward et al., the Hadar 4th MT had (1) a torsion value indicating a transverse arch, (2) sagittal plane angles between the diaphyseal long axis and the planes of the articular surfaces indicating a longitudinal arch, and (3) a narrow mediolateral to dorsoplantar base ratio, an ectocuneiform facet, and tarsal articular surface contours all indicating a rigid foot without an ape-like mid-tarsal break. Comparisons of the Hadar 4th MT characters to those of statistically representative samples of humans, all five great ape species, baboons and proboscis monkeys show that none of the correlations Ward et al. make to localized foot function were supported by this analysis. The Hadar 4th MT characters are common to catarrhines that have a midtarsal break and lack fixed transverse or longitudinal arches. Further comparison of the AL 333-160 4th MT length, and base, midshaft and head circumferences to those of catarrhines with field collected body weights show that this bone is uniquely short with a large base. Its length suggests the AL 333-160 individual was a poor leaper with limited arboreal behaviors and lacked a longitudinal arch, i.e. its 4th MT long axis was usually held perpendicular to gravity. Its large base implies cuboid-4th MT joint mobility. A relatively short 4th MT head circumference indicates AL 333-160 had small proximal phalanges with a restricted range of mobility. Overall, AL 333-160 is most similar to the 4th MT of eastern gorillas, a slow moving quadruped that sacrifices arboreal behaviors

  12. Does obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging decrease the reamputation rates in the diabetic foot?

    PubMed Central

    Jbara, Marlena; Gokli, Ami; Beshai, Sally; Lesser, Martin L.; Hanna, Shirley; Lin, Cheryl; Zeb, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) through its over glycosylation of neurovascular structures and resultant peripheral neuropathy continues to be the major risk factor for pedal amputation. Repetitive trauma to the insensate foot results in diabetic foot ulcers, which are at high risk to develop osteomyelitis. Many patients who present with diabetic foot complications will undergo one or more pedal amputations during the course of their disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), prior to the first amputation, is associated with a decreased rate of reamputation in the diabetic foot. Our hypothesis was that the rate of reamputation may be associated with underutilization of obtaining an initial MRI, useful in presurgical planning. This study was designed to determine whether there was an association between the reamputation rate in diabetic patients and utilization of MRI in the presurgical planning and prior to initial forefoot amputations. Methods Following approval by our institutional review board, our study design consisted of a retrospective cohort analysis of 413 patients at Staten Island University Hospital, a 700-bed tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2013 who underwent an initial great toe (hallux) amputation. Of the 413 patients with a hallux amputation, there were 368 eligible patients who had a history of DM with documented hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) within 3 months of the initial first ray (hallux and first metatarsal) amputation and available radiographic data. Statistical analysis compared the incidence rates of reamputation between patients who underwent initial MRI and those who did not obtain an initial MRI prior to their first amputation. The reamputation rate was compared after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, body mass index, and prior antibiotic treatment. Results The results of our statistical analysis failed to

  13. The use of chosen serological diagnostic methods in Lyme disease in horses. Part I. Indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Dzierzecka, M; Kita, J

    2002-01-01

    The investigations aimed to establish the reliability of the chosen serological tests designed for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in horses. The investigations were carried out in five Horse Breeding Centres (OHK). Statistical analysis methods were used to determine sample size for particular centres: Krasne (Kr)--49, Łack (Ł)--21, Walewice (W)--111, BogusŁawice (B)--17, Kozienice (K)--61. The experimental material comprised the chosen horses from which blood samples were collected in order to obtain sera. The test used for indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA No 75941, Bio-Mérieux) is commercially designed for the investigation of human sera and thus needed a prior species adaptation and standardization; ELISA (MRL DIAGNOSTICS, No EL0400G) which was also species adapted and stardandized and ELISA commercially assigned for the examination of dog or horse sera (Die System Diagnostica GmbH Borrelia burgdorferi Veterinary ELISA No. 122.00 Genzyme Virotech GmbH). In the IFA test the highest share of positive results was obtained in respect of the sera from OHK in (K)--60.7% and then in (B)--52.9%, (Ł)--42.9%, (W)--40.5%, (Kr)--38.7%. In the standardized ELISA the highest percent of positive results, amounting to 33.3%, was obtained in respect of the sera from (Ł), and then from (W)--20.7%, (K)--11.5%, (Kr)--10.2% and (B)--5.9%. The percent of positive results obtained in the commercial ELISA also agreement on a high level: the sera originating from (W) were positive in 18.9%, from (K)--9.8%, (Ł)--9.5%. (B)--5.9% and (Kr)--4.1%. Both ELISAs showed high agreement although the standardized test was characterized by a greater tendency for suggesting the presence of B. burgdorferi infection and the agreement of these two ELISAs with the IFA was not so strong. The IFA showed the highest tendency for suggesting the presence of the B. burgdorferi infection, being characterized by the highest percent of false positive results. PMID:12189952

  14. Terrestrialization, Miniaturization and Rates of Diversification in African Puddle Frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zimkus, Breda M.; Lawson, Lucinda; Loader, Simon P.; Hanken, James

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, are recurring trends in amphibian evolution, but the relationships among the traits that characterize these phenomena are not well understood. Furthermore, these traits have been identified as possible “key innovations” that are predicted to increase rates of speciation in those lineages in which they evolve. We examine terrestrialization and miniaturization in sub-Saharan puddle frogs (Phrynobatrachidae) in a phylogenetic context to investigate the relationship between adaptation and diversification through time. We use relative dating techniques to ascertain if character trait shifts are associated with increased diversification rates, and we evaluate the likelihood that a single temporal event can explain the evolution of those traits. Results indicate alternate reproductive modes evolved independently in Phrynobatrachus at least seven times, including terrestrial deposition of eggs and terrestrial, non-feeding larvae. These shifts towards alternate reproductive modes are not linked to a common temporal event. Contrary to the “key innovations” hypothesis, clades that exhibit alternate reproductive modes have lower diversification rates than those that deposit eggs aquatically. Adult habitat, pedal webbing and body size have no effect on diversification rates. Though these traits putatively identified as key innovations for Phrynobatrachus do not seem to be associated with increased speciation rates, they may still provide opportunities to extend into new niches, thus increasing overall diversity. PMID:22509392

  15. Reading Rate, Readability, and Variations in Task-Induced Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1976-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that task variables account for previous findings that reading rate is unaffected by readability. The findings suggest that when appropriate reading tasks are chosen, reading rate can be used to infer underlying processes in reading. (Author/DEP)

  16. The Hanford Site generic component failure-rate database compared with other generic failure-rate databases

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, M.F.; Zentner, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    The Risk Assessment Technology Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), has compiled a component failure rate database to be used during risk and reliability analysis of nonreactor facilities. Because site-specific data for the Hanford Site are generally not kept or not compiled in a usable form, the database was assembled using information from a variety of other established sources. Generally, the most conservative failure rates were chosen from the databases reviewed. The Hanford Site database has since been used extensively in fault tree modeling of many Hanford Site facilities and systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasonableness of the data chosen for the Hanford Site database by comparing the values chosen with the values from the other databases.

  17. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and ATP on expression of chosen genes involved in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane; Hotowy, Anna; Jaworski, Sławomir; Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we hypothesised that silver nanoparticles could be used as a protective carrier for ATP as well as an active agent. ATP and/or an ATP complex with Nano-Ag would be delivered to the muscle cells as a gene expression regulator and promoter of growth and development of embryo breast muscle. A collection of 160 broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPase (ATP1A1), which may indicate that an extra energy source can enhance molecular mechanisms of muscle cell proliferation. Nano-Ag also up-regulated expression of FGF2, VEGF, ATP1A1 and, also up-regulated expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD1), affecting cell differentiation. The results indicate that ATP and Nano-Ag may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. PMID:23952606

  18. The effect of stimulus significance on relatively sustained (tonic-like) and relatively transient (phasic-like) aspects of electrodermal, heart rate, and eyeblink response.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A S; Taylor, K W; Weinstein, E; Riedel, J

    1985-11-01

    To examine the influence of stimulus significance on more sustained as well as transient aspects of electrodermal, cardiac (HR), and eyeblink response, a 21-sec tone was sounded in one ear or the other. A click occurred during many tones, and a light followed offset by 9 sec. Four groups were studied: one pressed a pedal immediately on hearing any click; another only on click during tone in a specified ear; a third also responded only to the specified ear, but withheld press until the light; a fourth listened without any response. Results confirmed the important role of stimulus significance in each system whether between- or within-subject comparisons were made. Sustained responses were seen only when a significant signal was sought, involving in each case sustained HR deceleration, slowed blink rate, and heightened electrodermal level. Transient response to click and light also appeared only when there were significant signals. Response to tone-onset gave more ambiguous results. ANOVAs of response magnitude suggested that onset of nonsignificant tones might have elicited ORs, while binomial tests indicated these were not elicited with better than random frequency anywhere but on those trials occurring more frequently at the experiment's onset. Interpretations consistent with both the significance hypothesis and with a distinction between automatic and voluntary ORs can be made only here. Motor response had no effect on electrodermal or eyeblink response, and on HR was associated only with increased acceleration 1-2 sec after pedal-press. Studies using small motor responses to establish stimulus significance are therefore not likely to be substantially biased by the response itself. PMID:4084626

  19. Some Statistical Properties of Item Specificity in Student Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Dale C.

    Prior research has indicated that items administered to college students for rating their instructors, can be empirically as well as logically classified on a continuum from very general to specific. Three of these hypothesized classifications of item specificity--global, general concept, and specific--were chosen to represent this continuum.…

  20. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  1. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  2. Shock tube measurements of specific reaction rates in branched chain CH4-CO-O2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Rate constants of two elementary bimolecular reactions involved in the oxidation of methane were determined by monitoring the exponential growth of CO flame band emission behind incident shocks in three suitably chosen gas mixtures.

  3. John Glenn: Chosen To Cross The Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    John Glenn in training. From film to tape transfer of the film 'Friendship 7 - John Glenn' Depicts the historical orbital flight of John Glenn aboard 'Friendship 7', launched on February 20, 1962. Footage of staff at tracking stations worldwide and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Launch from cape canaveral. Flight tracking, re-entry, landing and recovery of Friendship 7.

  4. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  5. The Called, Chosen, and Faithful Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hartwell T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…

  6. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education. PMID:19176856

  7. Who gets antidotes? choosing the chosen few.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Nicholas A; Dawson, Andrew H; Juurlink, David N; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of mechanisms, potential benefits and risks of antidotes is essential for clinicians who manage poisoned patients. Of the dozens of antidotes currently available, only a few are regularly used. These include activated charcoal, acetylcysteine, naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, atropine, flumazenil, therapeutic antibodies and various vitamins. Even then, most are used in a minority of poisonings. There is little randomized trial evidence to support the use of most antidotes. Consequently, decisions about when to use them are often based on a mechanistic understanding of the poisoning and the expected influence of the antidote on the patient's clinical course. For some antidotes, such as atropine and insulin, the doses employed can be orders of magnitude higher than standard dosing. Importantly, most poisoned patients who reach hospital can recover with supportive care alone. In low risk patients, the routine use of even low risk antidotes such as activated charcoal is unwarranted. In more serious poisonings, decisions regarding antidote use are generally guided by a risk/benefit assessment based on low quality evidence. PMID:26816206

  8. Movement-induced gain modulation of somatosensory potentials and soleus H-reflexes evoked from the leg. II. Correlation with rate of stretch of extensor muscles of the leg.

    PubMed

    Staines, W R; Brooke, J D; Misiaszek, J E; McIlroy, W E

    1997-06-01

    Attenuation of initial somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) gain becomes more pronounced with increased rates of movement. Manipulation of the range of movement also might alter the SEP gain. It could alter joint receptor discharge; it should alter the discharge of muscle stretch receptors. We hypothesized that: (1) SEP gain reduction correlates with both the range and the rate of movement, and (2) manipulation of range and rate of movement to achieve similar estimated rates of stretch of a leg extensor muscle group (the vasti) results in similar decreases in SEP gain. SEPs from Cz', referenced to Fpz' (2 cm caudal to Cz and Fpz, respectively, according to the International 10-20 System), along with soleus H-reflexes were elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa. Stable magnitudes of small M-waves indicated stability of stimulation. A modified cycle ergometer with an adjustable pedal crank and electric motor was used to passively rotate the right leg over three ranges (producing estimated vasti stretch of 12, 24 and 48 mm) and four rates (0, 20, 40 and 80 rpm) of movement. Two experiments were conducted. Ranges and rates of pedalling movement were combined to produce two or three equivalent estimated rates of tissue stretch of the vasti muscles at each of 4, 16, 32 and 64 mm/s. Tibial nerve stimuli were delivered when the knee was moved through its most flexed position and the hip was nearing its most flexed position. Means of SEP, H-reflex and M-wave magnitudes were tested for rate and range effects (ANOVA). A priori contrasts compared means produced by equivalent estimated rates of vasti stretch. Increasing the rate of movement significantly increased the attenuation of SEP and H-reflex gain (P<0.05). Increasing the range of movement also significantly increased these gain attenuations (P<0.05). Combining these to achieve equivalent rates of stretch, through different combinations of rate and range, resulted in equivalent

  9. Cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose as a carrier for dissolution rate improvement of drugs.

    PubMed

    Sangalli, M E; Giunchedi, P; Colombo, P; Conte, U; Gazzaniga, A; La Manna, A

    1989-01-01

    The dissolution rate is often the limiting step in gastrointestinal absorption of water insoluble drugs from solid oral dosage forms. The aim of this work was to use a swellable polymer chosen among superdisintegrants, for improving the dissolution rate of a sparingly soluble drug, loaded on its surface. Nifedipine, which has a very low water solubility, was chosen as a model drug, while cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Ac-Di-Sol) was chosen as the swellable polymer. The Nifedipine/Ac-Di-Sol systems were prepared using two different techniques: evaporation and spraying; in some preparations polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500), or sucrose palmitate (Sucrodet), or dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT) were added. The results of the dissolution tests showed that the dissolution rate of Nifedipine from the systems prepared increases, particularly in the case of the preparation composed of Ac-Di-Sol plus surfactant agents. PMID:2611009

  10. PEDALE--A Peer Education Diagnostic and Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konert, Johannes; Richter, Kristina; Mehm, Florian; Gobel, Stefan; Bruder, Regina; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The basis for individual students' instructional support by teachers is an individual diagnosis of one's learning advances and difficulties. Even though sophisticated diagnostic tools exist, it remains an open question how diagnosis and learning can be merged into a consistent pedagogical method to support both teachers and students with feedback…

  11. Spinal osteosarcoma in a hedgehog with pedal self-mutilation.

    PubMed

    Rhody, Jeffrey L; Schiller, Chris A

    2006-09-01

    An African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed with osteosarcoma of vertebral origin with compression of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. The only presenting sign was a self-mutilation of rear feet. Additional diagnoses included a well-differentiated splenic hemangiosarcoma, an undifferentiated sarcoma of the ascending colon, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. PMID:16931383

  12. Integration, heterochrony, and adaptation in pedal digits of syndactylous marsupials

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Marsupial syndactyly is a curious morphology of the foot found in all species of diprotodontian and peramelemorph marsupials. It is traditionally defined as a condition in which digits II and III of the foot are bound by skin and are reduced. Past treatments of marsupial syndactyly have not considered the implications of this unique morphology for broader issues of digit development and evolution, and the ongoing debate regarding its phylogenetic meaning lacks a broad empirical basis. This study undertakes the first interdisciplinary characterisation of syndactyly, using variance/covariance matrix comparisons of morphometric measurements, locomotor indices, ossification sequences, and re-assessment of the largely anecdotal data on the phylogenetic distribution of tarsal/metatarsal articulations and "incipient syndactyly". Results Syndactylous digits have virtually identical variance/covariance matrices and display heterochronic ossification timing with respect to digits IV/V. However, this does not impact on overall locomotor adaptation patterns in the syndactylous foot as determined by analysis of locomotor predictor ratios. Reports of incipient syndactyly in some marsupial clades could not be confirmed; contrary to previous claims, syndactyly does not appear to impact on tarsal bone arrangement. Conclusion The results suggest that marsupial syndactyly originates from a constraint that is rooted in early digit ontogeny and results in evolution of the syndactylous digits as a highly integrated unit. Although convergent evolution appears likely, syndactyly in Diprotodontia and Peramelemorpha may occur through homologous developmental processes. We argue that the term "syndactyly" is a misnomer because the marsupial condition only superficially resembles its name-giving human soft-tissue syndactyly. PMID:18501017

  13. The unique sound of the Uni-Vibe pedal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

    2012-10-01

    A short paper covering optics and music: the Uni-Vibe, which is responsible for the unique sound of Hendrix' Woodstock performance, is one of many phasing devices based on photo conductive cells used as variable resistors. However, its sound is well distinguishable from other phasers. In the paper we shall discuss the basic properties and try to qualify and quantify the effect on the spectra of certain chords. The present paper is a side effect of the musical interests of the authors and is triggered by the announcement of the Novel Systems Session including the topics 'Optics and Music' and Historical Devices.

  14. Bicycle Riding: Pedaling Made Possible through Positive Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Michael J.; Shapiro, Robert L.; Ainsleigh, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrated how the tenets of positive behavior support could be used to teach an educational activity. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of practical strategies to minimize errors during instruction and maximize positive outcomes. A 9-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome served as the participant, and the skill targeted for…

  15. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  16. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  17. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations.

  18. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are available within ...

  19. Glomerular filtration rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  20. Target Heart Rate Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...

  1. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  2. Rate theories for biologists

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Some of the rate theories that are most useful for modeling biological processes are reviewed. By delving into some of the details and subtleties in the development of the theories, the review will hopefully help the reader gain a more than superficial perspective. Examples are presented to illustrate how rate theories can be used to generate insight at the microscopic level into biomolecular behaviors. Attempt is made to clear up a number of misconceptions in the literature regarding popular rate theories, including the appearance of Planck’s constant in the transition-state theory and the Smoluchowski result as an upper limit for protein-protein and protein-DNA association rate constants. Future work in combining the implementation of rate theories through computer simulations with experimental probes of rate processes, and in modeling effects of intracellular environments so theories can be used for generating rate constants for systems biology studies is particularly exciting. PMID:20691138

  3. Magnetic fields and galactic star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ≃0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas (n{sub H}>10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 μG. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  4. "We will remember them": a mixed-method study to explore which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to bereaved people living with loss, and why those particular activities are chosen.

    PubMed

    Vale-Taylor, P

    2009-09-01

    In an increasingly secular age in which society no longer offers a code of behaviour for those who are bereaved as in Victorian times, the majority of people do not seek support from church-based rituals of remembrance. Most hospices provide religious Services of Remembrance and Thanksgiving or non-faith remembrance gatherings for families and friends, and although these are usually well attended, the average number of families represented is usually less than 20% raising the question of whether alternative support should be offered to the remaining majority of families. This study explored which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to people living with death-related loss, and why those particular activities are chosen. A total of 43 participants took part in a mixed-method study using 2 different data sets: a self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. To add further contextual data to support the study, a third dataset was created when six hospice bereavement counsellors met as a Focus Group. Results indicated that although formal remembrance events are valued, informal rituals created by the bereaved are more important and significant to them. Results could be divided into four different categories: rituals to maintain a 'direct link', or those undertaken 'for' the deceased, rituals that remember the deceased within the community and those viewed as an act of remembrance. The most common reason for choosing a ritual was to keep a bond with the deceased or ensure that the deceased was remembered by others. Remembrance and ritual is personal to each individual and is dynamic, altering from day to day. Remembrance appears to be a journey made up of many small daily rituals, some of which are generic to bereaved people and some of which are highly individualistic. For the majority of people, their informal rituals are far more important than the large planned events that hospices offer because the informal rituals

  5. Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, R. L.; Bynum, B. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ergometer is described that has a pedal driven direct current motor as a load and includes a frame for supporting the body of a person in either a sitting or a prone position. The pedals may be operated by either the feet or the hands. The electrical circuitry of the ergometer includes means for limiting the load applied to the pedals as a function of work being performed, heart rate, and increases in heart rate.

  6. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  7. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  8. Controlled Rate Cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled-rate cooling is one of several techniques available for the long-term storage of plants in liquid nitrogen. In this technique samples are slowly cooled to an intermediate temperature and then plunged in liquid nitrogen. Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell conte...

  9. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Labra, Fabio A; Marquet, Pablo A; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-06-26

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a "universal" form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents -0.352 and -1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  10. Extended rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-30

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.

  11. Interest rates mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  12. Optimal firing rate estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulin, M. G.; Hoffman, L. F.

    2001-01-01

    We define a measure for evaluating the quality of a predictive model of the behavior of a spiking neuron. This measure, information gain per spike (Is), indicates how much more information is provided by the model than if the prediction were made by specifying the neuron's average firing rate over the same time period. We apply a maximum Is criterion to optimize the performance of Gaussian smoothing filters for estimating neural firing rates. With data from bullfrog vestibular semicircular canal neurons and data from simulated integrate-and-fire neurons, the optimal bandwidth for firing rate estimation is typically similar to the average firing rate. Precise timing and average rate models are limiting cases that perform poorly. We estimate that bullfrog semicircular canal sensory neurons transmit in the order of 1 bit of stimulus-related information per spike.

  13. Mutation rates as adaptations.

    PubMed

    Maley, C

    1997-06-01

    In order to better understand life, it is helpful to look beyond the envelop of life as we know it. A simple model of coevolution was implemented with the addition of a gene for the mutation rate of the individual. This allowed the mutation rate itself to evolve in a lineage. The model shows that when the individuals interact in a sort of zero-sum game, the lineages maintain relatively high mutation rates. However, when individuals engage in interactions that have greater consequences for one individual in the interaction than the other, lineages tend to evolve relatively low mutation rates. This model suggests that one possible cause for differential mutation rates across genes may be the coevolutionary pressure of the various forms of interactions with other genes. PMID:9219670

  14. Growth rates made easy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Barry G; Acar, Hande; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    In the 1960s-1980s, determination of bacterial growth rates was an important tool in microbial genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and microbial physiology. The exciting technical developments of the 1990s and the 2000s eclipsed that tool; as a result, many investigators today lack experience with growth rate measurements. Recently, investigators in a number of areas have started to use measurements of bacterial growth rates for a variety of purposes. Those measurements have been greatly facilitated by the availability of microwell plate readers that permit the simultaneous measurements on up to 384 different cultures. Only the exponential (logarithmic) portions of the resulting growth curves are useful for determining growth rates, and manual determination of that portion and calculation of growth rates can be tedious for high-throughput purposes. Here, we introduce the program GrowthRates that uses plate reader output files to automatically determine the exponential portion of the curve and to automatically calculate the growth rate, the maximum culture density, and the duration of the growth lag phase. GrowthRates is freely available for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux. We discuss the effects of culture volume, the classical bacterial growth curve, and the differences between determinations in rich media and minimal (mineral salts) media. This protocol covers calibration of the plate reader, growth of culture inocula for both rich and minimal media, and experimental setup. As a guide to reliability, we report typical day-to-day variation in growth rates and variation within experiments with respect to position of wells within the plates. PMID:24170494

  15. [Ethically chosen studies with early-weaned piglets during their raising in pens with different applications of straw. 1. The effects of different applications of straw and different floor conditions in areas of uniform size].

    PubMed

    Marx, D; Mertz, R

    1989-01-01

    In extension of earlier experiments in housing systems with perforated floors, utilization rates of solid floor with litter, straw in a rack and deep litter, as well as the behaviour and physical condition, especially of claws, were investigated. Each pen had an area of 0.45 m2/piglet. In further experiments the influences of race (DL instead of DL x Piétrain), kind of rearing (without straw instead of rearing with straw), lowering temperature and the effect of a preferred perforated floor in comparison with solid floor were investigated. Deep litter was preferred for activity and lying behaviour only in the case of low temperature (14-18 degrees C) whereas solid floor with litter was preferred in the case of higher temperature (19-25 degrees C). The perforated floor was equivalent to solid floor on the condition that the area dimension was sufficient, temperature 3 degrees C higher than in the other experiments and straw in a rack was offered. However, the utilization rates of solid floor increased in the case of lowering temperature by 4 degrees C. There was no significant influences of the different race or kind of rearing. In the experiments there were significant signs of a more harmonious condition of the animals and a shorter, respectively no period where the animals had to adapt to the housing conditions. These findings were in contrast to those of earlier investigations. The possibility of acting with straw led to an undisturbed circadian rhythm and to a higher rate of standing within the total activity which was as high as in earlier studies. Further social companions and environmental objects lost attractiveness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2646100

  16. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  17. The ratings game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2009-04-01

    How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.

  18. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  19. Rating the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explains how people arrive at personal hazard assessments. Explores why people overestimate some hazards and underestimate others. Examines risk ratings for activities and technologies such as nuclear power, motor vehicles, pesticides, and vaccinations. (MA)

  20. Multidimensional bit-rate control for video communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Eric C.; Lim, Jae S.

    2000-12-01

    In conventional bit rate control schemes, the buffer level is controlled by adjusting the quantization step size while the frame rate and spatial resolution chosen for coding are fixed throughout the coding process. In this paper, we consider a more general Multidimensional (M-D) bit rate control where the frame rate, spatial resolution and quantization step size are jointly adapted for buffer control. In the M-D bit rate control setting, the problem is to decide which frames to code (and which frames to skip) along with the spatial resolution and the quantization step size to use for each coded frame. Given a finite set of operating points on a M-D grid, we formulate the optimal solution of the M-D buffer-constrained allocation problem. The formulation allows a skipped frame to be reconstructed from one coded frame using any temporal interpolation method. A dynamic programming algorithm is presented to obtain an optimal solution for the case of intraframe coding which is a special case of dependent coding. We experiment with both zero-order hold and motion-compensated temporal interpolation. Operational rate-distortion (R-D) bounds are illustrated for both the M-D and conventional bit rate control approaches. Our focus is one very low bit rate applications where a significant delay is tolerable.

  1. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  2. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

  3. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  4. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  5. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  6. An Application of the Facet-Factorial Approach to Scale Construction in Development of a Rating Scale for High School Marching Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument through facet-factorial analysis to assess high school marching band performance. Forty-one items were chosen to define subscales for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Music and 31 items for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Visual. To examine the stability…

  7. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  8. Optical rate sensor algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, Jo A.

    1989-01-01

    Optical sensors, in particular Charge Coupled Device (CCD) arrays, will be used on Space Station to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. Algorithms are presented to derive attitude rate from the optical sensors. The first algorithm is a recursive differentiator. A variance reduction factor (VRF) of 0.0228 was achieved with a rise time of 10 samples. A VRF of 0.2522 gives a rise time of 4 samples. The second algorithm is based on the direct manipulation of the pixel intensity outputs of the sensor. In 1-dimensional simulations, the derived rate was with 0.07 percent of the actual rate in the presence of additive Gaussian noise with a signal to noise ratio of 60 dB.

  9. Time rate collision matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenescu, M.L.; Smith, T.M.

    1980-02-01

    The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations.

  10. Shock tube measurements of specific reaction rates in the branched chain CH4-CO-O2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Rate constants of two elementary bimolecular reactions involved in the oxidation of methane have been determined by monitoring the exponential growth of CO flame band emission behind incident shocks in three suitably chosen gas mixtures. The data do not support a mechanism which invokes the four center process CH3 + O2 yields CH2O + OH for the reaction of methyl with oxygen.

  11. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  12. Controlling Your Utility Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Ray; Dembowski, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    A cost-effective alternative to high utility bills for middle-sized and smaller utility users is the service of utility rate consultants. The consultants analyze utility invoices for the previous 12 months to locate available refunds or credits. (MLF)

  13. Currency Exchange Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual consumers…

  14. Paradoxes in Film Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

  15. DATA ATTRIBUTE RATING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a data attribute rating system (DARS), developed by EPA to assist in evaluating data associated with emission inventories. he paper presents DARS for evaluation by the potential user community. ARS was originally conceived as a method for evaluating country-sp...

  16. Variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  17. Variable Rate Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...

  18. Toy Stories: Modeling Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics is increasingly recognized for its crucial role in developing the foundational skills and understandings for algebra. In this article, the author uses a lesson to introduce the concept of "rates"--comparing two different types and units of measure--and how to graph them. Described is the lesson and shared…

  19. Understanding Rates of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Aurelia; Russell, Larry

    This paper presents three activities on how to analyze rates of change in real-life situations using TI-83 calculators and computer-based laboratories. Activities include 24 hour temperature data, the temperature of a light bulb, and an M&M toss. Each section contains descriptions of equipment/materials, data collection, and data analysis. The…

  20. Constant-load versus heart rate-targeted exercise - Responses of systolic intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, V. Q.; Spodick, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Various systolic intervals were measured prior to and during heart rate-targeted bicycle ergometer exercise. There were striking similarities within each matched exercise set for Q-Im, isovolumetric contraction time, preejection period (PEP), and PEP/left ventricular ejection time (LVET). LVET was significantly shorter for rate-targeted exercise. It is concluded that either constant-load or rate-targeted bicycle ergometry may be used with the choice of method determined by the purpose of the protocol, and that systolic intervals (except LVET) should not be much altered owing to the method chosen.

  1. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to the average SBA direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate...

  2. The Three Tales Chosen, the Establishment of the Texts and the Charting of Deviations, with a Collation of the "Original Tales," the Check Translations, and the Danish and Turkish Texts. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 11. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, this paper provides information about the three fairy tales chosen for study: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip." Various sections of the paper contain descriptions of the following: (1) the selection procedures, (2) the procedures used in…

  3. Phenomenology of the term structure of interest rates with Padé Approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyts, Jean; Platten, Isabelle

    2001-10-01

    The classical approach in finance attempts to model the term structure of interest rates using specified stochastic processes and the no arbitrage argument. Up to now, no universally accepted theory has been obtained for the description of experimental data. We have chosen a more phenomenological approach. It is based on results obtained some 20 years ago by physicists, results which show that Padé Approximants are most suitable for approximating large classes of functions in a very precise and coherent way. In this paper, we have chosen to compare the Padé Approximants with very low indices with the experimental densities of interest rates variations. We have shown that the data published by the Federal Reserve System in the United States are very well reproduced with two parameters only. These parameters are rather simple functions of the lag and of the maturity and are directly related to the moments of the distributions.

  4. Mechanical characteristics of alloy AMg6M in broad temperature and strain-rate ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Krashchenko, V.P.; Dvoeglazov, G.A.; Ermolaev, G.V.; Rudnitskii, N.P.

    1986-02-01

    The authors study the mechanical properties of an aluminum-magnesium alloy in broad ranges of temperature and strain rate, and the change in hardness and dynamic modulus of elasticity in relation to temperature. The material chosen for study was alloy AMg6M. The heat treating process is described. The experimental data obtained on Micro-6, UVT-2, and UP-7 units is shown graphically. It is apparent that an increase in temperature is accompanied by a decrease in hardness, elastic modulus, and strength in general. Models are obtained and additional tests of specimens at the strain rate 3.3 X 10/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ and different temperatures are conducted. The dependences must be calculated using all possible models, and the lowest resulting value must be chosen.

  5. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  6. Hybrid empirical mode decomposition- ARIMA for forecasting exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadan, Siti Sarah; Shabri, Ani; Ismail, Shuhaida

    2015-02-01

    This paper studied the forecasting of monthly Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)/ United State Dollar (USD) exchange rates using the hybrid of two methods which are the empirical model decomposition (EMD) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). MYR is pegged to USD during the Asian financial crisis causing the exchange rates are fixed to 3.800 from 2nd of September 1998 until 21st of July 2005. Thus, the chosen data in this paper is the post-July 2005 data, starting from August 2005 to July 2010. The comparative study using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) showed that the EMD-ARIMA outperformed the single-ARIMA and the random walk benchmark model.

  7. Rate equations for ruby and alexandrite Q-switched lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Jan; Jelinkova, Helena

    2003-07-01

    To have a complex view on giant pulse generation, a more precise computer model of the build up Q-switch pulse in solid-state laser was realized. As a time starting point of the rate equation calculation, the moment of a flashlamp trigger was chosen. A system of three or four main differential rate equations describes the energy transfer from a pumping source - capacitor to an output giant pulse. Two laser active media, i.e. ruby and alexandrite, were examined with this model. A passive Q-switch ruby laser needs solving of the system of four differential equations; three differential equations gave the computer results for electro-optically Q-switched alexandrite laser.

  8. Computation of infrared cooling rates in the water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.; Arking, A.

    1978-01-01

    A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the far wing approximation to scale transmission along an inhomogeneous path to an equivalent homogeneous path. Rather than using standard conditions for scaling, the reference temperatures and pressures are chosen in this study to correspond to the regions where cooling is most significant. This greatly increased the accuracy of the new method. Compared to line by line calculations, the new method has errors up to 4% of the maximum cooling rate, while a commonly used method based upon the Goody band model (Rodgers and Walshaw, 1966) introduces errors up to 11%. The effect of temperature dependence of transmittance has also been evaluated; the cooling rate errors range up to 11% when the temperature dependence is ignored. In addition to being more accurate, the new method is much faster than those based upon the Goody band model.

  9. Radiation dose rate meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-07-28

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts.

  10. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  11. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  12. Rotational rate sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  13. Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay

    2012-10-15

    We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.

  14. Absolute rate of the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene from 198 to 320 K at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The rate constant for the H+C2H4 reaction has been measured as a function of temperature. Experiments were performed with high pressures of Ar heat bath gas at seven temperatures from 198 to 320 K with the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF) technique. Pressures were chosen so as to isolate the addition rate constant k1. The results are well represented by an Arrhenius expression. The results are compared with other studies and are theoretically discussed.

  15. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  16. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Next Topic How is thymus cancer treated? Survival rates for thymus cancer Survival rates are often ... into account. Stage of thymoma 5-year observed survival rate I 74% II 73% III 64% IV ...

  17. Factors affecting the heart rate during self-paced walking.

    PubMed

    Bassey, E J; Macdonald, I A; Patrick, J M

    1982-01-01

    The results of 277 self-paced walking tests have been analysed for the effects of body composition, sex and age using step-up multiple regression analysis. Equations are given for the influence of the significant factors on chosen walking speeds and on heart rate (fc) (standardised at 4.8 km . h-1 by interpolation from points recorded at three walking speeds). The basic equations are: Normal speed (km . h-1) = 1.72 + 2.13 stature (m) - 0.008 age (years) Fast speed (km . h-1) = 0.54 + 3.69 stature (m) - 0.016 age (years) For men: fc4.8 (beat . min-1) = 161 - 50.7 stature (m) + 0.223 body weight (kg) For women: fc4.8 (beat . min-1) = 161 - 50.7 stature (m) + 0.223 body weight (kg) + 4.43 The significant factors affecting freely chosen walking speeds are stature and age. When estimates of body composition are available, percentage fat is found to be the most influential single factor affecting fc, while sex no longer has a significant effect, and age now has a negative influence. When allowance is made for these factors the effects of customary physical activity can be seen more clearly. PMID:7199445

  18. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  19. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  20. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  1. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  2. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  3. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  4. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  5. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  6. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  7. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  8. Chosen aspects of modeling and control of quadrotor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiski, Radosław; Błachuta, Marian

    2012-11-01

    This article is presenting the extended model of quadrotor platform together with a bespoken control system based on optimal approach. It highlights particular aspects of the derived model, such as inclusion of rotor gyroscopic effects and thrust generation based on momentum theory. The controller's behavior is tested by simulations. Comparisons with literature-available solutions to the problem of full quadrotor optimal control are made and important differences exposed. Conclusions are drawn and future work proposed.

  9. Chosen Striking Location and the User-Tool-Environment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagman, Jeffrey B.; Taylor, Kona R.

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a hand-held tool requires that the tool user bring the tool into contact with an environmental surface in a task-appropriate manner. This, in turn, requires applying muscular forces so as to overcome how the object resists being moved about its various axes. Perceived properties of hand-held objects tend to be constrained by inertial…

  10. Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Chosen Dental Materials and Natural Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hędzelek, W.; Marcinkowska, A.; Domka, L.; Wachowiak, R.

    2008-08-01

    Studies using solid phase infrared spectroscopy in the range of 400 to 4000 wave numbers were conducted in order to quickly identify solid tooth fragments and differentiate them from dental materials used in the dental practice. The frequently employed dental materials were evaluated. Natural chemical structure of permanent teeth obtained from donors of various ages provided the reference material. The infrared vibrations detected in infrared transmission spectra depended on the chemical structure of examined compound. Comparable distinctive peaks in infrared spectra of natural teeth and inorganic dental materials (porcelain) were exhibited. Analogous infrared spectra of dental materials consisting of organic matrix with inorganic fillers were found. In the case of acrylic materials specific organic groups were enhanced. The prepared database of infrared transmission spectra included 23 dental materials, facilitating their appropriate identification. Application of infrared spectroscopy allowed for a quick differential identification of typical dental materials produced from organic compounds for inorganic restorations (porcelain) and of tooth structure-resembling hydroxyapatite and its contaminate forms with fluoride and carbonate ions.

  11. Rates of Earth degassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onions, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.

  12. Rate of Lysozyme Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, J. K.; Clunie, J. C.

    1997-03-01

    We have observed the following: Free solution measurements of the electrophoretic mobility of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals grown in aqueous NaCl at 10 deg C at pH values between 3.6 and 5.7 demonstrate that the crystals are positively charged.(J.K. Baird, A.M. Holmes, and J.C. Clunie, Bull.Am.Phys.Soc. 41, 620 (1996)) (2) When the decaying concentration of uncrystallized lysozyme in the growth solution is monitored as a function of time, the log of the half-life decreases linearly with the square-root of the ionic strength. (3) Acid-base titration shows that lysozyme molecules in solution exist as highly charged cations.(R. Roxby and C. Tanford, Biochemistry 10, 3348 (1971)) These three observations combine to suggest that lysozyme crystallizes by addition of lysozyme cations to positively charged crystal nuclei and that the rate is accelerated by the presence of strong electrolytes.

  13. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  14. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to...

  15. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to...

  16. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  17. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  18. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  19. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to...

  20. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  1. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to...

  2. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  3. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to...

  4. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to...

  5. 75 FR 5342 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2010 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  6. 77 FR 41202 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These rates... Commission. If a Tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  7. 78 FR 14821 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION... Commission has adopted its 2013 preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier... preliminary fee rate on Class II revenues shall be one-half of the annual fee rate, which is 0.037%...

  8. 76 FR 38207 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  9. 76 FR 7879 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2011 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  10. 77 FR 5267 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2012 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  11. 76 FR 8946 - Security Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 229, 230, 232, 239, 240, and 249 RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY... will be considering relating to the use of security ratings by credit rating agencies in our rules and... that rely on, or make special accommodations for, security ratings (for example, Forms S-3 and...

  12. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  13. Primate disease and breeding rates.

    PubMed

    Chamove, A; Cameron, G; Nash, V

    1979-10-01

    33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. There were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. Highest rates were: birth, Macaca nemestrina; illness, Pongo pygmaeus; death, Cercopithecus aethiops. Lowest rates were: birth, Lemur catta; illness, Sanguinus mystax; death, Galago crassicaudatus. Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates. PMID:119108

  14. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to...

  15. On the stability of robotic systems with random communication rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yun, X.; Paul, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Control problems of sampled data systems which are subject to random sample rate variations and delays are studied. Due to the rapid growth of the use of computers more and more systems are controlled digitally. Complex systems such as space telerobotic systems require the integration of a number of subsystems at different hierarchical levels. While many subsystems may run on a single processor, some subsystems require their own processor or processors. The subsystems are integrated into functioning systems through communications. Communications between processes sharing a single processor are also subject to random delays due to memory management and interrupt latency. Communications between processors involve random delays due to network access and to data collisions. Furthermore, all control processes involve delays due to casual factors in measuring devices and to signal processing. Traditionally, sampling rates are chosen to meet the worst case communication delay. Such a strategy is wasteful as the processors are then idle a great proportion of the time; sample rates are not as high as possible resulting in poor performance or in the over specification of control processors; there is the possibility of missing data no matter how low the sample rate is picked. Asymptotical stability with probability one for randomly sampled multi-dimensional linear systems is studied. A sufficient condition for the stability is obtained. This condition is so simple that it can be applied to practical systems. A design procedure is also shown.

  16. Rate variation of DNA sequence evolution in the Drosophila lineages.

    PubMed Central

    Takano, T S

    1998-01-01

    Rate constancy of DNA sequence evolution was examined for three species of Drosophila, using two samples: the published sequences of eight genes from regions of the normal recombination rates and new data of the four AS-C (ac, sc, l'sc and ase) and ci genes. The AS-C and ci genes were chosen because these genes are located in the regions of very reduced recombination in Drosophila melanogaster and their locations remain unchanged throughout the entire lineages involved, yielding less effect of ancestral polymorphism in the study of rate constancy. The synonymous substitution pattern of the three lineages was found to be erratic in both samples. The dispersion index for replacement substitution was relatively high for the per, G6pd and ac genes. A significant heterogeneity was found in the number of synonymous substitutions in the three lineages between the two samples of genes with different recombination rates. This is partly due to a lack of the lineage effect in the D. melanogaster and Drosophila simulans lineages in the AS-C and ci genes in contrast to Akashi's observation of genes in regions of normal recombination. The higher codon bias in Drosophila yakuba as compared with D. melanogaster and D. simulans was observed in the four AS-C genes, which suggests change(s) in action of natural selection involved in codon usage on these genes. Fluctuating selection intensity may also be responsible for the observed locus-lineage interaction effects in synonymous substitution. PMID:9611206

  17. Computing Rydberg Electron Transport Rates via Classical Periodic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, Sulimon; Mitchell, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Electron transport properties of chaotic atomic systems may be computable from classical periodic orbits. This technique allows for replacing a Monte Carlo simulation launching millions of orbits with a sum over tens or hundreds of properly chosen periodic orbits. A firm grasp of the structure of the periodic orbits is required to obtain accurate transport rates. We apply a technique called homotopic lobe dynamics (HLD) to understand the structure of periodic orbits to compute the ionization rate of a hydrogen atom in strong parallel electric and magnetic fields. HLD uses information encoded in the intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a few orbits to compute all relevant periodic orbits in the system. The ionization rate computed from periodic orbits using HLD converges exponentially to the true value as a function of the highest period used. We then use periodic orbit continuation to accurately compute the ionization rate when the field strengths are varied. The ability to use periodic orbits in a mixed phase space could allow for studying transport in even more complex few body systems.

  18. The Star Rating System and Medicare Advantage Plans.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it's safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing--added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries' choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well--hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities--these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes its methods of measurement. PMID:26072530

  19. High accuracy optical rate sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, J.

    1990-01-01

    Optical rate sensors, in particular CCD arrays, will be used on Space Station Freedom to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. An algorithm to provide attitude rate information by directly manipulating the sensor pixel intensity output is presented. The star image produced by a sensor in the laboratory is modeled. Simulated, moving star images are generated, and the algorithm is applied to this data for a star moving at a constant rate. The algorithm produces accurate derived rate of the above data. A step rate change requires two frames for the output of the algorithm to accurately reflect the new rate. When zero mean Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 5 is added to the simulated data of a star image moving at a constant rate, the algorithm derives the rate with an error of 1.9 percent at a rate of 1.28 pixels per frame.

  20. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  1. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Apr 19,2016 ... Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure 4 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 5 How to Eat ...

  2. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  3. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  4. Criteria for Establishing Bond Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Freda Stern

    1984-01-01

    An executive of Moody's Investors Service explains what past experience has taught the company about municipal analysis, how a bond issue is assigned a credit rating, and what issuers can do to obtain the best rating. (MLF)

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  6. Idiot savants: rate of incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, A L

    1977-02-01

    Based on the replies to a survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded, an incidence rate for idiot savants was established. This rate of .06% is based on the reporting of 54 idiot savants within a population of 90,000 residents. Several reasons for caution in the acceptance of this incidence rate are discussed. PMID:840586

  7. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  8. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  9. 75 FR 44807 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the preliminary fee...

  10. AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGE RATE DATA SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ERS data set contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rates for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregatio...

  11. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel P.

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System Rate sensors offer many advantages that make them attractive for space use. They are smaller, consume less power, and cost less than the systems currently available. MEMS Rate Sensors however, have not been optimized for use on spacecraft. This paper describes an approach to developing MEMS Rate Sensors systems for space use.

  12. [Rate Justification for Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) for Central Florida, Inc., Orlando.

    This brief report argues against the cost analysis process currently used as a form of rate justification by states and central agencies who are purchasing child care. Instead, a logic is proposed for negotiated rates based on expected levels of necessary costs and reasonable rates in comparison with open market levels as shown on day care…

  13. Rate and Occupancy Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Association of Coll. and Univ. Housing Officers.

    In its annual effort to determine rate and occupancy trends in the Mid-Atlantic region, MACUHO surveyed by questionnaire the chief housing officers on its mailing list and received 99 usable responses, compared with 65 the previous year. The average double room rate was reported to be $691, compared with $646 in 1975; the average board rate rose…

  14. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. PMID:26686485

  15. Computing Rydberg Electron Transport Rates via Classical Periodic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, Sulimon; Mitchell, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Electron transport properties of chaotic atomic systems are computable from classical periodic orbits. This technique allows for replacing a Monte Carlo simulation launching millions of orbits with a sum over tens or hundreds of properly chosen periodic orbits. Such computations are easiest to realize in sufficiently unstable systems dominated by a few short orbits. However, phase spaces exhibiting a mixture of chaos and regularity present a greater challenge, due to the rich dynamics in the vicinity of stable islands. Homotopic Lobe Dynamics (HLD) uses information encoded in the intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a few orbits to compute almost all hyperbolic periodic orbits in a system. We compute the ionization rate for a Rydberg atom in parallel electric and magnetic fields. We apply HLD to compute orbits for parameters exhibiting both mixed and fully hyperbolic phase spaces. The ionization rate computed from periodic orbits converges exponentially to the true value as a function of highest period used. We then use periodic orbit continuation to accurately compute the ionization rate when the field strengths are perturbed. The ability to use periodic orbits in a mixed phase space could allow for studying transport in arbitrarily complex physical systems.

  16. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  17. Effect of Different Polymer Concentration on Drug Release Rate and Physicochemical Properties of Mucoadhesive Gastroretentive Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shweta; Murthy, R. S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive tablets have emerged as potential candidates for gastroretentive drug delivery providing controlled release along with prolonged gastric residence time. Gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets could result in increased bioavailability due to prolonged gastric residence time. A hydrophilic matrix system was developed as mucoadhesion is achievable on appropriate wetting and swelling of the polymers used. The polymers were so chosen so as to provide a balance between swelling, mucoadhesion and drug release. The polymers chosen were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, chitosan, and Carbopol 934. The concentrations of these polymers used has a great impact on the physicochemical properties of the resulting formulation. The tablets were formulated using wet granulation method and tranexamic acid was used as the model drug. The prepared tablets were characterized for size, shape, appearance, hardness, friability, weight variation, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. Several batches of tablets were prepared by varying the ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and Chitosan. The batches having a greater ratio of chitosan showed higher rate of swelling, greater erosion, less mucoadhesion and faster release rate of the drug whereas the batches having greater ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M showed lesser rate of swelling, less erosion, better mucoadhesion and a smaller drug release rate. The level of carbopol was kept constant in all the batches. PMID:26997698

  18. Effect of Different Polymer Concentration on Drug Release Rate and Physicochemical Properties of Mucoadhesive Gastroretentive Tablets.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shweta; Murthy, R S R

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive tablets have emerged as potential candidates for gastroretentive drug delivery providing controlled release along with prolonged gastric residence time. Gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets could result in increased bioavailability due to prolonged gastric residence time. A hydrophilic matrix system was developed as mucoadhesion is achievable on appropriate wetting and swelling of the polymers used. The polymers were so chosen so as to provide a balance between swelling, mucoadhesion and drug release. The polymers chosen were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, chitosan, and Carbopol 934. The concentrations of these polymers used has a great impact on the physicochemical properties of the resulting formulation. The tablets were formulated using wet granulation method and tranexamic acid was used as the model drug. The prepared tablets were characterized for size, shape, appearance, hardness, friability, weight variation, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. Several batches of tablets were prepared by varying the ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and Chitosan. The batches having a greater ratio of chitosan showed higher rate of swelling, greater erosion, less mucoadhesion and faster release rate of the drug whereas the batches having greater ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M showed lesser rate of swelling, less erosion, better mucoadhesion and a smaller drug release rate. The level of carbopol was kept constant in all the batches. PMID:26997698

  19. Saturn component failure rate and failure rate modifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Failure mode frequency ratios, environmental adjustment factors, and failure rates for mechanical and electromechanical component families are presented. The failure rates and failure rate modifiers resulted from a series of studies whose purpose was to provide design, tests, reliability, and systems engineers with accurate, up-to-date failure rate information. The results of the studies were achieved through an extensive engineering analysis of the Saturn Program test data and Unsatisfactory Condition Reports (UCR's) and the application of mathematical techniques developed for the studies.

  20. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  1. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    PubMed

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained. PMID:25689218

  2. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  3. 9 CFR 592.520 - Overtime rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for bad...

  4. 9 CFR 592.520 - Overtime rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for bad...

  5. 9 CFR 592.530 - Holiday rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., plus the travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for...

  6. 9 CFR 592.530 - Holiday rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., plus the travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for...

  7. Music close to one's heart: heart rate variability with music, diagnostic with e-bra and smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Shantala; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Music is a powerful elicitor of emotions. Emotions evoked by music, through autonomic correlates have been shown to cause significant modulation of parameters like heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be a powerful tool to explore evidence based therapeutic functions of music and conduct empirical studies on effect of musical emotion on heart function. However, there are limitations with current studies. HRV analysis has produced variable results to different emotions evoked via music, owing to variability in the methodology and the nature of music chosen. Therefore, a pragmatic understanding of HRV correlates of musical emotion in individuals listening to specifically chosen music whilst carrying out day to day routine activities is needed. In the present study, we aim to study HRV as a single case study, using an e-bra with nano-sensors to record heart rate in real time. The e-bra developed previously, has several salient features that make it conducive for this study- fully integrated garment, dry electrodes for easy use and unrestricted mobility. The study considers two experimental conditions:- First, HRV will be recorded when there is no music in the background and second, when music chosen by the researcher and by the subject is playing in the background.

  8. 15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priority ratings and rated orders. 700.3 Section 700.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL...

  9. Conducting Market Rate Surveys and Establishing Rate Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric; Collins, Ray; Stoney, Louise

    Market rate surveys and the rate-setting policies and reimbursement rules informed by them are at the core of the market-based approach to child care and are central to the delicate balancing act of ensuring access to subsidized care while at the same time promoting the quality of child care. This report provides an overview of the market-based…

  10. HEATCVB: Coronal heating rate approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2015-06-01

    HEATCVB is a stand-alone Fortran 77 subroutine that estimates the local volumetric coronal heating rate with four required inputs: the radial distance r, the wind speed u, the mass density ρ, and the magnetic field strength |B0|. The primary output is the heating rate Qturb at the location defined by the input parameters. HEATCVB also computes the local turbulent dissipation rate of the waves, γ = Qturb/(2UA).

  11. Relation between gastric emptying rate and rate of intraluminal lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1996-01-01

    The variable gastric emptying rate of a test meal is one of the major problems in evaluating accurately gastrointestinal physiological functions beyond the stomach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gastric emptying rate on the rate of intraluminal lipolysis. Thirty four subjects without pancreatic disease (21 with a normal gastric emptying and 13 with a known slow gastric emptying) and 14 subjects with pancreatic disease (four without and 10 with pancreatic insufficiency) were studied using a dual labelled breath test. The test meal consisted of one egg, 60 grams of white bread, 10 grams of margarine, and 150 ml of water (350 kcal). The egg yolk was labelled with 91 mg of 13C-octanoic acid, the margarine was labelled with 296 kBq of distearyl-2-14C-octanoyl-glycerol. Breath samples were taken every 15 minutes during six hours and analysed for 13CO2 and 14CO2 content. The gastric emptying rate of the meal was evaluated by the gastric emptying coefficient, the half emptying time, and the lag phase; the rate of intraluminal lipolysis was evaluated by the six hours cumulative 14CO2 excretion. Despite a clear distinction in the rate of intraluminal lipolysis, no difference could be detected in gastric emptying rate of the test meal between subjects without and with pancreatic disease. In subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, intraluminal hydrolysis was the rate limiting process in fat assimilation; in patients without pancreatic insufficiency, however, gastric emptying could be rate limiting. Therefore, patients with known slow gastric emptying, displayed a significantly decreased rate of intraluminal lipolysis compared with normal controls. This decrease could be corrected for accurately using a correction factor based on the gastric emptying coefficient. In conclusion, the combined 13C-octanoic acid and 14C-mixed triglyceride breath test permits the measurement of gastric emptying rate and intraluminal lipolysis simultaneously in a minimally

  12. A Burning Rate Emulator (BRE) for Study in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markan, A.; Sunderland, P. B.; Quintiere, J. G.; DeRis, J.; Stocker, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    A gas-fueled burner, the Burning Rate Emulator (BRE), is used to emulate condensed-phase fuel flames. The design has been validated to easily measure the burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels by igniting a controlled stream of gas fuel and diluent. Four properties, including the heat of combustion, the heat of gasification, the surface temperature, and the laminar smoke point, are assumed to be sufficient to define the steady burning rate of a condensed-phase fuel. The heat of gasification of the fuel is determined by measuring the heat flux and the fuel flow rate. Microgravity BRE tests in the NASA 5.2 s drop facility have examined the burning of pure methane and ethylene (pure and 50 in N2 balance). Fuel flow rates, chamber oxygen concentration and initial pressure have been varied. Two burner sizes, 25 and 50 mm respectively, are chosen to examine the nature of initial microgravity burning. The tests reveal bubble-like flames that increase within the 5.2s drop but the heat flux received from the flame appears to asymptotically approach steady state. Portions of the methane flames appear to locally detach and extinguish at center, while its shape remains fixed, but growing. The effective heat of gasification is computed from the final measured net heat flux and the fuel flow rate under the assumption of an achieved steady burning. Heat flux (or mass flux) and flame position are compared with stagnant layer burning theory. The analysis offers the prospect of more complete findings from future longer duration ISS experiments.

  13. Rate control in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Rienstra, Michiel; Crijns, Harry J G M; Olshansky, Brian

    2016-08-20

    Control of the heart rate (rate control) is central to atrial fibrillation management, even for patients who ultimately require control of the rhythm. We review heart rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation, including the rationale for the intervention, patient selection, and the treatments available. The choice of rate control depends on the symptoms and clinical characteristics of the patient, but for all patients with atrial fibrillation, rate control is part of the management. Choice of drugs is patient-dependent. β blockers, alone or in combination with digoxin, or non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (not in heart failure) effectively lower the heart rate. Digoxin is least effective, but a reasonable choice for physically inactive patients aged 80 years or older, in whom other treatments are ineffective or are contraindicated, and as an additional drug to other rate-controlling drugs, especially in heart failure when instituted cautiously. Atrioventricular node ablation with pacemaker insertion for rate control should be used as an approach of last resort but is also an option early in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with cardiac resynchronisation therapy. However, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation should be considered before atrioventricular node ablation. Although rate control is a top priority and one of the first management issues for all patients with atrial fibrillation, many issues remain. PMID:27560277

  14. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509

  15. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, λ, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter

  16. Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate Influence on Heart Rate Variability Repeatability: Effects of the Correction for the Prevailing Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with average heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RespRate), alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations 7 days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences—every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001), i.e., by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent. PMID:27588006

  17. Rate-constrained 3D surface estimation from noise-corrupted multiview depth videos.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenxiu; Cheung, Gene; Chou, Philip A; Florencio, Dinei; Zhang, Cha; Au, Oscar C

    2014-07-01

    Transmitting compactly represented geometry of a dynamic 3D scene from a sender can enable a multitude of imaging functionalities at a receiver, such as synthesis of virtual images at freely chosen viewpoints via depth-image-based rendering. While depth maps—projections of 3D geometry onto 2D image planes at chosen camera viewpoints-can nowadays be readily captured by inexpensive depth sensors, they are often corrupted by non-negligible acquisition noise. Given depth maps need to be denoised and compressed at the encoder for efficient network transmission to the decoder, in this paper, we consider the denoising and compression problems jointly, arguing that doing so will result in a better overall performance than the alternative of solving the two problems separately in two stages. Specifically, we formulate a rate-constrained estimation problem, where given a set of observed noise-corrupted depth maps, the most probable (maximum a posteriori (MAP)) 3D surface is sought within a search space of surfaces with representation size no larger than a prespecified rate constraint. Our rate-constrained MAP solution reduces to the conventional unconstrained MAP 3D surface reconstruction solution if the rate constraint is loose. To solve our posed rate-constrained estimation problem, we propose an iterative algorithm, where in each iteration the structure (object boundaries) and the texture (surfaces within the object boundaries) of the depth maps are optimized alternately. Using the MVC codec for compression of multiview depth video and MPEG free viewpoint video sequences as input, experimental results show that rate-constrained estimated 3D surfaces computed by our algorithm can reduce coding rate of depth maps by up to 32% compared with unconstrained estimated surfaces for the same quality of synthesized virtual views at the decoder. PMID:24876124

  18. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…

  19. Nontraditional Student Graduation Rate Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    The prominence of discourse on postsecondary degree completion, student persistence, and retention has increased in the national dialogue. Heightened attention to college completion rates by the federal government and pressure to tie state funding to performance metrics associated with graduation rates are catalysts for the discussion.…

  20. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  1. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  2. 76 FR 46603 - Security Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 229, 230, 232, 239, 240, and 249 RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY... for, security ratings (for example, Forms S-3 and F-3 eligibility criteria) with alternative...- worthiness of a security or money market instrument and any references to or requirements in such...

  3. Depression Rating Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poznanski, Elva O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) was devised and tested on 30 inpatient children (6 to 12 years old) in a medical hospital. A high correlation was found between global ratings by two psychiatrists of severity of depression and scores on the CDRS. Journal availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204.…

  4. Interest rate swaps under CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallier, R.; Alobaidi, G.

    2004-03-01

    We consider fixed-for-floating interest rate swaps under the assumption that interest rates are given by the mean-reverting Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model. By using a Green's function approach, we derive analytical expressions for the values of both a vanilla swap and an in-arrears swap.

  5. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  6. National anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-02-01

    In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589

  7. Dual rate pressure relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeneken, J.

    1968-01-01

    Pressure relief valve vents at a slow bleed rate at one pressure level and at a higher bleed rate at a higher pressure level. The value housing contains a sleeve, inlet port, outlet port, an orifice, a ball and seat arrangement, and a belleville spring diaphragm.

  8. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  9. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order `m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order `n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders `m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders `m' and `n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second law

  10. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  11. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  12. New fine structure cooling rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    One of the dominant electron cooling processes in the ionosphere is caused by electron impact induced fine structure transitions among the ground state levels of atomic oxygen. This fine structure cooling rate is based on theoretical cross sections. Recent advances in the numerical cross section determinations to include polarization effects and more accurate representations of the atomic target result in new lower values. These cross sections are employed in this paper to derive a new fine structure cooling rate which is between 40% and 60% of the currently used rate. A new generalized formula is presented for the cooling rate (from which the fine structure cooling rate is derived), valid for arbitrary mass and temperature difference of the colliding particles and arbitrary inelastic energy difference.

  13. The Logic of Collective Rating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of participatory rating mechanisms on online sales platforms has had substantial impact on firms' sales and profits. In this note, we develop a dynamic model of consumer influences on ratings and of rating influences on consumers, focussing on standard 5-star mechanisms as implemented by many platforms. The key components of our social influence model are the consumer trust in the `wisdom of crowds' during the purchase phase and indirect reciprocity during the rating decision. Our model provides an overarching explanation for well-corroborated empirical regularities. We quantify the performance of the voluntary rating mechanism in terms of realized consumer surplus with the no-mechanism and full-information benchmarks, and identify how it could be improved.

  14. High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

  15. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  16. Reducing conflict and containment rates on acute psychiatric wards: The Safewards cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Len; James, Karen; Quirk, Alan; Simpson, Alan; Stewart, Duncan; Hodsoll, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute psychiatric wards manage patients whose actions may threaten safety (conflict). Staff act to avert or minimise harm (containment). The Safewards model enabled the identification of ten interventions to reduce the frequency of both. Objective To test the efficacy of these interventions. Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with psychiatric hospitals and wards as the units of randomisation. The main outcomes were rates of conflict and containment. Participants Staff and patients in 31 randomly chosen wards at 15 randomly chosen hospitals. Results For shifts with conflict or containment incidents, the experimental condition reduced the rate of conflict events by 15% (95% CI 5.6–23.7%) relative to the control intervention. The rate of containment events for the experimental intervention was reduced by 26.4% (95% CI 9.9–34.3%). Conclusions Simple interventions aiming to improve staff relationships with patients can reduce the frequency of conflict and containment. Trial registration IRSCTN38001825. PMID:26166187

  17. Accurate transition rates for intercombination lines of singly ionized nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, S. S.

    2011-01-15

    The transition energies and rates for the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 1,2}-2s2p{sup 3} {sup 5}S{sub 2}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s-2s{sup 2}2p3p intercombination transitions have been calculated using term-dependent nonorthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach. Several sets of spectroscopic and correlation nonorthogonal functions have been chosen to describe adequately term dependence of wave functions and various correlation corrections. Special attention has been focused on the accurate representation of strong interactions between the 2s2p{sup 3} {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o}levels. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin, and spin-orbit operators and two-body spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The importance of core-valence correlation effects has been examined. The accuracy of present transition rates is evaluated by the agreement between the length and velocity formulations combined with the agreement between the calculated and measured transition energies. The present results for transition probabilities, branching fraction, and lifetimes have been compared with previous calculations and experiments.

  18. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  19. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  20. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  1. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  2. Growth Rate and Turgor Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Green, Paul B.; Cummins, W. Raymond

    1974-01-01

    Because turgor pressure is regarded as the driving force for cell extension, any general theory of plant growth requires quantitative information on the relationship between steady irreversible growth rate and turgor pressure. To investigate contrasting views of this relation an automated apparatus was constructed which perfused both the outer and inner epidermis of a single coleoptile while its growth rate was continuously recorded. Turgor was altered abruptly by perfusing with solutions of varying tonicity. With specially grown rye coleoptiles the half-time of the osmo-elastic response was reduced to 2 minutes or less. After decay of this response, however, rate continued to change (so as to partially compensate the effects of the turgor shift in question) for 30 to 60 minutes. Only then could a steady rate be taken. A characterization of steady rate versus turgor covering five turgor values for a single coleoptile thus required many hours. The conclusions are as follows. (a) The change in steady rate, per unit change in turgor, was much greater +IAA than −IAA. (b) Both auxin and turgor act to reset an apparent stabilizing system whose presence is shown in the partial compensation of the initial response to turgor shifts. The above “extensibility” changes are operational only. They need not reflect changes in the immediate physical extensibility of the wall; they could reflect changes in a process acting on the wall. (c) The growth rate versus turgor relation shows some hysteresis. PMID:16658991

  3. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  4. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  5. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  6. Personality information: does it influence attractiveness ratings of various body sizes?

    PubMed

    Fisak, Brian; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Peterson, Rachel D

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, the influence of personality information on attractiveness ratings of different body sizes was examined. Specifically, participants were presented with either no personality information, negative information, or positive information about a hypothetical female target and asked to rate the smallest and largest figure that they would consider attractive for her using a figure rating scale. Consistent with the study hypotheses: (1) participants chose a wider range of figures as attractive for a female described to have a positive personality when compared to the range chosen when no personality information was provided; (2) females selected wider attractive ranges than males; and (3) other participant characteristics (i.e., physical appearance anxiety and body mass) were found to predict attractive ranges selected by participants. These findings may have implications for the treatment of body-image disturbance, as the findings suggest that personality, rather than appearance alone, may be a factor in perceptions of attractiveness of various body sizes. PMID:18089267

  7. Prediction of Chemical Vapor Deposition Rates on Monofilaments and Its Implications for Fiber Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M.; Veitch, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Deposition rates are predicted in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on monofilaments. Deposition of silicon from silane in a hydrogen carrier gas is chosen as a relevant example. The effects of gas and surface chemistry are studied in a two-dimensional axisymmetric flow field for this chemically well-studied system. Model predictions are compared to experimental CVD rate measurements. The differences in some physical and chemical phenomena between such small diameter (about 150 microns) fiber substrates and other typical CVD substrates are highlighted. The influence of the Soret mass transport mechanism is determined to be extraordinarily significant. The difficulties associated with the accurate measurement and control of the fiber temperature are discussed. Model prediction sensitivities are investigated with respect to fiber temperatures, fiber radii, Soret transport, and chemical kinetic parameters. The implications of the predicted instantaneous rates are discussed relative to the desired fiber properties for both the batch and the continuous processes.

  8. Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations.

  9. Renormalized reaction and relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2016-06-01

    Impact of the non-equilibrium on the reaction and relaxation rates (called as generalized relaxation rates - GRR), for the spatially inhomogeneous gas mixture is considered. Discarding the assumption that the 'chemical' part of the collisional integral is a small correction to non-reactive part, the expression for the zero-order GRR is derived. They are represented as a renormalization of the traditional reaction and relaxation rates, which means mixing of all corresponding processes. Thus all reactions and relaxation processes are entangled.

  10. Dual-Flow-Rate Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allbritain, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Flow-control device precisely adjusted for two rates. Heart of twoposition valve is sliding poppet. At far-right position, poppet allows low flow. At far-left position, allows high flow. Valve supplies high-pressure gas at either of two preselected flow rates. Valve adjustable between 0.12 and 1.2 lb/s (0.054 and 0.54 kg/s) of hydrogen at 3,300 lb/in.2 (23 MN/m2) and 80 degrees F (27 degrees C). Two flow rates preadjusted between these limits in increments of 0.01 lb/s (0.0045 kg/s).

  11. Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations. PMID:26986388

  12. 75 FR 80866 - Credit Rating Standardization Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... all credit rating agencies issue credit ratings using identical terms; standardizing the market stress... stress; and standardizing credit rating terminology across asset classes, so that named ratings... market stress conditions under which ratings are evaluated; (C) requiring a quantitative...

  13. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  14. Confidence rating for eutrophication assessments.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Uwe H; Topcu, Dilek H

    2014-05-15

    Confidence of monitoring data is dependent on their variability and representativeness of sampling in space and time. Whereas variability can be assessed as statistical confidence limits, representative sampling is related to equidistant sampling, considering gradients or changing rates at sampling gaps. By the proposed method both aspects are combined, resulting in balanced results for examples of total nitrogen concentrations in the German Bight/North Sea. For assessing sampling representativeness surface areas, vertical profiles and time periods are divided into regular sections for which individually the representativeness is calculated. The sums correspond to the overall representativeness of sampling in the defined area/time period. Effects of not sampled sections are estimated along parallel rows by reducing their confidence, considering their distances to next sampled sections and the interrupted gradients/changing rates. Confidence rating of time sections is based on maximum differences of sampling rates at regular time steps and related means of concentrations. PMID:24680718

  15. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  16. TRMM Sees Chantal's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 8, NASA's TRMM satellite saw Tropical Storm Chantal's heaviest rainfall happening at a rate of over 115.5 mm/hr. (~4.5 inches) near Chantal's center where thunderstorms reached heights of o...

  17. Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...

  18. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  19. Low bit rate speech transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothweiler, J.; Bertrand, J.

    The achievement of very low bit rates in all-digital military communications is important in tactical systems. Attention is presently given to a 400-2400 bit/sec system in which feature extraction is performed by standard linear predictive coding together with pattern matching by vector quantization and trellis coding. Some part of this system have been implemented in hardware, and others in simulation. Diagnostic rhyme test results are presented to indicate the performance of the system at various bit rates.

  20. Strain Rates and Scalar Dissipation Rates in Gaseous Transverse Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Takeshi; Gevorkyan, Levon; Besnard, Andrea; Karagozian, Ann

    2015-11-01

    This experimental study quantifies local strain rates and scalar dissipation rates for the non-reactive gaseous jet in crossflow (JICF) using simultaneous acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flush nozzle and flush pipe injectors are used to create jets consisting of mixtures of He and N2, with varying exit velocity profiles, jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratios J, and density ratios S. Strain rates in the vicinity of windward and lee-side jet shear layers are quantified based both on scalar dissipation rates extracted from PLIF measurements within locally 1D layer-like structures and on vector fields extracted from PIV measurements. Strain rates from the simultaneous measurements are in very good qualitative agreement with one another on the jets' windward and lee sides, and are also consistent with flame ignition locations in comparable reactive JICF experiments. Quantitative differences in strain fields are most pronounced at lower J values, corresponding to absolutely unstable shear layers and high local strain fields, although these differences are affected by the PLIF spatial resolution for a range of flow conditions. Extraction of dominant mode structures via POD will also be presented. Supported by NSF grant CBET-1437014 & AFOSR grant FA9550-15-1-0261 (A004376801).

  1. Ratings for emotion film clips.

    PubMed

    Gabert-Quillen, Crystal A; Bartolini, Ellen E; Abravanel, Benjamin T; Sanislow, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    Film clips are widely utilized to elicit emotion in a variety of research studies. Normative ratings for scenes selected for these purposes support the idea that selected clips correspond to the intended target emotion, but studies reporting normative ratings are limited. Using an ethnically diverse sample of college undergraduates, selected clips were rated for intensity, discreteness, valence, and arousal. Variables hypothesized to affect the perception of stimuli (i.e., gender, race-ethnicity, and familiarity) were also examined. Our analyses generally indicated that males reacted strongly to positively valenced film clips, whereas females reacted more strongly to negatively valenced film clips. Caucasian participants tended to react more strongly to the film clips, and we found some variation by race-ethnicity across target emotions. Finally, familiarity with the films tended to produce higher ratings for positively valenced film clips, and lower ratings for negatively valenced film clips. These findings provide normative ratings for a useful set of film clips for the study of emotion, and they underscore factors to be considered in research that utilizes scenes from film for emotion elicitation. PMID:24984981

  2. Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.

    1983-08-01

    Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.

  3. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    PubMed Central

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement. PMID:16673824

  4. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to...

  5. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...

  6. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  7. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  8. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  9. A 5-trial adjusting delay discounting task: accurate discount rates in less than one minute.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Bickel, Warren K

    2014-06-01

    Individuals who discount delayed rewards at a high rate are more likely to engage in substance abuse, overeating, or problem gambling. Such findings suggest the value of methods to obtain an accurate and fast measurement of discount rate that can be easily deployed in variety of settings. In the present study, we developed and evaluated the 5-trial adjusting delay task, a novel method of obtaining a discount rate in less than 1 min. We hypothesized that discount rates from the 5-trial adjusting delay task would be similar and would correlate with discount rates from a lengthier task we have used previously, and that 4 known effects relating to delay discounting would be replicable with this novel task. To test these hypotheses, the 5-trial adjusting delay task was administered to 111 college students 6 times to obtain discount rates for 6 different commodities, along with a lengthier adjusting amount discounting task. We found that discount rates were similar and correlated between the 5-trial adjusting delay task and the adjusting amount task. Each of the 4 known effects relating to delay discounting was replicated with the 5-trial adjusting delay task to varying degrees. First, discount rates were inversely correlated with amount. Second, discount rates between past and future outcomes were correlated. Third, discount rates were greater for consumable rewards than with money, although we did not control for amount in this comparison. Fourth, discount rates were lower when $0 amounts opposing the chosen time point were explicitly described. Results indicate that the 5-trial adjusting delay task is a viable, rapid method to assess discount rate. PMID:24708144

  10. The role of temperature increase rate in combinational hyperthermia chemotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2010-02-01

    Hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy has been widely used in cancer treatment. Our previous study has shown that rapid rate hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy can synergistically kill cancer cells whereas a sub-additive effect was found when a slow rate hyperthermia was applied. In this study, we explored the basis of this difference. For this purpose, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, Caspase 3 activity, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) expression following the two different modes of heating were measured. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. Indocyanine green (ICG), which absorbs near infrared light at 808nm (ideal for tissue penetration), was chosen for achieving rapid rate hyperthermia. Slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. Two sets of thermal doses were delivered by either slow rate or rapid rate hyperthermia. HSP70 expression was highly elevated under low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while maintained at the baseline level under the other three treatments. Caspase3 level slightly increased after low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while necrotic cell death was found in the other three types of heat treatment. In conclusion, when given at the same thermal dose, slow rate hyperthermia is more likely to induce thermotolerance. Meanwhile, hyperthermia showed a dose dependent capability in reversing P-gp mediated MDR; when MDR is reversed, the combinational treatment induced extensive necrotic cell death. During this process, the rate of heating also played a very important role; necrosis was more dramatic in rapid rate hyperthermia than in slow rate hyperthermia even though they were given at the same dose.

  11. Recent deformation rates on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1994-11-01

    Constraints on the recent geological evolution of Venus may be provided by quantitative estimates of the rates of the principal resurfacing processes, volcanism and tectonism. This paper focuses on the latter, using impact craters as strain indicators. The total postimpact tectonic strain lies in the range 0.5-6.5%, which defines a recent mean strain rate of 10-18-10-17/s when divided by the mean surface age. Interpretation of the cratering record as one of pure production requires a decline in resurfacing rates at about 500 Ma (catastrophic resurfacing model). If distributed tectonic resurfacing contributed strongly before that time, as suggested by the widespread occurrence of tessera as inliers, the mean global strain rate must have been at least approximately 10-15/s, which is also typical of terrestrial active margins. Numerical calculations of the response of the lithosphere to inferred mantle convective forces were performed to test the hypothesis that a decrease in surface strain rate by at least two orders of magnitude could be caused by a steady decline in heat flow over the last billion years. Parameterized convection models predict that the mean global thermal gradient decreases by only about 5 K/km over this time; even with the exponential dependence of viscosity upon temperature, the surface strain rate drops by little more than one order of magnitude. Strongly unsteady cooling and very low thermal gradients today are necessary to satisfy the catastrophic model. An alternative, uniformitarian resurfacing hypothesis holds that Venus is resurfaced in quasi-random 'patches' several hundred kilometers in size that occur in response to changing mantle convection patterns.

  12. High Data Rate Instrument Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

    1999-01-01

    The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

  13. Rate Change Big Bang Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.

  14. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  15. Transcription rates in DNA brushes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Safran, S A

    2015-04-21

    We theoretically predict the rate of transcription (TX) in DNA brushes by introducing the concept of TX dipoles that takes into account the unidirectional motion of enzymes (RNAP) along DNA during transcription as correlated pairs of sources and sinks in the relevant diffusion equation. Our theory predicts that the TX rates dramatically change upon the inversion of the orientation of the TX dipoles relative to the substrate because TX dipoles modulate the concentrations of RNAP in the solution. Comparing our theory with experiments suggests that, in some cases, DNA chain segments are relatively uniformly distributed in the brush, in contrast to the parabolic profile expected for flexible polymer brushes. PMID:25736601

  16. High-Data-Rate Quadrax Cable Microwave Characterization at the NASA Glenn Structural Dynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Warner, Joseph D.; Sheehe, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the degradation in the bit-error-rate (BER) in the high-data-rate cables chosen for the Orion Service Module due to extreme launch conditions of vibrations with a magnitude of 60g. The cable type chosen for the Orion Service Module was no. 8 quadrax cable. The increase in electrical noise induced on these no. 8 quadrax cables was measured at the NASA Glenn vibration facility in the Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The intensity of the vibrations was set at 32g, which was the maximum available level at the facility. The cable lengths used during measurements were 1, 4, and 8 m. The noise measurements were done in an analog fashion using a performance network analyzer (PNA) by recording the standard deviation of the transmission scattering parameter S(sub 21) over the frequency range of 100 to 900 MHz. The standard deviation of S(sub 210 was measured before, during, and after the vibration of the cables at the vibration facility. We observed an increase in noise by a factor of 2 to 6. From these measurements we estimated the increase expected in the BER for a cable length of 25 m and concluded that these findings are large enough that the noise increase due to vibration must be taken in to account for the design of the communication system for a BER of 10(exp -8).

  17. Online Course Evaluations Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Faruk; Malliaris, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the reasons for low response rates in online evaluations. Survey data are collected from the students to understand factors that might affect student participation in the course evaluation process. When course evaluations were opened to the student body, an email announcement was sent to all students, and a reminder email was…

  18. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates to dual analog angular rate sensors which are implemented without the use of mechanical brushes. A resolver rate sensor which includes two brushless resolvers which are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft is provided with inputs which are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. Novelty and advantages of the invention reside in the excitation of a resolver with a DC signal and in the utilization of two resolvers and the trigonometric identity of cos(exp 2)(theta) + sin(exp 2)(theta) = 1 to provide an accurate rate sensor which is sensitive to direction and accurate through zero rate.

  19. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  20. Metabolic rate meter and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. I.; Ruderman, I. W. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic metabolic rate of a human or animal. The ratio of the exhaled carbon dioxide to a known amount of C(13)02 introduced into the exhalation is determined by mass spectrometry. This provides an instantaneous measurement of the carbon dioxide generated.

  1. 78 FR 15973 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate Correction In notice document 2013-05334, appearing on page 14821 in the issue of Thursday, March 7, 2013, make the following correction: On page 14821, in...

  2. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  3. Exchange Rates and Old People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)

  4. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOEpatents

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  5. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  6. Heating rates in tropical anvils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of infrared and solar radiation with tropical cirrus anvils is addressed. Optical properties of the anvils are inferred from satellite observations and from high-altitude aircraft measurements. An infrared multiple-scattering model is used to compute heating rates in tropical anvils. Layer-average heating rates in 2 km thick anvils were found to be on the order of 20 to 30 K/day. The difference between heating rates at cloud bottom and cloud top ranges from 30 to 200 K/day, leading to convective instability in the anvil. The calculations are most sensitive to the assumed ice water content, but also are affected by the vertical distribution of ice water content and by the anvil thickness. Solar heating in anvils is shown to be less important than infrared heating but not negligible. The dynamical implications of the computed heating rates are also explored and it is concluded that the heating may have important consequences for upward mass transport in the tropics. The potential impact of tropical cirrus on the tropical energy balance and cloud forcing are discussed.

  7. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  8. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  9. Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J

    1994-08-01

    The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859

  10. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  11. The Adaptive Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.

    A scale to identify important behaviors in preschool children was developed, and ratings were related to more traditional indices of development and academic readiness. Teacher interviews were used to identify 62 specific behaviors related to maximally adapted and maximally maladapted kindergarten children. These were incorporated into a…

  12. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  13. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  14. NASA Human-Rating Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Harkins, Wil; Stamatelatos, Michael

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Procedural Requirements 87052B defines the Human-Rating Certification process and related technical requirements for human spaceflight programs developed by and for NASA. The document specifies Agency-level responsibilities related to the certification, processes to be established by the program, and technical requirements.

  15. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  16. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  17. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The "escape-and-radiate" hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  18. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  19. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  20. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  1. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  2. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets. PMID:8153282

  3. A comparison of surveillance methods for small incidence rates

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Woodall, William H.; Reynolds, Marion R.

    2008-05-15

    A number of methods have been proposed to detect an increasing shift in the incidence rate of a rare health event, such as a congenital malformation. Among these are the Sets method, two modifcations of the Sets method, and the CUSUM method based on the Poisson distribution. We consider the situation where data are observed as a sequence of Bernoulli trials and propose the Bernoulli CUSUM chart as a desirable method for the surveillance of rare health events. We compare the performance of the Sets method and its modifcations to the Bernoulli CUSUM chart under a wide variety of circumstances. Chart design parameters were chosen to satisfy a minimax criteria.We used the steady- state average run length to measure chart performance instead of the average run length which was used in nearly all previous comparisons involving the Sets method or its modifcations. Except in a very few instances, we found that the Bernoulli CUSUM chart has better steady-state average run length performance than the Sets method and its modifcations for the extensive number of cases considered.

  4. Preparation of starch macrocellular foam for increasing the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Wu, Chao; Zhao, Zongzhe; Hao, Yanna; Xu, Jie; Yu, Tong; Qiu, Yang; Jiang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Starch macrocellular foam (SMF), a novel natural bio-matrix material, was prepared by the hard template method in order to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Nitrendipine (NDP) was chosen as a model drug and was loaded into SMF by the solvent evaporation method. SMF and the loaded SMF samples (NDP-SMF) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro drug release studies showed that SMF significantly increased the dissolution rate of NDP. In vivo studies showed that the NDP-SMF tablets clearly increased the oral bioavailability of NDP in comparison with the reference commercial tablets. All the results obtained demonstrated that SMF was a promising carrier for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble drugs. PMID:26166407

  5. Friction coefficients and wear rates of different orthodontic archwires in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, M V; Espinar, E; Llamas, J M; Rupérez, E; Manero, J M; Barrera, J M; Solano, E; Gil, F J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the nature of the orthodontic archwires on the friction coefficient and wear rate against materials used commonly as brackets (Ti-6Al-4V and 316L Stainless Steel). The materials selected as orthodontic archwires were ASI304 stainless steel, NiTi, Ti, TiMo and NiTiCu. The array archwire's materials selected presented very similar roughness but different hardness. Materials were chosen from lower and higher hardness degrees than that of the brackets. Wear tests were carried out at in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Results show a linear relationship between the hardness of the materials and the friction coefficients. The material that showed lower wear rate was the ASI304 stainless steel. To prevent wear, the wire and the brackets have high hardness values and in the same order of magnitude. PMID:23440428

  6. Noise-induced convergence of the low flow rate chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Minoru; Nakaiwa, Masaru; Akiya, Takaji; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    The effect of noise on the low flow-rate chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction was studied. The chaos was simulated using the three-variable model of Györgyi and Field. Gaussian white noise was imposed on the flow-rate of the reactant solutions fed into CSTR to simulate the so-called type P noise. The range of average noise amplitudes was chosen between 0.01% and 1% related to the inverse residence time. The calculated time series were analyzed on the basis of their Fourier spectra, maximum Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropies, return maps and invariant density. We found that the noise induces partial order of the period-3-like oscillations in the low flowrate chaos.

  7. The role and importance of porosity in the deflagration rates of HMX-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Hsu, P C; Springer, H K

    2011-03-15

    The deflagration behavior of thermally damaged HMX-based materials will be discussed. Strands of material were burned at pressures ranging from 10-300 MPa using the LLNL high pressure strand burner. Strands were heated in-situ and burned while still hot; temperatures range from 90-200 C and were chosen in order to allow for thermal damage of the material without significant decomposition of the HMX. The results indicate that multiple variables affect the burn rate but the most important are the polymorph of HMX and the nature and thermal stability of the non-HE portion of the material. Characterization of the strands indicate that the thermal soak produces significant porosity and permeability in the sample allowing for significantly faster burning due to the increased surface area and new pathways for flame spread into the material. Specifically, the deflagration rates of heated PBXN-9, LX-10, and PBX-9501 will be discussed and compared.

  8. The use of a passive sampler for the simultaneous determination of long-term ventilation rates and VOC concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mailahn, W.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D. ); Moriske, H. )

    1989-01-01

    When interpreting seasonal variations of indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), the ventilation rate must be known. Therefore, a method has been developed which permits the simultaneous determination of the average ventilation rate and the concentration of VOC in a room over an integration period of two week with the same passive sampler. Hexafluorobenzene (HFB), a non-toxic substance, was chosen as the tracer so as not to interfere in the gas chromatographic analysis of VOC in indoor air. Emission rates of HFB sources were determined at various temperatures from 15 to 30{degree}C. After a test of the procedure for sampling periods of one and two weeks in an experimental chamber at ventilation rates between 0.5 and 2 h{sup {minus}1}, the procedure was successfully applied under field conditions. Good agreement was obtained when comparing the HFB method with a perfluorocarbon technique.

  9. Nucleation rate in monotectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, F.

    Cooling a melt of a monotectic system into the miscibility gap results in nucleation of fluid droplets in a fluid matrix prior to solidification. For homogeneous nucleation the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate is calculated. As material parameters the chemical potential of the species involved, the diffusion constant of the fluid, and the surface tension between adjacent phases are important. Since their temperature dependence is not well known from experiments, different theoretical models are used and their influence is discussed. The surface tension turns out to be the most crucial parameter in determining the nucleation rate. For AlIn numerical results are presented. In this system the undercooling with respect to homogeneous nucleation increases from zero at the critical point to 100 K at a composition near the monotectic point.

  10. Improving the RPC rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Iuppa, R.; Liberti, B.; Paolozzi, L.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.; Toppi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper has the purpose to study the rate capability of the Resistive Plate Chamber, RPC, starting from the basic physics of this detector. The effect of different working parameters determining the rate capability is analysed in detail, in order to optimize a new family of RPCs for applications to heavy irradiation environments and in particular to the LHC phase 2. A special emphasis is given to the improvement achievable by minimizing the avalanche charge delivered in the gas. The paper shows experimental results of Cosmic Ray tests, performed to study the avalanche features for different gas gap sizes, with particular attention to the overall delivered charge. For this purpose, the paper studies, in parallel to the prompt electronic signal, also the ionic signal which gives the main contribution to the delivered charge. Whenever possible the test results are interpreted on the basis of the RPC detector physics and are intended to extend and reinforce our physical understanding of this detector.

  11. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  12. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Susuman, A Sathiya

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145

  13. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting. PMID:27627324

  14. Nova reaction rates and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, S.; Herlitzius, C.; Fiehl, J.

    2011-04-01

    Oxygen-neon novae form a subset of classical novae events known to freshly synthesize nuclei up to mass number A≲40. Because several gamma-ray emitters lie in this mass range, these novae are also interesting candidates for gamma-ray astronomy. The properties of excited states within those nuclei in this mass region play a critical role in determining the resonant (p,γ) reaction rates, themselves, largely unknown for the unstable nuclei. We describe herein a new Doppler shift lifetime facility at the Maier-Leibnitz tandem laboratory, Technische Universität München, with which we will map out important resonant (p,γ) nova reaction rates.

  15. Rate processes in gas phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies for reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved.

  16. Growth rate for blackhole instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Hollands and Wald showed that dynamic stability of stationary axisymmetric black holes is equivalent to positivity of canonical energy on a space of linearised axisymmetric perturbations satisfying certain boundary and gauge conditions. Using a reflection isometry of the background, we split the energy into kinetic and potential parts. We show that the kinetic energy is positive. In the case that potential energy is negative, we show existence of exponentially growing perturbations and further obtain a variational formula for the growth rate.

  17. Star ratings. Stars of wonder.

    PubMed

    Dawes, David

    2002-09-12

    Analysis of trusts that changed their star-rating over the past two years indicates that a change of chief executive was not a significant factor. The length of time in post and the experience of the chief executive were also insignificant. This has serious implications for the theory behind franchising and the evaluation of franchised trusts. Holding chief executives to account for the organisation's performance within their first 12 months is unlikely to be effective. PMID:12357738

  18. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  19. Low nutation-rate dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tossman, B. E.

    1971-01-01

    Mission requirements plus spacecraft weight and power constraints often reduce the excitation frequency of a nutation damper below 1 cpm. Since attitude stability is determined by damper performance, maximum effectiveness at low rates is demanded. Presented are design considerations that low-frequency dampers require, along with descriptions of two low-frequency systems: the Direct Measurement Explorer 1 and the Small Astronomy Satellite A (SAS-A).

  20. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  1. The Use of Variational Assimilation of Surface and Satellite Datafor Emission Rate Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbern, H.

    Given observations of emitted and product species, the inference of emission rates of precursors is a typical ill-posed inversion problem. In this study the four-dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation method has used for emission rate optimisation by ingesting surface ozone measurements in tandem with monthly averaged satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2 columns. As the latter observations are rather coarse in spatial and temporal resolution, the key problem to be solved is that it is a product species which is taken to estimate its precursor emissions. It will be shown, that, with suitably chosen regularisation rules, emission rate estimates of precursor species of ozone can be inferred with the variational calculus mainly by assimilation of ozone observations. The benefits from temporally averaged tropospheric NO2 columns is explored. In this study the adjoint University of Cologne EURAD CTM is used for inversion. Emission rate optimisation is feasible with observations of surface ozone only. An independent corroboration of this statement can be claimed in terms of im- proved ensuing forecasts for the day following the assimilation period. In summary it can be stated that the emission rate optimisation by the 4D-var calculus is able to optimise emission rates of ozone precursor species, even if only ozone as the prod- uct species is observed. Additional forecast improvements due to the assimilation of individual satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2 columns is subject to further inves- tigation.

  2. Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Simpson, D.; Johnson, R.; Thomsen, M.; Arridge, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al.. This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) IMS from 1 V . E/Q < 50 kV. Since our technique maps the observations into a local inertial frame, it does work during roll maneuvers. We make comparisons with the bi-Maxwellian fitting technique developed by Wilson et al. and the similar velocity moment technique by Thomsen et al. . We concentrate our analysis when ion composition data is available, which is used to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The chosen periods have high enough telemetry rates (4 kbps or higher) so that coincidence ion data, similar to that used by Sittler et al. for SOI is available. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. In the future we will then make comparisons with magnetic field observations, Saturn ionosphere conductivities as presently known and the field aligned currents necessary for the planet to enforce corotation of the rotating plasma.

  3. Non-contact Laser-based Human Respiration Rate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.

    2011-08-01

    At present the majority of the instrumentation, used in clinical environments, to measure human respiration rate are based on invasive and contact devices. The gold standard instrument is considered the spirometer which is largely used; it needs a direct contact and requires a collaboration by the patient. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) is an optical, non-contact measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. LDVi has already been used for the measurement of the cardiac activity and for the measurement of the chest-wall displacements. The aims of this work are to select the best measurement point on the thoracic surface for LDVi monitoring of the respiration rate (RR) and to compare measured data with the RR valued provided by the spirometer. The measurement system is composed by a LDV system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC. Tests were made on 10 different point of the thorax for each patient. Patients population was composed by 33 subjects (17 male and 16 female). The optimal measurement point was chosen considering the maximum peak-to-peak value of the displacement measured by LDV. Before extracting RR we have used a special wavelet decomposition for better selection of the expiration peaks. A standard spirometer was used for the validation of the data. From tests it results that the optimal measurement point, namely is located on the inferior part of the thoracic region (left, front side). From our tests we have obtained a close correlation between the RR values measured by the spirometer and those measured by the proposed method: a difference of 14±211 ms on the RR value is reported for the entire population of 33 subjects. Our method allows a no-contact measurement of lungs activity (respiration period), reducing the electric and biological risks. Moreover it allows to measure in critical environment like in RMN or in burned skin where is difficult or impossible to apply electrodes.

  4. High rate manure supernatant digestion.

    PubMed

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anna Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-06-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370 mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7 h imposing a maximum organic load of 400 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The reactors reached a biogas production rate of 97 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1) at the highest load at which process stress signs were apparent. The yield was ∼0.47 g COD methane g(-1) CODT feed at HRT above 17 h, gradually decreasing to 0.24 at the lowest HRT (0.166 NL CH4 g(-1) CODT feed decreasing to 0.086). Reactor pH was innately stable at 8.0 ± 0.1 at all HRTs with alkalinity between 9 and 11 g L(-1). The first stress symptom occurred as reduced methane yield when HRT dropped below 17 h. When HRT dropped below 4 h the propionate removal stopped. The yield from acetate removal was constant at 0.17 g COD acetate removed per g CODT substrate. This robust methanogenesis implies that pig manure supernatant, and probably other similar slurries, can be digested for methane production in compact and effective sludge bed reactors. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated a relatively fast adaptation of the microbial communities to manure and implies that non-adapted granular sludge can be used to start such sludge bed bioreactors. PMID:25776915

  5. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  6. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  7. Heart rate variability and heart rate recovery as prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    GRAD, COSMIN

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Heart rate (HR) can appear static and regular at rest, during exercise or recovery after exercise. However, HR is constantly adjusted due to factors such as breathing, blood pressure control, thermoregulation and the renin-angiotensin system, leading to a more dynamic response that can be quantified using HRV (heart rate variability). HRV is defined as the deviation in time between successive normal heart beat and is a noninvasive method to measure the total variation in a number of HR interval. HRV can serve as measure of autonomic activity of sino-atrial node. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of certain clinical and paraclinical parameters on heart rate recovery after exercise in patients with ischemic heart disease and the relation with HRV using 24 h Holter monitoring. Methods The study included 46 patients who were submitted to cardiovascular exercise stress test and also to 24 h Holter EKG monitoring. Subjects had a mean age of 56.2±11.2 years, with a minimum of 25 and a maximum of 79 years. The study included 22 (47.8%) men and 24 (52.2%) women. Statistical analysis was performed using MedCalc software version 14.8.1. Multivariate analysis consisted of the construction of several multiple linear regression models. A p value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The HRV values (time domain) were all lower in the IHD compared with the group without coronary heart disease, even if the difference is not statistically significant. Also rest and maximal HR values were similar but during the test varies in the sense that those with IHD had higher values of rest and maximal HR and lower HRR, but not statistically significant. Conclusions HRV is a very easy and safe method if there is an available device and it is used for evaluation of the autonomic nervous system in many cardiovascular diseases, but also in other pathologies. In uncomplicated ischemic heart disease HRV is depressed, but not significant. HRR

  8. Event rates for WIMP detection

    SciTech Connect

    Vergados, J. D.; Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Oikonomou, V.

    2006-11-28

    The event rates for the direct detection of dark matter for various types of WIMPs are presented. In addition to the neutralino of SUSY models, we considered other candidates (exotic scalars as well as particles in Kaluza-Klein and technicolour theories) with masses in the TeV region. Then one finds reasonable branching ratios to excited states. Thus the detection of the WIMP can be made not only by recoil measurements, by measuring the de-excitation {gamma}-rays as well.

  9. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  10. Beyond Robotic Wastelands of Time: Abandoned Pedagogical Agents and "New" Pedalled Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi; Tombs, Gemma; Bhakta, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Chatbots, known as pedagogical agents in educational settings, have a long history of use, beginning with Alan Turing's work. Since then online chatbots have become embedded into the fabric of technology. Yet understandings of these technologies are inchoate and often untheorised. Integration of chatbots into educational settings over the past…

  11. Pedal pathology potentiated by personal pedicure procedures in the presence of painless peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhubrak, Michelle S; Fisher, Timothy K; Armstrong, David G

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature is replete with recommendations for people with diabetes-particularly those with neuropathy, ischemia, or both-to avoid caring for corns and calluses on their own feet, there are virtually no reports of damage associated with this care. The purpose of this article is to report on the potential perils of personal pedicures in the presence of peripheral neuropathy by using a case-based example. In this article, we report on the inappropriate use of a Ped Egg personal pedicure device that led to limb-threatening lesions in a gentleman with diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy. PMID:24072378

  12. Joint orientation and function in great ape and human proximal pedal phalanges.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Nicole L; Richmond, Brian G

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have referred to the degree of dorsal canting of the base of the proximal phalanx as an indicator of human-like metatarsophalangeal joint function and thus a diagnostic trait of habitual bipedality in the fossil record. Here, we used a simple method to investigate differences in forefoot function on a finer scale. Building on Duncan et al.'s (Am J Phys Anthropol 93 [1994] 67-81) research, we tested whether dorsal canting reflects differences between sexes in locomotor behavior, whether habitual shoe wear influences dorsal canting in humans, and whether proximal joint morphology differs between rays in Pan and humans. Our results corroborate previous research in showing that humans have proximal phalanges with joint orientations that are significantly more dorsal than, but overlap with, those of great apes. We also found that male gorillas have significantly more dorsally canted second proximal phalanges than their female counterparts, while the opposite pattern between the sexes was found in Pan troglodytes. Inter-ray comparisons indicate that Pan have more dorsally canted first proximal phalanges than second proximal phalanges, while the opposite pattern was found in humans. Minimally shod humans have slightly but significantly more dorsally canted second proximal phalanges than those of habitually shod humans, indicating that phalanges of unshod humans provide the most appropriate comparative samples for analyses of early hominins. Overall, our analysis suggests that though the measurement of dorsal canting is limited in its sensitivity to certain intraspecific differences in function, phalangeal joint orientation reflects interspecific differences in joint function, with the caveat that different patterns of forefoot function during gait can involve similar articular sets of metatarsophalangeal joints. PMID:19554617

  13. Velocity control with disturbance observer for pedal-assisted electric bikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shyue-Bin; Chen, Pang-Chia; Chuang, Hung-Shiang; Hsiao, Chih-Ching

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a velocity control approach for light electric bicycles with human power assistance. A disturbance observer mechanism is used to estimate the sum of the human torque and resistance torques. The resulting vehicle velocity control provides better battery energy efficiency by knowledge of the instantaneous human torque assistance and better speed control by knowledge of the instantaneous resistive torque. The disturbance observer is tuned in terms of the DC gain of a low-passed Q-filter for both open-loop and closed-loop schemes. Assuming that the slow varying nature of the disturbance has been properly estimated and compensated, the torque control law is designed via an optimal control approach to achieve multi-objective performances regarding the external disturbance input, control signal magnitude, and velocity tracking error. The three main parameters of the electric bike, including the moment of inertia, the radius of tyre and the vehicle weight are allowed to be variational. Specifically, the deviation of the inertia moment and deviation of the tyre radius are addressed during the controller design in terms of linear matrix inequalities. On the other hand, the effect of vehicle weight deviation on the system behaviour is evaluated when the vehicle is implemented with the constructed control law. Based on the parameters and specifications of the EL-168 electric bike produced by KENTFA Advanced Technology, Taiwan, the design results are verified through time-response simulations.

  14. OX40 Agonists and Combination Immunotherapy: Putting the Pedal to the Metal

    PubMed Central

    Linch, Stefanie N.; McNamara, Michael J.; Redmond, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy, a class of cancer treatments that utilize the patient’s own immune system to destroy cancerous cells. Within a tumor the presence of a family of negative regulatory molecules, collectively known as “checkpoint inhibitors,” can inhibit T cell function to suppress anti-tumor immunity. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, attenuate T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Targeted blockade of CTLA-4 or PD-1 with antagonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) releases the “brakes” on T cells to boost anti-tumor immunity. Generating optimal “killer” CD8 T cell responses also requires T cell receptor activation plus co-stimulation, which can be provided through ligation of tumor necrosis factor receptor family members, including OX40 (CD134) and 4-1BB (CD137). OX40 is of particular interest as treatment with an activating (agonist) anti-OX40 mAb augments T cell differentiation and cytolytic function leading to enhanced anti-tumor immunity against a variety of tumors. When used as single agents, these drugs can induce potent clinical and immunologic responses in patients with metastatic disease. However, each of these agents only benefits a subset of patients, highlighting the critical need for more effective combinatorial therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which OX40 agonists synergize with checkpoint inhibitor blockade to augment T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity and the potential opportunities for clinical translation of combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25763356

  15. Rhesus leg muscle EMG activity during a foot pedal pressing task on Bion 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. A.; Riazansky, S. N.; Goulet, C.; Badakva, A. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Recktenwald, M. R.; McCall, G.; Roy, R. R.; Fanton, J. W.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to perform a foot lever pressing task for a food reward. EMG activity was recorded from selected lower limb muscles of 2 animals before, during, and after a 14-day spaceflight and from 3 animals during a ground-based simulation of the flight. Integrated EMG activity was calculated for each muscle during the 20-min test. Comparisons were made between data recorded before any experimental manipulations and during flight or flight simulation. Spaceflight reduced soleus (Sol) activity to 25% of preflight levels, whereas it was reduced to 50% of control in the flight simulation. During flight, medial gastrocnemius (MG) activity was reduced to 25% of preflight activity, whereas the simulation group showed normal activity levels throughout all tests. The change in MG activity was apparent in the first inflight recording, suggesting that some effect of microgravity on MG activity was immediate.

  16. Pedal On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Bicycling for Grades 9 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers bicycling for grades 9-12. It contains forty-four learning activities grouped into eight…

  17. Pedal On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Bicycles for Grades 6 through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary and adult levels, this manual covers the topic of bicycling for grades 6-9. The manual contains forty-seven learning activities grouped…

  18. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effect a permanent reduction in the interest rate of their B&I guaranteed loan at any time during the... interest rate for insured loans will be the rate in effect at the time the loan is approved or at the time... approving the lender's interest rate, the rate at which guaranteed loans are being sold or traded in...

  19. 48 CFR 42.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.704 Billing rates. (a) The contracting... final indirect cost rates also shall be responsible for determining the billing rates. (b) The... basis of information resulting from recent review, previous rate audits or experience, or...

  20. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  1. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  2. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  3. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  4. 9 CFR 391.2 - Basetime rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. (b) FSIS will calculate the benefits, travel and operating, overhead, and allowance for bad debt rate components of the...) Allowance for bad debt rate. Previous fiscal year's allowance for bad debt (for example, debt owed that...

  5. 9 CFR 391.2 - Basetime rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. (b) FSIS will calculate the benefits, travel and operating, overhead, and allowance for bad debt rate components of the...) Allowance for bad debt rate. Previous fiscal year's allowance for bad debt (for example, debt owed that...

  6. 5 CFR 532.251 - Special rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special rates. 532.251 Section 532.251 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.251 Special rates. (a) A lead agency, with the approval of OPM, may establish special rates for use...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  8. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  9. Multifractality and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we participate to the discussion set forth by the editor of Chaos for the controversy, "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" Our objective was to debate the question, "Is there some more appropriate term to characterize the heart rate variability (HRV) fluctuations?" We focused on the ≈24 h RR series prepared for this topic and tried to verify with two different techniques, generalized structure functions and wavelet transform modulus maxima, if they might be described as being multifractal. For normal and congestive heart failure subjects, the hq exponents showed to be decreasing for increasing q with both methods, as it should be for multifractal signals. We then built 40 surrogate series to further verify such hypothesis. For most of the series (≈75%-80% of cases) multifractality stood the test of the surrogate data employed. On the other hand, series coming from patients in atrial fibrillation showed a small, if any, degree of multifractality. The population analyzed is too small for definite conclusions, but the study supports the use of multifractal series to model HRV. Also it suggests that the regulatory action of autonomous nervous system might play a role in the observed multifractality.

  10. Reconnection rates of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; White, R.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Sweet-Parker and Petschek scalings of magnetic reconnection rate are modified to include the effect of the viscosity. The modified scalings show that the viscous effect can be important in high-..beta.. plasmas. The theoretical reconnection scalings are compared with numerical simulation results in a tokamak geometry for three different cases: a forced reconnection driven by external coils, the nonlinear m = 1 resistive internal kink, and the nonlinear m = 2 tearing mode. In the first two cases, the numerical reconnection rate agrees well with the modified Sweet-Parker scaling, when the viscosity is sufficiently large. When the viscosity is negligible, a steady state which was assumed in the derivation of the reconnection scalings is not reached and the current sheet in the reconnection layer either remains stable through sloshing motions of the plasma or breaks up to higher m modes. When the current sheet remains stable, a rough comparison with the Sweet-Parker scaling is obtained. In the nonlinear m = 2 tearing mode case where the instability is purely resistive, the reconnection occurs on the slower dissipation time scale (Psi/sub s/ approx. eta). In addition, experimental data of the nonlinear m = 1 resistive internal kink in tokamak discharges are analyzed and are found to give reasonable agreement with the modified Sweet-Parker scaling.

  11. Risk-rated health insurance programs: a review of designs and important issues.

    PubMed

    Kaelin, M A; Barr, J K; Golaszewski, T; Warshaw, L J

    1992-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW. The purpose of this review is to assist those who work in the field of health promotion when considering the implementation of an individually risk-rated health insurance plan. It does so by introducing the reader to the concept of individually risk-rating health insurance; uncritically reviewing selected risk-rated health insurance plans; and exploring several issues related to plan implementation, administration, and appropriateness. SEARCH METHODS USED. The review is based on the authors' awareness of the literature in the fields of preventive medicine, health promotion, and employee benefits. The six individually risk-rated health insurance programs that are reviewed were chosen because they demonstrate how aspects of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners' Model have been implemented using various combinations of administrative procedures, verification strategies, and types of economic incentives or disincentives. This review is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature. SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT FINDINGS. Individually risk-rated health insurance programs have been established using a variety of administrative procedures, verification strategies, and types of economic incentives or disincentives. The frequency with which these programs are being established is increasing. As the number of risk-rated programs grows, it will be increasingly important to address the many issues that implementing such plans generate: How should lifestyle behaviors be verified? Will healthy lifestyles save money? Can employees fully control their risk factors? Is risk-rating socially responsible? MAJOR CONCLUSIONS. As risk-rating becomes more widespread, there will be a continuing need to address the business, medical, ethical, and legal issues these programs create and to refine them accordingly. The health promotion community has both an opportunity and obligation to see to it that individually risk-rated health insurance programs

  12. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exceed the established applicable usury rate. Loans guaranteed under this subpart must bear a fixed interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exceed the established, applicable usury rate. Loans guaranteed under this subpart must bear a fixed interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  14. 76 FR 6762 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... December 31, 2009. DATES: These rates are effective immediately and will remain in effect until rates are... Depreciation rate 1. Land and Support Assets: a. Motor vehicles 16.00 b. Aircraft 11.70 c. Special...

  15. 78 FR 73821 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... December 31, 2012. DATES: These rates are effective immediately and will remain in effect until rates are... December 31, 2012 Depreciation Telecommunications plant category rate 1. Land and Support Assets: a....

  16. Development of a Time-dependent Single-Rate Model and equivalence with MRMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Breakthrough curve tailing is a strong indication of non-Fickian mass transfer processes taking place over multiple scales. Yet, Haggerty et al. [2004] showed that in most experimental data it is possible to fit a single rate model provided that the single-rate mass transfer coefficient varies with exposure time. This paper studies the mathematical equivalence between the Multi-Rate Mass Transfer Model (MRMT) and a time-dependent single-rate mass transfer model (t-SRMT). We found that the t-SRMT model can be expressed by means of a memory function that is non-stationary. It was also found that the full behavior of the concentrations using a single time-dependent rate ω(t) is approximately analogous to that of the MRMT model provided that the equality ω(t)= -d ln g(t)/dt holds and the field capacity is properly chosen. This relationship suggests that when the memory function is a power law, g(t)˜ t1-k, the equivalent mass transfer coefficient scales as ω(t) ˜ t-1, nicely fitting without calibration the estimated mass transfer coefficients compiled by tep{Haggerty2004}.

  17. A visible light imaging device for cardiac rate detection with reduced effect of body movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaotian; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin

    2014-09-01

    A visible light imaging system to detect human cardiac rate is proposed in this paper. A color camera and several LEDs, acting as lighting source, were used to avoid the interference of ambient light. From people's forehead, the cardiac rate could be acquired based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. The template matching method was used after the capture of video. The video signal was discomposed into three signal channels (RGB) and the region of interest was chosen to take the average gray value. The green channel signal could provide an excellent waveform of pulse wave on the account of green lights' absorptive characteristics of blood. Through the fast Fourier transform, the cardiac rate was exactly achieved. But the research goal was not just to achieve the cardiac rate accurately. With the template matching method, the effects of body movement are reduced to a large extent, therefore the pulse wave can be detected even while people are in the moving state and the waveform is largely optimized. Several experiments are conducted on volunteers, and the results are compared with the ones gained by a finger clamped pulse oximeter. The contrast results between these two ways are exactly agreeable. This method to detect the cardiac rate and the pulse wave largely reduces the effects of body movement and can probably be widely used in the future.

  18. Psychometric Analysis of the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale among University Population of Poor Sleepers in India

    PubMed Central

    Veqar, Zubia; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed Ejaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale is a 65 item self administered open source questionnaire. The scale is widely used in clinical practice but its psychometric properties are not well established. Therefore keeping in mind this lacuna the current study was designed for university population of poor sleepers in India. Aims: The purpose of this study was to establish the Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index test- retest reliability, validity and internal consistency of Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale. Materials and Methods: Twenty five subjects were randomly chosen from the screened population of poor sleepers. Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Insomnia severity index were administered on test day. Retest was administered after one week. Results: Eight males and seventeen females with mean age 24 + 7.04 were recruited. The test retest reliability for Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale total score showed excellent reliability (ICC2,1-0.93). The results also show that the total score is moderately correlated with Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index (r-0.31) and moderately correlated with Insomnia severity index (r-0.49). Internal consistency for the test was excellent (Cronbach's alpha- 0.930) Conclusion: The study findings suggest that Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good validity for university population of poor sleepers in India. It is an important first line of assessment scale for screening of sleep problems. PMID:24843848

  19. Influence of Finite Element Software on Energy Release Rates Computed Using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Goetze, Dirk; Ransom, Jonathon (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    Strain energy release rates were computed along straight delamination fronts of Double Cantilever Beam, End-Notched Flexure and Single Leg Bending specimens using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Th e results were based on finite element analyses using ABAQUS# and ANSYS# and were calculated from the finite element results using the same post-processing routine to assure a consistent procedure. Mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from post-processing finite elem ent results were in good agreement for all element types used and all specimens modeled. Compared to previous studies, the models made of s olid twenty-node hexahedral elements and solid eight-node incompatible mode elements yielded excellent results. For both codes, models made of standard brick elements and elements with reduced integration did not correctly capture the distribution of the energy release rate acr oss the width of the specimens for the models chosen. The results suggested that element types with similar formulation yield matching results independent of the finite element software used. For comparison, m ixed-mode strain energy release rates were also calculated within ABAQUS#/Standard using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on. For all specimens mod eled, mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from ABAQUS# finite element results using post-processing were almost identical to re sults calculated using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on.

  20. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Geographic Rate Averaging and Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  1. The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Barcher, P R

    1982-01-01

    The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales (VARS) were developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of maladaptive social behavior related to vocational success, but not directly measuring job performance of mentally retarded workers. Psychometric information derived from the VARS is useful for developing individualized educational plans (IEPs) for compliance with Public Law 94-142; for program, worker or curriculum evaluations; and for predicting placement of workers in vocational training. Research indicates that VARS scores are internally consistent, moderately correlated with other vocational measures, unbiased with respect to sex and age differences, and independent of IQ. Inter-rater reliability is acceptable, and VARS profiles are accurate predictors of level of sheltered workshop placement of mentally retarded workers, independent of IQ, sex and age. Unlike other instruments, the VARS offers a profile of social behavior in a vocational context. PMID:7168570

  2. Contactless vision-based pulse rate detection of Infants Under Neurological Examinations.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Arindam; Behera, Santosh Kumar; Dogra, Debi Prosad; Bhaskar, Harish

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting variations in the Pulse Rate (PR) of infants undergoing the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examinations (HINE) using video data. As in every other medical examination the measurement of the PR is critical to underpin the physiological state of living beings. During HINE, measuring the infant's PR is important as its variations against physical conditions, age and other factors must be studied and correlated against developmental scores. However, this becomes highly complicated with active infants where their movements often lead to inconsistent PR estimation. We propose the use of a non-linear dimensionality reduction technique, called Laplacian Eigenmap (LE), to uncover the pulse information encapsulated within the high dimensional visual manifold characterized by normalized RGB feature vectors. Furthermore, low-level image filtering is applied to accurately detect PR within a chosen region-of-interest (ROI) from different parts of the infant's body. For validation and analysis, a set of 14 video sequences of infants undergoing five important tests of HINE have been chosen. Experimental results suggest that a bi-parametrized combination of color features from the RG and GB channels provide more valuable information in comparison to the RB and RGB channels. Results have demonstrated that this contactless method of PR detection has promising prospects for its future use in other clinical examinations of infants. PMID:26736346

  3. Calculation of molecular excitation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1993-01-01

    State-to-state collisional excitation rates for interstellar molecules observed by radio astronomers continue to be required to interpret observed line intensities in terms of local temperatures and densities. A problem of particular interest is collisional excitation of water which is important for modeling the observed interstellar masers. In earlier work supported by a different NASA Grant, excitation of water in collisions with He atoms was studied; after many years of successively more refined calculations that problem now seems to be well understood, and discrepancies with earlier experimental data for related (pressure broadening) phenomena are believed to reflect experimental errors. Because of interstellar abundances, excitation by H2, the dominant interstellar species, is much more important than excitation by He, although it has been argued that rates for excitation by these are similar. Under the current grant theoretical study of this problem has begun which is greatly complicated by the additional degrees of freedom which must be included both in determining the interaction potential and also in the molecular scattering calculation. We have now computed the interaction forces for nearly a thousand molecular geometries and are close to having an acceptable global fit to these points which is necessary for the molecular dynamics calculations. Also, extensive modifications have been made to the molecular scattering code, MOLSCAT. These included coding the rotational basis sets and coupling matrix elements required for collisions of an asymmetric top with a linear rotor. A new method for numerical solution of the coupled equations has been incorporated. Because of the long-ranged nature of the water-hydrogen interaction it is necessary to integrate the equations to rather large intermolecular separations, and the integration methods previously available in MOLSCAT are not ideal for such cases. However, the method used by Alexander in his HIBRIDON code is

  4. Reliable rain rates from optical satellite sensors - a random forests-based approach for the hourly retrieval of rainfall rates from Meteosat SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnlein, Meike; Appelhans, Tim; Thies, Boris; Nauss, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Many ecological and biodiversity-oriented projects require area-wide precipitation information and satellite-based rainfall retrievals are often the only option. Using optical and microphysical cloud property retrievals, area-wide information about the distribution of precipitating clouds can generally be provided from optical sensors aboard geostationary (GEO) weather satellites. However, the retrieval of spatio-temporal high resolution rainfall amounts from such sensors bears large uncertainties. In existing optical retrievals, the rainfall rate is generally retrieved as a function of the cloud-top temperature which leads to sufficient results for deep-convective systems but such a concept is inappropriate for any kind of advective/stratiform precipitation formation processes. To overcome this drawback, several authors suggest to use optical and microphysical cloud parameters not only for the rain-area delineation but also for the rain rate retrieval. In the present study, a method has been developed to estimate hourly rainfall rates using cloud physical properties retrieved from MSG SEVIRI data. The rainfall rate assignment is realized by using an ensemble classification and regression technique, called random forests. This method is already widely established in other disciplines, but has not yet been utilized extensively by climatologists. Random forests is used to assign rainfall rates to already identified rain areas in a two-step approach. First, the rain area is separated into areas of precipitation processes. Next, rainfall rates are assigned to these areas. For the development and validation of the new technique, radar-based precipitation data of the German Weather Service is used. The so-called RADOLAN RW product provide gauge-adjusted hourly precipitation amounts at a temporal resolution of one hour. Germany is chosen as the study area of the new technique. The region can be regarded as sufficiently representative for mid-latitudes precipitation

  5. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  6. Rate of runaway evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Groep, J. van de; Straten, P. van der; Vogels, J. M.

    2011-09-15

    Evaporative cooling is a process that is essential in creating Bose-Einstein condensates in dilute atomic gasses. This process has often been simulated based on a model using a truncated Boltzmann distribution. This model assumes that the energy distribution up to the threshold energy can still be described by a Boltzmann distribution: it assumes detailed balance up to the threshold energy. However, the evolution of the distribution function in time is not taken into account. Here we solve the kinetic Boltzmann equation for a gas undergoing evaporative cooling in a harmonic and linear trap in order to determine the evolution of the energy distribution. The magnitude of the discrepancy with the truncated Boltzmannmodel is calculated by including a polynomial expansion of the distribution function. We find that up to 35% fewer particles are found in the high-energy tail of the distribution with respect to the truncated Boltzmann distribution and up to 15% more collisions are needed to reach quantum degeneracy. Supported by a detailed investigation of the particle loss rate at different energies, we conclude that the limited occupation of high-energy states during the evaporation process causes the lowering of the evaporation speed and efficiency.

  7. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  8. Failure rate analysis using GLIMMIX

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.M.; Hemphill, G.M.; Martz, H.F.

    1998-12-01

    This paper illustrates use of a recently developed SAS macro, GLIMMIX, for implementing an analysis suggested by Wolfinger and O`Connell (1993) in modeling failure count data with random as well as fixed factor effects. Interest in this software tool arose from consideration of modernizing the Failure Rate Analysis Code (FRAC), developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the early 1980`s by Martz, Beckman and McInteer (1982). FRAC is a FORTRAN program developed to analyze Poisson distributed failure count data as a log-linear model, possibly with random as well as fixed effects. These statistical modeling assumptions are a special case of generalized linear mixed models, identified as GLMM in the current statistics literature. In the nearly 15 years since FRAC was developed, there have been considerable advances in computing capability, statistical methodology and available statistical software tools allowing worthwhile consideration of the tasks of modernizing FRAC. In this paper, the approaches to GLMM estimation implemented in GLIMMIX and in FRAC are described and a comparison of results for the two approaches is made with data on catastrophic time-dependent pump failures from a report by Martz and Whiteman (1984). Additionally, statistical and graphical model diagnostics are suggested and illustrated with the GLIMMIX analysis results.

  9. Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document discusses retention rate based on ethnicity for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) for December 2002. The study found that the 2001 Fall-Spring retention rates increased among all ethnic groups. The total college retention rate rose by 2.7 percentage points to 75.2%. Among individual groups, the highest retention rate of 76.9% was…

  10. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... result in a change in either direction of more than one percentage point from the interest rate in effect... such loans either bear interest at a rate that is agreed upon by the veteran and the lender, or bear interest at a rate not in excess of a rate established by the Secretary. The Secretary may, from time...

  11. 18 CFR 704.39 - Discount rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rate in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this section, and that rate shall continue to... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discount rate. 704.39... STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES Standards for Plan Formulation and Evaluation § 704.39 Discount rate. (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 284.10 - Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has the effect of guaranteeing revenue. Such rate must separately identify cost components... General Provisions and Conditions § 284.10 Rates. (a) Applicability. Any rate charged for transportation service under subparts B and G of this part must be established under a rate schedule that is filed...

  13. 18 CFR 284.10 - Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has the effect of guaranteeing revenue. Such rate must separately identify cost components... General Provisions and Conditions § 284.10 Rates. (a) Applicability. Any rate charged for transportation service under subparts B and G of this part must be established under a rate schedule that is filed...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... result in a change in either direction of more than one percentage point from the interest rate in effect... such loans either bear interest at a rate that is agreed upon by the veteran and the lender, or bear interest at a rate not in excess of a rate established by the Secretary. The Secretary may, from time...

  15. 18 CFR 704.39 - Discount rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rate in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this section, and that rate shall continue to... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discount rate. 704.39... STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES Standards for Plan Formulation and Evaluation § 704.39 Discount rate. (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  17. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  18. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  19. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  20. 7 CFR 923.236 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 923.236 Section 923.236 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Assessment Rate § 923.236 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2007, an assessment rate of $0.40 per ton is established for the Washington Cherry...