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Sample records for chp biodiesel case

  1. Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils such as soybean oil or other sources such as animal fats and waste frying oils. This article gives a brief overview of issues affecting biodiesel, including sources, production, properties, comparison to petrodiesel and commercial ...

  2. Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels are continuously gaining importance in light of the dependence on diminishing and imported petroleum, coupled with rising energy prices, environmental issues and the need to strengthen the domestic agricultural economy. Biodiesel, which is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats or used ...

  3. CHP -- A revolution in the making

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1999-07-01

    Liberalization, globalization, and particularly climate change are changing energy thinking. In the future, climate change will be tackled by improved energy efficiency and carbon neutral sources of energy, but much more could be done today by the more widespread use of CHP. CHP has made reasonably good progress in the UK and Europe, due to energy industry liberalization and the widespread availability of gas. But the pursuit of sustainability objectives requires government intervention into liberalized markets. While the current UK Government is a strong supporter of CHP, major opportunities to develop CHP were missed in favor of less efficient CCGT power stations over the last decade. The two critical policy issues in the UK now are the proposed tax on the business use of energy and the current reform of electricity trading arrangements. Both could impact favorably on the development of CHP. The UK CHP Association, COGEN Europe and the International Cogeneration Alliance continue to press the case for CHP.

  4. Fuel for the Future: Biodiesel - A Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutterbach, Márcia T. S.; Galvão, Mariana M.

    High crude oil prices, concern over depletion of world reserves, and growing apprehension about the environment, encouraged the search for alternative energy sources that use renewable natural resources to reduce or replace traditional fossil fuels such as diesel and gasoline (Hill et al., 2006). Among renewable fuels, biodiesel has been attracting great interest, especially in Europe and the United States. Biodiesel is defined by the World Customs Organization (WCO) as 'a mixture of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain [C16-C18] fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, which is a domestic renewable fuel for diesel engines and which meets the US specifications of ASTM D 6751'. Biodiesel is biodegradable and non toxic, produces 93% more energy than the fossil energy required for its production, reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40% compared to fossil diesel (Peterson and Hustrulid, 1998; Hill et al., 2006) and stimulates agriculture.

  5. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    instead of the conventional heating system, and analyze system approaches for interaction with the local electric utility. The primary energy savings between the space heating provided by a conventional space heating system with all the required electrical energy supplied by the grid and the micro-CHP system supplemented when needed by a conventional space heating and the grid supplied electricity. were calculated for two locations namely Long Island and Albany. The key results from the experimental work are summarized first and the results from the analytical work next. Experimental results: (1) The engine could be operated successfully in the normal and HCCI modes using both diesel and biodiesel blends. (2) The smoke levels are lower with biodiesel than with diesel in both modes of operation. (3) The NOx levels are lower with the HCCI mode of operation than with the normal mode for both fuels. (4) The engine efficiency in these tests is lower in the HCCI mode of operation. However, the system parameters were not optimized for such operation within the scope of this project. However, for an engine designed with such operation in mind, the efficiency would possibly be not lower. Analytical results: (1) The internal combustion engine (diesel engine in this case) is the only proven technology as a prime mover at present. However, as noted above, no U.S. engine is available at present. (2) For both locations, the use of a micro-CHP system results in primary energy savings. This is true whether the CHP system is used only to supply domestic hot water or to supply both hot water and space heat and even for a low efficiency system especially for the latter case. The size of the thermal storage (as long as it above a certain minimum) did not affect this. (3) For example, for a 2 kW CHP electrical efficiency of 25%, a typical house on Long Island will save about 30MBtu of energy per year for a combined space heat and domestic hot water system. This corresponds to annual energy

  6. Biodiesel Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  7. The Bus Stops Here: The Case for Biodiesel in School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that diesel exhaust from most of the nation's school buses may be hazardous to children's health. Documents studies on the nature and potential magnitude of the risk to children and proposes replacing petroleum diesel with biodiesel as the fuel for school buses. Presents the merits and practicality of switching to biodiesel as a healthier…

  8. The rush to CHP

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E. )

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine orders for industrial cogeneration or CHP projects in Europe are booming. Independent companies as well as utilities are taking active roles in this expanding market. In the Netherlands, ever since the first oil crisis of 1973, the government has sought to bolster energy efficiency to prolong the availability of indigenous gas reserves both for domestic consumption and export. This article describes turbine designs for efficiency and environmental friendliness, and the general structure of the cogeneration industry.

  9. Analysis and optmization of CHP, CCHP, CHP-ORC, and CCHP-ORC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueffed, Anna Kathrine

    Increased demand for energy, rising energy costs, and heightened environmental concerns are driving forces that continually press for the improvement and development of new technologies to promote energy savings and emissions reduction. Combined heating and power (CHP), combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP), and organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are a few of the technologies that promise to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC), cost, and emissions. CHP systems generate electricity at or near the place of consumption using a prime mover, e.g. a combustion engine or a turbine, and utilize the accompanying exhaust heat that would otherwise be wasted to satisfy the building's thermal demand. In the case of CCHP systems, exhaust heat also goes to satisfy a cooling load. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) combined with a CHP or CCHP system can generate electricity from any surplus low-grade heat, thereby reducing the total primary energy, cost, and emissions.

  10. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  11. Biodiesel Supplement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. What are the greatest challenges facing the biodiesel industry today? The greatest challenges are probably related to the amount of feedstock being available if the current expansion in biodiesel production and use continues. This challenge is addressed below under question 2 regarding the hur...

  12. Optimization of biodiesel supply chains based on small farmers: a case study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leão, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Hamacher, Silvio; Oliveira, Fabrício

    2011-10-01

    This article presents a methodology for conceiving and planning the development of an optimized supply chain of a biodiesel plant sourced from family farms and taking into consideration agricultural, logistic, industrial, and social aspects. This model was successfully applied to the production chain of biodiesel fuel from castor oil in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Results suggest important insights related to the optimal configuration of the crushing units, regarding its location, technology, and when it should be available, as well as the configuration of the production zones along the planning horizon considered. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to measure how possible variations in the considered conjecture can affect the robustness of the solutions. PMID:21816610

  13. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    PubMed

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel. PMID:25405926

  14. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  16. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs,more » etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.« less

  17. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs, etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.

  18. Biodiesel fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mono-alkyl esters, most commonly the methyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other materials consisting mainly of triacylglycerols, often referred to as biodiesel, are an alternative to conventional petrodiesel for use in compression-ignition engines. The fatty acid esters that thus com...

  19. A case study of real-world tailpipe emissions for school buses using a 20% biodiesel blend.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kuhns, Hampden D; Moosmüller, Hans; Witt, Jay; Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Oliver Chang, M-C; Parthasarathy, Gayathri; Nathagoundenpalayam, Suresh Kumar K; Nikolich, George; Watson, John G

    2007-10-15

    Numerous laboratory studies report carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emission reductions with a slight nitrogen oxides emission increase from engines operating with biodiesel and biodiesel blends as compared to using petroleum diesel. We conducted a field study on a fleet of school buses to evaluate the effects of biodiesel use on gaseous and particulate matter fuel-based emission factors under real-world conditions. The field experiment was carried out in two phases during winter 2004. In January (phase I), emissions from approximately 200 school buses operating on petroleum diesel were measured. Immediately after the end of the first phase measurement period, the buses were switched to a 20% biodiesel blend. Emission factors were measured again in March 2004 (phase II) and compared with the January emission factors. To measure gaseous emission factors we used a commercial gaseous remote sensor. Particulate matter emission factors were determined with a combination of the gaseous remote sensor, a Lidar (light detection and ranging), and transmissometer system developed at the Desert Research Institute of Reno, NV, U.S.A. Particulate matter emissions from school buses significantly increased (up to a factor of 1.8) after the switch from petroleum diesel to a 20% biodiesel blend. The fuel used during this campaign was provided by a local distributor and was independently analyzed at the end of the on-road experiment. The analysis found high concentrations of free glycerin and reduced flash points in the B 100 parent fuel. Both measures indicate improper separation and processing of the biodiesel product during production. The biodiesel fuels used in the school buses were not in compliance with the U.S.A. ASTM D6751 biodiesel standard that was finalized in December of 2001. The U.S.A. National Biodiesel Board has formed a voluntary National Biodiesel Accreditation Program for producers and marketers of biodiesel to ensure product quality and

  20. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed. PMID:25902752

  1. Are CHP Systems Ready for Commercial Buildings?

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Zaltash, Abdi; Sands, Jim

    2005-06-27

    This paper highlights challenges associated with integration of CHP systems with existing buildings and maintaining their performance over time. The paper also identifies key research and development needs to address the challenges, so that CHP technologies can deliver the promised performance and reach their full potential market penetration.

  2. Biodiesel and its properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a bio-based alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It consists mainly of the fatty acid esters of vegetable oils or other triacylglycerol feedstocks. This chapter provides a background on biodiesel as well as an overview of biodiesel production, analysis, and pr...

  3. An evaluation of a small-scale biodiesel production technology: Case study of Mango’o village, Center province, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Ioannis; Che, Franklin; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Bakirtzoglou, Vagios; Azangue, Willy; Bienvenue, Donatien; Ndipen, Frankline Mulluh

    It is an undeniable fact that isolated areas lack sufficient energy resources and that energy supply is central in order to achieve sustainable development goals. On the other hand, agricultural materials, whose trade profit fluctuates in low levels, are produced locally in wide range. As a result, the implementation of an alternative, more effective approach, which ensures the sustainability in social, economical and environmental dimension, is a crucial issue for developing countries. In this particular study, in order to cover the local energy needs, the possibility of installing a small biodiesel plant in a rural area of Cameroon, has been analyzed. The final biodiesel product can also be disposed directly to the market leading to an additional local income. In this paper, both the monthly potential of palm oil in Mango’o region and the recommended biodiesel production process are presented. Some significant benefits that can be achieved are independence from fossil fuels, mechanization of palm oil production process and additional prevention of local depopulation.

  4. Lesson Learned from Technical and Economic Performance Assessment and Benefit Evaluation of CHP-FCS

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Brooks, Kriston P.; Srivastava, Viraj; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-22

    Recent efforts and interest in combined heat and power (CHP) have increased with the momentum provided by the federal government support for penetration of CHP systems. Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and utilize the heat normally wasted in power generation for useful heating or cooling with lower emissions compared to alternative sources. A recent study investigated the utilization of CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50KWe in various commercial building types and geographic locations. Electricity, heating, and water heating demands were obtained from simulation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial reference building models for various building types. Utility rates, cost of equipment, and system efficiency were used to examine economic payback in different scenarios. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, CHP-FCSs are more expensive than alternative technologies, and the high capital cost of the CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than is typically acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, the installation of these units as on-site power generators also provide several other benefits that make them attractive to building owners and operators. The business case for CHP-FCSs can be made more financially attractive through the provision of government incentives and when installed to support strategic infrastructure, such as military installations or data centers. The results presented in this paper intend to provide policy makers with information to define more customized incentives and tax credits based on a sample of building types and geographic locations in order to attract more business investment in this new technology.

  5. Optimal PGU operation strategy in CHP systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyungtae

    Traditional power plants only utilize about 30 percent of the primary energy that they consume, and the rest of the energy is usually wasted in the process of generating or transmitting electricity. On-site and near-site power generation has been considered by business, labor, and environmental groups to improve the efficiency and the reliability of power generation. Combined heat and power (CHP) systems are a promising alternative to traditional power plants because of the high efficiency and low CO2 emission achieved by recovering waste thermal energy produced during power generation. A CHP operational algorithm designed to optimize operational costs must be relatively simple to implement in practice such as to minimize the computational requirements from the hardware to be installed. This dissertation focuses on the following aspects pertaining the design of a practical CHP operational algorithm designed to minimize the operational costs: (a) real-time CHP operational strategy using a hierarchical optimization algorithm; (b) analytic solutions for cost-optimal power generation unit operation in CHP Systems; (c) modeling of reciprocating internal combustion engines for power generation and heat recovery; (d) an easy to implement, effective, and reliable hourly building load prediction algorithm.

  6. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Plahn, Paul; Keene, Kevin; Pendray, John

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  7. Deployment of FlexCHP System

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, David

    2015-11-01

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), along with its partner Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, has developed and demonstrated an Ultra-Low-Nitrogen Oxide (ULN) Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that packages a state-of-the-art Capstone C65 gas microturbine and Johnston PFXX100 boiler with an innovative natural gas-fired supplemental burner. Supplemental burners add heat as needed in response to facility demand, which increases energy efficiency, but typically raises exhaust NOx levels, degrading local air quality unless a costly and complicated catalytic treatment system is added. The FlexCHP system increases energy efficiency and achieves the 2007 California Air Resource Board (CARB) distributed generation emissions standards for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without catalytic exhaust gas treatment. The key to this breakthrough performance is a simple and reliable burner design which utilizes staged combustion with engineered internal recirculation. This ULN burner system successfully uses turbine exhaust as an oxidizer, while achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. In tests at its laboratory facilities in Des Plaines, Illinois, GTI validated the ability of the system to achieve emissions of NOx, CO, and THC below the CARB criteria of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.02 lb/MW-h respectively. The FlexCHP system was installed at the field demonstration site, Inland Empire Foods, in Riverside, California to verify performance of the technology in an applied environment. The resulting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) package promises to make CHP implementation more attractive, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the reliability of electricity supply.

  8. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  9. Analysis of SMR Thermal Augmentation with CHP Turbine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Penev, Michael

    2013-08-21

    There are more than 4,400 distributed Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems installed in the United States. Distributed CHP systems typically use pipeline natural gas to make electricity and heat for buildings. Pipeline-delivered methane could also be used as a feedstock for making hydrogen fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) as part of a CHP system. Methane reformation technology, adapted and coupled to a CHP system for making hydrogen for FCEVs, could be dispensed at a CHP location thereby improving overall energy efficiency and reducing carbon emissions.

  10. Sustaining Operational Efficiency of a CHP System

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.

    2010-01-04

    This chapter provides background information on why sustaining operations of combined cooling, heating and power systems is important, provides the algorithms for CHP system performance monitoring and commissioning verification, and concludes with a discussion on how these algorithms can be deployed.

  11. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure. PMID:26179557

  12. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    SciTech Connect

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    This document was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) under its Technical Guidance and Assistance and Project Financing Programs. The purpose was to provide an estimate of the national potential for combined heat and power (also known as CHP; cogeneration; or cooling, heating, and power) applications at federal facilities and the associated costs and benefits including energy and emission savings. The report provides a broad overview for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies on when and where CHP systems are most likely to serve the government's best interest. FEMP's mission is to reduce the cost to and environmental impact of the federal government by advancing energy efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of renewable energy, and improving utility management decisions at federal sites. FEMP programs are driven by its customers: federal agency sites. FEMP monitors energy efficiency and renewable energy technology developments and mounts ''technology-specific'' programs to make technologies that are in strong demand by agencies more accessible. FEMP's role is often one of helping the federal government ''lead by example'' through the use of advanced energy efficiency/renewable energy (EERE) technologies in its own buildings and facilities. CHP was highlighted in the Bush Administration's National Energy Policy Report as a commercially available technology offering extraordinary benefits in terms of energy efficiencies and emission reductions. FEMP's criteria for emphasizing a technology are that it must be commercially available; be proven but underutilized; have a strong constituency and momentum; offer large energy savings and other benefits of interest to federal sites and FEMP mission; be in demand; and carry sufficient federal market potential. As discussed in the report, CHP meets all of these criteria. Executive Order 13123 directs federal facilities to use

  13. NMR analysis of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually analyzed by the various methods called for in standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is not one of these methods. However, NMR, with 1H-NMR commonly applied, can be useful in a variety of applications related to biodiesel. These include monit...

  14. ARS Biodiesel Research Initiatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel activities within ARS are concerned with the production, quality, and properties of this alternative fuel from agriculturally derived fats and oils. Currently, in the absence of tax incentives, biodiesel production when using refined fats and oils and conventional alkali transesterificati...

  15. Catalysis in biodiesel processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A substantial industry has grown in recent years to achieve the industrial scale production of biodiesel, a renewable replacement for petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The prevalent technology for biodiesel production at this time involves use of the long known single-use catalysts sodium hydroxide (o...

  16. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted. PMID:22085921

  17. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  18. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysko, Robert; Mikielewicz, Jarosław; Ihnatowicz, Eugeniusz

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  19. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  20. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  1. Biodiesel from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Unfortunately, biodiesel from oil crops, waste cooking oil and animal fat cannot realistically satisfy even a small fraction of the existing demand for transport fuels. As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Like plants, microalgae use sunlight to produce oils but they do so more efficiently than crop plants. Oil productivity of many microalgae greatly exceeds the oil productivity of the best producing oil crops. Approaches for making microalgal biodiesel economically competitive with petrodiesel are discussed. PMID:17350212

  2. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the homeowner

  3. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Biodiesel Standard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedi...

  4. Biodiesel production, properties and feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel has many important technical advantag...

  5. Business management for biodiesel producers

    SciTech Connect

    Gerpen, Jon Van

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  6. Biodiesel: Current Trends and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Several current issues affecting biodiesel that are briefly discussed include the role of new feedstocks in meeting increased demand for biodiesel and circumventing the...

  7. Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel for diesel engines is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by the chemical process of esterification. This paper presents a brief history of diesel engine technology and an overview of biodiesel, including performance characteristics, economics, and potential demand. The performance and economics of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.

  8. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, Randolph; Mosey, Gail

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  9. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  10. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  11. Forensic analysis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael R; Kaley, Elizabeth A; Finney, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of four different biodiesel blends, as well as homemade biodiesel prepared from vegetable oil, has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identification of methyl esters within the biodiesel along with any background components is made possible by recognizing their mass spectral fragmentation patterns. These fuels were subjected to typical fire scene environments, specifically weathering and microbial degradation, to investigate how these environments affect the analysis. A matrix study was also performed on wood, carpet, and clothing in order to identify any interferences from these substrates. The data obtained herein will provide the forensic science community with the data needed to help recognize these increasingly common ignitable liquids. PMID:27060442

  12. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  13. Experiences from operation of different expansion devices for application in domestic micro CHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikielewicsz, Dariusz; Mikielewicz, Jarosław; Wajs, Jan

    2010-10-01

    In the paper presented are experiences from operation of three different expansion devices for possible implementation in the domestic micro CHP. These were the modified scroll expander and two designs based on the variable working chamber volume pneumatic devices. Experiments showed the superiority of both "pneumatic devices" over the scroll expander, indicating the possible internal efficiencies in the range of 61 82Such efficiencies are very attractive, especially at the higher end of that range. The volume of these devices is much smaller than the scroll expander which makes it again more suitable for a domestic micro CHP. Small rotational velocities enable to conclude that connection to electricity grid will also be simpler in the case of "pneumatic devices". The "pneumatic devices" under scrutiny here could be an alternative to the typical vapour turbine in the ORC cycle, which is in the process of development at the IFFM.

  14. Why Teach about Biodiesel?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that study of biodiesel as a healthier alternative to petroleum diesel be included in the curriculum. Suggests that teachers will play a critical role during the transition away from fossil fuel technologies. Provides background information and web-based resources. (DLH)

  15. Biodiesel and renewable diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced from vegetable oil, animal fats or waste oils. The process used in its production is known as transesterification. If vegetable oils or animal fats are subjected to a process similar for making diesel fuel derived from petroleum, a fuel called renew...

  16. 2004 Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It is intended to fleets and individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel.

  17. CHP at Post Street in Downtown Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Stan

    2012-04-12

    The Post Street project had four (4), 7.960 MW, Solar Taurus-70-10801S natural gas combustion turbines. Each turbine equipped with a 40,000 lb/hr heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The dual-fuel HRSGs was capable of generating steam using gas turbine exhaust heat or surplus electric power. The generation capacity was nominally rated at 29.2 MW. The project as proposed had a fuel rate chargeable to power of 4,900 - 5,880 Btu/kWh dependent on time of year. The CHP plant, when operating at 29.2 MW, can recycle turbine exhaust into supply 145 kpph of steam to SSC per hour. The actual SSC steam loads will vary based on weather, building occupation, plus additions / reductions of customer load served. SSC produces up to 80 kpph of steam from a biomass boiler, which is currently base loaded all year.

  18. Rehabilitation of CHP in northern Moravia (CZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Mazae, V.; Nimec, V.; Karvina, T.; Novaeek, A.

    1997-12-31

    The most effective usage of fuel energy is the combined generation of electricity and heat. Energoprojekt participates in the preparation of many such projects in Czech Republic. The Rehabilitation of Teplarny Karvina, (TEK) is a working title for first stage of fundamental renewal and upgrading of CHP TEK which is under construction now. Its conception is based on maximum utilization of existing equipment focused upon the improvement of combined power and heat generation with the aim to decrease impacts on the environment. The district heating systems of towns Havi ov and Karvina will be interconnected which will improve the operation of systems and increase the reliability of heat supply into both systems. Rehabilitation of TEK consists of the installation of a condensing 37 MWe steam turbine with heat recovery including a 214 MWth heat exchanger station, hot water circulating station and other necessary equipment. The second stage of this project will be the new CHP. The new cogeneration plant called Karvina (EZK) has to assure the basic heating capacity for the integrated complex of two towns and three mines. The peak load of district heating is 426 MWth, the heating capacity of TEK is 266 MWth. This rate enables all-year operation, high effective utilization of the new power plant, and economical and ecological utilization of coal. The existing plants with the sufficient capacity will cooperate with the new plant during approximately half of the heating season. The principal equipment of the cogeneration unit EZK consists of two fluidized bed boilers with heating capacity of 309 MWth and a steam condensation turbine with heat recovery with a maximum output of 260 MWe or alternatively 2x125 MWe. The goals of the project are: increasing the generation of power, reducing the operation costs, keeping the new emission standards, improving the efficiency and reliability of the heat supplies and keeping position on the market.

  19. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a combined heat and power (CHP) demonstration project that reduces the energy costs and environmental impact of a plant while easing congestion on the constrained Northeast power grid.

  20. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  1. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production. PMID:21106371

  2. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to “grow” this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  3. Biochemical responses in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi) after short-term exposure to diesel oil, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lílian; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Oliveira, Thiago Yukio Kikuchi; da Rosa, Joel Maurício Correa; Felício, Andréia Arantes; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2013-09-01

    Biodiesel fuel is gradually replacing petroleum-based diesel oil use. Despite the biodiesel being considered friendlier to the environment, little is known about its effects in aquatic organisms. In this work we evaluated whether biodiesel exposure can affect oxidative stress parameters and biotransformation enzymes in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, Loricariidae), a South American endemic species. Thus, fish were exposed for 2 and 7d to 0.01mLL(-1) and 0.1mLL(-1) of pure diesel, pure biodiesel (B100) and blends of diesel with 5% (B5) and 20% (B20) biodiesel. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) levels and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in liver and gills. Also, DNA damage (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) levels in gills and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver were assessed. Pure diesel, B5 and B20 blends changed most of the enzymes tested and in some cases, B5 and B20 induced a higher enzyme activity than pure diesel. Antioxidant system activation in P. anisitsi was effective to counteract reactive oxygen species effects, since DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were maintained at basal levels after all treatments. However, fish gills exposed to B20 and B100 presented increased lipid peroxidation. Despite biodiesel being more biodegradable fuel that emits less greenhouse gases, the increased lipid peroxidation showed that biofuel and its blends also represent hazards to aquatic biota. PMID:23726006

  4. The State High Biodiesel Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  5. Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

  6. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  7. Biodiesel lubricity and other properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an “alternative” diesel fuel that is becoming accepted in a steadily growing number of countries worldwide. Since the source of biodiesel varies with the location, and other sources such as recycled oils are continuousl...

  8. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of biodiesel blends on Benzo[a]pyrene and main emissions using MOVES: A case study in Temuco, Chile.

    PubMed

    Pino-Cortés, Ernesto; Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Cubillos, Francisco; Fu, Joshua S; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-12-15

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke polluted cities in Chile; however, the diesel mobile sources are growing very fast in the past 10 years and so far very few studies have been done. The main goal of this research was to develop a 2013 emission inventory of criteria pollutants and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to evaluate the use of six biodiesel blends of 0%, 1%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 20% by volume of fuel in diesel motors from the vehicle fleet within the mentioned areas using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). Input parameters for the base year 2005 were estimated to implement and adapt the model in Chile, while results of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NH3, CO2 equivalent and SO2 were compared with the Chilean Emission Inventory estimated by the model "Methodology for the Calculation of Vehicle Emissions." The 2013 emissions reduced with respect to 2005, in the majority of the contaminants analyzed, despite the 47% increase in the annual miles traveled. Using biodiesel blends, an emission reduction was estimated at up to 15% in particulate matter, BaP, and CO for the year 2013, as well as an increment of 2% in NOx emissions, attributed to low sulfur content (50 ppm) in the diesel and the antiquity of the vehicle fleet. The results obtained gave evidence of the influence of the biodiesel use in the pollutant emissions to improve the Chilean air quality, as well as providing a strategy for this air quality management. PMID:26282769

  10. Monitoring and Commissioning Verification Algorithms for CHP Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Jiang, Wei

    2008-03-31

    This document provides the algorithms for CHP system performance monitoring and commissioning verification (CxV). It starts by presenting system-level and component-level performance metrics, followed by descriptions of algorithms for performance monitoring and commissioning verification, using the metric presented earlier. Verification of commissioning is accomplished essentially by comparing actual measured performance to benchmarks for performance provided by the system integrator and/or component manufacturers. The results of these comparisons are then automatically interpreted to provide conclusions regarding whether the CHP system and its components have been properly commissioned and where problems are found, guidance is provided for corrections. A discussion of uncertainty handling is then provided, which is followed by a description of how simulations models can be used to generate data for testing the algorithms. A model is described for simulating a CHP system consisting of a micro-turbine, an exhaust-gas heat recovery unit that produces hot water, a absorption chiller and a cooling tower. The process for using this model for generating data for testing the algorithms for a selected set of faults is described. The next section applies the algorithms developed to CHP laboratory and field data to illustrate their use. The report then concludes with a discussion of the need for laboratory testing of the algorithms on a physical CHP systems and identification of the recommended next steps.

  11. Enzymatic approach to biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2007-10-31

    The need for alternative energy sources that combine environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity, renewability, and less dependence on petroleum products has never been greater. One such energy source is referred to as biodiesel. This can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, microalgal oils, waste products of vegetable oil refinery or animal rendering, and used frying oils. Chemically, they are known as monoalkyl esters of fatty acids. The conventional method for producing biodiesel involves acid and base catalysts to form fatty acid alkyl esters. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods and alternative substrates. Enzymatic reactions involving lipases can be an excellent alternative to produce biodiesel through a process commonly referred to alcoholysis, a form of transesterification reaction, or through an interesterification (ester interchange) reaction. Protein engineering can be useful in improving the catalytic efficiency of lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production. The use of recombinant DNA technology to produce large quantities of lipases, and the use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells, may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. In addition, the enzymatic approach is environmentally friendly, considered a "green reaction", and needs to be explored for industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:17902621

  12. Meta-Analysis of Soybean-based Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sieverding, Heidi L; Bailey, Lisa M; Hengen, Tyler J; Clay, David E; Stone, James J

    2015-07-01

    Biofuel policy changes in the United States have renewed interest in soybean [ (L.) Merr.] biodiesel. Past studies with varying methodologies and functional units can provide valuable information for future work. A meta-analysis of nine peer-reviewed soybean life cycle analysis (LCA) biodiesel studies was conducted on the northern Great Plains in the United States. Results of LCA studies were assimilated into a standardized system boundary and functional units for global warming (GWP), eutrophication (EP), and acidification (AP) potentials using biodiesel conversions from peer-reviewed and government documents. Factors not fully standardized included variations in NO accounting, mid- or end-point impacts, land use change, allocation, and statistical sampling pools. A state-by-state comparison of GWP lower and higher heating values (LHV, HHV) showed differences attributable to variations in spatial sampling and agricultural practices (e.g., tillage, irrigation). The mean GWP of LHV was 21.1 g·CO-eq MJ including outliers, and median EP LHV and AP LHV was 0.019 g·PO-eq MJ and 0.17 g·SO-eq MJ, respectively, using the limited data available. An LCA case study of South Dakota soybean-based biodiesel production resulted in GWP estimates (29 or 31 g·CO-eq MJ; 100% mono alkyl esters [first generation] biodiesel or 100% fatty acid methyl ester [second generation] biodiesel) similar to meta-analysis results (30.1 g·CO-eq MJ). Meta-analysis mean results, including outliers, resemble the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard for soybean biodiesel default value without land use change of 21.25 g·CO-eq MJ. Results were influenced by resource investment differences in water, fertilizer (e.g., type, application), and tillage. Future biofuel LCA studies should include these important factors to better define reasonable energy variations in regional agricultural management practices. PMID:26437085

  13. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  14. Novel 1H low field nuclear magnetic resonance applications for the field of biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biodiesel production has increased dramatically over the last decade, raising the need for new rapid and non-destructive analytical tools and technologies. 1H Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) applications, which offer great potential to the field of biodiesel, have been developed by the Phyto Lipid Biotechnology Lab research team in the last few years. Results Supervised and un-supervised chemometric tools are suggested for screening new alternative biodiesel feedstocks according to oil content and viscosity. The tools allowed assignment into viscosity groups of biodiesel-petrodiesel samples whose viscosity is unknown, and uncovered biodiesel samples that have residues of unreacted acylglycerol and/or methanol, and poorly separated and cleaned glycerol and water. In the case of composite materials, relaxation time distribution, and cross-correlation methods were successfully applied to differentiate components. Continuous distributed methods were also applied to calculate the yield of the transesterification reaction, and thus monitor the progress of the common and in-situ transesterification reactions, offering a tool for optimization of reaction parameters. Conclusions Comprehensive applied tools are detailed for the characterization of new alternative biodiesel resources in their whole conformation, monitoring of the biodiesel transesterification reaction, and quality evaluation of the final product, using a non-invasive and non-destructive technology that is new to the biodiesel research area. A new integrated computational-experimental approach for analysis of 1H LF-NMR relaxometry data is also presented, suggesting improved solution stability and peak resolution. PMID:23590829

  15. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  16. The use of combined heat and power (CHP) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Asrael, J.; Milmoe, P.H.; Haydel, J.

    1999-07-01

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential production of electric power and thermal energy. It is a more efficient way of providing electricity and process heat than producing them independently. Average overall efficiencies can range from 70% to more than 80%. CHP decisions often present an opportunity to switch to a cleaner fuel. CHP systems are an attractive opportunity to save money, increase overall efficiency, reduce net emissions, and improve environmental performance. Climate Wise, a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) program helping industrial Partners turn energy efficiency and pollution prevention into a corporate asset, has increased awareness of CHP by providing implementation and savings information, providing peer exchange opportunities for its Partners, and recognizing the achievements of Partners that have implemented CHP at their facilities. This paper profiles Climate Wise Partners that have invested in CHP systems, including describing how CHP is used in their facilities and the resulting cost and emission reductions.

  17. CHP plant can do a power of good.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    With mounting pressure on hospitals and other healthcare facilities to reduce their energy bills, coupled with the need to reduce their carbon footprint, developer and supplier of combined heat and power systems Cogenco argues that adding CHP plant to existing energy generation equipment such as gas boilers has never made greater financial sense. Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:19911560

  18. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  19. Fuel and physical properties of biodiesel components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used oils. Specifically, biodiesel is the methyl or other alkyl esters of these oils or fats. Biodiesel also contains minor components such as free fatty acids and acylglycerols. Important fuel properties of biodi...

  20. Cold Flow Properties and Performance of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is defined as a fatty acid alkyl ester mixture obtained by reacting vegetable oil or fat with a short chain (C1-C4) alcohol. The cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on the fatty acid composition of its feedstock as well as alcohol chain-length. Increasing biodiesel production in the...

  1. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ. PMID:25164337

  2. Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.

    2015-11-01

    Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.

  3. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    SciTech Connect

    Pauls, R. E.

    2011-05-01

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  4. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications - Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Zogg

    2011-03-14

    The objective of the Micro-CHP Phase I effort was to develop a conceptual design for a Micro-CHP system including: Defining market potential; Assessing proposed technology; Developing a proof-of-principle design; and Developing a commercialization strategy. TIAX LLC assembled a team to develop a Micro-CHP system that will provide electricity and heating. TIAX, the contractor and major cost-share provider, provided proven expertise in project management, prime-mover design and development, appliance development and commercialization, analysis of residential energy loads, technology assessment, and market analysis. Kohler Company, the manufacturing partner, is a highly regarded manufacturer of standby power systems and other residential products. Kohler provides a compellingly strong brand, along with the capabilities in product development, design, manufacture, distribution, sales, support, service, and marketing that only a manufacturer of Kohler's status can provide. GAMA, an association of appliance and equipment manufacturers, provided a critical understanding of appliance commercialization issues, including regulatory requirements, large-scale market acceptance issues, and commercialization strategies. The Propane Education & Research Council, a cost-share partner, provided cost share and aided in ensuring the fuel flexibility of the conceptual design. Micro-CHP systems being commercialized in Europe and Japan are generally designed to follow the household thermal load, and generate electricity opportunistically. In many cases, any excess electricity can be sold back to the grid (net metering). These products, however, are unlikely to meet the demands of the U.S. market. First, these products generally cannot provide emergency power when grid power is lost--a critical feature to market success in the U.S. Even those that can may have insufficient electric generation capacities to meet emergency needs for many U.S. homes. Second, the extent to which net metering

  5. Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Haws, R.; Wright, B.; Reese, D.; Moeller, G.; Peterson, C.

    1995-12-31

    Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO{sub 2} evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO{sub 2} evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO{sub 2} evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO{sub 2}. The test substances were examined for BOD{sub 5} and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD{sub 5} and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD{sub 5} and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p << 0.01. RME was also significantly lower than REE (p < 0.05) and MS (p < 0.01) for BOD{sub 5} value.

  6. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in cost of petroleum fuels has caused an increased interest in alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the end of 2006. This rapid growt...

  7. Optimizing biodiesel composition and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel prepared from vegetable oils, animal fats or other oil-containing materials. While it is technically competitive with conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum, some of its fuel properties still require improvement. This article briefly summarizes the t...

  8. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  9. Biodiesel production using heterogenous catalyst

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAG) to produce biodiesel is based on the homogenous catalyst method using strong base such as hydroxides or methoxides. However, this method results in a number of problems: (1) acid pre-treatment is required of feedstocks high in free fatty ac...

  10. The Analysis of Biodiesel Oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stability is one of the major technical issues facing biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used frying oils. The content of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with bis-allylic methylene positions, is the main cause of this problem. Besi...

  11. Accelerated oxidation processes is biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Canakci, M.; Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J.

    1999-12-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oil and animal fats. These feedstocks are reacted with an alcohol to produce alkyl monoesters that can be used in conventional diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel, especially if produced from highly unsaturated oils, oxidizes more rapidly than diesel fuel. This article reports the results of experiments to track the chemical and physical changes that occur in biodiesel as it oxidizes. These results show the impact of time, oxygen flow rate, temperature, metals, and feedstock type on the rate of oxidation. Blending with diesel fuel and the addition of antioxidants are explored also. The data indicate that without antioxidants, biodiesel will oxidize very quickly at temperatures typical of diesel engines. This oxidation results in increases in peroxide value, acid value, and viscosity. While the peroxide value generally reaches a plateau of about 350 meq/kg ester, the acid value and viscosity increase monotonically as oxidation proceeds.

  12. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continual rise in demand for and cost of petroleum fuels has resulted in an increased demand for alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the e...

  13. Biodiesel Production, Properties, and Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Produced by transesterification of vegetable oils, animal fats, waste greases, and other lipid-containing materials with a monohydric alc...

  14. The rv1184c Locus Encodes Chp2, an Acyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Polyacyltrehalose Lipid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Touchette, Megan H.; Holsclaw, Cynthia M.; Previti, Mary L.; Solomon, Viven C.; Leary, Julie A.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    Trehalose glycolipids are found in many bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae, but methyl-branched acyltrehaloses are exclusive to virulent species such as the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In M. tuberculosis, the acyltransferase PapA3 catalyzes the formation of diacyltrehalose (DAT), but the enzymes responsible for downstream reactions leading to the final product, polyacyltrehalose (PAT), have not been identified. The PAT biosynthetic gene locus is similar to that of another trehalose glycolipid, sulfolipid 1. Recently, Chp1 was characterized as the terminal acyltransferase in sulfolipid 1 biosynthesis. Here we provide evidence that the homologue Chp2 (Rv1184c) is essential for the final steps of PAT biosynthesis. Disruption of chp2 led to the loss of PAT and a novel tetraacyltrehalose species, TetraAT, as well as the accumulation of DAT, implicating Chp2 as an acyltransferase downstream of PapA3. Disruption of the putative lipid transporter MmpL10 resulted in a similar phenotype. Chp2 activity thus appears to be regulated by MmpL10 in a relationship similar to that between Chp1 and MmpL8 in sulfolipid 1 biosynthesis. Chp2 is localized to the cell envelope fraction, consistent with its role in DAT modification and possible regulatory interactions with MmpL10. Labeling of purified Chp2 by an activity-based probe was dependent on the presence of the predicted catalytic residue Ser141 and was inhibited by the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). THL treatment of M. tuberculosis resulted in selective inhibition of Chp2 over PapA3, confirming Chp2 as a member of the serine hydrolase superfamily. Efforts to produce in vitro reconstitution of acyltransferase activity using straight-chain analogues were unsuccessful, suggesting that Chp2 has specificity for native methyl-branched substrates. PMID:25331437

  15. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. PMID:26133477

  16. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

  17. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

  18. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  19. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect

    Mago, Pedro; Newell, LeLe

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  20. A Pilot Evaluation of Small Group Challenging Horizons Program (CHP): A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Smith, Bradley H.; Bogle, Kristin E.; Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Cole, Wesley R.; Pender, Carolyn A. S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an after-school program, the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP), that met four days a week and focused on improving organization, academic skills, and classroom behavior. The CHP was compared with a community control that included involvement in a district-run after-school program that met one to three days a…

  1. Evidence for separate substrate binding sites for hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in the oxidation of ethanol by catalase

    SciTech Connect

    DeMaster, E.G.; Nagasawa,ss H.T.

    1986-03-01

    The oxidation of ethanol by purified bovine liver catalase (Sigma, C-40) can be supported by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or by CHP. The time course of the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ supported reaction (using glucose/glucose oxidase as the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ source) was linear for at least one hr, whereas the rate of acetaldehyde formation in the CHP (4.2 mM) supported reaction decreased with time. When catalase was exposed o CHP for 5 min before the addition of ethanol, the rate of CHP supported ethanol oxidation was reduced by more than 90% compared to incubations where the addition of ethanol preceded that of CHP. In the CHP inhibited state, the peroxidative activity of catalase was not restored by further addition of CHP or ethanol; however, addition of fresh catalase yielded its expected activity. Significantly, the CHP inhibited enzyme was equally effective as the untreated enzyme in catalyzing (a) the oxidation of ethanol in the presence H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ supported peroxidative activity as well as catalytic activity by CHP inhibited catalase points to separate binding sites for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and CHP in this reaction. Alternatively, CHP may bind adjacent to a common peroxide active site, thereby sterically impeding the binding of CHP - but not of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ - to this active site.

  2. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  3. Behind the chlamydial cloak: The replication cycle of chlamydiaphage Chp2, revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Salim, Omar; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Fane, Bentley A.; Clarke, Ian N.

    2008-08-01

    Studying the replication of the chlamydiaphages presents significant challenges. Their host bacteria, chlamydiae, have a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. Using qPCR, immunochemistry, and electron microscopy, the life cycle of chlamydiaphage Chp2 was characterised. Chp2 infection has a dramatic inhibitory effect on bacterial cell division. The RB to EB transition is arrested and RBs enlarge without further division. There is a phase of rapid Chp2 genome replication 36 to 48 h post infection that is coincident with the expression of viral proteins and the replication of the host chromosome. The end stage of Chp2 replication is characterised by the appearance of paracrystalline structures followed by bacterial cell lysis. These data indicate that the Chp2 life cycle is closely coordinated with the developmental cycle of its bacterial host. This is a remarkable adaptation by a microvirus to infect and replicate in a bacterial host that has an obligate intracellular developmental cycle.

  4. Effect of Biodiesel on Thermal NO Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraja, J.; Mehta, P. S.

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative to diesel fuel which is renewable in nature. This fuel has excellent lubricity, low smoke and potential for replacement of fossil diesel without major engine modifications or requirement of any additives. However, a higher nitric oxide (NO) emission from biodiesel is widely cited as their undesired emission characteristics. The present study analyses and describes the various reasons for higher NO formation with biodiesel relative to diesel fuel. To explore this so called biodiesel NO penalty, experiments were conducted on a four cylinder compression ignition engine with neat Karanja biodiesel and fossil diesel. Neat Karanja implies an unblended pure biodiesel. The experimental NO concentration with biodiesel and diesel fuel is validated using extended Zeldovich mechanism. Results suggest that the increase in NO emission with biodiesel fuel could not be opined to a change in a single fuel property but rather, it is the result of a number of coupled pathways whose effects may dominate or cancel one another under different conditions, depending on biodiesel compositional characteristics.

  5. Understanding Biodiesel Fuel Quality and Performances

    SciTech Connect

    Weiksner, P. E., J.M. Sr.

    2003-12-12

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with sufficient information to understand Biodiesel fuel quality and the effect various quality parameters have on diesel equipment performance. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, recycled cooking greases and animal fat. The American Society of Testing Material test methods are used as a basis for drawing comparisons between regular diesel fuel and Biodiesel. Failure to control the processes for manufacturing, blending and storage of Biodiesel can lead to performance problems in all types of diesel fueled equipment.

  6. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  7. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and

  8. A study of performance and emission characteristics of computerized CI engine with composite biodiesel blends as fuel at various injection pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogish, H.; Chandarshekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils are becoming increasingly important as alternative fuels for diesel engines due to several advantages. Biodiesel is a renewable, inexhaustible and green fuel. This paper presents the various properties of the oils derived from Jatropha and Pongamia, their mixes and biodiesels derived from the mixes. An innovative lab scale reactor was designed and developed for biodiesel production from mixed vegetable oils and used for the study of optimization of biodiesel yield [1]. Also, the analysis of data of experimental investigations carried out on a 3.75 kW computerized CI engine at injection pressures of 160 and 180 bar with methyl esters of mixed Jatropha and Pongamia in various proportions are also presented. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel blends was found to be higher than that of petrodiesel at various loading conditions. In case of Composite biodiesel blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and the amount of composite biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 213 °C for biodiesel among the five loading conditions. When petrodiesel was used the exhaust gas temperature was observed to be 220 °C. The CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the biodiesel blends were lower than that of petrodiesel.

  9. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  10. Antioxidants for improving storage stability of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oil or animal fat that may be burned in a compression-ignition (diesel) engine. The chemical nature of biodiesel makes it more susceptible to oxidation or autoxidation during long-term storage than conventional petroleum-based diesel (petr...

  11. Lubricity studies with biodiesel and related compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, possesses excellent lubricity. This feature has rendered biodiesel of special interest for blending with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels with poor lubricity. However, some minor components, mainly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, of ...

  12. Promoting Scientific and Technological Literacy: Teaching Biodiesel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on biodiesel from a socio-critical chemistry teaching approach aimed at improving student participation and decision making. Explores the use of biodiesel (chemically changed vegetable oils), especially in Europe. The unit proved to be successful as students participated enthusiastically and social and scientific goals were…

  13. Applications of NMR to Biodiesel Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used frying oils, is technically competitive with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Technical issues facing biodiesel include oxidative stability, improvement of cold flow properties and reduction of nitrogen oxides exha...

  14. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Critical Comparison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several types of fuels can be obtained from lipid feedstocks. These include biodiesel and what is termed renewable diesel. While biodiesel retains the ester moiety occurring in triacylglycerols in converted form as mono-alkyl esters, the composition of renewable diesel, hydrocarbons, emulates that ...

  15. Fuel Properties and Performance of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When being used as "alternative" diesel fuel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats are referred to as biodiesel. Biodiesel is playing an increasingly important role in the fuel landscape, with production and use growing exponentially and standards established around the world. Co...

  16. Cold weather properties and performance of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oil or animal fat that can be employed in compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel is more prone to start-up and operability problems during cold weather than conventional diesel fuels (petrodiesel). This work reviews impacts that exposu...

  17. Biodiesel With Optimized Fatty Ester Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is largely composed of the mono-alkyl esters, usually methyl esters, of vegetable oils or animal fats with its fatty acid profile corresponding to that of the parent oil or fat. The different fatty esters have varying properties of relevance to biodiesel. The feedstock-dependent variatio...

  18. NOVEL REACTOR DESIGN FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to scale-up a novel reactor for producing Biodiesel from alternative feedstocks. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can be produced from a wide variety of plant oils, animal oils and waste oils from food processing. The conventional feedstocks fo...

  19. Some Aspects of Biodiesel Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, an "alternative" diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animals fats or used frying oils, largely consists of the mono-alkyl esters of the fatty acids comprising these feedstocks. One major technical issue facing biodiesel is its susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to oxygen in a...

  20. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:27240231

  1. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota. PMID:25770465

  2. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. PMID:25045158

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacillus borstelensis cifa_chp40, a Thermophilic Strain Having Biotechnological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Sen, Rinil; Maji, Ushajyoti; Samanta, Mrinal; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Brevibacillus borstelensis cifa_chp40 is a thermophilic, strictly aerobic gram positive motile bacteria isolated from the alkaline hot water spring located in the Eastern Ghats zone of India. It could grow in a wide range of temperature and degrade low-density polythene at 37°C. The strain cifa_chp40 produces essential enzymes like protease, lipase, esterase and amidase at 50°C. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. borstelensis cifa_chp40 which will provide further insight into the metabolic capabilities, function and evolution of this important organism. PMID:26958091

  4. Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

    1999-07-01

    The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.

  5. Determination of the biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends: a method based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Marisa D; Oliveira, Samuel L; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Caires, Anderson R L

    2011-05-01

    Blends of biodiesel and diesel are being used increasingly worldwide because of environmental, economic, and social considerations. Several countries use biodiesel blends with different blending limits. Therefore, it is necessary to develop or improve methods to quantify the biodiesel level in a diesel/biodiesel blend, to ensure compliance with legislation. The optical technique based on the absorption of light in the mid-infrared has been successful for this application. However, this method presents some challenges that must be overcome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, based on fluorescence spectroscopy, to determine the biodiesel content in the diesel/biodiesel blend, which allows in loco measurements by using portable systems. The results showed that this method is both practical and more sensitive than the standard optical method. PMID:21213028

  6. Development of a Packaged and Integrated Microturbine/ Chiller Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to define, develop, integrate, and validate at full scale the technology for a 1 MWe, microturbine-driven CHP packaged system for industrial or large commercial applications.

  7. Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap: Meeting 21st Century Residential Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-01

    On June 11-12, 2003, at Greenbelt, Maryland, key stakeholders from industry, government agencies, universities, and others involved in combined heat and power and the residential buildings industry explores solutions to technical, institutional, and market barriers facing micro-combined heat and power systems (mCHP). Participants outlined a desired future for mCHP systems, identified specific interim technology cost and performance targets, and developed actions to achieve the interim targets and vision. This document, The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, is a result of their deliberations. It outlines a set of actions that can be pursued by both the government and industry to develop mCHP appliances for creating a new approach for households to meet their energy needs.

  8. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  9. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  10. Speciation and quantification of vapor phases in soy biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Dai, Yu-Tung

    2006-12-01

    This study characterizes the compositions of two biodiesel vapors, soy biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel, to provide a comprehensive understanding of biodiesels. Vapor phases were sampled by purging oil vapors through thermal desorption tubes which were then analyzed by the thermal desorption/GC/MS system. The results show that the compounds of biodiesel vapors can be divided into four groups. They include methyl esters (the main biodiesel components), oxygenated chemicals, alkanes and alkenes, and aromatics. The first two chemical groups are only found in biodiesel vapors, not in the diesel vapor emissions. The percentages of mean concentrations for methyl esters, oxygenated chemicals, alkanes and alkenes, and aromatics are 66.1%, 22.8%, 4.8% and 6.4%, respectively for soy biodiesel, and 35.8%, 35.9%, 27.9% and 0.3%, respectively for waste cooking oil biodiesel at a temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C. These results show that biodiesels have fewer chemicals and lower concentrations in vapor phase than petroleum diesel, and the total emission rates are between one-sixteenth and one-sixth of that of diesel emission, corresponding to fuel evaporative emissions of loading losses of between 106 microg l(-1) and 283 microg l(-1). Although diesels generate more vapor phase emissions, biodiesels still generate considerable amount of vapor emissions, particularly the emissions from methyl esters and oxygenated chemicals. These two chemical groups are more reactive than alkanes and aromatics. Therefore, speciation and quantification of biodiesel vapor phases are important. PMID:16904162

  11. Biodiesel: Small Scale Production and Quality Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gerpen, Jon

    Biodiesel is produced by reacting vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The resulting methyl esters, which are the biodiesel fuel, are separated from the by-product glycerin, and then washed with water and dehydrated to produce fuel that must meet standardized specifications. Degraded oils containing high levels of free fatty acids can also be converted to biodiesel, but pretreatment with acid-catalyzed esterification is required. The resulting fuel is suitable for use as a neat fuel in diesel engines or blended with conventional diesel fuel.

  12. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  13. A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodiesel production under supercritical conditions among methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) was compared in order to elucidate the differences in their reaction behavior. A continuous reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (270-400 °C) and reaction times (3-30 min) and at a fixed pressure of 20 MPa and an oil-to-reactant molar ratio of 1:40. The results showed that under the same reaction conditions, the supercritical methanol method provided the highest yield of biodiesel. At 350 °C and 20 MPa, canola oil was completely converted to biodiesel after 10, 30, and 30 min in the case of - supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE, respectively. The reaction kinetics of biodiesel production was also compared for supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE. PMID:26004381

  14. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  15. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources. PMID:15930560

  16. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  17. Engineering challenges in biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Ana-Maria; Bassi, Amarjeet; Saxena, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the not too distant exhaustion of fossil fuels is becoming apparent. Apart from this, the combustion of fossil fuels leads to environmental concerns, the emission of greenhouse gases and issues with global warming and health problems. Production of biodiesel from microalgae may represent an attractive solution to the above mentioned problems, and can offer a renewable source of fuel with fewer pollutants. This review presents a compilation of engineering challenges related to microalgae as a source of biodiesel. Advantages and current limitations for biodiesel production are discussed; some aspects of algae cells biology, with emphasis on cell wall composition, as it represents a barrier for fatty acid extraction and lipid droplets are also presented. In addition, recent advances in the different stages of the manufacturing process are included, starting from the strain selection and finishing in the processing of fatty acids into biodiesel. PMID:22804334

  18. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. PMID:20580809

  19. Physicochemical characterization of dilute n-alcohol/biodiesel mixtures by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bobbitt, N Scott; King, Jerry W

    2010-12-10

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been used to determine the physicochemical parameters that characterize solution thermodynamic interactions in biodiesel-n-alcohol solute systems. Such data is of value to chemical engineers and separation scientists in optimizing separation processes to separate alcoholic solutes at low concentrations in soybean oil methyl ester mixtures (biodiesel). The derived activity and Henry's Law coefficient data can be used to rationalize the interaction of four members of an n-alcoholic homologous series and the soya-based methyl ester solvent in terms of such esters as "green" renewable solvents. Sorption isotherm data confirm linear behavior in most cases between the solute (alcohol) vapor state concentrations and their uptake into the biodiesel phase. Overall, the experimentally determined activity coefficients agree well with those predicted by solution thermodynamic theories as well as correlative chemical engineering equations. PMID:21067759

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Bio-diesel Production—A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R.; Sharma, V.; Mukherjee, S.; Kumar, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work deals with the comparative analysis of environmental impacts of bio-diesel produced from Jatropha curcas, Rapeseed and Palm oil by applying the life cycle assessment and eco-efficiency concepts. The environmental impact indicators considered in the present paper include global warming potential (GWP, CO2 equivalent), acidification potential (AP, SO2 equivalent) and eutrophication potential (EP, NO3 equivalent). Different weighting techniques have been used to present and evaluate the environmental characteristics of bio-diesel. With the assistance of normalization values, the eco-efficiency was demonstrated in this work. The results indicate that the energy consumption of bio-diesel production is lowest in Jatropha while AP and EP are more in case of Jatropha than that of Rapeseed and Palm oil.

  1. Preparation of Yeast Hydrolysate Enriched in Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Evaluation of Its Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Son, Heung Soo; Park, Chung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to enrich cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) using enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast and to evaluate the functionality of yeast hydrolysate (YH)-enriched CHP. Flavourzyme offered a better performance in enhancing CHP content than other proteases. The CHP enrichment conditions were optimized as follows: addition of 1% Flavourzyme, 48-h incubation at 60°C, and pH 6.0. The CHP content significantly increased by 20-fold after ultra-filtration (UF). Maximal CHP translation was obtained after heating for 8 h at 50°C and pH 7.0. YH showed poor foaming capacity between pH 3.0 to 9.0. The emulsifying activities of YHs were slightly higher at near acidic pH. Increase in heating temperature and time resulted in decreased CHP content. The results indicate that YH is more heat stable after UF. Therefore, the CHP in YH after UF can be used as a food additive with physiological CHP activity and high heat stability. PMID:26770916

  2. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  3. INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURE OF ESTERS OF FATTY ACIDS ON BIODIESEL FUEL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is becoming a well-established "alternative" diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. This fuel is being produced and used commercially in numerous countries around the world. In almost all cases, the vegetable oil or animal fat is transesterified with methanol to give the...

  4. The identification and quantification of steryl glucosides in precipitates from commercial biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been several experiences of the occurrence of precipitates in manufacturing facilities, transport vessels, and storage tanks containing biodiesel. In some cases these have been formed during storage at temperatures above the cloud point of the fuel. High performance liquid chromatograph...

  5. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  6. Five Approaches to Improving the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Including "Designer" Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils or animal fats or used cooking oils by a transesterification reaction with an alcohol, usually methanol, to give the corresponding mono-alkyl esters with glycerol as co-product. With a few exceptions, most common biodiesel feedstocks possess fatty a...

  7. Biodiesel from alternative oilseed feedstocks: camelina and field pennycress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyl esters derived from plant oils or animal fats, is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel possesses several technical advanta...

  8. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel. PMID:27209457

  9. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: A PRELIMINARY INVENTORY OF ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Eight Regional CHP Application Centers (RACs) are funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies in all 50 states. The RACs build end-user awareness by providing CHP-related information to targeted markets through education and outreach; they work with the states and regulators to encourage the creation and adoption of favorable public policies; and they provide CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. The RACs were started by DOE as a pilot program in 2001 to support the National CHP Roadmap developed by industry to accelerate deployment of energy efficient CHP technologies (U.S. Combined Heat and Power Association 2001). The intent was to foster a regional presence to build market awareness, address policy issues, and facilitate project development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported DOE with the RAC program since its inception. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort involving DOE and some CHP industry stakeholders to establish quantitative metrics for measuring the RACs accomplishments. This effort incorporated the use of logic models to define and describe key RAC activities, outputs, and outcomes. Based on this detailed examination of RAC operations, potential metrics were identified associated with the various key sectors addressed by the RACs: policy makers; regulatory agencies; investor owned utilities; municipal and cooperative utilities; financiers; developers; and end users. The final product was reviewed by a panel of representatives from DOE, ORNL, RACs, and the private sector. The metrics developed through this effort focus on major RAC activities as well as on CHP installations and related outcomes. All eight RACs were contacted in August 2008 and asked to provide data for every year of Center operations for those metrics on which they kept records. In addition, data on CHP installations and

  10. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  11. Supervisory Feed-Forward Control for Real-Time Topping Cycle CHP Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Chamra, Louay M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents an energy dispatch algorithm for real-time topping cycle Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) operation for buildings with the objective of minimizing the operational cost, primary energy consumption (PEC), or carbon dioxide emission (CDE). The algorithm features a supervisory feed-forward control for real-time CHP operation using short-term weather forecasting. The advantages of the proposed control scheme for CHP operation are (a) relatively simple and efficient implementation allowing realistic real-time operation , (b) optimized CHP operation with respect to operational cost, PEC, or CDE, and (c) increased site-energy consumption (SEC) resulting in less dependence on the electric grid. In the feed-forward portion of the control scheme, short-term electric, cooling, and heating loads are predicted using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) benchmark small office building model. The results are encouraging regarding the potential saving of operational cost, PEC, and CDE from using the control system for a CHP system with electric and thermal energy storages.

  12. Research of Operation Modes of Heat Storage Tank in CHP Plant Using Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streckiene, Giedre; Miseviciute, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    The installation of a heat storage tank is a very cost-effective way to improve the performance and flexibility of a CHP plant. Such a heat storage tank usually accumulates heat by thermal stratification. This phenomenon is caused by the thermal buoyancy because of the difference in temperature between cold and hot water. The heat storage tank may have three operating modes, i. e. charge, discharge and storage in a CHP plant. When CHP units, which charge the heat storage tank, operate at full load, usually only two operation modes occur in the tank, i.e. charge and discharge. The paper presents numerical simulation of heat storage tank operation modes in a CHP plant using PHOENICS - a multi-purpose computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional transient models were created and solved numerically. Three domain grids were tested. Several charging and discharging processes with different flow rates were simulated. The influence of flow rate on the degree of thermal stratification during charging and discharging processes is analyzed. The computation possibilities and limitations of the numerical experiments are pointed out. Special attention is given to the validation of the numerical solutions. The validation of simulated results is made by comparison with the real data from the heat storage installed in the Hvide Sande CHP plant.

  13. Effects on Fuel Properties of Various Biodiesel Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is generally defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. As a result, the fatty acid composition of biodiesel corresponds to that of the parent oil or fat. Besides the fatty esters as the major components of biodiesel, minor components such as free fatty acids as w...

  14. Optimization of Biodiesel Composition and Comparison to Renewable Diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is technically competitive with petrodiesel fuel. Biodiesel is obtained from an oil or fat by means of a transesterification reaction with glycerol as a co-product. Problems when using biodiesel include oxidative stabili...

  15. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  16. Fuel Properties of Biodiesel/Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel and fuel extender made from transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol or ethanol. The National Biodiesel Board estimated that biodiesel production in the United States increased from 250 million gal in 2006 to 450 million gal in 2007. In 20...

  17. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  18. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  19. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  20. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  1. Biodiesel from Microalgae: Complementarity in a Fuel Development Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L. M.

    1993-08-01

    Biodiesel produces fewer pollutants than petroleum diesel, and is virtually free of sulfur. These properties make biodiesel an attractive candidate to facilitate compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). This fuel is ordinarily considered to be derived from oilseeds, but an essentially identical biodiesel can be made from microalgae.

  2. Mini-Central heating and Power Plant (CHP): the choice of the optimal structure and modes of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil'manshin, I. R.; Konahina, I. A.; Kashapov, N. F.; Fahreev, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The paper provides an overview of the different types of organizations of mini-CHP, the results of a comparative evaluation of their performance in terms of the variable load. The recommendations to improve power facilities of the mini-CHP on the basis of system analysis methods and the technical and economic optimization are defined.

  3. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, David P; McGervey, Joseph; Curran, Scott

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  4. Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined in this study. The other approach integrates the PEM fuel cell with a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) for direct heat recovery. As the primary objective, energy-saving potentials of the adopted heat recovery strategies are estimated with respect to various benchmarks. The quantified energy-saving potentials are translated into effective CHP performance indices and compared with those typically specified by the manufacturers for service hot water applications. The need for developing CHP performance protocols is also discussed in light of the proposed energy recovery techniques - thereby, accomplishing the secondary objective.

  5. A fuzzy goal programming model for biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutero, D. S.; Pangue, EMU; Tubay, J. M.; Lubag, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) model for biodiesel production in the Philippines was formulated with Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) as sources of biodiesel. Objectives were maximization of feedstock production and overall revenue and, minimization of energy used in production and working capital for farming subject to biodiesel and non-biodiesel requirements, and availability of land, labor, water and machine time. All these objectives and constraints were assumed to be fuzzy. Model was tested for different sets of weights. Results for all sets of weights showed the same optimal allocation. Coconut alone can satisfy the biodiesel requirement of 2% per volume.

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  7. Determining Optimal Equipment Capacities in Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    DeVault, Robert C; Hudson II, Carl Randy

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of potential cooling, heating and power (CHP) applications requires an assessment of the operations and economics of a particular system in meeting the electric and thermal demands of a specific end-use facility. A key determinate in whether a candidate system will be economic is the proper selection of equipment capacities. A methodology to determine the optimal capacities for CHP prime movers and absorption chillers using nonlinear optimization algorithms has been coded into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet tool that performs the capacity optimization and operations simulation. This paper presents details on the use and results of this publicly available tool.

  8. Biodiesel Basics (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  9. Biodiesel emissions profile in modern diesel vehicles. Part 1: Effect of biodiesel origin on the criteria emissions.

    PubMed

    Bakeas, Evangelos; Karavalakis, Georgios; Stournas, Stamoulis

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the regulated emissions profile of a Euro 4 compliant common rail passenger car, fuelled with low concentration biodiesel blends. Four biodiesels of different origin and quality blended with a typical automotive diesel fuel at proportions of 10, 20, and 30% v/v. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Limited effects were observed on CO(2) emissions, while fuel consumption marginally increased with biodiesel. PM, HC and CO emissions improved with the addition of biodiesel, with some exceptions. Some increases with biodiesel were observed over the NEDC, as a consequence of biodiesel characteristics and engine conditions. NO(x) emissions were increased with the use of biodiesel blends and positively correlated with fuel unsaturation levels. PMID:21316737

  10. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  11. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  12. The Chp1–Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS

    SciTech Connect

    Schalch, Thomas; Job, Godwin; Shanker, Sreenath; Partridge, Janet F.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2011-11-13

    RNA interference (RNAi) is critical for the assembly of heterochromatin at Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres. Central to this process is the RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complex, which physically anchors small noncoding RNAs to chromatin. RITS includes Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and Tas3, which forms a bridge between Chp1 and Ago1. Chp1 is a large protein with no recognizable domains, apart from its chromodomain. Here we describe how the structured C-terminal half of Chp1 binds the Tas3 N-terminal domain, revealing the tight association of Chp1 and Tas3. The structure also shows a PIN domain at the C-terminal tip of Chp1 that controls subtelomeric transcripts through a post-transcriptional mechanism. We suggest that the Chp1–Tas3 complex provides a solid and versatile platform to recruit both RNAi-dependent and RNAi-independent gene-silencing pathways for locus-specific regulation of heterochromatin.

  13. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  14. A New Source of Biodiesel: Field Pennycress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of the current debate about fuel versus food issues, alternative non-food feedstocks for biodiesel production are an important area of current research. Traditionally considered to be an agricultural weed by farmers, field pennycress has many positive agronomic characteristics that make ...

  15. Will biodiesel fuels derived from algae perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The issue of sufficient supply and availability of feedstock is one of the major non-technical issues affecting the widespread commercialization of biodiesel. Another aspect is the food vs. fuel issue that biofuels should not be produced from edible feedstocks. In these connections, lipid-producin...

  16. Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Kondo, A; Noda, H

    2001-01-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters), which is derived from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol, has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. Several processes for biodiesel fuel production have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali-catalysis gives high levels of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short reaction times. This process has therefore been widely utilized for biodiesel fuel production in a number of countries. Recently, enzymatic transesterification using lipase has become more attractive for biodiesel fuel production, since the glycerol produced as a by-product can easily be recovered and the purification of fatty methyl esters is simple to accomplish. The main hurdle to the commercialization of this system is the cost of lipase production. As a means of reducing the cost, the use of whole cell biocatalysts immobilized within biomass support particles is significantly advantageous since immobilization can be achieved spontaneously during batch cultivation, and in addition, no purification is necessary. The lipase production cost can be further lowered using genetic engineering technology, such as by developing lipases with high levels of expression and/or stability towards methanol. Hence, whole cell biocatalysts appear to have great potential for industrial application. PMID:16233120

  17. Cetane numbers of biodiesel and its components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cetane number is one of the prime fuel quality indicators of a petrodiesel or biodiesel fuel as it relates to the tendency of the fuel to ignite in the combustion chamber. It has been established that compound structure, including chain length, branching, and the presence of double bonds, is a m...

  18. Recent developments in the biodiesel area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, continues to find increasing interest as an alternative to petrodiesel fuel. In this connection, a significant issue affecting more widespread use and commercialization has been that of supply and availability. This has le...

  19. ANALYZING BIODIESEL: STANDARDS AND OTHER METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel occupies a prominent position among the alternatives to conventional petrodiesel fuel due to various technical and economic factors. It is obtained by reacting the parent vegetable oil or fat with an alcohol (transesterification) in the presence of a catalyst to give the corresponding mon...

  20. Gelatin Plasticized with a Biodiesel Coproduct Stream

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cast gelatin films were plasticized with a biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS). Gelatin was found to be compatible with the non-glycerol components of BCS. Films were well formed and appeared homogeneous on the macroscopic level. A BCS content of 18–34% resulted in elongations of 35–182%, with correspo...

  1. Evaluation of Biodiesel Obtained from Cottonseed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, us...

  2. TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCED BIODIESEL ECONOMICS - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project is to complete the research and development of an innovative process technology to enhance the economics of biodiesel production, through upgrading the byproduct glycerol to a propane fuel (LPG), which (a) is widely used today, (b) has an exist...

  3. Microalgae harvesting and subsequent biodiesel conversion.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Le, Bich-Hanh; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Ching-Lung; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-07-01

    Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 containing 22.7% lipid was harvested by coagulation (using chitosan and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) as the coagulants) and centrifugation. The harvested ESP-31 was directly employed as the oil source for biodiesel production via transesterification catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia lipase and by a synthesized solid catalyst (SrO/SiO2). Both enzymatic and chemical transesterification were significantly inhibited in the presence of PACl, while the immobilized lipase worked well with wet chitosan-coagulated ESP-31, giving a high biodiesel conversion of 97.6% w/w oil, which is at a level comparable to that of biodiesel conversion from centrifugation-harvested microalgae (97.1% w/w oil). The immobilized lipase can be repeatedly used for three cycles without significant loss of its activity. The solid catalyst SrO/SiO2 worked well with water-removed centrifuged ESP-31 with a biodiesel conversion of 80% w/w oil, but the conversion became lower (55.7-61.4% w/w oil) when using water-removed chitosan-coagulated ESP-31 as the oil source. PMID:23688670

  4. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Comparison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternatives to petroleum-based fuels has led to the development of fuels from various sources, including renewable feedstocks such as fats and oils. Several types of fuels can be derived from these triacylglycerol-derived feedstocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is defined as the ...

  5. Fuel properties of biodiesel from alternative feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defined as monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids prepared from plant oils, animal fats, or other lipids, advantages of biodiesel over conventional petroleum diesel fuel include derivation from renewable and domestic feedstocks, superior lubricity and biodegradability, higher cetane number and f...

  6. Methods to improve oxidative stability of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative degradation is one of the chief technical deficiencies of biodiesel relative to petrodiesel. Traditional methods to mitigate susceptibility to oxidation include employment of synthetic antioxidants, switching to more stable feedstocks, reducing the storage time of the fuel, and improving t...

  7. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  8. Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

    2005-11-01

    The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

  9. Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. biodiesel production is presently estimated at 800 million gallons annually, and this fuel is no longer a research curiosity - it is entering the nation’s fuel infrastructure. Some estimates are that production will reach nearly twice that value in the next 10 to 12 years. This would stress a...

  10. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  11. Screening analysis to detect adulteration in diesel/biodiesel blends using near infrared spectrometry and multivariate classification.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; Silva, Alinne Girlaine Brito

    2011-09-30

    This paper proposes an analytical method to detect adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends based on near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) coupled with the successive projections algorithm (SPA) have been employed to build screening models using three different optical paths and the following spectra ranges: 1.0mm (8814-3799 cm(-1)), 10mm (11,329-5944 cm(-1) and 5531-4490 cm(-1)) and 20mm (11,688-5952 cm(-1) and 5381-4679 cm(-1)). The method is validated in a case study involving the classification of 140 diesel/biodiesel blend samples, which were divided into four different classes, namely: diesel free of biodiesel and raw vegetal oil (D), blends containing diesel, biodiesel and raw oils (OBD), blends of diesel and raw oils (OD), and blends containing a fraction of 5% (v/v) of biodiesel in diesel (B5). LDA-SPA models were found to be the best method to classify the spectral data obtained with optical paths of 1.0 and 20mm. Otherwise, PLS-DA shows the best results for classification of 10mm cell data, which achieved a correct prediction rate of 100% in the test set. PMID:21872073

  12. Effect of atmospheric aging on volatility and reactive oxygen species of biodiesel exhaust nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhesalian, A. M.; Stevanovic, S.; Rahman, M. M.; Faghihi, E. M.; Bottle, S. E.; Masri, A. R.; Brown, R. J.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2015-08-01

    In the prospect of limited energy resources and climate change, effects of alternative biofuels on primary emissions are being extensively studied. Our two recent studies have shown that biodiesel fuel composition has a significant impact on primary particulate matter emissions. It was also shown that particulate matter caused by biodiesels was substantially different from the emissions due to petroleum diesel. Emissions appeared to have higher oxidative potential with the increase in oxygen content and decrease of carbon chain length and unsaturation levels of fuel molecules. Overall, both studies concluded that chemical composition of biodiesel is more important than its physical properties in controlling exhaust particle emissions. This suggests that the atmospheric aging processes, including secondary organic aerosol formation, of emissions from different fuels will be different as well. In this study, measurements were conducted on a modern common-rail diesel engine. To get more information on realistic properties of tested biodiesel particulate matter once they are released into the atmosphere, particulate matter was exposed to atmospheric oxidants, ozone and ultra-violet light; and the change in their properties was monitored for different biodiesel blends. Upon the exposure to oxidative agents, the chemical composition of the exhaust changes. It triggers the cascade of photochemical reactions resulting in the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds between the gas and particulate phase. In most of the cases, aging lead to the increase in volatility and oxidative potential, and the increment of change was mainly dependent on the chemical composition of fuels as the leading cause for the amount and the type of semi-volatile compounds present in the exhaust.

  13. Effect of atmospheric ageing on volatility and ROS of biodiesel exhaust nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhesalian, A. M.; Stevanovic, S.; Rahman, M. M.; Faghihi, E. M.; Bottle, S. E.; Masri, A. R.; Brown, R. J.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2015-03-01

    In the prospect of limited energy resources and climate change, effects of alternative biofuels on primary emissions are being extensively studied. Our two recent studies have shown that biodiesel fuel composition has a~significant impact on primary particulate matter emissions. It was also shown that particulate matter caused by biodiesels was substantially different from the emissions due to petroleum diesel. Emissions appeared to have higher oxidative potential with the increase in oxygen content and decrease of carbon chain length and unsaturation levels of fuel molecules. Overall, both studies concluded that chemical composition of biodiesel is more important than its physical properties in controlling exhaust particle emissions. This suggests that the atmospheric ageing processes, including secondary organic aerosol formation, of emissions from different fuels will be different as well. In this study, measurements were conducted on a modern common-rail diesel engine. To get more information on realistic properties of tested biodiesel particulate matter once they are released into the atmosphere, particulate matter was exposed to atmospheric oxidants, ozone and ultra-violet light; and the change in their properties was monitored for different biodiesel blends. Upon the exposure to oxidative agents, the chemical composition of the exhaust changes. It triggers the cascade of photochemical reactions resulting in the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds between the gas and particulate phase. In most of the cases, aging lead to the increase in volatility and oxidative potential, and the increment of change was mainly dependent on the chemical composition of fuels as the leading cause for the amount and the type of semi-volatile compounds present in the exhaust.

  14. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  15. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes. PMID:25934125

  16. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  17. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  18. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non

  19. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    PubMed

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards. PMID:20100653

  20. Biodiesel from soybean promotes cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gioda, Adriana; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Amaral, Beatriz Silva; Encarnación-Medina, Jarline; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D

    2016-08-01

    Toxicological responses of exhaust emissions of biodiesel are different due to variation in methods of generation and the tested biological models. A chemical profile was generated using ICP-MS and GC-MS for the biodiesel samples obtained in Brazil. A cytotoxicity assay and cytokine secretion experiments were evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to polar (acetone) and nonpolar (hexane) extracts from particles obtained from fuel exhaust: fossil diesel (B5), pure soybean biodiesel (B100), soybean biodiesel with additive (B100A) and ethanol additive (EtOH). Biodiesel and its additives exhibited higher organic and inorganic constituents on particles when compared to B5. The biodiesel extracts did not exert any toxic effect at concentrations 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100μgmL(-1). In fact quite the opposite, a cell proliferation effect induced by the B100 and B100A extracts is reported. A small increase in concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; and Interleukin-8, IL-8) in the medium of biodiesel-treated cells was observed, however, no statistical difference was found. An interesting finding indicates that the presence of metals in the nonpolar (hexane) fraction of biodiesel fuel (B100) represses cytokine release in lung cells. This was revealed by the use of the metal chelator. Results suggest that metals associated with biodiesel's organic constituents might play a significant role in molecular mechanisms associated to cellular proliferation and immune responses. PMID:27179667

  1. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  2. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Mayer

    2010-03-31

    ECR International and its joint venture company, Climate Energy, are at the forefront of the effort to deliver residential-scale combined heat and power (Micro-CHP) products to the USA market. Part of this substantial program is focused on the development of a new class of steam expanders that offers the potential for significantly lower costs for small-scale power generation technology. The heart of this technology is the scroll expander, a machine that has revolutionized the HVAC refrigerant compressor industry in the last 15 years. The liquid injected cogeneration (LIC) technology is at the core of the efforts described in this report, and remains an excellent option for low cost Micro-CHP systems. ECR has demonstrated in several prototype appliances that the concept for LIC can be made into a practical product. The continuing challenge is to identify economical scroll machine designs that will meet the performance and endurance requirements needed for a long life appliance application. This report describes the numerous advances made in this endeavor by ECR International. Several important advances are described in this report. Section 4 describes a marketing and economics study that integrates the technical performance of the LIC system with real-world climatic data and economic analysis to assess the practical impact that different factors have on the economic application of Micro-CHP in residential applications. Advances in the development of a working scroll steam expander are discussed in Section 5. A rigorous analytical assessment of the performance of scroll expanders, including the difficult to characterize impact of pocket to pocket flank leakage, is presented in Section 5.1. This is followed with an FEA study of the thermal and pressure induced deflections that would result from the normal operation of an advanced scroll expander. Section 6 describes the different scroll expanders and test fixtures developed during this effort. Another key technical

  3. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nivea de Lima; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Batistella, César Benedito; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    The transesterification of castor oil with ethanol in the presence of sodium ethoxide as catalyst is an exceptional option for the Brazilian biodiesel production, because the castor nut is quite available in the country. Chemically, its oil contains about 90% of ricinoleic acid that gives to the oil some beneficial characteristics such as its alcohol solubility at 30 degrees C. The transesterification variables studied in this work were reaction temperature, catalyst concentration and alcohol oil molar ratio. Through a star configuration experimental design with central points, this study shows that it is possible to achieve the same conversion of esters carrying out the transesterification reaction with a smaller alcohol quantity, and a new methodology was developed to obtain high purity biodiesel. PMID:16915657

  4. Fast gas chromatographic separation of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect

    Pauls, R. E.

    2011-05-01

    A high-speed gas chromatographic method has been developed to determine the FAME distribution of B100 biodiesel. The capillary column used in this work has dimensions of 20 m x 0.100 mm and is coated with a polyethylene glycol film. Analysis times are typically on the order of 4-5 min depending upon the composition of the B100. The application of this method to a variety of vegetable and animal derived B100 is demonstrated. Quantitative results obtained with this method were in close agreement with those obtained by a more conventional approach on a 100 m column. The method, coupled with solid-phase extraction, was also found suitable to determine the B100 content of biodiesel-diesel blends.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of water soluble fractions of biodiesel and its diesel blends using the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow® kit (Litron) assay.

    PubMed

    Morais Leme, Daniela; Grummt, Tamara; Palma de Oliveira, Danielle; Sehr, Andrea; Renz, Sylvia; Reinel, Sissy; Ferraz, Elisa R A; Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa; Machado, Marcos Canto; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2012-02-01

    The designation of biodiesel as an environmental-friendly alternative to diesel oil has improved its commercialization and use. However, most biodiesel environmental safety studies refer to air pollution and so far there have been very few literature data about its impacts upon other biotic systems, e.g. water, and exposed organisms. Spill simulations in water were carried out with neat diesel and biodiesel and their blends aiming at assessing their genotoxic potentials should there be contaminations of water systems. The water soluble fractions (WSF) from the spill simulations were submitted to solid phase extraction with C-18 cartridge and the extracts obtained were evaluated carrying out genotoxic and mutagenic bioassays [the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow® kit (Litron) assay]. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects were observed, respectively, in the Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay and the in vitro MN test carried out with the biodiesel WSF. This interesting result may be related to the presence of pollutants in biodiesel derived from the raw material source used in its production chain. The data showed that care while using biodiesel should be taken to avoid harmful effects on living organisms in cases of water pollution. PMID:22071371

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  7. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  8. Light vehicle regulated and unregulated emissions from different biodiesels.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the regulated and unregulated emissions profile and fuel consumption of an automotive diesel and biodiesel blends, prepared from two different biodiesels, were investigated. The biodiesels were a rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and a palm-based methyl ester (PME). The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Athens Driving Cycle (ADC), using a Euro 2 compliant passenger vehicle. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biodiesel chemical structure on the emissions, as well as the influence of the applied driving cycle on the formation of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The results showed that NO(x) emissions were influenced by certain biodiesel properties, such as those of cetane number and iodine number. NO(x) emissions followed a decreasing trend over both cycles, where the most beneficial reduction was obtained with the application of the more saturated biodiesel. PM emissions were decreased with the palm-based biodiesel blends over both cycles, with the exception of the 20% blend which was higher compared to diesel fuel. PME blends led to increases in PM emissions over the ADC. The majority of the biodiesel blends showed a tendency for lower CO and HC emissions. The differences in CO(2) emissions were not statistically significant. Fuel consumption presented an increase with both biodiesels. Total PAH and nitro-PAH emission levels were decreased with the use of biodiesel independently of the source material. Lower molecular weight PAHs were predominant in both gaseous and particulate phases. Both biodiesels had a negative impact on certain carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the dominant aldehydes emitted from both fuels. PMID:19269679

  9. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K.; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50–60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5–10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less

  10. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50-60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5-10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less number

  11. CHP efficiency of a 2000 × CPV system with reflective optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsignore, Gaetano; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Gelardi, Franco M.; Sciortino, Luisa; Collura, Alfonso; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Milone, Sergio; Montagnino, Fabio M.; Paredes, Filippo; Cannas, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this work we have developed a combined heat and power (CHP) prototype that operates at 2000 × concentration based on reflective optics. The receiver consists of a InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell in thermal contact with an aluminium heat sink driving a forced water flow. This CHP system was tested both indoor (DNI of 650 W/m2) and outdoor (DNI of 900 W/m2) under different conditions of fluid parameters as the flow rate (ranging from 0.2 liters/min to 1.2 liters/min) and temperature (ranging from 25 °C to 60 °C). Electrical and thermal power were determined by acquiring IV curves and by measuring the heat subtracted from the cell while it delivered the maximum electrical power, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that this CHP system achieves a total efficiency of about 80%, shared between the electrical (30%) and the thermal one (50%).

  12. Designing a Biodiesel Fuel with Optimized Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, although it can replace only a few percent of current petrodiesel production. It is technically competitive with petrodiesel. Technical problems with biodiesel are oxidative stability, cold flow increased nitrogen oxides (NOx) exhaust em...

  13. Partitioning Behavior of Petrodiesel/Biodiesel Blends in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning behavior of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100, where B100 is 100% unblended biodiesel) in water was investigated at various oil loads by the 10-fold dilution method. Five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C20 n

  14. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  15. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  16. Evaluation of properties and storage stability of Madhuca indica biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Kapilan, N; Ashok Babu, T P; Reddy, R P

    2009-01-01

    Mahua Oil (MO) is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in India. In the present work, biodiesel was derived from the MO by the transesterification process. The fuel properties of the MO biodiesel were found to be within the limits of biodiesel specifications of many countries. The chemical nature of biodiesel makes it more susceptible to oxidation during long-term storage which leads to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. The effect of long storage condition on the stability of the MO biodiesel was studied in the present work. The biodiesel samples were stored in plastic containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 12 months and the test sample was kept in the darkness. From the experimental results, it was observed that the acid value and viscosity increases with the storage time, but the iodine value decreased with increasing storage time. This is due to the presence of the double bond in the molecule of the biodiesel which produce a high level of reactivity. This high level reactivity produces formation of hydroperoxides, soluble polymers and other secondary products. From the experimental results, a slight difference in the acid value, iodine value and viscosity of the MO biodiesel stored for a period of 30 days was observed. But after this period, the differences were significant. PMID:19915318

  17. Modeling the Crystallization Behavior of Biodiesel at Low Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common form of biodiesel is made by transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat fatty acids with methanol (FAME). Biodiesel from feedstocks such as palm oil (PME), rapeseed oil (RME), soybean oil (SME) or used cooking oil (UCOME) is susceptible to performance issues during cold weat...

  18. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  19. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  20. Evaluation of Several Horticultural Plants as Biodiesel Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a non-petroleum-based fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (generally methyl or ethyl) esters, made by transesterification of a vegetable oil or an animal fat which can either be used alone, or blended with petroleum diesel in conventional diesel-engine vehicles. Biodiesel has better l...

  1. The impact of biodiesel on pollutant emissions and public health.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Robert L

    2007-09-01

    An overview of recent studies of the impact of biodiesel and biodiesel blends on air pollutant emissions and health effects is provided. Biodiesel blends of 20% produce reductions of 15% or higher (depending upon engine model and test cycle) in emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and a group of toxic compounds including vapor-phase hydrocarbons from C1 to C12, aldehydes and ketones up to C8, and selected semivolatile and particle-phase PAH and NPAH. Based on the studies reviewed and recently acquired data, individual engines may show oxides of nitrogen increasing or decreasing, but on average there appears to be no net effect for blends of 20% biodiesel--the most common biodiesel blend. Exhaust from a diesel engine operating on 100% biodiesel was also shown to have only modest adverse effects in an animal exposure study. Studies of the impact of biodiesel on particle size have not produced consistent results and additional research in this area is needed. Biodiesel is also shown to significantly reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to petroleum diesel. PMID:17917919

  2. HPLC Methods for Assessing Biodiesel Quality and Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be obtained from several agricultural feedstocks, namely, vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled restaurant greases. Chemically, biodiesel is a mixture of simple fatty acid esters, primarily methyl and ethyl, produced through transesterification o...

  3. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF BIODIESEL/JET FUEL BLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Biodiesel has fuel properties comparable to those of conventional diesel fuel and is known...

  4. RHEOLOGICAL AND DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT OILS FOR BIODIESEL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil may be used directly, or converted into methyl esters, i.e. biodiesel, for use as an alternative fuel source in conventional diesel engines. For biodiesel applications, oils with low viscosities are desirable to deliver superior cold flow performance. Accordingly, peanut oils were expre...

  5. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  6. Improving Biodiesel Fuel Properties by Modifying Fatty Ester Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel composed of alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other feedstocks such as used cooking oils. The fatty acid profile of biodiesel corresponds to that of its feedstock. Most feedstocks possess fatty acid profiles consisting mainl...

  7. Production and properties of biodiesel from algal oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel (petrodiesel). A major issue facing biodiesel is sufficient supply of feedstock to replace significant amounts of petrodiesel. This issue has caused a search for sources of triacylglycerol-based oils with high production poten...

  8. Biodiesel: The clean, green fuel for diesel engines (fact sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    2000-04-11

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean-burning biodiesel fuels. As its name implies, biodiesel is like diesel fuel except that it's organically produced. It's also safe for the environment, biodegradable, and produces significantly less air pollution than diesel fuel.

  9. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  10. Biodiesel: A fuel, a lubricant, and a solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is well-known as a biogenic alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced from feedstocks such as plant oils consisting largely of triacylglycerols through transesterification with an alcohol such as methanol. The properties of biodiesel are largely compet...

  11. Improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel by fractionation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of biodiesel is increasing world-wide and contributing to the growing development of renewable alternative fuels. Biodiesel has many fuel properties such as density, viscosity, lubricity, and cetane number that make it compatible for combustion in compression-ignition (diesel) engines. ...

  12. Biodiesel/ULSD blend ratios by analysis of fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodiesel is often blended with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD; 15 mg/kg maximum sulfur content) in volumetric ratios (VBD) of up to 20 vol% (B20). Government tax credits and other regulatory requirements may depend on ac...

  13. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  14. Effect of temperature on oil stability index (OSI) of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is primarily composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters. Fuel suppliers, terminal operators and users are becoming more concerned with monitoring and maintaining good biodiesel fuel quality with respect to oxidative degradation during storage. Oil stability index (OSI)...

  15. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production. PMID:18205018

  16. Energy life-cycle assessment of soybean biodiesel revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the energy flows associated with biodiesel production. A similar study conducted previously (Sheehan et al., Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, Publication NREL/SR-580-24089, National Renewable Ener...

  17. Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  19. 10 CFR 490.707 - Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel... TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.707 Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component. DOE may increase the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component of fuel for purposes...

  20. 10 CFR 490.706 - Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage... TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.706 Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage. (a) DOE may, by rule, lower the 20 percent biodiesel volume requirement of this subpart...

  1. Studies of Terminalia catappa L. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, I C F; de Carvalho, S H V; Solleti, J I; Ferreira de La Salles, W; Teixeira da Silva de La Salles, K; Meneghetti, S M P

    2008-09-01

    Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The oil was obtained from the kernels of the fruit, with yields around 49% (% mass). Also, its fatty acid composition was quite similar to that of conventional oils. The crude oil of the TC was transesterified, using a conventional catalyst and methanol to form biodiesel. The studied physicochemical properties of the TC biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines. PMID:18178081

  2. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    PubMed

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process. PMID:20171880

  3. The feasibility of converting Cannabis sativa L. oil into biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Yu; Stuart, James D; Li, Yi; Parnas, Richard S

    2010-11-01

    Cannabis sativa Linn, known as industrial hemp, was utilized for biodiesel production in this study. Oil from hemp seed was converted to biodiesel through base-catalyzed transesterification. The conversion is greater than 99.5% while the product yield is 97%. Several ASTM tests for biodiesel quality were implemented on the biodiesel product, including acid number, sulfur content, flash point, kinematic viscosity, and free and total glycerin content. In addition, the biodiesel has a low cloud point (-5 degrees C) and kinematic viscosity (3.48mm(2)/s). This may be attributed to the high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acid of hemp seed oil and its unique 3:1 ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:20624607

  4. Potential niche markets for biodiesel and their effects on agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Raneses, A.R.; Glaser, L.K.; Price, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    This analysis estimates possible biodiesel demand in three niche markets the biodiesel industry has identified as likely candidates for commercialization: federal fleets, mining, and marine/estuary areas. If a 20-percent biodiesel blend becomes a competitive alternative fuel in the coming years, these markets could demand as much as 379 million liters (100 million gallons) of biodiesel. The Food and Agricultural Policy Simulator, an econometric model of U.S. agriculture, was used to estimate the impacts of 76, 193, and 379 million liters (20, 50, and 100 million gallons) of soybean-oil-based biodiesel production on the agricultural sector. The results indicate the effect of increased soybean oil demand on the soybean complex (beans, oil, and meal) and U.S. farm income would be small, but livestock producers and consumers could benefit from low meat prices.

  5. Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data.

    PubMed

    Passell, Howard; Dhaliwal, Harnoor; Reno, Marissa; Wu, Ben; Ben Amotz, Ami; Ivry, Etai; Gay, Marcus; Czartoski, Tom; Laurin, Lise; Ayer, Nathan

    2013-11-15

    Autotrophic microalgae represent a potential feedstock for transportation fuels, but life cycle assessment (LCA) studies based on laboratory-scale or theoretical data have shown mixed results. We attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale and larger scale biodiesel production by using cultivation and harvesting data from a commercial algae producer with ∼1000 m(2) production area (the base case), and compare that with a hypothetical scaled up facility of 101,000 m(2) (the future case). Extraction and separation data are from Solution Recovery Services, Inc. Conversion and combustion data are from the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET). The LCA boundaries are defined as "pond-to-wheels". Environmental impacts are quantified as NER (energy in/energy out), global warming potential, photochemical oxidation potential, water depletion, particulate matter, and total NOx and SOx. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy produced in a passenger car. Results for the base case and the future case show an NER of 33.4 and 1.37, respectively and GWP of 2.9 and 0.18 kg CO2-equivalent, respectively. In comparison, petroleum diesel and soy diesel show an NER of 0.18 and 0.80, respectively and GWP of 0.12 and 0.025, respectively. A critical feature in this work is the low algal productivity (3 g/m(2)/day) reported by the commercial producer, relative to the much higher productivities (20-30 g/m(2)/day) reported by other sources. Notable results include a sensitivity analysis showing that algae with an oil yield of 0.75 kg oil/kg dry biomass in the future case can bring the NER down to 0.64, more comparable with petroleum diesel and soy biodiesel. An important assumption in this work is that all processes are fully co-located and that no transport of intermediate or final products from processing stage to stage is required. PMID:23900083

  6. Microtox Aquatic Toxcity of Petrodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: The Role of Biodiesel's Autoxidation Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and tota...

  7. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  8. Quantification of ethanol in ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in biodiesel-diesel blends using fluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol blended petrol and biodiesel blended diesel are being introduced in many countries to meet the increasing demand of hydrocarbon fuels. However, technological limitations of current vehicle engine do not allow ethanol and biodiesel percentages in the blended fuel to be increased beyond a certain level. As a result quantification of ethanol in blended petrol and biodiesel in blended diesel becomes an important issue. In this work, calibration models for the quantification of ethanol in the ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in the biodiesel-diesel blends of a particular batch were made using the combination of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) with N-way Partial least square (N-PLS) and unfolded-PLS. The PCR, PLS, N-PLS and unfolded-PLS calibration models were evaluated through measures like root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and square of the correlation coefficient (R(2)). The prediction abilities of the models were tested using a testing set of ethanol-petrol and biodiesel-diesel blends of known ethanol and biodiesel concentrations, error in the predictions made by the models were found to be less than 2%. The obtained calibration models are highly robust and capable of estimating low as well as high concentrations of ethanol and biodiesel. PMID:21909636

  9. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily

  10. Phosphoryl Group Flow within the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pil-Chp Chemosensory System: DIFFERENTIAL FUNCTION OF THE EIGHT PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE AND THREE RECEIVER DOMAINS.

    PubMed

    Silversmith, Ruth E; Wang, Boya; Fulcher, Nanette B; Wolfgang, Matthew C; Bourret, Robert B

    2016-08-19

    Bacterial chemosensory signal transduction systems that regulate motility by type IV pili (T4P) can be markedly more complex than related flagellum-based chemotaxis systems. In T4P-based systems, the CheA kinase often contains numerous potential sites of phosphorylation, but the signaling mechanisms of these systems are unknown. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Pil-Chp system regulates T4P-mediated twitching motility and cAMP levels, both of which play roles in pathogenesis. The Pil-Chp histidine kinase (ChpA) has eight "Xpt" domains; six are canonical histidine-containing phosphotransfer (Hpt) domains and two have a threonine (Tpt) or serine (Spt) in place of the histidine. Additionally, there are two stand-alone receiver domains (PilG and PilH) and a ChpA C-terminal receiver domain (ChpArec). Here, we demonstrate that the ChpA Xpts are functionally divided into three categories as follows: (i) those phosphorylated with ATP (Hpt4-6); (ii) those reversibly phosphorylated by ChpArec (Hpt2-6), and (iii) those with no detectable phosphorylation (Hpt1, Spt, and Tpt). There was rapid phosphotransfer from Hpt2-6 to ChpArec and from Hpt3 to PilH, whereas transfer to PilG was slower. ChpArec also had a rapid rate of autodephosphorylation. The biochemical results together with in vivo cAMP and twitching phenotypes of key ChpA phosphorylation site point mutants supported a scheme whereby ChpArec functions both as a phosphate sink and a phosphotransfer element linking Hpt4-6 to Hpt2-3. Hpt2 and Hpt3 are likely the dominant sources of phosphoryl groups for PilG and PilH, respectively. The data are synthesized in a signaling circuit that contains fundamental features of two-component phosphorelays. PMID:27354279

  11. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces. PMID:26743667

  12. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. PMID:27266633

  13. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil and microalgae by fatty acid extraction and enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Castillo López, Beatriz; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Robles Medina, Alfonso; Navarro López, Elvira; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Hita Peña, Estrella; González Moreno, Pedro A; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain biodiesel (methyl esters) from the saponifiable lipids (SLs) fraction of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, whose biomass dry weight contains 12.1 wt% of these lipids. SLs were extracted from the microalga as free fatty acids (FFAs) for subsequent transformation to methyl esters (biodiesel) by enzymatic esterification. Extraction as FFAs rather than as SLs allows them to be obtained with higher purity. Microalgal FFAs were obtained by direct saponification of lipids in the biomass and subsequent extraction-purification with hexane. Esterification of FFAs with methanol was catalysed by lipase Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica. Stability studies of this lipase in the operational conditions showed that the esterification degree (ED) attained with the same batch of lipase remained constant over six reaction cycles (36 h total reaction time). The optimal conditions attained for 4 g of FFAs were 25°C, 200 rpm, methanol/FFA molar ratio of 1.5:1, Novozym 435/FFA ratio of 0.025:1 w/w and 4 h reaction time. In these conditions the ED attained was 92.6%, producing a biodiesel with 83 wt% purity from microalgal FFAs. Several experimental scales were tested (from 4 to 40 g FFAs), and in all cases similar EDs were obtained. PMID:25575971

  14. Forensic identification of spilled biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil based on fingerprinting information.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Brown, Carl; Landriault, Mike

    2013-06-01

    A case study is presented for the forensic identification of several spilled biodiesels and its blends with petroleum oil using integrated forensic oil fingerprinting techniques. The integrated fingerprinting techniques combined SPE with GC/MS for obtaining individual petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives and biomarkers), and biodiesel hydrocarbons (fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols). HPLC equipped with evaporative scattering laser detector was also used for identifying the compounds that conventional GC/MS could not finish. The three environmental samples (E1, E2, and E3) and one suspected source sample (S2) were dominant with vegetable oil with high acid values and low concentration of fatty acid methyl ester. The suspected source sample S2 was responsible for the three spilled samples although E1 was slightly contaminated by petroleum oil with light hydrocarbons. The suspected source sample S1 exhibited with the high content of glycerol, low content of glycerides, and high polarity, indicating its difference from the other samples. These samples may be the separated byproducts in producing biodiesel. Canola oil source is the most possible feedstock for the three environmental samples and the suspected source sample S2. PMID:23495249

  15. Life cycle assessment on microalgal biodiesel production using a hybrid cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Victoria O; Cadena, Erasmo; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G

    2014-07-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a putative biodiesel production plant in which the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris, was grown using an existing system similar to a published commercial-scale hybrid cultivation. The hybrid system couples airlift tubular photobioreactors with raceway ponds in a two-stage process for high biomass growth and lipid accumulation. The results show that microalgal biodiesel production would have a significantly lower environmental impact than fossil-derived diesel. Based on the functional unit of 1 ton of biodiesel produced, the hybrid cultivation system and hypothetical downstream process (base case) would have 42% and 38% savings in global warming potential (GWP) and fossil-energy requirements (FER) when compared to fossil-derived diesel, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential process parameters on the LCA results. The maximum reduction in GWP and FER was observed under mixotrophic growth conditions with savings of 76% and 75% when compared to conventional diesel, respectively. PMID:24852435

  16. Biorefinery for Glycerol Rich Biodiesel Industry Waste.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha

    2016-06-01

    The biodiesel industry has the potential to meet the fuel requirements in the future. A few inherent lacunae of this bioprocess are the effluent, which is 10 % of the actual product, and the fact that it is 85 % glycerol along with a few impurities. Biological treatments of wastes have been known as a dependable and economical direction of overseeing them and bring some value added products as well. A novel eco-biotechnological strategy employs metabolically diverse bacteria, which ensures higher reproducibility and economics. In this article, we have opined, which organisms and what bioproducts should be the focus, while exploiting glycerol as feed. PMID:27570302

  17. Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

    With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

  18. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  19. The Chp1 chromodomain binds the H3K9me tail and the nucleosome core to assemble heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Zocco, Manuel; Marasovic, Mirela; Pisacane, Paola; Bilokapic, Silvija; Halic, Mario

    2016-01-01

    To maintain genome stability, cells pack large portions of their genome into silent chromatin or heterochromatin. Histone H3 lysine 9 methylation, a hallmark of heterochromatin, is recognized by conserved readers called chromodomains. But how chromodomains interact with their actual binding partner, the H3K9 methylated nucleosome, remains elusive. We have determined the structure of a nucleosome trimethylated at lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3 Nucleosome) in a complex with the chromodomain of Chp1, a protein required for RNA interference-dependent heterochromatin formation in fission yeast. The cryo-electron microscopy structure reveals that the chromodomain of Chp1 binds the histone H3 lysine 9 methylated tail and the core of the nucleosome, primarily histones H3 and H2B. Mutations in chromodomain of Chp1 loops, which interact with the nucleosome core, abolished this interaction in vitro. Moreover, fission yeast cells with Chp1 loop mutations have a defect in Chp1 recruitment and heterochromatin formation. This study reveals the structural basis for heterochromatic silencing and suggests that chromodomains could read histone code in the H3 tail and the nucleosome core, which would provide an additional layer of regulation. PMID:27462451

  20. Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.

    2003-10-10

    realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

  1. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M.

    2015-02-01

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel-oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel-methanol samples, respectively.

  2. [Progress on biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in China].

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Haixia; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the progress of biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in Beijing University of Chemical Technology, one of the leaders in biodiesel R & D in China, which includes screening of high-yield lipase production strains, optimization and scale-up of the lipase fermentation process, lipase immobilization, bioreactor development and scale-up, biodiesel separation and purification and the by-product glycerol utilization. Firstly, lipase fermentation was carried out at industrial scale with the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor, and the enzyme activity as high as 8 000 IU/mL was achieved by the species Candida sp. 99-125. Then, the lipase was purified and immobilized on textile membranes. Furthermore, biodiesel production was performed in the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor with an enzyme dosage as low as 0.42%, and biodiesel that met the German biodiesel standard was produced. And in the meantime, the byproduct glycerol was used for the production of 1,3-propanediol to partly offset the production cost of biodiesel, and 76.1 g/L 1,3-propanediol was obtained in 30 L fermentor with the species Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:20954390

  3. Biodiesel Exhaust: The Need for Health Effects Research

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kimberly J.; Madden, Michael C.; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Biodiesel is a diesel fuel alternative that has shown potential of becoming a commercially accepted part of the United States’ energy infrastructure. In November 2004, the signing of the Jobs Creation Bill HR 4520 marked an important turning point for the future production of biodiesel in the United States because it offers a federal excise tax credit. By the end of 2005, industry production was 75 million gallons, a 300% increase in 1 year. Current industry capacity, however, stands at just over 300 million gallons/year, and current expansion and new plant construction could double the industry’s capacity within a few years. Biodiesel exhaust emission has been extensively characterized under field and laboratory conditions, but there have been limited cytotoxicity and mutagenicity studies on the effects of biodiesel exhaust in biologic systems. Objectives We reviewed pertinent medical literature and addressed recommendations on testing specific research needs in the field of biodiesel toxicity. Discussion Employment of biodiesel fuel is favorably viewed, and there are suggestions that its exhaust emissions are less likely to present any risk to human health relative to petroleum diesel emissions. Conclusion The speculative nature of a reduction in health effects based on chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust needs to be followed up with investigations in biologic systems. PMID:17450214

  4. An overview of the current status of biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1993-12-31

    Vegetable oils (and animal fats) have been used as lighting fuels since Egyptian times, but recent testing shows that they are not suitable for diesel engines, causing poor spray and coking. Transesterification of the oils with methanol cleaves the oil/fat molecule into 3 parts and removes the glycerine, yielding a viscosity and other properties comparable to that of diesel. The resulting esters have been given the generic name {open_quotes}biodiesel.{close_quotes} Biodiesel can be made from vegetable oils and animal fats by transesterification with methanol or ethanol using Acid or base catalysts. Only minor variations in characteristics such as Cetane number and pour point occur with various feedstocks. The heat of combustion of biodiesel is 95% of that for conventional diesel (on a volume basis). The viscosity is no more than double that of No. 2 diesel. Biodiesel has a Cetane number of 50--80 (compared to typically 42 for diesel). The Cetane number is important in determining emissions. Biodiesel fuel requires no engine modification for use in conventional diesel engines. The engine characteristics have been widely tested in engines and fleets in the US, Brazil, and in Europe. Reduced emissions (except NOX) are reported for both blends and neat. Vegetable oils cost typically $2--$4/gal, and so require a subsidy to compete economically with diesel today. It is expected that this cost can be reduced with improved species and improved yields. The cost of biodiesel can also be reduced by using waste vegetable cooking oils which typically contain 4-8% free fatty acids that must be removed. Processing costs are estimated to be $0.50 above the feedstock cost, so that $2/gal vegetable oils would give biodiesel at $2.50/gal biodiesel. Biodiesel is certainly the best candidate for an alternate diesel fuel.

  5. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  6. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  7. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    SciTech Connect

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  8. Digital image-based classification of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gean Bezerra; Fernandes, David Douglas Sousa; Almeida, Valber Elias; Araújo, Thomas Souto Policarpo; Melo, Jessica Priscila; Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Véras, Germano

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive methodology based on digital images and pattern recognition techniques for classification of biodiesel according to oil type (cottonseed, sunflower, corn, or soybean). For this, differing color histograms in RGB (extracted from digital images), HSI, Grayscale channels, and their combinations were used as analytical information, which was then statistically evaluated using Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and variable selection using the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA). Despite good performances by the SIMCA and PLS-DA classification models, SPA-LDA provided better results (up to 95% for all approaches) in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for both the training and test sets. The variables selected Successive Projections Algorithm clearly contained the information necessary for biodiesel type classification. This is important since a product may exhibit different properties, depending on the feedstock used. Such variations directly influence the quality, and consequently the price. Moreover, intrinsic advantages such as quick analysis, requiring no reagents, and a noteworthy reduction (the avoidance of chemical characterization) of waste generation, all contribute towards the primary objective of green chemistry. PMID:25882407

  9. Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Human Health: Task 2 Report; The Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Ozone Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R. E.; Mansell, G. E.; Jia, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2003-05-01

    This report documents Task 2 of the NREL study"Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Hyman Health". Under Task 1, engine test data using biodiesel and standard diesel fuels were analyzed to estimate the effects biodiesel fuel has on heavy duty diesel vehicle tailpipe emissions.

  10. Thermal gain of CHP steam generator plants and heat supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziganshina, S. K.; Kudinov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Heating calculation of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) installed behind the BKZ-420-140 NGM boiler resulting in determination of HRU heat output according to fire gas value parameters at the heat recovery unit inlet and its outlet, heated water quantity, combustion efficiency per boiler as a result of installation of HRU, and steam condensate discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point and HRU heat exchange area has been performed. Inspection results of Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM power boilers and field tests of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) made on the bimetal calorifier base КСк-4-11 (KSk-4-11) installed behind station no. 2 Ulyanovsk CHP-3 DE-10-14 GM boiler were the basis of calculation. Integration of the surface condensation heat recovery unit behind a steam boiler rendered it possible to increase combustion efficiency and simultaneously decrease nitrogen oxide content in exit gases. Influence of the blowing air moisture content, the excess-air coefficient in exit gases, and exit gases temperature at the HRU outlet on steam condensate amount discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point has been analyzed. The steam condensate from HRU gases is offered as heat system make-up water after degasification. The cost-effectiveness analysis of HRU installation behind the Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM steam boiler with consideration of heat energy and chemically purified water economy has been performed. Calculation data for boilers with different heat output has been generalized.

  11. CHP-II: The Carnegie Hubble Program to Measure Ho to 3% Using Population II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Wendy

    2014-10-01

    There has been great progress in the measurement of cosmological parameters in recent years, but controversy has arisen over the Planck/WMAP versus the direct measurement of the Hubble constant. The goal of our Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is to obtain a direct measure of Ho to 3%. In CHP I, we used Cepheid variables to calibrate the extragalactic distance scale. In the second phase, CHP II, we are establishing a completely independent route to Ho using RR Lyrae variables, the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Not only is the RR Lyrae route independent of the Cepheids, but its PL relation has a scatter that is a factor of 2 smaller. Unlike the Cepheids, the RR Lyrae / TRGB distance scale can be applied to both elliptical and spiral galaxies. This is a great systematic advantage, given the small number of galaxies (9 in total) close enough to have measured Cepheid calibrators within the SNIa hosts. By providing a new calibration using a Pop II distance scale, we will immediately double the number of SN Ia distances based on geometry, linking to over 200 SNe in the pure Hubble flow out to z = 0.7. Four calibrators containing both Cepheids and TRGB stars provide an important cross-check on systematics. Initially, the accuracy of our value of Ho will be set by four galactic RR Lyrae calibrators with HST/FGS parallaxes. With Gaia, both the RR Lyrae zero point and TRGB method will be independently calibrated with at least an order of magnitude more calibrators, each having precisions of 1% or better. This will allow the highest accuracy measurement of Ho to date using the "Distance Ladder" method.

  12. CHP-II: The Carnegie Hubble Program to Measure Ho to 3% Using Population II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Jeffrey; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andy; Scowcroft, Victoria; Beaton, Rachael; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Seibert, Mark; Bono, Giuseppe; Clementini, Gisella; Yang, Soung-Chul; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2015-01-01

    There has been great progress in the measurement of cosmological parameters in recent years, but controversy has arisen over the Planck/WMAP versus the direct measurement of the Hubble constant. The goal of our Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is to obtain a direct measure of Ho to 3%. In CHP I, we used Cepheid variables to calibrate the extragalactic distance scale. In the second phase, CHP II, we are establishing a completely independent route to Ho using RR Lyrae variables, the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Not only is the RR Lyrae route independent of the Cepheids, but its PL relation has a scatter that is a factor of 2 smaller. Unlike the Cepheids, the RR Lyrae / TRGB distance scale can be applied to both elliptical and spiral galaxies. This is a great systematic advantage, given the small number of galaxies (9 in total) close enough to have measured Cepheid calibrators within the SNIa hosts. By providing a new calibration using a Pop II distance scale, we will immediately double the number of SN Ia distances based on geometry, linking to over 200 SNe in the pure Hubble flow out to z = 0.7. Four calibrators containing both Cepheids and TRGB stars provide an important cross-check on systematics. Initially, the accuracy of our value of Ho will be set by four galactic RR Lyrae calibrators with HST/FGS parallaxes. With Gaia, both the RR Lyrae zero point and TRGB method will be independently calibrated with at least an order of magnitude more calibrators, each having precisions of 1% or better. This will allow the highest accuracy measurement of Ho to date using the "Distance Ladder" method.

  13. BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY BIODIESEL AND DIESEL/BIODIESEL BLENDS.

    PubMed

    Matos, G I; Junior, C S; Oliva, T C; Subtil, D F; Matsushita, L Y; Chaves, A L; Lutterbach, M T; Sérvulo, E F; Agathos, S N; Stenuit, B

    2015-01-01

    The gradual introduction of biodiesel in the Brazilian energy landscape has primarily occurred through its blending with conventional petroleum diesel (e.g., B20 (20% biodiesel) and B5 (5% biodiesel) formulations). Because B20 and lower-level blends generally do not require engine modifications, their use as transportation fuel is increasing in the Brazilian distribution networks. However, the environmental fate of low-level biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel (B100) is poorly understood and the ecotoxicological-safety endpoints of biodiesel-contaminated environments are unknown. Using laboratory microcosms consisting of closed reactor columns filled with clay loam soil contaminated with pure biodiesel (EXPB100) and a low-level blend (EXPB5) (10% w/v), this study presents soil ecotoxicity assessement and dynamics of culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Most-probable-number (MPN) procedures for enumeration of bacteria, dehydrogenase assays and soil ecotoxicological tests using Eisenia fetida have been performed at different column depths over the course of incubation. After 60 days of incubation, the ecotoxicity of EXPB100-derived samples showed a decrease from 63% of mortality to 0% while EXPB5-derived samples exhibited a reduction from 100% to 53% and 90% on the top and at the bottom of the reactor column, respectively. The dehydrogenase activity of samples from EXPB100 and EXPB5 increased significantly compared to pristine soil after 60 days of incubation. Growth of aerobic bacterial biomass was only observed on the top of the reactor column while the anaerobic bacteria exhibited significant growth at different column depths in EXPB100 and EXPB5. These preliminary results suggest the involvement of soil indigenous microbiota in the biodegradation of biodiesel and blends. However, GC-FID analyses for quantification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons and targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA tags using illumina platforms will provide important

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1.

    PubMed

    Ben Ammar, Youssef; Takeda, Soichi; Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi; Mori, Hidezo; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2005-10-01

    Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca2+-binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2-NHE1 (amino acids 503-545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 A and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 A. PMID:16511206

  15. Saturated Monoglyceride Polymorphism and Gel Formation of Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Chupka, Gina; Fouts, Lisa; McCormick, Robert

    2015-11-13

    Crystallization or gel formation of normal paraffins in diesel fuel under cold weather conditions leading to fuel filter clogging is a common problem. Cold weather operability of biodiesel (B100) and blends with diesel fuel presents additional complexity because of the presence of saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) and other relatively polar species. Currently, the cloud point measurement (a measure of when the first component crystallizes out of solution) is used to define the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be used without causing cold weather issues. While filter plugging issues have declined, there still remain intermittent unexpected problems above the cloud point for biodiesel blends. Development of a fundamental understanding of how minor components in biodiesel crystallize, gel, and transform is needed in order to prevent these unexpected issues. We have found that SMGs, a low level impurity present in B100 from the production process, can crystallize out of solution and undergo a solvent-mediated polymorphic phase transformation to a more stable, less soluble form. This causes them to persist at temperatures above the cloud point once they have some out of solution. Additionally, we have found that SMGs can cause other more soluble, lower melting point minor components in the B100 to co-crystallize and come out of solution. Monoolein, another minor component from the production process is an unsaturated monoglyceride with a much lower melting point and higher solubility than SMGs. It is able to form a co-crystal with the SMGs and is found together with the SMGs on plugged filters we have analyzed in our laboratory. An observation of isolated crystals in the lab led us to believe that the SMGs may also be forming a gel-like network with components of the B100 and diesel fuel. During filtration experiments, we have noted that in some cases a solid layer of crystals forms and blocks the filter completely, while in other cases this does not occur

  16. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  17. Polymeric efficiency in remove impurities during cottonseed biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. L.; Liang, Y. H.; Yan, J.; Lin, H. D.; Espinosa, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new process for developing biodiesel by polymer from crude cottonseed oil. The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the alkali transesterification-flocculation-sedimentation process on fast glycerol and other impurities in the separation from biodiesel by using quaternary polyamine-based cationic polymers SL2700 and polyacylamide cationic polymer SAL1100. The settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities in biodiesel was investigated through settling test experiments; the quality of the biodiesel was investigated by evaluating the viscosity and density. The results revealed that SL2700, SAL1100 and their combination dramatically improved the settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities materials than traditional method. SL 2700 with molecular weight of 0.2 million Da and charge density of 50% then plus SAL1100 with molecular weight of 11 million Da and charge density of 10% induced observable particle aggregation with the best settling performance.

  18. Upstream and downstream strategies to economize biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hasheminejad, Meisam; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mansourpanah, Yaghoub; Khatami far, Mahdi; Javani, Azita

    2011-01-01

    In recent years biodiesel has drawn considerable amount of attention as a clean and renewable fuel. Biodiesel is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fat mainly through catalytic or non-catalytic transesterification method as well as supercritical method. However, as a consequence of disadvantages of these methods, the production cost increases dramatically. This article summarizes different biodiesel production methods with a focus on their advantages and disadvantages. The downstream and upstream strategies such as using waste cooking oils, application of non-edible plant oils, plant genetic engineering, using membrane separation technology for biodiesel production, separation and purification, application of crude glycerin as an energy supplement for ruminants, glycerin ultra-purification and their consequent roles in economizing the production process are fully discussed in this article. PMID:20974530

  19. Preparation and properties of biodiesel from Cynara cardunculus L. oil

    SciTech Connect

    Encinar, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Sabio, E.; Ramiro, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    A study was made of the reaction of transesterification of Cynara cardunculus L. oil by means of methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium methoxide as catalysts. The objective of the work was to characterize the methyl esters for use as biodiesels in internal combustion motors. The operation variables used were methanol concentration (5--21 wt %), catalyst concentration (0.1--1 wt %), and temperature (25--60 C). The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by determining its density, viscosity, high heating value, cetane index, cloud and pour points, Ramsbottom carbon residue, characteristics of distillation, and flash and combustion points according to ISO norms. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using 15% methanol, sodium methoxide as catalyst (1%), and 60 C temperature. This biodiesel has very similar properties to those of diesel No. 2.

  20. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Shin, Hyun Yong; Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-08-01

    Instant noodle manufacturing waste was used as feedstock to convert it into two products, bioethanol and biodiesel. The raw material was pretreated to separate it into two potential feedstocks, starch residues and palm oil, for conversion to bioethanol and biodiesel, respectively. For the production of bioethanol, starch residues were converted into glucose by α-amylase and glucoamylase. To investigate the saccharification process of the pretreated starch residues, the optimal pretreatment conditions were determined. The bioethanol conversion reached 98.5 % of the theoretical maximum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 fermentation after saccharification under optimized pretreatment conditions. Moreover, palm oil, isolated from the instant noodle waste, was converted into valuable biodiesel by use of immobilized lipase (Novozym 435). The effects of four categories of alcohol, oil-to-methanol ratio, reaction time, lipase concentration and water content on the conversion process were investigated. The maximum biodiesel conversion was 95.4 %. PMID:24515118

  1. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera G.; Grant, Georgene E.; Patil, Prafulla D.; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  2. A global comparison of national biodiesel production potentials.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matt; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-12-01

    This study presents a consistent, national-level evaluation of potential biodiesel volumes and prices, replicated across 226 countries, territories, and protectorates. Utilizing all commercially exported lipid feedstocks from existing agricultural lands, we compare the upper-limit potential for expanded biodiesel production in terms of absolute biodiesel volumes, profitable potential from biodiesel exports, and potential from expanded vegetable oil production through agricultural yield increases. Country findings are compared across a variety of economic, energy, and environmental metrics. Our results show an upper-limit worldwide volume potential of 51 billion liters from 119 countries; 47 billion of which could be produced profitably at today's import prices. Also significant production gains are possible through increasing agricultural yields: a 12-fold increase over existing potential, primarily hinging on better management of tropical oilseed varietals. PMID:18186324

  3. Application of thermal lens technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of biodiesel blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A. S. M.; Mehdipour, Lotf Ali; Noura, Amin; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2015-04-01

    Thermal diffusivity of palm biodiesel blends was measured using a thermal lens double beam setup. Palm biodiesel blends were prepared from a mixture of normal palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel with the percentage of the mixture set in the range of 10-90 %. The thermal diffusivity of the palm biodiesel blends consistently increased by increasing the concentration of palm biodiesel from 0.784 × 10-7 to 1.056 × 10-7 m2/s and average of measurement limitation was 0.629 × 10-7 m2/s. Hence, thermal lens technique is suitable and accurate to assess the thermal diffusivity of palm biodiesel.

  4. Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

  5. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  6. Cost implications of feedstock combinations for community sized biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.A.; Van Dyne, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biodiesel can be processed from oilseeds or animal fats and used in unmodified diesel engines. This fuel has been produced commercially in Europe for three years. Research indicates that biodiesel can replace diesel fuel without causing harmful effects to an unmodified engine and can reduce harmful emissions . Some European biodiesel plants operate at the community level effectively supplying both fuel and animal feeds. This study examines multiple feedstocks that could be utilized by a community sized biodiesel plant. The model plant used is a 500,000 gallon processing facility. The model plant is assumed to be installed in an existing grain handling facility or feed mill. Animal fats would be purchased from outside sources and oilseeds would be provided by area producers. Producers would retain ownership of the oilseeds and pay a processing fee to the cooperative. Oilseeds would be extruded before being separated into meal and crude oil. The crude oil would be esterified into biodiesel using continuous flow esterification technology. This study concludes under specific conditions, biodiesel can be processed economically at the community level. The results indicate that without farm program benefits to minor oilseeds, soybeans are the most economic feedstock to use in a community based operation. Realistic price information suggests that biodiesel (from soybeans) could be produced for $1.26 per gallon. If producers participate in government programs and are capable of growing minor oilseeds, canola may represent a better feedstock than soybeans. Achieving the lowest costs of production depends on the value assigned to co-product credits such as oilseed meal. The more producers pay for high protein meal for their livestock and poultry, the lower the residual price of biodiesel.

  7. Mutagenicity of biodiesel or diesel exhaust particles and the effect of engine operating conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kisin, Elena R; Shi, X.C; Keane, Michael J; Bugarski, Aleksandar B; Shvedova, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Background Changing the fuel supply from petroleum based ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a viable option for controlling exposures to particulate material (PM). This is critical in the mining industry where approximately 28,000 underground miners are potentially exposed to relatively high concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This study was conducted to investigate the mutagenic potential of diesel engine emissions (DEE) from neat (B100) and blended (B50) soy-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel in comparison with ULSD PM using different engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatment configurations. Methods The DPM samples were collected for engine equipped with either a standard muffler or a combination of the muffler and diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) that was operated at four different steady-state modes. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on the organic solvent extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. Results The results indicate that mutagenic activity of DPM was strongly affected by fuels, engine operating conditions, and exhaust aftertreatment systems. The mutagenicity was increased with the fraction of biodiesel in the fuel. While the mutagenic activity was observed in B50 and B100 samples collected from both light-and heavy-load operating conditions, the ULSD samples were mutagenic only at light-load conditions. The presence of DOC in the exhaust system resulted in the decreased mutagenicity when engine was fueled with B100 and B50 and operated at light-load conditions. This was not the case when engine was fueled with ULSD. Heavy-load operating condition in the presence of DOC resulted in a decrease of mutagenicity only when engine was fueled with B50, but not B100 or ULSD. Conclusions Therefore, the results indicate that DPM from neat or blended biodiesel has a higher mutagenic potency than that one of ULSD. Further research is needed to

  8. Supercritical biodiesel production and power cogeneration: technical and economic feasibilities.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A; Anitescu, G; Rice, P A; Tavlarides, L L

    2010-03-01

    An integrated supercritical fluid technology with power cogeneration to produce biodiesel fuels, with no need for the costly separations involved with the conventional technology, is proposed, documented for technical and economic feasibility, and preliminarily designed. The core of the integrated system consists of the transesterification of various triglyceride sources (e.g., vegetable oils and animal fats) with supercritical methanol/ethanol. Part of the reaction products can be combusted by a diesel power generator integrated in the system which, in turn, provides the power needed to pressurize the system and the heat of the exhaust gases necessary in the transesterification step. The latter energy demand can also be satisfied by a fired heater, especially for higher plant capacities. Different versions of this system can be implemented based on the main target of the technology: biodiesel production or diesel engine applications, including power generation. The process options considered for biodiesel fuel production estimate break-even processing costs of biodiesel as low as $0.26/gal ($0.07/L) with a diesel power generator and $0.35/gal ($0.09/L) with a fired heater for a plant capacity of 15,000 gal/day (56,775 L/day). Both are significantly lower than the current processing costs of approximately $0.51/gal ($0.13/L) of biodiesel produced by conventional catalytic methods. A retail cost of biodiesel produced by the proposed method is likely to be competitive with the prices of diesel fuels. PMID:19939671

  9. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  10. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable␣oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  11. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. ); Sprague, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  12. Diesel particulate emissions from used cooking oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lapuerta, Magín; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Agudelo, John R

    2008-03-01

    Two different biodiesel fuels, obtained from waste cooking oils with different previous uses, were tested in a DI diesel commercial engine either pure or in 30% and 70% v/v blends with a reference diesel fuel. Tests were performed under a set of engine operating conditions corresponding to typical road conditions. Although the engine efficiency was not significantly affected, an increase in fuel consumption with the biodiesel concentration was observed. This increase was proportional to the decrease in the heating value. The main objective of the work was to study the effect of biodiesel blends on particulate emissions, measured in terms of mass, optical effect (smoke opacity) and size distributions. A sharp decrease was observed in both smoke and particulate matter emissions as the biodiesel concentration was increased. The mean particle size was also reduced with the biodiesel concentration, but no significant increases were found in the range of the smallest particles. No important differences in emissions were found between the two tested biodiesel fuels. PMID:17368887

  13. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  14. Breathing easier? The known impacts of biodiesel on air quality

    PubMed Central

    Traviss, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Substantial scientific evidence exists on the negative health effects of exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust. Many view biodiesel as a ‘green’, more environmentally friendly alternative fuel, especially with respect to measured reductions of particulate matter in tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe emissions data sets from heavy-duty diesel engines comparing diesel and biodiesel fuels provide important information regarding the composition and potential aggregate contribution of particulate matter and other pollutants to regional airsheds. However, exposure – defined in this instance as human contact with tailpipe emissions – is another key link in the chain between emissions and human health effects. Although numerous biodiesel emissions studies exist, biodiesel exposure studies are nearly absent from the literature. This article summarizes the known impacts of biodiesel on air quality and health effects, comparing emissions and exposure research. In light of rapidly changing engine, fuel and exhaust technologies, both emissions and exposure studies are necessary for developing a fuller understanding of the impact of biodiesel on air quality and human health. PMID:23585814

  15. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash. PMID:22612334

  16. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yijun

    Biodiesel synthesis from biomass provides a means for utilizing effectively renewable resources, a way to convert waste vegetable oils and animal fats to a useful product, a way to recycle carbon dioxide for a combustion fuel, and production of a fuel that is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has a lower emission profile than petroleum-diesel. Free fatty acid (FFA) esterification and triglyceride (TG) transesterification with low molecular weight alcohols constitute the synthetic routes to prepare biodiesel from lipid feedstocks. This project was aimed at developing a better understanding of important fundamental issues involved in heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel forming reactions using mainly model compounds, representing part of on-going efforts to build up a rational base for assay, design, and performance optimization of solid acids/bases in biodiesel synthesis. As FFA esterification proceeds, water is continuously formed as a byproduct and affects reaction rates in a negative manner. Using sulfuric acid (as a catalyst) and acetic acid (as a model compound for FFA), the impact of increasing concentrations of water on acid catalysis was investigated. The order of the water effect on reaction rate was determined to be -0.83. Sulfuric acid lost up to 90% activity as the amount of water present increased. The nature of the negative effect of water on esterification was found to go beyond the scope of reverse hydrolysis and was associated with the diminished acid strength of sulfuric acid as a result of the preferential solvation by water molecules of its catalytic protons. The results indicate that as esterification progresses and byproduct water is produced, deactivation of a Bronsted acid catalyst like H2SO4 occurs. Using a solid composite acid (SAC-13) as an example of heterogeneous catalysts and sulfuric acid as a homogeneous reference, similar reaction inhibition by water was demonstrated for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This similarity together with

  17. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  18. Treatment of glycerol phase formed by biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel produced by transesterification and is contained in the glycerol phase together with many other materials such as soaps, remaining catalyst, water, and esters formed during the process. The content of glycerol is approximately 30-60 wt.%. In this paper, treatments of the glycerol phase to obtain glycerol with a purity of 86 wt.% (without distillation) and a mixture of fatty acids with esters (1:1) or only a mixture of fatty acids with a purity of 99 wt.% are presented. The treatment was carried out by removing of alkaline substances and esters. Fatty acids were produced by saponification of the remaining esters and subsequent neutralization of alkaline substances by phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, or acetic acids. Salts are by-products and, in the case of phosphoric acid can be used as potash-phosphate fertilizer. The process of treatment is easy and environmentally friendly, because no special chemicals or equipment are required and all products are utilizable. PMID:20074939

  19. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

  20. Comparative Performance Analysis of IADR Operating in Natural Gas-Fired and Waste-Heat CHP Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Andrei Y; Sand, James R; Zaltash, Abdolreza

    2006-01-01

    Fuel utilization can be dramatically improved through effective recycle of 'waste' heat produced as a by-product of on-site or near-site power generation technologies. Development of modular compact cooling, heating, and power (CHP) systems for end-use applications in commercial and institutional buildings is a key part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy policy. To effectively use the thermal energy from a wide variety of sources which is normally discarded to the ambient, many components such as heat exchangers, boilers, absorption chillers, and desiccant dehumidification systems must be further developed. Recently a compact, cost-effective, and energy-efficient integrated active-desiccant vapor-compression hybrid rooftop (IADR) unit has been introduced in the market. It combines the advantages of an advanced direct-expansion cooling system with the dehumidification capability of an active desiccant wheel. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the IADR operation in baseline mode, when desiccant wheel regeneration is driven by a natural gas burner, and in CHP mode, when the waste heat recovered from microturbine exhaust gas is used for desiccant regeneration. Comparative analysis shows an excellent potential for more efficient use of the desiccant dehumidification as part of a CHP system and the importance of proper sizing of the CHP components. The most crucial factor in exploiting the efficiency of this application is the maximum use of thermal energy recovered for heating of regeneration air.

  1. A CLOSED-LOOP BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND RESEARCH FACILITY IN KEENE, NH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objectives during Phase I were to continue a Biodiesel Working Group, formalize the organizational structure of the Monadnock Biodiesel Collaborative, identify a possible facility location, secure funding, provide novel curriculum for Keene State College students, and...

  2. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends...

  3. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel. PMID:19525107

  4. Biodiesel from lignocellulosic biomass--prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Abu

    2012-11-01

    Biodiesel can be a potential alternative to petroleum diesel, but its high production cost has impeded its commercialization in most parts of the world. One of the main drivers for the generation and use of biodiesel is energy security, because this fuel can be produced from locally available resources, thereby reducing the dependence on imported oil. Many countries are now trying to produce biodiesel from plant or vegetable oils. However, the consumption of large amounts of vegetable oils for biodiesel production could result in a shortage in edible oils and cause food prices to soar. Alternatively, the use of animal fat, used frying oils, and waste oils from restaurants as feedstock could be a good strategy to reduce the cost. However, these limited resources might not meet the increasing demand for clean, renewable fuels. Therefore, recent research has been focused the use of residual materials as renewable feedstock in order to lower the cost of producing biodiesel. Microbial oils or single cell oils (SCOs), produced by oleaginous microorganisms have been studied as promising alternatives to vegetable or seed oils. Various types of agro-industrial residues have been suggested as prospective nutritional sources for microbial cultures. Since the most abundant residue from agricultural crops is lignocellulosic biomass (LCB), this byproduct has been given top-priority consideration as a source of biomass for producing biodiesel. But the biological transformation of lignocellulosic materials is complicated due to their crystalline structure. So, pretreatment is required before they can be converted into fermentable sugar. This article compares and scrutinizes the extent to which various microbes can accumulate high levels of lipids as functions of the starting materials and the fermentation conditions. Also, the obstacles associated with the use of LCB are described, along with a potentially viable approach for overcoming the obstacles that currently preclude the

  5. Engineering an Escherichia coli platform to synthesize designer biodiesels.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Michael; Niraula, Narayan; Yarrabothula, Akshitha; Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-04-20

    Biodiesels, fatty acid esters (FAEs), can be synthesized by condensation of fatty acid acyl CoAs and alcohols via a wax ester synthase in living cells. Biodiesels have advantageous characteristics over petrodiesels such as biodegradability, a higher flash point, and less emission. Controlling fatty acid and alcohol moieties are critical to produce designer biodiesels with desirable physiochemical properties (e.g., high cetane number, low kinematic viscosity, high oxidative stability, and low cloud point). Here, we developed a flexible framework to engineer Escherichia coli cell factories to synthesize designer biodiesels directly from fermentable sugars. In this framework, we designed each FAE pathway as a biodiesel exchangeable production module consisting of acyl CoA, alcohol, and wax ester synthase submodules. By inserting the FAE modules in an engineered E. coli modular chassis cell, we generated E. coli cell factories to produce targeted biodiesels (e.g., fatty acid ethyl (FAEE) and isobutyl (FAIbE) esters) with tunable and controllable short-chain alcohol moieties. The engineered E. coli chassis carrying the FAIbE production module produced 54mg/L FAIbEs with high specificity, accounting for>90% of the total synthesized FAEs and ∼4.7 fold increase in FAIbE production compared to the wildtype. Fed-batch cultures further improved FAIbE production up to 165mg/L. By mixing ethanol and isobutanol submodules, we demonstrated controllable production of mixed FAEEs and FAIbEs. We envision the developed framework offers a flexible, alternative route to engineer designer biodiesels with tunable and controllable properties using biomass-derived fermentable sugars. PMID:26953744

  6. Prediction of class membership of biodiesels using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Zylia; Milina, Rumyana; Simeonova, Pavlina A; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2015-01-01

    Recently, serious scientific and technological attention is paid to creation of alternative energy sources, including biofuels. The assessment of the quality of the biofuels produced and of the raw materials needed for the production technology is an important scientific challenge. One of the major sources for biodiesel production is plant oils material (sunflower, rapeseed, palm, soya etc.). Since plants are complex system from the biota it is not easy to find specific chemical components responsible for their ability to serve as biodiesels. The characterization and classification of plant sources as biofuel material could be reliably estimated only by the use of multivariate statistical approaches (chemometrics). The chemometric expertise makes it possible not only to classify different biofuel sources into similarity classes but also to predict the membership of unknown by origin chemically analyzed samples to already existing classes. The present study deals with the prediction of the class membership of several unknown by origin samples, which are included in a large data set with FAME profiles of biodiesel plant sources. Using a data set from chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profiles (FAME) of different plant biodiesel sources and applying the chemometric technique know as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS - DA) a pattern recognition procedure is developed to: I. Model classes of similarity of biodiesel plant sources using their FAME profiles not taking into account the samples with unknown origin; II. Classify correctly the samples with unknown origin to the previously defined classes of biodiesel sources (palm oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and maize oil). The prediction is successfully achieved for all samples with previously unknown origin. This pattern recognition approach is applied for the first time in the field of biodiesel classification and modeling tasks. PMID:25438133

  7. INNOVATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: A SOLUTION TO THE SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL, AND EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loyola's STEP students completed over 20 team projects: Developed a business plan for biodiesel production, created the LUC biodiesel website, created the Bio­shorts documentaries, tabled at environmental events, publicized and put on two Biodiesel Forums (2nd one pending,...

  8. Quantitative Investigations of Biodiesel Fuel Using Infrared Spectroscopy: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment for Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Andrew P.; Pomeroy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has gained attention in recent years as a renewable fuel source due to its reduced greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, and it can be produced within the United States. A laboratory experiment designed for students in an upper-division undergraduate laboratory is described to study biodiesel production and biodiesel mixing with…

  9. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  10. Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics And Mineralization Of Six Petrodiesel/Soybean-Biodiesel Blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerobic biodegradation kinetics and mineralization of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100), where B100 is 100% biodiesel, were investigated by acclimated cultures. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of biodiesel were found to undergo ...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Part 306—Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels (Part 1 of 2) Fuel type Blends of 5 percent or less Blends of more than 5 but not more than 20 percent Header Text Color Biodiesel No...

  12. Predicting the concentration and specific gravity of biodiesel-diesel blends using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel made from different source materials usually have different physical and chemical properties and the concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel-diesel blends varies from pump to pump and from user to user; all these factors have significant effects on performance and efficiency of engines fue...

  13. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  14. 10 CFR 490.706 - Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage. 490.706 Section 490.706 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.706 Procedure for modifying the biodiesel...

  15. 10 CFR 490.706 - Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage. 490.706 Section 490.706 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.706 Procedure for modifying the biodiesel...

  16. 10 CFR 490.706 - Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage. 490.706 Section 490.706 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.706 Procedure for modifying the biodiesel...

  17. 10 CFR 490.706 - Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage. 490.706 Section 490.706 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.706 Procedure for modifying the biodiesel...

  18. Effects of monoacylglycerols on low-temperature viscosity and cold filter plugging point of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is composed of mono-alkyl fatty acid esters made from the transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol or ethanol. Biodiesel must meet rigorous standard fuel specifications (ASTM D 6751; CEN EN 14214) to be classified as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, biodiesel that...

  19. Low-temperature Flow Properties of Biodiesel/Jet Fuel (BioJet) Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that is made from transesterification of vegetable oil, animal fat or other lipid feedstocks with a simple alcohol such as methanol. Biodiesel may be blended with jet fuel (JP-8) to reduce dependence on petroleum imports and improve ground-level emissions. Biodiesel i...

  20. Factors Affecting the Stability of Biodiesel Sold in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R. L.; Ratcliff, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a survey of biodiesel quality and stability in the United States, 27 biodiesel (B100) samples were collected from blenders and distributor nationwide. For this sample set, 85% met all of the requirements of the industry standard for biodiesel, ASTM D6751.

  1. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Part 306—Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels (Part 1 of 2) Fuel type Blends of 5 percent or less Blends of more than 5 but not more than 20 percent Header Text Color Biodiesel No...

  2. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Part 306—Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels (Part 1 of 2) Fuel type Blends of 5 percent or less Blends of more than 5 but not more than 20 percent Header Text Color Biodiesel No...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Part 306—Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels (Part 1 of 2) Fuel type Blends of 5 percent or less Blends of more than 5 but not more than 20 percent Header Text Color Biodiesel No...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Part 306—Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels (Part 1 of 2) Fuel type Blends of 5 percent or less Blends of more than 5 but not more than 20 percent Header Text Color Biodiesel No...

  5. Biodiesel Derived from a Feedstock Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous vegetable oils, animal fats or other feedstocks have been investigated for obtaining biodiesel, defined as the mono alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. While biodiesel is competitive with petrodiesel, technical problems facing biodiesel include cold flow and oxidative stability...

  6. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative

  7. An experimental study on thermal stability of biodiesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yiying

    Biodiesel fuel, as renewable energy, has been used in conventional diesel engines in pure form or as biodiesel/diesel blends for many years. However, thermal stability of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends has been minimally explored. Aimed to shorten this gap, thermal stability of biodiesel is investigated at high temperatures. In this study, batch thermal stressing experiments of biodiesel fuel were performed in stainless steel coils at specific temperature and residence time range from 250 to 425 °C and 3 to 63 minutes, respectively. Evidence of different pathways of biodiesel fuel degradation is demonstrated chromatographically. It was found that biodiesel was stable at 275 °C for a residence time of 8 minutes or below, but the cis-trans isomerization reaction was observed at 28 minutes. Along with isomerization, polymerization also took place at 300 °C at 63 minutes. Small molecular weight products were detected at 350 °C at 33 minutes resulting from pyrolysis reactions and at 360 °C for 33 minutes or above, gaseous products were produced. The formed isomers and dimers were not stable, further decomposition of these compounds was observed at high temperatures. These three main reactions and the temperature ranges in which they occurred are: isomerization, 275--400 °C; polymerization (Diels-Alder reaction), 300--425 °C; pyrolysis reaction, ≥350 °C. The longer residence time and higher temperature resulted in greater decomposition. As the temperature increased to 425 °C, the colorless biodiesel became brownish. After 8 minutes, almost 84% of the original fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) disappeared, indicating significant fuel decomposition. A kinetic study was also carried out subsequently to gain better insight into the biodiesel thermal decomposition. A three-lump model was proposed to describe the decomposition mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a reversible first-order reaction kinetic model for the global biodiesel decomposition was shown to

  8. Environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michikazu

    2009-01-01

    Fuelling the future: The production of esters of higher fatty acids from plant materials is of great interest for the manufacture of biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalysts can provide new routes for the environmentally benign production of biodiesel. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction allowing the catalyst to be reused, generating less waste, and consuming less energy. Diesel engines are simple and powerful, and exhibit many advantages in energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, the production of higher fatty acid esters from plant materials has become of interest in recent years for the manufacture of biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel. The industrial production of biodiesel mostly proceeds in the presence of "soluble" catalysts such as alkali hydroxides and liquid acids. A considerable amount of energy is required for the purification of products and catalyst separation, and furthermore these catalysts are not reusable. This process results in substantial energy wastage and the production of large amounts of chemical waste. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction, allowing the catalyst to be reused and consuming less energy. This Minireview describes the environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts such as solid bases, acid catalysts, and immobilized enzymes. PMID:19180600

  9. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Linardi, Darwin; Lee, Jisoo; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-07-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems are encouraging research on alternative fuels of renewable sources. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to be used as a substitute to the petroleum based diesel fuels. However, the cost of biodiesel production is high and is attributed mainly to the feedstock used which leads to the investigation of low cost feedstocks that are economically feasible. In this paper, we report on the utilization of lipid obtained from food waste as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid from food waste was transesterified with methanol using base and lipase as catalysts. The maximum biodiesel yield was 100% for the base (KOH) catalyzed transesterification at 1:10M ratio of lipid to methanol in 2h at 60°C. Novozyme-435 yielded a 90% FAME conversion at 40°C and 1:5 lipid to methanol molar ratio in 24h. Lipid obtained from fungal hydrolysis of food waste is found to be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:25843356

  10. Potential feedstock supply and costs for biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.G.; Howell, S.A.; Weber, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Without considering technology constraints, tallows and waste greases have definite potential as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel in the United States. These materials are less expensive than most oils produced from oilseed crops such as soybeans, sunflowers, canola and rapeseed. At current crude petroleum prices, biodiesel derived from any of these materials will be more expensive than diesel derived from petroleum. However, when compared to other clean burning alternate fuels, recent data suggest biodiesel blends produced from any of these feedstocks may be the lowest total cost alternative fuel in certain areas of the United States. Economic feasibility analyses were performed to investigate the cost of producing biodiesel ($/gallon) subject to variances in feedstock cost, by-product credit (glycerol and meal) and capital costs. Cost of production per gallon of esterified biodiesel from soybean, sunflower, tallow and yellow grease ranged from $0.96 to $3.39 subject to feedstock and chemical costs, by-product credit and system capital cost.

  11. An alternative fuel for urban buses-biodiesel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, L.G.; Weber, J.A.; Russell, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative biodiesel fueling performance and operational data have been collected from urban mass transit buses at Bi-State Development Agency in St. Louis Missouri. A total of 10 vehicles were selected for fueling; 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel engines have been fueled with a 20/80 biodiesel/diesel fuel blend and 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel control vehicles have been fueled on petroleum based low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD). The real-world impact of a biodiesel blend on maintenance, reliability, cost, fuel economy and safety compared to LSD will be presented. In addition, engine exhaust emissions data collected by the University of West Virginia Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored mobile emissions laboratory will be presented. Operational data from Bi-State Development Agency is collected by the University of Missouri and quality control procedures are performed prior to placing the data in the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC). The AFDC is maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. This effort, which enables transit operators to review a real-world comparison of biodiesel and LSD, has been funded by the National Biodiesel Board with funds provided by the United Soybean Board with national checkoff dollars and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  12. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  13. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D.

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  14. Development of Small-Scale CHP Plant with a Wood Powder-Fueled Stirling Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsura; Ohiwa, Norio; Ishikawa, Akira; Shimojima, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akio; Moriya, Yoichi

    Small-scale biomass CHP (combined heat and power) plants are in demand for environmental reasons - particularly systems fueled by wood waste, which are simple to operate and require no maintenance while having high thermal efficiency similar to oil-fired units. A 55kWe Stirling engine CHP system, combined with a simplified biomass combustion process that uses pulverized wood powder has been developed to meet these requirements. Wood powder of less than 500 μm was mainly used in these tests, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m was applied. Under these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emissions by less than 10 ppm, and with combustion efficiency of 99.9%. Under the same conditions, NOx emissions are estimated to be less than 120 ppm (on the basis of 6% O2). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engines. The 55 kWe Stirling engine performance test was carried out to optimize the operating condition of wood powder burners. The status of Stirling engine operation at a full load with 55 kWe was stable, and start-up and shut -down operations were easy to perform. Operational status was evaluated as being excellent, except for an ash fouling problem in the Stirling engine heater tubes. Ash fouling characteristics were considered in the final stage of the demonstration test. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test and Stirling engine performance test. Furthermore, the ash fouling data is shown and the mechanism of ash fouling in heater tubes is discussed.

  15. Biofuel combustion chemistry: from ethanol to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina; Osswald, Patrick; Cool, Terrill A; Kasper, Tina; Hansen, Nils; Qi, Fei; Westbrook, Charles K; Westmoreland, Phillip R

    2010-05-10

    Biofuels, such as bio-ethanol, bio-butanol, and biodiesel, are of increasing interest as alternatives to petroleum-based transportation fuels because they offer the long-term promise of fuel-source regenerability and reduced climatic impact. Current discussions emphasize the processes to make such alternative fuels and fuel additives, the compatibility of these substances with current fuel-delivery infrastructure and engine performance, and the competition between biofuel and food production. However, the combustion chemistry of the compounds that constitute typical biofuels, including alcohols, ethers, and esters, has not received similar public attention. Herein we highlight some characteristic aspects of the chemical pathways in the combustion of prototypical representatives of potential biofuels. The discussion focuses on the decomposition and oxidation mechanisms and the formation of undesired, harmful, or toxic emissions, with an emphasis on transportation fuels. New insights into the vastly diverse and complex chemical reaction networks of biofuel combustion are enabled by recent experimental investigations and complementary combustion modeling. Understanding key elements of this chemistry is an important step towards the intelligent selection of next-generation alternative fuels. PMID:20446278

  16. Whole-cell biocatalysts for biodiesel fuel production.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Hama, S; Tamalampudi, S; Noda, H

    2008-12-01

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF), which refers to fatty acid alkyl esters, has attracted considerable attention as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. Alkali catalysis is widely applied for the commercial production of BDF. However, enzymatic transesterification offers considerable advantages, including reducing process operations in biodiesel fuel production and an easy separation of the glycerol byproduct. The high cost of the lipase enzyme is the main obstacle for a commercially feasible enzymatic production of biodiesel fuels. To reduce enzyme associated process costs, the immobilization of fungal mycelium within biomass support particles (BSPs) as well as expression of the lipase enzyme on the surface of yeast cells has been developed to generate whole-cell biocatalysts for industrial applications. PMID:18976825

  17. Assessment of four biodiesel production processes using HYSYS.Plant.

    PubMed

    West, Alex H; Posarac, Dusko; Ellis, Naoko

    2008-09-01

    Four continuous biodiesel processes were designed and simulated in HYSYS. The first two employed traditional homogeneous alkali and acid catalysts. The third and fourth processes used a heterogeneous acid catalyst and a supercritical method to convert a waste vegetable oil feedstock into biodiesel. While all four processes were capable of producing biodiesel at high purity, the heterogeneous and supercritical processes were the least complex and had the smallest number of unit operations. Material and energy flows, as well as sized unit operation blocks, were used to conduct an economic assessment of each process. Total capital investment, total manufacturing cost and after tax rate-of-return were calculated for each process. The heterogeneous acid catalyst process had the lowest total capital investment and manufacturing costs, and had the only positive after tax rate-of-return. PMID:18234493

  18. Extraction of oil from microalgae for biodiesel production: A review.

    PubMed

    Halim, Ronald; Danquah, Michael K; Webley, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase of CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere combined with depleted supplies of fossil fuels has led to an increased commercial interest in renewable fuels. Due to their high biomass productivity, rapid lipid accumulation, and ability to survive in saline water, microalgae have been identified as promising feedstocks for industrial-scale production of carbon-neutral biodiesel. This study examines the principles involved in lipid extraction from microalgal cells, a crucial downstream processing step in the production of microalgal biodiesel. We analyze the different technological options currently available for laboratory-scale microalgal lipid extraction, with a primary focus on the prospect of organic solvent and supercritical fluid extraction. The study also provides an assessment of recent breakthroughs in this rapidly developing field and reports on the suitability of microalgal lipid compositions for biodiesel conversion. PMID:22266377

  19. A comprehensive combustion model for biodiesel-fueled engine simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakora, Jessica L.

    Engine models for alternative fuels are available, but few are comprehensive, well-validated models that include accurate physical property data as well as a detailed description of the fuel chemistry. In this work, a comprehensive biodiesel combustion model was created for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations, specifically the KIVA3v R2 code. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. A reduced mechanism was generated from the methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl-9-decenoate (MD9D) mechanism developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was combined with a multi-component mechanism to include n-heptane in the fuel chemistry. The biodiesel chemistry was represented using a combination of MD, MD9D and n-heptane, which varied for a given fuel source. The reduced mechanism, which contained 63 species, accurately predicted ignition delay times of the detailed mechanism over a range of engine-specific operating conditions. Physical property data for the five methyl ester components of biodiesel were added to the KIVA library. Spray simulations were performed to ensure that the models adequately reproduce liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Fuel composition impacted liquid length as expected, with saturated species vaporizing more and penetrating less. Distillation curves were created to ensure the fuel vaporization process was comparable to available data. Engine validation was performed against a low-speed, high-load, conventional combustion experiments and the model was able to predict the performance and NOx formation seen in the experiment. High-speed, low-load, low-temperature combustion conditions were also modeled, and the emissions (HC, CO, NOx) and fuel consumption were well-predicted for a sweep of injection timings. Finally, comparisons were made between the results of biodiesel

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory considers the use of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, M. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new EPA-approved alternative fuel, called biodiesel, may soon be used at Los Alamos National Laboratory in everything from diesel trucks to laboratory equipment. Biodiesel transforms vegetable oils into a renewable, cleaner energy source that can be used in any machinery that uses diesel fuel. For the past couple years, the Laboratory has been exploring the possibility of switching over to soybean-based biodiesel. This change could lead to many health and environmental benefits, as well as help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable diesel fuel substitute made from soybean and other vegetable oil crops, as well as from recycled cooking oils. A chemical process breaks down the vegetable oil into a usable form. Vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 carbons and ordinary diesel has about 12 or 13 carbons. The process breaks the carbon chains of the vegetable oil and separates out the glycerin (a fatty substance used in creams and soaps). The co-product of glycerin can be used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, as well as many other markets. Once the chains are shortened and the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining liquid is similar to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be burned in pure form or in a blend of any proportion with petroleum diesel. To be considered an alternative fuel source by the EPA, the blend must be at least 20 percent biodiesel (B20). According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), biodiesel is America's fastest growing alternative fuel.

  1. Ultrasound assisted intensification of biodiesel production using enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound assisted intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using methyl acetate and immobilized lipase obtained from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TLIM) as a catalyst has been investigated in the present work. The reaction has also been investigated using the conventional approach based on stirring so as to establish the beneficial effects obtained due to the use of ultrasound. Effect of operating conditions such as reactant molar ratio (oil and methyl acetate), temperature and enzyme loading on the yield of biodiesel has been investigated. Optimum conditions for the conventional approach (without ultrasound) were established as reactant molar ratio of 1:12 (oil:methyl acetate), enzyme loading of 6% (w/v), temperature of 40 °C and reaction time of 24 h and under these conditions, 90.1% biodiesel yield was obtained. The optimum conditions for the ultrasound assisted approach were oil to methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:9, enzyme loading of 3% (w/v), and reaction time of 3 h and the biodiesel yield obtained under these conditions was 96.1%. Use of ultrasound resulted in significant reduction in the reaction time with higher yields and lower requirement of the enzyme loading. The obtained results have clearly established that ultrasound assisted interesterification was a fast and efficient approach for biodiesel production giving significant benefits, which can help in reducing the costs of production. Reusability studies for the enzyme were also performed but it was observed that reuse of the catalyst under the optimum experimental condition resulted in reduced enzyme activity and biodiesel yield. PMID:26584986

  2. Microwave irradiation biodiesel processing of waste cooking oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motasemi, Farough; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    Major part of the world's total energy output is generated from fossil fuels, consequently its consumption has been continuously increased which accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and also increases the price of these valuable limited resources. Biodiesel is a renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable diesel fuel which it can be the best environmentally friendly and easily attainable alternative for fossil fuels. The costs of feedstock and production process are two important factors which are particularly against large-scale biodiesel production. This study is intended to optimize three critical reaction parameters including intensity of mixing, microwave exit power and reaction time from the transesterification of waste cooking oil by using microwave irradiation in an attempt to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. To arrest the reaction, similar quantities of methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1) and potassium hydroxide (2% wt) as the catalyst were used. The results showed that the best yield percentage (95%) was obtained using 300W microwave exit power, 300 rpm stirrer speed (intensity of mixing) and 78°C for 5 min. It was observed that increasing the intensity of mixing greatly ameliorates the yield percentage of biodiesel (up to 17%). Moreover, the results demonstrate that increasing the reaction time in the low microwave exit power (100W) improves the yield percentage of biodiesel, while it has a negative effect on the conversion yield in the higher microwave exit power (300W). From the obtained results it was clear that FAME was within the standards of biodiesel fuel.

  3. Anaerobic biodegradation of soybean biodiesel and diesel blends under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuyun; Yassine, Mohamad H; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-10-01

    Biotransformation of soybean biodiesel and its biodiesel/petrodiesel blends were investigated under sulfate-reducing conditions. Three blends of biodiesel, B100, B50, and B0, were treated using microbial cultures pre-acclimated to B100 (biodiesel only) and B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% petrodiesel). Results indicate that the biodiesel could be effectively biodegraded in the presence or absence of petrodiesel, whereas petrodiesel could not be biodegraded at all under sulfate-reducing conditions. The kinetics of biodegradation of individual Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) compounds and their accompanying sulfate-reduction rates were studied using a serum bottle test. As for the biodegradation of individual FAME compounds, the biodegradation rates for the saturated FAMEs decreased with increasing carbon chain length. For unsaturated FAMEs, biodegradation rates increased with increasing number of double bonds. The presence of petrodiesel had a greater effect on the rate of biodegradation of biodiesel than on the extent of removal. PMID:27448319

  4. [Biodiesel-fuel: content, production, producers, contemporary biotechnology (review)].

    PubMed

    Feofilova, E P; Sergeeva, Ia E; Ivashechkin, A A

    2010-01-01

    The necessity of expanding studies on producing renewable biofuel is reviewed. Special attention is given to biodiesel, the history of its creation, and its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with diesel-fuel. The main part of the review is devoted to an analysis of diesel biofuel on the basis of bacterial lipids, filamentous fungi, yeasts, plants, photo- and heterotrophic algae. Biodiesel on the basis of filamentous fungi is studied in detail and the possibility of creation of the most perspective biotechnology using these producers is grounded. The contemporary state of biotechnology in Russia is discussed in connection with the development of energetics based on renewable biofuels. PMID:20873163

  5. BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Biodiesel. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Biodiesel is a substitute for or an additive to diesel fuel that is derived from the oils and fats of plants. It is an alternative fuel that can be used in diesel engines and provides power similar to conventional diesel fuel. It is a biodegradable transportation fuel that contributes little, if any, net carbon dioxide or sulfur to the atmosphere, and is low in particulate emission. It is a renewable, domestically produced liquid fuel that can help reduce US dependence on foreign oil imports. This overview presents the resource potential, history, processing techniques, US DOE programs cost and utilization potential of biodiesel fuels.

  6. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This overview is extracted from a detailed, comprehensive report entitled Life Cycle Inventories of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI comprehensively quantifies all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  7. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    SciTech Connect

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  8. Energy and economical comparison of possible cultures for a total-integrated on-field biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tebianian, S.; Muscio, A.; Tartarini, P.

    2014-04-01

    This work is aimed at investigating the energy conversion effectiveness and the economical advantages of a total integrated solution for on-field biodiesel and electrical energy production. The system proposed here is based on the synergy of four sub-systems: a seed press for oil production, a downdraft gasifier, a biodiesel conversion plant and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Two possible culture rotations, suggested by literature review, were analyzed here from economical and energy balance points of view. Both the rotations were composed of oleaginous crops only, therefore the seeds collected from the different cultures were pressed, then the protein cake produced in the process was gasified in the downdraft reactor. The gasification process was modeled here, and its output suggested that, for a precise number of hectares, the syngas obtained through the cake gasification was enough for producing methanol required for oil-biodiesel conversion and feeding a 10-kW SOFC. The purge line in the methanol reactor was used in the SOFC as well. The system was simulated using ASPEN PLUSTM and MATLABTM codes. Results of the SOFC and gasifier models underlined the capability of the fuel cell to work with this particular system, furthermore the whole system analysis suggested that the surface required for sustainability of the processes is a function of the rotation choice. In both cases little surfaces ranging from 11 to 21 hectares were found to be enough for system self-sustainability with a ROI under 7 years in all the operating conditions analyzed.

  9. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production. PMID:24983445

  10. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

  11. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    SciTech Connect

    Babkin, K. V. Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V.; Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V.

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  12. Reducing the life cycle GHG emissions of microalgal biodiesel through integration with ethanol production system.

    PubMed

    Maranduba, Henrique Leonardo; Robra, Sabine; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Rosenira Serpa; Rodrigues, Luciano Brito; de Almeida Neto, José Adolfo

    2015-10-01

    Despite environmental benefits of algal-biofuels, the energy-intensive systems for producing microalgae-feedstock may result in high GHG emissions. Trying to overcome energy-costs, this research analyzed the biodiesel production system via dry-route, based on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in raceways, by comparing the GHG-footprints of diverse microalgae-biodiesel scenarios. These involved: the single system of biomass production (C0); the application of pyrolysis on the residual microalgal biomass (cake) from the oil extraction process (C1); the same as C0, with anaerobic cake co-digested with cattle manure (C2); the same conditions as in C1 and C2, by integrating in both cases (respectively C3 and C4), the microalgae cultivation with an autonomous ethanol distillery. The reduction of GHG emissions in scenarios with no such integration (C1 and C2), compared to CO, was insignificant (0.53% and 4.67%, respectively), whereas in the scenarios with integration with ethanol production system, the improvements were 53.57% for C3 and 63.84% for C4. PMID:26176822

  13. The dynamic model on the impact of biodiesel blend mandate (B5) on Malaysian palm oil domestic demand: A preliminary finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Sapiri, Hasimah

    2014-12-01

    Over the last ten years, world biofuels production has increased dramatically. The biodiesel demand is driven by the increases in fossil fuel prices, government policy mandates, income from gross domestic product and population growth. In the European Union, biofuel consumption is mostly driven by blending mandates in both France and Germany. In the case of Malaysia, biodiesel has started to be exported since 2006. The B5 of 5% blend of palm oil based biodiesel into diesel in all government vehicles was implemented in February 2009 and it is expected to be implemented nationwide in the nearest time. How will the blend mandate will project growth in the domestic demand of palm oil in Malaysia? To analyze this issue, a system dynamics model was constructed to evaluate the impact of blend mandate implementation on the palm oil domestic demand influence. The base run of simulation analysis indicates that the trend of domestic demand will increase until 2030 in parallel with the implementation of 5 percent of biodiesel mandate. Finally, this study depicts that system dynamics is a useful tool to gain insight and to experiment with the impact of changes in blend mandate implementation on the future growth of Malaysian palm oil domestic demand sector.

  14. "Designer" biodiesel: optimizing fatty ester composition to improve fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a domestic and renewable alternative with the potential to replace some of the petrodiesel market. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats or other sources with a significant content of triacylglycerols by means of a transesterification reaction. The fatty acid profile of biod...

  15. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  16. BIODIESEL EXHAUST: THE NEED FOR HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel is a diesel fuel alternative that has shown potential of becoming a commercially accepted part of the United States energy infrastructure. In November of 2004, the signing of the Jobs Creation Bill HR4520 marked an important turning point for the future production of bi...

  17. Chemocatalytic upgrading of tailored fermentation products toward biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, Sanil; Baer, Zachary C; Gross, Elad; Padmanaban, Sasisanker; Goulas, Konstantinos; Gunbas, Gorkem; Alayoglu, Selim; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

    2014-09-01

    Biological and chemocatalytic processes are tailored in order to maximize the production of sustainable biodiesel from lignocellulosic sugar. Thus, the combination of hydrotalcite-supported copper(II) and palladium(0) catalysts with a modification of the fermentation from acetone-butanol-ethanol to isopropanol-butanol-ethanol predictably produces higher concentrations of diesel-range components in the alkylation reaction. PMID:25044817

  18. Biodiesel from Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to seek non-conventional seed oil sources for biodiesel production due to issues such as supply and availability, as well as food versus fuel. In this context, Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil was investigated for the first time as a potential non-conventional feedstock for the ...

  19. A survey of biodiesel feedstocks under performance perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, can be produced from an ever-growing number of feedstocks. The development of the various feedstocks is spurred to a significant extent by the issue of availability as there is no feedstock that can replace significant am...

  20. PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM ALGAE APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    With increasing dependence on foreign oil, escalating energy prices, and persistent air and water pollution associated with energy production, the U.S. is in need of a clean-burning renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is a rapidly expanding alternative fuel that has the po...

  1. Applications of 1H-NMR to Biodiesel Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or used cooking oils. It is produced by reacting these materials with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to give the corresponding mono-alkyl esters. 1H-NMR is a routine analytical method that has been used for...

  2. A ROBUST PROCESS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review was conducted in order to insure the feedstock choice had the potential to bring about positive impacts in making progress toward sustainability. The use of algae for a biodiesel feedstock was chosen for the many benefits it provides. Algae produced via the...

  3. Gelatin films plasticized with a simulated biodiesel coproduct stream

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cast gelatin films were plasticized with glycerol to which compounds found in an unrefined biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS) had been added, including linoleic acid, methyl linoleate, oleic acid, and methyl oleate, in various amounts. The tensile properties of the films were measured as a function of...

  4. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  5. Composition and Toxicity of Biodiesel versus Conventional Diesel

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing production of biodiesel (BD) fuel at the local, national, and global levels raise important issues related to the impact and potential adverse health outcome related to BD exposures. Studies on the toxicity of BD combustion emissions are very limited. Emission co...

  6. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  7. Mutagenicity of Diesel and Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity Of Diesel And Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles E Mutlua,b' SH Warrenb, PP Matthewsb, CJ Kingb, B Prestonc, MD Haysb, DG Nashb,ct, WP Linakb, MI Gilmourb, and DM DeMarinib aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC bU.S. Environmental Agency, Research Triangle Pa...

  8. A Simple, Safe Method for Preparation of Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnia, Mahin S.; Emerson, David W.; Steinberg, Spencer M.; Alwis, Rasika M.; Duenas, Josue A.; Serafino, Jessica O.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment suitable for organic chemistry students is described. Biodiesel, a "green" fuel, consists of methyl or ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids called FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) or FAEES (fatty acid ethyl esters). A quick way to make FAMES is a base-catalyzed transesterification of oils or fats derived from plants or from animal…

  9. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  10. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  11. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  12. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas using Nano Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Bilal; Bahadar, Ali; Anjum, Waqas

    2009-09-01

    Biodiesel is proving to be a viable clean energy resource for conventional fuel as well as more exotic, value added jet fuel applications. Various non edible agriculture based sources are exploited to produce biodiesel with varying degrees of conversion and properties. Systematic studies carried out to date reveal that the oil extracted from Jatropha Curcas gives best results on yield basis (2800 kg oil/Hectare max). However the research is marred by the production of often undesirable and cumbersome byproducts, which needs multifarious purification steps with associated cost. Sponification step is a main hurdle in the old technology. We have made a paradigm shift by introducing nanomaterials which not only eliminate the cited side reactions/byproducts, but also yield higher conversion and lower costs. Typically we have reduced the reaction time from 90 min at 70° C to a gainful 5 min at ambient temperatures. The nanomaterial has been characterized by SEM and EDS (Electron Dispersion Scanning Analysis) which clearly shows bimodal distribution of the nonmaterial employed. Further characterization study was carried out by FTIR and the results are compared with petrodiesel and standard biodiesel in the important region of 2000-4000 cm-1. Perfect matching/finger printing was achieved. In this work we also report detailed comparative elemental and flash point analysis of the Biodiesel produced via various established roots.

  13. Attempts to Reduce NOx Exhaust Emissions by Using Reformulated Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two routes were investigated for reformulating soy-based biodiesel in an effort to reduce its nitrogen oxide emissions. In the first approach, methyl soyate was modified by converting a proportion of the cis-bonds in the fatty acid chains of its methyl esters to their trans isomers. In the second ...

  14. In-field Peanut Processing for Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The costs and environmental impact for using petroleum-based fuels such as diesel, has triggered considerable interest in the development of sustainable, on-farm biodiesel production systems. Field studies have demonstrated that a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can produce 1138 kg/ha of peanut oil at ...

  15. Biodiesel: A fuel, a lubricant and a solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is well-known as a biogenic alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced from feedstocks such as plant oils consisting largely of triacylglycerols through a transesterification with an alcohol such as methanol. Its properties are largely competitive with t...

  16. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  17. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Kegl, Breda

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of D2. The obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. The injection characteristics are determined numerically under the operating regimes, corresponding to the 13 mode ESC test. The fuel spray is obtained experimentally under peak torque condition. Engine characteristics are determined experimentally under 13 mode ESC test conditions. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NO(x), CO, smoke and HC) can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly. PMID:17350250

  18. Process Intensification in Base-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Tsouris, Costas; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. Recent interest has resulted in biodiesel manufacture becoming more widely undertaken by commercial enterprises that are interested in minimizing the cost of feedstock materials and waste production, as well as maximizing the efficiency of production. Various means to accelerate batch processing have been investigated. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has experience in developing process intensification methods for nuclear separations, and this paper will discuss how technologies developed for very different applications have been modified for continuous reaction/separation of biodiesel. In collaboration with an industrial partner, this work addresses the aspect of base-catalyzed biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. In particular, we have found that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the transesterification process and have developed a continuous two-phase reactor for online production of a methyl ester and glycerol. Enhancing the mass transfer has additional benefits such as being able to use an alcohol-to-oil phase ratio closer to stoichiometric than in conventional processing, hence minimizing the amount of solvent that has to be recycled and reducing post-processing clean up costs. Various technical issues associated with the application of process intensification technology will be discussed, including scale-up from the laboratory to a pilot-scale undertaking.

  19. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification to remove saturated monoacylglycerols from biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated monoacylglycerols (SMG) are known to be present in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended to be used as biodiesel. These SMG can strongly affect the properties of biofuels such as the cloud point, and they have been implicated in engine failure due to filter plugging. It is shown here th...

  20. Effects of monoacylglycerols on the cold flow properties of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel made from plant oils and animal fats that may be burned in a compression-ignition (diesel) engine. It is composed of mono-alkyl esters of fatty acid esters made from plant oils or animal fats mainly by transesterification with methanol or ethanol. This proce...

  1. Preparation of Jojoba Oil Ester Derivatives for Biodiesel Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of the increase in commodity vegetable oil prices, it is imperative that non-food oils should be considered as alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jojoba oil is unusual in that it is comprised of wax esters as opposed to the triglycerides found in typical vegetable oils. A...

  2. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. PMID:26142425

  3. Evaluation of Peanut Cultivars for Suitability in Biodiesel Production Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen currently and previously available peanut cultivars were field tested for oil production capability in a low-input production system designed for biodiesel use. This low input system was characterized by strip tillage into a rolled rye cover crop, no use of either insecticides or fungicid...

  4. Environmental Impacts of Jatropha curcas Biodiesel in India

    PubMed Central

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations. PMID:22919274

  5. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    PubMed

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations. PMID:22919274

  6. Coalition Cooperation Defines Roadmap for E85 and Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This Clean Cities success story relates how Colorado's Colorado Biofuels Coalition was formed and provides guidance on forming other such coalitions. This Colorado's coalition sucessfully increase the number of fueling stations providing biofuels and has goals to the number even more. Plans also include assisting with financing infrastructure, making alternative fuels available to more fleets, and educating about E85 and biodiesel use.

  7. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development. PMID:23238338

  8. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, W. A.; Hassan, K. H.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.; Wylie, S. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  9. Biodiesel from non-food alternative feed-stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a potential feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production, Jojoba oil was extracted from Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) plant seeds that contained around 50-60 wt.%, which were explored as non-food alternative feedstocks. Interestingly, Jojoba oil has long-chain wax esters and is not a typical trigly...

  10. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products. PMID:26776601

  11. Effect of first and second generation biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, A. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Islam, Rubayat

    2016-07-01

    The biodiesel is a potential source of alternative fuel which can be used at different proportions with diesel fuel. This study experimentally investigated the effect of blend percentage on diesel engine performance and emission using first generation (soybean) and second generation (waste cooking) biodiesel. The characterization of the biodiesel was done according to ASTM and EN standards and compared with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. A multi-cylinder test bed engine coupled with electromagnetic dynamometer and 5 gas analyzer were used for engine performance and emission test. The investigation was made using B5, B10 and B15 blends for both biodiesels. The study found that brake power (BP) and brake torque (BT) slightly decreases and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) slightly increases with an increase in biodiesel blends ratio. Besides, a significant reduction in exhaust emissions (except NOx emission) was found for both biodiesels compared to ULSD. Soybean biodiesel showed better engine performance and emissions reduction compared with waste cooking biodiesel. However, NOx emission for B5 waste cooking biodiesel was lower than soybean biodiesel.

  12. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Arjun B.; Tango, Martin S.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Watts, K. Chris; Islam, M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil. PMID:19325741

  13. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production. PMID:24195081

  14. Non-edible plant oils as new sources for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Arjun B; Tango, Martin S; Budge, Suzanne M; Watts, K C; Islam, M R

    2008-02-01

    Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil. PMID:19325741

  15. Acceleration of biodiesel-glycerol decantation through NaCl-assisted gravitational settling: a strategy to economize biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohammad Mahdi A; Kargari, Ali; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mostafaeid, Boyuk; Akia, Mandana; Barkhi, Mohammad; Shirazi, Mohammad Javad A

    2013-04-01

    When making biodiesel, slow separation of glycerol; the main by-product of the transesterification reaction, could lead to longer operating times, bigger equipment and larger amount of steel and consequently increased production cost. Therefore, acceleration of glycerol/biodiesel decantation could play an important role in the overall biodiesel refinery process. In this work, NaCl-assisted gravitational settling was considered as an economizing strategy. The results obtained indicated that the addition of conventional NaCl salt decreased the glycerol settling time significantly up to more than five times. However, NaCl inclusion rates of more than 3g to the mixture (i.e. 5 and 10 g) resulted in significantly less methyl ester purity due to the occurrence of miniemulsion phenomenon. Overall, addition of 1g NaCl/100 ml glycerol-biodiesel mixture was found as optimal by accelerating the decantation process by 100% while maintaining the methyl ester purity as high as the control (0 g NaCl). PMID:23499494

  16. Controls and measurements of KU engine test cells for biodiesel, SynGas, and assisted biodiesel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    This thesis is comprised of three unique data acquisition and controls (CDAQ) projects. Each of these projects differs from each other; however, they all include the concept of testing renewable or future fuel sources. The projects were the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main responsibility of the author was to implement, develop and test CDAQ systems for the projects. For the Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, this thesis includes a report that summarizes the analysis and solution of building a controls and data acquisition system for this setup. It describes the purpose of the sensors selected along with their placement throughout the system. Moreover, it includes an explanation of the planned data collection system, along with two models describing the reforming process useful for system control. For the Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, the responsibility was to implement the CDAQ system for data collection. This project comprised a variety of different sensors that are being used collect the combustion characteristics of different biodiesel formulations. This project is currently being used by other graduates in order to complete their projects for subsequent publication. For the Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture, the author developed a reformate injection system to test different hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures as combustion augmentation. Hydrogen combustion has certain limiting factors, such as pre-ignition in spark ignition engines and inability to work as a singular fuel in compression ignition engines. To offset these issues, a dual-fuel methodology is utilized by injecting a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture into the intake stream of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel. While carbon monoxide does degrade some of the

  17. Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2005-04-01

    Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

  18. Air CHP, a new concept in small-scale space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-10-01

    A new type of combined heat and power (CHP) system claimed to be capable of providing electrical and thermal power with efficiencies in the region of 95% is being marketed by Aircogen Ltd, a company launched by turbine and compressor manufacturer Peter Brotherhood. Power generation capabilities range from 50 to 1500 kW. VarityPerkins has played a large part in supplying spark-ignited gas engines for the first installations of this new system from the group`s plants in Stafford and Shrewsbury, U.K. Aircogen has developed a system in which the air for heating the building is heated direct from the gen-set. This provides a further source of extracted heat and contributes to the extremely high thermal efficiencies. The system lends itself particularly to swimming pools, supermarkets, leisure centers, or any building where large spaces need to be heated for prolonged periods and where normally low-pressure hot water heating would be used. This paper describes briefly the design, specifications and typical applications.

  19. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation. PMID:25510547

  20. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  1. Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

    2013-08-13

    The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

  2. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  3. Emergy Analysis and Sustainability Efficiency Analysis of Different Crop-Based Biodiesel in Life Cycle Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Scipioni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel as a promising alternative energy resource has been a hot spot in chemical engineering nowadays, but there is also an argument about the sustainability of biodiesel. In order to analyze the sustainability of biodiesel production systems and select the most sustainable scenario, various kinds of crop-based biodiesel including soybean-, rapeseed-, sunflower-, jatropha- and palm-based biodiesel production options are studied by emergy analysis; soybean-based scenario is recognized as the most sustainable scenario that should be chosen for further study in China. DEA method is used to evaluate the sustainability efficiencies of these options, and the biodiesel production systems based on soybean, sunflower, and palm are considered as DEA efficient, whereas rapeseed-based and jatropha-based scenarios are needed to be improved, and the improved methods have also been specified. PMID:23766723

  4. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil by catalytic and non-catalytic approaches: an overview.

    PubMed

    Juan, Joon Ching; Kartika, Damayani Agung; Wu, Ta Yeong; Hin, Taufiq-Yap Yun

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acids alkyl esters) is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil. Vegetable oils are more suitable source for biodiesel production compared to animal fats and waste cooking since they are renewable in nature. However, there is a concern that biodiesel production from vegetable oil would disturb the food market. Oil from Jatropha curcas is an acceptable choice for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and can be easily grown in a harsh environment. Moreover, alkyl esters of jatropha oil meet the standard of biodiesel in many countries. Thus, the present paper provides a review on the transesterification methods for biodiesel production using jatropha oil as feedstock. PMID:21094045

  5. Biodiesel fuel technology for military application. Interim report, July 1994-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, E.A.; Bessee, G.B.; Marbach, H.W.

    1997-12-01

    This program addressed the effects of biodiesel (methyl soyate) and blends of biodiesel with petrofuels on fuel system component and material compatibility, fuel storage stability, and fuel lubricity. Biodiesel was found to have excellent lubricity properties and was effective at 1 volume percent (vol %) blend in improving the lubricity of Jet A-1 fuel. The following potential problem areas associated with methyl soyate use were identified: storage stability, compatibility with some metals, and compatibility with nitrile elastomers.

  6. Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

    Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum

  7. Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ziku; Xu, Chunli; Li, Baoxin

    2009-06-01

    Waste eggshell was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a solid catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. Effect of calcination temperature on structure and activity of eggshell catalysts was investigated. Reusability of eggshell catalysts was also examined. It was found that high active, reusable solid catalyst was obtained by just calcining eggshell. Utilization of eggshell as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmental friendly way of recycling this solid eggshell waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel. PMID:19201602

  8. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel Using Nonedible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography. PMID:25874205

  9. Production and characterization of biodiesel using nonedible castor oil by immobilized lipase from Bacillus aerius.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Reena

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography. PMID:25874205

  10. Thermal lens spectroscopy for the differentiation of biodiesel-diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M; Simionatto, E; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2012-04-01

    Thermal lens (TL) spectroscopy was applied to biofuels to test its potential to distinguish diesel from biodiesel in blended fuels. Both the heat and mass diffusion effects observed using a TL procedure provide significant information about biodiesel concentrations in blended fuels. The results indicate that the mass diffusivity decreases 32% between diesel and the blend with 10% biodiesel added to the diesel. This simple TL procedure has the potential to be used for in loco analyses to certify the mixture and quality of biodiesel-diesel blends. PMID:22559544

  11. Thermal lens spectroscopy for the differentiation of biodiesel-diesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, M.; Simionatto, E.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Lima, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal lens (TL) spectroscopy was applied to biofuels to test its potential to distinguish diesel from biodiesel in blended fuels. Both the heat and mass diffusion effects observed using a TL procedure provide significant information about biodiesel concentrations in blended fuels. The results indicate that the mass diffusivity decreases 32% between diesel and the blend with 10% biodiesel added to the diesel. This simple TL procedure has the potential to be used for in loco analyses to certify the mixture and quality of biodiesel-diesel blends.

  12. Influences of the chemical structure of entrainers on the activity coefficients in presence of biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, A.; Fleischmann, A.; Fang, Ye; Ruck, W.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    In this work we analyzed the strength of the intermolecular forces between biodiesel and the entrainer and their influence on the entrainer's ability to interact with biodiesel. Furthermore we investigated the influence of the chemical structure of an entrainer to the interaction with biodiesel. For this purpose the activity coefficients γ∞ at infinite dilution of acids, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols in biodiesel were measured with the method of headspace gas chromatography (HSGC). Short-chained acids showed the highest interaction of the analyzed entrainers caused by their ability to build hydrogen bonds with biodiesel. Increased chain length of the acids cause reduced interaction with biodiesel, which is mainly due to the higher obstruction of the acid molecule and therefore the reduced ability to build hydrogen bonds with biodiesel. Aldehydes, ketones and alcohols showed lower interaction with biodiesel compared to the acids. Longer-chained alcohols showed increased interaction with biodiesel due to the raised London Forces and an inductive +I effect of the molecule chain.

  13. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%. PMID:26141285

  14. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  15. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil by two-step heterogeneous catalyzed process.

    PubMed

    Srilatha, K; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Lingaiah, N; Prasad, R B N; Sai Prasad, P S

    2012-09-01

    The present study demonstrates the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil containing high free fatty acid by a two-step heterogeneously catalyzed process. The free fatty acids were first esterified with methanol using a 25 wt.% TPA/Nb(2)O(5) catalyst followed by transesterification of the oil with methanol over ZnO/Na-Y zeolite catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area and CO(2)-TPD. In the case of transesterification the effect of reaction parameters, such as catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature, on the yield of ester were investigated. The catalyst with 20 wt.% ZnO loading on Na-Y exhibited the highest activity among the others. Both the solid acid and base catalysts were found to be reusable for several times indicating their efficacy in the two-step process. PMID:22750497

  16. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

  17. Catalytic applications in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sivasamy, Arumugam; Cheah, Kien Yoo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kemausuor, Francis; Zinoviev, Sergey; Miertus, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns have recently attracted significant attention to scientific and technological issues concerning the conversion of biomass into fuels. First-generation biodiesel, obtained from vegetable oils and animal fats by transesterification, relies on commercial technology and rich scientific background, though continuous progress in this field offers opportunities for improvement. This review focuses on new catalytic systems for the transesterification of oils to the corresponding ethyl/methyl esters of fatty acids. It also addresses some innovative/emerging technologies for the production of biodiesel, such as the catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils to hydrocarbons. The special role of the catalyst as a key to efficient technology is outlined, together with the other important factors that affect the yield and quality of the product, including feedstock-related properties and various system conditions. PMID:19360707

  18. Application of catalytic ozone chemistry for improving biodiesel product performance.

    PubMed

    Baber, Tylisha M; Graiver, Daniel; Lira, Carl T; Narayan, Ramani

    2005-01-01

    Ozonolysis of methyl soyate (biodiesel) was conducted in the presence of methanol, dichloromethane (solvent), and triethylamine (catalyst) at -75 degrees C. Structural analysis, including FTIR, GC, and GC-MS, showed that the total amount of double bonds in the mixture was reduced by more than 90% after 2 h of ozonolysis. All of the esters predicted by this novel application of ozone reaction chemistry were successfully produced. Other major components were identified by GC-MS. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a dramatic decrease in the onset volatilization temperature from 135 to 73 degrees C, making ozonated biodiesel fuel comparable to diesel fuel (76 degrees C). Differential scanning calorimetric studies showed that the cooling curves for both methyl soyate and ozonated methyl soyate displayed two exothermic regions. The onset freezing temperature of ozonated methyl soyate in the "colder" region was significantly reduced from -63 to -86 degrees C. Furthermore, the degree of crystallinity in the "hotter" region was also reduced. PMID:15877350

  19. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  20. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients. PMID:26296531

  1. Examination of the oxidation behavior of biodiesel soot

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Juhun; Alam, Mahabubul; Boehman, Andre L.; Kim, Unjeong

    2006-09-15

    In this work, we expand upon past work relating the nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of soot. This work shows that the initial structure alone does not dictate the reactivity of diesel soot and rather the initial oxygen groups have a strong influence on the oxidation rate. A comparison of the complete oxidation behavior and burning mode was made to address the mechanism by which biodiesel soot enhances oxidation. Diesel soot derived from neat biodiesel (B100) is far more reactive during oxidation than soot from neat Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel (FT100). B100 soot undergoes a unique oxidation process leading to capsule-type oxidation and eventual formation of graphene ribbon structures. The results presented here demonstrate the importance of initial properties of the soot, which lead to differences in burning mode. Incorporation of greater surface oxygen functionality in the B100 soot provides the means for more rapid oxidation and drastic structural transformation during the oxidation process. (author)

  2. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Bastante, J; Ortega-Román, C; Pinzi, S; Lara-Raya, F R; Leiva-Candia, D E; Dorado, M P

    2015-06-01

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50°C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. PMID:25768413

  3. Techno-economic analysis of CHP system supplied by waste forest biomass.

    PubMed

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A; Klonowicz, P; Król, D; Wiśniewski, S; Zwarycz-Makles, K

    2015-08-01

    Poland, as for Europe, is a country with an average forest cover of approximately 30%. In these forests, more than 37M m3 of wood, mostly coniferous (over 80%), is harvested per year. In 2012, 4.2M m3 of sawn timber was produced (sawn timber without factory lumber). At the same time, in Poland there are over 8000 sawmills, whereas only about 700 of them saw over 90% of the harvested timber. So much fragmentation is a major cause of low sawmills innovation, particularly of those small ones. However, in recent years, a trend of development in this sector is noticeable, and it is through rationalisation of material and energy economy. One of the methods to increase the technical and economic effectiveness of enterprises involved in woodworking is to build in the combined heat and power system (CHP) plant with the ORC system into the existing infrastructure, which will be matched to the needs of the company. This article presents an analysis of the profitability of the investment based on the example of a medium-sized company sawing approximately 50,000 m3 of timber per year, and the economic analysis was performed for prices and costs valid in Poland. The analysis made for the 1650 kW(el) organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system, has resulted in a profitability index PI = 1.3, on the assumptions that the ORC system operates for 6000 h y(-1), will be purchased at the price of 4500 € kW(el)(-1) and at the price of electricity sales of 130 € MWh(-1). PMID:26142426

  4. University of Idaho tests engines with biodiesel from waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Fleischman, G.

    1995-12-31

    This article reports on preliminary work at the University of Idaho that investigates the possibilities of capitalizing on Idaho`s large volumes of waste oil and potatoes-generated ethanol to produce biodiesel fuel. This fuel would be hydrogenated soy ethyl ester, MySEE for short, made through a reaction between waste oil and ethanol made from potato waste. Address for full report is given.

  5. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Spalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  6. MCFC integrated system in a biodiesel production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, F.; Freni, S.; Galvagno, A.; Chiodo, V.

    2011-03-01

    The continuous increasing in biodiesel production by transesterification process is leading to an excess of glycerol production as a byproduct. The utilization of this huge amount of glycerol appears as a not easy solvable problem and thus several authors have proposed alternative ways. The integration of the main production process with a glycerol feed molten carbonate fuel cells bottoming cycle, to satisfy plant energy requirements, seems to be one of the most promising one. The proposed paper reports the main results obtained by authors in the framework of an investigation on a possible use of glycerol as energy sources for a real pilot plant for biodiesel production. An overall evaluation of worldwide biodiesel production plants was made and especially about the production capacity in European Union in the last decade. To make a more detailed study, authors were taken into account a real production plant. After a preliminary step, purported to plant mass and energy flows determination, authors considered the integration of a bottoming cycle based on: (i) steam reforming of glycerol for syn-gas production; (ii) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) system supplied by syn-gas for heat and electricity production. A mathematical model, based on experimental data, has been developed to calculate mass and energy balances for the proposed plant lay-out as well as plant energy efficiency enhancement has been determined. Results have evidenced the feasibility of this process and demonstrated that plant integrated with bottoming cycle can reach a very high level of energy self-production.

  7. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  8. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil—risks and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, Oskar; Berndes, Göran; Persson, U. Martin; Sparovek, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level 125/tC, or higher.

  9. PERFORMANCE OF THE CAPSTONE C30 MICROTURBINE ON BIODIESEL BENDS.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2007-01-01

    This report will describe the tests of biodiesel blends as a fuel in a Capstone oil fired microturbine (C30) with a nominal rating of 30 kW. The blends, in ASTM No. 2 heating oil, ranged from 0% to 100% biodiesel. No changes were made to the microturbine system for operation on the blends. Apart from the data that the control computer acquires on various turbine parameters, measurements were made in the hot gas exhaust from the turbine. The results from this performance testing and from the atomization tests reported previously provide some insight into the use of biodiesel blends in microturbines of this type. The routine use of such blends would need more tests to establish that the life of the critical components of the microturbine are not diminished from what they are on the baseline diesel or heating fuel. Of course, the extension to 'widespread' use of such blends in generating systems based on the microturbine is also determined by economic and other considerations.

  10. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass.

    PubMed

    Thliveros, Panagiotis; Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Webb, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4gL(-1) NaOH and 1:20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10h at 50°C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield. PMID:24556371

  11. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  12. Biodiesel from Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Yu, Haiyan

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oil was investigated for the first time as a promising non-conventional feedstock for preparation of biodiesel. Siberian apricot seed kernel has high oil content (50.18 ± 3.92%), and the oil has low acid value (0.46 mg g(-1)) and low water content (0.17%). The fatty acid composition of the Siberian apricot seed kernel oil includes a high percentage of oleic acid (65.23 ± 4.97%) and linoleic acid (28.92 ± 4.62%). The measured fuel properties of the Siberian apricot biodiesel, except cetane number and oxidative stability, were conformed to EN 14214-08, ASTM D6751-10 and GB/T 20828-07 standards, especially the cold flow properties were excellent (Cold filter plugging point -14°C). The addition of 500 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) resulted in a higher induction period (7.7h) compliant with all the three biodiesel standards. PMID:22440572

  13. Particle emissions from microalgae biodiesel combustion and their relative oxidative potential.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Stevanovic, S; Islam, M A; Heimann, K; Nabi, M N; Thomas, G; Feng, B; Brown, R J; Ristovski, Z D

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae are considered to be one of the most viable biodiesel feedstocks for the future due to their potential for providing economical, sustainable and cleaner alternatives to petroleum diesel. This study investigated the particle emissions from a commercially cultured microalgae and higher plant biodiesels at different blending ratios. With a high amount of long carbon chain lengths fatty acid methyl esters (C20 to C22), the microalgal biodiesel used had a vastly different average carbon chain length and level of unsaturation to conventional biodiesel, which significantly influenced particle emissions. Smaller blend percentages showed a larger reduction in particle emission than blend percentages of over 20%. This was due to the formation of a significant nucleation mode for the higher blends. In addition measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), showed that the oxidative potential of particles emitted from the microalgal biodiesel combustion were lower than that of regular diesel. Biodiesel oxygen content was less effective in suppressing particle emissions for biodiesels containing a high amount of polyunsaturated C20-C22 fatty acid methyl esters and generated significantly increased nucleation mode particle emissions. The observed increase in nucleation mode particle emission is postulated to be caused by very low volatility, high boiling point and high density, viscosity and surface tension of the microalgal biodiesel tested here. Therefore, in order to achieve similar PM (particulate matter) emission benefits for microalgal biodiesel likewise to conventional biodiesel, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with high amounts of polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids (≥C20) may not be desirable in microalgal biodiesel composition. PMID:26238214

  14. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, G. K. H.; van Foreest, N. D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  15. Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

  16. Analyses of extracted biodiesel and petroleum diesel exhaust particle and the effects on endothelial cell toxicity and antioxidant response.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel (BD) is a renewable energy source and is readily substituted in diesel engines. Combustion of biodiesel is cleaner due to the efficiency of the fuel to completely combust. Biodiesel combustion emissions contain less CO, PAHs, aldehydes, and particulate matter (PM) mas...

  17. Cuphea Oil as Source of Biodiesel with Improved Fuel Properties Caused by High Content of Methyl Decanoate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous common vegetable oils or fats as well as new or less common feedstocks. Major issues facing biodiesel include seve...

  18. Sand tank experiment of a large volume biodiesel spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, K.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Although petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the subsurface have been well studied, the impacts of subsurface releases of highly degradable alternative fuels, including biodiesel, are not as well understood. One concern is the generation of CH4­ which may lead to explosive conditions in underground structures. In addition, the biodegradation of biodiesel consumes O2 that would otherwise be available for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons that may be present at a site. Until now, biodiesel biodegradation in the vadose zone has not been examined in detail, despite being critical to understanding the full impact of a release. This research involves a detailed study of a laboratory release of 80 L of biodiesel applied at surface into a large sandtank to examine the progress of biodegradation reactions. The experiment will monitor the onset and temporal evolution of CH4 generation to provide guidance for site monitoring needs following a biodiesel release to the subsurface. Three CO2 and CH4 flux chambers have been deployed for long term monitoring of gas emissions. CO2 fluxes have increased in all chambers over the 126 days since the start of the experiment. The highest CO2 effluxes are found directly above the spill and have increased from < 0.5 μmol m-2 s-1 to ~3.8 μmol m-2 s-1, indicating an increase in microbial activity. There were no measurable CH4 fluxes 126 days into the experiment. Sensors were emplaced to continuously measure O2, CO2, moisture content, matric potential, EC, and temperature. In response to the release, CO2 levels have increased across all sensors, from an average value of 0.1% to 0.6% 126 days after the start of the experiment, indicating the rapid onset of biodegradation. The highest CO2 values observed from samples taken in the gas ports were 2.5%. Average O2 concentrations have decreased from 21% to 17% 126 days after the start of the experiment. O2 levels in the bottom central region of the sandtank declined to approximately 12%.

  19. A process model to estimate biodiesel production costs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; McAloon, Andrew J; Yee, Winnie C; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    'Biodiesel' is the name given to a renewable diesel fuel that is produced from fats and oils. It consists of the simple alkyl esters of fatty acids, most typically the methyl esters. We have developed a computer model to estimate the capital and operating costs of a moderately-sized industrial biodiesel production facility. The major process operations in the plant were continuous-process vegetable oil transesterification, and ester and glycerol recovery. The model was designed using contemporary process simulation software, and current reagent, equipment and supply costs, following current production practices. Crude, degummed soybean oil was specified as the feedstock. Annual production capacity of the plant was set at 37,854,118 l (10 x 10(6)gal). Facility construction costs were calculated to be US dollar 11.3 million. The largest contributors to the equipment cost, accounting for nearly one third of expenditures, were storage tanks to contain a 25 day capacity of feedstock and product. At a value of US dollar 0.52/kg (dollar 0.236/lb) for feedstock soybean oil, a biodiesel production cost of US dollar 0.53/l (dollar 2.00/gal) was predicted. The single greatest contributor to this value was the cost of the oil feedstock, which accounted for 88% of total estimated production costs. An analysis of the dependence of production costs on the cost of the feedstock indicated a direct linear relationship between the two, with a change of US dollar 0.020/l (dollar 0.075/gal) in product cost per US dollar 0.022/kg (dollar 0.01/lb) change in oil cost. Process economics included the recovery of coproduct glycerol generated during biodiesel production, and its sale into the commercial glycerol market as an 80% w/w aqueous solution, which reduced production costs by approximately 6%. The production cost of biodiesel was found to vary inversely and linearly with variations in the market value of glycerol, increasing by US dollar 0.0022/l (dollar 0.0085/gal) for every US

  20. Escherichia coli as a fatty acid and biodiesel factory: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziaur; Rashid, Naim; Nawab, Javed; Ilyas, Muhammad; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has received widespread attention as a sustainable, environment-friendly, and alternative source of energy. It can be derived from plant, animal, and microbial organisms in the form of vegetable oil, fats, and lipids, respectively. However, biodiesel production from such sources is not economically feasible due to extensive downstream processes, such as trans-esterification and purification. To obtain cost-effective biodiesel, these bottlenecks need to be overcome. Escherichia coli, a model microorganism, has the potential to produce biodiesel directly from ligno-cellulosic sugars, bypassing trans-esterification. In this process, E. coli is engineered to produce biodiesel using metabolic engineering technology. The entire process of biodiesel production is carried out in a single microbial cell, bypassing the expensive downstream processing steps. This review focuses mainly on production of fatty acid and biodiesel in E. coli using metabolic engineering approaches. In the first part, we describe fatty acid biosynthesis in E. coli. In the second half, we discuss bottlenecks and strategies to enhance the production yield. A complete understanding of current developments in E. coli-based biodiesel production and pathway optimization strategies would reduce production costs for biofuels and plant-derived chemicals. PMID:26961532

  1. Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel components (fatty acid alkyl esters) and related compounds at low temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, has undergone rapid development and acceptance recently. Kinematic viscosity is one of the fuel properties specified in biodiesel standards, with 40 deg C being the temperature at which this property is to be determined ...

  2. Synthesis and analysis of an alkenone-free biodiesel from Isochrysis sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some marine microalgae, such as Isochrysis sp., produce high-melting (~70 ºC) lipids known as long-chain alkenones that detrimentally affect biodiesel fuel quality. A method has been developed for the production of an alkenone-free Isochrysis biodiesel. This material was prepared on sufficient scale...

  3. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  4. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of diesel and biodiesel exhaust extracts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract reports the results of studies assessing the relative DNA damage potential of extracts of exhaust particles resulting from the combustion of petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and petroleum diesel-biodiesel blends. Results indicate that the commercially available B20 petr...

  5. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrat...

  6. Comparative Toxicity of Biodiesel Exhaust and Petroleum Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Using WKY Rat Alveolar Machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter <2.5um (PM2.5) can induce airway inflammation, cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel contributes to PM2.5. Possible toxicity caused by inhalation of biodiesel emission particles (BioDEP) h...

  7. Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Response after Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel Exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel (BD) is an advanced fuel produced from renewable domestic sources. The broad uses of BD in different industries including mining may lead to potential health effects. We hypothesized that the toxicity of biodiesel exhaust (BDE) is dependent at least on three major mecha...

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Soy Biodiesel and Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity from combustion of 100% soy-based biodiesel (B100) was compared to that of petrodiesel (B0) or a 20% biodiesel / 80% petrodiesel mix (B20) in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic Balb/cJ mice. Exhaust from combustion of B0, B20, or B100 was diluted to target conce...

  9. Determination of the Heat of Combustion of Biodiesel Using Bomb Calorimetry: A Multidisciplinary Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, Stephen M.; Conkle, Jeremy L.; Thomas, Stephanie N.; Rider, Keith B.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of waste vegetable oil using common glassware and reagents, and characterized by measuring heat of combustion, cloud point, density and measuring the heat of combustion and density together allows the student the energy density of the fuel. Analyzing the biodiesel can serve as a challenging and…

  10. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  11. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  12. Improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel by skeletal isomerization of fatty acid chains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl fatty acid esters made from vegetable oil or animal fat lipids. Despite its many advantages, biodiesel from most lipid feedstocks has generally poor cold flow properties. The present study evaluates the fuel related properties of branched-chain fatty acid methy...

  13. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  14. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar...

  15. Biodiesel Production by the Green Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shovon

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha−1 year−1 was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards. PMID:22660702

  16. Evaluation of Partially Hydrogenated Methyl Esters of Soybean Oil as Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel derived from transesterified vegetable oils or animal fats, continues to undergo rapid worldwide growth. Specifications mandating biodiesel quality, most notably in Europe (EN 14214) and the USA (ASTM D6751), have emerged, which in effect limit feedstock choice...

  17. Will biodiesel derived from algal oils live up to its promise? A fuel property assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algae have been attracting considerable attention as a source of biodiesel recently. This attention is largely due to the claimed high production potential of algal oils while circumventing the food vs. fuel issue. However, the properties of biodiesel fuels derived from algal oils have been only spa...

  18. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...

  19. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks screened...

  20. Biodiesel development: New markets for conventional and genetically modified agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, J.; Shapouri, H.; Graboski, M.; McCormick, R.; Wilson, R.

    1998-09-01

    With environmental and energy source concerns on the rise, using agricultural fats and oils as fuel in diesel engines has captured increasing attention. Substituting petroleum diesel with biodiesel may reduce air emissions, increase the domestic supply of fuel, and create new markets for farmers. US agricultural fats and oils could support a large amount of biodiesel, but high production costs and competing uses of biodiesel feedstocks will likely prevent mass adoption of biodiesel fuel. Higher-priced niche markets could develop for biodiesels as a result of environmental regulations. Biodiesel has many environmental advantages relative to petroleum diesel, such as lower CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, and particulate matter emissions. Enhancing fuel properties by genetically modifying oil crops could improve NO{sub x} emissions, cold flow, and oxidative stability, which have been identified as potential problems for biodiesel. Research activities need to be directed toward cost reduction, improving fuel properties, and analyzing the economic effects of biodiesel development on US agriculture.

  1. Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use in an urban bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, J.; Camobreco, V.; Duffield, J.; Graboski, M.; Shapouri, H.

    1998-05-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. It presents information on raw materials extracted from the environment, energy resources consumed, and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel substitute. It can be made from a variety of natural oils and fats. Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial production of biodiesel. In Europe, biodiesel is widely available in both its neat form (100% biodiesel, also known as B1OO) and in blends with petroleum diesel. European biodiesel is made predominantly from rapeseed oil (a cousin of canola oil). In the United States, initial interest in producing and using biodiesel has focused on the use of soybean oil as the primary feedstock mainly because the United States is the largest producer of soybean oil in the world. 170 figs., 148 tabs.

  2. A comparison of used cooking oils: a very heterogeneous feedstock for biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased interest in and use of biodiesel renders the availability of a sufficient supply of feedstock ever more urgent. While commodity vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), palm and sunflower may be seen as "classical" biodiesel feedstocks, additional feedstocks are needed to me...

  3. The effects of minor constituents on biodiesel cold flow properties: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils, animal fats and other lipid feedstocks. Fuel properties and performance of biodiesel during cold weather are influenced by factors related to lipid feedstock as well as small concentrations of monoacylglycerols and other minor constit...

  4. Genetic and chemical evaluation of the U.S. castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has multiple industrial applications including potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. The entire U.S. castor germp...

  5. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  6. Biodiesel: Fuel properties, its “Design” and a source of “Designer” fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel properties of biodiesel, a biogenic alternative to petrodiesel, are largely determined by its component fatty acid alkyl esters, most commonly methyl esters. These esters have vastly different properties. The properties of biodiesel are an aggregate of the properties of its components and t...

  7. Biodiesel Derived from a Source Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel commonly produced from commodity vegetable oils such as palm, rapeseeed (canola) and soybean. These oils generally have fatty acid profiles that vary within the range of C16 and C18 fatty acids. Thus, the biodiesel fuels derived from these oils possess the c...

  8. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) prepared from field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oils were blended with methyl esters from camelina, cottonseed, palm, and soybean oils in an effort to ameliorate technical deficiencies inherent to these biodiesel fuels. For instance, camelina, cottonseed, and ...

  9. Effects of Minor Constituents on Cold Flow Properties and Performance of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel or extender made from renewable agricultural lipids that may be burned in a compression-ignition (diesel) engine. It is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from domestically available plant oils or animal fats. Biodiesel has many important techn...

  10. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel additives from glycerol using green chemistry and supercritical fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For every 3 moles of fatty acid esters produced, 1 mole of glycerol remains, ~11% of the biodiesel volume. One new method of glycerol use could be as a biodiesel fuel additive/extender using eco-friendly heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical fluids (SFs). SFs have advantages such as greater diff...

  11. Developing sustainable strategies for biodiesel synthesis using high fatty acid feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel (typically fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)) has received much attention because it is a renewable biofuel that contributes little to global warming compared to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The most common methods used for biodiesel production are based on the alkali-catalyzed transesterif...

  12. Impact of fatty ester composition on low temperature properties of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biodiesel fuels along with neat fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) commonly encountered in biodiesel were blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel at low blend levels permitted by ASTM D975 (B1-B5) and cold flow properties such as cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), an...

  13. Biodiesel from corn distillers dried grains with solubles: preparation, evaluation and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of dry-grind ethanol fermentation and represents a low-cost feedstock with potential to improve process economics and logistics of biodiesel manufacture through integration of biodiesel and ethanol production. Oil extracted from DDGS...

  14. Thermodynamic Study on the Effects of Minor Constituents on Cold Weather Performance of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils, animal fats and other lipid feedstocks. Fuel properties and performance of biodiesel during cold weather are influenced by factors related to its feedstock, namely fatty acid composition and trace concentrations of monoacylglycerols,...

  15. Biodiesel Clears the Air in Underground Mines, Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Mining companies are using biodiesel in their equipment to help clear the air of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This action improves air quality and protects miners' lungs. Though using biodiesel has some challenges in cold weather, tax incentives, and health benefits make it a viable option.

  16. Effect of soybean oil fatty acid composition and selenium application on biodiesel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel consisting of principally monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) has been reported to strike the best balance between cold flow properties and oxidative stability, therefore producing a superior fuel. In addition, treating biodiesel with antioxidants such as selenium also increas...

  17. Cold Flow Properties of Biodiesel by Automatic and Manual Analysis Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel from most common feedstocks has inferior cold flow properties compared to conventional diesel fuel. Blends with as little as 10 vol% biodiesel content typically have significantly higher cloud point (CP), pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) than No. 2 grade diesel fuel (...

  18. Activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 in saliva as diagnostic test for periodontal disease? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Izadi Borujeni, Susan; Mayer, Matthias; Eickholz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Untreated periodontal disease may influence general health. However, how may a physician, who is not trained in periodontal probing, detect untreated periodontitis? Activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) in saliva correlates with periodontal probing parameters. Thus, sensitivity and specificity of a chair-side test for aMMP-8 to detect periodontitis were evaluated. Thirty cases [untreated chronic periodontitis (ChP); 15 generalized moderate and 15 generalized severe] and 30 controls [probing depths (PD) ≤3 mm, vertical probing attachment level (PAL-V) ≤2 mm at <30 % of sites) were examined periodontally (PD, PAL-V, bleeding on probing). Subsequently, the aMMP-8 test was performed. The test kit becomes positive with ≥25 ng/ml aMMP-8 in the sample. The aMMP-8 test was positive in 87 % of ChP and in 40 % of controls. That corresponds to a sensitivity of 87 % and a specificity of 60 %. The sensitivity to detect generalized severe ChP was 93 % (60 % specificity). Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis to explain positive aMMP-8 tests identified exclusively ChP with an odds ratio of 9.8 (p < 0.001). Positive results of the aMMP-8 test significantly correlate with generalized ChP. The aMMP-8 test may be used by physicians to detect periodontitis in their patients. PMID:25841875

  19. A packed bed membrane reactor for production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst.

    PubMed

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed K; Raman, Abdul Aziz A; Sulaiman, Nik M N

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a novel continuous reactor has been developed to produce high quality methyl esters (biodiesel) from palm oil. A microporous TiO2/Al2O3 membrane was packed with potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and cross flow circulation velocity on the production of biodiesel in the packed bed membrane reactor. The highest conversion of palm oil to biodiesel in the reactor was obtained at 70 °C employing 157.04 g catalyst per unit volume of the reactor and 0.21 cm/s cross flow circulation velocity. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel were determined and compared with the standard specifications. High quality palm oil biodiesel was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in the packed bed membrane reactor. PMID:20888219

  20. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah, dan Hadiyanto

    2015-12-01

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  1. Scale-up and economic analysis of biodiesel production from municipal primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Torres, Carmen M; Jiménez, Laureano; Font, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production, but the need to eliminate the high water content before lipid extraction is the main limitation for scaling up. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of biodiesel production directly from liquid primary sludge based on experimental data at laboratory scale. Computational tools were used for the modelling of the process scale-up and the different configurations of lipid extraction to optimise this step, as it is the most expensive. The operational variables with a major influence in the cost were the extraction time and the amount of solvent. The optimised extraction process had a break-even price of biodiesel of 1232 $/t, being economically competitive with the current cost of fossil diesel. The proposed biodiesel production process from waste sludge eliminates the expensive step of sludge drying, lowering the biodiesel price. PMID:27131292

  2. A NOVEL OLEAGINOUS YEAST STRAIN WITH HIGH LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO ALTERNATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Areesirisuk, A; Chiu, C H; Yen, T B; Liu, C H; Guo, J H

    2015-01-01

    Five lipid-producing yeast strains, CHC08, CHC11, CHC28, CHC34, and CHC35, were revealed by Sudan Black B staining to contain lipid droplets within cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated that they were 2 strains of Candida parapsilosis, Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia occidentalis. Following batch fermentation, P. parantarctica CHC28 was found to have the highest biomass concentration, total lipids and lipid content levels. The major fatty acids in the lipids of this yeast strain were C16 and C18. Predictions of the properties of yeast biodiesel using linear equations resulted in values similar to biodiesel made from plant oils. Preliminary production of yeast biodiesel from P. parantarctica CHC28 was accomplished through esterification and transesterification reactions. It was found that yeast lipids with high acid value are easily converted to biodiesel at an approximately 90% yield. Therefore, it is possible to use crude lipids as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production. PMID:26353403

  3. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was immobilized on modified attapulgite by cross-linking reaction for biodiesel production with jatropha oil as feedstock. Effects of various factors on biodiesel production were studied by single-factor experiment. Results indicated that the best conditions for biodiesel preparation were: 10 g jatropha oil, 2.4 g methanol (molar ratio of oil to methanol is 1:6.6) being added at 3h intervals, 7 wt% water, 10 wt% immobilized lipase, temperature 35°C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase retained 95% of its relative activity during the ten repeated batch reactions. The half-life time of the immobilized lipase is 731 h. Kinetics was studied and the Vmax of the immobilized lipases were 6.823 mmol L(-1). This immobilized lipase catalyzed process has potential industrial use for biodiesel production to replace chemical-catalyzed method. PMID:24055964

  4. Lipase coated clusters of iron oxide nanoparticles for biodiesel synthesis in a solvent free medium.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar Nath

    2016-06-01

    Methyl or ethyl esters of long chain fatty acids are called biodiesel. Biodiesel is synthesized by the alcoholysis of oils/fats. In this work, lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was precipitated over the clusters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. This biocatalyst preparation was used for obtaining biodiesel from soybean oil. After optimization of both immobilization conditions and process parameters, complete conversion to biodiesel was obtained in 3h and on lowering the enzyme amount, as little as 1.7U of lipase gave 96% conversion in 7h. The solvent free media with oil:ethanol (w/w) of 1:4 and 40°C with 2% (w/w) water along with 20% (w/w) silica (for facilitating acyl migration) were employed for reaching this high % of conversion. The biocatalyst design enables one to use a rather small amount of lipase. This should help in switching over to a biobased production of biodiesel. PMID:26967340

  5. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huan; Addy, Min M; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Yuhuan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Cheng, Beijiu; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Scum is an oil-rich waste from the wastewater treatment plants with a high-sulfur level. In this work, a novel process was developed to convert scum to high quality and low sulfur content biodiesel. A combination of solvent extraction and acid washing as pretreatment was developed to lower the sulfur content in the scum feedstock and hence improve biodiesel conversion yield and quality. Glycerin esterification was then employed to convert free fatty acids to glycerides. Moreover, a new distillation process integrating the traditional reflux distillation and adsorptive desulfurization was developed to further remove sulfur from the crude biodiesel. As a result, 70% of the filtered and dried scum was converted to biodiesel with sulfur content lower than 15ppm. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles showed that the refined biodiesel from the new process exhibited a higher quality and better properties than that from traditional process reported in previous studies. PMID:27241535

  6. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah; Hadiyanto, Dan

    2015-12-29

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  7. Pyrolytic characteristics of biodiesel prepared from lipids accumulated in diatom cells with growth regulation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jia; Ge, Tingting; Yang, Weijuan; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic compositions of lipids accumulated in two diatoms Chaetoceros gracilis and Nitzschia closterium cultured with nitrogen and silicon deprivation were studied. It was found that short-chain fatty acids (C14-C16) content was much higher than long-chain fatty acids (C18-C20) content in lipids of two diatoms. The pyrolytic characteristics of biodiesel made from two diatoms and two plant seeds were compared by thermogravimetric analysis. The highest activation energy of 46.68 kJ mol(-1) and the minimum solid residue of 25.18% were obtained in the pyrolysis of biodiesel made from C. gracilis cells, which were cultured with 0.5 mmol L(-1) of nitrogen (no silicon) and accumulated the minimum polyunsaturated fatty acid (C20:5). The pyrolysis residue percentage of C. gracilis biodiesel was lower than that of N. closterium biodiesel and higher than those of plant (Cormus wilsoniana and Pistacia chinensis) biodiesels. PMID:25782618

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic and chromatographic studies of sunflower oil biodiesel using optimized base catalyzed methanolysis

    PubMed Central

    Naureen, Rizwana; Tariq, Muhammad; Yusoff, Ismail; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    Methyl esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitute for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide an alternate and sustainable source for fuel with more benign environmental properties. In the present study biodiesel was prepared from sunflower seed oil by transesterification by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The fuel properties of sunflower oil biodiesel were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 standards for biodiesel. The sunflower oil biodiesel was chemically characterized with analytical techniques like FT-IR, and NMR (1H and 13C). The chemical composition of sunflower oil biodiesel was determined by GC–MS. Various fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by retention time data and verified by mass fragmentation patterns. The percentage conversion of triglycerides to the corresponding methyl esters determined by 1H NMR was 87.33% which was quite in good agreement with the practically observed yield of 85.1%. PMID:25972756

  9. Impact de l'utilisation des strategies d'injection multiple et de biodiesel sur un moteur diesel a rampe commune d'injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamondon, Etienne

    opposite behavior. The injection duration for the different blends falls between the pure-fuel situations. The use of constant properties (density, viscosity) and constant discharge coefficient showed no major loss in the precision of the flow-rate estimation, but revealed a great gain in calculus time. The use of pressure dependent bulk modulus and fluctuating injection pressure proved to be essential in order to have no drastic changes in the final predictions. Finally, the proposed model relevance in a case of engine testing was demonstrated with multiple injection strategies as well as with biodiesel since it allows a precise adjustment of the injection parameters while considering the dynamic effects caused by the injection. Keywords : Diesel engine, multiple injection, biodiesel, pollutant emission, heat release, mathematical model, injection simulation.

  10. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26806356

  11. Quantitative analysis of biodiesel in blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Mogollon, Noroska Gabriela Salazar; Ribeiro, Fabiana Alves de Lima; Lopez, Monica Mamian; Hantao, Leandro Wang; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2013-09-24

    In this paper, a method to determine the composition of blends of biodiesel with mineral diesel (BXX) by multivariate curve resolution with Alternating Least Squares (MRC-ALS) combined to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC×GC-FID) is presented. Chromatographic profiles of BXX blends produced with biodiesels from different sources were used as input data. An initial evaluation carried out after multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) was used to reveal regions of the chromatograms were the signal was likely to be dependent on the concentration of biodiesel, regardless its vegetable source. After this preliminary step MCR-ALS modeling was carried out only using relevant parts of the chromatograms. The resulting procedure was able to predict accurately the concentration of biodiesel in the BXX samples regardless of its origin. PMID:24016593

  12. Aerosols and criteria gases in an underground mine that uses FAME biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Janisko, Samuel J; Cauda, Emanuele G; Patts, Larry D; Hummer, Jon A; Westover, Charles; Terrillion, Troy

    2014-10-01

    The contribution of heavy-duty haulage trucks to the concentrations of aerosols and criteria gases in underground mine air and the physical properties of those aerosols were assessed for three fuel blends made with fatty acid methyl esters biodiesel and petroleum-based ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD). The contributions of blends with 20, 50, and 57% of biodiesel as well as neat ULSD were assessed using a 30-ton truck operated over a simulated production cycle in an isolated zone of an operating underground metal mine. When fueled with the B20 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 20% of biodiesel content), B50 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 50% of biodiesel content), and B57 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 57% of biodiesel content) blends in place of ULSD, the truck's contribution to mass concentrations of elemental and total carbon was reduced by 20, 50, and 61%, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that the aerosols produced by the engine fueled with these blends were characterized by smaller median electrical mobility diameter and lower peak concentrations than the aerosols produced by the same engine fueled with ULSD. The use of the blends resulted in number concentrations of aerosols that were 13-29% lower than those when ULSD was used. Depending on the content of biodiesel in the blends, the average reductions in the surface area concentrations of aerosol which could be deposited in the alveolar region of the lung (as measured by a nanoparticle surface area monitor) ranged between 6 and 37%. The use of blends also resulted in slight but measurable reductions in CO emissions, as well as an increase in NOX emissions. All of the above changes in concentrations and physical properties were found to be correlated with the proportion of biodiesel in the blends. PMID:25060241

  13. Transesterification catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM for biodiesel production from low cost feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Siti Fatimah Abdul; Hassan, Hamizura; Amri, Nurulhuda; Bashah, Nur Alwani Ali

    2015-05-01

    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).

  14. Aerosols and Criteria Gases in an Underground Mine That Uses FAME Biodiesel Blends

    PubMed Central

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D.; Janisko, Samuel J.; Cauda, Emanuele G.; Patts, Larry D.; Hummer, Jon A.; Westover, Charles; Terrillion, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of heavy-duty haulage trucks to the concentrations of aerosols and criteria gases in underground mine air and the physical properties of those aerosols were assessed for three fuel blends made with fatty acid methyl esters biodiesel and petroleum-based ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD). The contributions of blends with 20, 50, and 57% of biodiesel as well as neat ULSD were assessed using a 30-ton truck operated over a simulated production cycle in an isolated zone of an operating underground metal mine. When fueled with the B20 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 20% of biodiesel content), B50 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 50% of biodiesel content), and B57 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 57% of biodiesel content) blends in place of ULSD, the truck’s contribution to mass concentrations of elemental and total carbon was reduced by 20, 50, and 61%, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that the aerosols produced by the engine fueled with these blends were characterized by smaller median electrical mobility diameter and lower peak concentrations than the aerosols produced by the same engine fueled with ULSD. The use of the blends resulted in number concentrations of aerosols that were 13–29% lower than those when ULSD was used. Depending on the content of biodiesel in the blends, the average reductions in the surface area concentrations of aerosol which could be deposited in the alveolar region of the lung (as measured by a nanoparticle surface area monitor) ranged between 6 and 37%. The use of blends also resulted in slight but measurable reductions in CO emissions, as well as an increase in NOX emissions. All of the above changes in concentrations and physical properties were found to be correlated with the proportion of biodiesel in the blends. PMID:25060241

  15. The Escherichia coli extracellular death factor EDF induces the endoribonucleolytic activities of the toxins MazF and ChpBK.

    PubMed

    Belitsky, Maria; Avshalom, Haim; Erental, Ariel; Yelin, Idan; Kumar, Sathish; London, Nir; Sperber, Michal; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2011-03-18

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin (TA) stress-induced module that mediates cell death requiring the quorum-sensing pentapeptide NNWNN designated EDF (extracellular death factor). E. coli toxin MazF is a sequence-specific endoribonuclease cleaving single-stranded mRNAs at ACA sequences. E. coli ChpBK, a toxin homologous to MazF, is a sequence-specific endoribonuclease cleaving single-stranded mRNAs at ACA, ACG, and ACU sequences. Here we report that, in vitro, the signaling molecule EDF significantly amplifies the endoribonucleolytic activities of both MazF and ChpBK. EDF also overcomes the inhibitory activity of the antitoxins MazE over the toxin MazF and ChpBI over ChpBK. EDF sequence is important for both functions. Moreover, direct sequence-specific binding of EDF to MazF has been confirmed. Peptide-protein modeling revealed parallel contacts between EDF-MazF and MazE-MazF. These findings are intriguing, since most known quorum-sensing molecules monitor gene expression on the transcriptional level, while EDF monitors posttranscriptionally. PMID:21419338

  16. NREL's Advanced Thermal Conversion Laboratory at the Center for Buildings and Thermal Systems: On the Cutting-Edge of HVAC and CHP Technology (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    This brochure describes how the unique testing capabilities of NREL's Advanced Thermal Conversion Laboratory at the Center For Buildings and Thermal Systems can help industry meet the challenge of developing the next generation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and combined heat and power (CHP) equipment and concepts.

  17. Evaluation of in situ catalysed hydrogen peroxide propagation (CHP) for phenanthrene and fluoranthene removals from soil and its associated impacts on soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Venny; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2014-02-01

    Extensive contamination of soils by highly recalcitrant contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is an environmental problem arising from rapid industrialisation. This work focusses on the remediation of soil contaminated with 3- and 4-aromatic ring PAHs (phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLUT)) through catalysed hydrogen peroxide propagation (CHP). In the present work, the operating parameters of the CHP treatment in packed soil column was optimised with central composite design (H2O2/soil 0.081, Fe(3+)/soil 0.024, sodium pyrophosphate (SP)/soil 0.024, pH of SP solution 7.73). The effect of contaminant aging on PAH removals was also investigated. Remarkable oxidative PAH removals were observed for the short aging and extended aging period (up to 86.73 and 70.61 % for PHE and FLUT, respectively). The impacts of CHP on soil biological, chemical and physical properties were studied for both spiked and aged soils. Overall, the soil functionality analyses after the proposed operating condition demonstrated that the values for soil respiration, electrical conductivity, pH and iron precipitation fell within acceptable limits, indicating the compatibility of the CHP process with land restoration. PMID:24151025

  18. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  19. Mechanistic analysis of cavitation assisted transesterification on biodiesel characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Abdul Aziz, A R; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sonoluminescence transesterification on biodiesel physicochemical properties was investigated and the results were compared to those of traditional mechanical stirring. This study was conducted to identify the mechanistic features of ultrasonication by coupling statistical analysis of the experiments into the simulation of cavitation bubble. Different combinations of operational variables were employed for alkali-catalysis transesterification of palm oil. The experimental results showed that transesterification with ultrasound irradiation could change the biodiesel density by about 0.3kg/m(3); the viscosity by 0.12mm(2)/s; the pour point by about 1-2°C and the flash point by 5°C compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, 93.84% of yield with alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 could be achieved through ultrasound assisted transesterification within only 20min. However, only 89.09% of reaction yield was obtained by traditional macro mixing/heating under the same condition. Based on the simulated oscillation velocity value, the cavitation phenomenon significantly contributed to generation of fine micro emulsion and was able to overcome mass transfer restriction. It was found that the sonoluminescence bubbles reached the temperature of 758-713K, pressure of 235.5-159.55bar, oscillation velocity of 3.5-6.5cm/s, and equilibrium radius of 17.9-13.7 times greater than its initial size under the ambient temperature of 50-64°C at the moment of collapse. This showed that the sonoluminescence bubbles were in the condition in which the decomposition phenomena were activated and the reaction rate was accelerated together with a change in the biodiesel properties. PMID:24981808

  20. The optimization process of biodiesel production using multiple feedstock (CPO and Jatropha) with assistance of ultrasound at 40 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Wilis, Widayat

    2016-06-01

    CPO prices are unstable, therefore affecting the supply of feedstock to produce biodiesel [2]. To overcome the shortage of feedstock, it is necessary to use multiple feedstock, in this case is CPO and Jatropha [1]. This objective of this work to optimizate biodiesel production using multifeedstock (CPO and Jatropha) with assistance of ultrasound. The optimization was to find the highest yield and the least production time. Experiments was carried out using an ultrasonic bath at a frequency of 40 kHz. The ratio of CPO and Jatropha was 1: 1, 3: 1, 4: 1 while the ratio of methanol and oil was 5: 1, 6: 1, 7: 1 and the reaction time was 50, 60, and 70 minutes. KOH was used as a catalyst. The experiment data was optimized using a Response Surface Methodology [3,4]. The optimum point was at a frequency of 40 kHz obtained at a 2.8: 1 mixture of CPO - Jatropha, 6.4: 1 molar ratio of methanol-oil and 61.5 minutes of reaction time. The results of quality testing shows that the biodiesel produced meets the ASTM standard D6751 and SNI 04-7182-2006[5].