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Sample records for chromatography method validacion

  1. Minibodies and Multimodal Chromatography Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chia-Wei; Lepin, Eric J.; Wu, Anna M.; Sherman, Mark A.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Yazaki, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes early phase purification process development for a recombinant anticancer minibody produced in mammalian cell culture. The minibody did not bind to protein A. Cation-exchange, anion-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and hydroxyapatite (eluted by phosphate gradient) chromatographic methods were scouted, but the minibody coeluted with BSA to a substantial degree on each. Hydroxyapatite eluted with a sodium chloride gradient separated BSA and also removed a dimeric contaminant, but BSA consumed so much binding capacity that this proved impractical as a capture tool. Capto MMC media proved capable of supporting adequate capture and significant dimer removal, although both loading and elution selectivity varied dramatically with the amount of supernatant applied to the column. An anion-exchange step was included to fortify overall virus and DNA removal. These results illustrate the value of multimodal chromatography methods when affinity chromatography methods are lacking and conventional alternatives prove inadequate. PMID:21984873

  2. Freeze chromatography method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1987-04-16

    A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

  3. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  4. Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities on chromatography. Directions for preparing leaf pigment extracts using alcohol are given, and paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography are described as modifications of the basic principles of chromatography. (KHR)

  5. Chromatography

    MedlinePlus

    Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are ... of chemical compound. There are different kinds of chromatography. These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion ...

  6. A Better Method for Filling Pasteur Pipet Chromatography Columns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruekberg, Ben

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method for the preparation of Pasteur pipet chromatography columns is presented that allows the column to be filled with solvent without bubbles and allows greater control of fluid flow while the materials to be separated are added. Students are required to wear gloves and goggles and caution should be used while handling glass…

  7. Chromatography

    MedlinePlus

    ... a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are bonded together. For example, ... and hydrogen. Proteins are another type of chemical compound. There are different kinds of chromatography. These include ...

  8. Optimization of reversed-phase chromatography methods for peptide analytics.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Rushd; Baur, Daniel; Pfister, David

    2015-12-18

    The analytical description and quantification of peptide solutions is an essential part in the quality control of peptide production processes and in peptide mapping techniques. Traditionally, an important tool is analytical reversed phase liquid chromatography. In this work, we develop a model-based tool to find optimal analytical conditions in a clear, efficient and robust manner. The model, based on the Van't Hoff equation, the linear solvent strength correlation, and an analytical solution of the mass balance on a chromatographic column describing peptide retention in gradient conditions is used to optimize the analytical scale separation between components in a peptide mixture. The proposed tool is then applied in the design of analytical reversed phase liquid chromatography methods of five different peptide mixtures. PMID:26620597

  9. Modified electrokinetic sample injection method in chromatography and electrophoresis analysis

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J. Courtney; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    A sample injection method for horizontal configured multiple chromatography or electrophoresis units, each containing a number of separation/analysis channels, that enables efficient introduction of analyte samples. This method for loading when taken in conjunction with horizontal microchannels allows much reduced sample volumes and a means of sample stacking to greatly reduce the concentration of the sample. This reduction in the amount of sample can lead to great cost savings in sample preparation, particularly in massively parallel applications such as DNA sequencing. The essence of this method is in preparation of the input of the separation channel, the physical sample introduction, and subsequent removal of excess material. By this method, sample volumes of 100 nanoliter to 2 microliters have been used successfully, compared to the typical 5 microliters of sample required by the prior separation/analysis method.

  10. An improved method for analysis of biomass sugars and galacturonic acid by anion exchange chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the most accurate method for analysis of sugars in biomass is based on gas chromatography of trimethylsilane or alditol acetate derivitives of sugars, the derivation method is time consuming and laborious. In comparison, sample preparation for sugar analysis using liquid chromatography is a si...

  11. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, P.J.

    1996-04-23

    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  12. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration. PMID:27155240

  13. Mixed-bed affinity chromatography: principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-bed chromatography is far from being a well-established technology within the panoply of bioseparation tools. Composed of an assembly of distinct sorbents that are mixed in a single bed, they have been mostly developed in the last decade for the reduction of dynamic concentration range where they allowed discovering many low-copy proteins within very complex proteomes. Other interesting preparative applications of mixed-bed chromatography have since been developed. In this chapter the basic concepts first and then detailed application recipes are described for (1) the reduction of protein dynamic concentration range, (2) the removal of impurity traces at the last stage of a biopurification process, and (3) the selection and use of sorbents as mixed bed in protein purification. PMID:25749952

  14. The detection of nicotine in a Late Mayan period flask by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Zagorevski, Dmitri V; Loughmiller-Newman, Jennifer A

    2012-02-29

    Several ancient Mayan vessels from the Kislak Collection of the US Library of Congress were examined for the presence of alkaloids. One of them, a codex-style flask, bears a text that appears to read yo-'OTOT-ti 'u-MAY, spelling y-otoot 'u-may 'the home of its/his/her tobacco'. Samples extracted from this Late Classic period (600 to 900 AD) container were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods. Nicotine was identified as the major component of the extracts. LC/MS analyses also yielded signals due to nicotine mono-oxides. The identities of the compounds were determined by comparison of the chromatographic and/or mass spectral characteristics with those from standards and literature data. High-resolution high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra of protonated nicotine and nicotine mono-oxides were measured to verify and to correct previous product ion assignments. These analyses provided positive evidence for nicotine from a Mayan vessel, indicating it as a likely holder of tobacco leafs. The result of this investigation is the first physical evidence of tobacco from a Mayan container, and only the second example where the vessel content recorded in a Mayan hieroglyphic text has been confirmed directly by chromatography/mass spectrometry trace analysis. PMID:22279016

  15. Qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones by the method of high-efficiency liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Yanotovskii, M.T.; Mogilevskaya, M.P.; Obol'nikova, E.A.; Kogan, L.M.; Samokhvalov, G.I.

    1986-07-10

    A method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones CoQ/sub 6/-CoQ/sub 10/, using high-efficiency reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Tocopherol acetate was used as the internal standard.

  16. [Development of methods for determining acrylamide in food products by gas-liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Malinkin, A D; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Volkovich, S V; Medvedev, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    The method of determination of acrylamide in various food (milk powder, potato chips, instant coffee) by gas-liquid chromatography after pre-bromination was developed. Studies have shown the possibility of using bromination of acrylamide to give it the necessary properties for better extraction, purification and detection. Also revealed the possibility of qualitative and quantitative determine a acrylamide in food by gas-liquid chromatography with detection by electron capture detector. PMID:22232888

  17. Generic chiral method development in supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra-performance supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Klerck, Katrijn; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Mangelings, Debby

    2014-10-10

    The development of chiral separation methods in pharmaceutical industry is often a very tedious, labour intensive and expensive process. A trial-and-error approach remains frequently used, given the unpredictable nature of enantioselectivity. To speed-up this process and to maximize the efficiency of method development, a generic chiral separation strategy for SFC is proposed in this study. To define such strategy, the effect of different chromatographic parameters on the enantioselectivity is investigated and evaluated. Subsequently, optimization steps are defined to improve a chiral separation in terms of resolution, analysis time, etc. or to induce separation when initially not obtained. The defined strategy proved its applicability and efficiency with the successful separation of a novel 20-compound test set. In a second stage, the method transfer from a conventional to an ultra-performance SFC system is investigated for the screening step of the separation strategy. The method transfer proved to be very easy and straightforward. Similar enantioresolution values, but slightly shorter analysis times were obtained on the ultra-performance equipment. Nevertheless, even more benefit may be expected in ultra-performance SFC when customized sub-2 μm chiral stationary phases will become available. PMID:24953426

  18. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. PMID:27214649

  19. A Static Method as an Alternative to Gel Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burum, Alex D.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a static method as an alternative to gel chromatography, which may be used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment. In this method, a constant mass of Sephadex gel is swollen in a series of protein solutions. UV-vis spectrophotometry is used to find a partition coefficient, KD, that indicates the fraction of the interior…

  20. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  1. High-throughput multiclass method for antibiotic residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2008-12-12

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the residue analysis of 39 antibiotics (tetracyclines, quinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The method combines an effective extraction technique, which uses water-methanol as extracting solvent, with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, allowing both confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. The multiresidue method has been validated in chicken muscle matrix according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. It has been implemented as a routine method in a Public Health Laboratory, instead of the five plates test and LC methods previously used. PMID:18992888

  2. Methods of analysis-Determination of pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; McWayne, Megan M.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of 119 pesticides in environmental sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in support of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The pesticides included in this method were chosen through prior prioritization. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides along with degradates are included in this method and span a variety of chemical classes including, but not limited to, chloroacetanilides, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, triazines, and triazoles. Sediment samples are extracted by using an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE®, and the compounds of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences (including sulfur) by passing the extracts through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) along with the use of either stacked graphitized carbon and alumina solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges or packed Florisil®. Chromatographic separation, detection, and quantification of the pesticides from the sediment-sample extracts are done by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) dry weight ranged from 75 to 102 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 13 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), ranged from 0.6 to 3.4 μg/kg dry weight.

  3. Hard modeling methods for the curve resolution of data from liquid chromatography with a diode array detector and on-flow liquid chromatography with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wasim, Mohammad; Brereton, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Hard modeling methods have been performed on data from high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (LC-DAD) and on-flow liquid chromatography with 1H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (LC-NMR). Four methods have been used to optimize parameters to model concentration profiles, three of which belong to classical optimization methods (the simplex method of Nelder-Mead, sequential quadratic programming approach, and Levenberg-Marquardt method), and the fourth is the application of genetic algorithms using real-value encoding. Only classical methods worked well for LC-DAD data, while all of the methods produced good results when LC-NMR data were divided into small spectral windows of peak clusters and parameters were optimized over each window. PMID:16711734

  4. Headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detector method for organic solvent residue analysis in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mijeong Lee; Zahn, Michael; Trinh, Thao; Jia, Qi; Ma, Wenwen

    2006-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the identification and quantification of 20 organic solvent residues in dietary supplements. The method utilizes a headspace sampler interfaced with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection. With split injection (5:1) and a DB-624 column, most of the organic solvents are separated in 9 min. The method has been validated and was found to be relatively simple and fast, and it can be applied to most common organic solvent residues. With the mass detector, the method was able to identify organic solvents beyond the 20 standards tested. PMID:17225592

  5. Improved method for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in baby foods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gökmen, Vural; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2006-04-19

    An improved analytical method for the rapid, reliable, and sensitive determination of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in baby foods is described. It entailed aqueous extraction from food matrix with simultaneous clarification using Carrez I and II reagents, solid-phase extraction cleanup using Oasis HLB, and analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A narrow-bore column allowed fast chromatographic separation with good resolution of HMF and matrix coextractives. In positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization conditions, precursor and compound-specific ions were sensitively detected in selected ion monitoring mode. Sample preparation with efficient cleanup followed by fast chromatographic analysis allowed the analysis to be completed in <20 min. Recovery ranged between 91.8 and 94.7% for spiking levels of 0.25, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg HMF in cereal-based baby foods. The method was shown to be successful when using liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet detection at 285 nm. PMID:16608199

  6. Stable isotope dilution method for the determination of guanidinoacetic acid by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    For more than 30 years, guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), together with other guanidino compounds, has been proposed as an important marker for renal failure, in kidney transplantation, and for renal metabolism, especially for the metabolic activity of the renal proximal tubules. Since the discovery of the first patient with guanidinoacetic acid methyltransferase deficiency in 1994 by Stöckler et al. (Pediatr. Res. 1994; 36: 409), GAA has become of great interest for all laboratories involved in the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. In the literature there are several methods described for the determination of GAA, ranging from ion-exchange chromatography with post-column derivatisation, enzymatic methods, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS). Here a stable isotope dilution method for quantitative and accurate determination of GAA in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid is described. GAA is converted to the bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine di(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) derivative by stepwise derivatisation with hexafluoroacetylacetone and N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Analysis can be performed using a standard benchtop GC/MS system. For quantitative GAA determination with 1,2-(13)C-GAA as internal standard, selected ion monitoring is performed using m/z 460/462, with m/z 432/433 and 375/376 as qualifiers. PMID:12661026

  7. Development and validation of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method for determination of illegal dyes and comparison to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-05-18

    A novel simple, fast and efficient ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative determination of eleven illegal dyes in chili-containing spices. The method involved a simple ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction of illegal compounds with tetrahydrofuran. The separation was performed using a supercritical fluid chromatography system and CSH Fluoro-Phenyl stationary phase at 70°C. The mobile phase was carbon dioxide and the mixture of methanol:acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 2.5% formic acid as an additive at the flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1). The UV-vis detection was accomplished at 500 nm for seven compounds and at 420 nm for Sudan Orange G, Butter Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC and Methyl Red due to their maximum of absorbance. All eleven compounds were separated in less than 5 min. The method was successfully validated and applied using three commercial samples of chili-containing spices - Chili sauce (Indonesia), Feferony sauce (Slovakia) and Mojo sauce (Spain). The linearity range of proposed method was 0.50-9.09 mg kg(-1) (r ≥ 0.995). The detection limits were determined as signal to noise ratio of 3 and were ranged from 0.15 mg kg(-1) to 0.60 mg kg(-1) (1.80 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet) for standard solution and from 0.25 mg kg(-1) to 1.00 mg kg(-1) (2.50 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet, 1.50 mg kg(-1) for Sudan Red 7B) for chili-containing samples. The recovery values were in the range of 73.5-107.2% and relative standard deviation ranging from 0.1% to 8.2% for within-day precision and from 0.5% to 8.8% for between-day precision. The method showed potential for being used to monitor forbidden dyes in food constituents. The developed UHPSFC method was compared to the UHPLC-UV method. The orthogonality of Sudan dyes separation by these two methods was demonstrated. Benefits and drawbacks were discussed showing the reliability of both methods for monitoring of studied illegal dyes in real

  8. Rapid purification method for fumonisin B1 using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, A; Lorántfy, L; Bencsik, O; Kecskeméti, A; Szécsi, Á; Mesterházy, Á; Vágvölgyi, Cs

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a highly toxic mycotoxin produced by fungal strains belonging to the Fusarium genus, which can be found mainly in maize products, and is gaining interest in food safety. To produce large amounts of pure FB1, a novel purifying method was developed by using centrifugal partition chromatography, which is a prominent member of the liquid-liquid chromatographic techniques. Rice cultured with Fusarium verticillioides was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water and found to contain 0.87 mg of FB1 per gram. The crude extracts were purified on a strong anion-exchange column and then separated by using a biphasic solvent system consisting of methyl-tert-butyl-ether-acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water. The collected fractions were analysed by flow injection-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Corona-charged aerosol detector and identified by congruent retention time on high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric data. This method produced approximately 120 mg of FB1 with a purity of more than 98% from 200 g of the rice culture. The whole purification process is able to produce a large amount of pure FB1 for analytical applications or for toxicological studies. PMID:23043634

  9. Method for trapping affinity chromatography of transcription factors using aldehyde-hydrazide coupling to agarose.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yinshan; Jarrett, Harry W

    2015-08-01

    The use of a method of coupling DNA was investigated for trapping and purifying transcription factors. Using the GFP-C/EBP (CAAT/enhancer binding protein) fusion protein as a model, trapping gives higher purity and comparable yield to conventional affinity chromatography. The chemistry used is mild and was shown to have no detrimental effect on GFP fluorescence or GFP-C/EBP DNA binding. The method involves introducing a ribose nucleotide to the 3' end of a DNA sequence. Reaction with mM NaIO4 (sodium metaperiodate) produces a dialdehyde of ribose that couples to hydrazide-agarose. The DNA is combined at nM concentration with a nuclear extract or other protein mixture, and DNA-protein complexes form. The complex is then coupled to hydrazide-agarose for trapping the DNA-protein complex and the protein eluted by increasing NaCl concentration. Using a different oligonucleotide with the proximal E-box sequence from the human telomerase promoter, USF-2 transcription factor was purified by trapping, again with higher purity than results from conventional affinity chromatography and similar yield. Other transcription factors binding E-boxes, including E2A, c-Myc, and Myo-D, were also purified, but myogenin and NFκB were not. Therefore, this approach proved to be valuable for both affinity chromatography and the trapping approach. PMID:25935261

  10. Method for trapping affinity chromatography of transcription factors using aldehyde-hydrazide coupling to agarose

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yinshan; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of a method of coupling DNA is investigated for trapping and purifying transcription factors. Using the GFP-C/EBP fusion protein as a model, trapping gives higher purity and comparable yield to conventional affinity chromatography. The chemistry utilized is mild and was shown to have no detrimental effect on GFP fluorescence or GFP-C/EBP DNA-binding. The method involves introducing a ribose nucleotide to the 3′ end of a DNA sequence. Reaction with mM NaIO4 (sodium metaperiodate) produces a dialdehyde of ribose which couples to hydrazide-agarose. The DNA is combined at nM concentration with a nuclear extract or other protein mixture and DNA-protein complexes form. The complex is then coupled to hydrazide-agarose for trapping the DNA-protein complex and the protein eluted by increasing NaCl concentration. Using a different oligonucleotide with the proximal E-box sequence from the human telomerase promoter, USF-2 transcription factor was purified by trapping, again with higher purity than results from conventional affinity chromatography and similar yield. Other transcription factors binding E-boxes including E2A, c-myc, and myo-D were also purified but myogenenin and NFκB were not. Therfore, this approach proved valuable for both affinity chromatography and for the trapping approach. PMID:25935261

  11. A Size-Exclusion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Clostridium difficile Vaccine Toxins.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Catherine; Rustandi, Richard R; Pannizzo, Paola; Ha, Sha

    2016-01-01

    High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC or SEC) is a method that can be applied to measure size distribution of proteins, including aggregates, monomers, and fragments. In the biopharmaceutical industry the quantitation of aggregates contained in biotherapeutics and protein-based vaccines is critical given the potential impact on safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. Hence, aggregation analysis of therapeutic proteins or protein-based vaccine products is almost always a requirement of regulatory agencies. SEC, also referred to as gel-filtration chromatography, separates molecules by size through a porous resin stationary phase. Under isocratic flow small molecules are retained on the column longer than large molecules. Here we describe the use of this SEC technique to characterize aggregation levels for four different protein antigens for a Clostridium difficile vaccine. PMID:27507349

  12. Comparison of photoacoustic radiometry to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for monitoring chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    A comparison of two methods of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and a nondispersive infrared technique, photoacoustic radiometry (PAR), is presented in the context of field monitoring a disposal site. First is presented an historical account describing the site and early monitoring to provide an overview. The intent and nature of the monitoring program changed when it was proposed to expand the Radiological Waste Site close to the Hazardous Waste Site. Both the sampling methods and analysis techniques were refined in the course of this exercise.

  13. The development of an evaluation method for capture columns used in two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwei; Yu, Danhua; Wang, Xinliang; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2011-11-01

    Capture columns are important interface tools for on line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). In this study, a systematic method was developed to evaluate and optimize the capture ability of capture columns by off-line method. First, the parameter Δt(R) (Δt(R)=t(2)-t(1)-t(0)-W) was introduced to quantitatively represent the capture ability of the capture column by connecting a capture column behind the first dimensional column. Based on the value of Δt(R), an appropriate capture column was selected after the first dimensional column was fixed. Then, the capture ability of the selected column was promoted by adjusting the mobile phase of the first dimensional column. Capture ability was also optimized using complex sample analysis software system (CSASS) software. Second, the elution mode of the trapped compounds on the capture column was investigated by connecting the capture column before the second dimensional column. More specifically, in mode I, capture column was connected to the second dimension without changing the flow rate direction and the trapped compounds must pass through the capture column and be eluted into the second dimensional column. The contrary connection mode was mode II. It was found that mode I is more suitable method for 2D-LC. Finally, an off-line reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography two-dimensional liquid chromatography (RP/HILIC 2D-LC) system with a C18 capture column was developed to demonstrate the practical application of this method. PMID:21995927

  14. Application of a ultra performance liquid chromatography method in the determination of DNA quality and stability.

    PubMed

    Betker, Jamie; Smyth, Tyson; Wang, Wei; Anchordoquy, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    The development of plasmid DNA as a pharmaceutical requires that integrity (i.e., supercoil content) be monitored as part of quality control. The standard method of determining supercoil content is gel electrophoresis followed by staining and imaging, which is complicated by a variety of factors. Previously described chromatographic methods used to quantify supercoil content have had difficulty obtaining reliable separation of the different isoforms. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography, we have optimized buffer conditions, and utilized increased column temperatures in developing a method that allows accurate quantification of each isoform by ultraviolet detection. We found that increasing the column temperature to 55°C improved separation of the isoform peaks as well as increased the resolution of each peak. We demonstrate the utility of this method by quantifying supercoil content of samples subjected to sonication, acidification or lyophilization, and storage. Our results demonstrate that this method allows for a precise quantification of individual DNA isoforms within a heterogeneous sample. PMID:22113832

  15. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-01

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. PMID:26003622

  16. A versatile noninvasive method for adsorber quantification in batch and column chromatography based on the ionic capacity.

    PubMed

    Huuk, Thiemo C; Briskot, Till; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Within the Quality by Design (QbD) framework proposed by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), high-throughput process development (HTPD) and mechanistic modeling are of outstanding importance for future biopharmaceutical chromatography process development. In order to compare the data derived from different column scales or batch chromatographies, the amount of adsorber has to be quantified with the same noninvasive method. Similarly, an important requirement for the implementation of mechanistic modeling is the reliable determination of column characteristics such as the ionic capacity Λ for ion-exchange chromatography with the same method at all scales and formats. We developed a method to determine the ionic capacity in column and batch chromatography, based on the adsorption/desorption of the natural, uv-detectable amino acid histidine. In column chromatography, this method produces results comparable to those of classical acid-base titration. In contrast to acid-base titration, this method can be adapted to robotic batch chromatographic experiments. We are able to convert the adsorber volumes in batch chromatography to the equivalent volume of a compressed column. In a case study, we demonstrate that this method increases the quality of SMA parameters fitted to batch adsorption isotherms, and the capability to predict column breakthrough experiments. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:666-677, 2016. PMID:27324662

  17. Chemistry and liquid chromatography methods for the analyses of primary oxidation products of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Zeb, A

    2015-05-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are one of the major components of the cells in higher biological systems, which can act as an energy reservoir in the living cells. The unsaturated fatty acid moiety is the key site of oxidation and formation of oxidation compounds. The TAG free radical generates several primary oxidation compounds. These include hydroperoxides, hydroxides, epidioxides, hydroperoxy epidioxides, hydroxyl epidioxides, and epoxides. The presence of these oxidized TAGs in the cell increases the chances of several detrimental processes. For this purpose, several liquid chromatography (LC) methods were reported in their analyses. This review is therefore focused on the chemistry, oxidation, extraction, and the LC methods reported in the analyses of oxidized TAGs. The studies on thin-layer chromatography were mostly focused on the total oxidized TAGs separation and employ hexane as major solvent. High-performance LC (HPLC) methods were discussed in details along with their merits and demerits. It was found that most of the HPLC methods employed isocratic elution with methanol and acetonitrile as major solvents with an ultraviolet detector. The coupling of HPLC with mass spectrometry (MS) highly increases the efficiency of analysis as well as enables reliable structural elucidation. The use of MS was found to be helpful in studying the oxidation chemistry of TAGs and needs to be extended to the complex biological systems. PMID:25824968

  18. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Mass Spectrometric Methods for Analysis of Cadmium-Phytochelatin (II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Cernei, Natalia; Kominkova, Marketa; Zitka, Ondrej; Beklova, Miroslava; Zehnalek, Josef; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro formed Cd-phytochelatin (PC2) complexes were characterized using ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The ratio of both studied compounds as well as experimental conditions were optimized. The highest yield of the complex was observed under an applied concentration of 100 µg·mL−1 PC2 and 100 µg·mL−1 of CdCl2. The data obtained show that IEC in combination with MALDI-TOF is a reliable and fast method for the determination of these complexes. PMID:23538727

  19. First screening method for the simultaneous detection of seven allergens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Heick, J; Fischer, M; Pöpping, B

    2011-02-18

    The development of a multi-method for the detection of seven allergens based on liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction mode is described. It is based on extraction of the allergenic proteins from a food matrix, followed by enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The chosen marker peptides were implemented into one method that is capable of the simultaneous detection of milk, egg, soy, hazelnut, peanut, walnut and almond. This method has been used to detect all seven allergenic commodities from incurred reference bread material, which was baked according to a standard recipe from the baking industry. Detected concentrations ranged from 10 to 1000 μg/g, demonstrating that the mass spectrometric based method is a useful tool for allergen screening. PMID:21227428

  20. Determination of vaporization enthalpies of the branched esters from correlation gas chromatography and transpiration methods

    SciTech Connect

    Verevkin, S.P.; Heintz, A.

    1999-12-01

    Vaporization enthalpies are indispensable for the assessment of the environmental fate and behavior of environmental contaminants. The temperature dependencies of retention indices of a set of 80 esters with branched molecular structures were measured on a nonpolar gas chromatographic column. The correlation gas chromatography method and reliable data set of 16 esters selected from the literature were used to derive a correlation for the prediction of the standard molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub 1}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup {degree}} at the temperature T = 298.15 K. Experimental values of {Delta}{sub 1}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup {degree}} for 64 branched esters were obtained with the help of this correlation. The vaporization enthalpies of isopentyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and neopentyl pivalate were additionally obtained by the transpiration method from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured in a flow system and used for checking the validity of the correlation gas chromatography method.

  1. Tutorial review on validation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods: part I.

    PubMed

    Kruve, Anneli; Rebane, Riin; Kipper, Karin; Oldekop, Maarja-Liisa; Evard, Hanno; Herodes, Koit; Ravio, Pekka; Leito, Ivo

    2015-04-22

    This is the part I of a tutorial review intending to give an overview of the state of the art of method validation in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and discuss specific issues that arise with MS (and MS/MS) detection in LC (as opposed to the "conventional" detectors). The Part I briefly introduces the principles of operation of LC-MS (emphasizing the aspects important from the validation point of view, in particular the ionization process and ionization suppression/enhancement); reviews the main validation guideline documents and discusses in detail the following performance parameters: selectivity/specificity/identity, ruggedness/robustness, limit of detection, limit of quantification, decision limit and detection capability. With every method performance characteristic its essence and terminology are addressed, the current status of treating it is reviewed and recommendations are given, how to determine it, specifically in the case of LC-MS methods. PMID:25819785

  2. Tutorial review on validation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods: part II.

    PubMed

    Kruve, Anneli; Rebane, Riin; Kipper, Karin; Oldekop, Maarja-Liisa; Evard, Hanno; Herodes, Koit; Ravio, Pekka; Leito, Ivo

    2015-04-22

    This is the part II of a tutorial review intending to give an overview of the state of the art of method validation in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and discuss specific issues that arise with MS (and MS-MS) detection in LC (as opposed to the "conventional" detectors). The Part II starts with briefly introducing the main quantitation methods and then addresses the performance related to quantification: linearity of signal, sensitivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, stability and measurement uncertainty. The last section is devoted to practical considerations in validation. With every performance characteristic its essence and terminology are addressed, the current status of treating it is reviewed and recommendations are given, how to handle it, specifically in the case of LC-MS methods. PMID:25819784

  3. Efficient method for preparation of highly purified lipopolysaccharides by hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Muck, A; Ramm, M; Hamburger, M

    1999-09-10

    A method for the efficient preparation of highly purified lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) has been developed. The procedure can be used for the purification of cell wall bound LPSs after hot phenol-water extraction and for the isolation of extracellular LPSs from the supernatant, respectively. The method described has been tested with artificial mixtures containing LPSs, polysaccharide, protein and RNA and subsequently employed for the preparative purification of two LPSs of different origin, namely the extracellular LPS secreted by Escherichia coli E49 into the culture medium, and the cell wall bound LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa VA11465/1. Compared to currently used methods for LPS purification such as enzymatic digestion and ultracentrifugation, the chromatographic separation reported here combines superior purity with minimal loss of LPS, high reproducibility and simple handling. The removal of contaminants such as protein, RNA and polysaccharides and the recovery of LPSs were monitored by appropriate assays. PMID:10517220

  4. A simple and simultaneous identification method for aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-01-01

    An effective and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous identification of aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Identification of three maker compounds presented in three medicinal materials was performed on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Under the optimal HPLC chromatographic conditions, sixty-two samples were processed on an Optimapak C18 column using a solvent system of acetonitrile (from 10% to 35%) and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution (from 90% to 65%) at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 270 nm. All calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.9992). The relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 1% and 2%, respectively. The recoveries of three analytes ranged from 99.48 to 100.97% with low RSDs (<2%). For the first time, this study demonstrates that the processed aloe, catechu and gambir are sold in local material markets in China and Korea without their correct identification. It indicates the existent of high potential medicinal risk by misuse of three medicinal materials. The developed HPLC method can be applied to prevent unexpected biological activity due to misapplication of medicinal materials. PMID:26342878

  5. An improved method for measuring metaldehyde in surface water using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Melanie; Castle, Glenn; Gravell, Anthony; Mills, Graham A.; Fones, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    The molluscicide metaldehyde (2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetraoxocanemetacetaldehyde) is an emerging pollutant. It is frequently detected in surface waters, often above the European Community Drinking Water Directive limit of 0.1 μg/L for a single pesticide. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) can be used to determine metaldehyde in environmental waters, but this method requires time consuming extraction techniques prior to instrumental analysis. Use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) can overcome this problem. We describe a novel LC–MS/MS method, using a methylamine mobile phase additive, coupled with on-line sample enrichment that allows for the rapid and sensitive measurement of metaldehyde in surface water. Only the methylamine adduct of metaldehyde was formed with other unwanted alkali metal adducts and dimers being suppressed. As considerably less collision energy is required to fragment the methylamine adduct, a five-fold improvement in method sensitivity, compared to a previous method using an ammonium acetate buffer mobile phase was achieved. This new approach offers: • A validated method that meets regulatory requirements for the determination of metaldehyde in surface water. • Improved reliability of quantification over existing LC–MS/MS methods by using stable precursor ions for multiple reaction monitoring. • Low limits of quantification for tap water (4 ng/L) and river water (20 ng/L) using only 800 μL of sample; recoveries > 97%. PMID:27054094

  6. An improved method for measuring metaldehyde in surface water using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Melanie; Castle, Glenn; Gravell, Anthony; Mills, Graham A; Fones, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    The molluscicide metaldehyde (2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetraoxocanemetacetaldehyde) is an emerging pollutant. It is frequently detected in surface waters, often above the European Community Drinking Water Directive limit of 0.1 μg/L for a single pesticide. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be used to determine metaldehyde in environmental waters, but this method requires time consuming extraction techniques prior to instrumental analysis. Use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can overcome this problem. We describe a novel LC-MS/MS method, using a methylamine mobile phase additive, coupled with on-line sample enrichment that allows for the rapid and sensitive measurement of metaldehyde in surface water. Only the methylamine adduct of metaldehyde was formed with other unwanted alkali metal adducts and dimers being suppressed. As considerably less collision energy is required to fragment the methylamine adduct, a five-fold improvement in method sensitivity, compared to a previous method using an ammonium acetate buffer mobile phase was achieved. This new approach offers: •A validated method that meets regulatory requirements for the determination of metaldehyde in surface water.•Improved reliability of quantification over existing LC-MS/MS methods by using stable precursor ions for multiple reaction monitoring.•Low limits of quantification for tap water (4 ng/L) and river water (20 ng/L) using only 800 μL of sample; recoveries > 97%. PMID:27054094

  7. On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography for the analysis of contamination by mineral oil. Part 1: method of analysis.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2012-09-14

    For the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), on-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) offers important advantages: it separates MOSH and MOAH in robust manner, enables direct injection of large aliquots of raw extracts (resulting in a low detection limit), avoids contamination of the sample during preparation and is fully automated. This review starts with an overview of the technology, particularly the fundamentals of introducing large volumes of solvent into GC, and their implementation into various transfer techniques. The main part deals with the concepts of MOSH and MOAH analysis, with a thorough discussion of the choices made. It is followed by a description of the method. Finally auxiliary tools are summarized to remove interfering components, enrich the sample in case of a high fat content and obtain additional information about the MOSH and MOAH composition. PMID:22770383

  8. Simultaneous modeling and optimization of nonlinear simulated moving bed chromatography by the prediction-correction method.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Jason; Sloan, Charlotte; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

    2013-03-01

    This work demonstrates a systematic prediction-correction (PC) method for simultaneously modeling and optimizing nonlinear simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography. The PC method uses model-based optimization, SMB startup data, isotherm model selection, and parameter estimation to iteratively refine model parameters and find optimal operating conditions in a matter of hours to ensure high purity constraints and achieve optimal productivity. The PC algorithm proceeds until the SMB process is optimized without manual tuning. In case studies, it is shown that a nonlinear isotherm model and parameter values are determined reliably using SMB startup data. In one case study, a nonlinear SMB system is optimized after only two changes of operating conditions following the PC algorithm. The refined isotherm models are validated by frontal analysis and perturbation analysis. PMID:23380364

  9. A simple screening method using ion chromatography for the diagnosis of cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takahito; Shimbo, Hiroko; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDS) are caused by genetic defects in L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase or creatine transporter 1. CCDS are characterized by abnormal concentrations of urinary creatine (CR), guanidinoacetic acid (GA), or creatinine (CN). In this study, we describe a simple HPLC method to determine the concentrations of CR, GA, and CN using a weak-acid ion chromatography column with a UV detector without any derivatization. CR, GA, and CN were separated clearly with the retention times (mean ± SD, n = 3) of 5.54 ± 0.0035 min for CR, 6.41 ± 0.0079 min for GA, and 13.53 ± 0.046 min for CN. This new method should provide a simple screening test for the diagnosis of CCDS. PMID:22080216

  10. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural. PMID:25214353

  11. Analytical method for determining iminoctadine triacetate by LC/ESI/MS using hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Yano, Miho; Makihata, Nobuko

    2006-04-01

    A target value for iminoctadine triacetate residues in tap water was set at 6 microg/l in Japan. We have developed a highly selective and sensitive analytical method for iminoctadine triacetate by solid phase extraction LC/ESI/MS using hydrophilic interaction chromatography. The recovery rates at concentration of 0.06, 0.6, and 6 microg/l in distilled water, tap water, and raw water were 77.1 - 96.7%, and CV were 3.7 - 13.2%. The quantitation limit of the present method was 0.04 microg/l, and it was able to measure even one-hundredth of the target value of iminoctadine triacetate quantitatively. PMID:16760588

  12. Sample displacement chromatography as a method for purification of proteins and peptides from complex mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Gajdosik, Martina Srajer; Clifton, James; Josic, Djuro

    2012-01-01

    Sample displacement chromatography (SDC) in reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes was introduced approximately twenty years ago. This method takes advantage of relative binding affinities of components in a sample mixture. During loading, there is a competition among different sample components for the sorption on the surface of the stationary phase. SDC was first used for the preparative purification of proteins. Later, it was demonstrated that this kind of chromatography can also be performed in ion-exchange, affinity and hydrophobic-interaction mode. It has also been shown that SDC can be performed on monoliths and membrane-based supports in both analytical and preparative scale. Recently, SDC in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction mode was also employed successfully for the removal of trace proteins from monoclonal antibody preparations and for the enrichment of low abundance proteins from human plasma. In this review, the principals of SDC are introduced, and the potential for separation of proteins and peptides in micro-analytical, analytical and preparative scale is discussed. PMID:22520159

  13. Chromatographic methods enabling the characterization of stationary phases and retention prediction in high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sykora, David; Vozka, Jiri; Tesarova, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the scope of the present review, the current status of high-performance liquid chromatography/ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography is briefly provided. These techniques and their retention mechanisms are compared. Various alternative approaches utilized for the determination and description of the retention processes in these two systems are mapped. Two frequently used concepts, linear-free energy relationships, and hydrophobic subtraction models, used for the characterization of the retention interactions, are discussed. Principles and selected applications of the both methods are also covered. Then the models applied for the prediction of retention behavior of solutes on stationary phases are outlined. The procedures utilized for the sorbent/column classification are also covered. Simple chromatographic tests frequently used for the basic characterization and mutual comparison of stationary phases are summarized and briefly commented on. The importance of a statistical evaluation of complex retention data obtained from the chromatographic measurements is outlined. Finally, computer simulations aiming at the facilitation of the quest to optimize separation conditions for a given mixture of analytes are touched upon. PMID:26497150

  14. CREATININE DETERMINATION IN URINE BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD.

    PubMed

    Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Wojciech; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine determination in urine is used to estimate the completeness of the 24-h urine collection, compensation for variable diuresis and as a preliminary step in protein profiling in urine. Despite the fact that a wide range of methods of measuring creatinine level in biofluids has been developed, many of them are adversely affected by interfering substances. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for creatinine determination in urine has been developed. Chromatographic separation was performed by applying C18 column and a gradient elution. Analyses were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source. The developed method was fully validated according to the international guidelines. The quantification range of the method was 5-1500 ng/mL, which corresponds to 1-300 mg/dL in urine. Limit of detection and quantitation were 2 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. Additionally, the comparison of creatinine determination by newly developed method to the colorimetric method was performed. The method enables the determination of creatinine in urine samples with a minimal sample preparation, excellent sensitivity and prominent selectivity. Since mass spectrometry allows to measure a number of compounds simultaneously, a future perspective would be to incorporate the determination of other clinically important compounds excreted in urine. PMID:27180423

  15. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Levoglucosan Concentrations in Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, R. W.; Baltzell, G.

    2002-12-01

    Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) recently has been measured in atmospheric aerosols where it is a major organic compound originating from biomass combustion. Past analysis methods have used gas chromatography with and without derivitization. We have developed a method for analyzing levoglucosan in atmospheric aerosols using high peformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a new detection method called aerosol charge detection. In aerosol charge detection, the column effluent is converted to an aerosol that is charged by passage near a corona discharge region and detected by charge collection. A column specific for carbohydrate compounds, which separates compounds by ligand-exchange and by partitioning based on polarity, was used for the separation using a 100% water eluent at 60°C. Under these conditions, aerosol filter samples extracted in methanol and water gave peaks with the same retention time as a levoglucosan standard. The detection limit was estimated to be about 0.1 μg mL-1 for extracts or 5 to 10 ng m-3 for air sample volumes employed. Samples collected at locations in central New Mexico and central California were found to contain concentrations of levoglucosan from the detection limit to 270 ng m-3, with higher concentrations observed under colder conditions when more fireplaces would tend to be in use. Mannosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-mannopyranose), another monosaccharide anhydride, also was observed in one sample. The presence of other organic compounds, which have not yet been identified, was inferred by other observed peaks and by an increased baseline in sample chromatograms.

  16. A simple ion chromatography method for inorganic anion analysis in edible seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ordóñez, Eva; Alonso, Esther; Rupérez, Pilar

    2010-09-15

    A new, simple, fast and sensitive ion chromatography (IC) method, for the simultaneous analysis of fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate in edible seaweeds was developed and reported for the first time. The validation of the analytical method was studied in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. All standard calibration curves showed very good correlation between anion peak area and concentration (r>0.999). Limits of detection and quantitation ranged between 0.002-0.05 mg/L and 0.01-0.1mg/L, respectively and indicated the high sensitivity of the method. Relative standard deviation values of repeatability and inter-day precision for standard anions with the same sample were less than 2%. Anion recoveries ranged from 97 to 113% for chloride and from 87 to 105% for sulphate, respectively and showed the fairly good accuracy of the method. The method was applied to the analysis of inorganic anions in brown and red edible seaweeds. Brown seaweeds were characterized by higher chloride content up to 33.7-36.9%, while red seaweeds were characterized by higher sulphate content (45-57%). Sulphate content in seaweeds is related to the presence of sulphated polysaccharides of biological importance. The method developed was well applicable to mineral anion analysis in edible seaweeds and shows suitability and reliability of use in other food samples of nutritional importance. PMID:20801334

  17. Assessment of the chemical changes during storage of phenol-formaldehyde resins pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, inverse gas chromatography and Fourier transform infra red methods.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A; Zięba-Palus, J; Lachowicz, T

    2014-09-12

    The chemical changes occurring in the phenol-formaldehyde resins (resol and novolac type) during their storage were investigated. In this paper the FT-IR, py-GCMS and inverse gas chromatography methods were applied for assessment of the changes occurring during storage of the phenolic resins. We have found that during storage some examined resins occurred partial curing. The results from all techniques applied are consistent. Py-GCMS is useful technique for screening the storage processes but IGC seems to be most sensitive one. PMID:25092596

  18. Determination of chlorophenols in red wine using ionic liquid countercurrent chromatography as a new pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Li, Nai; Cao, Xueli

    2015-06-01

    A countercurrent chromatography method for the enrichment and cleanup of chlorophenols from food samples was successfully established by using an ionic-liquid-modified two-phase solvent system composed of dichloromethane containing 2% 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and water. The column was firstly filled with the organic stationary phase, and then a large volume of sample was pumped into the column after it was equilibrated with pure water at the rotation speed. Finally, the trace amounts of chlorophenols extracted and enriched in the stationary phase were eluted out by an alkaline mobile phase and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under optimized conditions, the enrichment and cleanup of the chlorophenols can be fulfilled online with enrichment factors (34-65) and high recoveries (84.69-95.23%). The method has been applied to the determination of chlorophenols in real red wine samples with the limits of detection in the range of 1.89-4.21 μg/L. The present method is highly suitable for the pretreatment of large volume of aqueous sample for the determination of trace amounts of contaminants in food and environmental samples. PMID:25826668

  19. Development and validation of high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance thin-layer chromatography methods for the quantification of khellin in Ammi visnaga seed

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Abid; Khan, Washim; Ahmad, Sayeed; Ahmad, F. J.; Saleem, Kishwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was used to design simple, accurate and sensitive reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods for the development of quantification of khellin present in the seeds of Ammi visnaga. Materials and Methods: RP-HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with methanol: Water (75: 25, v/v) as a mobile phase. The HPTLC method involved densitometric evaluation of khellin after resolving it on silica gel plate using ethyl acetate: Toluene: Formic acid (5.5:4.0:0.5, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. Results: The developed HPLC and HPTLC methods were validated for precision (interday, intraday and intersystem), robustness and accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response was linear in both HPLC and HPTLC methods with the concentration range of 10–80 μg/mL in HPLC and 25–1,000 ng/spot in HPTLC for khellin. The % relative standard deviation values for method precision was found to be 0.63–1.97%, 0.62–2.05% in HPLC and HPTLC for khellin respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery studies conducted at three different concentration levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 100.53% in HPLC and 100.08% in HPTLC for khellin. Conclusions: The developed HPLC and HPTLC methods for the quantification of khellin were found simple, precise, specific, sensitive and accurate which can be used for routine analysis and quality control of A. visnaga and several formulations containing it as an ingredient. PMID:26681890

  20. A generic static headspace gas chromatography method for determination of residual solvents in drug substance.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chang; Liu, Shaorong; Mueller, Bradford J; Yan, Zimeng

    2010-10-01

    In order to increase productivity of drug analysis in the pharmaceutical industry, an efficient and sensitive generic static headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was successfully developed and validated for the determination of 44 classes 2 and 3 solvents of International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q3C, as residual solvents in drug substance. In order to increase the method sensitivity and efficiency in sample equilibration, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as the sample diluent based on its high capacity of dissolving drug substance, stability and high boiling point. The HS sample equilibration temperature and equilibration time are assessed in ranges of 125-150°C and 8-15 min, respectively. The results indicate that the residual solvents in 200mg of drug substance can be equilibrated efficiently in HS sampler at 140°C for 10 min. The GC parameters, e.g. sample split ratio, carrier flow rate and oven temperature gradient are manipulated to enhance the method sensitivity and separation efficiency. The two-stage gradient GC run from 35 to 240°C, using an Agilent DB-624 capillary column (30 m long, 0.32 mm I.D., 1.8 μm film thickness), is suitable to determine 44 ICH classes 2 and 3 solvents in 30 min. The method validation results indicate that the method is accurate, precise, linear and sensitive for solvents assessed. The recoveries of most of these solvents from four drug substances are greater than 80% within the method determination ranges. However, this method is not suitable for the 10 remaining ICH classes 2 and 3 solvents, because they are too polar (e.g. formic acid and acidic acid), or have boiling points higher than 150°C, (e.g. anisol and cumene). In comparison with the previous published methods, this method has a much shorter sample equilibration time, a better separation for many solvents, a higher sensitivity and a broader concentration range. PMID:20801455

  1. Determination of nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum by high performance liquid chromatography method

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masood Shah; Parveen, Rabea; Mishra, Kshipra; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nucleosides are supportive in the regulation and modulation of various physiological processes in body, they acts as precursors in nucleic acid synthesis, enhance immune response, help in absorption of iron and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum are well-known for its use in traditional medicine of China, Nepal and India. They are rich in nucleosides such as adenine, adenosine, cordycepin, etc. Hence, a simple, economic and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method was proposed for determination of adenine and adenosine for the quality control of plants. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic experiments were conducted on YL9100 HPLC system (South Korea). Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a C18 column with methanol and dihydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase in isocratic elution method at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 254 nm, which gives a sharp peak of adenine and adenosine at a retention time of 6.53 ± 0.02 min and 12.41 ± 0.02, respectively. Results and Discussion: Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 25–200 µg/mL for adenosine and 100–800 µg/mL for adenine with regression coefficient of 0.999 and 0.996, respectively. The adenine was found 0.16% and 0.71% w/w in G. lucidum and in C. sinensis, respectively, and adenosine was found to be 0.14% w/w in G. lucidum whereas absent in C. sinensis. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method for the quantification of adenosine and adenine can be used for the quality control and standardization of crude drug and for the different herbal formulations, in which adenine and adenosine are present as major constituents. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of adenosine and adenine with high precision and

  2. Modern methods for vancomycin determination in biological fluids by methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography - A review.

    PubMed

    Javorska, Lenka; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Solichova, Dagmar; Solich, Petr; Kaska, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the therapy of severe bacterial infection. The monitoring of vancomycin levels is recommended because of its narrow therapeutic index and toxicity. This measurement is especially appropriate in patients with unstable renal functions, who receive high doses of vancomycin or present serious bacterial infections accompanied by important sequestration of liquids when it could be difficult to achieve the optimal therapeutic dose. Most of the methods for vancomycin determination in routine practice are immunoassays. However, chromatography-based techniques in combination with UV or mass spectrometry detection provide results with greater accuracy and precision also in complicated biological matrices. This review provides a detailed overview of modern approaches for the chromatographic separation of vancomycin in various biological samples and useful sample preparation procedures for vancomycin determination in various biological fluids. PMID:26351070

  3. Integration of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Methods for Differentiating Ricin Preparation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Melville, Angela M.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Colburn, Heather A.; Victry, Kristin D.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2012-05-17

    The investigation of crimes involving chemical or biological agents is infrequent, but presents unique analytical challenges. The protein toxin ricin is encountered more frequently than other agents and is found in the seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis. Typically, the toxin is extracted from castor seeds utilizing a variety of different recipes that result in varying purity of the toxin. Moreover, these various purification steps can also leave or differentially remove a variety of exogenous and endogenous residual components with the toxin that may indicate the type and number of purification steps involved. We have applied three gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric (GC-MS) based analytical methods to measure the variation in seed carbohydrates and castor oil ricinoleic acid as well as the presence of solvents used for purification. These methods were applied to the same samples prepared using four previously identified toxin preparation methods starting from four varieties of castor seeds. The individual data sets for seed carbohydrate profiles, ricinoleic acid or acetone amount each provided information capable of differentiating different types of toxin preparations across seed types. However, the integration of the data sets using multivariate factor analysis provided a clear distinction of all samples based on the preparation method and independent of the seed source. In particular the abundance of mannose, arabinose, fucose, ricinoleic acid and acetone were shown to be important differentiating factors. These complementary tools provide a more confident determination of the method of toxin preparation.

  4. Multiresidue method for the determination of residues of 251 pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Fillion, J; Sauvé, F; Selwyn, J

    2000-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of 251 pesticide and degradation product residues in fruit and vegetable samples. Extraction of the sample with acetonitrile is followed by a salting-out step. Co-extractives are removed by passing a portion of the acetonitrile extract through an octadecyl (C18) solid-phase extraction cleanup cartridge and then, in a second cleanup, through a carbon cartridge coupled to an amino propyl cartridge. Determination is by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection in the selected-ion monitoring mode, and by liquid chromatography with post-column reaction and fluorescence detection for N-methyl carbamates. The method has been used for analysis of various fruits and vegetables, such as apple, banana, cabbage, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, orange, pear, pepper, and pineapple. Limits of detection range between 0.02 and 1.0 mg/kg for most compounds. Over 80% of the compounds have a limit of detection of < or = 0.04 mg/kg. PMID:10868594

  5. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  6. A validated method for analysis of Swerchirin in Swertia longifolia Boiss. by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Shekarchi, M.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Khanavi, M.; Adib, N.; Bozorgi, M.; Akbari-Adergani, B.

    2010-01-01

    Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae) grow widely in the eastern and southern Asian countries and are used as traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Swerchirin, one of the xanthones in Swertia spp., has many pharmacological properties, such as, antimalarial, antihepatotoxic, and hypoglycemic effects. Because of the pharmacological importance of Swerchirin in this investigation, it was purified from Swertia longifolia Boiss. as one of the main components and quantified by means of a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with acetone 80%. Phenolic and non-phenolic constituents of the extract were separated from each other during several processes. The phenolic fraction was injected into the semi-preparative HPLC system, which consisted of a C18 column and a gradient methanol: 0.1% formic acid mode. Using this method, we were able to purify six xanthones from the plant, in order to use them as standard materials. The analytical method was validated for Swerchirin as one of the most important components of the plant, with more pharmacological activities according to the validation parameters, such as, selectivity, linearity (r2 > 0.9998), precision (≤3.3), and accuracy, which were measured by the determination of recovery (98-107%). The limits of detection and quantization were found to be 2.1 and 6.3 μg/mL, respectively. On account of the speed and accuracy, the UV-HPLC method may be used for quantitative analysis of Swerchirin. PMID:20548931

  7. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for determining transition metal content in proteins.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Anelia; Lam, Robert; Zamble, Deborah B

    2004-12-01

    Transition metals are common components of cellular proteins and the detailed study of metalloproteins necessitates the identification and quantification of bound metal ions. Screening for metals is also an informative step in the initial characterization of the numerous unknown and unclassified proteins now coming through the proteomic pipeline. We have developed a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitative determination of the most prevalent biological transition metals: manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc. The method is accurate and simple and can be adapted for automated high-throughput studies. The metal analysis involves acid hydrolysis to release the metal ions into solution, followed by ion separation on a mixed-bead ion-exchange column and absorbance detection after postcolumn derivatization with the metallochromic indicator 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The potential interferences by common components of protein solutions were investigated. The metal content of a variety of metalloproteins was analyzed and the data were compared to data obtained from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The sensitivity of the assay allows for the detection of 0.1-0.8 nmol, depending on the metal. The amount of protein required is governed by the size of the protein and the fraction of protein with metal bound. For routine analysis 50 microg was used but for many proteins 10 microg would be sufficient. The advantages, disadvantages, and possible applications of this method are discussed. PMID:15519577

  8. Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization retentate chromatography mass spectrometry (SELDI-RC-MS): a new method for rapid development of process chromatography conditions.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, S R; Boschetti, E; Santambien, P; Brenac, V

    2002-12-25

    Protein biochip arrays carrying functional groups typical of those employed for chromatographic sorbents have been developed. When components of a protein mixture are deposited upon an array's functionalized surface, an interaction occurs between the array's surface and solubilized proteins, resulting in adsorption of certain species. The application of gradient wash conditions to the surface of these arrays produces a step-wise elution of retained compounds akin to that accomplished while utilizing columns for liquid chromatography (LC) separations. In retentate chromatography-mass spectrometry (RC-MS), the "retentate" components that remain following a wash are desorbed and ionized when a nitrogen laser is fired at discrete spots on the array after treatment with a laser energy-absorbing matrix solution. Ionized components are analyzed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS). The present study demonstrates that protein biochips can be used to identify conditions of pH and ionic strength that support selective retention-elution of target proteins and impurity components from ion-exchange surfaces. Such conditions give corresponding behavior when using process-compatible chromatographic sorbents under elution chromatography conditions. The RC-MS principle was applied to the separation of an Fab antibody fragment expressed in Escherichia coli as well as to the separation of recombinant endostatin as expressed in supernatant of Pichia pastoris cultures. Determined optimal array binding and elution conditions in terms of ionic strength and pH were directly applied to regular chromatographic columns in step-wise elution mode. Analysis of collected LC fractions showed favorable correlation to results predicted by the RC-MS method. PMID:12458014

  9. Chromatography as Method for Analytical Confirmation of Paracetamol in Postmortem Material Together with Psychoactive Substances

    PubMed Central

    Biscevic-Tokic, Jasmina; Tokic, Nedim; Ibrahimpasic, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in addition to aspirin is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic medication by millions of patients worldwide. It is an example that paracetamol as medicine that in the world is provided without a doctor’s prescription, can lead to death. Today paracetamol became an integral part of a heroin mixture and is very popular at the street market. The main reason for this is that it can be obtained without a prescription, it is cheap, and by most people well tolerated without side effects. It is probably used for “cutting” the pure heroin, as it says in the jargon, and in that manner from small amount of pure drug is obtained greater amount, which is then sold on the street. The goal is to identify presence of paracetamol, by analytical method of gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in postmortem material together with psychoactive substances. Material and methods: For chemical-toxicological analysis is used biological material collected trough autopsy of 20 deceased people, suspected to have died due to psychoactive substance overdose. All received samples are stored at -20 ° C until analysis at our laboratory. From processed 47 samples that were analyzed in the period from 2014 to 2015, 19 are blood samples, urine 19, 3 samples of stomach contents, and 6 samples of bile content. Deceased were middle-aged, of which only 7 were female. The tested samples were processed according to two methods of extraction. Extraction by XAD-2 resin, and the extraction by the method of salting out with sodium tungstate. Extracts of the samples were then dissolved in chloroform and continued analysis at the analytical instrument. Identification of the paracetamol presence, in the test biological samples is demonstrated by the technique of gas chromatography with mass spectometry (hereinafter referred to as GC-MS). The technique of GC-MS is a selective, sensitive and reliable, and is therefore considered a “gold standard

  10. USEPA method study number 39, method 504, 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in water by microextraction and gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Edgell, K.W.

    1989-02-01

    An interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted to determine the precision and bias (recovery) of Method 504 for the analysis of two semivolatile organic compounds in groundwater. Method 504 is entitled 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane (DBCP) in Water by Microextraction and Gas Chromatography and includes instructions for quality control, sample preparation and analysis of samples by gas chromatography. The data analyses produced measures of precision and recovery for each compound in each water type and compared the performance of the method between water types.

  11. Constructing a LabVIEW-Controlled High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System: An Undergraduate Instrumental Methods Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eugene T.; Hill, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory exercise, students develop a LabVIEW-controlled high-performance liquid chromatography system utilizing a data acquisition device, two pumps, a detector, and fraction collector. The programming experience involves a variety of methods for interface communication, including serial control, analog-to-digital conversion, and…

  12. CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ATOMIC EMISSION DETECTION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTYLATED ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS: INTERLABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A capillary gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED) method was developed for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, NV, for determination of selected organotin compounds. Here we report on an interlabora...

  13. Ultra performance liquid chromatography PDA method for determination of tigecycline in human plasma.

    PubMed

    D'Avolio, Antonio; Peila, Emanuela; Simiele, Marco; Pensi, Debora; Baietto, Lorena; Cusato, Jessica; Cinnirella, Giacoma; De Rosa, Francesco; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    : A simple ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array method for the quantification of human plasma concentrations of tigecycline was developed and validated. Quinaxoline, used as an internal standard, was added to 500 μL of plasma before adding 1 mL of protein precipitation solution. The extracts were dried in a vacuum centrifuge system at 60°C and reconstituted with 60 μL of water and acetonitrile (95:5, vol/vol), and 5 μL was injected onto an ACQUITY UPLC H-Class system. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column using a gradient of potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3.2) and acetonitrile. Detection was performed using a photodiode array detector at 350 nm. Relative error at 3 quality control concentrations ranged from -2.49% to -8.74%. Intraday and interday (percent relative standard error) precision ranged from 3.93% to 12.27% and from 9.53% to 13.32%, respectively. Limit of quantification and limit of detection were 0.024 and 0.006 μg/mL, respectively. Mean recovery was 95%. The calibration curve was linear up to 6 μg/mL. This concentration range proved to be adequate to measure tigecycline concentrations in patients treated with the drug, therefore this method would be suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:24067259

  14. Automated high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of rosiglitazone in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Muxlow, A M; Fowles, S; Russell, P

    2001-03-01

    A robust, fully automated assay procedure for the determination of rosiglitazone (I, BRL-49653) in human plasma has been developed. Plasma concentrations of I were determined using automated sequential trace enrichment of dialysates (ASTED) coupled to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sequential automated dialysis of human plasma samples was followed by concentration of the dialysate by trace enrichment on a C18 cartridge. Drug and internal standard, SB-204882 (II) were eluted from the trace enrichment cartridge by mobile phase (0.01 M ammonium acetate, pH 8-acetonitrile, 65:35, v/v) onto the HPLC column (a Novapak C18, 4 microm, 100x5 mm radial compression cartridge) protected by a Guard-Pak C18 cartridge. The compounds were detected by fluorescence detection, using an excitation wavelength of 247 nm, and emission wavelength of 367 nm. The lower limit of quantitation of the method was 3 ng/ml (200 microl aliquot) with linearity demonstrated up to 100 ng/ml. Within- and between-run precision and accuracy of determination were better than 10% across the calibration range. There was no evidence of instability of I in human plasma following three complete freeze-thaw cycles and samples can be safely stored for at least 7 months at -20 degrees C. This method has been successfully utilised to provide pharmacokinetic data throughout the clinical development of rosiglitazone. PMID:11254200

  15. Quality Evaluation of Potentilla fruticosa L. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprinting Associated with Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Yin, Dongxue

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the quality of Potentilla fruticosa L. sampled from distinct regions of China using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting coupled with a suite of chemometric methods. For this quantitative analysis, the main active phytochemical compositions and the antioxidant activity in P. fruticosa were also investigated. Considering the high percentages and antioxidant activities of phytochemicals, P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were selected as the most valuable raw materials. Similarity analysis (SA) of HPLC fingerprints, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principle component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were further employed to provide accurate classification and quality estimates of P. fruticosa. Two principal components (PCs) were collected by PCA. PC1 separated samples from Kangding, Sichuan, capturing 57.64% of the variance, whereas PC2 contributed to further separation, capturing 18.97% of the variance. Two kinds of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. The results strongly supported the conclusion that the eight samples from different regions were clustered into three major groups, corresponding with their morphological classification, for which HPLC analysis confirmed the considerable variation in phytochemical compositions and that P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were of high quality. The results of SA, HCA, PCA, and DA were in agreement and performed well for the quality assessment of P. fruticosa. Consequently, HPLC fingerprinting coupled with chemometric techniques provides a highly flexible and reliable method for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26890416

  16. Ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC²) method for the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Qi, Ningli; Wang, Xiaoxi; Lin, Lijing; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    A rapid ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) method for the determination of eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine and tyramine) in fermented foods was developed. The amines were pre-column derivatized with dansyl chloride and separated on UPC(2) system with a HSS C18 SB column (3.0 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) using gradient elution with a binary system of CO2 and n-hexane:isopropanol:ammonium hydroxide (70:30:0.15, v/v/v), back pressure of 2,000 psi, flow rate of 2.0 ml/min and DAD detection at 254 nm. The result showed excellent linearity (r=0.9995-1.0000). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 21-67 ng/L and 72-224 ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.21-0.87% and 1.98-4.02%, respectively. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied to analysis of biogenic amines in Yulu and Sufu samples. PMID:24874373

  17. A validated new method for nevirapine quantitation in human plasma via high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Courtney F; Parsons, Teresa L

    2006-01-01

    A fully validated and clinically relevant assay was developed for the assessment of nevirapine concentrations in neonate blood plasma samples. Solid-phase extraction with an acid-base wash series was used to prepare subject samples for analysis. Samples were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and detected at 280 nm on a C8 reverse-phase column in an isocratic mobile phase. The retention times of nevirapine and its internal standard were 5.0 and 6.9 min, respectively. The method was validated by assessment of accuracy and precision (statistical values <15%), specificity, and stability. The assay was linear in the range 25-10,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.996) and the average recovery was 93% (n = 18). The lower limit of quantification (relative standard deviation <20%) was determined to be 25 ng/mL for 50 microL of plasma, allowing detection of as little as 1.25 ng of nevirapine in a sample. This value represents an increase in sensitivity of up to 30-fold over previously published methods. PMID:15920701

  18. Ligand affinity chromatography, an indispensable method for the purification of soluble cytokine receptors and binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Ligand affinity chromatography separation is based on unique interaction between the target analyte and a ligand, which is coupled covalently to a resin. It is a simple, rapid, selective, and efficient purification procedure of proteins providing tens of thousands fold purification in one step. The biological activity of the isolated proteins is retained in most cases thus function is revealed concomitantly with the isolation. Prior to the completion of the genome project this method facilitated rapid and reliable cloning of the corresponding gene. Upon completion of this project, a partial protein sequence is enough for retrieving its complete mRNA and hence its complete protein sequence. This method is indispensable for the isolation of both expected (e.g. receptors) but mainly unexpected, unpredicted and very much surprising binding proteins. No other approach would yield the latter. This chapter provides examples for both the expected target proteins, isolated from rich sources of human proteins, as well as the unexpected binding proteins, found by serendipity. PMID:22131033

  19. Quality Evaluation of Potentilla fruticosa L. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprinting Associated with Chemometric Methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Yin, Dongxue

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the quality of Potentilla fruticosa L. sampled from distinct regions of China using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting coupled with a suite of chemometric methods. For this quantitative analysis, the main active phytochemical compositions and the antioxidant activity in P. fruticosa were also investigated. Considering the high percentages and antioxidant activities of phytochemicals, P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were selected as the most valuable raw materials. Similarity analysis (SA) of HPLC fingerprints, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principle component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were further employed to provide accurate classification and quality estimates of P. fruticosa. Two principal components (PCs) were collected by PCA. PC1 separated samples from Kangding, Sichuan, capturing 57.64% of the variance, whereas PC2 contributed to further separation, capturing 18.97% of the variance. Two kinds of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. The results strongly supported the conclusion that the eight samples from different regions were clustered into three major groups, corresponding with their morphological classification, for which HPLC analysis confirmed the considerable variation in phytochemical compositions and that P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were of high quality. The results of SA, HCA, PCA, and DA were in agreement and performed well for the quality assessment of P. fruticosa. Consequently, HPLC fingerprinting coupled with chemometric techniques provides a highly flexible and reliable method for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26890416

  20. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively. PMID:26427497

  1. Isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: methods for isotopic calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, D. A.; Brand, W. A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    In trial analyses of a series of n-alkanes, precise determinations of 13C contents were based on isotopic standards introduced by five different techniques and results were compared. Specifically, organic-compound standards were coinjected with the analytes and carried through chromatography and combustion with them; or CO2 was supplied from a conventional inlet and mixed with the analyte in the ion source, or CO2 was supplied from an auxiliary mixing volume and transmitted to the source without interruption of the analyte stream. Additionally, two techniques were investigated in which the analyte stream was diverted and CO2 standards were placed on a near-zero background. All methods provided accurate results. Where applicable, methods not involving interruption of the analyte stream provided the highest performance (sigma = 0.00006 at.% 13C or 0.06% for 250 pmol C as CO2 reaching the ion source), but great care was required. Techniques involving diversion of the analyte stream were immune to interference from coeluting sample components and still provided high precision (0.0001 < or = sigma < or = 0.0002 at.% or 0.1 < or = sigma < or = 0.2%).

  2. Supercritical fluid chromatography as a method of analysis for the determination of 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate degradation products.

    PubMed

    Buskov, S; Hasselstrøm, J; Olsen, C E; Sørensen, H; Sørensen, J C; Sørensen, S

    2000-07-01

    In the present study analytical and preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) were used for investigation of myrosinase catalysed degradation of 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin). Sinalbin occurs as a major glucosinolate in seeds of Sinapis alba L., in various mustards and other food products. The degradation products were identified and quantified by analysis based on a developed SFC method using a bare silica column. Determinations comprised transformation products of sinalbin, produced both during degradation of isolated sinalbin, and during autolysis of meal from S. alba seeds. The conditions in the developed SFC method were used as basis for the preparative SFC procedure applied for isolation of the components prior to their identification by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Myrosinase catalysed sinalbin hydrolysis resulted in the reactive 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate as an initial product at pH values from 3.5 to 7.5 whereas 4-hydroxybenzyl cyanide was one of the major products at low pH values. 4-Hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate was found to disappear from the aqueous reaction mixtures in a few hours, as it reacted easily with available nucleophilic reagents. 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol was found as the product from reaction with water, and with ascorbic acid, 4-hydroxybenzylascorbigen was produced. PMID:10869674

  3. A rapid quantitative method of carisoprodol and meprobamate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Essler, Shannon; Bruns, Kerry; Frontz, Michael; McCutcheon, J Rod

    2012-11-01

    The identification and quantitation of carisoprodol (Soma) and its chief metabolite meprobamate, which is also a clinically prescribed drug, remains a challenge for forensic toxicology laboratories. Carisoprodol and meprobamate are notable for their widespread use as muscle relaxants and their frequent identification in the blood of impaired drivers. Routine screening is possible in both an acidic/neutral pH screen and a traditional basic screen. An improvement in directed testing quantitations was desirable over the current options of an underivatized acidic/neutral extraction or a basic screen, neither of which used ideal internal standards. A new method was developed that utilized a simple protein precipitation, deuterated internal standards and a short 2-min isocratic liquid chromatography separation, followed by multiple reaction monitoring with tandem mass spectrometry. The linear quantitative range for carisoprodol was determined to be 1-35mg/L and for meprobamate was 0.5-50mg/L. The method was validated for specificity and selectivity, matrix effects, and accuracy and precision. PMID:23040985

  4. Fast methods for screening of trichothecenes in fungal cultures using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K F; Thrane, U

    2001-09-21

    The paper presents a fast method for trichothecene profiling and chemotaxonomic studies in species of Fusarium, Stachybotrys. Trichoderma and Memnoniella. Micro scale extracted crude Fusarium extracts were derivatised using pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analysed by gas chromatography with simultaneous full scan and tandem mass spectrometric detection. It was possible to monitor for up to four compounds simultaneous, making detection of acetyl T-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, T-2 triol. T-2 tetraol, neosolaniol, iso-neosolaniol, scirpentriol, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, 15-acetoxyscirpenol, 4-acetoxyscirpentriol, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol possible during a 23-min GC run. A slightly modified method could detect trichothecenes produced by Stachybotrys, Memnoniella and Trichoderma, by hydrolysing crude extracts prior to derivatisation with heptafluorobuturyl imidazole. All types of derivatised extracts could be reanalysed using negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) GC-MS for molecular mass determination and verification purposes. A retention time index could be used for correction in retention time drifts between sequences and worked both in EI+ and NICI mode. PMID:11594405

  5. Influence of extraction method on size exclusion chromatography fingerprints of EPS from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Bourven, I; Simon, S; Guibaud, G

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were separated using two serial-linked size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns to obtain detailed fingerprints. The chromatographic profile results were influenced by the nature of biological sludge (activated sludges, anaerobic granules, anaerobic flocculated sludges). Furthermore, our results highlight that EPS fingerprints are also highly dependent on the extraction method. If physical extractions modify only the relative absorbance of the chromatographic peaks, heating during extraction induces significant modifications of the fingerprints, probably owing to better organic matter extraction efficiency as well as an increase in hydrolysis for some compounds but not for EPS extracted from anaerobic granular sludges. This confirms that thermal treatment is a proper method to extract EPS from anaerobic granular sludges. The use of chemical extraction results in major changes on the EPS fingerprints. This work demonstrates that some chromatographic peaks are due to residues from the chemical reagent (such as EDTA, glutaraldehyde) which can modify or form complexes with some EPS macromolecules. As a result, due to its sensitivity to sludge origin and/or extraction procedure, SEC appears to be a suitable tool for an accurate qualitative EPS characterization. PMID:23530346

  6. System and method for chromatography and electrophoresis using circular optical scanning

    DOEpatents

    Balch, Joseph W.; Brewer, Laurence R.; Davidson, James C.; Kimbrough, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    A system and method is disclosed for chromatography and electrophoresis using circular optical scanning. One or more rectangular microchannel plates or radial microchannel plates has a set of analysis channels for insertion of molecular samples. One or more scanning devices repeatedly pass over the analysis channels in one direction at a predetermined rotational velocity and with a predetermined rotational radius. The rotational radius may be dynamically varied so as to monitor the molecular sample at various positions along a analysis channel. Sample loading robots may also be used to input molecular samples into the analysis channels. Radial microchannel plates are built from a substrate whose analysis channels are disposed at a non-parallel angle with respect to each other. A first step in the method accesses either a rectangular or radial microchannel plate, having a set of analysis channels, and second step passes a scanning device repeatedly in one direction over the analysis channels. As a third step, the scanning device is passed over the analysis channels at dynamically varying distances from a centerpoint of the scanning device. As a fourth step, molecular samples are loaded into the analysis channels with a robot.

  7. Rapid method for glutathione quantitation using high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Banu; Rimbach, Gerald; Frank, Jan; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2014-01-15

    A rapid, sensitive, and direct method (without derivatization) was developed for the detection of reduced glutathione (GSH) in cultured hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The method was validated according to the guidelines of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in terms of linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LOQ), lower limit of detection (LOD), precision, accuracy, recovery, and stabilities of GSH standards and quality control samples. The total analysis time was 5 min, and the retention time of GSH was 1.78 min. Separation was carried out isocratically using 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 3.0) as a mobile phase with a fused-core column. The detector response was linear between 0.01 and 80 μmol/L, and the regression coefficient (R(2)) was >0.99. The LOD for GSH was 15 fmol, and the intra- and interday recoveries ranged between 100.7 and 104.6%. This method also enabled the rapid detection (in 4 min) of other compounds involved in GSH metabolism such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, and glutathione disulfite. The optimized and validated HPLC-ECD method was successfully applied for the determination of GSH levels in HepG2 cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor, and α-lipoic acid (α-LA), an inducer of GSH synthesis. As expected, the amount of GSH concentration-dependently decreased with BSO and increased with α-LA treatments in HepG2 cells. This method could also be useful for the quantitation of GSH, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and glutathione disulfide in other biological matrices such as tissue homogenates and blood. PMID:24328299

  8. Improved method for rapid detection of phthalates in bottled water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Otero, Paz; Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Moane, Siobhan; Barron, John; Clancy, Gerard; Murray, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simple, rapid and precise quantification of phthalates in drinking water is presented. This method was validated for bis (2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), bis (2-n-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and dinonyl phthalate (DINP). Linearity of 0.9984>r(2)>0.9975 in the range of 0.075-4.8μg/mL for the selected phthalates was obtained. Accuracy values were in the range of 93-114% and RSD% for the analysis of 1.2μg/mL of each phthalate was below 2.3% (n=9). This new method design has significantly improved the detection in terms of rapidity, specificity, repeatability and accuracy compared to available methods. The procedure has been applied to the analyses of three different brands of commercially available bottled mineral water and the corresponding plastic bottles. Phthalates were extracted with dichloromethane and re-constituted in cyclohexane prior to GC-MS analysis. When the validated GC-MS method was applied to the quantification of the selected phthalates in the samples, only DBP (up to 0.0675±0.0018μg/mL) and DEHP (up to 1.6848±0.1631μg/mL) were found. Furthermore, we provide specific data about the concentration of DBP and DEHP in bottled water attributable to migration of phthalates from respective plastic bottles. PMID:26134297

  9. Rapid liquid chromatography for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis using superficially porous chromatography with AOAC Official Method 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Turner, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, oysters, cockles, hard clams, razors, and king scallops is monitored in England, Scotland, and Wales by AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-with fluorescence detection (FLD). One of the commonly perceived disadvantages of using this method is the long turnaround time and low throughput in a busy laboratory environment. The chromatographic analysis of each sample typically utilizes a 15 min cycle time to achieve toxin oxidation product separation and column equilibration prior to subsequent analysis. A standard RP C18 analytical column, used successfully in recent years, achieves good separation with a long column lifetime. The analysis of a 40 sample qualitative screening batch takes approximately 18 h, including blanks, standards, and other QC samples. The availability of superficially porous column technology has offered the potential to reduce analysis time while retaining column performance on existing hardware. In this study, AOAC Official Method 2005.06 with LC-FLD was transferred to two different commercially available superficially porous columns, and the method performance characteristics were evaluated. Both columns separated all toxins adequately with cycle times less than half that of the existing method. Linearity for each toxin was acceptable up to two times the European maximum permitted limit of 800 microg di-HCl saxitoxin equivalent/kg flesh. LOD and LOQ values were substantially improved for the majority of toxins, with gonyautoxin 1&4 and neosaxitoxin showing up to a two- and fourfold improvement, respectively, depending on the column used. Quantification results obtained from parallel analysis of contaminated samples were acceptable on both columns. Comparative screen results gave a slight increase in the occurrence of contaminated samples, which was attributed to the improved detection limit for most toxins. Issues with rapidly increasing back pressure, however, were identified with both

  10. Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Rodney R.

    1985-01-01

    Supports, affinity ligands, immobilization, elution methods, and a number of applications are among the topics considered in this discussion of affinity chromatography. An outline of the basic principles of affinity chromatography is included. (JN)

  11. A method for measuring semi- and non-volatile organic halogens by combustion ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yuichi; Kato, Mika; Urano, Kohei

    2007-01-12

    Recent studies have shown that various semi- and non-volatile organohalogen compounds are ubiquitous in the environment: these include halogenated dioxins including chlorinated dioxins, other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). However, monitoring and assessment of these compounds by the analyses of individual compounds and their isomers is onerous because of their low environmental concentrations and large number of compounds. In this study, we have developed a new method that is capable of screening and monitoring an array of organohalogen compounds efficiently by combustion ion chromatography (CIC) - the new analyzer that serially connects combustion furnace and ion chromatograph. Analyzer performance was evaluated in terms of its applicability, reproducibility, and sensitivity as limit of detection (LOD). Recoveries of organochlorine, organobromine, and organoiodine compounds by the CIC were between 97 and 105%; those of organofluorine compounds were from 86 to 91%. In all cases, the relative standard deviation of five analyses was 4% or smaller. The analyzer would exhibit good sensitivity for various environmental matrices (e.g., 2.8-31ng-X/g-soil, 1.4-16ng-X/L-water, and 9.2-100ng-X/m3N-gas). The method is fast and can provide information regarding the occurrence of organohalogen compounds within 1 or 2 days after sampling. Applicability of the new method for the assessment of contamination in flue gas and fly ash was also demonstrated. Our results show that the method is efficient to investigate emission sources and areas contaminated by organohalogen compounds. PMID:17109873

  12. Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in wine and juice using ionic liquid modified countercurrent chromatography as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Cao, Xueli; Liu, Man; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food materials. The objective of this study was to develop a pretreatment method with countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for enrichment and cleanup of trace Alternaria mycotoxins in food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An Analytical CCC instrument with a column volume 22.5mL was used, and a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate and water modified with 6% [HOOMIM][Cl] in mass to volume ratio was selected. Under the optimized CCC operation conditions, trace amounts of AOH, AME, and TeA in large volume of liquid sample were efficiently extracted and enriched in the stationary phase, and then eluted out just by reversing the stationary phase as mobile phase in the opposite flowing direction tail-to-head. The enrichment and elution strategies are unique and can be fulfilled online with high enrichment factors (87-114) and high recoveries (81.14-110.94%). The method has been successively applied to the determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in real apple juice and wine samples with the limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.03-0.14μgL(-1). Totally 12 wine samples and 15 apple juice samples from the local market were analyzed. The detection rate of AOH and AME in both kinds of the samples were more than 50%, while TeA was found in relatively high level of 1.75-49.61μgL(-1) in some of the apple juice samples. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive and could also be used for the analysis and monitoring of Alternaria mycotoxin in other food samples. PMID:26858114

  13. Multimode gradient high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method applicable to metabolomics and environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Adrian A; Suter, Marc J-F

    2016-07-22

    Metabolomics or environmental investigations generate samples containing very large numbers of small molecular weight analytes. A single mode chromatographic separation excludes a substantial part of such complex analyte mixtures. For instance, a reversed-phase separation would not retain ionic species, resulting in a correspondingly huge front peak. To address this problem, we used two commercially available mixed-mode ion-exchange reversed-phase columns (WAX-1 and WCX-1) in sequence in a novel multimode separation method. After trapping hydrophobics on a C18-trap in loop position, hydrophilics passing the trap are separated by a simultaneous gradient for HILIC, anion and cation exchange chromatography. This gradient ends in a washout phase with a high percentage of water, the correct starting conditions for a reversed-phase gradient eluting hydrophobics from the trap in a second step of the run. Amino acids (9), organic acids (2), sugars (8), fatty acid derived compounds (11), antioxidants (4), miscellanea (6) and xenobiotics (4) were analyzed. Compounds were separated after a single sample injection during a 50min run. Lipids derived small fatty acids up to a chain length of 12 carbons were also accessible within this run time. PMID:27324626

  14. A simple combinatorial method to describe particle retention time in random media with applications in chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Lamb, Luis C.; Lima, Eder C.; Dupont, Jairton

    2012-01-01

    We propose a foundational model to explain properties of the retention time distribution of particle transport in a random medium. These particles are captured and released by distributed theoretical plates in a random medium as in standard chromatography. Our approach differs from current models, since it is not based on simple random walks, but on a directed and coordinated movement of the particles whose retention time dispersion in the column is due to the imprisonment time of the particle spent in the theoretical plates. Given a pair of fundamental parameters (λc,λe) the capture and release probabilities, we use simple combinatorial methods to predict the Probability Distribution of the retention times. We have analyzed several distributions typically used in chromatographic peak fits. We show that a log-normal distribution with only two parameters describes with high accuracy chromatographic distributions typically used in experiments. This distribution show a better fit than distributions with a larger number of parameters, possibly allowing for better control of experimental data.

  15. Presence of phthalate esters in intravenous solution evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Strac, Ivona Vidić; Pušić, Maja; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-03-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the production of poly-(vinyl) chloride (PVC) materials. It is a reproductive and developmental toxicant in animals and a suspected endocrine modulator in humans. DEHP is not covalently bound within the PVC molecule, which is why migration into a suitable medium can be expected. Since application of infusion solutions is one of the most common medical treatments, the objective of this study was to determine the migration of phthalates from softened PVC storage bags into infusion solution in different time periods within one year from date of production using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The measured values of DEHP ranged between 0.22 and 14.00 µg l(-1) , but the unexpected presence of other phthalate esters was also detected. It was concluded that values obtained in infusion solutions match the reference data and represent a minor risk for the patient. The presence of other phthalate esters leads to the conclusion that the pharmacopeic requirement for polymer cleanness was not fully met. Since phthalate esters are among the most extensively used industrial chemicals and are widely distributed in the environment, special precautions and further monitoring should be conducted to minimize any possible health risks. PMID:22034089

  16. Comparison of the separation of nine tryptamine standards based on gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Juing; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Chen, Hung-Ming; Lin, Jian-Jhih; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2008-02-15

    Nine tryptamines, including alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT), N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), N,N-diethyltryptamine (DET), N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), N,N-dibutyltryptamine (DBT), N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) were selected as model compounds. Comparisons of their sensitivity, selectivity, time, cost and the order of migration are described based on different separation techniques (GC, HPLC and CE, respectively). As a result, the limit of detection (S/N=3) obtained by GC/MS and LC/UV-absorption ranged from 0.5 to 15 microg/mL and 0.3 to 1.0 microg/mL, respectively. In contrast to this, based on the CZE/UV-absorption method, the limit of detection (S/N=3) was determined to 0.5-1 microg/mL. However, when the sweeping-MEKC mode was applied, it dramatically improved to 2-10 ng/mL. In the case of GC, HPLC and CE, migration times of the nine standards ranged from 11 to 15 min and 8 to 23 min by GC and HPLC, respectively; ranged from 20 to 26 min by sweeping-MEKC. The order of migration of DMT, DET, DPT and DBT follows the molecular weight, whereas the order of migration of AMT and 5-MeO-AMT (primary amines), DIPT (an isomer of DPT) and 5-methoxy-tryptamines (5-MeO-AMT, 5-MeO-DMT and 5-MeO-DIPT) can be altered by changing the separation conditions. PMID:18177659

  17. Integrated liquid chromatography method in enantioselective studies: Biodegradation of ofloxacin by an activated sludge consortium.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alexandra S; Castro, Paula M L; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Ofloxacin is a chiral fluoroquinolone commercialized as racemate and as its enantiomerically pure form levofloxacin. This work presents an integrated liquid chromatography (LC) method with fluorescence detection (FD) and exact mass spectrometry (EMS) developed to assess the enantiomeric biodegradation of ofloxacin and levofloxacin in laboratory-scale microcosms. The optimized enantioseparation conditions were achieved using a macrocyclic antibiotic ristocetin A-bonded CSP (150×2.1mm i.d.; particle size 5μm) under reversed-phase elution mode. The method was validated using a mineral salts medium as matrix and presented selectivity and linearity over a concentration range from 5μgL(-1) (quantification limit) to 350μgL(-1) for each enantiomer. The method was successfully applied to evaluate biodegradation of ofloxacin enantiomers at 250μgL(-1) by an activated sludge inoculum. Ofloxacin (racemic mixture) and (S)-enantiomer (levofloxacin) were degraded up to 58 and 52%, respectively. An additional degradable carbon source, acetate, enhanced biodegradation up to 23%. (S)-enantiomer presented the highest extent of degradation (66.8%) when ofloxacin was supplied along with acetate. Results indicated slightly higher biodegradation extents for the (S)-enantiomer when supplementation was done with ofloxacin. Degradation occurred faster in the first 3days and proceeded slowly until the end of the assays. The chromatographic results from LC-FD suggested the formation of the (R)-enantiomer during levofloxacin biodegradation which was confirmed by LC-MS with a LTQ Orbitrap XL. PMID:27433982

  18. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of furanic compounds in honey and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Foo Wong, Yong; Makahleh, Ahmad; Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Yahaya, Noorfatimah; Saad, Bahruddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2012-08-15

    A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of 2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furoic acid (2-FA) and 3-furoic acid (3-FA) in honey and vegetable oils is described. Parameters affecting the separation such as pH, buffer and surfactant concentrations, applied voltage, capillary temperature, injection time and capillary length were studied and optimized. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 22 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (17 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (46 cm × 50 μm i.d.) with a background electrolyte of 75 mM phosphoric acid (pH 7.3), containing 200 mM of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The detection wavelengths were at 200 nm (2-FA and 3-FA) and 280 nm (2-F, 3-F, 5-MF, 5-HMF). The furfurals were well separated in less than 20 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection and quantitation, precision and recoveries. Calibration curves of the six furfurals were well correlated (r(2)>0.991) within the range 1-25 μg mL(-1). Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day migration times and corrected peak areas ≤9.96% were achieved. The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 0.33-0.70 μg mL(-1) whereas the limit of quantitation (signal:noise, 10) was 1.00-2.12 μg mL(-1). The method was applied to the determination of furanic compounds in honeys and vegetable oils (palm, walnut, grape seed and rapeseed). The effects of thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the formation of the furanic compounds in honey were also investigated. PMID:22841043

  19. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace. PMID:25814332

  20. Comparing multistep immobilized metal affinity chromatography and multistep TiO2 methods for phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaoshan; Schunter, Alissa; Hummon, Amanda B

    2015-09-01

    Phosphopeptide enrichment from complicated peptide mixtures is an essential step for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic studies to reduce sample complexity and ionization suppression effects. Typical methods for enriching phosphopeptides include immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads, which have selective affinity and can interact with phosphopeptides. In this study, the IMAC enrichment method was compared with the TiO2 enrichment method, using a multistep enrichment strategy from whole cell lysate, to evaluate their abilities to enrich for different types of phosphopeptides. The peptide-to-beads ratios were optimized for both IMAC and TiO2 beads. Both IMAC and TiO2 enrichments were performed for three rounds to enable the maximum extraction of phosphopeptides from the whole cell lysates. The phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment, unique to TiO2 enrichment, and identified with both IMAC and TiO2 enrichment were analyzed for their characteristics. Both IMAC and TiO2 enriched similar amounts of phosphopeptides with comparable enrichment efficiency. However, phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment showed a higher percentage of multiphosphopeptides as well as a higher percentage of longer, basic, and hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Also, the IMAC and TiO2 procedures clearly enriched phosphopeptides with different motifs. Finally, further enriching with two rounds of TiO2 from the supernatant after IMAC enrichment or further enriching with two rounds of IMAC from the supernatant TiO2 enrichment does not fully recover the phosphopeptides that are not identified with the corresponding multistep enrichment. PMID:26237447

  1. Development of an immunoaffinity chromatography and HPLC-UV method for determination of 16 sulfonamides in feed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Jin; Jeong, Min Hee; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Won Chan; Kim, Jang Eok

    2016-04-01

    A novel and simple method for detecting 16 sulfonamides (SAs) in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC/PDA) and immunoaffinity chromatography was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 SAs were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. Method validation was performed with linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The limits of detection (LODs) for the instrument used to study sulfonamides ranged from 14.1 to 45.0 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 46.9 to 150.0 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the 16 SAs ranged from 78.2% to 105.2%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <5.5%. The developed method was specific and reliable and is suited for the routine analysis of SAs in animal feed. PMID:26593600

  2. Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, James D.; Sawicki, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Accurate for the analysis of ions in solution, this form of analysis enables the analyst to directly assay many compounds that previously were difficult or impossible to analyze. The method is a combination of the methodologies of ion exchange, liquid chromatography, and conductimetric determination with eluant suppression. (Author/RE)

  3. New gas chromatography-olfactometric investigative method, and its application to cooked Silurus glanis (European catfish) odor characterization.

    PubMed

    Hallier, Arnaud; Courcoux, Philippe; Sérot, Thierry; Prost, Carole

    2004-11-12

    A new gas chromatography-olfactometric method, gas chromatography-global olfactometry omission detection (GC-GOOD), was applied to dynamic headspace odor extracts of Silurus glanis (European catfish). The GC-GOOD method is based on the omission test theory and uses a gas chromatograph coupled with a three-way valve and an a flame ionization detector. The GC-GOOD method enabled the identification of key families of volatile compounds in the S. glanis global odor and the elucidation of the interactions occurring between these families. Significant main effects were observed for the families of volatile compounds exhibiting cooked odor, grassy odor and alcohol, solvent and plastic odors. Omission of these families involved a loss of odor similarity. PMID:15595551

  4. The Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method enables the rapid purification of methylpyridoxine regioisomers by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J Brent; Klein, Larry L; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2015-12-24

    The TLC-based Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method was employed for countercurrent chromatography solvent system selection, in order to separate the three synthetic isomers: 3-O-methylpyridoxine, 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (ginkgotoxin), and 5'-O-methylpyridoxine. The Rf values of the three isomers indicated that ChMWat+2 (chloroform-methanol-water 10:5:5, v/v/v) was appropriate for the countercurrent separation. The isomer separation was highly selective and demonstrated that the TLC-based GUESS method can accelerate solvent system selection for countercurrent separation. Accordingly, the study re-emphasizes the practicality of TLC as a tool to facilitate the rapid development of new countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography methods for this solvent system. Purity and structure characterization of all samples was performed by quantitative (1)H NMR. PMID:26680272

  5. Method developments approaches in supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I

    2015-12-01

    Analyses of complex samples of cosmetics, such as creams or lotions, are generally achieved by HPLC. These analyses are often multistep gradients, due to the presence of compounds with a large range of polarity. For instance, the bioactive compounds may be polar, while the matrix contains lipid components that are rather non-polar, thus cosmetic formulations are usually oil-water emulsions. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) uses mobile phases composed of carbon dioxide and organic co-solvents, allowing for good solubility of both the active compounds and the matrix excipients. Moreover, the classical and well-known properties of these mobile phases yield fast analyses and ensure rapid method development. However, due to the large number of stationary phases available for SFC and to the varied additional parameters acting both on retention and separation factors (co-solvent nature and percentage, temperature, backpressure, flow rate, column dimensions and particle size), a simplified approach can be followed to ensure a fast method development. First, suited stationary phases should be carefully selected for an initial screening, and then the other operating parameters can be limited to the co-solvent nature and percentage, maintaining the oven temperature and back-pressure constant. To describe simple method development guidelines in SFC, three sample applications are discussed in this paper: UV-filters (sunscreens) in sunscreen cream, glyceryl caprylate in eye liner and caffeine in eye serum. Firstly, five stationary phases (ACQUITY UPC(2)) are screened with isocratic elution conditions (10% methanol in carbon dioxide). Complementary of the stationary phases is assessed based on our spider diagram classification which compares a large number of stationary phases based on five molecular interactions. Secondly, the one or two best stationary phases are retained for further optimization of mobile phase composition, with isocratic elution conditions or, when

  6. Ion chromatography to detect salts in stone structures and to assess salt removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    thorough previous inspection, we can select the most representative points by a drilling net - as minimum as possible- and make some profiles of the inner salt content of a structure. Moreover, this procedure is not only reliable for determining the nature and extent of salts damage, but to assess the efficacy of salts removal methods in cultural heritage. Here we present two case studies from relevant buildings of the Spanish cultural heritage in which this procedure was performed with successful and useful results, in both terms of understanding what types of salts were decaying the stones structures, and also whether the salts removal methods that were planned in the restoration project were efficient or not. It should be remarked that even ion chromatography is not a non destructive technique (can be considered as a minimally destructive one due to the few quantity it is needed for the analysis), the information it can provide is so useful that should not be ruled out from the beginning, depending of each specific case.

  7. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of clobenzorex.

    PubMed

    Cody, J T; Valtier, S

    1999-01-01

    Drugs metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially significant concerns in the interpretation of amphetamine-positive urine drug-testing results. One of these compounds, clobenzorex, is an anorectic drug that is available in many countries. Clobenzorex (2-chlorobenzylamphetamine) is metabolized to amphetamine by the body and excreted in the urine. Following administration, the parent compound was detectable for a shorter time than the metabolite amphetamine, which could be detected for days. Because of the potential complication posed to the interpretation of amphetamin-positive drug tests following administration of this drug, the viability of a current amphetamine procedure using liquid-liquid extraction and conversion to the heptafluorobutyryl derivative followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was evaluated for identification and quantitation of clobenzorex. Qualitative identification of the drug was relatively straightforward. Quantitative analysis proved to be a far more challenging process. Several compounds were evaluated for use as the internal standard in this method, including methamphetamine-d11, fenfluramine, benzphetamine, and diphenylamine. Results using these compounds proved to be less than satisfactory because of poor reproducibility of the quantitative values. Because of its similar chromatographic properties to the parent drug, the compound 3-chlorobenzylamphetamine (3-Cl-clobenzorex) was evaluated in this study as the internal standard for the quantitation of clobenzorex. Precision studies showed 3-Cl-clobenzorex to produce accurate and reliable quantitative results (within-run relative standard deviations [RSDs] < 6.1%, between-run RSDs < 6.0%). The limits of detection and quantitation for this assay were determined to be 1 ng/mL for clobenzorex. PMID:10595847

  8. Determination of benzimidazoles and levamisole residues in milk by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: screening method development and validation.

    PubMed

    Jedziniak, Piotr; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, Teresa; Olejnik, Małgorzata

    2009-11-13

    The screening method for the determination of residues of 19 benzimidazoles (parent drugs and their metabolites) and levamisole in bovine milk has been developed and validated. Milk samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, sample extracts were cleaned up by liquid-liquid partitioning with hexane and acidic ethanol. Liquid chromatography-single-quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for the separation and determination of analytes. The method was validated in bovine milk, according to the CD 2002/657/EC criteria. An alternative approach to the validation of the method was applied ("sum MRL" substances). The method was successfully verified in CRL proficiency test. PMID:19656518

  9. EPA Method 525.3 - Determination of Semivolatile Organic Chemicals in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method 525.3 is an analytical method that uses solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the identification and quantitation of 125 selected semi-volatile organic chemicals in drinking water.

  10. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of anthelmintics in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Dabalus; Haberhauer, G; Gerzabek, M; Cannavan, A

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of anthelmintics in alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.) was developed and validated. Anthelmintics in plant leaves and stems (green chops) were extracted with methanol/acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) followed by a concentration and clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (Strata-X, 500 mg, 6 ml cartridge). After drying with nitrogen gas, the adsorbed analytes were eluted with methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture followed by 100% acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Atlantis T-3 (2.1 × 100 mm × 3 µm) analytical column with a Phenomenex guard cartridge (C8, 4 × 3 mm) attached to a Waters triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionisation mode with selected reaction monitoring. Samples were analysed using gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.35 ml min⁻¹. The mobile phase consisted of a 10 mM ammonium formate solution in (A) water/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) and (B) methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The method was validated for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg⁻¹ and for eprinomectin at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg⁻¹. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 10 µg kg⁻¹ for all analytes except eprinomectin, which had an LOQ of 20 µg kg⁻¹. The overall mean recovery in green plants was between 74.2% and 81.4% with repeatabilities ranging from 2.2% to 19.1% and reproducibilities in the range 3.8-8.7%. The validated method was applied to plant samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil, plant and water system. PMID:22827314

  11. Identification of atmospheric organic sources using the carbon hollow tube-gas chromatography method and factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Braman, R.S.; Gilbert, R.A. )

    1989-04-15

    Atmospheric organics were sampled and analyzed by using the carbon hollow tube-gas chromatography method. Chromatograms from spice mixtures, cigarettes, and ambient air were analyzed. Principal factor analysis of row order chromatographic data produces factors which are eigenchromatograms of the components in the samples. Component sources are identified from the eigenchromatograms in all experiments and the individual eigenchromatogram corresponding to a particular source is determined in most cases. Organic sources in ambient air and in cigaretts are identified with 87% certainty. Analysis of clove cigarettes allows the determination of the relative amount of clove in different cigarettes. A new nondestructive quality control method using the hollow tube-gas chromatography analysis is discussed.

  12. Theoretical and experimental studies on zone-interference chromatography as a new method for determining macromolecular kinetic constants.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Wada, A

    1983-11-01

    Zone-interference chromatography is a new method for studying macromolecular interactions (S. Endo and A. Wada, Anal. Biochem. 124 (1982) 372). This method is a new style of affinity chromatography which requires no preparation of affinity-column materials but utilizes the velocity difference in a column between interacting molecular species. Using the stochastic theory on the behavior of solute molecules, both the association and the dissociation rate constants can be analytically obtained from the degree of deformation of elution patterns, i.e., the change of the first and second moments. In order to verify the present theory, computer simulation of elution profiles by the extended plate theory and a binding experiment between glutamate dehydrogenase and ADP have been carried out. PMID:6661497

  13. A novel method for prenylquinone profiling in plant tissues by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenylquinones are key compounds of the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts. To understand the mechanisms involved in the response of plants to changing conditions such as high light intensity, the comprehensive analysis of these apolar lipids is an essential but challenging step. Conventional methods are based on liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and fluorescence detection of a single or limited number of prenylquinones at a time. Here we present an original and rapid approach using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APCI-QTOFMS) for the simultaneous profiling of eleven prenylquinones in plant tissues, including α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, plastochromanol-8 and plastoquinone-9. Results and discussion Mass spectrometry and chromatography parameters were optimized using pure standards. Sample preparation time was kept to minimum and different extraction solvents were evaluated for yield, ability to maintain the redox state of prenylquinones, and compatibility with chromatography. In addition to precise absolute quantification of 5 prenyllipids for which standards were available, relative quantification of 6 other related compounds was possible thanks to the high identification power of QTOFMS. Prenylquinone levels were measured in leaves of Arabidopsis grown under normal and high light intensities. Quantitatively, the obtained results were consistent with those reported in various previous studies, demonstrating that this new method can profile the full range of prenylquinones in a very short time. Conclusion The new profiling method proves faster, more sensitive and can detect more prenylquinones than current methods based on measurements of selected compounds. It enables the extraction and analysis of twelve samples in only 1.5 h and may be applied to other plant species or cultivars. PMID:21777468

  14. Cross validation of gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for measuring dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Prapamontol, Tippawan; Sutan, Kunrunya; Laoyang, Sompong; Hongsibsong, Surat; Lee, Grace; Yano, Yukiko; Hunter, Ronald Elton; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2014-01-01

    We report two analytical methods for the measurement of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine. These methods were independently developed/modified and implemented in two separate laboratories and cross validated. The aim was to develop simple, cost effective, and reliable methods that could use available resources and sample matrices in Thailand and the United States. While several methods already exist, we found that direct application of these methods required modification of sample preparation and chromatographic conditions to render accurate, reliable data. The problems encountered with existing methods were attributable to urinary matrix interferences, and differences in the pH of urine samples and reagents used during the extraction and derivatization processes. Thus, we provide information on key parameters that require attention during method modification and execution that affect the ruggedness of the methods. The methods presented here employ gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either flame photometric detection (FPD) or electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with isotopic dilution quantification. The limits of detection were reported from 0.10ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-FPD), while the limits of quantification were reported from 0.25ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-MS), for all six common DAP metabolites (i.e., dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate). Each method showed a relative recovery range of 94-119% (for GC-FPD) and 92-103% (for GC-MS), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 20%. Cross-validation was performed on the same set of urine samples (n=46) collected from pregnant women residing in the agricultural areas of northern Thailand. The results from split sample analysis from both laboratories agreed well for each metabolite, suggesting that each method can produce

  15. A candidate reference method for the determination of uric acid in serum based on high performance liquid chromatography, compared with an isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer method.

    PubMed

    Kock, R; Delvoux, B; Tillmanns, U; Greiling, H

    1989-03-01

    A method based on isocratic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at 292 nm is proposed as a candidate reference method for the determination of uric acid. Data obtained by this method are compared with those from an isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method (ID-GC-MS), using [1,3-15N2]uric acid as internal standard and selected mass detection at m/z = 456 and m/z = 458. The inaccuracy of the ID-GC-MS method is maximally 0.4% for NBS-SRM-909 control sera with a concentration of 483 mumol/l. The coefficient of variation between days is 0.26%-0.80% and 0.37-0.90% for 14 control sera from other suppliers. The maximum bias of the HPLC method is 0.6%, and the coefficient of variation between days is 0.31%-0.65% for NBS-SRM-909 control sera. The coefficient of variation between days for the other 14 control sera tested is 0.35%-0.66%. Comparison of the HPLC method with the reference ID-GC-MS method resulted in a coefficient of correlation of r = 0.9998 (n = 14). The concentration of uric acid in the tested control sera ranged from 160 to 624 mumol/l. PMID:2651552

  16. Method to Determine Oxalate in High-Level Sludge by Ion Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    2002-12-19

    The Sludge Batch 3 macrobatch feed to the DWPF is expected to contain a relatively high concentration of oxalate. A simple acid addition at room temperature has been shown to be in high-level sludge. This sample preparation requires only about five minutes and yields solutions suitable for oxalate determinations by ion chromatography.

  17. Development of a rapid diagnostic method for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial resistance in positive blood culture bottles using a PCR-DNA-chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Takeya; Miyagi, Chihiro; Tamaki, Yoshikazu; Mizuno, Takuya; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    Blood culturing and the rapid reporting of results are essential for infectious disease clinics to obtain bacterial information that can affect patient prognosis. When gram-positive coccoid cells are observed in blood culture bottles, it is important to determine whether the strain is Staphylococcus aureus and whether the strain has resistance genes, such as mecA and blaZ, for proper antibiotic selection. Previous work led to the development of a PCR method that is useful for rapid identification of bacterial species and antimicrobial susceptibility. However, that method has not yet been adopted in community hospitals due to the high cost and methodological complexity. We report here the development of a quick PCR and DNA-chromatography test, based on single-tag hybridization chromatography, that permits detection of S. aureus and the mecA and blaZ genes; results can be obtained within 1 h for positive blood culture bottles. We evaluated this method using 42 clinical isolates. Detection of S. aureus and the resistance genes by the PCR-DNA-chromatography method was compared with that obtained via the conventional identification method and actual antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Our method had a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 100% for the identification of the bacterial species. For the detection of the mecA gene of S. aureus, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 95.2%. For the detection of the blaZ gene of S. aureus, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 88.9%. The speed and simplicity of this PCR-DNA-chromatography method suggest that our method will facilitate rapid diagnoses. PMID:27056092

  18. Simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for formaldehyde determination in human tissue through derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Bilal; Asci, Ali; Kucukoglu, Kaan; Albayrak, Mevlut

    2016-08-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the determination of formaldehyde in human tissue. FA Formaldehyde was derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. It was extracted from human tissue with ethyl acetate by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 5.0-200 μg/mL. Intra- and interday precision values for formaldehyde in tissue were <6.9%, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 6.5%. The extraction recoveries of formaldehyde from human tissue were between 88 and 98%. The limits of detection and quantification of formaldehyde were 1.5 and 5.0 μg/mL, respectively. Also, this assay was applied to liver samples taken from a biopsy material. PMID:27291155

  19. Methods for studying reaction kinetics in gas chromatography, exemplified by using the 1-chloro-2,2-dimethylaziridine interconversion reaction.

    PubMed

    Krupcík, J; Mydlová, J; Májek, P; Simon, P; Armstrong, D W

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, methods are described that are used for studying first-order reaction kinetics by gas chromatography. Basic theory is summarized and illustrated using the interconversion of 1-chloro-2,2-dimethylaziridine enantiomers as a representative example. For the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic activation data of interconversion the following methods are reviewed: (i) classical kinetic methods where samples of batch-wise kinetic studies are analyzed by enantioselective gas chromatography, (ii) stopped-flow methods performed on one chiral column, (iii) stopped-flow methods performed on an achiral column or empty capillary coupled in series with two chiral columns, (iv) on-flow method performed on an achiral column coupled in series with two chiral columns, and (v) reaction gas chromatography, known as a dynamic gas chromatography, where the interconversion is performed on chiral column during the separation process. The determination of kinetic and thermodynamic activation data by methods (i) through (iv) is straightforward as the experimental data needed for the evaluation (particularly the concentration of reaction constituents) are accessible from the chromatograms. The evaluation of experiments from reaction chromatography method (v) is complex as the concentration bands of reaction constituents are overlapped. The following procedures have been developed to determination peak areas of reaction constituents in such complex chromatograms: (i) methods based on computer-assisted simulations of chromatograms where the kinetic activation parameters for the interconversion of enantiomers are obtained by iterative comparison of experimental and simulated chromatograms, (ii) stochastic methods based on the simulation of Gaussian distribution functions and using a time-dependent probability density function, (iii) approximation function and unified equation, (iv) computer-assisted peak deconvolution methods. Evaluation of the experimental data permits

  20. A gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detection method for helium detection in postmortem blood and tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Jason E; Karas, Roman P; Marinetti, Laureen

    2012-03-01

    In cases of death by inert gas asphyxiation, it can be difficult to obtain toxicological evidence supporting assignment of a cause of death. Because of its low mass and high diffusivity, and its common use as a carrier gas, helium presents a particular challenge in this respect. We describe a rapid and simple gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detection method to qualitatively screen a variety of postmortem biological specimens for the presence of helium. Application of this method is demonstrated with three case examples, encompassing an array of different biological matrices. PMID:22337780

  1. Postcolumn derivatization method for determination of reducing and phosphorylated sugars in chicken by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aliani, Michel; Farmer, Linda J

    2002-05-01

    A postcolumn derivatization method is described for determination of reducing sugars and phosphorylated reducing sugars from chicken meat and other foods using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing sugars are extracted with ethanol/water, separated on a Kromasil amine-bonded column by isocratic analysis using acetonitrile/water as the mobile phase, and, after postcolumn reaction with tetrazolium blue, are determined by the resulting absorbance at 550 nm. Phosphorylated sugars are first dephosphorylated using alkaline phosphatase and then determined by the same method. PMID:11982395

  2. Size exclusion chromatography: an improved method to harvest Corynebacterium glutamicum cells for the analysis of cytosolic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Persicke, Marcus; Plassmeier, Jens; Neuweger, Heiko; Rückert, Christian; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2011-07-10

    The efficient separation of Corynebacterium glutamicum cells from culture medium by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is presented. Residue analysis demonstrated that this method effectively depletes extracellular compounds. For evaluation, SEC was compared with the common methods cold methanol treatment, fast centrifugation and fast filtration. For this purpose, samples of C. glutamicum cells from fermenter cultures were harvested and subjected to a metabolome analysis. In particular, the wild type strain C. glutamicum ATCC13032 and the lysine production strain C. glutamicum DM1730 were grown in a minimal or in a complex medium. Comparison of metabolite pool sizes after harvesting C. glutamicum cells by the methods mentioned above by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that SEC is the most suitable method when intracellular metabolite pools are to be measured during growth in complex media or in the presence of significant amounts of secreted metabolites. In contrast to the other methods tested, the SEC method turned out to be fast and able to remove extracellular compounds almost completely. PMID:20817050

  3. PDZ Affinity Chromatography: A general method for affinity purification of proteins based on PDZ domains and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Walkup, Ward G.; Kennedy, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    PDZ (PSD-95, DiscsLarge, ZO1) domains function in nature as protein binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise ~ 90 residues and make specific, high affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, with other PDZ domains, and with phospholipids. We hypothesized that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands would make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. Here we describe a novel affinity chromatography method applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We created a series of affinity resins comprised of PDZ domains from the scaffold protein PSD-95, or from neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), coupled to solid supports. We used them to purify heterologously expressed neuronal proteins or protein domains containing endogenous PDZ domain ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands. We show that Proteins of Interest (POIs) lacking endogenous PDZ domain ligands can be engineered as fusion products containing C-terminal PDZ domain ligand peptides or internal, N- or C-terminal PDZ domains and then can be purified by the same method. Using this method, we recovered recombinant GFP fused to a PDZ-domain ligand in active form as verified by fluorescence yield. Similarly, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and β-Galactosidase (LacZ) fused to a C-terminal PDZ domain ligand or an N-terminal PDZ domain were purified in active form as assessed by enzymatic assay. In general, PDZ domains and ligands derived from PSD-95 were superior to those from nNOS for this method. PDZ Domain Affinity Chromatography promises to be a versatile and effective method for purification of a wide variety of natural and recombinant proteins. PMID:24607360

  4. Validation Thin Layer Chromatography for the Determination of Acetaminophen in Tablets and Comparison with a Pharmacopeial Method

    PubMed Central

    Pyka, Alina; Budzisz, Marika; Dołowy, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption thin layer chromatography (NP-TLC) with densitometry has been established for the identification and the quantification of acetaminophen in three leading commercial products of pharmaceutical tablets coded as brand: P1 (Product no. 1), P2 (Product no. 2), and P3 (Product no. 3). Applied chromatographic conditions have separated acetaminophen from its related substances, namely, 4-aminophenol and and 4′-chloroacetanilide. UV densitometry was performed in absorbance mode at 248 nm. The presented method was validated by specificity, range, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection limit, quantitative limit, and robustness. The TLC-densitometric method was also compared with a pharmacopeial UV-spectrophotometric method for the assay of acetaminophen, and the results confirmed statistically that the NP-TLC-densitometric method can be used as a substitute method. It could be said that the validated NP-TLC-densitometric method is suitable for the routine analysis of acetaminophen in quantity control laboratories. PMID:24063006

  5. METHOD 332.0: DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN DRINKING WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method is applicable to the identification and quantitation of perchlorate in raw and finished drinking waters. The approach used is ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IC-ESI/MS)

  6. Photo-ionisation mass spectrometry as detection method for gas chromatography. Optical selectivity and multidimensional comprehensive separations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Welthagen, Werner; Gröger, Thomas

    2008-03-14

    Mass spectrometry (MS) with soft ionisation techniques (i.e. ionisation without fragmentation of the analyte molecules) for gaseous samples exhibits interesting analytical properties for direct analysis applications (i.e. direct inlet mass spectrometric on-line monitoring) as well as mass spectrometric detection method for gas chromatography (GC-MS). Commonly either chemical ionisation (CI) or field ionisation (FI) is applied as soft ionisation technology for GC-MS. An interesting alternative to the CI and FI technologies methods are photo-ionisation (PI) methods. PI overcomes some of the limitations of CI and FI and furthermore add some unique analytical properties. The resonance enhanced multi-photon ionisation (REMPI) method uses intense UV-laser pulses (wavelength range approximately 350-193 nm) for highly selective, sensitive and soft ionisation of predominately aromatic compounds. The single photon ionisation (SPI) method utilises VUV light (from lamps or laser sources, wavelengths range approximately 150-110 nm) can be used for a universal soft ionisation of organic molecules. In this article the historical development as well as the current status and concepts of gas chromatography hyphenated to photo-ionisation mass spectrometry are reviewed. PMID:17915237

  7. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine phthalate and organophosphate esters from air samples.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M; Borrull, F; Marcé, R M

    2013-08-16

    A method based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has been developed to determine four organophosphate esters, seven phthalate esters, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in the gas phase from harbour and urban air samples. The method involves the sampling of 1.5L of air in a Tenax TA sorbent tube followed by thermal desorption (using a Tenax TA cryogenic trap) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD (n=3) is less than 15% and the MQLs are between 0.007μgm(-3) (DMP, TBP, BBP, TPP and DnOP) and 6.7μgm(-3) (DEHP). The method was successfully applied in two areas (urban and harbour) testing two and three points in each one, respectively. Some of these compounds were found in both urban and harbour samples. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was the most abundant compound found in both areas at concentration levels between 6.7μgm(-3) and 136.4μgm(-3). This study demonstrates that thermal desorption is an efficient method for the determination of these semi-volatile compounds in the gas phase fraction of air samples. PMID:23859797

  8. Fast HPLC method using ion-pair and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography for determination of phenylephrine in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Dousa, Michal; Gibala, Petr

    2010-01-01

    A rapid procedure based on a direct extraction and HPLC determination with fluorescence detection of phenylephrine in pharmaceutical sachets that include a large excess of paracetamol (65 + 1, w/w), ascorbic acid (5 + 1, w/w), and other excipients (aspartame and sucrose) was developed and validated. The final optimized chromatographic method for ion-pair chromatography used an XTerra RP18 column, 3 microm particle size, 50 x 3.0 mm id. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (10 mM sodium octane-1-sulfonate, adjusted with H3PO4 to pH 2.2; 200 + 800, v/v), with a constant flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The separation was carried out at 30 degrees C, and the injection volume was 3 microL. Fluorescence detection was performed at excitation and emission wavelengths of 275 and 310 nm, respectively. The mobile phase parameters, such as the organic solvent fraction (acetonitrile) in mobile phase as an organic modifier, the concentration of sodium octane-1-sulfonate as a counter-ion, temperature, and pH of mobile phase, were studied. As an alternative to ion-pair chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was investigated using a Luna HILIC column, 3 microm, 100 x 4.6 mm id. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and buffer (5 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, adjusted with H3PO4 to pH 2.5; 750 + 250, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The separation was carried out at 25 degrees C, and the injection volume was 5 microL. The proposed method has an advantage of a very simple sample pretreatment, and is much faster than the currently utilized HPLC methods using gradient elution and UV detection. Commercial samples of sachets were successfully analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. PMID:21140654

  9. Determination of (R)-timolol in (S)-timolol maleate active pharmaceutical ingredient: validation of a new supercritical fluid chromatography method with an established normal phase liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Marley, Adrian; Connolly, Damian

    2014-01-17

    An enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method was developed and validated to meet the current European Pharmacopoeia requirements of a limit test for the determination of S-timolol maleate enantiomeric purity in timolol maleate drug substance. The developed method is presented as an alternative to the current normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) method described in the European Pharmacopoeia (Timolol Maleate Monograph). Using a 4.6mm×250mm Chiralcel OD-H (dp: 5μm) column and a mobile phase of (93:7) CO2/0.1% (v/v) TEA in MeOH delivered at 4.0mLmin(-1) resolution of 2.0 was achieved within 5min, representing a 3-fold reduction in run-time and an 11-fold reduction in solvent consumption relative to the NP-HPLC method. Method robustness was examined by the variation of flow rate (±0.5mLmin(-1)), column temperature (±5°C) and column back-pressure (±10bar) and resolution was maintained at ≥1.9 in all cases. R-timolol was resolved from all potential impurities and the limit of detection was improved by increasing the sample concentration threefold compared to the NP-HPLC method such that the method could detect the R-timolol enantiomer at 0.5% (w/w) with respect to S-timolol maleate. Additional validation parameters demonstrated that the potential of the method to be used for routine release testing of timolol maleate raw material for drug product manufacturing in which the quantitation of R-timolol impurity in S-timolol maleate drug substance would be a requirement. PMID:24377734

  10. Method for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in natural water using ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinton, Terry I.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography was used for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate and sulfate in natural water where concentrations ranged from a detection limit of 0.02 milligrams per liter to 80 milligrams per liter for chloride, to 18 milligrams per liter for nitrate, and to 280 milligrams per liter for sulfate. Specific conductance was the mode of detection used. Three analytical sample size loops of 11, 61, and 250 microliters, were used to include the analytical ranges described. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples were analyzed to test the precision and accuracy of the analyses.

  11. Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis: a comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry methods in an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Anat; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Ebert, Karin; Laskov, Christine; Hunkeler, Daniel; Jeannottat, Simon; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Laaks, Jens; Jochmann, Maik A; Cretnik, Stefan; Jager, Johannes; Haderlein, Stefan B; Schmidt, Torsten C; Aravena, Ramon; Elsner, Martin

    2011-10-15

    Chlorine isotope analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) is of emerging demand because these species are important environmental pollutants. Continuous flow analysis of noncombusted TCE molecules, either by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) or by GC/quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/qMS), was recently brought forward as innovative analytical solution. Despite early implementations, a benchmark for routine applications has been missing. This study systematically compared the performance of GC/qMS versus GC/IRMS in six laboratories involving eight different instruments (GC/IRMS, Isoprime and Thermo MAT-253; GC/qMS, Agilent 5973N, two Agilent 5975C, two Thermo DSQII, and one Thermo DSQI). Calibrations of (37)Cl/(35)Cl instrument data against the international SMOC scale (Standard Mean Ocean Chloride) deviated between instruments and over time. Therefore, at least two calibration standards are required to obtain true differences between samples. Amount dependency of δ(37)Cl was pronounced for some instruments, but could be eliminated by corrections, or by adjusting amplitudes of standards and samples. Precision decreased in the order GC/IRMS (1σ ≈ 0.1‰), to GC/qMS (1σ ≈ 0.2-0.5‰ for Agilent GC/qMS and 1σ ≈ 0.2-0.9‰ for Thermo GC/qMS). Nonetheless, δ(37)Cl values between laboratories showed good agreement when the same external standards were used. These results lend confidence to the methods and may serve as a benchmark for future applications. PMID:21851081

  12. Stability-indicating High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Aminophylline and Chlorpheniramine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A.; Ahmed, M.; Mahmud, T.; Qadir, M. A.; Nadeem, K.; Saleem, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the development and validation of method for simultaneous determination of antihistaminic drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. A precise, specific and accurate reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous measurement of aminophylline and chlorpheniramine maleate was developed. The separation of drugs was achieved on C-18 (5 μm, 250×4.6 mm) high-performance liquid chromatography column. The runtime for analysis was 10 min. Mobile phase is mixture containing dilute H2SO4:methanol (60:40% v/v) with flow rate adjusted at 1.5 ml/min. The detection of components was performed at a wavelength of 264 nm. Retention times of aminophylline and chlorphinramine maleate were found to be 2.00 and 3.25 min, respectively. Linearity was found in the range of 16-24 μg/ml for chlorpheniramine maleate and 102.4-153.6 μg/ml for aminophylline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 and 0.9996, respectively. High peak purity index of 99.99% indicated the complete separation of analytes in the presence of degradation products is justification of method stability. Linearity, accuracy, specificity, precision and robustness studies were performed for method validation. PMID:26798164

  13. A practical gas chromatography flame ionization detection method for the determination of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane in silicone emulsions.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Herbert M; Bovens, Eric; Bruni, Antonio; Habitz, Tanya M; Hamachi, Tadashi; Han, Yuanhua; Ji, Zhouhua; Kerbleski, Joel J; Letouche, Claude; Lu, Yi Dong; Nguyen, Regis; Rivard, Michelle L; Qi, Xiaoman; Shoji, Miki; Tanaka, Ken; Tecklenburg, Ronald E

    2016-04-01

    A gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method for analysis of D4, D5, and D6 cyclic siloxanes in silicone emulsions is described. Sample preparation involves breaking the emulsion with methanol and hexanes, and then analyzing the hexanes phase after derivatization with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Silylation is performed to reduce the potential for formation of cyclic siloxanes during the course of the GC analysis. The accuracy of the method was verified by performing analyses on samples spiked with known levels of D4, D5 and D6 and by comparison to a referee method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (APCI-LC-MS). Absolute differences of the results obtained between the two techniques were 0.03 weight percent or less, and relative differences were 15% or less. The reproducibility and ruggedness of the method was demonstrated by performing a global round robin test at four different geographic sites on four different types of silicone emulsions. The %RSDs obtained were less than 10% for all analytes and all emulsions examined. PMID:26968230

  14. Stability-indicating High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Aminophylline and Chlorpheniramine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Ahmed, M; Mahmud, T; Qadir, M A; Nadeem, K; Saleem, A

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the development and validation of method for simultaneous determination of antihistaminic drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. A precise, specific and accurate reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous measurement of aminophylline and chlorpheniramine maleate was developed. The separation of drugs was achieved on C-18 (5 μm, 250×4.6 mm) high-performance liquid chromatography column. The runtime for analysis was 10 min. Mobile phase is mixture containing dilute H2SO4:methanol (60:40% v/v) with flow rate adjusted at 1.5 ml/min. The detection of components was performed at a wavelength of 264 nm. Retention times of aminophylline and chlorphinramine maleate were found to be 2.00 and 3.25 min, respectively. Linearity was found in the range of 16-24 μg/ml for chlorpheniramine maleate and 102.4-153.6 μg/ml for aminophylline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 and 0.9996, respectively. High peak purity index of 99.99% indicated the complete separation of analytes in the presence of degradation products is justification of method stability. Linearity, accuracy, specificity, precision and robustness studies were performed for method validation. PMID:26798164

  15. Ion chromatography as highly suitable method for rapid and accurate determination of antibiotic fosfomycin in pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Xie, Xiaolin; Song, Yonghui; Liu, Ruixia; Zhu, Chaowei; Galarneau, Anne; Pic, Jean-Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and accurate ion chromatography (IC) method (limit of detection as low as 0.06 mg L(-1)) for fosfomycin concentration determination in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater was developed. This method was compared with the performance of high performance liquid chromatography determination (with a high detection limit of 96.0 mg L(-1)) and ultraviolet spectrometry after reacting with alizarin (difficult to perform in colored solutions). The accuracy of the IC method was established in the linear range of 1.0-15.0 mg L(-1) and a linear correlation was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The recoveries of fosfomycin from industrial pharmaceutical wastewater at spiking concentrations of 2.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mg L(-1) ranged from 81.91 to 94.74%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1 to 4%. The recoveries of effluent from a sequencing batch reactor treated fosfomycin with activated sludge at spiking concentrations of 5.0, 8.0, 10.0 mg L(-1) ranging from 98.25 to 99.91%, with a RSD from 1 to 2%. The developed IC procedure provided a rapid, reliable and sensitive method for the determination of fosfomycin concentration in industrial pharmaceutical wastewater and samples containing complex components. PMID:24845315

  16. Applying Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jessie W.; Patev, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Presents three experiments to introduce students to different kinds of chromatography: (1) paper chromatography; (2) gel filtration chromatography; and (3) reverse-phase liquid chromatography. Written in the form of a laboratory manual, explanations of each of the techniques, materials needed, procedures, and a glossary are included. (PVD)

  17. Unexpected observation of ion suppression in a liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric bioanalytical method.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Tim; Spence, Mike; Sinclair, Peta; Payne, Richard; Smith, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Ion suppression is a well-known phenomenon in electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry. These suppression effects have been shown to adversely affect the accuracy and precision of quantitative bioanalytical methods using ion spray. Such suppression effects have not been as well defined in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and there is some debate whether these effects actually occur in the ionization process using APCI. Here an example is described where clear ion suppression was observed during studies on a model compound and three metabolites using APCI liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). PMID:15174192

  18. Methods of Analysis - Determination of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Water and Sediment Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for the determination of 14 pyrethroid insecticides in environmental water and sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in response to increasing concern over the effects of pyrethroids on aquatic organisms. The pyrethroids included in this method are ones that are applied to many agricultural and urban areas. Filtered water samples are extracted for pyrethroids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a microwave-assisted extraction system, and the pyrethroids of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences by passing the extracts through stacked graphitized carbon and alumina SPE cartridges, along with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography (HPLC/GPC). Quantification of the pyrethroids from the extracted water and sediment samples is done using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 10 ng/L ranged from 83 to 107 percent, and recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 ug/kg ranged from 82 to 101 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 9 percent in the water samples and 3 to 9 percent in the sediment samples. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), in water ranged from 2.0 to 6.0 ng/L using GC/MS and 0.5 to 1.0 ng/L using GC/MS/MS. For sediment, the MDLs ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS and 0.2 to 0.5 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS/MS. The matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged for 12 environmental water samples, ranged from 84 to 96 percent, and when averaged for 27 environmental sediment samples, ranged from 88 to 100 percent.

  19. Portable system and method combining chromatography and array of electrochemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon; Stetter, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable system for analyzing a fluid sample includes a small, portable, low-pressure and low-power chromatographic analyzer and a chemical parameter spectrometry monitor including an array of sensors for detecting, identifying and measuring the concentrations of a variety of components in the eluent from the chromatographic analyzer. The monitor includes one or more operating condition controllers which may be used to change one or more of the operating conditions during exposure of the sensors to the eluent from the chromatography analyzer to form a response pattern which is then compared with a library of previously established patterns. Gas and liquid chromatographic embodiments are disclosed. In the gas embodiment, the operating condition controllers include heated filaments which may convert electrochemically inactive components to electrochemically active products. In the liquid chromatography embodiment, low-power, liquid-phase equivalents of heated filaments are used with appropriate sensors. The library response patterns may be divided into subsets and the formed pattern may be assigned for comparison only with the patterns of a particular subset.

  20. Novel rapid liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry method for vemurafenib and metabolites in human plasma, including metabolite concentrations at steady state.

    PubMed

    Vikingsson, Svante; Strömqvist, Malin; Svedberg, Anna; Hansson, Johan; Höiom, Veronica; Gréen, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method for quantification of vemurafenib in human plasma, that also for the first time allows for metabolite semi-quantification, was developed and validated to support clinical trials and therapeutic drug monitoring. Vemurafenib was analysed by precipitation with methanol followed by a 1.9 min isocratic liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry analysis using an Acquity BEH C18 column with methanol and formic acid using isotope labelled internal standards. Analytes were detected in multireaction monitoring mode on a Xevo TQ. Semi-quantification of vemurafenib metabolites was performed using the same analytical system and sample preparation with gradient elution. The vemurafenib method was successfully validated in the range 0.5-100 μg/mL according to international guidelines. The metabolite method was partially validated owing to the lack of commercially available reference materials. For the first time concentration levels at steady state for melanoma patients treated with vemurafenib is presented. The low abundance of vemurafenib metabolites suggests that they lack clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683023

  1. Reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography method for purification of duplex DNA with single base pair resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Christina L.; Roemer, Sarah C.; Dostal, Vishantie; Barkley, Robert M.; Churchill, Mair E. A.; Malarkey, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining quantities of highly pure duplex DNA is a bottleneck in the biophysical analysis of protein–DNA complexes. In traditional DNA purification methods, the individual cognate DNA strands are purified separately before annealing to form DNA duplexes. This approach works well for palindromic sequences, in which top and bottom strands are identical and duplex formation is typically complete. However, in cases where the DNA is non-palindromic, excess of single-stranded DNA must be removed through additional purification steps to prevent it from interfering in further experiments. Here we describe and apply a novel reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography purification method for double-stranded DNA ranging in lengths from 17 to 51 bp. Both palindromic and non-palindromic DNA can be readily purified. This method has the unique ability to separate blunt double-stranded DNA from pre-attenuated (n-1, n-2, etc) synthesis products, and from DNA duplexes with single base pair overhangs. Additionally, palindromic DNA sequences with only minor differences in the central spacer sequence of the DNA can be separated, and the purified DNA is suitable for co-crystallization of protein–DNA complexes. Thus, double-stranded ion-pair liquid chromatography is a useful approach for duplex DNA purification for many applications. PMID:24013567

  2. [Study of fast pretreatment method in detection of melamine in liquid milk using liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Zou, Ming-Qiang; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Meng

    2014-03-01

    The present paper proposed for the first time the flocculation-filtration method for separation of interfering substances in milk, such as fat. In this method only two steps were carried out. Firstly, aluminum chloride (PAC, Al2 (OH)nCl6-n,) is used to flocculate the milk; Secondly, water filter was used to filter the mixture. Then the clear filtrate could be used for the detection of melamine. The whole preprocessing would not take more than one minute. The pretreatment process was optimized. Experiments show that the adding proportion of PAC should be about 2%-3% for best filtration efficiency, and that it would have the best flocculation effect when the mixture was mildly alkaline. High performance liquid chromatography experiments show that the melamine recovery of this method is more than 90%. Samples pretreated by the flocculation--filtration method were clearer and the baselines of spectral curve obtained by sensitizing Raman method were more smooth which means better purification compared to those samples pretreated by centrifugal pretreatment method. The pretreatment method proposed can be used in HPLC and Raman spectroscopy methods for rapid detecting melamine in liquid milk. This method shows better separation effect, simpler operation, and lower time and money cost than those pretreatment processes in the existing standard melamine detection method for milk. By use of this pretreatment method, the melamine rapid detection efficiency would be greatly improved. PMID:25208392

  3. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, D.

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  4. Development and Validation of an Affinity Chromatography-Protein G Method for IgG Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Paradina Fernández, Lesly; Calvo, Loany; Viña, Lisel

    2014-01-01

    Nimotuzumab, an IgG that recognizes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) overexpressed in some tumors, is used in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer. For the quantification of this protein in cell culture supernatants, protein G-HPLC affinity chromatography is used due to its high affinity and specificity for antibodies of this class. The technique relies on the comparison of the area under the curve of the elution peak of the samples to be evaluated versus to a calibration curve of well-known concentrations and was validated by assessment of its robustness, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and range. According to results of the study all validation parameters fulfilled the preestablished acceptance criteria and demonstrated the feasibility of the assay for the analysis of samples of cell culture supernatant as well as drug product. PMID:27379284

  5. Stable isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of thyroxine in saliva.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takuya; Shimizu, Chikara; Nagai, So; Inagaki, Shinsuke; Min, Jun Zhe; Chiba, Hitoshi; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2011-04-15

    A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of thyroxine (T(4)) in human saliva has been developed and validated. The saliva was deproteinized with methanol, purified using a Strata-X™ cartridge, and subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS. Quantification was based on selected reaction monitoring, and [(13)C(6)]-T(4) was used as the internal standard. This method allowed the reproducible (intra- and inter-assay relative standard deviations, <4.8%) and accurate (analytical recovery, 96.5-99.6%) quantification of the salivary T(4) using a 400 μl sample, and the limit of quantification was 25.0 pg/ml. A preliminary study using the developed method found that there is a diagnosable difference in the salivary T(4) concentration between the euthyroid subjects and the patients with Graves disease. PMID:21435959

  6. Rapid and sensitive method for analysis of nitrate in meat samples using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; ALOthman, Zeid A; Rafiquee, M Z A

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of nitrate in meat samples. Selected ion reaction (SIR) mode was adopted to identify and quantify the nitrate. Chromatographic analyses were performed on a BEH C-18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a surfactant (Cetylpyridinium chloride) and acetonitrile in equal ratio (50/50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL min(-1). The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the developed method was found to be 0.0599 and 0.1817 mg kg(-1), respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was checked in the concentration range of 0.5-10 mg kg(-1) with an excellent correlation coefficient (r) of 0.997. The recovery of the nitrate in the meat samples were in the range of 98.02-98.99%. PMID:26184470

  7. Novel immunoassay and rapid immunoaffinity chromatography method for the detection and selective extraction of naringin in Citrus aurantium.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huihua; Zhang, Yue; Qu, Baoping; Cheng, Jinjun; Liu, Shuchen; Feng, Shenglan; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Yan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a novel monoclonal antibody specific for naringin was prepared and characterized. Subsequently, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for naringin was developed, with an effective range from 4.8 to 156 ng/mL naringin. Next, an immunoaffinity column was obtained by coupling anti-naringin monoclonal antibodies to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and a rapid immunoaffinity chromatography assay for naringin was developed. The immunoaffinity column was used to separate naringin from Citrus aurantium. The results showed that 1 g of the dry Sepharose 4B can couple 10 mg of immunoglobulin G. And the immunoaffinity column can efficiently and specifically capture approximately 250 μg of naringin without cross reacting with its structurally similar compounds. Moreover, our results indicate that the application of immunoaffinity chromatography can simplify the pretreatment and the isolation process greatly compared to conventional methods, providing a potential method for extracting the target component from structurally similar compounds in natural products. PMID:26864564

  8. Biomonitoring method for bisphenol A in human urine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David J.; Brozek, Eric M.; Cox, Kyley J.; Porucznik, Christina A.; Wilkins, Diana G.

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of total bisphenol A in human urine was developed and validated. The method utilized liquid/liquid extraction with 1-chlorobutane and a human urine aliquot size of 800 µL. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC® system with a Kinetex® Phenyl-Hexyl column. Mass spectrometric analysis was with negative electrospray ionization on a Quattro Premier XE™. The surrogate matrix method was used for the preparation of calibration standards in synthetic urine due to the presence of BPA in control human urine. The validated calibration range was 0.75 to 20 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL. The internal standard was d16-bisphenol A. Method validation utilized quality control samples at three concentrations in both synthetic urine and human urine. Bisphenol A mono-glucuronide was fortified in synthetic urine in each analytical run to monitor the enzymatic conversion of the glucuronide conjugate to BPA by β-glucuronidase. Validated method parameters included linearity, accuracy, precision, integrity of dilution, selectivity, re-injection reproducibility, recovery/matrix effect, solution stability, and matrix stability in human urine. Acceptance criteria for analytical standards and QCs were ± 20% of nominal concentration. Matrix stability in human urine was validated after 24 hours at ambient temperature, after three freeze/thaw cycles, and after frozen storage at −20 °C and −80 °C for up to 218 days. The method has been applied to the analysis of over 1750 human urine samples from a biomonitoring study. The median and mean urine BPA concentrations were 2.71 ng/mL and 4.75 ng/mL, respectively. PMID:24594944

  9. A fast, simple, and reliable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method for the determination of ascorbic and isoascorbic acids.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana I R N A; Silva, Ana P; Gonçalves, Berta; Nunes, Fernando M

    2010-03-01

    A reliable method for the determination of total vitamin C must be able to resolve ascorbic acid (AA) and the epimeric isoascorbic acid (IAA) and determine the sum of AA and its oxidized form dehydroascorbic acid. AA and IAA are polar molecules with a low retention time in conventional reversed phase systems, and hence of difficult resolution. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography using a TSKgel Amide-80 stationary phase with isocratic elution was successful in resolving the two epimers. The column was compatible with injections of high concentrations of metaphosphoric acid, tris(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine, and EDTA without drift of baseline and retention time. Total AA and IAA were extracted, stabilized, and reduced in one step at 40 °C, using 5% m-phosphoric acid, 2 mM of EDTA, and 2 mM of tris(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine as reducing agent. This simple, fast, and robust hydrophilic interaction chromatography-DAD method was applied for the analysis of food products namely fruit juices, chestnut, and ham and also in pharmaceutical and multivitamin tablets. Method validation was performed on the food products, including parameters of precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection, and quantification (LOQ). The absence of matrix interferences was assessed by the standard addition method and Youden calibration. The method was fast, accurate, and precise with a LOQ(AA) of 1.5 mg/L and LOQ(IAA) of 3.7 mg/L. The simple experimental procedure, completed in 1 h, the possibility of using IAA as an internal standard, and low probability of artifacts are the major advantages of the proposed method for the routine determination of these compounds in a large number of samples. PMID:20091158

  10. Development of a sample preparation method for the analysis of current-use pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongli; Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been implicated as the cause of sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in both agricultural and urban areas of California; however, for a subset of these toxic sediments (approximately 30%), the cause of toxicity remains unidentified. This article describes the analytical method development for seven additional pesticides that are being examined to determine if they might play a role in the unexplained toxicity. A pressurized liquid extraction method was optimized to simultaneously extract diazinon, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, dicofol, fenpropathrin, pyraclostrobin, and indoxacarb from sediment, and the extracts were cleaned using a two-step solid-phase extraction procedure. The final extract was analyzed for the target pesticides by gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC/NPD), and gas chromatography/electron capture detector (GC/ECD), after sulfur was removed by shaking with copper and cold crystallization. Three sediments were used as reference matrices to assess method accuracy and precision. Method detection limits were 0.23-1.8 ng/g dry sediment using seven replicates of sediment spiked at 1.0 ng/g dry sediment. Recoveries ranged from 61.6 to 118% with relative standard deviations of 2.1-17% when spiked at 5.0 and 50 ng/g dry sediment. The three reference sediments, spiked with 50 ng/g dry weight of the pesticide mixture, were aged for 0.25, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days. Recoveries of the pesticides in the sediments generally decreased with increased aging time, but the magnitude of the decline was pesticide and sediment dependent. The developed method was applied to field-collected sediments from the Central Valley of California. PMID:19798461

  11. New method for caffeine quantification by planar chromatography coupled with electropray ionization mass spectrometry using stable isotope dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Mario; Morlock, Gertrud

    2007-01-01

    A new high-performance thin-layer chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPTLC/ESI-MS) method for the quantification of caffeine in pharmaceutical and energy drink samples was developed using stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA). After sample preparation, samples and caffeine standard were applied on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates and over-spotted with caffeine-d3 used for correction of the plunger positioning. After chromatography, densitometric detection was performed by UV absorption at 274 nm. The bands were then eluted by means of a plunger-based extractor into the ESI interface of a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer. For quantification by MS the [M+H]+ ions of caffeine and caffeine-d3 were recorded in the positive ion single ion monitoring (SIM) mode at m/z 195 and 198, respectively. The calibration showed a linear regression with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9998. The repeatability (RSD, n=6) in matrix wasmethod accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results obtained by HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS with those from the validated HPTLC/UV method. The results for pharmaceutical and energy drink samples were (ng/band) 99.82+/-3.75 and 338.09+/-4.87 by HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS and 104.74+/-1.51 and 334.86+/-5.63 by HPTLC/UV. According to the F-test (homogeneity of variances) and the t-test (comparison of means) the two methods show no significant difference. The detection and quantification limits were 75 and 250 microg L-1 (0.75 and 2.5 ng/band), respectively, which were a factor of 13 lower than those established for HPTLC/UV. The positioning error (RSD+/-6%) was calculated by comparing HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS with HPTLC/ESI-MS. However, using SIDA the positioning error was nullified. HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS was demonstrated to be a

  12. Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Method for the Rapid Identification of Citrus Limonoid Glucosides in Citrus Juices and Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method to screen citrus samples for limonoid glucosides and estimate their relative concentrations has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase, whereas previous methods have reli...

  13. Chromatography resin support

    DOEpatents

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  14. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers. PMID:25863610

  15. Preliminary validation of high performance liquid chromatography method for detection of methyl-testosterone residue in carp muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jie; Lin, Hong; Fu, Xiaoting; Li, Mingming

    2005-07-01

    The use of synthetic anabolic steroid methyltestosterone (MT) as growth promoter is prohibited in China. Validations of analytical methods for MT residue in food and the results obtained have become indispensable. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of MT with liquid-liquid extraction by trichloromethane-methanol in carp muscle tissue was preliminarily validated with reference to the following parameters: recovery (accuracy) at the 1, 5 and l0 mgkg-1 level, between-run and within-run CV values (repeatability, also called relative standard deviation (RSD)) and limit of detection. The recoveries were above 80% and the between-run and within-run CV values below 10% for muscle tissue. The limit of detection was 0.05 mgkg-1.

  16. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for analyzing extractable petroleum hydrocarbons in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Stacy K; Bandurski, Steven V; Brown, Robert G; McCurry, James D; Seeley, John V

    2007-01-01

    A flow-switching two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) apparatus has been constructed that can operate at temperatures as high as 340 degrees C. This system is employed to analyze complex hydrocarbon mixtures such as diesel fuel, gas-oil, motor oil, and petroleum contaminated environmental samples. The GCxGC system generates two-dimensional chromatograms with minimal overlap between the aliphatic and aromatic regions This allows these compound classes to be independently quantitated without prior fractionation. The GCxGC system is used to analyze extracts of spiked water samples, wastewater, and soil. The accuracy of the method is compared to that of the Massachusetts Extractable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (MA EPH) method. The GCxGC system generates a quantitative accuracy similar to the MA EPH method for the analysis of spiked water samples. The GCxGC method and the MA EPH method generate comparable levels of total hydrocarbons when wastewater is analyzed, but the GCxGC method detects a significantly higher aromatic content and lower aliphatic content. Both the GCxGC method and MA EPH method measure comparable levels of aromatics in the soil samples. PMID:18078573

  17. Measurement of hold-up volumes in reverse-phase liquid chromatography Definition and comparison between static and dynamic methods.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Kazakevich, Yuri; Guiochon, Georges

    2007-08-17

    The hold-up volumes, V(M) of two series of RPLC adsorbents were measured using three different approaches. The first method is based on the difference between the volumes of the empty column tube (150x4.6mm) and of the material packed inside the column. It is considered as giving the correct value of V(M). This method combines the results of the BET characterization of the adsorbent before packing (giving the specific pore volume), of carbon element analysis (giving the mass fraction of silica and alkyl bonded chains), of Helium pycnometry (providing silica density), and of inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) performed on the packed column (yielding the interparticle volume). The second method is static pycnometry, which consists in weighing the masses of the chromatographic column filled with two distinct solvents of different densities. The last method is based on the thermodynamic definition of the hold-up volume and uses the dynamic minor disturbance method (MDM) with binary eluents. The experimental results of these three non-destructive methods are compared. They exhibit significant, systematic differences. Pycnometry underestimates V(M) by a few percent for adsorbents having a high carbon content. The results of the MDM method depend strongly on the choice of the binary solution used and may underestimate or overestimate V(M). The hold-up volume V(M) of the RPLC adsorbents tested is best measured by the MDM method using a mixture of ethanol and water. PMID:17610882

  18. Development of analytical method for catechol compounds in mouse urine using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Takahiro; Isokawa, Muneki; Funatsu, Takashi; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2015-03-15

    An analytical method for catecholamines and related compounds using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with native fluorescence detection has been developed. We found that ZIC-cHILIC with phosphorylcholine was suitable for the separation of catechol compounds with good peak shapes among six different HILIC columns (Inertsil SIL, Inertsil Amide, Inertsil Diol, TSKgel NH2-100, ZIC-HILIC, and ZIC-cHILIC). Using ZIC-cHILIC, eight catechol compounds (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, and internal standard 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine) were separated within 15min. The limit of detection at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 3-28nM. An improved sensitivity was obtained as compared to that of reversed-phase liquid chromatography. This was partly attributed to the increase in the fluorescence intensity of the catechol compounds in the acetonitrile-rich mobile phase. Solid phase extraction using a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column with phenylboronate moieties, which have affinity to catechol compounds, was performed for the selective extraction of catechol compounds from mouse urine. Dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol were successfully quantified in mouse urine. PMID:25682335

  19. Analysis of lipids by gas-liquid chromatography and complementary methods in four strains of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Novak, R J

    1985-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of total lipids, neutral lipids and phospholipids of strains of Aedes aegypti were determined. The fatty acid composition of the strains differed quantitatively with regard to the relative percentage of commonly occurring fatty acids. Gas-liquid chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters showed 18:1 (oleic or elaidic) to be the predominant fatty acid. The fatty acid was identified as oleic by argentation thin-layer chromatography. A modified colorimetric method was used to determine tissue-free fatty acids. The lipids were predominantly triacylglycerol with lesser amounts of free fatty acids and decreasing amount of sterol ester, sterol, monoacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and hydrocarbons. The data show considerable lipid differences between the Caribbean strains (Les Cayes, Haiti, and San Juan, Puerto Rico) and the Jakarta (Indonesia) strain. The Shimba Hills (Kenya) strain was more similar to Jakarta than to the Caribbean strains. The results obtained with the different strains are discussed in relation to the established oral susceptibility to Dengue 1 and Dengue 2, yellow fever, and genetic analysis by isoenzyme studies. PMID:4017543

  20. Determination of perchlorate in drinking water by ion chromatography using macrocycle-based concentration and separation methods.

    PubMed

    Lamb, John D; Simpson, David; Jensen, Bryce D; Gardner, Joseph S; Peterson, Quinn P

    2006-06-16

    Macrocycle-based ion chromatography provides a convenient, reliable method for the determination of perchlorate ion, which is currently of great interest to the environmental community. This study shows that effective perchlorate determinations can be made using standard conductimetric detection by combining an 18-crown-6-based mobile phase with an underivatized reversed-phase mobile phase ion chromatography (MPIC) column. One unique feature of this method is the flexibility in column capacity that is achieved through simple variations in eluent concentrations of 18-crown-6 and KOH, facilitating the separation of target analyte anions such as perchlorate. Using a standard anion exchange column as concentrator makes possible the determination of perchlorate as low as 0.2 ug/L in low ionic strength matrices. Determination of perchlorate at the sub-ug/L level in pure water and in spiked local city hard water samples with high background ion concentrations can be achieved this way. However, like other IC techniques, this method is challenged to achieve analyses at the ug/L level in the demanding high ionic strength matrix described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1,000 mg/L chloride, sulfate and carbonate). We approached this challenge by use of the Cryptand C1 concentrator column, provided by Dionex Corporation, to effectively preconcentrate perchlorate while reducing background ion concentrations in the high ionic strength matrix. The retention characteristics of the concentrator column were studied in order to maximize its effectiveness for perchlorate determinations. The method makes possible the determination of perchlorate at the 5 ug/L level in the highest ionic strength matrix described by the EPA. PMID:16516902

  1. A novel liquid chromatography method using diode-array detector for the determination of oleuropein in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Tiziana; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia; Andreatta, Paolo; Gatti, Rita

    2016-09-10

    A simple and fast chromatographic method using ultraviolet diode-array detector (UV-DAD) was developed for the automatic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of the title of oleuropein in a new dietary supplements in form of effervescent granules. The chromatographic separations were performed on a C18 core-shell column with detection at λ=232nm. The mobile phase consisted of deionized water with 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile under gradient conditions at a flow-rate of 0.8mL/min. Oleuropein and oleuroside present in the raw material were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The validation of the analytical procedure has been performed determining the following parameters: specificity, linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), stability of the standard and sample solutions. Linear response was observed in fortified placebo solutions (determination coefficient: 0.9998). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤5.0% for peak area and for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) was about 5μg/mL and 9pmol/inject. Oleuropein recovery studies gave good results (99.9%) with a R.S.D. of 0.5%. The speed of analysis and the stability of the solutions with a fluctuation Δ (%) ≤2.0 at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of many samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by using an autosampler. The developed method is suitable for the quality control of oleuropein in raw material and industrial products. The method can be applied in any analytical laboratory not requiring a sophisticated instrumentation. PMID:27429369

  2. A novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquids by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xin, Li-Ping; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Hui-Chao; Barnes, Donald G

    2014-09-01

    This work demonstrates a novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquid (polymer-enriched) samples. The method is based multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) on a headspace vial at a temperature above boiling point of water. Thus, the trend of water loss from the tested liquid due to evaporation can be followed. With the limited MHE-GC testing (e.g., 5 extractions) and a one-point calibration procedure (i.e., recording the weight difference before and after analysis), the total amount of water in the sample can be determined, from which the total solid contents in the liquid can be calculated. A number of black liquors were analyzed by the new method which yielded results that closely matched those of the reference method; i.e., the results of these two methods differed by no more than 2.3%. Compared with the reference method, the MHE-GC method is much simpler and more practical. Therefore, it is suitable for the rapid determination of the solid content in many polymer-containing liquid samples. PMID:25064534

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography method for ferric iron chelators using a post-column reaction with Calcein Blue.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Tomoko; Ito, Kyoko; Imura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Etsuro

    2015-03-15

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for higher plants, which take it up from the soil at the root surface and transport it to shoots through the xylem. Fe(III) chelators, such as organic acids and phytosiderophores, play important roles in the acquisition and transportation of Fe(III). Therefore, a selective and sensitive method for analyzing Fe(III) chelators is required to study the many Fe-related physiological mechanisms in plants. A novel analytical approach employing a high-performance liquid chromatography post-column method with fluorescence detection was developed to separate and detect Fe(III) chelators. This method takes advantage of the quenching of the fluorescence of Calcein Blue (CB) that occurs with the formation of an Fe(III)-CB complex and the dequenching that occurs with the release of CB as a result of competition for Fe(III) between CB and an Fe(III) chelator. This simple experimental method does not require complicated pretreatments and can selectively detect Fe(III) chelators according to their Fe(III)-chelating ability. The detection limit for citric acid using this method was 72pmol. Furthermore, this method can also detect unknown Fe(III) chelators that exhibit a high affinity for Fe(III). The method was evaluated with xylem sap of barley, which was shown to contain several Fe(III) chelators. PMID:25658515

  4. A validated high performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of thymol and carvacrol in Thymus vulgaris L. volatile oil

    PubMed Central

    Hajimehdipoor, H.; Shekarchi, M.; Khanavi, M.; Adib, N.; Amri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant that contains important compounds such as thymol and carvacrol and it has been used in many pharmaceutical dosage forms. Thymol and carvacrol in essential oils are often quantified by gas chromatography (GC) technique but in this work, a validated and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the analysis of these two components in T. vulgaris essential oil. The essential oil of the plant was analyzed by HPLC and GC techniques. The HPLC system consisted of ACE C18 column and an isocratic acetonitrile:water (50:50) as the mobile phase which was kept at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity (r2 > 0.997 for both thymol and carvacrol), precision (intra-day 0.8-1.9, 1.7-2.6; and inter-day 3.5-4.5, 3.6-4.7) and recovery (97.7%, 97.6%) for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantization (LOQs) were calculated to be 2.8, 0.6 µg/ml and 8.6, 1.8 µg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The GC system consisted of flame ionization detector (FID) and CP-SIL 8 column. The concentrations of thymol and carvacrol in essential oil obtained by HPLC (41.2%, 4.3%) and GC (40.7%, 4.2%) were compared by statistical methods and they showed good agreement. PMID:20931071

  5. Sensitive method for detection of cocaine and associated analytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in urine.

    PubMed

    Langman, Loralie J; Bjergum, Matthew W; Williamson, Christopher L; Crow, Frank W

    2009-10-01

    Cocaine (COC) is a potent CNS stimulant that is metabolized to benzoylecgonine (BE) and further metabolized to minor metabolites such as m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (m-HOBE). COC is also metabolized to norcocaine (NC). Cocaethylene (CE) is formed when cocaine and ethyl alcohol are used simultaneously. Anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) is a unique marker following smoked cocaine, and anhydroecgonine ethyl ester (AEEE) is found in cocaine smokers who also use ethyl alcohol. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the detection and quantitation of COC, BE, NC, CE, m-HOBE, AEME, and AEEE in urine. Two hundred samples previously analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with MS were extracted using solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a gradient consisting of mobile phase A [20 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.7)] and mobile phase B (methanol/acetonitrile, 50:50), an XDB-C(8) (50 x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) column and a flow rate of 270 microL/min. Concentrations were calculated by comparing the peak-area with the internal standard and plotted against a standard curve. The assay displayed linearity from 1.0 to 100 ng/mL. Within- and between-run coefficients of variation were < 10% throughout the linear range. A method comparison between GC-MS and LC-MS-MS showed good correlation for COC (r(2) = 0.982) and BE (r(2) = 0.955). We report here on a sensitive method to identify clinically and forensically relevant cocaine and associated analytes at concentrations as low as 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:19874651

  6. A simple and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of aflatoxin B₁ in feed.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, A; Dall'Asta, C

    2014-01-01

    A chromatographic method is proposed for the analysis of aflatoxin B1 in cereal-based feed, particularly targeted to dairy animals. The method is based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by a Mycosep 226 clean-up. Accuracy and precision were established at the LOQ (1 µg kg⁻¹) with a spiked sample as well as with two other different naturally contaminated reference materials. The mean overall recovery (n = 18) was 100.8%, with a confidence interval of 2.7% and a CV% of 5.5%. The performance of the proposed method was compared with the AOAC method based on the use of immunoaffinity chromatography columns, proving that it could be considered a valid alternative. Moreover, the sample preparation is very simple and straightforward, potentially being applicable as a high-throughput method. On account of its simplicity and low cost, the method may be applied to the analysis of a large number of samples in the occasion of outbreaks of large-scale contamination. PMID:25207983

  7. Development of an Ion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Organic Anions (Fumarate, Oxalate, Succinate, and Tartrate) in Single Chromatographic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kaviraj, Yarbagi; Srikanth, B.; Moses Babu, J.; Venkateswara Rao, B.; Paul Douglas, S.

    2015-01-01

    A single organic counterion analysis method was developed by using an ion chromatography separation technique and conductivity detector. This allows the rapid characterization of an API to support clinical studies and to fulfil the regulatory requirements for the quantitation of fumarate, oxalate, succinate, and tartrate counterions in active pharmaceutical ingredients (quetiapine fumarate, escitalopram oxalate, sumatriptan succinate, and tolterodine tartrate). The method was developed by using the Metrohm Metrosep A Supp 1 (250 × 4.0 mm, 5.0 µm particle size) column with a mobile phase containing an isocratic mixture of solution A: 7.5 mM sodium carbonate and 2.0 mM sodium bicarbonate in Milli-Q water and solution B: acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the run time was 25 minutes. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines, and the method parameters were chosen to ensure the spontaneous quantitation of all four anions. The method was validated for all four anions to demonstrate the applicability of this method to common anions present in various APIs. PMID:26839842

  8. Direct Separation of Molybdenum from Solid Uranium Matrices Employing Pyrohydrolysis, a Green Separation Method, and Its Determination by Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vivekchandra G; Thakur, Uday K; Shah, Dipti J; Gupta, Neeraj K; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Tomar, Bhupendra S; Ramakumar, Karanam L

    2015-11-01

    Pyrohydrolysis is a well-established separation method, and it is being used as a sample preparation method for several materials for further determination of non-metals such as halogens, boron, and sulfur. Analytes are retained in a diluted solution that is suitable for carrying out analysis by several determination techniques and minimizing the use of concentrated reagents. Pyrohydrolysis separation of metals has not been reported yet. The present study demonstrates the pyrohydrolysis separation of Mo as MoO4(2-) from uranium materials and its subsequent determination using ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector. With use of TGA and XRD the volatilization behavior of Mo was studied. Important parameters for the pyrohydrolysis method required for the quantitative separation of Mo were evaluated. The precision of the method was better than 5% at 25 ppm of Mo. The accuracy was evaluated by analysis of a CRM (U3O8-ILCE-IV). The method was applied to determine Mo in ammonium diuranate samples, where the conventional methods suffer from the loss of Mo. PMID:26465172

  9. Development of an Ion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Organic Anions (Fumarate, Oxalate, Succinate, and Tartrate) in Single Chromatographic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaviraj, Yarbagi; Srikanth, B; Moses Babu, J; Venkateswara Rao, B; Paul Douglas, S

    2015-01-01

    A single organic counterion analysis method was developed by using an ion chromatography separation technique and conductivity detector. This allows the rapid characterization of an API to support clinical studies and to fulfil the regulatory requirements for the quantitation of fumarate, oxalate, succinate, and tartrate counterions in active pharmaceutical ingredients (quetiapine fumarate, escitalopram oxalate, sumatriptan succinate, and tolterodine tartrate). The method was developed by using the Metrohm Metrosep A Supp 1 (250 × 4.0 mm, 5.0 µm particle size) column with a mobile phase containing an isocratic mixture of solution A: 7.5 mM sodium carbonate and 2.0 mM sodium bicarbonate in Milli-Q water and solution B: acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the run time was 25 minutes. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines, and the method parameters were chosen to ensure the spontaneous quantitation of all four anions. The method was validated for all four anions to demonstrate the applicability of this method to common anions present in various APIs. PMID:26839842

  10. A method for the simultaneous determination of creatinine and uric acid in serum by high-performance-liquid-chromatography evaluated versus reference methods.

    PubMed

    Kock, R; Seitz, S; Delvoux, B; Greiling, H

    1995-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with isocratic ion-pair-reversed-phase separation and simultaneous UV-detection at 232 nm and 292 nm is proposed as a method for the simultaneous determination of uric acid and creatinine in serum. The only sample preparation required is an appropriate dilution with the eluent and membrane filtration on non-adsorbent 0.2 micron membrane-filtration-devices. The inaccuracy of the method has been determined for NIST-SRM-909 (n = 10) and was + 0.5% for creatinine as well as for uric acid. The imprecision in this case was 0.8% for both analytes. The within-run imprecision for creatinine/uric acid was 0.4-0.5%/0.2-0.4% in the case of standards and 0.6-0.8%/0.4-0.7% in the case of serum-pools. The between-run imprecision for creatinine/uric acid obtained from serum pools was 0.8-1.1%/0.7-1.0%. The results for creatinine have been compared to those from an isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using [13C, 15N2]creatinine as internal standard and selected mass detection at m/e = 329 and m/e = 332. The results for uric acid have been compared to an HPLC-method published previously (Kock R et al. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1989; 27:157-62). The method comparisons (n = 55) for the new combined method presented versus the reference method for creatinine and the candidate reference method for uric acid resulted in coefficients of correlation of r = 1.000 for both analytes. The new combined method presented is useful for the analysis of patient samples where the classical photometric procedures do not give reliable results, as often observed in monitoring after transplantation surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7756438

  11. Multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of quinolone antibacterials in pig kidney samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hassouan, M K; Ballesteros, O; Zafra, A; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2007-11-15

    A new analytical method for simultaneous determination of eight quinolones namely, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin, in pig kidney samples was developed. The procedure involves the extraction of the quinolones from the samples by traditional extraction, a step for clean-up and preconcentration of the analytes by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography separation with fluorescence detection (LC-FD). The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and 10 mM citrate buffer solution of pH 4.5, with an initial composition of acetonitrile-water 12:88 (v/v) and using linear gradient elution. Norfloxacin was used as internal standard. The limits of detection (1-8 microg kg(-1)) and the limits of quantification (5-27 microg kg(-1)) found were lower than the maximum residue limits regulated by the European Union for these compounds in pig kidney. PMID:17951118

  12. Ambient formic acid in southern California air: A comparison of two methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline trap-liquid chromatography with UV detection

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. ); Tuazon, E.C. ); Fujita, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Formic acid is an ubiquitous component of urban smog. Sources of formic acid in urban air include direct emissions from vehicles and in situ reaction of ozone with olefins. Ambient levels of formic acid in southern California air were first measured some 15 years ago by Hanst et al. using long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All subsequent studies of formic acid in the Los Angeles area have involved the use of two methods, either FTIR or collection on alkaline traps followed by gas chromatography, ion chromatography, or liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection, ATLC-UV. The Carbon Species Methods Comparison Study (CSMCS), a multilaboratory air quality study carried out in August 1986 at a southern California smog receptor site, provided an opportunity for direct field comparison of the FTIR and alkaline trap methods. The results of the comparison are presented in this brief report.

  13. Heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography methods for quantification of 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole in Class III caramel colours.

    PubMed

    Moretton, Cédric; Crétier, Gérard; Nigay, Henri; Rocca, Jean-Louis

    2008-07-11

    Heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography/UV detection methods were developed to determine 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (noted as THI) in Class III caramel colours. In the first dimension, the caramel sample diluted in water was fractionated either by reversed-phase chromatography on C18 silica packing or by ion-exchange chromatography using strong cationic exchanger (SCX) stationary phase. In each case, THI elution domain was recovered in a loop and transferred to a second column packed with porous graphitic carbon (PGC) for the selective separation of THI. From the accuracy profiles with acceptance limit fixed at 20% and beta-expectation tolerance interval fixed at 90%, the two methods, C18-PGC and SCX-PGC, were validated for THI/caramel ratios included between 5-50 and 10-50 ppm, respectively. Finally, the two methods were compared for the analysis of numerous caramel samples. PMID:18538331

  14. METHOD 544. DETERMINATION OF MICROCYSTINS AND NODULARIN IN DRINKING WATER BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY (LC/MS/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensi...

  15. Evaluation of low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of greater than 140 pesticides in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-residue method for analysis of 143 pesticide residues in fish was developed and evaluated using fast, low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with ace...

  16. Liquid chromatography and chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of two multicomponent mixtures containing cough suppressant drugs.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Mesbah, Mostafa K; Hadad, Ghada M

    2005-01-01

    Three methods were applied for the analysis of 2 multicomponent mixtures containing dextromethorphan hydrobromide, phenylephrine hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate, methylparaben, and propylparaben, together with either sodium benzoate (Mix 1) or ephedrine hydrochloride and benzoic acid (Mix 2). In the first method, liquid chromatography was used for their simultaneous determination using an ODS column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer, pH 2.7 (40 + 60, v/v), containing 5mM heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 214 nm. Also, 2 chemometric methods, principal component regression, and partial least squares were used. For both chemometric calibrations, a concentration set of the mixture consisting of each compound in each mixture was prepared in distilled water. The absorbance data in the UV spectra were measured for the 76 or 71 wavelength points in the spectral region 210-240 or 210-224 nm considering the intervals of deltagamma = 0.4 or 0.2 nm for Mix 1 and Mix 2, respectively. The 2 chemometric methods did not require any separation step. These methods were successfully applied for the analysis of the 2 multicomponent combinations in synthetic mixtures and in commercial syrups, and the results were compared with each other. PMID:16152922

  17. Gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Losada, S; Santos, F J; Covaci, A; Galceran, M T

    2010-08-01

    Gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS) is proposed for the analysis of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in fish and shellfish. MS-MS operating parameters related to the isolation and fragmentation of the precursor ions were optimized to achieve maximum sensitivity and selectivity. This new method allows the determination of both MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in a single run. Low limits of detection (0.4-2.5 pg injected) and high precision (RSD<13%) were achieved. A sample treatment based on a selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using Florisil as fat retainer was applied for the analysis of these compounds in fish samples. Method limits of quantification ranged from 0.11 to 0.95 ng g(-1) lipid weight for MeO-PBDEs and between 0.18 and 0.50 ng g(-1) lipid weight for PBDEs. In addition, good repeatability of the whole method was achieved (RSD<15%). The suitability of the method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (SRM 1945, whale blubber) with satisfactory results. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in fish and shellfish samples from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:20615508

  18. Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of (-)-alpha-bisabolol from particulate systems.

    PubMed

    São Pedro, André; Detoni, Cássia; Ferreira, Domingos; Cabral-Albuquerque, Elaine; Sarmento, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for determination and quantitation of the natural sesquiterpene (-)-alpha-bisabolol. Furthermore the application of the method was done by characterization of chitosan milispheres and liposomes entrapping Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba essential oil, which contains appreciable amount of (-)-alpha-bisabolol. A reversed-phase C(18) column and gradient elution was used with the mobile phase composed of (A) acetonitrile-water-phosphoric acid (19:80:1) and (B) acetonitrile. The eluent was pumped at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min with UV detection at 200 nm. In the range 0.02-0.64 mg/mL the assay showed good linearity (R(2 )= 0.9999) and specificity for successful identification and quantitation of (-)-alpha-bisabolol in the essential oil without interfering peaks. The method also showed good reproducibility, demonstrating inter-day and intra-day precision based on relative standard deviation values (up to 3.03%), accuracy (mean recovery of 100.69% +/- 1.05%) and low values of detection and quantitation limits (0.0005 and 0.0016 mg/mL, respectively). The method was also robust for showing a recovery of 98.81% under a change of solvent in standard solutions. The suitability of the method was demonstrated by the successful determination of association efficiency of the (-)-alpha-bisabolol in chitosan milispheres and liposomes. PMID:19353738

  19. A validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the quantitation of dexamethasone, ondansetron and aprepitant, antiemetic drugs, in organogel.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Florence; Lecoeur, Marie; Duhaut, Marion; Odou, Pascal; Vaccher, Claude; Foulon, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of three anti-vomiting drugs (aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron) in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was optimized using a central composite design (CCD). Four main factors (borate buffer concentration, pH, methanol content and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration) were optimized in order to obtain best resolutions and peak efficiencies in a minimum runtime. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary. After optimization, the background electrolyte consisted of a borate buffer (62.5mM, pH 8.75) containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (77.5mM) and methanol (3.75%). Under these conditions, a complete separation of each antiemetic drug and its respective internal standards was achieved in 38min. The method was validated with trueness values from 94.9 to 107.2% and precision results (repeatability and intermediate precision) lower than 5.9%. MEKC-UV was the first method allowing the separation of aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron and was suitable for the quantitation of these three antiemetic drugs in organogel formulations. The rapid sample preparation coupled with an automated separation technique make this method convenient for quality control of extemporaneous magistral ready-to-use formulation. PMID:23978340

  20. Packing of large-scale chromatography columns with irregularly shaped glass based resins using a stop-flow method

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Sun Chau; Chia, Celeste; Mok, Yanglin; Pattnaik, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Rigid chromatography resins, such as controlled pore glass based adsorbents, offer the advantage of high permeability and a linear pressure-flow relationship irrespective of column diameter which improves process time and maximizes productivity. However, the rigidity and irregularly shaped nature of these resins often present challenges in achieving consistent and uniform packed beds as formation of bridges between resin particles can hinder bed consolidation. The standard flow-pack method when applied to irregularly shaped particles does not yield well-consolidated packed beds, resulting in formation of a head space and increased band broadening during operation. Vibration packing methods requiring the use of pneumatically driven vibrators are recommended to achieve full packed bed consolidation but limitations in manufacturing facilities and equipment may prevent the implementation of such devices. The stop-flow packing method was developed as an improvement over the flow-pack method to overcome these limitations and to improve bed consolidation without the use of vibrating devices. Transition analysis of large-scale columns packed using the stop-flow method over multiple cycles has shown a two- to three-fold reduction of change in bed integrity values as compared to a flow-packed bed demonstrating an improvement in packed bed stability in terms of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) and peak asymmetry (As). PMID:25080096

  1. A simple and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, A; Piro, R; Dall'asta, C; Galaverna, G

    2013-01-01

    A new chromatographic method is proposed for the analysis of aflatoxin M(1) in milk. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is performed on the defatted milk plus sodium chloride by using ethyl acetate as an extraction solvent. Accuracy and precision were evaluated at the LOQ (15 ng kg(-1)) spiked sample as well as with three other different naturally contaminated reference materials. The mean overall recovery (n = 24) was 95% with a confidence interval of 1.9% and a CV% of 4.5%. The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of the Official ISO Method based on the use of immunoaffinity chromatography columns (IAC): LLE protocol could be considered a valid alternative to the LC-IAC. In general it showed better accuracy with lower data dispersion. Moreover, the sample preparation is very simple and straightforward, potentially being applicable as a high-throughput method which, on account of its simplicity and low cost, may be applied to the analysis of a large number of samples in the occasion of outbreaks of large-scale contamination. PMID:23176386

  2. Packing of large-scale chromatography columns with irregularly shaped glass based resins using a stop-flow method.

    PubMed

    Siu, Sun Chau; Chia, Celeste; Mok, Yanglin; Pattnaik, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Rigid chromatography resins, such as controlled pore glass based adsorbents, offer the advantage of high permeability and a linear pressure-flow relationship irrespective of column diameter which improves process time and maximizes productivity. However, the rigidity and irregularly shaped nature of these resins often present challenges in achieving consistent and uniform packed beds as formation of bridges between resin particles can hinder bed consolidation. The standard flow-pack method when applied to irregularly shaped particles does not yield well-consolidated packed beds, resulting in formation of a head space and increased band broadening during operation. Vibration packing methods requiring the use of pneumatically driven vibrators are recommended to achieve full packed bed consolidation but limitations in manufacturing facilities and equipment may prevent the implementation of such devices. The stop-flow packing method was developed as an improvement over the flow-pack method to overcome these limitations and to improve bed consolidation without the use of vibrating devices. Transition analysis of large-scale columns packed using the stop-flow method over multiple cycles has shown a two- to three-fold reduction of change in bed integrity values as compared to a flow-packed bed demonstrating an improvement in packed bed stability in terms of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) and peak asymmetry (As ). PMID:25080096

  3. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with the pressurized liquid extraction for the quantification and confirmation of sulfonamides in the foods of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Dai, Menghong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2011-09-01

    The residues of sulfonamides (SAs) in the foods of animal origin are of the major concern because they are harmful to the consumer's health and could induce pathogens to develop resistance. Rapid and efficient determination methods are urgently in need. A quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) and a confirmative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 18 sulfonamides such as sulfamidinum, sulfanilamide, sulfisomidine, sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine, sulfadimidine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfisoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadoxine, sulfaclozine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline in the muscles, livers and kidneys of swine, bovine and chicken were developed and validated. The sample preparation procedures included a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with acetonitrile conducted at elevated temperature (70°C) and pressure (1400 psi). After clean-up with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridge, the extraction solution was concentrated and analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis. 18 SAs were separated by the HPLC with a Zorbax SB-Aq-C18 column and the mobile phase of methanol/acetonitrile/1% acetic acid with a gradient system. The wavelength of UV for the HPLC detection was set at 285 nm. The LC-MS/MS analysis was achieved with a Hypersil Golden column and the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution with two gradient systems. The Limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 3 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg, respectively, for both of the HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Linearity was obtained with an average coefficient of determination (R) higher than 0.9980 over a dynamic range from the LOQ value up to 5000 μg/kg. The recoveries of the methods range from 71.1% to 118.3% with the relative standard derivation less than 13%. The peaks of interest with no interferences

  4. Determination of methamphetamine enantiomer composition in human hair by non-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Alexander, Amy; Jones, Mary; Jones, Joseph; Negrusz, Adam

    2016-08-15

    Chiral separation is crucial for investigating methamphetamine positive cases. While (S)-(+)-enantiomer of methamphetamine (S-MAMP) is a schedule II controlled substance, (R)-(-)-enantiomer (R-MAMP) is an active ingredient of a few over-the-counter drugs in the United States. Among biological specimen types, hair provides greater detection window than blood, urine or oral fluid, and are therefore regarded with particular interest. Herein we describe a novel non-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly determine methamphetamine enantiomeric composition (percentage) in hair specimens. Hair samples were washed once with acetone, powdered, incubated overnight at 53°C in 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl), and subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were derivatized using Marfey's reagent at 53°C for 60min. The final mixture was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Kinetex analytical column and 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol as mobile phase (isocratic). Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was equipped with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source operating in negative mode and the chromatograms were acquired using a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. The results were expressed as ratio of R- to S-MAMP and then derived to composition percentages without requiring quantitating each enantiomer. The method was precise and accurate across 0-100% S-composition at a range of 80-18,000pg/mg. The performance of the new method was compared with an (S)-(-)-N-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride (S-TPC) derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method on authentic methamphetamine-positive hair samples. Not only the new Marfey's reagent approach presented satisfactory correlation with the S-TPC approach, but it also exhibited significantly improved quality (e.g., S/N) of the chromatograms. In summary, our protocol employs cost effective and minimally hazardous Marfey

  5. A novel reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for standardization of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Saidan, Noor Hafizoh; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.A.; Hamil, Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3’-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4’-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts. Objective: The aim was to develop and validate a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for quantification of 4 marker compounds (RA, TMF, SIN, EUP) in various O. stamineus leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: The method was developed and validated using RP-HPLC-diode-array detection at 320 nm for accuracy, precision and limits of detection and was applied for quantification of it markers in five different extracts prepared in solvents with increasing polarity, using a gradient mobile phase 0.1% formic acid: Acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min on reverse phase acclaim polar advantage II C18 column (3 μm, 3 × 150 mm) with 18 min separation time. Results: The developed method provided satisfactory precision, and the accuracy of this method was in the range of 90.2% to 105.5%. All of 4 compounds showed good linearity at R2 > 0.999. Conclusion: The developed method is a simple, cost effective with shorter run time (18 min) in comparison to previous methods (30 min) and utilization of environmental-friendly solvents system. Therefore, this method has the potential to replace currently used methods in the routine standardization work of O. stamineus extracts, raw materials and its commercial products. PMID:25598631

  6. Method development for the characterization of biofuel intermediate products using gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometric and flame ionization detections.

    PubMed

    Sťávová, Jana; Stahl, Danese C; Seames, Wayne S; Kubátová, Alena

    2012-02-10

    Accurate analytical methods are required to develop and evaluate the quality of new renewable transportation fuels and intermediate organic liquid products (OLPs). Unfortunately, existing methods developed for the detailed characterization of petroleum products, are not accurate for many of the OLPs generated from non-petroleum feedstocks. In this study, a method was developed and applied to the detailed characterization of complex OLPs formed during triacylglyceride (TG) pyrolysis which is the basis for generating one class of emerging biofuels. This method uses gas chromatography coupled simultaneously with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors (GC-FID/MS). The FID provided accurate quantification of carbonaceous species while MS enabled identification of unknown compounds. A programed temperature vaporizer using a 25 °C, 0.1 min, 720 °C min(-1), 350 °C, 5 min temperature program is employed which minimizes compound discrimination better than the more commonly utilized split/splitless injector, as verified with injections at 250 and 350 °C. Two standard mixtures featuring over 150 components are used for accurate identification and a designed calibration standard accounts for compound discrimination at the injector and differing FID responses of various classes of compounds. This new method was used to identify and quantify over 250 species in OLPs generated from canola oil, soybean oil, and canola methyl ester (CME). In addition to hydrocarbons, the method was used to quantify polar (upon derivatization) and unidentified species, plus the unresolved complex mixture that has not typically been determined in previous studies. Repeatability of the analytical method was below 5% RSD for all individual components. Using this method, the mass balance was closed for samples derived from canola and soybean oil but only ca. 77 wt% of the OLP generated from CME could be characterized. The ability to close the mass balance depended on sample origin

  7. A novel method for the determination of black liquor viscosity by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2013-12-13

    This work demonstrates a novel method for the determination of viscosity in the concentrated black liquors from pulp mill recovery process. The method is based on the kinetic release of methanol (a vapor tracer) to the headspace in a sample closed vial by a multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic technique. Both theoretical and empirical models were proposed for establishing the correlation with the reference method. The results showed that the correlation using either of the models is excellent for the tested black liquor samples (at 110°C). The presented method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for black liquor viscosity related research and applications. PMID:24210298

  8. A liquid chromatography method for quantifying caffeine dissolution from pharmaceutical formulations into colloidal, fat-rich media.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel D; Barrett, David A; Ward, Robert; Hardy, Ian J; Melia, Colin D

    2010-07-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid-chromatography method is presented that permits quantification of caffeine in colloidal fat emulsions proposed as new 'biorelevant' dissolution media (Intralipid and various milks). Using a mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium acetate (pH 4.0) and acetonitrile (89.5:10.5, v/v) at 1 ml min(-1), the drug and internal standard (7-beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline) were eluted within 8 min. Caffeine extraction was undertaken by protein precipitation in ice-cold 12% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid and centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 15 min. This simple extraction method generated caffeine recovery values (corrected for % fat content) of 75.4+/-1.4-100.6+/-5.5%. The limit of detection was within the range 0.25-0.4 microg ml(-1) and linearity was demonstrated in each medium up to 125 microg ml(-1). Precision was <11.5% RSD and intra- and inter-day accuracy was 93.4-109.3%. The validated method was applied to in vitro USP dissolution tests in milk which compared the kinetics of caffeine release from (i) extended release matrices containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and (ii) an immediate release commercial analgesic tablet. Good reproducibility was obtained in both extended and immediate release dissolution tests. The method provides high-throughput quantification of this common drug in fat emulsions used as biorelevant dissolution media. PMID:20483672

  9. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method

    PubMed Central

    Raju, K. V. S. N.; Pavan Kumar, K. S. R.; Siva Krishna, N.; Madhava Reddy, P.; Sreenivas, N.; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G.; Annapurna, N.

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper. PMID:27222607

  10. Effect of piperine on pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate in plasma samples of rats using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Bushra; Pillai, K. K.; Tamboli, E. T.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Piperine (PIP) is used as anticonvulsant in traditional Chinese medicine. Co-administration of low-dose sodium valproate with PIP has been regarded to have potential anticonvulsant activity. Aim: This study was intended to investigate the effect of PIP on the pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate (SVP) in the plasma samples of rats using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Materials and Methods: The plasma samples obtained after oral administration of SVP, 150 mg/kg and SVP, 150 mg/kg + PIP, and 5 mg/kg to male Wistar rats were used to quantify the concentrations in plasma using GC-MS method. Results: A simple and accurate method developed in-house was applied for the analysis of plasma samples of Wistar rats after oral administration of SVP and PIP + sodium valproate, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters reported 14.8-fold increase in plasma concentration (maximum observed concentration in the concentration-time profile), 4.6-fold increase in area under the curve and slightly prolonged time to reach that concentration (1 h) of SVP in presence of PIP. Conclusion: The study reaffirms the bioenhancing effect of PIP suggesting possibility of dose reduction of SVP while co-adminstering with PIP. PMID:26681892

  11. Development and evaluation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for rapid, accurate quantitation of malondialdehyde in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, Constance A; Han, Jun; Lin, Karen; Swardfager, Walter; Levitt, Anthony; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-09-01

    Malondialdhyde (MDA) is a commonly used marker of lipid peroxidation in oxidative stress. To provide a sensitive analytical method that is compatible with high throughput, we developed a multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) approach using 3-nitrophenylhydrazine chemical derivatization, isotope-labeling, and liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry assay to accurately quantify MDA in human plasma. A stable isotope-labeled internal standard was used to compensate for ESI matrix effects. The assay is linear (R(2)=0.9999) over a 20,000-fold concentration range with a lower limit of quantitation of 30fmol (on-column). Intra- and inter-run coefficients of variation (CVs) were <2% and ∼10% respectively. The derivative was stable for >36h at 5°C. Standards spiked into plasma had recoveries of 92-98%. When compared to a common LC-UV method, the LC-MS method found near-identical MDA concentrations. A pilot project to quantify MDA in patient plasma samples (n=26) in a study of major depressive disorder with winter-type seasonal pattern (MDD-s) confirmed known associations between MDA concentrations and obesity (p<0.02). The LC-MS method provides high sensitivity and high reproducibility for quantifying MDA in human plasma. The simple sample preparation and rapid analysis time (5x faster than LC-UV) offers high throughput for large-scale clinical applications. PMID:27437618

  12. Determination of corilagin in rat plasma using a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian Qian; Guo, Jianru; Fan, Hongyan; Wang, Caiyun; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of corilagin in rat plasma has been developed. Samples were prepared with protein precipitation method and analyzed with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. We employed negative electrospray ionization as the ionization source and the analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Separation was achieved on a C8 column eluted with mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.1% formic acid in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The total run time was 7.0 min.This method was proved to have good linearity in the concentration range of 2.5-1000.0 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification of corilagin was 2.5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviationa across three validation runs for four concentration levels were both <9.8%. The relative error was within ±6.0%. This assay offers advantages in terms of expediency and suitability for the analysis of corilagin in rat plasma. The practical utility of this new HPLC-MS/MS method was confirmed in pilot plasma concentration studies in rats following oral administration. PMID:25808247

  13. Fingerprint Analysis of Desmodium Triquetrum L. Based on Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photodiode Array Detector Combined with Chemometrics Methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiling; Zhao, Cui; Liang, Xianrui; Ying, Yin; Han, Bing; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A fingerprinting approach was developed by means of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for the quality control of Desmodium triquetrum L., an herbal medicine widely used for clinical purposes. Ten batches of raw material samples of D. triquetrum were collected from different regions of China. All UPLC analyses were carried out on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH shield RP18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm particle size) at 60°C, with a gradient mobile phase composed of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.45 mL/min. The method validation results demonstrated the developed method possessing desirable reproducibility, efficiency, and allowing fingerprint analysis in one chromatographic run within 13 min. The quality assessment was achieved by using chemometrics methods including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The developed method can be used for further quality control of D. triquetrum. PMID:26791345

  14. A sensitive and fast method for trihalomethanes in urine using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Charisiadis, Pantelis; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2014-02-01

    Because of the plethora of exposure sources and routes through which humans are exposed to trihalomethanes (THM), the limitation of their short half-lives could be overcome, if a highly sensitive method was available to quantify urinary THM concentrations at sub-ppb levels. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and reliable method for the determination of the four THM analytes in human urine. A sensitive methodology was developed for THM in urine samples using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) promoting its use in epidemiological and biomonitoring studies. The proposed methodology enjoys limits of detection similar to those reported in the literature (11-80 ng L(-1)) and the advantages of small initial urine volumes (15 mL) and fast analysis per sample (12 min) when compared with other methods. This is the first report using GC-QqQ-MS/MS for the determination of THM in urine samples. Because of its simplicity and less time-consuming nature, the proposed method could be incorporated into detailed (hundreds of participants' urine samples) exposure assessment protocols providing valuable insight into the dose-response relationship of THM and cancer or pregnancy anomalies. PMID:24370554

  15. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method.

    PubMed

    Raju, K V S N; Pavan Kumar, K S R; Siva Krishna, N; Madhava Reddy, P; Sreenivas, N; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G; Annapurna, N

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper. PMID:27222607

  16. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  17. Development of a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantification of Glucaric Acid Derivatives in Beverage Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Ana Paula; Fields, Christine C.; Simpson, John V.

    2014-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method using the standard addition methodology was developed for the determination of glucuronolactone (GL) and glucuronic acid (DGuA) in four beverages categorized as detoxification, recovery, or energy drinks. The method features a precolumn derivatization step with a combination of BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide) and TMCS (trimethylchlorosilane) to silylate the analytes. The sample pretreatment required no extraction, filtration, or reduction step prior to the injection. The quantification of the analytes was performed using a five-point standard addition protocol. The proposed method presented excellent intraday precision (%RSD < 10) and linearity for GL calibration curves (correlation coefficients > 0.995) and acceptable linearity for DGuA calibration curves (correlation coefficients > 0.97). The estimated limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for GL ranged from 0.006 ppm to 0.14 ppm, and 0.02 ppm to 0.47 ppm, respectively. The estimated LOD and LOQ for DGuA determination ranged, respectively, from 0.06 ppm to 1.1 ppm and 0.2 ppm to 3.8 ppm. The results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a reliable alternative to the simultaneous determination of GL and DGuA. PMID:25024704

  18. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of glucaric Acid derivatives in beverage substrates.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ana Paula; Fields, Christine C; Simpson, John V

    2014-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method using the standard addition methodology was developed for the determination of glucuronolactone (GL) and glucuronic acid (DGuA) in four beverages categorized as detoxification, recovery, or energy drinks. The method features a precolumn derivatization step with a combination of BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide) and TMCS (trimethylchlorosilane) to silylate the analytes. The sample pretreatment required no extraction, filtration, or reduction step prior to the injection. The quantification of the analytes was performed using a five-point standard addition protocol. The proposed method presented excellent intraday precision (%RSD < 10) and linearity for GL calibration curves (correlation coefficients > 0.995) and acceptable linearity for DGuA calibration curves (correlation coefficients > 0.97). The estimated limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for GL ranged from 0.006 ppm to 0.14 ppm, and 0.02 ppm to 0.47 ppm, respectively. The estimated LOD and LOQ for DGuA determination ranged, respectively, from 0.06 ppm to 1.1 ppm and 0.2 ppm to 3.8 ppm. The results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a reliable alternative to the simultaneous determination of GL and DGuA. PMID:25024704

  19. Evaluation of low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of >140 pesticides in fish.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena

    2014-04-30

    A multiresidue method for the analysis of 143 pesticide residues in fish was developed and evaluated using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography/triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup with zirconium-based sorbent. The developed method was evaluated at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 ng/g) and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974b and 1947 for selected pesticides with certified concentrations. Acceptable recoveries (70-120%) and standard deviations below 20% were achieved for the majority of pesticides from fortified samples. The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified values (71-115% accuracy, 4-14% relative standard deviations) for all pesticides, except for p,p-DDD + o,p-DDT (45%) and heptachlor (133%) in SRM 1974b and except for mirex (58%) and trans-chlordane (136%) in SRM 1947. The developed method is fast, simple, and inexpensive with detection limits of 0.5-5 ng/g. Residues of dimethoate, hexachlorobenzene, BHC, lindane, nonachlor, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, p,p-DDE, p,p-DDD, o,p-DDD, o,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, and chlordane were measured in catfish samples from the market. PMID:24387765

  20. Alternative method for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of short-chain fatty acids in faecal samples.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocio; Giménez-Bastida, Juan A; García-Conesa, Maria T; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Carlos Espín, Juan; Larrosa, Mar

    2012-08-01

    Short-chain fatty acids are the major end products of bacterial metabolism in the large bowel. They derive mostly from the bacterial breakdown of carbohydrates and are known to have positive health benefits. Due to the biological relevance of these compounds it is important to develop efficient, cheap, fast, and sensitive analytical methods that enable the identification and quantification of the short-chain fatty acids in a large number of biological samples. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of short-chain fatty acids in faecal samples. These volatile compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate and 4-methyl valeric acid was used as an internal standard. No further cleanup, concentration, and derivatization steps were needed and the extract was directly injected onto the column. Recoveries ranged between 65 and 105%, and no matrix effects were observed. The proposed method has wide linear ranges, good inter- and intraday variability values (below 2.6 and 5.6%, respectively) and limits of detection between 0.49 μM (0.29 μg/g) and 4.31 μM (3.8 μg/g). The applicability of this analytical method was successfully tested in faecal samples from rats and humans. PMID:22865755

  1. Alternative method for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of short-chain fatty acids in faecal samples.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocio; Giménez-Bastida, Juan A; García-Conesa, Maria T; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar

    2012-06-01

    Short-chain fatty acids are the major end products of bacterial metabolism in the large bowel. They derive mostly from the bacterial breakdown of carbohydrates and are known to have positive health benefits. Due to the biological relevance of these compounds it is important to develop efficient, cheap, fast, and sensitive analytical methods that enable the identification and quantification of the short-chain fatty acids in a large number of biological samples. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of short-chain fatty acids in faecal samples. These volatile compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate and 4-methyl valeric acid was used as an internal standard. No further cleanup, concentration, and derivatization steps were needed and the extract was directly injected onto the column. Recoveries ranged between 65 and 105%, and no matrix effects were observed. The proposed method has wide linear ranges, good inter- and intraday variability values (below 2.6 and 5.6%, respectively) and limits of detection between 0.49 μM (0.29 μg/g) and 4.31 μM (3.8 μg/g). The applicability of this analytical method was successfully tested in faecal samples from rats and humans. PMID:22674825

  2. Evaluation of the quantitative performances of supercritical fluid chromatography: from method development to validation.

    PubMed

    Dispas, Amandine; Lebrun, Pierre; Ziemons, Eric; Marini, Roland; Rozet, Eric; Hubert, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Recently, the number of papers about SFC increased drastically but scientists did not truly focus their work on quantitative performances of this technique. In order to prove the potential of UHPSFC, the present work discussed about the different steps of the analytical life cycle of a method: from development to validation and application. Moreover, the UHPSFC quantitative performances were evaluated in comparison with UHPLC, which is the main technique used for quality control in the pharmaceutical industry and then could be considered as a reference. The methods were developed using Design Space strategy, leading to the optimization of robust method. In this context, when the Design Space optimization shows guarantee of quality, no more robustness study is required prior to the validation. Then, the methods were geometrically transferred in order to reduce the analysis time. The UHPSFC and UHPLC methods were validated based on the total error approach using accuracy profile. Even if UHPLC showed better precision and sensitivity, UHPSFC method is able to give accurate results in a dosing range larger than the 80-120% range required by the European Medicines Agency. Consequently, UHPSFC results are valid and could be used for the control of active substance in a finished pharmaceutical product. Finally, UHPSFC validated method was used to analyse real samples and gave similar results than the reference method (UHPLC). PMID:24513349

  3. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of

  4. Rapid determination of fluoroquinolone residues in honey by a microbiological screening method and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Maki; Kusano, Tomoto; Kanai, Setsuko; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Matushima, Yoko; Nakajima, Takayuki; Takeba, Kazue; Sasamoto, Takeo; Nagayma, Toshijiro

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven fluoroquinolone (FQ) residues: norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin in honey. The samples were first screened with a microbiological method by using test plates made from metal-free purified agar seeded with Bacillus subtilis BGA. When a sample was found to contain FQ residues by using the microbiological method, it was analyzed by LC with fluorescence detection (LC/FL). FQs were extracted with Na2EDTA-McIlvaine buffer and purified by a dual SPE method in which a cation-exchange cartridge was connected to an anion-exchange cartridge. The overall recoveries of the seven FQs ranged from 70.0 to 92.1%. The intra-assay and interassay CVs were < or = 7.8 and < or = 5.1%, respectively. For the microbiological method, the LOD values ranged from 2 to 9 microg/kg. For LC/FL, the LOQ values ranged from 2 to 7 microg/kg. The developed method was used to analyze 70 honey samples. In 14 samples in which the microbiological method detected the presence of FQ residues, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin were identified by LC/FL. PMID:20922969

  5. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyte quantitation from pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Myrdal, Paul B

    2004-04-01

    A sensitive and rapid, on-line reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of compounds at low concentrations in pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI) systems was developed. Traditional methods for the quantitation of compounds in MDI formulations involve the opening of the MDI vial along with sample dilution prior to quantitation. The new method, reported in this study, involves a direct injection from the MDI vial into the needle injector port of a manual injector. Since there is no dilution step involved, this method can be used to quantitate low concentrations of compounds in MDIs with excellent precision. In addition, since the method requires a small injection volume of 5 microl, repeated analyses can be performed in order to generate multiple data points using the same MDI vial. Validation of the method was performed using ethanol-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a)-based MDIs. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), a corticosteroid used for the treatment of asthma, was used as a model compound. Phase separation studies were conducted to investigate the miscibility of the ethanol-134a mixtures with different mobile phase solvent compositions. For the MDI systems in this study, an acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min was found to give acceptable chromatography for BDP on a Apollo C18 5 microm, 150 mm x 4.6 mm column (Alltech Associates, Deerfield, IL, USA). Ultraviolet detection was done at 240 nm and the retention time of BDP was 2.7 min. The on-line HPLC method was characterized to be accurate, precise, sensitive, and specific. PMID:15072294

  6. Method for the determination of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in food via gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ronald E; Riederer, Anne M; Ryan, P Barry

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a rapid, high-throughput, accurate, multiresidue method for the analysis of selected organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in a variety of food samples suitable for use in public health and epidemiologic investigations of high-use pesticides using modifications of existing methods. The procedure involves a pesticide extraction from the food sample with acetonitrile followed by a salting-out with NaCl and cleanup of the extract with a multilayer solid-phase extraction cartridge composed of a Supelclean ENVI-CARB-II top layer and a primary-secondary amine bottom layer separated by a polyethylene frit. To evaluate the method, we performed fortification studies at 50, 100, and 200 ng/g for 3 organophosphorus and 4 pyrethroid pesticides in 16 different foods. Instrumental analysis was carried out by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Confirmatory analysis was performed by GC coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Average recoveries for each fortification level ranged from 49 to 146% with 80% of recoveries between 80 and 120%. PMID:20073464

  7. Sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of acrylamide in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yiping; Zhang, Yu; Jiao, Jingjing; Cai, Zengxuan; Zhang, Ying

    2006-03-01

    Isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was applied to the quantification of acrylamide in chocolate matrixes (dark chocolate, milk chocolate, chocolate with nuts, chocolate with almonds, and chocolate with wheat best element). The method included defatting with petroleum ether, extracting with aqueous solution of 2 mol l(-1) sodium chloride and clean-up by solid-phase (SPE) with OASIS HLB 6 cm3 cartridges. Acrylamide was detected with an Atlantis dC18 5 microm 210 x 1.5 mm column using 10% methanol/0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase. The analytical method was in-house validated and good results were obtained with respect to repeatability (RSD < 3.5%) and recovery (86-93%), which fulfilled the requirements defined by European Union legislation. The acrylamide levels in chocolate were 23-537 microg kg(-1). Therefore, the method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of acrlyamide in various chocolate products. PMID:16517524

  8. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of economically motivated adulteration in protein-containing foods.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W; Stromgren, Selen A

    2012-01-13

    A new analytical method was developed to determine the presence of six (6) compounds with the potential to be used in economic adulteration to enhance the nitrogen content in milk products and bulk proteins. Residues were extracted from the matrix with 2% formic acid, after which acetonitrile (ACN) was added to induce precipitation of the proteins. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography using a ZIC-HILIC column with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI). Single-laboratory method validation data was collected in six matrices fortified at concentrations down to 1.0 μg/g (ppm). Average recoveries and average relative standard deviations (RSD) using spiked matrix calibration standard curves were the following: cyromazine (CY) 95.9% (7.5% RSD), dicyandiamide (DC) 98.1% (5.6% RSD), urea 102.5% (8.6% RSD), biuret (BU) 97.2% (6.6% RSD), triuret (TU) 97.7% (5.7% RSD), and amidinourea (AU) 93.4% (7.4% RSD). This method provides a rapid and effective approach to proactively combat economically motivated adulteration in protein-containing products. PMID:22197251

  9. Sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of nine local anesthetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Tonooka, Keiko; Naruki, Nobuhiko; Honma, Kou; Agei, Kohei; Okutsu, Mayumi; Hosono, Tetsuji; Kunisue, Yoko; Terada, Masaru; Tomobe, Koji; Shinozuka, Tatsuo

    2016-08-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) procedure for the simultaneous determination of nine local anesthetic drugs (procaine, mepivacaine, lidocaine, ropivacaine, oxybuprocaine, tetracaine, bupivacaine, T-caine and dibucaine) in human serum is described. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Mightysil-RP-18 GP II column (2.0mm×150mm, particle size 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of 10mM acetic ammonium buffer (pH 5.4) and acetonitrile and was delivered at a flow rate of 0.20mL/min. The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, and multiple reaction monitoring was used for drug quantification. Solid-phase extraction of the nine local anesthetic drugs added to the human serum was performed with an Oasis(®) HLB extraction cartridges column. The method was linear for the investigated drugs over the concentration range of 10-100ng/mL. The recoveries of these drugs were in the range of 81.4-144%. The standard deviation (SD) values for all analytes were <0.10 for both intraday and interday accuracy and precision. The selectivity, accuracy and precision of this method are satisfactory for clinical and forensic applications. The sensitive and selective method offers the opportunity for the simultaneous screening and quantification, for clinical and forensic purposes, of almost all local anesthetics available in Japan. PMID:26986505

  10. Simple column-switching ion chromatography method for determining eight monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Binhe; Wang, Nani; Wang, Muhua; Chen, Suqing; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Honeydew is excreted by aphids as a sweet waste and nectar is floral honey. Honeydew and nectar are complicated samples which consist of various sugars and amino acids. In this work, a simple ion chromatography with column-switching method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 8 monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar. A reversed-phase column was used as a pretreatment column to eliminate organics on-line and sugars were eluted from a collection loop to analytical column by using column-switching technique. This method showed good linearity (r⩾0.9994) and afforded low limits of detection ranging from 1.55 to 10.17μgL(-1) for all the analytes. Recoveries ranged from 95% to 105% and repeatability results were acceptable with relative standard deviation of less than 3.21% (n=6). This method was successfully applied to quantification of these sugars in honeydew and nectar. These results showed honeydew had much more oligosaccharides than nectar. PMID:26471592

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities.

    PubMed

    Volke, A; Wegener, G; Vasar, E; Volke, V

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been shown to be involved in numerous biological processes, and many studies have aimed to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that arginase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two enzymes that also employ arginine as a substrate, may regulate NOS activity. We aimed to develop a HPLC-based method to measure simultaneously the products of these three enzymes. Traditionally, the separation of amino acids and related compounds with HPLC has been carried out with precolumn derivatization and reverse phase chromatography. We describe here a simple and fast HPLC method with radiochemical detection to separate radiolabeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and agmatine. 3H-labeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, agmatine, and 14C-labeled L-citrulline were used as standards. These compounds were separated in the normal phase column (Allure Acidix 250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) under isocratic conditions in less than 20 min with good sensitivity. Using the current method, we have shown the formation of L-citrulline and L-ornithine in vitro using brain tissue homogenate of rats and that of agmatine by Escherichia coli ADC. PMID:16541190

  12. Novel multiresidue method for determination of pesticides in red wine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Pelajić, Maja; Peček, Gorana; Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Vitali Čepo, Dubravka

    2016-06-01

    A new multiresidue method was developed for determination of 25 pesticide residues in red wine by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a single run of 23.63 min. Samples were extracted from wine with solid phase extraction using Oasis HLB. Mixture of methanol and water was used for rinsing, while acetonitrile and n-hexane were used as elution solvents. Method was validated according to SANCO/12571/2013 criteria in wide linearity range (limit of quantification - 400 μg L(-1)). Limits of quantification (LOQ) were well below 10 μg L(-1) for most pesticides and recoveries at 2×LOQ and 10×LOQ concentration levels were in range 70-120%. Precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation, was always under 14%. The method was applied to 32 red wine samples from Croatia. Pesticides were detected in 30 samples with a total of 15 pesticides found, 7 of which were at a high concentration. PMID:26830566

  13. A nontargeted screening method for covalent DNA adducts and DNA modification selectivity using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chunhe; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-10-01

    A method for nontargeted screening for covalent DNA adducts was developed using combination of neutral loss scan and product ion scan in a hybrid linear-ion-trap - triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system. DNA 2'-deoxynucleosides and adducts eluted from liquid chromatography were first analyzed in neutral loss mode to screen for the neutral loss of the deoxyribose moiety ([M+H-116](+)) from the protonated molecular ion ([M+H](+)). The product ion scan was subsequently used to elucidate the structures for the molecular ions observed from the peaks in the neutral loss scan chromatogram. The synthesized DNA adducts were used to evaluate the developed method by reaction of 20-mer DNA oligonucleotide with two direct agents respectively, specifically phenyl glycidyl ether and styrene-7,8-oxide. The modification selectivity of two compounds to the four nitrogenous bases on DNA sequence was also investigated in this study. The results showed that the two compounds had different modification selectivity to the four bases. Both compounds could modify all four nitrogenous bases (i.e. adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine) on DNA sequences to form various covalent DNA adducts. While phenyl glycidyl ether modified almost all of thymidine on DNA sequence, styrene-7,8-oxide, on the other hand, modified only a small portion of thymidine. The developed method proved possibly a potential tool for screening of unknown DNA adducts as exposure biomarkers of contaminants to human in the environment. PMID:27474284

  14. Optimized and validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins in cereals.

    PubMed

    Skendi, Adriana; Irakli, Maria N; Papageorgiou, Maria D

    2016-04-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate analytical method was optimized and developed for the determination of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins in cereals intended for human consumption using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection and a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection. A response surface methodology, using a fractional central composite design, was carried out for optimization of the water percentage at the beginning of the run (X1, 80-90%), the level of acetonitrile at the end of gradient system (X2, 10-20%) with the water percentage fixed at 60%, and the flow rate (X3, 0.8-1.2 mL/min). The studied responses were the chromatographic peak area, the resolution factor and the time of analysis. Optimal chromatographic conditions were: X1 = 80%, X2 = 10%, and X3 = 1 mL/min. Following a double sample extraction with water and a mixture of methanol/water, mycotoxins were rapidly purified by an optimized solid-phase extraction protocol. The optimized method was further validated with respect to linearity (R(2) >0.9991), sensitivity, precision, and recovery (90-112%). The application to 23 commercial cereal samples from Greece showed contamination levels below the legally set limits, except for one maize sample. The main advantages of the developed method are the simplicity of operation and the low cost. PMID:26891772

  15. Simultaneous determination of methamphetamine and its metabolite, amphetamine, in urine using a high performance liquid chromatography column-switching method.

    PubMed

    Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Shibayama, Takayuki; Suga, Keisuke; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Jamal, Mostofa; Wang, Weihuan; Uekita, Ikuo; Ijiri, Iwao

    2007-01-01

    We describe here a simple, precise, and highly sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in urine using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column-switching method. A PK-2A (Shodex) column was used for extraction and deproteinization, and a CAPCELL PAK SCX semi-micro, polymer-coated cation-exchange column was employed for separation. The urine sample was mixed with an equal volume of borate buffer (0.1M, pH 9.4), and then 100 microl of the mixture was injected into the HPLC column. The column was switched for 6 min, and then 10 min later detection was performed at 210 nm. Recovery yields of the MA and AM spiked in the urine were 93.0-100.4% with a coefficient of variation of less than 1%. The calibration curves of MA and AM were in the range of 0.1-10 microg/ml with good linearity (r(2)=0.999), with the limit of qualification being 0.005 microg/ml. This method of using HPLC with column-switching can be used for both qualification and quantification of MA and its metabolite, AM, in urine, especially in forensic cases. PMID:16916628

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography multiresidue method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in fruit and vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Albero, Beatriz; Tadeo, José Luis

    2004-11-01

    A rapid multiresidue method has been developed for the analysis of N-methylcarbamate insecticides (oxamyl, methomyl, propoxur, carbofuran, carbaryl, and methiocarb) in fruit and vegetable juices. The method is based on the adsorption of the N-methyl carbamates in Florisil and the subsequent extraction of pesticides using a low volume of acetone. Residue levels in juice were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The separation of carbamates is performed on a C8 column with water-methanol as mobile phase. Recovery studies were performed at 500-, 100-, and 10-ng/ml fortification levels, and average recoveries obtained for carbamates ranged from 79 to 109%, with relative standard deviations between 1.4 and 9.9%. The method was found to be linear over the range assayed from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml, and the detection limits for carbamates varied from 0.8 to 1.9 ng/ml. PMID:15553643

  17. Development and validation of a simple and sensitive size-exclusion chromatography method for quantitative determination of heparin in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Matanović, Maja Radivojša; Grabnar, Iztok; Grabnar, Pegi Ahlin; Roškar, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant for the treatment and prevention of various thrombotic diseases. However, due to its high anionic charge, heterogeneity in size distribution and high polarity, its analysis is very challenging. In this paper, a novel method based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) for quantitative determination of intact heparin in pharmaceuticals is presented. Analyses were performed on a BioSep-SEC-S 2000 column with Larginine solution at pH 6.5 as mobile phase and UV detection at 210 nm. The proposed method was found to be selective, linear (R2>0.997) over the concentration range of 3.1 to 1222 μg mL(-1), with a limit of detection of 1.0 μg mL(-1). Intraday and inter-day precision were below 5.1% and inaccuracy expressed as bias did not exceed 6.5 %. The reported method is simple, selective, sensitive, and requires no laborious sample preparation, which makes it appropriate for routine quantitative analysis of heparin in pharmaceuticals. PMID:25781703

  18. Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Sensitive Method for the Determination of Dehydrodiisoeugenol in Rat Cerebral Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Xu, Wei; Li, Fei; Gonzezal, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the quantification of dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei after single intravenous administration. DDIE and daidzein (internal standard) were separated on a Diamonsil™ ODS C18 column with methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid (81:19, v/v) as a mobile phase. Detection of DDIE was performed on a positive electrospray ionization source using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. DDIE and daidzein were monitored at m/z 327.2→188.0 and m/z 255.0→199.2, respectively, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. This method enabled quantification of DDIE in various brain areas, including, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, cerebellum and brainstem, with high specificity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. The data herein demonstrate that our new LC-MS/MS method is highly sensitive and suitable for monitoring cerebral nuclei distribution of DDIE. PMID:27005607

  19. Determining the levels of volatile organic pollutants in urban air using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Nicoara, Simona; Tonidandel, Loris; Traldi, Pietro; Watson, Jonathan; Morgan, Geraint; Popa, Ovidiu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a method based on coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an isotopically labelled internal standard for the quantitative analysis of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and o-, m-, p-xylenes (X). Their atmospheric concentrations were determined based on short-term sampling, in different sites of Cluj-Napoca, a highly populated urban centre in N-W Romania, with numerous and diversified road vehicles with internal combustion engines. The method is relatively inexpensive and simple and shows good precision and linearity in the ranges of 7-60 mug/m(3) (B), 13-90 mug/m(3) (T), 7-50 mug/m(3) (E), 10-70 mug/m(3) (X-m,p), and 20-130 mug/m(3) (X-o). The limits of quantitation/detection of the method LOQ/LOD are of 10/5 mug/m(3) (Xo), 5/3 mug/m(3) (B, E, X-m,p), and of 3/1 mug/m(3) (T), respectively. PMID:20168976

  20. Fluorophore Absorption Size Exclusion Chromatography (FA-SEC): An Alternative Method for High-Throughput Detergent Screening of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yao; Sun, Xing-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-En; Li, Guan-Syun; Hu, Nien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many fundamental functions in cells including ATP synthesis, ion and molecule transporter, cell signalling and enzymatic reactions, accounting for ~30% genes of whole genomes. However, the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins frequently hampers the progress of structure determination. Detergent screening is the critical step in obtaining stable detergent-solubilized membrane proteins and well-diffracting protein crystals. Fluorescence Detection Size Exclusion Chromatography (FSEC) has been developed to monitor the extraction efficiency and monodispersity of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. By tracing the FSEC profiles of GFP-fused membrane proteins, this method significantly enhances the throughput of detergent screening. However, current methods to acquire FSEC profiles require either an in-line fluorescence detector with the SEC equipment or an off-line spectrofluorometer microplate reader. Here, we introduce an alternative method detecting the absorption of GFP (FA-SEC) at 485 nm, thus making this methodology possible on conventional SEC equipment through the in-line absorbance spectrometer. The results demonstrate that absorption is in great correlation with fluorescence of GFP. The comparably weaker absorption signal can be improved by using a longer path-length flow cell. The FA-SEC profiles were congruent with the ones plotted by FSEC, suggesting FA-SEC could be a comparable and economical setup for detergent screening of membrane proteins. PMID:27332877

  1. Magnetic solid phase extraction and static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; Wang, Lijia; NguyenVan, Manh; Cai, Qingyun

    2016-01-15

    A magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) protocol combining a static headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method has been developed for extraction, and determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water samples. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and modified by cholesterol chloroformate. Transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the cholesterol-functionalized sorbents, and the main parameters affecting the extraction as well as HS sampling, such as sorbent amount, extraction time, oven temperature and equilibration time have been investigated and established. Combination with HS sampling, the MSPE procedure was simple, fast and environmentally friendly, without need of any organic solvent. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels obtaining the limit of detection (S/N=3) ranging from 0.20 to 7.8 ng/L. Good values for intra and inter-day precision were obtained (RSDs ≤ 9.9%). The proposed method was successfully applied to drinking water samples. PMID:26724892

  2. Fluorophore Absorption Size Exclusion Chromatography (FA-SEC): An Alternative Method for High-Throughput Detergent Screening of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-En; Li, Guan-Syun; Hu, Nien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many fundamental functions in cells including ATP synthesis, ion and molecule transporter, cell signalling and enzymatic reactions, accounting for ~30% genes of whole genomes. However, the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins frequently hampers the progress of structure determination. Detergent screening is the critical step in obtaining stable detergent-solubilized membrane proteins and well-diffracting protein crystals. Fluorescence Detection Size Exclusion Chromatography (FSEC) has been developed to monitor the extraction efficiency and monodispersity of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. By tracing the FSEC profiles of GFP-fused membrane proteins, this method significantly enhances the throughput of detergent screening. However, current methods to acquire FSEC profiles require either an in-line fluorescence detector with the SEC equipment or an off-line spectrofluorometer microplate reader. Here, we introduce an alternative method detecting the absorption of GFP (FA-SEC) at 485 nm, thus making this methodology possible on conventional SEC equipment through the in-line absorbance spectrometer. The results demonstrate that absorption is in great correlation with fluorescence of GFP. The comparably weaker absorption signal can be improved by using a longer path-length flow cell. The FA-SEC profiles were congruent with the ones plotted by FSEC, suggesting FA-SEC could be a comparable and economical setup for detergent screening of membrane proteins. PMID:27332877

  3. Multiresidue method for the analysis of multiclass pesticides in agricultural products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Ana; Contreras, Mariano; Crespo, Juan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2002-03-01

    A multiresidue method is described for determining 55 organophosphorus and organochlorinated compounds and pyrethroids commonly used in crop protection. Pesticide residues are extracted from samples with a mixture of ethyl acetate and sodium sulfate, obtaining a final preconcentration of I mg sample (ml extract)(-1). No additional clean-up steps are necessary. Analysis is performed by gas chromatography by using a combination of positive chemical ionisation (PCI) and electron impact (EI) ionisation modes and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS-MS). Good sensitivity and selectivity of the method are obtained with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.07 to 4.21 microg kg(-1) in all the cases, except for methamidophos, permethrin, cypermethrin and difenconazol. Average recoveries between 52 and 114% are obtained and good linearity is observed in the studied ranges (r > or = 0.994). The RSD values are < or = 29% in all the cases. The method has been applied to the analysis of 178 vegetable samples, as a part of the monitoring programme of the Association of Producers and Exporters of Fruits and Vegetables of Almería (COEXPHAL) and quality control systems applied during the assays have demonstrated a good performance and stability with time. PMID:11996358

  4. Development of an offline bidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of stereospecific triacylglycerols in cocoa butter equivalents.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Le, Thien Trung; Dewettinck, Koen

    2013-08-21

    Acyl migration is a serious problem in enzymatic modification of fats and oils, particularly in production of cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymatic acidolysis reaction, which leads to the formation of non-symmetrical triacylglycerols (TAGs) from symmetrical TAGs. Non-symmetrical TAGs may affect the physical properties of final products and are therefore often undesired. Consequently, an accurate method is needed to determine positional isomer TAGs during the production of CBE. A bidimentional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with combination of non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC and silver ion HPLC joining with an evaporative light scattering detector was successfully developed for the analysis of stereospecific TAGs. The best separation of positional isomer standards was obtained with a heptane/acetone mobile-phase gradient at 25 °C and 1 mL/min. The developed method was then used in multidimensional determination of the TAG positional isomers in fat and oil blends and successfully identified the TAGs and possible isomers in enzymatically acidolyzed CBE. PMID:23931630

  5. A robust analytical method for measurement of phytoestrogens and related metabolites in serum with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongmei; Liao, Xiangjun; Wood, Carla M; Xiao, Chao-Wu; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-02-15

    A sensitive and robust method using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for quantitation of 13 phytoestrogens and related metabolites in rat serum samples. A new type of column, the Kinetex core-shell C18 column, was applied for rapid separation of the target analytes in 10min. Two enzymes, sulfatase H-1 and gulcuronidase H-5 from Helix pomatia were compared on the efficiency of releasing the conjugated forms of the target analytes to their free forms in serum samples. The method detection limit (MDL) defined as three times the signal to noise ratio in spiked serum matrix-based solutions was in the range of 0.1-3.5ng/mL. The linear dynamic calibration was in the broad range of 0.2-500ng/mL for all target compounds. Thirty-two rat serum samples from the rats that were fed with diets containing either casein or soy protein isolates with various amounts of isoflavones for 8 weeks were analyzed for the target analytes with the developed method. Nine target analytes were detected in the serum samples. Those detectable compounds are all the metabolites of the dietary isoflavones, suggesting that the diet isoflavones were mostly metabolized to their metabolites in rat. PMID:26815920

  6. [Affinity chromatography and proteomic screening as the effective method for S100A4 new protein targets discovery].

    PubMed

    Koshelev, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Affinity chromatography followed by a selective binding proteins identification can be using as effective method for a biological impotent interactions discovery. The molecular structure and their surface charge as and conformational regulation possibilities, which change their surface hydrophobic properties, all they should to taken in account during method optimization process. With the same' method we had identify some new S100A4 target proteins such as cytoskeleton proteins Sept2, Sept7, Sept11 and this interaction would can to highlight as S100A4 would regulate cell motility. Even we had identify the transcription cofactor Ddx5 and through such complex formation a S100A4 protein would can to regulate E-cadherin, p21 Waf1/Cip1), Bnip3 gene expression. The same protocol can be using for a target proteins search with another S100 protein family members, because their molecules demonstrate a high homology level in amino aside sequences and 3D structures. PMID:25842873

  7. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of methotrexate in cancer patients serum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-dong; Li, Yan; Liang, Ning-sheng; Yang, Fan; Kuang, Zhi-peng

    2015-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of methotrexate in human serum. After deproteinization of the serum with 40% silver nitrate solution, methotrexate and internal standard (IS) were separated on a reversed-phase column with a mobile phase consisting of 10mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH6.40)-methanol (78:22%, v/v) and ultraviolet detection at 310nm. The linearity is evaluated by a calibration curve in the concentration range of 0.05-10.0μg/mL and presented a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The absolute recoveries were 97.52±3.9% and 96.87±3.7% for methotrexate and ferulic acid (internal standard), respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision were less 6.19 and 5.89%, respectively (n=6). The limit of quantitation was 0.02μg/mL and the limit of detection was 0.006μg/mL. The complete analysis was achieved less than 10min with no interference from endogenous components or 22 examined drugs. This method was validated by using serum samples from high-dose methotrexate treated patients with osteosarcoma, breast cancer, acute leukemia and lymphoma. The method was demonstrated to be a simple, rapid and reliable approach in quantification of methotrexate in serum samples from patients with high-dose methotrexate therapy. PMID:26319303

  8. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for residual solvent assessment in seized cocaine and heroin.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Álvarez-Freire, Iván; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    A simple sample pre-treatment method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized and validated for the assessment of 15 residual solvents (2-propanol, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, acetone, ethyl acetate, benzene, hexane, methylcyclohexane, methylcyclopentane, m-xylene, propyl acetate, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, and ethylbenzene) in seized illicit cocaine and heroin. DMSO and DMF as sample diluents were found to offer the best residual solvent transference to the head space for further adsorption onto the SPME fiber, and the developed method therefore showed high sensitivity and analytical recovery. Variables affecting SPME were fully evaluated by applying an experimental design approach. Best conditions were found when using an equilibration time of 5 min at 70 °C and headspace sampling of residual solvents at the same temperature for 15 min. Method validation, performed within the requirements of international guidelines, showed excellent sensitivity, as well as intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The proposed methodology was applied to 96 cocaine samples and 14 heroin samples seized in Galicia (northwestern Spain) within 2013 and 2014. PMID:27405875

  9. Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Gary R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents selected recent advances in immobilization chemistry which have important connections to affinity chromatography. Discusses ligand immobilization and support modification. Cites 51 references. (CS)

  10. Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maunang M.; Solanki, Bhavna R.; Gurav, Nilesh C.; Patel, Prateek H.; Verma, Shweta S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 μg/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61%. The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 μg/m land 3.28 μg/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation. PMID:24083204

  11. Comprehensive multi-residue method for the target analysis of pesticides in crops using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Maurice; de Kok, André

    2007-06-22

    A liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous target analysis of a wide range of pesticides and metabolites in fruit, vegetables and cereals has been developed. Gradient elution has been used in conjunction with positive mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to detect up to 171 pesticides and/or metabolites in different crop matrices using a single chromatographic run. Pesticide residues were extracted/partitioned from the samples with acetone/dichloromethane/light petroleum. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of extracts from lettuce, orange, apple, cabbage, grape and wheat flour, spiked at three concentration levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.10 mg/kg for each pesticide and/or metabolite. In general, recoveries ranging from 70 to 110%, with relative standard deviations better than 15%, were obtained. The recovery and repeatability data are in good accordance with EU guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The limit of quantification for all targeted pesticides and metabolites tested was 0.01 mg/kg. The selectivity and robustness of the LC-MS/MS method was demonstrated by a 1-year comparison of its analytical results with those obtained from our validated GC and LC multi-residue methods applied to more than 3500 routine samples. The validated LC-MS/MS method has been implemented in our analytical scheme since 2004, replacing four of the conventional detection methods, i.e. GC-flame-photometric detection (acephate, methamidophos, etc.), GC-nitrogen-phosphorus detection, LC-UV detection (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and prochloraz) and LC-fluorescence detection (N-methylcarbamate pesticides). During a 3-year period, the LC-MS/MS method has been applied to the analyses of more than 12,000 samples. PMID:17442324

  12. Method Development for the Determination of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Soils by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) have been widely studied as precursors to perfluorocarboxylates, e.g. 8:2 FTOH degrades to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation describes an analytical method for the extraction and analysis of 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 FTOHs. Gas chromatograph...

  13. METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE ANION IN PLANT AND SOLID MATRICES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standardized method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The procedure greatly reduced the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. Ion chro...

  14. A new mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for analysis of natural and synthetic anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Chen, Jinfeng; He, Yu; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2009-01-15

    A simple, rapid and low-costing new mixed surfactant MEKC method has been developed for the analysis of five neutral anabolic steroids in this paper. It was found that the bile salt coupling with Triton X-100 was a suitable bi-micellar surfactant for the separation of these anabolic steroids with similar structure. The separation conditions were optimized in detail. The five natural and synthetic anabolic steroids, such as androstenedione (AD), 19-norandrostenedione (NAD), 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD), methandrostenolone (MA) and methyltestosterone (MT) were separated and detected in an alkaline buffer system (pH 9.0) containing 15 mM Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer, 50mM sodium cholate (SC) and 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 with detection wavelength at 241 nm and 18 kV of separation voltage. Under the optimal conditions, five coexistence neutral steroids were completely separated within 12 min with the detection limits ranged from 0.20 to 0.51 microg/mL. This method was successfully used for detection and confirmation of the anabolic steroid methandrostenolone in methandrostenolone tablets and in the real human urine, GC-MS method was applied to confirm the free methandrostenolone existence in the urine sample in order to validate the reliability of MEKC method. PMID:19064082

  15. Simple Method for Assaying Colistin Methanesulfonate in Plasma and Urine Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Milne, Robert W.; Nation, Roger L.; Turnidge, John D.; Coulthard, Kingsley; Valentine, Jason

    2002-01-01

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of colistimethate sodium in plasma and urine. The accuracy and reproducibility was within 10.1 and 11.2% with rat plasma and urine, respectively. Several commonly coadministered antibacterial agents do not interfere with the assay. PMID:12234867

  16. Comparison of sample preparation methods for reliable plutonium and neptunium urinalysis using automatic extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Xu, Yihong; Hou, Xiaolin; Miró, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes improvement and comparison of analytical methods for simultaneous determination of trace-level plutonium and neptunium in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four sample pre-concentration techniques, including calcium phosphate, iron hydroxide and manganese dioxide co-precipitation and evaporation were compared and the applicability of different techniques was discussed in order to evaluate and establish the optimal method for in vivo radioassay program. The analytical results indicate that the various sample pre-concentration approaches afford dissimilar method performances and care should be taken for specific experimental parameters for improving chemical yields. The best analytical performances in terms of turnaround time (6h) and chemical yields for plutonium (88.7 ± 11.6%) and neptunium (94.2 ± 2.0%) were achieved by manganese dioxide co-precipitation. The need of drying ashing (≥ 7h) for calcium phosphate co-precipitation and long-term aging (5d) for iron hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively, rendered time-consuming analytical protocols. Despite the fact that evaporation is also somewhat time-consuming (1.5d), it endows urinalysis methods with better reliability and repeatability compared with co-precipitation techniques. In view of the applicability of different pre-concentration techniques proposed previously in the literature, the main challenge behind relevant method development is pointed to be the release of plutonium and neptunium associated with organic compounds in real urine assays. In this work, different protocols for decomposing organic matter in urine were investigated, of which potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) treatment provided the highest chemical yield of neptunium in the iron hydroxide co-precipitation step, yet, the occurrence of sulfur compounds in the processed sample deteriorated the analytical performance of the ensuing extraction chromatographic separation with chemical

  17. METHOD 530 DETERMINATION OF SELECT SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/ MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    1.1. This is a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the determination of selected semivolatile organic compounds in drinking waters. Accuracy and precision data have been generated in reagent water, and in finished ground and surface waters for the compounds li...

  18. Ruggedness testing and validation of a practical analytical method for > 100 veterinary drug residues in bovine muscle by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, optimization, extension, and validation of a streamlined, qualitative and quantitative multiclass, multiresidue method was conducted to monitor great than100 veterinary drug residues in meat using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). I...

  19. A NEW SW-846 METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TOXAPHENE AND TOXAPHENE CONGENERS IN SOLID AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY / NEGATIVE ION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA SW-846 methods have typically relied on dual column gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for analysis of low concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, including toxaphene, in environmental samples. Toxaphene is one of the most widely appl...

  20. COMPUTER-ASSISTED HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD DEVELOPMENT WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENTS. (R826944)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used chromatography modeling software to assist in HPLC method development, with the goal
    of enhancing separations through the exclusive use of gradient time and column temperature. We
    surveyed nine stationary phases for their utility in pigment purification and natur...

  1. A sensitive liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method for the determination of posaconazole in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jim X; Krishna, Gopal; Hayes, Roger N

    2007-01-01

    Posaconazole is a novel extended-spectrum triazole that has favorable in vitro, in vivo and clinical activity against a number of yeasts and moulds. Posaconazole is available as an oral suspension. The dosage found to result in monitored plasma levels that correlate with clinical evidence of good antifungal activity is 800 mg/day in divided doses. A liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) that can be used by clinicians wishing to quantitate, and thereby monitor, plasma levels of posaconazole in certain patients was validated. The method utilized semi-automated 96-well protein precipitation with gradient chromatographic separation of analytes using a Varian Polaris C-18A (2.0 mm x 50 mm, 5-microm particle size) column. The approximate retention time of posaconazole was 2.0 min. Analytes were detected by using tandem mass spectrometry. Sample introduction and ionization was performed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the positive-ion mode. This method has been proven suitable for routine quantitation of posaconazole over the concentration range of 5.00-5000 ng/mL. Inter-run precision based on percent relative deviation for replicate quality controls was < or = 6.2%. Inter-run accuracy expressed as %DIFF was +/-4.0%. Posaconazole quality controls were stable in human plasma for up to five freeze-thaw cycles, when frozen at -20 degrees C for at least 105 days and when kept at room temperature for 24 h. The lower limit of quantitation was 5.00 ng/mL for a 100-microL sample aliquot. These data indicate that the LC-MS/MS method described is suitable for the rapid measurement of posaconazole over the concentration range of 5.00-5000 ng/mL. PMID:16859858

  2. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the "smoke pH." An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions. PMID:27415766

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography method development for a polymeric controlled-release drug formulation.

    PubMed

    Roston, D A; Sun, J J; Collins, P W; Perkins, W E; Tremont, S J

    1995-11-01

    We have recently been involved in the development of a method for assaying the active component in a controlled-release drug formulation, which is composed of a drug substance covalently bonded to polymer matrix. The drug substance in the formulation is the active enantiomer of misoprostol, a synthetic analog of natural prostaglandins and the active ingredient in Cytotec. Our method development consisted of a systematic evaluation of dynamic, off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as sample preparation for the formulation assay. Extracts were analyzed with normal phase and reversed-phase HPLC methods. The reversed-phase system utilized postcolumn reaction to provide selective detection of the extracted prostaglandin sample components. Several SFE parameters were investigated to optimize the recovery of the drug substance from the formulation, including sample quantity, extraction cell volume, extraction duration, supercritical carbon dioxide modifier, temperature, pressure, and collection solvent. The SFE experiments were completed with a commercially available multicell extractor. Preliminary validation studies utilized a formulation made with radiolabeled drug to determine the recovery achieved under the optimized SFE conditions and assessed the precision of replicate determinations. Analysis was completed under the optimized conditions to quantitate levels of the active component and related compounds in lots of the experimental polymeric formulation and to determine the total weight per cent extracted. PMID:8788137

  4. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the “smoke pH.” An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions. PMID:27415766

  5. Generalized multiple internal standard method for quantitative liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Shi, Cai-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-05-01

    In this contribution, a multiplicative effects model for generalized multiple-internal-standard method (MEMGMIS) was proposed to solve the signal instability problem of LC-MS over time. MEMGMIS model seamlessly integrates the multiple-internal-standard strategy with multivariate calibration method, and takes full use of all the information carried by multiple internal standards during the quantification of target analytes. Unlike the existing methods based on multiple internal standards, MEMGMIS does not require selecting an optimal internal standard for the quantification of a specific analyte from multiple internal standards used. MEMGMIS was applied to a proof-of-concept model system: the simultaneous quantitative analysis of five edible artificial colorants in two kinds of cocktail drinks. Experimental results demonstrated that MEMGMIS models established on LC-MS data of calibration samples prepared with ultrapure water could provide quite satisfactory concentration predictions for colorants in cocktail samples from their LC-MS data measured 10days after the LC-MS analysis of the calibration samples. The average relative prediction errors of MEMGMIS models did not exceed 6.0%, considerably better than the corresponding values of commonly used univariate calibration models combined with multiple internal standards. The advantages of good performance and simple implementation render MEMGMIS model a promising alternative tool in quantitative LC-MS assays. PMID:27072522

  6. Repeatability of gradient ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in instrument-controlled thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Grinias, James P; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-08-26

    The impact of viscous friction on eluent temperature and column efficiency in liquid chromatography is of renewed interest as the need for pressures exceeding 1000bar to use with columns packed with sub-2μm particles has grown. One way the development of axial and radial temperature gradients that arise due to viscous friction can be affected is by the thermal environment the column is placed in. In this study, a new column oven integrated into an ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatograph that enables both still-air and forced-air operating modes is investigated to find the magnitude of the effect of the axial thermal gradient that forms in 2.1×100mm columns packed with sub-2μm particles in these modes. Temperature increases of nearly 30K were observed when the generated power of the column exceeded 25W/m. The impact of the heating due to viscous friction on the repeatability of peak capacity, elution time, and peak area ratio to an internal standard for a gradient UHPLC-MS/MS method to analyze neurotransmitters was found to be limited. This result indicates that high speed UHPLC-MS/MS gradient methods under conditions of high viscous friction may be possible without the negative effects typically observed with isocratic separations under similar conditions. PMID:27457561

  7. Separation of boron from borated paraffin wax by pyrohydrolysis and alkali extraction methods and its determination using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Raut, Vaibhavi Vishwajeet; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Shah, Dipti Jayesh; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Tomar, Bhupendra Singh; Ramakumar, Karanam Lakshminarayana

    2015-01-01

    A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H3BO3 and B4C. The optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U3O8, which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O2 at 950°C for 60 and 90 min for wax with H3BO3 and wax with B4C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H3BO3. In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained it between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N = 3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD). PMID:25765277

  8. A Novel and Rapid Method to Determine Doxycycline in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, A. Chaitanya; Sathiyaraj, M.; Saravanan, R. S.; Chelladurai, R.; Vignesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of doxycycline from the human plasma. Doxycycline is extracted from human plasma by solid phase extraction. Demeclocycline was used as an internal standard. Detection was performed at transitions of 444.800→428.200 for doxycycline and 464.700→448.100 for demeclocycline using mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation of analyte and internal standard were carried out using a reverse phase C18, column at 0.500 ml/min flow. The assay of doxycycline is linear over the range of 0.055-7.612 μg/ml, with a precision <14.83%, regression coefficient (r2)=0.9961 and the limit of quantification in plasma for doxycycline was 0.055 μg/ml. Mean extraction recovery obtained was 95.55%. Samples are stable at room temperature for 6 h, processed samples were stable at least for 30.20 h and also stable at three freeze-thaw cycles. The method has been used to perform pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in human plasma. PMID:23798780

  9. Optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haihua; Yu, Jing; Wu, Linlin; Xing, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Huang, Peipei; Zhang, Jinsong; Xiao, Hang; Gao, Rong

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS) method has been developed and validated for quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine. The sample preparation was carried out by one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The paraquat was separated with a HILIC column in 10min. Detection was performed using Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer by Targeted-MS/MS scan mode. Methodological parameters, such as ammonium formate concentration, formic acid concentration, spray voltage, capillary temperature, heater temperature and normalized collision energy were optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of LOQ-1000ng/mL. LOD was 0.1 and 0.3ng/mL, LOQ was 0.3 and 0.8ng/mL for urine and plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <7.97% and 4.78% for plasma and urine. The accuracies were within the range 93.51-100.90%. The plasma and urine matrices had negligible relative matrix effect in this study. This method was successfully applied to determine paraquat concentration in plasma samples with hemoperfusion from 5 suspected paraquat poisoning patients. PMID:27270261

  10. Method development and validation for boscalid in blueberries by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography, and their degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Munitz, Martín S; Resnik, Silvia L; Montti, María I T

    2013-02-15

    Analytical method for the residues of boscalid in blueberries was developed. Fungicide residues were determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture (μ-ECD) detector. The effect of pH values and fiber coatings were studied. The SPME fiber coating selected was 100 μm PDMS. The method is selective with adequate precision and high accuracy and sensitivity. Recoveries ranged within the 98-104% range, and detection and quantification limits were 1.33 and 4.42 μg/kg, respectively. Statistical parameters indicated the occurrence of matrix effect; consequently calibration was performed on spiked samples. Degradation of boscalid was studied in a blueberry field located in Concordia, Argentina, with fruits from Emerald and Jewel varieties. The degradation of boscalid in both blueberry varieties studied followed a first order rate kinetics and the half-life for boscalid was 5.3 and 6.3 days for Emerald and Jewel cultivars, respectively. PMID:23194540

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method-based urine metabolomic profile of rats with pelvic inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, WEI; WEN, XIAOKE; SHENG, XIAOQI; ZHENG, YI; XIAO, ZUOQI; LUO, JIEYING; CHEN, SHUQIONG; WANG, YICHAO; CHENG, ZENENG; XIANG, DAXIONG; NIE, YICHU

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can lead to a poor outcome of severe sequelae, and the current methods of clinical diagnosis are not satisfactory. Metabolomics is an effective method for the identification of disease-related metabolite biomarkers to facilitate disease diagnosis. However, to the best of our knowledge, no PID-associated metabolomic study has yet been carried out. The metabolomic changes of rats with PID were investigated in the present study. A PID model was constructed by the multi-pathogenic infection of the upper genital tract in rats. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and elevated expression levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the uterus and fallopian tubes validated the disease model. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with derivatization was used to determine the urine metabolomic profile. Principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis of the data sets showed a clear separation of metabolic profiles between rats with PID and control rats. Eighteen differentiating metabolites were found, including four amino acids, three fatty acids, nine organic acids, and two sugars, which indicated alterations in sugar metabolism, the citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism. These metabolites could be potential biomarkers of PID, and this research may offer a new approach to evaluate the effect of anti-PID drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. PMID:27168785

  12. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy sterols and bile acids.

    PubMed

    John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tödter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R2) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation. PMID:25456597

  13. A simple and sensitive method for the determination of propofol in human solid tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Kudo, Keiko; Usumoto, Yosuke; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2010-09-01

    Propofol is a widely used intravenous agent for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and for sedation in intensive care patients, but it is also associated with abuse and dependency. A simple and sensitive method for the determination of propofol in human whole blood, brain, liver, and adipose tissue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected-ion monitoring mode is described. Propofol was extracted from 0.2-mL or 0.2-g sample size by a single-step basic extraction procedure using 100 microL heptane with thymol (50 ng) as an internal standard. The calibration curves of the specimens were linear in the concentration range of 10-5000 ng/mL or ng/g, and the limit of detection was 2.5 ng/mL in blood, 5.0 ng/g in brain and liver, and 10 ng/g in adipose tissue. Absolute recovery of propofol was determined in three samples and averaged over 95% for blood and brain, 66% for liver, and 51% for adipose tissue. Within-day and between-day precision was measured in five samples each at 50 and 500 ng/mL or ng/g in all specimens and was determined to be less than 10%. The developed propofol method was applied to a forensic autopsy case where a suspected propofol misinjection occurred eight days prior to death, and the tissue analysis was vital to the case. PMID:20822676

  14. Development of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography purification methods using rapid solubility screening with multiple solubility chambers.

    PubMed

    Gahm, Kyung H; Huang, Ke; Barnhart, Wesley W; Goetzinger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Rapid solubility screening in diverse supercritical fluids (SCFs) was carried out via multiple solubility chambers with a trapping device and online ultraviolet (UV) detection. With this device, it was possible to rapidly study the solubility variations of multiple components in a mixture. Results from solubility studies have been used to develop efficient supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) methods. After the investigation of solubilities of theophylline and caffeine in several neat organic solvents and SCFs, advantages of SFE over conventional organic solvent extraction were demonstrated with a model mixture of theophylline and caffeine. The highest solubility ratio of 1:40 (theophylline:caffeine) was observed in the SCF with 20% acetonitrile (MeCN), where a ratio of 1:11 was the highest in the neat organic solvents. A model mixture of theophylline:caffeine (85:15 w/w, caffeine as an impurity) was successfully purified by SFE by leveraging the highest solubility difference. The SCF with 20% MeCN selectively removed caffeine and left theophylline largely intact. Rapid SCF solubility screening was applied to development of SFE and SFC methods in a drug discovery environment. Two successful applications were demonstrated with proprietary Amgen compounds to either remove an achiral impurity before chiral purification or enhance chiral chromatographic throughput. PMID:21766341

  15. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods.

    PubMed

    Pylypiw, H M; Grether, M T

    2000-06-23

    A rapid and reliable method is presented for the determination of the preservatives sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in fruit juices, sodas, soy sauce, ketchup, peanut butter, cream cheese, and other foods. The procedure utilizes high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by UV diode array detection for identification and quantitation of the two preservatives. Liquid samples were prepared by diluting 1 ml of the sample with 10 ml of an acetonitrile/ammonium acetate buffer solution. Samples of viscous or solid foods were prepared by blending the sample with the same buffer solution in a 1:5 ratio followed by a dilution identical to liquid samples. All samples were filtered to remove particulate matter prior to analysis. The HPLC determination of the preservatives was performed using a reversed-phase C18 column and UV detection at 225 nm for sodium benzoate and 255 nm potassium sorbate. The percentage of preservative in the sample was calculated by external standard using authentic sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. Apple juice, apple sauce, soy sauce, and peanut butter, spiked at 0.10 and 0.050% for both sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, yielded recoveries ranging from 82 to 96%. The method can detect 0.0010% (10 mg/l) of either preservative in a juice matrix. PMID:10910223

  16. Chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method development for the detection of salbutamol in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sue Hay; Lee, Warren; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Tan, Soo Choon

    2016-07-01

    A sequential solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of salbutamol enantiomers in porcine urine. Porcine urine samples were hydrolysed with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase from Helix pomatia and then subjected to a double solid-phase extraction (SPE) first using the Abs-Elut Nexus SPE and then followed by the Bond Elut Phenylboronic Acid (PBA) SPE. The salbutamol enantiomers were separated using the Astec CHIROBIOTIC™ T HPLC column (3.0mm×100mm; 5μm) maintained at 15°C with a 15min isocratic run at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The mobile phase constituted of 5mM ammonium formate in methanol. Salbutamol and salbutamol-tert-butyl-d9 (internal standard, IS) was monitored and quantified with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method showed good linearity for the range of 0.1-10ng/mL with limit of quantification at 0.3ng/mL. Analysis of the QC samples showed intra- and inter-assay precisions to be less than 5.04%, and recovery ranging from 83.82 to 102.33%. PMID:27232053

  17. A novel method for analysing key corticosteroids in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Weisser, Johan J; Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a methodology for extraction, clean-up and analysis of three key corticosteroids (aldosterone, cortisol and corticosterone) in polar bear hair. Such a methodology can be used to monitor stress biomarkers in polar bears and may provide as a useful tool for long-term and retrospective information. We developed a combined pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)-solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure for corticosteroid extraction and clean-up followed by high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This procedure allows for the simultaneous determination of multiple steroids, which is in contrast to previous polar bear studies based on ELISA techniques. Absolute method recoveries were 81%, 75% and 60% for cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone, respectively. We applied the developed method on a hair sample pooled from four East Greenland polar bears. Herein cortisol and corticosterone were successfully determined in levels of 0.32±0.02ng/g hair and 0.13±0.02ng/g hair, respectively. Aldosterone was below limit of detection (LOD<0.17ng/g). The cortisol hair concentration found in these East Greenland polar bears was consistent with cortisol levels previously determined in the Southern Hudson Bay and James Bay in Canada using ELISA kits. PMID:26945133

  18. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, F. R.; Pagliuca, G.; Multari, G.; Panzini, G.; D’amore, E.; Altieri, I.

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances. PMID:26798166

  19. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, F R; Pagliuca, G; Multari, G; Panzini, G; D'amore, E; Altieri, I

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances. PMID:26798166

  20. A new method for the determination of sulphide in gastrointestinal contents and whole blood by microdistillation and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C J; Magee, E A; Cummings, J H

    2000-03-01

    Hydrogen sulphide is produced in the human large intestine by the bacterial reduction of dietary inorganic sulphate and sulphite and by fermentation of sulphur amino acids. Sulphide may damage the colonic epithelium and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. The accurate measurement of sulphide in biological samples, particularly in gut contents is difficult due to the volatile nature of the compound, and the viscosity and turbidity of the samples. Here we describe a method for the determination of sulphide in gut contents and whole blood which overcomes these problems. Initially, samples are treated with zinc acetate to trap sulphide. A microdistillation pretreatment is then used, which releases sulphide from its stable, stored state, coupled to ion chromatography with electrochemical detection. The limit of detection of the method was determined as 2.5 micromol/l, which enabled sulphide levels in gut contents and whole blood samples obtained from humans to be accurately determined. A preliminary investigation in healthy human subjects showed blood sulphide ranged from 10 to 100 micromol/l. Whole blood sulphide did not change significantly when increasing amounts of protein from meat were fed. However, faecal sulphide did show a significant increase from 164 to 754 nmol/g in four subjects fed diets which contained 60 and 420 g meat. PMID:10699427

  1. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for characterization of monoaromatic nitro-compounds in atmospheric particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Kitanovski, Zoran; Grgić, Irena; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Maenhaut, Willy

    2012-12-14

    Nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the atmosphere have drawn attention owing to their impact on aerosol chemistry and physics and their potential adverse effects on the biosphere. Among them, nitrocatechols and their homologs have recently been associated with biomass burning. In the present study, nitrocatechols, nitrophenols, nitroguaiacols and nitrosalicylic acids (NSAs) were simultaneously quantified for the first time by using a new analytical method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, which was systematically optimized and validated. Several analyte specific issues regarding the sample preparation and chromatographic analysis were addressed in order to ensure method sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. Sample matrix effects were thoroughly investigated in order to ensure method specificity. The method was found to be sensitive with limits of detection ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 μg L(-1), and with accuracy generally between 90 and 104%. The relative standard deviations for repeatability and intermediate precision were better than 4% and 9%, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of winter and summer PM(10) samples from the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Aerosol concentrations as high as 152 and 134 ng m(-3) were obtained for the major aerosol nitro-aromatics: 4-nitrocatechol (4NC) and methyl-nitrocatechols (MNCs), respectively. Up to 500-times higher concentrations of 4NC and MNCs were found in winter compared to summer aerosols. The correlation analysis for winter samples showed that 4NC, MNCs, and NSAs are strongly inter-correlated (R(2)=0.84-0.96). Significant correlations between these analytes and anhydrosugars support their proposed origin from biomass burning. The studied nitro-aromatics were found to constitute a non-negligible fraction (around 1%) of the organic carbon. PMID:23122275

  2. A method of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide determination in ambient air by use of passive samplers and ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krochmal, Dariusz; Kalina, Andrzej

    A passive sampling method for simultaneous determination of SO 2 and NO 2 in ambient air is presented. Sampling periods from 24 h to 1 month can be applied. SO 2 and NO 2 collected by the sampler are determined as sulphate and nitrite with ion chromatography in a single run. Both suppressed or nonsuppressed IC can be applied with the former giving lower detection limits. Analysis for NO 2 as nitrite can be also performed spectrophotometrically after reaction with Saltzman reagent. The lower determination limit for monthly exposure of samplers is 0.5 and 0.7 μg m -3 for NO 2 and SO 2, respectively. For shorter periods of exposure the determination limit is proportionally higher. Precision of the method as RSD is 6% for NO 2 and 14% for SO 2 at concentrations of around 50 μg m -3. Influence of meteorological factors like sunlight, wind velocity, temperature and humidity of air on sampling rate have been minimised by an appropriate modification of the sampler and calibration of the method under various conditions. The method has been optimised to make it possible to perform large number of analyses at a very low cost. Passive samplers can be stored before and after exposure for a period of up to 10 weeks what makes it possible to prepare and analyse them by a central laboratory for better integrity of data. Samplers can be sent from and back to the central laboratory by mail. Suitability of the method for large-scale monitoring was demonstrated in several projects.

  3. Use of combined chromatographic methods including thin-layer chromatography for analysis of complex polymer systems. Determination of the polydispersity of block copolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate by gel permeation, thin-layer and pyrolysis gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Belenkii, B G; Gankina, E S; Nefedov, P P; Lazareva, M A; Savitskaya, T S; Volchikhina, M D

    1975-05-01

    A combination of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (PGC) has been used for investigations of a polymethyl methacrylate-polystyrene-polymethyl methacrylate block copolymer. Continuous distribution of the polymer (40-mg sample) was attained according to the content of the styrene and methyl methacrylate units and of the block copolymer and according to the composition of the copolymer as functions of the hydrodynamic radius of the macromolecules. The polymer was subjected to a preliminary fractionation with an analytical gel chromatograph. The fractions were investigated by TLC, which permitted the separation of the block copolymer and the homopolymers. The composition of the fractions obtained by GPC and TLC was determined by PGC. As a result, it was possible to establish the composition of the block copolymer and its ratio to polymethyl methacrylate in each fraction. This investigation was based on a combination of highly effective fractionation by chromatographic methods with precise quantitative ratios obtained from Benoit's universal calibration graph and from determinations of the composition of the polymer fractions by PGC. The mechanism of the TLC of polymers, including the appearance of artefacts that distort the results of analysis, is also discussed. PMID:1150816

  4. Statistical and computational methods for comparative proteomic profiling using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Listgarten, Jennifer; Emili, Andrew

    2005-04-01

    The combined method of LC-MS/MS is increasingly being used to explore differences in the proteomic composition of complex biological systems. The reliability and utility of such comparative protein expression profiling studies is critically dependent on an accurate and rigorous assessment of quantitative changes in the relative abundance of the myriad of proteins typically present in a biological sample such as blood or tissue. In this review, we provide an overview of key statistical and computational issues relevant to bottom-up shotgun global proteomic analysis, with an emphasis on methods that can be applied to improve the dependability of biological inferences drawn from large proteomic datasets. Focusing on a start-to-finish approach, we address the following topics: 1) low-level data processing steps, such as formation of a data matrix, filtering, and baseline subtraction to minimize noise, 2) mid-level processing steps, such as data normalization, alignment in time, peak detection, peak quantification, peak matching, and error models, to facilitate profile comparisons; and, 3) high-level processing steps such as sample classification and biomarker discovery, and related topics such as significance testing, multiple testing, and choice of feature space. We report on approaches that have recently been developed for these steps, discussing their merits and limitations, and propose areas deserving of further research. PMID:15741312

  5. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography method for the stabilization of epigallocatechin gallate.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, Joana F; Parra, Alexander; Silva, Amélia M; Egea, Maria A; Souto, Eliana B; Garcia, Maria L; Calpena, Ana C

    2014-11-20

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea catechin with potential health benefits, such as anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. In general, EGCG is highly susceptible to degradation, therefore presenting stability problems. The present paper was focused on the study of EGCG stability in HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) medium regarding the pH dependency, storage temperature and in the presence of ascorbic acid a reducing agent. The evaluation of EGCG in HEPES buffer has demonstrated that this molecule is not able of maintaining its physicochemical properties and potential beneficial effects, since it is partially or completely degraded, depending on the EGCG concentration. The storage temperature of EGCG most suitable to maintain its structure was shown to be the lower values (4 or -20 °C). The pH 3.5 was able to provide greater stability than pH 7.4. However, the presence of a reducing agent (i.e., ascorbic acid) was shown to provide greater protection against degradation of EGCG. A validation method based on RP-HPLC with UV-vis detection was carried out for two media: water and a biocompatible physiological medium composed of Transcutol®P, ethanol and ascorbic acid. The quantification of EGCG for purposes, using pure EGCG, requires a validated HPLC method which could be possible to apply in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. PMID:25175728

  6. Simplified method for the determination of chlorinated fungicides and insecticides in fruits by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Columé, A; Cárdenas, S; Gallego, M; Valcárcel, M

    2000-06-16

    A fast, reliable method for the determination of more than twenty chlorinated fungicides and insecticides in a variety of fruit samples is presented. The pesticides are extracted from chopped samples with magnetic stirring, after adding 13 ml of acetone-phosphate buffer-brine solution (12:1, v/v) with 5 ml of n-hexane. The continuous module employed allows sequential decolourization of the organic phase, solvent changeover and solid-phase extraction for clean-up and preconcentration purposes. A 1-microl aliquot of the pesticides in ethyl acetate (eluent) is finally injected into the gas chromatograph for separation and identification. The method provides excellent clean-up despite the complexity of the matrices involved. Fruit samples (5-20 g) containing 0.1-1250 ng/g pesticides were analysed with a high precision (4-6%). After contamination of the fruit samples for 12 h, average recoveries >90% at fortification levels of 5-25 ng/g were obtained for most of the pesticides. Positive findings of these pesticides in fruits purchased at local markets were confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:10895943

  7. Validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Jaitak, Vikas; Gupta, A P; Kaul, V K; Ahuja, P S

    2008-08-01

    A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated as per ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization) guidelines for simultaneous quantification of three steviol glycosides, i.e. steviolbioside, stevioside and rebaudioside-A in Stevia rebaudiana leaves. For achieving good separation, mobile phase of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (80:20:12, v/v/v) on pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates were used. The densitometric quantification of steviol glycosides was carried out at lambda=510 nm in reflection-absorption mode after spraying with acetic anhydride:sulphuric acid:ethanol reagent. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 160-960 ng/spot for steviolbioside, 1-6 microg/spot for stevioside and 0.5-3 microg/spot for rebaudioside-A with good correlation coefficients (0.998-0.999). The method was found to be reproducible for quantitative analysis of steviol glycosides in S. rebaudiana leaves collected from ten different locations and will serve as a quality control indicator to monitor the commercial production of stevioside and its allied molecules during different stages of its processing. PMID:18456448

  8. Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Francis W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This review covers fundamental developments in gas chromatography during 1982 and 1983. Literature is considered under these headings: columns; liguid phases; solid supports; sorption processes and solvents; open tubular column gas chromatography; instrumentation; high-resolution columns and applications; other techniques; qualitative and…

  9. Optimization of two methods for the analysis of hydrogen peroxide: high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in direct current mode.

    PubMed

    Tarvin, Megan; McCord, Bruce; Mount, Kelly; Sherlach, Katy; Miller, Mark L

    2010-11-26

    Two complementary methods were optimized for the separation and detection of trace levels of hydrogen peroxide. The first method utilized reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). With this approach, hydrogen peroxide was detected based upon its participation in the hemin-catalyzed oxidation of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to yield the fluorescent dimer. The second method utilized high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). With this approach, hydrogen peroxide was detected based upon its oxidation at a gold working electrode at an applied potential of 400 mV vs. hydrogen reference electrode (Pd/H(2)). Both methods were linear across the range of 15-300 μM, and the electrochemical method was linear across a wider range of 7.4-15,000 μM. The limit of detection for hydrogen peroxide was 6 μM by HPLC/FD, and 0.6 μM by HPLC/ED. A series of organic peroxides and inorganic ions were evaluated for their potential to interfere with the detection of hydrogen peroxide. Studies investigating the recovery of hydrogen peroxide with three different extraction protocols were also performed. Post-blast debris from the detonation of a mixture of concentrated hydrogen peroxide with nitromethane was analyzed on both systems. Hydrogen peroxide residues were successfully detected on this post-blast debris. PMID:21030031

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Hostetler, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) were developed for the analysis of the following chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water: acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for both the HPLC-DAD and HPLC/MS methods in reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC-DAD recoveries of the chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.25, 0.50, and 2.0 mg/L (micrograms per liter) ranged from 84 to 112 percent, with relative standard deviations of 18 percent or less. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.05, 0.20, and 2.0 mg/L ranged from 81 to 125 percent, with relative standard deviations of 20 percent or less. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all metabolites using the HPLC-DAD method was 0.20 mg/L, whereas the LOQ using the HPLC/MS method was 0.05 mg/L. These metabolite-determination methods are valuable for acquiring information about water quality and the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

  11. A high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet method for Eschweilera nana leaves and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    Outuki, Priscila M.; Lazzeri, Nides S.; de Francisco, Lizziane M. B.; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A.; Ferreira, Izabel C. P.; Cardoso, Mara Lane C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eschweilera nana Miers is a tree widely distributed in Cerrado, Brazil. Objective: In this study, we aimed to describe its phytochemical properties and antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects for the first time, as well validate an high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible (HPLC-UV-Vis) method for the separation and quantification of the main components (hyperoside and rutin) in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. Materials and Methods: Structural identification of compounds in E. nana extract was performed by analysis of spectral data by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and/or ESI/EM. The HPLC-UV-Vis method was validated according International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) parameters. The 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activities and the croton oil-induced inflammation for evaluation of in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Results: Hyperoside, rutin, α-amirin, β-amirin, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol were identified in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. HPLC-UV-Vis was validated according to ICH parameters. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract and methanol fraction showed significant antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects, as they were able to reduce ear edema induced by croton-oil application. Conclusions: This research showed the first phytochemical study of E. nana extract and their biological activities may be associated with the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:26246741

  12. Development of a Microemulsion High Performance Liquid Chromatography (MELC) Method for Determination of Salbutamol in Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDIS)

    PubMed Central

    Althanyan, MS; Clark, BJ; Hanaee, J; Assi, KH

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A sensitive and rapid oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion high performance liquid chromatography (MELC) method has been developed. The water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion was used as a mobile phase in the determination of salbutamol in aqueous solutions. In addition, the influence of operating parameters on the separation performance was examined. Methods The samples were injected into C18, (250mm×4.6mm) analytical columns maintained at 25oC with a flow rate 1 ml/min. The mobile phase was 95.5% v/v aqueous orthophosphate buffer 20 mM (adjusted to pH 3 with orthophosphoric acid), 0.5% ethyl acetate, 1.5% Brij35, and 2.5% 1-butanol, all w/w. The salbutamol and internal standard peaks were detected by fluorescence detection at the excitation and emission wavelengths of 267 and 313 nm respectively. Results The method had an accuracy of > 97.78% and the calibration curve was linear (r2 = 0.99) over salbutamol concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (CV %) were <1.6 and <1.8, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 9.61ng/ml and 29.13ng/ml, respectively. Conclusion The method reported is simple, precise and accurate, and has the capacity to be used for determination of salbutamol in the pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:23678468

  13. Isolation of Exosomes from Blood Plasma: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Ultracentrifugation and Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods

    PubMed Central

    Baranyai, Tamás; Herczeg, Kata; Onódi, Zsófia; Voszka, István; Módos, Károly; Marton, Nikolett; Nagy, György; Mäger, Imre; Wood, Matthew J.; El Andaloussi, Samir; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Kumar, Vikas; Nagy, Péter; Kittel, Ágnes; Buzás, Edit Irén; Ferdinandy, Péter; Giricz, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Background Exosomes are emerging targets for biomedical research. However, suitable methods for the isolation of blood plasma-derived exosomes without impurities have not yet been described. Aim Therefore, we investigated the efficiency and purity of exosomes isolated with potentially suitable methods; differential ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Methods and Results Exosomes were isolated from rat and human blood plasma by various UC and SEC conditions. Efficiency was investigated at serial UC of the supernatant, while in case of SEC by comparing the content of exosomal markers of various fractions. Purity was assessed based on the presence of albumin. We found that the diameter of the majority of isolated particles fell into the size range of exosomes, however, albumin was also present in the preparations, when 1h UC at 4°C was applied. Furthermore, with this method only a minor fraction of total exosomes could be isolated from blood as deduced from the constant amount of exosomal markers CD63 and TSG101 detected after serial UC of rat blood plasma samples. By using UC for longer time or with shorter sedimentation distance at 4°C, or UC performed at 37°C, exosomal yield increased, but albumin impurity was still observed in the isolates, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and immunoblotting against CD63, TSG101 and albumin. Efficiency and purity were not different in case of using further diluted samples. By using SEC with different columns, we have found that although a minor fraction of exosomes can be isolated without significant albumin content on Sepharose CL-4B or Sephacryl S-400 columns, but not on Sepharose 2B columns, the majority of exosomes co-eluted with albumin. Conclusion Here we show that it is feasible to isolate exosomes from blood plasma by SEC without significant albumin contamination albeit with low vesicle yield. PMID:26690353

  14. Method for enhanced accuracy in predicting peptides using liquid separations or chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, Lars J.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-11-14

    A method for predicting the elution time of a peptide in chromatographic and electrophoretic separations by first providing a data set of known elution times of known peptides, then creating a plurality of vectors, each vector having a plurality of dimensions, and each dimension representing the elution time of amino acids present in each of these known peptides from the data set. The elution time of any protein is then be predicted by first creating a vector by assigning dimensional values for the elution time of amino acids of at least one hypothetical peptide and then calculating a predicted elution time for the vector by performing a multivariate regression of the dimensional values of the hypothetical peptide using the dimensional values of the known peptides. Preferably, the multivariate regression is accomplished by the use of an artificial neural network and the elution times are first normalized using a transfer function.

  15. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, R.

    1997-10-08

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  16. Simultaneous determination of ketoconazole and formaldehyde in a shampoo: liquid chromatography method development and validation.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyde, Y; Nguyet, A Nguyen Minh; Detaevenier, M R; Massart, D L; Plaizier-Vercammen, J

    2002-06-01

    Ketoconazole is an antifungal agent, which is the active ingredient in a shampoo primarily used for the treatment of seborrhatic dermatitis (anti-dandruff shampoo). The shampoo also contains imidazolidinylurea as a formaldehyde releasing preservative. The aim of this study was to develop a HPLC system that allows the determination of both ketoconazole and formaldehyde. The finally selected isocratic system consisted of an Interchrom Nucleosil (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 microm) C8 column and a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-phosphate buffer 0.025 M, pH 4.0, 45/55 (v/v). Ketoconazole could immediately be determined at 250 nm after injection of diluted shampoo. Formaldehyde was measured at 345 nm after derivatisation with a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution. At the selected conditions, the other excipients of the shampoo did not interfere in the assays for both substances. Method validation was performed on both assays. Different selectivity towards ketoconazole and formaldehyde was observed when applying other C8 columns. This fact, however, did not affect the assays of both substances. PMID:12134817

  17. Evaluation of fast enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography methods for monoterpenic compounds: Authenticity control of Australian tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yong Foo; West, Rachel N; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of fast multiple heart-cut enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (GC-eGC) and enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (eGC×GC), to perform the stereoisomeric analysis of three key chiral monoterpenes (limonene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol) present in tea tree oil (TTO). In GC-eGC, separation was conducted using a combination of mid-polar first dimension ((1)D) column and a chiral second dimension ((2)D) column, providing interference-free enantioresolution of the individual antipodes of each optically active component. A combination of (1)D chiral column and (2)D polar columns (ionic liquid and wax phases) were tested for the eGC×GC study. Quantification was proposed based on summation of two major modulated peaks for each antipode, displaying comparable results with those derived from GC-eGC. Fast chiral separations were achieved within 25min for GC-eGC and<20min for eGC×GC, while ensuring adequate interference-free enantiomer separation. The suitability of using these two enantioselective multidimensional approaches for the routine assessment of chiral monoterpenes in TTO was evaluated and discussed. Exact enantiomeric composition of chiral markers for authentic TTOs was proposed by analysing a representative number of pure TTOs sourced directly from plantations of known provenance in Australia. Consistent enantiomeric fractions of 61.6±1.5% (+):38.4±1.5% (-) for limonene, 61.7±1.6% (+):38.3±1.6% (-) for terpinen-4-ol and 79.6±1.4% (+):20.4±1.4% (-) for α-terpineol were obtained for the 57 authentic Australian TTOs. The results were compared (using principle component analysis) with commercial TTOs (declared as derived from Melaleuca alternifolia) obtained from different continents. Assessing these data to determine adulteration, or additives that affect the enantiomeric ratios, in commercially sourced TTOs is discussed. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over e

  18. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of several natural red dyestuff and lake pigments used in art work.

    PubMed

    Maguregui, M I; Alonso, R M; Barandiaran, M; Jimenez, R M; García, N

    2007-06-22

    The identification of organic colorants used in artistic paintings is an important information source for reconstructing the working techniques found in a particular work and for defining a programme for the restoration and conservation of the painting. In this work, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a surfactant in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for separating a broad range of red organic pigments, based on their colouring matters: madder (colouring matters: alizarin, quinizarin and purpurin), cochineal (colouring matter: carminic acid), red sandalwood (colouring matter: santalin), brazilwood (colouring matter: brazilin), lac dye (colouring matter: laccaic acid) and dragon's blood (colouring matter: dracorhodin). The running electrolyte used was 20 mM borax (pH 9), containing 20 mM SDS and 10% acetonitrile as organic modifier. Separation was carried out by applying a +20 kV voltage at the injection end, 25 degrees C and 214 nm/254 nm as detection wavelengths. All colorants were separated within less than 13 min with a good baseline resolution. The method was applied to the analysis of paint samples obtained from the Diocesan Museum of Holy Art of Bilbao. PMID:17452040

  19. Simultaneous determination of some ultraviolet-absorbing chemicals in sunscreen cosmetics using a high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Wu, D

    2011-10-01

    A method of gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for simultaneous determination of 11 different ultraviolet-absorbing chemicals of phenylbenzlmldazole sulphonic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, benzophenone-4, benzophenone-3, isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, homosalate, ethylhexyl salicylate, methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutyl phenol was developed for the application to sunscreen cosmetic products. In this study, an Agilent SB-C18 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was utilized and methanol, tetrahydrofuran and perchloric acid aqueous solution (0.2 mL HClO(4) + 300 mL H(2)O) were used for gradient elution at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The optimum conditions for 11 different ultraviolet-absorbing chemicals analyses were investigated. All calibration curves showed good linear regression with UV detection (311 nm) within test ranges. The correlation coefficients were better than 0.999 in all cases. The assay was simple, selective, convenient and reproducible and is suitable for the determination of ultraviolet-absorbing chemicals in commercial sunscreen cosmetic products. The use frequency of 11 different ultraviolet absorbents in 100 sunscreen cosmetics was investigated and statistically analysed. The ultraviolet absorbent of maximum use frequency was ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. PMID:21401649

  20. Chromatography of carbon nanotubes separated albumin from other serum proteins: a method for direct analysis of their interactions.

    PubMed

    Kuboki, Yoshinori; Koshikawa, Takamitu; Takita, Hiroko; Fujisawa, Ryuichi; Lee, Min-ho; Abe, Shigeaki; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio; Sammons, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    Chromatography technology was employed to clarify the mechanism of interaction between multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and proteins. A column (16x100 mm) was packed with purified MWCNT, and various proteins were eluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with and without gradient systems. It was found that albumin in bovine serum was eluted immediately from the column without any adsorption to MWCNT. Conversely, the non-albumin proteins, including a protein of 85 kDa molecular mass and a group of proteins with molecular masses higher than 115 kDa, exhibited considerably high affinity towards MWCNT. A sample of pure bovine serum albumin was also eluted immediately from the column, while lysozyme did not elute as a peak with PBS, but eluted with 0.6 M NaCl. Fundamentally, carbon nanotubes are devoid of any electrical charge. Therefore, other forces including the hydrogen bonds, hydrophilic interactions, and van der Waals forces were most probably responsible for the differential elution behaviors. In conclusion, this chromatographic method provided a simple and direct analysis of the interactions between carbon nanotubes and the various proteins. PMID:20610879

  1. Re-evaluation of thin layer chromatography as an alternative method for the quantification of prostaglandins from rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Jungermann, Kurt; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to conventionally used immunoassays, thin layer chromatography (TLC)--by prelabeling of cells with radioactive arachidonic acid (AA)--allows to differentiate between cellularly built and added prostanoids and thus to investigate feedback effects of prostanoids on their own release. PGD2, TXB2 and PGE2 released from zymosan-stimulated Kupffer cells were separated with distinct RF-values, corresponding to those of the pure substances. Quantification of PGD2 and PGE2 gave comparable results with TLC and immunoassays, but measurement in the presence of added prostanoids was only possible with TLC. Moreover TLC was superior to immunoassays in having a longer linear range while being comparably sensitive. Cellularly built TXB2 in its radioactively labeled form was not detectable by TLC. Inhibition of TXB2 release by externally added AA or technical artifacts were excluded, suggesting that the cellular AA-pools used for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis differ in their accessibility for added AA. Thus, TLC is a simple, sensitive and precise method for the quantification of cellularly built prostaglandins but not of thromboxane even in the presence of added prostanoids. PMID:15789620

  2. Nontargeted Screening Method for Illegal Additives Based on Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanqing; Zhou, Zhihui; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Xinjie; Chen, Yihui; Chen, Jia; Wu, Zeming; Xu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2016-09-01

    Identification of illegal additives in complex matrixes is important in the food safety field. In this study a nontargeted screening strategy was developed to find illegal additives based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). First, an analytical method for possible illegal additives in complex matrixes was established including fast sample pretreatment, accurate UHPLC separation, and HRMS detection. Second, efficient data processing and differential analysis workflow were suggested and applied to find potential risk compounds. Third, structure elucidation of risk compounds was performed by (1) searching online databases [Metlin and the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)] and an in-house database which was established at the above-defined conditions of UHPLC-HRMS analysis and contains information on retention time, mass spectra (MS), and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of 475 illegal additives, (2) analyzing fragment ions, and (3) referring to fragmentation rules. Fish was taken as an example to show the usefulness of the nontargeted screening strategy, and six additives were found in suspected fish samples. Quantitative analysis was further carried out to determine the contents of these compounds. The satisfactory application of this strategy in fish samples means that it can also be used in the screening of illegal additives in other kinds of food samples. PMID:27480407

  3. Preparation of Highly Purified Stearidonic Acid from Echium Oil via an Enzymatic Method Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baik, Ji Yeon; Kim, Nam Ho; Oh, Se-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can be obtained from plant origin oils and it can be a good source of PUFA for vegetarians. SDA can be easily converted to longer PUFA such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Highly purified stearidonic acid (SDA) was prepared successfully from echium oil via an enzymatic method combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography. In the 1(st) step, SDA enrichment was accomplished using Candida rugosa lipase and 39.5% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction. Subsequently, the 1(st) reaction mixture was used for the 2(nd) enzymatic esterification without any separation process. The 2(nd) esterification was conducted for further SDA enrichment in a packed-bed reactor using Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei and the SDA content increased in a very short residence time. Ethanol was selected as an appropriate alcohol to react as an acyl receptor, and the other conditions for SDA enrichment were optimized at 20°C of temperature, and 1:4 of molar ratio (i.e., fatty acid to ethanol). Under these conditions, 51.6% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction after a residence time of 15 min. Finally, highly purified SDA (purity, >99%) was obtained by prep-HPLC using the SDA-rich fraction obtained from the two-step lipase-catalyzed esterification. PMID:25994555

  4. A rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(n) method for evaluation of synephrine in Citrus aurantium L. samples.

    PubMed

    Mattoli, Luisa; Cangi, Francesca; Maidecchi, Anna; Ghiara, Caterina; Tubaro, Michela; Traldi, Pietro

    2005-12-28

    Immature bitter orange fruit and its extracts have been introduced into the market as an alternative to Ephedra in weight loss products. However, the safety of the immature bitter orange fruit and its extracts is a debated argument due to the presence of synephrine, a constituent known as a sympathomimetic agent. In this paper, we describe the development of a new, rapid, and simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method devoted to the quantitative determination of synephrine in bitter orange samples, containing a high quantity of synephrine, and sweet orange samples, known to contain a low level of synephrine but at the same time being one of the main synephrine sources in a normal human diet. Two bitter orange dry extracts containing 5 and 6% sSynephrine and 10 sweet orange samples have been analyzed. Between the sweet orange samples, six were fresh oranges and four were fresh-squeezed juices; in these samples, the synephrine levels ranged from 0.00128 to 0.00349%. PMID:16366666

  5. Screening of inorganic gases released from firework-rockets by a gas chromatography/whistle-accelerometer method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Wu, Hui-Hsin; Lin, Chien-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2013-08-30

    The use of an accelerometer for detecting inorganic gases in gas chromatography (GC) is described. A milli-whistle was connected to the outlet of the GC capillary and was used instead of a classical GC detector. When the GC carrier gases and the sample gases pass through the milli-whistle, a sound is produced, leading to vibrational changes, which can be recorded using an accelerometer. Inorganic gases, including SO2, N2 and CO2, which are released from traditional Chinese firework-rockets at relatively high levels as the result of burning the propellant and explosive material inside could be rapidly determined using the GC/whistle-accelerometer system. The method described herein is safe, the instrumentation is compact and has potential to be modified so as to be portable for use in the field. It also can be used in conjunction with FID (flame ionization detector) or TCD (thermal conductivity detector), in which either no response for FID (CO2, N2, NO2, SO2, etc.) or helium gas is needed for TCD, respectively. PMID:23891209

  6. Liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method for multi-residue determination of macrolide antibiotics in sheep's milk.

    PubMed

    García-Mayor, M A; Garcinuño, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P; Durand-Alegría, J S

    2006-07-28

    A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven macrolides (erythromycin, oleandomycin, roxithromycin, josamycin, spiramycin, tylosin and ivermectin) in sheep's milk. The column, mobile phase, temperature and flow rate were optimised to provide the best resolution of these analytes. The extraction of the antibiotic residues involves the treatment of protein-free samples with a combination of concentrated sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. Necessary defatting is achieved by alkaline hydrolysis. The recovery of each antibiotic was between 55% and 77%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1% to 6.5%. The limit of quantification was 72.4 microg/kg for ivermectin, 48.3 microg/kg for roxithromycin, and 24.1 microg/kg for erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, josamycin and tylosin. The procedure was successfully used in the multi-residue determination of these macrolides at levels below the maximum concentrations legally allowed in milk samples. PMID:16682049

  7. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of chlorinated pesticides in aquatic tissue by capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, Thomas J.; Madsen, J.E.; Deacon, J.R.; Foreman, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic tissue by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection is described. Whole-body-fish or corbicula tissue is homogenized, Soxhlet extracted, lipid removed by gel permeation chromatography, and fractionated using alumina/silica adsorption chromatography. The extracts are analyzed by dissimilar capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. The method reporting limits are 5 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) for chlorinated compounds, 50 μg/kg for polychlorinated biphenyls, and 200 μg/kg for toxaphene.

  8. Development of a method based on on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled by means of an adsorption-desorption interface for the analysis of selected chiral volatile compounds in methyl jasmonate treated strawberries.

    PubMed

    de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2010-02-12

    A method based on the use of the through oven transfer adsorption-desorption (TOTAD) interface in on-line coupling between reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (RPLC-GC) for the determination of chiral volatile compounds was developed. In particular, the method was applied to the study of the influence of methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment on the production and enantiomeric composition of selected aroma compounds in strawberry. The compounds studied were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (i.e. furaneol), which were examined on days 3, 6 and 9 after treatment. The method developed resulted in relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 21.6%, 8.1% and 9.8% and limits of detection (LD) of 0.04, 0.07 and 0.02mg/l for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol, respectively. The application of the RPLC-TOTAD-GC method allowed higher levels of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol to be detected, particularly after 9 days of treatment. Besides, MJ demonstrated to affect the enantiomeric distribution of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. On the contrary, the enantiomeric composition of linalool and furaneol kept constant in both control and MJ-treated strawberries throughout the study. These results are discussed. PMID:19878953

  9. A derivatisation and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry method for the characterisation of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Rowland, S J

    2008-12-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are partially uncharacterised complex mixtures of carboxylic acids, resulting from the microbial oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons. They are associated with the fouling of pipelines and process equipment in oil production and with corrosion in oil refineries. As by-products of the rapidly expanding oil (tar) sands industries, NAs are also pollutants and have proved to be toxic to a range of organisms. They also have important beneficial uses as fungicides, tyre additives and, paradoxically, also in the manufacture of corrosion inhibitors. These features make the characterisation of NAs an important goal for analytical chemists. Here we describe the synthesis of amide derivatives of NAs for characterisation by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS(n)). The method was applied to commercially available carboxylic acids, novel synthetic NAs, commercial NAs refined from crude oils, crude oil NAs and Athabasca oil sands NAs. In addition to confirming the number of alicyclic rings and length of alkyl side chain substituents (confirming information from existing methods), the MS(n) results provided further structural information. Most important of these was the finding that bi- to polycyclic acids containing ethanoate side chains, in addition to alkyl substituents, were widespread amongst the oil and oil sands NAs. The latter NAs are known end members of the beta-oxidation of NAs with even carbon number alkanoate chains. Since such NA mixtures are toxic, they should be targets for bioremediation. Bioremediation of NAs can also be monitored better by application of the methods described herein. PMID:18988206

  10. A simple sample pretreatment method for multi-mycotoxin determination in eggs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Runyue; Zhao, Zhiyong; Wang, Jianhua; Bai, Bing; Wu, Aibo; Yan, Liping; Song, Suquan

    2015-10-23

    In this study, a reliable and fast method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure without any clean-up step was developed for simultaneous extraction of 15 mycotoxins, i.e., aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin M2, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, de-epoxy-DON, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol, from eggs. High-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate and detect all of the analytes. Electrospray ionization at both negative and positive modes and multiple reaction-monitoring mode were applied to detect these analytes. The main factors, such as extraction time, extraction solvent, evaporation temperature, and pH of the solvent, were carefully optimized to improve the extraction efficiency. The coefficients of determination of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9884 to 0.9998. The recoveries of most of the analytes were between 71.3% and 105.4% at three concentration levels, except for AFB1 that showed recovery rates of not more than 67.5% in all concentrations. The repeatability and intra-lab reproducibility of this method were both lower than 15% and 25%, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.2 μg/kg to 5 μg/kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and reduced by the use of matrix-matched calibration curves. The validated method was applied in a pilot study to analyze mycotoxin contamination in 12 eggs, and trace amounts of deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G2, zearalenone and β-zearalenol were detected in these samples. PMID:26385084

  11. Development and validation of an ion chromatography method for the determination of phosphate-binding of lanthanum carbonate.

    PubMed

    Samy, Raghu; Faustino, Patrick J; Adams, Wallace; Yu, Lawrence; Khan, Mansoor A; Yang, Yongsheng

    2010-04-01

    Lanthanum carbonate is indicated to reduce serum phosphate in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). When given orally, lanthanum carbonate dissociates in the acid environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract to release lanthanum ions. The free lanthanum ions bind with dietary phosphate released from food during digestion to form highly insoluble lanthanum-phosphate complexes which prevent the absorption of phosphate, consequently reduce the serum phosphate. In order to evaluate the in vitro binding capacity of lanthanum carbonate, a simple and efficient ion chromatography (IC) method was developed and validated for determination of phosphate across the pH range encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Dionex ICS-2000 IC system using a Dionex AS16, IonPac (4mmx250mm) analytical column and Dionex AG16, IonPac (4mmx50mm) guard column. Column temperature was maintained at 30 degrees C. Injection volume was 10microL. The compounds were eluted isocratically at a flow rate of 1mL/min and detected by suppressed conductivity. The analytical method was validated according to USP Category I requirements. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, quantification limit, linearity, and stability. The intra-day accuracy ranged from 89% to 103% for the solutions of pH 1.2-6.8. The intra-day precision (RSD) ranged from 0.6% to 3.7% for the solutions of pH 1.2-6.8. The analytical range was linear from 2 to 200ppm (mg/L). The R(2) ranged from 0.9998 to 1.0. This method was found to be simple, robust, sensitive, specific, and accurate. It has been successfully applied for determination of phosphate binding to lanthanum carbonate over the human gastrointestinal pH range at different time-points (from 0.5 to 24h). PMID:20031362

  12. Method for quantification of opioids and their metabolites in autopsy blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Ahmed I; Anderson, Robert A

    2007-09-01

    A method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, buprenorphine, and naloxone with their metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, normorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, hydromorphine-3-glucuronide, dihydrocodeine-6-glucuronide, dihydromorphine, dihydromorphine-3-glucuronide, dihydromorphine-6-glucuronide, oxymorphone, norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide, norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide, and naloxone-3-glucuronide in human whole blood. Polar metabolites (glucuronides) and other analytes were extracted by SPE using Bond Elut C18. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Synergi reversed-phase column with gradient elution based on a mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium formate adjusted to pH 3 and acetonitrile. Intraday and interday precision for all analytes were between 0.6% and 13.8%, and recoveries were between 80.3% and 101.4%. Calibration curves were linear for all analytes over the concentration range 5-400 ng/mL, and correlation coefficients (R(2)) were better than 0.999. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.16-1.2 ng/mL and 0.5-4.09 ng/mL, respectively. The method described consolidates previous work on opioids and their metabolites published in the literature and is the first to include the detection of naloxone-3-glucuronide. The method has been applied in routine postmortem cases after opiate overdose with the threefold purpose of providing interpretive information on the cause and type of death (rapid, sub-acute, or delayed death) and to distinguish heroin, morphine, and codeine users. PMID:17725888

  13. A High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Method for Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride and Naproxen Sodium in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Bhole, R.P.; Shinde, S.S.; Chitlange, S.S.; Wankhede, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method with densitometry at 230 nm was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and naproxen sodium (NPS) from pharmaceutical preparation. The separation was carried out on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using mobile phase toluene:methanol:glacial acetic acid (7.5:1:0.2, v/v/v). The linearity range lies between 200 and 1200 ng/band for DPH and 1760 and 10,560 ng/band for NPS with correlation coefficients of 0.994 and 0.995, respectively. The Rf value for DPH is 0.20 ± 0.05 and for NPS is 0.61 ± 0.06. % Recoveries of DPH and NPS was in the range of 99.70%–99.95% and 99.63%–99.95%, respectively. Limit of detection value for DPH was 13.21 ng/band and for NPS was 8.03 ng/band. Limit of quantitation value for DPH was 40.06 ng/band and for NPS was 24.34 ng/band. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. In stability testing, DPH was found unstable to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, and DPH and NPS were found unstable to oxidation, whereas both the drugs were stable to neutral and photodegradation. The proposed method was successfully applied for the routine quantitative analysis of dosage form containing DPH and NPS. PMID:26692760

  14. A capillary liquid chromatography method for benzalkonium chloride determination as a component or contaminant in mixtures of biocides.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; Argente-García, A; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2016-01-29

    A method for quantifying benzalkonium chloride (BAK), an alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium compound, in several biocides formulations is proposed. A tertiary amine like N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (TA) and a straight-chain alkyl ammonium compound like trimethyl-tetradecyl ammonium chloride (TMTDAC), have been employed as trade surfactants besides BAK. Two capillary analytical columns with different polarities are tested: inertsil CN-3 capillary column (150mm×0.5mm i.d., 3μm particle diameter) and a non endcapped Zorbax C18 capillary column (35mm×0.5mm i.d., 5μm particle diameter). This latter column provided the best separation of the BAK homologues in less than 12min using acetonitrile:acetate buffer (50mM, pH 5) 85:15 at 20μLmin(-1). The proposed method combines on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) coupled to capillary liquid chromatography (CapLC) and UV diode array detection. Matrix effect was present when TA were in excess to BAK. If TMTDAC is the co-biocide, matrix effect is always present. A decreasing of analytical response mainly for C12-BAK homologue was found using both chromatographic columns. The charged amount of mixture in the system was the most important parameter for obtaining reliable results. 1mL was the on line processed sample volume optimum for concentrations lower than 35μgmL(-1) of total surfactants. LODs were 0.03μgmL(-1) and 0.006μgmL(-1) for C12-BAK and C14-BAK, respectively. This method is also of use to evaluate the unwanted presence of BAK in biocide formulations due to industrial processes. PMID:26755418

  15. A comparison between two different automated total 25-hydroxyvitamin D immunoassay methods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Fatma Emel; Ozturk, Bahadir; Isiklar, Ozben Ozden; Genc, Ozlem; Unlu, Ali; Altuntas, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most reliable indicator of vitamin D status. In this study, we compared two automated immunoassay methods, the Abbott Architect 25-OH Vitamin D assay and the Roche Cobas Vitamin D total assay, with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Materials and methods One hundred venous blood samples were randomly selected from routine vitamin D tests. Two of the serum aliquots were analyzed at the Abbott Architect i2000 and the Roche Cobas 6000’s module e601 in our laboratory within the same day. The other serum aliquots were analyzed at the LC-MS/MS in different laboratory. Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare methods. Inter-rater agreement was analyzed using kappa (κ) analysis. Results The Roche assay showed acceptable agreement with the LC-MS/MS based on Passing-Bablok analysis (intercept: -5.23 nmol/L, 95% CI: -8.73 to 0.19; slope: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.15). The Abbott assay showed proportional (slope: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.85) and constant differences (intercept: 17.08 nmol/L; 95% CI: 12.98 to 21.39). A mean bias of 15.1% was observed for the Abbott and a mean bias of -14.1% was observed for the Roche based on the Bland-Altman plots. We found strong to nearly perfect agreement in vitamin D status between the immunoassays and LC-MS/MS. (κ: 0.83 for Abbott, κ: 0.93 for Roche) using kappa analysis. Conclusion Both immunoassays demonstrated acceptable performance, but the Roche Cobas assay demonstrated better performance than the Abbott Architect in the studied samples. PMID:26526462

  16. A High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Method for Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride and Naproxen Sodium in Tablets.

    PubMed

    Bhole, R P; Shinde, S S; Chitlange, S S; Wankhede, S B

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method with densitometry at 230 nm was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and naproxen sodium (NPS) from pharmaceutical preparation. The separation was carried out on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using mobile phase toluene:methanol:glacial acetic acid (7.5:1:0.2, v/v/v). The linearity range lies between 200 and 1200 ng/band for DPH and 1760 and 10,560 ng/band for NPS with correlation coefficients of 0.994 and 0.995, respectively. The R f value for DPH is 0.20 ± 0.05 and for NPS is 0.61 ± 0.06. % Recoveries of DPH and NPS was in the range of 99.70%-99.95% and 99.63%-99.95%, respectively. Limit of detection value for DPH was 13.21 ng/band and for NPS was 8.03 ng/band. Limit of quantitation value for DPH was 40.06 ng/band and for NPS was 24.34 ng/band. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. In stability testing, DPH was found unstable to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, and DPH and NPS were found unstable to oxidation, whereas both the drugs were stable to neutral and photodegradation. The proposed method was successfully applied for the routine quantitative analysis of dosage form containing DPH and NPS. PMID:26692760

  17. Measurement of Circulating 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D: Comparison of an Automated Method with a Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Armin; Ernst, Jana B.; Becker, Tobias; Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Gummert, Jan F.; Kuhn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical relevance of circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is probably underappreciated, but variations in the measurement of this difficult analyte between different methods limit comparison of results. Methods. In 129 clinical samples, we compared a new automated assay with a commercially available liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) kit. Results. Median (interquartile range) 1,25(OH)2D concentrations with the automated assay and the LC-MS/MS method were 26.6 pg/mL (18.5–39.0 pg/mL) and 23.6 pg/mL (16.1–31.3 pg/mL), respectively (P = 0.001). Using the method-specific cut-offs for deficient 1,25(OH)2D levels (<20 pg/mL for the automated assay and <17 pg/mL for the LC-MS/MS method), the percentage of patients classified as 1,25(OH)2D deficient was 28.7% and 27.1%, respectively. However, concordance between the two methods for deficient levels was only 62% and the concordance correlation coefficient was poor (0.534). The regression equation resulted in an intercept of −1.99 (95% CI: −7.33–1.31) and a slope of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.04–1.52) for the automated assay. The mean bias with respect to the mean of the two methods was −3.8 (1.96 SD: −28.3–20.8) pg/mL for the LC-MS/MS method minus the automated assay. Conclusions. The two methods show only modest correlation and further standardization is required to improve reliability and comparability of 1,25(OH)2D test procedures. PMID:27127512

  18. Aroma composition of red wines by different extraction methods and Gas Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Dimaggio, Rosa; Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Piombino, Paola; Moio, Luigi

    2005-06-01

    One hundred and one volatile compounds, reported in literature as powerful odorants of wine, were quantified by Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring/Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM/MS) in Primitivo, Aglianico, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Wine samples were extracted by 3 different extraction methods: 1) separation of the alcoholic fraction from the aqueous phase by salting-out and subsequent extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113); 2) extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with dichloromethane; 3) solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge: 800 mg of LiChrolut EN resin) with pentane-dichloromethane (20:1) and dichloromethane. The selection of the ion fragments used for quantification was directly performed on a red wine sample. For each compound the area of the corresponding peak was normalized respect to the peak of the internal standard and then interpolated in a calibration curve obtained analysing a model wine solution (water, ethanol, tartaric acid and known amounts of analytes and of internal standard). The methods showed a good linearity: r2>0.990, except for farnesol (isomer a and c), octanal, decanal, furaneol and phenylacetic acid with 0.966 < or = r2 < or = 0.990. The 7 most powerful odorants were: beta-damascenone, acetaldehyde, maltol, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanoic acid and acetal; 7 other slightly less important were: ethyl hexanoate, ethyl acetate, 1-octen-3-ol, butanoic acid, rose oxide, furaneol and sotolon. The Aglianico wines were characterised by the major fermentation compounds (esters, fatty acids and 2-phenylethanol), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone and linalool. The Primitivo wines were characterized by furaneol, methoxypyrazine, gamma-nonalactone and acetaldehyde, while Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines principally by cask derivates (vanillin, (Z) 3-methyl-gamma-octalactone [(Z) wiskylactone], maltol and eugenol), some aldehydes and 3

  19. Improved method for the on-line metal chelate affinity chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tetracycline antibiotics in animal products.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A D; Stubbings, G W; Kelly, M; Tarbin, J A; Farrington, W H; Shearer, G

    1998-07-01

    An improved on-line metal chelate affinity chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography (MCAC-HPLC) method for the determination of tetracycline antibiotics in animal tissues and egg has been developed. Extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate. The extract was then evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in methanol prior to on-line MCAC clean-up and HPLC-UV determination. Recoveries of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline and chlortetracycline in the range 42% to 101% were obtained from egg, poultry, fish and venison tissues spiked at 25 micrograms kg-1. Limits of detection less than 10 microgram kg-1 were estimated for all four analytes. This method has higher throughput, higher recovery and lower limits of detection than a previously reported on-line MCAC-HPLC method which involved aqueous extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up. PMID:9691328

  20. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  1. Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Stuart P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Selects fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation in gas chromatography (GC). A special section reviews GC in the People's Republic of China. Over 1,000 references are cited. (CS)

  2. Size exclusion chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection as a method for speciation analysis of polydimethylsiloxanes. II. Validation of the method for analysis of pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Mojsiewicz-Pieńkowska, Krystyna

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the size exclusion chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (SEC-ELSD) method in the identification and quantitative analysis of polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS). The process of validation for the method was conducted, and the values obtained were compared with the acceptance criteria. Particularly important was the conclusion that SEC-ELSD method showed a high specificity for PDMS. PDMS is an organosilicon polymer and for this reason, it does not exist as a concrete chemical species. Depending on the length of the chain, PDMS can be toxic for organism. So far, the SEC-ELSD method has not been applied for the control of pharmaceutical products containing such PDMS as dimeticone or simeticone. The safety of use and effectiveness of such pharmaceutical products relies on the control of their quality. Therefore, the analytical methods and procedures that meet acceptance criteria for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the PDMS should be used. In the case of the analysis of pharmaceutical products, the acceptance criteria are established and recommended by, for example, the Pharmacopoeias, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The progress of knowledge, however, requires the development of new analytical tools which are able to solve incoming problems. In the case of pharmaceutical formulations containing PDMS, which are used not only by adults but also by children, it is necessary to use analytical methods which are characterized by a high specificity. PMID:21840148

  3. Application of gas-liquid chromatography to the analysis of essential oils. Part XVII. Fingerprinting of essential oils by temperature-programmed gas-liquid chromatography using capillary columns with non-polar stationary phases. Analytical methods committee.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    Problems in obtaining reproducible results when 'fingerprinting' essential oils by temperature-programmed gas-liquid chromatography have been reported on in Parts VII and VIII of this series. Those reports were concerned with the general problems and the use of packed columns. This report is concerned with the use of capillary columns and non-polar stationary phases. A collaborative study using capillary columns with non-polar stationary phases has resulted in a method which specifies the 'g-pack value' of a column and gives reproducible relative retention indices for the test compounds limonene, acetophenone, linalol, naphthalene, linalyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol. The method has been applied successfully to the examination of oil of rosemary. A recommended method is given for the reproducible temperature-programmed gas-liquid chromatographic fingerprinting of essential oils using capillary columns with non-polar stationary phases. PMID:9463975

  4. A simultaneous quantitative method for vitamins A, D and E in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Albahrani, Ali A; Rotarou, Victor; Roche, Peter J; Greaves, Ronda F

    2016-05-01

    Non-classical roles of fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) in many pathologies including cancer have been identified. There is also evidence of hormonal interactions between two of these vitamins, A and D. As a result of this enhanced clinical association with disease, translational clinical research and laboratory requests for FSV measurement has significantly increased. However there are still gaps in the analytical methods available for the measurement of these vitamins. This study aimed to develop a method for simultaneous quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25-OHD2), 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25-OHD3) and its 3-epimer (epi-25-OHD3), retinol and α-tocopherol in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The procedure was developed and validated across two LC-MS/MS platforms, using commercial calibrators referenced to certified reference materials, controls, and deuterated internal standards. The samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction prior to injection and LC separation (using a Pursuit-PFP column) on two Agilent MS/MS systems (6410 and 6490) in electrospray ionisation positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Identification and quantification of 25-OHD3 from its 3-epimer as well as 25-OHD2, retinol and α-tocopherol were achieved. The dynamic ranges were 4-160 nmol/L for 25-OHD2 and epi-25-OHD3, 4-200 nmol/L for 25-OHD3, 0.1-4.0μmol/L for retinol and 4-70μmol/L for α-tocopherol with correlation (r(2)) of 0.997-0.998. Based on participation in an external quality assurance program, the overall performance of the simultaneous methods were: imprecision (CV%) and inaccuracy (average bias) 3.0% and 3.2 nmol/L, respectively, for 25-OHD3; 5.0% and 0.04μmol/L, respectively, for retinol; and 4.7% and 0.2μmol/L, respectively, for α-tocopherol. In summary, two simple LC-MS/MS methods were successfully developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the three vitamin D metabolites (25-OHD2, 25-OHD3 and 3

  5. Qualitative validation of a liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry screening method for organic pollutants in waters.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R; Ibáñez, M; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F

    2013-02-01

    A multiclass wide-scope screening of organic contaminants in natural and waste water has been developed and validated for qualitative purposes, i.e. detection and reliable identification of compounds detected in samples at a certain level of concentration. The screening is based on the use of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and has been applied to water samples of different origin and matrix composition (surface water, ground water and effluent urban wastewater). Water samples were spiked with a standard mixture of around 150 organic contaminants from different chemical families (including a number of relevant metabolites/transformation products (TPs), at 0.1 and 1 μg/L concentration levels. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges, sample extracts were analyzed by LC-QTOF MS and the accurate-mass full-spectrum data were processed for qualitative analysis. The presence of at least two ions (typically the (de)protonated molecule and one fragment ion) accurate-mass measured was used for the reliable identification. The screening detection limit (SDL) and the limit of identification (LOI) were established as the main parameters of the screening method. Nearly all compounds could be detected at the lowest concentration tested, but identification was problematic for some compounds at 0.1 μg/L level, especially in wastewater samples. The screening procedure was finally applied to different water samples using a home-made database of around 1100 organic contaminants. It allowed the detection and identification of several antibiotics, anti-inflammatory/analgesics drugs and lipid regulators. Cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine were also frequently detected. In addition, triazine herbicides and their TPs, and fungicides like thiabendazol, carbendazim or imazalil, were also identified in some of the samples. PMID:23313303

  6. Validation of the Mass-Extraction-Window for Quantitative Methods Using Liquid Chromatography High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Gaétan; Grund, Baptiste; Gassner, Anne-Laure; Menin, Laure; Henry, Hugues; Bromirski, Maciej; Schütz, Frédéric; McMullen, Justin; Rochat, Bertrand

    2016-03-15

    A paradigm shift is underway in the field of quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis thanks to the arrival of recent high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS). The capability of HRMS to perform sensitive and reliable quantifications of a large variety of analytes in HR-full scan mode is showing that it is now realistic to perform quantitative and qualitative analysis with the same instrument. Moreover, HR-full scan acquisition offers a global view of sample extracts and allows retrospective investigations as virtually all ionized compounds are detected with a high sensitivity. In time, the versatility of HRMS together with the increasing need for relative quantification of hundreds of endogenous metabolites should promote a shift from triple-quadrupole MS to HRMS. However, a current "pitfall" in quantitative LC-HRMS analysis is the lack of HRMS-specific guidance for validated quantitative analyses. Indeed, false positive and false negative HRMS detections are rare, albeit possible, if inadequate parameters are used. Here, we investigated two key parameters for the validation of LC-HRMS quantitative analyses: the mass accuracy (MA) and the mass-extraction-window (MEW) that is used to construct the extracted-ion-chromatograms. We propose MA-parameters, graphs, and equations to calculate rational MEW width for the validation of quantitative LC-HRMS methods. MA measurements were performed on four different LC-HRMS platforms. Experimentally determined MEW values ranged between 5.6 and 16.5 ppm and depended on the HRMS platform, its working environment, the calibration procedure, and the analyte considered. The proposed procedure provides a fit-for-purpose MEW determination and prevents false detections. PMID:26836506

  7. Influence of Different Shellfish Matrices on the Separation of PSP Toxins Using a Postcolumn Oxidation Liquid Chromatography Method

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Botana, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The separation of PSP toxins using liquid chromatography with a post-column oxidation fluorescence detection method was performed with different matrices. The separation of PSP toxins depends on several factors, and it is crucial to take into account the presence of interfering matrix peaks to produce a good separation. The matrix peaks are not always the same, which is a significant issue when it comes to producing good, reliable results regarding resolution and toxicity information. Different real shellfish matrices (mussel, scallop, clam and oyster) were studied, and it was seen that the interference is not the same for each individual matrix. It also depends on the species, sampling location and the date of collection. It was proposed that separation should be accomplished taking into account the type of matrix, as well as the concentration of heptane sulfonate in both solvents, since the mobile phase varies regarding the matrix. Scallop and oyster matrices needed a decrease in the concentration of heptane sulfonate to separate GTX4 from matrix peaks, as well as dcGTX3 for oysters, with a concentration of 6.5 mM for solvent A and 6.25 mM for solvent B. For mussel and clam matrices, interfering peaks are not as large as they are in the other group, and the heptane sulfonate concentration was 8.25 mM for both solvents. Also, for scallops and oysters, matrix interferences depend not only on the sampling site but also on the date of collection as well as the species; for mussels and clams, differences are noted only when the sampling site varies. PMID:25884908

  8. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Mitra, Joy; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sen, Soumitra Kumar; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea) is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease “neurolathyrism”, present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple. PMID:26524073

  9. A quantitative headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector method to analyze short chain free fatty acids in rat feces.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Dennis; Boarelli, Maria Chiara; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Ballini, Roberto; Pacetti, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to develop and validate a quantitative method to analyze short chain free fatty acids (SCFAs) in rat feces by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography (SPME-GC) using the salt mixture ammonium sulfate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate as salting out agent. Conditioning and extraction time, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, repeatability, and recovery were evaluated. The proposed method allows quantification with improved sensitivity as compared with other methods exploiting SPME-GC. The method has been applied to analyze rat fecal samples, quantifying acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isopentanoic, pentanoic, and hexanoic acids. PMID:27267560

  10. Rapid method for the determination and confirmation of fluoroquinolone residues in catfish using liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah E; Schenck, Frank J; Vega, Victor A

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method for the extraction and determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) residues (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin) in catfish is presented. In this method, the FQ residues were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, and the extract was defatted with dispersive C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent or hexane. A portion of the extract was evaporated and reconstituted in the mobile phase. The quantitative determination was accomplished with LC-fluorescence detection (FLD), and the confirmation was by LC-MS/MS. Fortifications of catfish tissue were carried out at 0.5x, x, 2x, and 4x, where x = 5 ppb (U.S. Food and Drug Administration current regulatory target level). Recoveries for the LC/FLD determination of five replicates (for both cleanup routes) at each level ranged from 64 to 98%, with RSD values <8%. The method quantitation limits for all residues were <1 ng/g. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the same extracts confirmed all FQ residues at all levels. This method is an improvement over existing methodologies since additional cleanup steps, such as cation exchange SPE column cleanup, are not utilized. The C18 dispersive SPE method represents a novel cleanup approach for FQs in fish tissue. PMID:19714995

  11. A liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of potential biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Magiera, Sylwia; Baranowska, Irena; Kusa, Jacek; Baranowski, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitation of α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), L-carnitine (L-CAR) and acetyl-L-carnitine (acetyl-L-CAR) in human urine as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. The separation was performed using an isocratic elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (97:3, v/v) on an Acclaim 120 C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.0 μm). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.2 mL/min and the total assay run time was 3 min. Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. This method covered a linearity range of 0.1-500 ng/mL for L-CAR and acetyl-L-CAR and 1-1000 ng/mL for α-KG with lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.08 ng/mL for L-CAR, 0.04 ng/mL for acetyl-L-CAR and 0.8 ng/mL for α-KG. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples exhibited relative standard deviations of less than 5.54% and relative error values from -5.95% to 3.11%. Analyte stability was evaluated under various sample preparation, analysis and storage conditions and varied from -9.89% to -0.47%. A two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using silica gel and quaternary amine cartridges was used for urine sample cleanup. The average recoveries for all analyzed compounds were better than 86.64% at three concentrations. The method was successfully applied for the quantitation of α-KG, L-CAR and acetyl-L-CAR in human urine samples. PMID:23411015

  12. Validation of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the quantification of aerosolized Jet Propellant 8.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Katherine D; Campbell, Jerry L; Bartlett, Michael G; Witten, Mark L; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2005-11-01

    Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) jet fuel is a kerosene-based fuel containing hundreds of hydrocarbons used by the military in NATO countries. Previous rodent inhalation studies carried out with aerosolized JP-8 never evaluated the exposure chamber atmosphere. For this reason, our laboratory developed an analytical method, with an accuracy of better than 80% and precision of better than 20%, for JP-8 aerosol and vapor samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A method was developed for quantification of selected individual components of JP-8 and for the total amount of JP-8 in aerosolized fuel. A 34 component surrogate hydrocarbon mixture (SHM) was developed and used for simultaneous analysis of the individual components. Three separate runs containing a standard curve and five replicates each at the selected concentrations were analyzed for both the SHM and neat JP-8. The resulting interday accuracy (100-percent relative error) and precision (relative standard deviation) values for the SHM were 86.5% or better and 8.0% or better, respectively. The intraday accuracy and precision values ranged from 99.29% to 84.50% and 0.97% to 12.4%, respectively. For the total amount of JP-8 in aerosol and vapor, the interday accuracy was 83.7% or better and interday precision was 7.0% or better. The intraday accuracy and precision values ranged from 94.8% to 80.4% and 2.4% to 10.5%, respectively. We then used this method to analyze samples collected from an inhalation chamber. From the data obtained, we are able to account for approximately 40-44% of the mass of the aerosol portion and 68-70% of the mass of the vapor portion. The aerosol represented 6-10% of the total mass of the aerosolized JP-8 fuel with the remaining portion being the vapor. From these experiments individual components were identified for further in vivo and in vitro toxicological testing. PMID:16233866

  13. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method optimization for characterization of surface adsorption forces of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Omanovic-Miklicanin, Enisa; Valzacchi, Sandro; Simoneau, Catherine; Gilliland, Douglas; Rossi, Francois

    2014-10-01

    A complete characterization of the different physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) is necessary for the evaluation of their impact on health and environment. Among these properties, the surface characterization of the nanomaterial is the least developed and in many cases limited to the measurement of surface composition and zetapotential. The biological surface adsorption index approach (BSAI) for characterization of surface adsorption properties of NPs has recently been introduced (Xia et al. Nat Nanotechnol 5:671-675, 2010; Xia et al. ACS Nano 5(11):9074-9081, 2011). The BSAI approach offers in principle the possibility to characterize the different interaction forces exerted between a NP's surface and an organic--and by extension biological--entity. The present work further develops the BSAI approach and optimizes a solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) method which, as an outcome, gives a better-defined quantification of the adsorption properties on NPs. We investigated the various aspects of the SPME/GC-MS method, including kinetics of adsorption of probe compounds on SPME fiber, kinetic of adsorption of probe compounds on NP's surface, and optimization of NP's concentration. The optimized conditions were then tested on 33 probe compounds and on Au NPs (15 nm) and SiO2 NPs (50 nm). The procedure allowed the identification of three compounds adsorbed by silica NPs and nine compounds by Au NPs, with equilibrium times which varied between 30 min and 12 h. Adsorption coefficients of 4.66 ± 0.23 and 4.44 ± 0.26 were calculated for 1-methylnaphtalene and biphenyl, compared to literature values of 4.89 and 5.18, respectively. The results demonstrated that the detailed optimization of the SPME/GC-MS method under various conditions is a critical factor and a prerequisite to the application of the BSAI approach as a tool to characterize surface adsorption properties of NPs and therefore to draw any further

  14. A high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric screening method for eight synthetic corticosteroids in bovine feces and the simultaneous differentiation between dexamethasone and betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Noben, J P; Gielen, B; Royackers, E; Missotten, M; Jacobs, A; Raus, J

    2002-01-01

    A screening method was developed to monitor the illegal use of synthetic corticosteroids in cattle. Diethyl ether extracts from spiked feces samples were cleaned-up by solid phase extraction followed by semipreparative reversed-phase chromatography (RPC). The fraction containing the corticosteroids was derivatized with ethoxyamine hydrochloride. The corresponding ethoximes were separated using silica-based C18 RPC and analyzed on-line in an ion trap mass spectrometer using atmospheric pressure positive chemical ionization. Ethoxime derivatives of dexamethasone and betamethasone were baseline resolved, allowing for the simultaneous mass spectrometric differentiation of both epimers in bovine feces by conventional non-chiral chromatography. At the lowest level tested (1 micro g/kg), corticosteroids (except triamcinolone) could be identified in compliance with the recent European criteria for residue identification. The quantitative performance of the method was best at residue levels > or = 2 micro g/kg. PMID:12203252

  15. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 9 organophosphate flame retardants in water samples

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Few methods are available for comprehensive organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) detection in water and wastewater. Gas chromatography has been employed previously, but this approach is less selective, not amenable for use with deuterated standards and can suffer unfavorable fragmentation. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) has become the most promising platform, already applied successfully for analysis of selected PFRs in some environmental matrices like water and wastewater. However, the presence of some interferences from the dissolvent, the equipment and the used materials should be taken into account. The procedure involves: • The first determination of PFRs by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS using a trap column to distinguish the interferences coming from the instrument and mobile phases. • The optimization of the LC separation to distinguish all target compounds and their interferences. • This method coupled to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) improve the detection and quantification of PFRs. PMID:27222824

  16. Multiple dual-mode centrifugal partition chromatography as an efficient method for the purification of a mycosporine from a crude methanolic extract of Lichina pygmaea.

    PubMed

    Roullier, Catherine; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Bernard, Aurélie; Boustie, Joël

    2009-07-15

    Centrifugal partition chromatography method was applied to the separation and purification of a crude methanolic extract of a cyanobacterial lichen, Lichina pygmaea. A multiple dual-mode was used to separate two compounds of interest, namely mycosporine-serinol and a glutamic acid derivative. These compounds are described here for the first time in a lichen. Their structures were identified by UV, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. PMID:19520621

  17. Method validation and application of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for drugs of abuse testing in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Lambert, Marjan Shafaati; Beck, Olof

    2015-03-15

    A mass spectrometric method for drugs of abuse testing in exhaled breath employing a sampling device collecting aerosol particles was developed and applied in routine use. Analytes covered were amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam and tetrahydrocannabinol. The method involved eluting drugs from the collection filter with methanol, quantification using deuterated analogs as internal standards, reversed phase chromatography with gradient elution, positive electrospray ionization and monitoring of two product ions per analyte in selected reaction monitoring mode. The measuring range was 6.0-1000pg/filter. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision expressed as the coefficient of variation was less than 7%. Influence from matrix was noted for most compounds but was compensated for the use of co-eluting internal standards. The LLOQ was 6.0pg/filter with intra-assay CV <5% and accuracy within 99-102% for all analytes. No chromatographic interference was observed in 20 negative control samples. The LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for measuring drugs in unknown samples collected for the purpose of drug testing. Among the 1096 analyzed samples analytical findings were made in breath in 39 cases (3.6%). Most frequently found substances were the following: amphetamine (25 cases) methamphetamine (10 cases), THC (8 cases), cocaine (4 cases), benzoylecgonine (2 cases) and diazepam (2 cases). In conclusion, a fully validated and robust screening method suitable for the routine measurement of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath with a simple procedure for specimen collection and sample preparation was successfully developed. PMID:25687804

  18. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of 16 European priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products and edible oils.

    PubMed

    Jira, W; Ziegenhals, K; Speer, K

    2008-06-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) highlighted as carcinogenic by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) plus benzo[c]fluorine (recommended to be analysed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in fat-containing foods such as edible oils and smoked meat products. This method includes accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and the highly automated clean-up steps gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Using a VF-17ms GC column, a good separation of benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene was achieved. Futhermore, the six methylchrysene isomers and the PAH compounds with a molecular weight of 302 Daltons in fat-containing foods attained a better chromatographic separation in comparison with a 5-ms column. The reliability of the analytical method for edible oils was demonstrated by the results from a proficiency test. Measurements with GC-high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS) and gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD) led to comparable results. A survey of the 16 PAHs in 22 smoked meat products showed concentrations in the range < 0.01-19 microg kg(-1). The median concentration for benzo[a]pyrene was below 0.15 microg kg(-1). PMID:18630343

  20. An Eco-Friendly Direct Injection HPLC Method for Methyldopa Determination in Serum by Mixed-Mode Chromatography Using a Single Protein-Coated Column.

    PubMed

    Emara, Samy; Masujima, Tsutomu; Zarad, Walaa; Kamal, Maha; Fouad, Marwa; El-Bagary, Ramzia

    2015-09-01

    A simple, rapid and environment-friendly direct injection HPLC method for the determination of methyldopa (MTD) in human serum has been developed and validated. The method was based on cleanup and separation of MTD from serum by mixed-mode liquid chromatography using a single protein-coated TSK gel ODS-80 TM analytical column (50 × 4.0 mm i.d., 5 µm). The protein-coated column exhibited excellent resolution, selectivity and functioned in two chromatographic modes: size-exclusion chromatography [i.e., solid-phase extraction (SPE) for serum proteins] and reversed-phase chromatography for the final separation of MTD. SPE and HPLC separation were carried out simultaneously with a green mobile phase consisting of acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 2.4) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and at room temperature (23 ± 1°C). The eluent was monitored at emission and excitation wavelengths of 320 and 270 nm, respectively. A calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-30 µg/mL with a detection limit of 0.027 µg/mL. This online SPE method was successfully applied to real samples obtained from patients receiving MTD therapy. PMID:25834172

  1. On-line stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the separation and identification of triterpenoid saponins from ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyuan; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Hu, Chunxiu; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    A method based on stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (2D LC-ESI MS) was established and applied to analyze triterpenoid saponins from the main root of ginseng. Due to the special structure of triterpenoid saponins (they contain polar sugar side chains and nonpolar aglycones), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were used for the two dimensions, respectively. A trap column was used to connect the two dimensions. The dilution effect, which is one of the main shortcomings of traditional comprehensive 2D LC methods, was largely avoided. The peak capacity of this system was 747 and the orthogonality was 56.6 %. Compared with one-dimensional HILIC or RP LC MS analysis, 257 and 185 % more mass spectral peaks (ions with intensities that were higher than 1,000) were obtained from the ginseng main root extracts, and 94 triterpenoid saponins were identified based on MS(n) information and summarized aglycone structures. Given its good linearity and repeatability, the established method was successfully applied to classify ginsengs of different ages (i.e., years of growth), and 19 triterpenoid saponins were found through statistical analysis to vary in concentration depending on the age of the ginseng. PMID:25410638

  2. A new method for rapid determination of indole-3-carbinol and its condensation products in nutraceuticals using core-shell column chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Fibigr, Jakub; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-20

    Indole-3-carbinol is a natural glucosinolate known for prevention of human breast, prostate and other types of cancer and it started to be used in commercial preparations, as food supplements. However no analytical method has been proposed for quality control of nutraceuticals with this substance yet. In this paper a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using core-shell column for separation of indole-3-carbinol and its condensation/degradation products was developed and used for the quantitative determination of indole-3-carbinol in nutraceuticals. Separation of indole-3-carbinol, its condensation/degradation products and internal standard ethylparaben was performed on the core-shell column Kinetex 5μ XB-C18 100A (100×4.6mm), particle size 5.0μm, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water according to the gradient program at a flow rate of 1.25mLmin(-1) and at temperature 50°C. The detection wavelength was set at 270nm. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions good linearity of determination was achieved. Available commercial samples of nutraceuticals were extracted with 100% methanol using ultrasound bath. A 5-μL sample volume of the supernatant was directly injected into the HPLC system. The developed method provided rapid and accurate tool for quality control of nutraceuticals based on cruciferous vegetable extracts with indole-3-carbinol content. The presented study showed that the declared content of indole-3-carbinol significantly varied in the different nutraceuticals available on the market. Two analyzed preparations showed the presence of condensation/degradation products of indole-3-carbinol which were not officially declared by the manufacturer. Moreover, further two analyzed nutraceutical preparations showed absolutely no content of declared amount of indole-3-carbinol. PMID:26795880

  3. Evaluation of the QuEChERS method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis pesticide residues in water and sediment.

    PubMed

    Brondi, S H G; de Macedo, A N; Vicente, G H L; Nogueira, A R A

    2011-01-01

    A method for the determination of pesticide residues in water and sediment was developed using the QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits. The recovery percentages obtained for the pesticides in water at different concentrations ranged from 63 to 116%, with relative standard deviations below 12%. The corresponding results from the sediment ranged from 48 to 115% with relative standard deviations below 16%. The limits of detection for the pesticides in water and sediment were below 0.003 mg L⁻¹ and 0.02 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. PMID:21165598

  4. Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02) by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    PubMed Central

    Ladva, Bhakti J.; Mahida, Vijay M.; Kantaria, Urmi D.; Gokani, Rina H.

    2014-01-01

    due to marker compounds in the sample extracts were confirmed by overlaying the absorption spectra recorded at start, middle and end position of the band in the sample tracks. After conforming all these things fingerprints were developed for all three formulations which will be act as authentification and quality control tool. Results: % w/w of asarones is 3.61, % w/w of marmelosin is 4.60, % w/w of gallic acid is 10.80 and % w/w of lupeol is 4.13. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. In well-developed mobile phase system linearity was found to be in the range of 0.983-0.995, % recovery was found to be in the range of 97.48-99.63, % RSD for intraday and interday was found to be 0.13- 0.70 and 0.32 -1.41 and LOD and LOQ was found to be in the range of 0.15- 0.61 and 0.45 -1.83 microgram per ml. Conclusion: Thus High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods were developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification and accuracy. The methods were rapid, sensitive, reproducible and economical. It does not suffer any positive or negative interference due to common other component present in the formulation and would also serve as a tool for authentication of herbal products containing marmelosin, gallic acid, lupeol and asarones. Thus this work provides standardized and therapeutically active polyherbal formulations for the different ailments. PMID:25035642

  5. Analytical Method for Sugar Profile in Pet Food and Animal Feeds by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David J; Anderson, Phillip; Berg, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for a standardized, accurate, rugged, and consistent method to measure for sugars in pet foods and animal feeds. Many traditional standard sugar methods exist for other matrixes, but when applied in collaborative studies there was poor agreement and sources of error identified with those standard methods. The advancement in technology over the years has given us the ability to improve on these standard methods of analysis. A method is described here that addresses these common issues and was subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess performance on a wide variety of pet foods and animal feeds. Of key importance to the method performance is the sample preparation before extraction, type of extraction solvent, postextraction cleanup, and, finally, optimized chromatography using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results obtained from the validation demonstrate how typical issues seen with these matrixes can influence performance of sugar analysis. The results also demonstrate that this method is fit-for-purpose and can meet the challenges of sugar analysis in pet food and animal feeds to lay the foundation for a standardized method of analysis. PMID:26952902

  6. Sample displacement batch chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotasinska, Marta; Richter, Verena; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In downstream processing large scale chromatography plays an important role. For its development screening experiments followed by pilot plant chromatography are mandatory steps. Here we describe fast, simple, and inexpensive methods for establishing a preparative chromatography for the separation of complex protein mixtures, based on sample displacement batch chromatography. The methods are demonstrated by anion-exchange chromatography of a human plasma protein fraction (Cohn IV-4), including the screening step and scaling up of the chromatography by a factor of 100. The results of the screening experiments and the preparative chromatography are monitored by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. In summary we provide a protocol which should be easily adaptable for the chromatographic large scale purification of other proteins, in the laboratory as well as in industry for commercial manufacturing. For the latter these protocols cover the initial piloting steps for establishing a sample batch chromatography based on packed columns rather than batch chromatography. PMID:24648085

  7. A rapid on-line method for mass spectrometric confirmation of a cysteine-conjugated antibody-drug-conjugate structure using multidimensional chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Birdsall, Robert E; Shion, Henry; Kotch, Frank W; Xu, April; Porter, Thomas J; Chen, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine-conjugated antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are manufactured using controlled partial reduction and conjugation chemistry with drug payloads that typically occur in intervals of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Control of heterogeneity is of particular importance to the quality of ADC product because drug loading and distribution can affect the safety and efficacy of the ADC. Liquid chromatography ultra-violet (LC-UV)-based methods can be used to acquire the drug distribution profiles of cysteine-conjugated ADCs when analyzed using hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). However, alternative analysis techniques are often required for structural identification when conjugated drugs do not possess discrete ultra-violet absorbance properties for precise assessment of the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR). In this study, multidimensional chromatography was used as an efficient method for combining non-compatible techniques, such as HIC, with analysis by mass spectrometry (LC/LC/QTOF-MS) for rapid on-line structural elucidation of species observed in HIC distribution profiles of cysteine-conjugated ADCs. The methodology was tested using an IgG1 mAb modified by cysteine conjugation with a non-toxic drug mimic. Structural elucidation of peaks observed in the HIC analysis (1st dimension) were successfully identified based on their unique sub-unit masses via mass spectrometry techniques once dissociation occurred under denaturing reversed phase conditions (2nd dimension). Upon identification, the DAR values were determined to be 2.83, 4.44, and 5.97 for 3 drug load levels (low-, medium-, and high-loaded ADC batches), respectively, based on relative abundance from the LC-UV data. This work demonstrates that multidimensional chromatography coupled with MS, provides an efficient approach for on-line biotherapeutic characterization to ensure ADC product quality. PMID:26305867

  8. A rapid on-line method for mass spectrometric confirmation of a cysteine-conjugated antibody-drug-conjugate structure using multidimensional chromatography.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, Robert E; Shion, Henry; Kotch, Frank W; Xu, April; Porter, Thomas J; Chen, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine-conjugated antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are manufactured using controlled partial reduction and conjugation chemistry with drug payloads that typically occur in intervals of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Control of heterogeneity is of particular importance to the quality of ADC product because drug loading and distribution can affect the safety and efficacy of the ADC. Liquid chromatography ultra-violet (LC-UV)-based methods can be used to acquire the drug distribution profiles of cysteine-conjugated ADCs when analyzed using hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). However, alternative analysis techniques are often required for structural identification when conjugated drugs do not possess discrete ultra-violet absorbance properties for precise assessment of the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR). In this study, multidimensional chromatography was used as an efficient method for combining non-compatible techniques, such as HIC, with analysis by mass spectrometry (LC/LC/QTOF-MS) for rapid on-line structural elucidation of species observed in HIC distribution profiles of cysteine-conjugated ADCs. The methodology was tested using an IgG1 mAb modified by cysteine conjugation with a non-toxic drug mimic. Structural elucidation of peaks observed in the HIC analysis (1(st) dimension) were successfully identified based on their unique sub-unit masses via mass spectrometry techniques once dissociation occurred under denaturing reversed phase conditions (2(nd) dimension). Upon identification, the DAR values were determined to be 2.83, 4.44, and 5.97 for 3 drug load levels (low-, medium-, and high-loaded ADC batches), respectively, based on relative abundance from the LC-UV data. This work demonstrates that multidimensional chromatography coupled with MS, provides an efficient approach for on-line biotherapeutic characterization to ensure ADC product quality. PMID:26305867

  9. Development of a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for high throughput analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins using graphitised carbon solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Boundy, Michael J; Selwood, Andrew I; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul S; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-03-27

    Routine regulatory monitoring of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) commonly employs oxidative derivitisation and complex liquid chromatography fluorescence detection methods (LC-FL). The pre-column oxidation LC-FL method is currently implemented in New Zealand and the United Kingdom. When using this method positive samples are fractionated and two different oxidations are required to confirm the identity and quantity of each PST analogue present. There is a need for alternative methods that are simpler, provide faster turnaround times and have improved detection limits. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) HPLC-MS/MS analysis of PST has been used for research purposes, but high detection limits and substantial sample matrix issues have prevented it from becoming a viable alternative for routine monitoring purposes. We have developed a HILIC UPLC-MS/MS method for paralytic shellfish toxins with an optimised desalting clean-up procedure on inexpensive carbon solid phase extraction cartridges for reduction of matrix interferences. This represents a major technical breakthrough and allows sensitive, selective and rapid analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins from a variety of sample types, including many commercially produced bivalve molluscan shellfish species. Additionally, this analytical approach avoids the need for complex calculations to determine sample toxicity, as unlike other methods each PST analogue is able to be quantified as a single resolved peak. This article presents the method development and optimisation information. A thorough single laboratory validation study has subsequently been performed and this data will be presented elsewhere. PMID:25704772

  10. Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Peterson, Devin G.; Reineccius, Gary A.

    The first publication on gas chromatography (GC) was in 1952 (1), while the first commercial instruments were manufactured in 1956. James and Martin (1) separated fatty acids by GC, collected the column effluent, and titrated the individual fatty acids for quantitation. GC has advanced greatly since that early work and is now considered to be a mature field that is approaching theoretical limitations.

  11. Quantitative thin layer chromatography for the analysis of skin surface lipids. A time-saving method using a new TLC plate.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, A

    1979-07-30

    Recently a new thin layer chromatography plate (Whatman LK 6D) became available which is extremely easy to handle and permits highly reproducible qualitative and quantitative analysis. This plate proved to be of great value for the investigation of skin surface lipids. The use of a fatty acid methyl ester as an internal standard makes it unnecessary to employ additional gravimetrical or photometrical methods for quanitative lipid analysis. The method presented in this paper is simpler and requires much less time than alternative procedures and allows a large number of lipid samples to be processed simultaneously. PMID:475450

  12. A high-throughput method for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Savolainen, Otto I; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Kirwan, John P; Breton, Isabelle; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-04-15

    Plasma alkylresorcinols are increasingly analyzed in cohort studies to improve estimates of whole grain intake and their relationship with disease incidence. Current methods require large volumes of solvent (>10 ml/sample) and have relatively low daily sample throughput. We tested five different supported extraction methods for extracting alkylresorcinols from plasma and improved a normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer method to reduce sample analysis time. The method was validated and compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Sample preparation with HybridSPE supported extraction was most effective for alkylresorcinol extraction, with recoveries of 77-82% from 100 μl of plasma. The use of 96-well plates allowed extraction of 160 samples per day. Using a 5-cm NH2 column and heptane reduced run times to 3 min. The new method had a limit of detection and limit of quantification equivalent to 1.1-1.8 nmol/L and 3.5-6.1 nmol/L plasma, respectively, for the different alkylresorcinol homologues. Accuracy was 93-105%, and intra- and inter-batch precision values were 4-18% across different plasma concentrations. This method makes it possible to quantify plasma alkylresorcinols in 100 μl of plasma at a rate of at least 160 samples per day without the need for large volumes of organic solvents. PMID:26827992

  13. Chemometric approach to open validation protocols: Prediction of validation parameters in multi-residue ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Alladio, Eugenio; Pirro, Valentina; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco; Leardi, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    The recent technological advancements of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous determination of tens, or even hundreds, of target analytes. In such cases, the traditional approach to quantitative method validation presents three major drawbacks: (i) it is extremely laborious, repetitive and rigid; (ii) it does not allow to introduce new target analytes without starting the validation from its very beginning and (iii) it is performed on spiked blank matrices, whose very nature is significantly modified by the addition of a large number of spiking substances, especially at high concentration. In the present study, several predictive chemometric models were developed from closed sets of analytes in order to estimate validation parameters on molecules of the same class, but not included in the original training set. Retention time, matrix effect, recovery, detection and quantification limits were predicted with partial least squares regression method. In particular, iterative stepwise elimination, iterative predictors weighting and genetic algorithms approaches were utilized and compared to achieve effective variables selection. These procedures were applied to data reported in our previously validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue method for the determination of pharmaceutical and illicit drugs in oral fluid samples in accordance with national and international guidelines. Then, the partial least squares model was successfully tested on naloxone and lormetazepam, in order to introduce these new compounds in the oral fluid validated method, which adopts reverse-phase chromatography. Retention time, matrix effect, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification parameters for naloxone and lormetazepam were predicted by the model and then positively compared with their corresponding experimental values. The whole study represents a proof-of-concept of chemometrics potential to

  14. A review on development of analytical methods to determine monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography using direct injection.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Romero, Josep; Albiol-Chiva, Jaume; Peris-Vicente, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is a common practice in clinical studies. It requires the quantification of drugs in biological fluids. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC), a well-established branch of Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), has been proven by many researchers as a useful tool for the analysis of these matrices. This review presents several analytical methods, taken from the literature, devoted to the determination of several monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography. The studied groups are: anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, analgesics and bronchodilators. We detail the optimization strategy of the sample preparation and the main chromatographic conditions, such as the type of column, mobile phase composition (surfactant, organic solvent and pH), and detection. The finally selected experimental parameters, the validation, and some applications have also been described. In addition, their performances and advantages have been discussed. The main ones were the possibility of direct injection, and the efficient chromatographic elution, in spite of the complexity of the biological fluids. For each substance, the measured concentrations were accurate and precise at their respective therapeutic range. It was found that the MLC-procedures are fast, simple, inexpensive, ecofriendly, safe, selective, enough sensitive and reliable. Therefore, they represent an excellent alternative for the determination of drugs in serum and urine for monitoring purposes. PMID:27216388

  15. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom sediment by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, William T.; Connor, Brooke F.; Furlong, Edward T.; Vaught, Deborah G.; Merten, Leslie M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of 30 individual organochlorine pesticides, total toxaphene, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediment is described. The method isolates the pesticides and PCBs by solvent extraction with dichlorobenzene, removes inorganic sulfur, large naturally occurring molecules, and other unwanted interferences by gel permeation chromatography, and further cleans up and class fractionates the extract using adsorption chromatography. The com- pounds then are instrumentally determined using dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Reporting limits range from 1 to 5 micrograms per kilogram for 30 individual pesticides, 50 micrograms per kilogram for total PCBs, and 200 micrograms per kilogram for total toxaphene. The method also is designed to allow the simultaneous isolation of 79 other semivolatile organic compounds from the sediment, which are separately quantified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The method was developed in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program.

  16. An optimized method for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in different matrices using liquid chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sebastiaan; Pelzing, Matthias

    2011-07-15

    Perfluorochemicals (PFC's) are widely spread in the environment and have been detected in blood of wildlife and humans world-wide. Recently, various toxic effects of PFC's in laboratory rats have been demonstrated, resulting in increased government concerns regarding the presence of PFC's in the environment and the implications they have on human health. In the last decade, various analytical methods have been developed for the analysis of PFC's in different matrices whereby the majority of methods have utilised liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Here we describe an optimized method for the quantitation of PFC's, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in food packaging, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sealant tape and drinking water. The method involved PFC's extraction via off-line SPE followed by separation using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Phenyl-Hexyl column coupled with ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometric detection. The optimized approach minimized ion-suppression effects commonly seen with conventional elution buffers, improving detection limits down to 25 pg/mL and allowed effective quantitation down to 50 pg/mL for PFOA and PFOS. The optimized LC-MS method detected PFOA and other PFC's in microwave popcorn packaging and PFOA in PTFE sealant tape in the low μg/kg. In all samples, PFOS was not detected. PMID:21700512

  17. Development of a multiresidue method for the determination of endocrine disrupters in fish fillet using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Ferronato, Giovana; Ribeiro, Lucila C; Martins, Manoel L; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2013-11-15

    Endocrine Disrupter Compounds (EDCs) are responsible for alterations in the endocrine system functions. Aquatic organisms are able to accumulate EDCs residues, being the major source of contamination for top predators and human consumers. This study aimed to develop and validate a method for the determination of 40 EDCs in fish fillet using modified QuEChERS and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS). A factorial design was used to optimize the extraction procedure. Method validation presented recoveries from 70.1% to 120.0% with RSD<20% and method limit of detection ranged from 0.3 to 7.5 µg kg(-1), showing good accuracy and precision. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of fish fillet from different species and residues of bisphenol A, chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin were detected. The proposed method proved to be effective for the determination of EDCs in fish fillet at very low concentration levels. PMID:24148481

  18. Analytical approach to determining human biogenic amines and their metabolites using eVol microextraction in packed syringe coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method with hydrophilic interaction chromatography column.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Synakiewicz, Anna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of biogenic amines (BAs) in different human samples provides insight into the mechanisms of various biological processes, including pathological conditions, and thus may be very important in diagnosing and monitoring several neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. In this work, we developed a simple and fast procedure using a digitally controlled microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of biogenic amines, their precursors and metabolites in human plasma and urine samples. The separation of 12 low molecular weight and hydrophilic molecules with a wide range of polarities was achieved with hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column without derivatization step in 12 min. MEPS was implemented using the APS sorbent in semi-automated analytical syringe (eVol(®)) and small volume of urine and plasma samples, 5 0µL and 100 μL, respectively. We evaluated important parameters influencing MEPS efficiency, including stationary phase selection, sample pH and volume, number of extraction cycles, and washing and elution volumes. In optimized MEPS conditions, the analytes were eluted by 3 × 50 μL of methanol with 0.1% formic acid. The chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on XBridge Amide™ BEH analytical column (3.0mm × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of phase A: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in water pH 3.0 and phase B: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in acetonitrile pH 3.0. The LC-HILIC-MS method was validated and, in optimum conditions, presented good linearity in concentration range within 10-2000 ng/mL for all the analytes with a determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.999 for plasma and urine samples. Method recovery ranged within 87.6-104.3% for plasma samples and 84.2-98.6% for urine samples. The developed method utilizing polar APS sorbent along with polar HILIC column was applied for

  19. An analytical method to screen for six thyreostatic drug residues in the thyroid gland and muscle tissues of food producing animals by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorption detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asea, Philip E; MacNeil, James D; Boison, Joe O

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed and validated to screen for residues of the thyreostatic drugs, tapazole (TAP), mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI), thiouracil (TU), methylthiouracil (MTU), propylthiouracil (PrTU), and phenylthiouracil (PhTU) in bovine, equine, ovine, and porcine thyroid and muscle tissues at concentrations > or = 5 ng/g using 2-methoxy-mercaptobenzimidazole (MeMBI) and dimethylthiouracil (DMTU) as internal standards. In this method, the drugs were solvent extracted from thyroid and muscle tissue and cleaned up on an amino-propyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The unretained fraction containing TAP and MBI and the internal standard, MeMBI, was collected as Fraction 1. The retained fraction containing TU, MTU, PrTU, PhTU, and the internal standard, DMTU, was eluted with 3% acetic acid-isopropanol as Fraction 2. Fraction 1 was further cleaned up on an alumina B SPE cartridge and analyzed by gradient elution on a C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with ultraviolet detection at wavelengths of 255 and 300 nm. Fraction 2 was taken to dryness, derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-furazan at pH 8, and analyzed by gradient elution on a C18 LC column with mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Any "presumptive positive" test results were submitted for further analysis by LC/MS/MS. The validated method was applied to the analysis of over 300 thyroid tissue samples. PMID:16640308

  20. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wylie, Philip L; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-17

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 Δ8 and Δ10, C17:1 Δ8, Δ10, and Δ12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements. PMID:25383633

  1. Reversed-phase-liquid chromatography method for separation and quantification of gallic acid from hydroalcoholic extracts of Qualea grandiflora and Qualea parviflora

    PubMed Central

    de Mesquita, Mariana L.; Leão, Waleska F.; Ferreira, Magda R. A.; de Paula, José E.; Espindola, Laila S.; Soares, Luiz A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualea parviflora and Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae), commonly known in Brazil as “pau-terra” and “pau-terrinha,” respectively, have been widely used in the treatment of ulcer and gastritis. These therapeutic effects are attributed to various compounds present in the plants, including phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, due to their important antioxidant activity. Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the quantitative determination of gallic acid in the stem bark of Q. parviflora and Q. grandiflora hydroalcoholic extracts. Materials and Methods: The chromatography analysis was successfully achieved on a Dionex column, Acclaim® 120 (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 µm) with a gradient elution of water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 280 nm. Results: The validation data, including linearity, precision, specificity, accuracy and robustness of this method demonstrated good reliability and sensitivity. Conclusion: The method is able to quantify gallic acid in the stem bark of both species. What is more, the chromatographic peaks showed good resolution and there are also the advantages of easy sample preparation and a short time between each injection. PMID:26664021

  2. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of Homocysteine in Rat Plasma: Application to the Study of a Rat Model for Tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Andrej; Svihlova, Katarina; Michalicova, Alena; Novak, Michal

    2015-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a common occurrence in many neurodegenerative diseases, including tauopathies. We developed and validated a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of homocysteine (Hcy) in rat plasma. Hcy was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography on a C8 column with detection by positive ESI tandem mass spectrometry. For optimal retention and separation, we used ion-pair reagent-heptafluorobutyric acid. The method utilizes heavy labeled internal standard and does not require any derivatization or extraction step. The procedure was validated in compliance with the European Medicines Agency guideline. The limit of detection was 0.15 µmol/L and the limit of quantification was 0.5 µmol/L. The method showed excellent linearity with regression coefficients higher than 0.99. The accuracy was in the range of 93-98%. The inter-day precision (n = 5 days), expressed as % relative standard deviation, was in the range 3-8%. Using this method, we analyzed plasma samples from two transgenic lines of the rat model for tauopathies. PMID:25466230

  3. High-throughput sample preparation and simultaneous column regeneration liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of nitrogen mustard metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Muntha K; Mills, Grier; Nixon, Christopher; Wyatt, Shane A; Croley, Timothy R

    2011-08-15

    Nitrogen mustards (NMs) are known to have DNA alkylation and strong vesicant properties. Their availability to terrorist organizations makes them a potential choice for chemical attacks on civilian populations. After an exposure, it is difficult to measure NMs directly because of their rapid metabolism in the human body. Therefore to determine an individual's level of exposure to NMs, it is necessary to analyze for NM metabolites being excreted by the body. The metabolites of NMs are generated by a hydrolysis reaction, and are easily detectable by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This work is focused on the development of a high-throughput assay for the quantitation of N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) metabolites of bis (2-chloroethyl) ethylethanamine (HN1) and bis (2-chloroethyl) methylethanamine (HN2), respectively. The method uses automated 96-well plate sample preparation of human urine samples and a 2-position 10-port switching valve to allow for simultaneous regeneration of the liquid chromatography (LC) columns. Using this method, over 18 h was saved through the reduction of sample preparation and analysis time when compared to a conventional method for 96 samples. The validated method provided excellent accuracy for both EDEA (100.9%) and MDEA (100.6%) with precision better than 5.27% for each analyte. PMID:21764395

  4. [Determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd by modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Ma, Junmei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis was developed for the determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd. Yuba and dried beancurd samples were soaked by deionized water, then acetonitrile was added to extract the analytes. Sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate were added for liquid-liquid separation. The extracts were cleaned-up by dispersive solid-phase using N-propyl diethylamine. The analytes were separated by liquid chromatography and determined by mass spectrometry. External standard method was used for quantification. The recoveries of dimethyl yellow were in the range of 73.5%-84.5% at spiked levels of 0.3, 1 and 10 kg/kg and the recoveries of diethyl yellow were in range of 70.5%-81.2% at spiked levels of 0.1,1 and 10 µg/kg; relative standard deviations of the method were lower than 11%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of dimethyl yellow were 0.1 µg/kg and 0.3 µg/kg, respectively; the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of diethyl yellow were 0.05 µg/kg and 0.1 µg/kg, respectively. This method can be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd. PMID:26536771

  5. A simple, accurate, time-saving and green method for the determination of 15 sulfonamides and metabolites in serum samples by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Wei-E; Li, Shao-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Qin; Li, Wei-Qing; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Xue-Song; Wu, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method based on ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) with photo-diode array detection (PDA) has been developed to quantify 15 sulfonamides and their N4-acetylation metabolites in serum. Under the optimized gradient elution conditions, it took only 7min to separate all 15 sulfonamides and the critical pairs of each parent drug and metabolite were completely separated. Variables affecting the UHPSFC were optimized to get a better separation. The performance of the developed method was evaluated. The UHPSFC method allowed the baseline separation and determination of 15 sulfonamides and metabolites with limit of detection ranging from 0.15 to 0.35μg/mL. Recoveries between 90.1 and 102.2% were obtained with satisfactory precision since relative standard deviations were always below 3%. The proposed method is simple, accurate, time-saving and green, it is applicable to a variety of sulfonamides detection in serum samples. PMID:26780846

  6. Development and qualification of a size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle light scattering method for molecular weight determination of unfractionated heparin.

    PubMed

    Beirne, John; Truchan, Hilary; Rao, Lin

    2011-01-01

    The molecular weight of unfractionated heparin was determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection. The SEC/MALS method determines absolute molecular weight directly from the angular dependence of scattered light intensity as a function of concentration and does not rely on molecular weight standards for column calibration. The SEC/MALS method developed at Scientific Protein Laboratories was qualified in terms of specificity, precision, robustness, and accuracy. By eliminating the requirement of well-characterized molecular weight standards derived from heparin, the present procedure represents a clear improvement over the column calibration methods used in molecular weight determination. The SEC/MALS method is suitable for routine quality control of unfractionated heparin. PMID:20838778

  7. Simple and rapid method for the determination of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides in fruits and vegetables using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Tadashi; Takada, Makoto

    2008-11-01

    A simple and rapid method for determining ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs; mancozeb, maneb, and zineb) in fruits and vegetables is described. EBDCs are transformed into dimethylethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC-dimethyl) by methylation after their decomposition with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). These processes were performed simultaneously in this method. Dimethyl sulfate was used as the methylation reagent, and acetonitrile extracts obtained from partitioning with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were subjected to dispersive solid-phase extraction with the primary secondary amine sorbent. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the positive heated-electrospray ionization mode was used for the determination of EBDC-dimethyl produced from EBDCs. The method was validated at levels of 10, 50, and 100 ng g(-1) maneb as a representative EBDC. The recoveries of the present method were between 71 and 101%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.24 and 0.8 ng g(-1) maneb, respectively. PMID:18759101

  8. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. PMID:27507459

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, D I; López-Cervantes, J; Vázquez, N J Ríos

    2006-02-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the microscale determination of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera is reported. The method includes microscale saponification and extraction with n-hexane. Optimized conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: column, 25 cm x 0.46 cm, Exil ODS 5-microm; column temperature, 25 degrees C; mobile phase, a 20:80 (v/v) mixture of methanol:acetonitrile; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min. With these conditions, method precision (relative standard deviation) was 5.6% for alpha-tocopherol and 4.9% for gamma-tocopherol. We used this method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in samples from M. oleifera as part of nutritional studies in edible plants cultivated in the Northwest México. PMID:16439255

  10. In vitro enantioselective metabolism of TJ0711 hydrochloride by human liver microsomes using a novel chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangeng; Hu, Lei; Xu, Li; Sun, Minghui; Fan, Zhaoze; Qiu, Jun; Li, Gao; Si, Luqin

    2012-04-01

    A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method employing chiral analytical techniques was developed and validated for in vitro enantioselective metabolic stability study of racemic 1-[4-(2-methoxyethyl) phenoxy]-3-[[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy) ethyl]amino]-2-propanol hydrochloride (TJ0711 HCl), a newly developed vasodilatory β-blocker. Robust enantiomeric separations were achieved on a chiral SUMICHIRAL OA-2500 column using ethanol and hexane (40:60, v/v) as a mobile phase. Metabolic stability results demonstrated that both TJ0711 enantiomers underwent a rapid phase I metabolism, but preferential metabolism of R-TJ0711 was observed. Our previously reported ultra-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (UPLC-MRM-IDA-EPI) method was finally chosen for metabolite profiling study of TJ0711 enantiomers, because the newly developed HPLC-based method resulted in compromised chromatographic separation, particularly for TJ0711 metabolites. A number of metabolic products were detected and the structures of formed metabolites were predicted. Similar to racemic TJ0711 HCl, demethylation and hydroxylation were proposed to be the principle metabolism pathways during in vitro incubations of each enantiomer with human liver microsomes. PMID:22406105

  11. A multi-residue method for 17 anticoccidial drugs and ractopamine in animal tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matus, Johanna L; Boison, Joe O

    2016-05-01

    A new and sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination and confirmation of residues of 17 anticoccidials, plus free ractopamine in poultry muscle and liver, and bovine muscle, liver, and kidney tissues. The 17 anticoccidials are lasalocid, halofuginone, narasin, monensin, semduramicin, ethopabate, robenidine, buquinolate, toltrazuril as its sulfone metabolite, maduramicin, salinomycin, diclazuril, amprolium, decoquinate, dinitolmide, clopidol, and the nicarbazin metabolite DNC (N,N1-bis(4-nitrophenyl)urea). The analytes were extracted and cleaned up within a 3-hour period by simply extracting the analytes into a solvent mixture with salts followed by centrifugation, dilution, and filtration. The validated method was used in a pilot study for the analysis of 173 samples that included quail liver, bovine kidney, liver, muscle, and horse muscle. The predominant residues found in this study were monensin, ractopamine, and lasalocid. The results of this pilot study showed that this new method is applicable to real samples, and is fit for use in a regulatory testing programme. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443201

  12. Environmentally friendly method for the determination of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane in paper packaging materials by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Li, Zhonghao; Bian, Zhaoyang; Tang, Gangling; Fan, Ziyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, ShanShan; Zhang, Hongfei

    2014-12-01

    A simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly method was developed for the determination of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane in paper packaging materials. No organic solvent was used and the matrix effect was investigated. The extract was directly analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass chromatography for quantification and confirmation. The chromatographic separations were performed on a ZORBAX HILIC Plus (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 3μm; Agilent, USA) column with only one mobile phase (100% water). Calibration curves for acrylamide and trimethylopropane were achieved with concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 20 mg/kg and the corresponding r(2) values were 0.998 and 0.999, respectively. The recoveries were >85% with relative standard deviations <10%. The validated method was applied to the analysis of 50 real samples, and positive results were obtained for 30 samples. The result indicated that trimethylolpropane is associated with inks and printing activity and acrylamide is widely used as a papermaking additive in many paper packages. The concentrations of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane ranged from 0.41 to 7.5 and 0.50 to 8.8 mg/kg, respectively. The results of this study revealed that this method could be used accurately and precisely. PMID:25286774

  13. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of bupropion, quetiapine and escitalopram in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Park, Semin; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Sung Joong; Cha, Boseok; Cho, Young Ah; Song, Yi; Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; El-Banna, H A; Hacımüftüoğlu, Ahmet; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, an effective high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine bupropion (BUP), quetiapine (QUE) and escitalopram (ESC) in human plasma using carbidopa as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Sun Fire C18 column using reversed-phase chromatography. The MS/MS experiment was performed in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode to produce product ions of m/z 240.3 → 184.2 for BUP, 384.2 → 253.1 for QUE, 325.3 → 109.3 for ESC and 227.2 → 181.2 for the internal standard. The method showed good linearity (R(2)  ≥ 0.997), precision (relative standard deviation ≤7.5%), satisfactory intra- and interday accuracy (88.4-113.0%) and acceptable extraction recovery (87.2-115.0%), matrix effect (84.5.5-108.7%) and stability (92.3-103.5%). The method was successfully applied to determine the concentrations of BUP, QUE and ESC in human plasma samples. PMID:25262603

  14. A method for determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Scott E; McWhinney, Brett C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2012-10-15

    With the clinical imperative to further research in the area of optimising antibiotic dosing in the intensive care setting, a simple high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routinely determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in 200 μL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined include three cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cephazolin and cephalotin); two carbapenems (meropenem and ertapenem); and five penicillins (ampicillin, piperacillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin). There was a single common sample preparation method involving ultracentrifugation and stabilisation. Chromatography was performed on a Waters XBridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of four acetonitrile-phosphate buffered mobile phases. Peaks of interest were detected via ultraviolet absorbance at 210, 260 and 304 nm. The method has been validated and used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients. The significant variability in the level of protein binding that is common with antibiotics traditionally considered to have high protein binding (e.g. ceftriaxone, cephazolin, ertapenem, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin) suggests that this assay should be preferred for measuring the pharmacologically active concentration of beta-lactam antibiotics in a therapeutic drug monitoring programme. PMID:23026224

  15. Multi-residue analysis method for analysis of pharmaceuticals using liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) in water sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qaim, Fouad Fadhil; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a developed method using solid - phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF/MS) was developed and validated for quantification and confirmation of eleven pharmaceuticals with different therapeutic classes in water samples, Malaysia. These compounds are caffeine (CAF), prazosin (PRZ), enalapril (ENL), carbamazepine (CBZ), nifedipine (NFD), levonorgestrel (LNG), simvastatin (SMV), hydrochlorothiazide (HYD), gliclazide (GLIC), diclofenac-Na (DIC-Na) and mefenamic acid (MEF). LC was performed on a Dionex Ultimate 3000/LC 09115047 (USA) system. Chromatography was performed on a Thermo Scientific C18 (250 mm × 2.1 mm, i.d.: 5μm) column. Several parameters were optimised such as; mobile phase, gradient elution, collision energy and solvent elution for extraction of compounds from water. The recoveries obtained ranged from 30-148 % in river water. Five pharmaceutical compounds were detected in the surface water samples: caffeine, prazosin, enalpril, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid. The developed method is precise and accepted recoveries were got. In addition, this method is suitable to identify and quantify trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface water.

  16. Affinity chromatography: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hage, David S; Matsuda, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most selective and versatile forms of liquid chromatography for the separation or analysis of chemicals in complex mixtures. This method makes use of a biologically related agent as the stationary phase, which provides an affinity column with the ability to bind selectively and reversibly to a given target in a sample. This review examines the early work in this method and various developments that have lead to the current status of this technique. The general principles of affinity chromatography are briefly described as part of this discussion. Past and recent efforts in the generation of new binding agents, supports, and immobilization methods for this method are considered. Various applications of affinity chromatography are also summarized, as well as the influence this field has played in the creation of other affinity-based separation or analysis methods. PMID:25749941

  17. Two high performance liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of alpha-tocopherol in serum compared to isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kock, R; Seitz, S; Delvoux, B; Greiling, H

    1997-05-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic methods (HPLC) with isocratic reversed-phase separation are presented for the determination of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in serum. In the first method alpha-tocopherol acetate is used as internal standard, detection of absorbance is performed at 284 nm. In the second method tocol is used as internal standard, detection of fluorescence is performed with an excitation wavelength of 292 nm and emission wavelength of 325 nm. Both methods require a liquid-liquid extraction as sample preparation. The results of both HPLC methods have been tested by method comparison for n = 25 serum samples versus an isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID-GC-MS) method using alpha-tocopherol-d6 as internal standard. The imprecision within-run was lower than 2.5% for the UV method and lower than 1% for the fluorescence method for both standards and serum pools. The between-run imprecision, obtained for serum pools, was below 5% for the UV method and not higher than 1.5% for the fluorescence method and not higher 1.8% for the ID-GC-MS. Recovery experiments performed by spiking pool sera with alpha-tocopherol showed recoveries between 98.5% and 100.6% for all methods studied. The result of the method comparison was a coefficient of correlation of r = 0.998 for the HPLC method with fluorescence detection to the ID-GC-MS reference method and a coefficient of correlation of r = 0.981 for the HPLC method with UV detection to the ID-GC-MS reference method. Both methods presented are useful for the analysis of alpha-tocopherol in patient samples. If detection of fluorescence is used, imprecision and inaccuracy of the HPLC method are comparable to the ID-GC-MS chosen as reference method. PMID:9189742

  18. [Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dengfei; Lin, Dejuan; Xu, Dunming

    2013-12-01

    The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb. Un-buffered QuEChERS method gave satisfactory results for determining dioxacarb. Based on these results, the suitable QuEChERS sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry under the optimized conditions were applied to determine the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in six vegetables. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solution. The recoveries at three levels of 10, 20 and 100 microg/kg spiked in six vegetables ranged from 58.4% to 126% with the relative standard deviations of 3.3%-26%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.2-10 microg/kg except that the LOQs of cartap and thiofanox were 50 microg/kg. The method is highly efficient, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables. PMID:24669707

  19. Frontal immunoaffinity chromatography with mass spectrometric detection: a method for finding active compounds from traditional Chinese herbs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongpeng; Chen, Lirong; Li, Zhengquan; Ding, Zhensheng; Xu, Xiaojie

    2003-08-15

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) using immobilized polyclone antibodies of compound A coupled with mass spectrometry was used for the screening of affinity compounds from an extract of Phyllanthus urinaria L. Mass spectrometry was used as an analyzer of FAC. It can analyze the frontal affinity chromatogram of each compound of the extract in one program. The extract was dissolved in 2 mM NH4OAc at a concentration of 10 microg/ mL, then loaded on the immobilized antibody column, and data were collected from mass spectrometry to get a frontal affinity chromatogram. The screening of extract resulted in brevifolin, brevifolin carboxylic acid, corilagin, ellagic acid, and phyllanthusiin U. Activity analyses give high inhibitory activities to these compounds. This research work afforded us a new approach to find new leading compounds from nature or a man-made combinatorial library that have different structure styles or to find substitutes for the synthetic active compound that has high toxicity. PMID:14632110

  20. Strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography as an efficient method for the large-scale purification of glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2007-11-01

    The glucosinolates sinalbin and glucoraphanin were purified by strong ion-exchange displacement centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC). The optimized conditions involved the biphasic solvent system ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (3:2:5, v/v), the lipophilic anion-exchanger Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethylammonium chloride, 160 and 408 mM) and a sodium iodide solution (80 and 272 mM) as displacer. Amounts as high as 2.4 g of sinalbin and 2.6g of glucoraphanin were obtained in one step in 2.5 and 3.5h respectively, starting from 12 and 25 g of mustard and broccoli seed aqueous extracts, using a laboratory scale CPC column (200 mL inner volume). PMID:17904564

  1. Ion chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method development and investigation of lithium hexafluorophosphate-based organic electrolytes and their thermal decomposition products.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Weber, Waldemar; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2014-08-01

    A method based on the coupling of ion chromatography (IC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the separation and determination of thermal decomposition products of LiPF6-based organic electrolytes is presented. The utilized electrolytes, LP30 and LP50, are commercially available and consist of 1mol/l LiPF6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate, respectively. For the separation method development three ion chromatographic columns with different capacity and stationary phase were used and compared. Besides the known hydrolysis products of lithium hexafluorophosphate, several new organophosphates were separated and identified with the developed IC-ESI-MS method during aging investigations of the electrolytes. The chemical structures were elucidated with IC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:24939088

  2. Hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography and ultra high pressure LC: Two fast complementary separation methods for the preparative isolation and the analysis of the fragrant massoia lactones.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Aurélie; Corbeiller, Pierre; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2010-05-01

    Using a one-step preparative hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography method, the fragrant massoia lactones were purified from the crude massoia bark oil, in less than 3 h. The fractionation was performed with the biphasic solvent system c-hexane-methanol-water (10:9:1, v/v/v), leading to target compounds with purity over 96%, as determined by GC-MS and ultra high pressure LC-MS analyses. Together with C-10, C-12 and C-14 massoia lactones, two other aromatic compounds used in perfumes, benzyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate, were also obtained as pure compounds. In parallel, an easy and efficient ultra high pressure LC method was developed for the ultra-fast analysis of massoia lactones, as an alternative to long GC-MS methods. PMID:20235136

  3. Liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of monensin in plasma and edible tissues of chicken used in pharmacokinetic studies: applying a total error approach.

    PubMed

    Chéneau, Estelle; Henri, Jérôme; Pirotais, Yvette; Abjean, Jean-Pierre; Roudaut, Brigitte; Sanders, Pascal; Laurentie, Michel

    2007-05-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for use in pharmacokinetic studies in order to determine the concentrations of monensin in plasma and edible tissues of chicken. Two sample preparations were performed, one for determining monensin concentrations in plasma using acetonitrile for protein precipitation and another one for determining monensin concentrations in muscle, liver, and fat using methanol-water followed by a clean up on a solid-phase extraction cartridge. Sample extracts were injected into the LC-MS/MS system, and a gradient elution was performed on a C18 column. Narasin was used as internal standard. The LC-MS/MS method was validated using an approach based on accuracy profiles, and applicability of the method was demonstrated for the determination of monensin in chicken plasma, muscle, liver, and fat in a pharmacokinetic study. PMID:17141581

  4. A high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of arctiin, chlorogenic acid and glycyrrhizin in a Chinese proprietary medicine.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xudong; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Chui, Wai-Keung

    2005-09-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arctiin, chlorogenic acid and glycyrrhizin in the tablets of a Chinese proprietary medicine named, "Yin Qiao Jie Du Pian". The analysis was performed by a reverse phase gradient elution, using an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.4% acetic acid and 4.5% tetrahydrofuran) modified by acetonitrile and detection made simultaneously at three wavelengths. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision and limits of detection and quantification. Tablets of seven commercial brands were analyzed and found to contain different amounts of the three bioactive markers. This raised the question of the quality and the efficacy of the products. The method developed can be used for the quality control of "Yin Qiao Jie Du" tablets. PMID:15946817

  5. Validation of a method for the determination of sterols and triterpenes in the aerial part of Justicia anselliana (Nees) T. Anders by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kpoviéssi, Dossou Sika Salomé; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbénou, Joachim; Accrombessi, Georges; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Rozet, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2008-12-01

    An accurate and sensitive method, combining soxhlet extraction, solid phase-extraction and capillary gas chromatography is described for the quantitative determination of one triterpene (lupeol) and three sterols (stigmasterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol) and the detection of another triterpene (alpha-amyrin) from the aerial part of Justicia anselliana. This is the first method allowing the quantification of sterols and triterpenes in this plant. It has been fully validated in order to be able to compare the sterol and triterpene composition of different samples of J. anselliana and therefore help to explain the allelopathic activity due to these compounds. This method showed that the aerial part of J. anselliana contained (292+/-2)mg/kg of lupeol, (206+/-1)mg/kg of stigmasterol, (266+/-2)mg/kg of campesterol and (184+/-9)mg/kg of beta-sitosterol. PMID:18951746

  6. Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods.

    PubMed

    Bononi, Monica; Quaglia, Giancarlo; Tateo, Fernando

    2015-05-20

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) system to evaluate δ(13)C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared "vanilla" on the label showed data that permitted the declaration "vanilla" according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing "vanilla" or "natural flavoring" on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation. PMID:25965784

  7. Development and validation of a high-throughput online solid phase extraction - Liquid chromatography - Tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of tetrodotoxin in human urine.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rebecca; Lemire, Sharon W; Bragg, William; Garrett, Alaine; Ojeda-Torres, Geovannie; Hamelin, Elizabeth; Johnson, Rudolph C; Thomas, Jerry

    2016-09-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely potent paralytic toxin responsible for yearly illness and death around the world. A clinical measurement is necessary to confirm exposure because symptoms of TTX intoxication cannot be distinguished from other paralytic toxins. Our group has developed an online solid phase extraction hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method for the analysis of TTX in human urine with tandem mass spectrometry. The reportable range for the method was 2.80 - 249 ng/mL in urine with precision and accuracy within 15% as determined for all quality control samples. No isotopically-labeled internal standard is available for TTX; thus a surrogate internal standard, voglibose, was investigated to compensate for matrix effects and ionization suppression. However, upon evaluation, voglibose was ineffective for this purpose. This new online method rapidly identifies TTX, facilitating the work of public health authorities and providing support to monitoring programs worldwide. PMID:27212629

  8. Development of an ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction method for the determination of chlorpyrifos and organochlorine pesticide residues in honey samples using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Mir-Michael; Arefhosseini, Seyedrafie; Alizadeh Nabili, Ali Akbar; Mahmoudpour, Mansour; Nemati, Mahboob

    2016-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction method followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in honey samples. The type and volume of organic extraction solvent, pH, effect of added salt content, and centrifuging time and speed were investigated. Under the optimum extraction conditions, 30 μL of 1, 2-dibromoethane (extraction solvent) was immersed into an ultrasonic bath for 1 min at 40°C. The limits of detection and quantification for all target pesticides were 0.003-0.06 and 0.01-0.2 ng/g, respectively. The extraction recovery was 91-100% and the enrichment factors were 168-192. The relative standard deviation for the method was <6% for intraday (n = 6) and <8% for interday precision (n = 4). The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in honey samples. PMID:27214344

  9. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: applications to forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Laurent; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Bevalot, Fabien; Izac, Paul; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct marker of ethanol consumption, and its assay in hair is an efficient tool for chronic alcoholism diagnosis. In 2012, the Society of Hair Testing proposed a new consensus for hair concentrations interpretation, strongly advising the use of analytical methods providing a limit of quantification of less than 3 pg/mg. The present work describes the optimization and validation of a previously developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method in order to comply with this recommendation. The concentration range of this improved method is from 3 to 1,000 pg/mg. Some cases are then described to illustrate the usefulness of hair EtG: a forensic post-mortem case and two cases of suspension of driving licences. Finally, hair samples of some teetotallers (n = 10) have been analyzed, which allowed neither to quantitate nor to detect any trace of EtG. PMID:23824336

  10. Validation of a method for the determination of chloramphenicol in poultry and swine liver by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method has been developed and validated for the determination of chloramphenicol in poultry and swine liver using SPE and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS/MS. The liver samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, defatted with n-hexane, and further cleaned up using SPE cartridges with polymeric sorbent. An Acquity BEH C18 column was used for gradient UPLC separation, with water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for two precursor-product ion transitions for chloramphenicol and one for the internal standard. The method was validated at 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 microg/kg. Mean recoveries from fortified samples ranged from 95.5 to 106.7% with an RSD of 12.2%. The method LOD was < 0.02 microg/kg. PMID:21140679

  11. Validation of a headspace trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds from degraded rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Due to lipid oxidation, off-flavors, characterized by a fishy odor, are emitted during the heating of rapeseed oil in a fryer and affect the flavor of rapeseed oil even at low concentrations. Thus, there is a need for analytical methods to identify and quantify these products. To study the headspace composition of degraded rapeseed oil, and more specifically the compounds responsible for the fishy odor, a headspace trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated. Six volatile compounds formed during the degradation of rapeseed oil were quantified: 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, hexanal, nonanal, (E,E)-heptadienal, and (E)-2-heptenal. Validation using accuracy profiles allowed us to determine the valid ranges of concentrations for each compound, with acceptance limits of 40% and tolerance limits of 80%. This method was then successfully applied to real samples of degraded oils. PMID:26990911

  12. Performance characterization of a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for 12 macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in salmon, shrimp and tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Leslie C

    2014-09-15

    This paper describes an extension and performance characterization of a quantitative confirmatory multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for residues of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics, originally validated for application to bovine kidney tissues, to tissues of salmon, shrimp and tilapia. The 12 analytes include clindamycin, erythromycin A, gamithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, neospiramycin 1, oleandomycin, pirlimycin, spiramycin 1, tildipirosin, tilmicosin and tylosin A. The limit of detection was 0.5 μg/kg. Within-laboratory precision evaluated over the analytical range of 5.0-50.0 μg/kg ranged from 4 to 17%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 80 to 112%. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 99% with all but one recovery above 60%. This is the first report of a quantitative confirmatory method for gamithromycin, pirlimycin and tildipirosin in fish and shrimp. PMID:25125397

  13. Development and validation of a supercritical fluid chromatography method for the direct determination of enantiomeric purity of provitamin B5 in cosmetic formulations with mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Khater, Syame; West, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and efficient chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of panthenol enantiomers in cosmetic formulations (cream, lotion, wipe, and exfoliant). Indeed, the pharmacological effect only depends on the D form (Dexpanthenol) thus accurate measurement of its enantiomeric purity in formulated cosmetic products is of interest. The samples were prepared with liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction on Adsorbex amino cartridges. After testing several enantioselective columns in an attempt at reversing the elution order to have the minor enantiomer eluted first, the best separation of enantiomers and internal standard (N-acetyl-L-alanine) was achieved on a 3 μm-amylose-type immobilized polysaccharide chiral stationary phase (Chiralpak IA) in less than 6 min with a simple mobile phase comprising carbon dioxide and 11% methanol pumped at 2.3 mL/min, 25°C and 150 bar backpressure. Supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to both an optical diode-array detector and a user-friendly single-quadrupole mass spectrometer (Waters QDa) equipped with electrospray ionization source has been used. The on-line coupling ensures the technique to be more informative and improves detection sensitivity, as underivatized panthenol has a poor UV absorption. The limit of quantification (LOQ) achieved with single-ion recording was 0.5 μg/mL. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision and accuracy and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:25459930

  14. Robust method for the analysis of phytochelatins in rice by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry based on polymeric column materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Zhou, Rong; Mou, Renxiang; Chen, Mingxue; Cao, Zhaoyun

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive and robust high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of glutathione and phytochelatins from rice was developed. Homogenized samples were extracted with water containing 100 mM dithiothreitol, and solid-phase extraction using polymer anion exchange resin was employed for sample purification. Chromatography was performed on a polymeric column with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 300 μL/min. The limit of quantitation was 6-100 nM. This assay showed excellent linearity for both glutathione and phytochelatins over physiological normal ranges, with correlation coefficients (r) > 0.9976. Recoveries for four biothiols were within the range of 76-118%, within relative standard deviations less than 15%. The intraday precision (n = 7) was 2.1-13.3%, and the interday precision over 15 days was 4.3-15.2%. The optimized method was applied to analyze tissue samples from rice grown using nutrient solutions with three different cadmium concentrations (0, 50, and 100 μM). With increasing cadmium concentrations, the content of phytochelatin 2 and phytochelatin 3 in rice roots increased, in contrast to most phytochelatins, and the content of glutathione in rice stems and roots decreased significantly. PMID:26541262

  15. Development of a fast and convenient method for the isolation of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa by high-speed countercurrent chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Serhat Sezai; Schwaiger, Stefan; Ellmerer, Ernst Peter; Stuppner, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, a fast and simple method for the separation and purification of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa was successfully established. Accelerated solvent extraction was used for defatting and extracting of the subaerial parts, giving a triterpene enriched crude extract. Size exclusion chromatography was used to separate actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein from other triterpenoids, which were collected in a third fraction. This most complex third fraction was applied to high-speed countercurrent chromatography, a well-established technique for the separation of saponins. Separation parameters were first optimized on an analytical level, using a hyphenated HSCCC-ELSD setup, before the system was scaled up to preparative size. The resulting two-phase solvent system, consisting of N-hexane-acetone-ethyl acetate-2-propanol-ethanol-water (3.5 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 0.5 : 2, v/v/v/v/v/v), enabled the isolation of 23-O-acetylshengmanol-3-O- beta-D-xylopyranoside (17.4 mg), cimiracemoside D (19.5 mg), 25-O-acetylcimigenol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (7.1 mg) and the aglycone cimigenol (5.9 mg). Purity of the isolated substances was 96.8 %, 96.2 %, 97.9 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. The same method was suitable for the purification of actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, with purities of 97.0 % and 98.3 %. PMID:19847744

  16. A validated stability-indicating ultra performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of potential process-related impurities in eplerenone.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingluo; Pan, Chunyan; Chen, Jing; Song, Min; Zhu, Tingting; Hang, Taijun

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive, and accurate stability-indicating analytical method has been developed and validated using ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The developed method is used to evaluate the related substances of eplerenone (EP). The degradation behavior of EP under stress conditions was determined, and the major degradants were identified by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic conditions were optimized using an impurity-spiked solution, and the samples, generated from forced degradation studies. The resolution of EP, its potential impurities, and its degradation products was performed on a Waters UPLC BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by linear gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate adjusted to pH 4.5, methanol and acetonitrile. A photo-diode array detector set at 245 nm was used for detection. The flow rate was set at 0.3 mL/min. The procedure had good specificity, linearity (0.02-3.14 μg/mL), recovery (96.1-103.9%), limit of detection (0.01-0.02 μg/mL), limit of quantitation (0.03-0.05 μg/mL), and robustness. The correction factors of the process-related substances were calculated. PMID:27256957

  17. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 9 organophosphate flame retardants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Few methods are available for comprehensive organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) detection in water and wastewater. Gas chromatography has been employed previously, but this approach is less selective, not amenable for use with deuterated standards and can suffer unfavorable fragmentation. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) has become the most promising platform, already applied successfully for analysis of selected PFRs in some environmental matrices like water and wastewater. However, the presence of some interferences from the dissolvent, the equipment and the used materials should be taken into account. The procedure involves: •The first determination of PFRs by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS using a trap column to distinguish the interferences coming from the instrument and mobile phases.•The optimization of the LC separation to distinguish all target compounds and their interferences.•This method coupled to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) improve the detection and quantification of PFRs. PMID:27222824

  18. An optimized method for the accurate determination of patulin in apple products by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Seo, Miyeong; Kim, Byungjoo; Baek, Song-Yee

    2015-07-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several molds in fruits, has been frequently detected in apple products. Therefore, regulatory bodies have established recommended maximum permitted patulin concentrations for each type of apple product. Although several analytical methods have been adopted to determine patulin in food, quality control of patulin analysis is not easy, as reliable certified reference materials (CRMs) are not available. In this study, as a part of a project for developing CRMs for patulin analysis, we developed isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) as a higher-order reference method for the accurate value-assignment of CRMs. (13)C7-patulin was used as internal standard. Samples were extracted with ethyl acetate to improve recovery. For further sample cleanup with solid-phase extraction (SPE), the HLB SPE cartridge was chosen after comparing with several other types of SPE cartridges. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed on a multimode column for proper retention and separation of highly polar and water-soluble patulin from sample interferences. Sample extracts were analyzed by LC/MS/MS with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with selected reaction monitoring of patulin and (13)C7-patulin at m/z 153→m/z 109 and m/z 160→m/z 115, respectively. The validity of the method was tested by measuring gravimetrically fortified samples of various apple products. In addition, the repeatability and the reproducibility of the method were tested to evaluate the performance of the method. The method was shown to provide accurate measurements in the 3-40 μg/kg range with a relative expanded uncertainty of around 1%. PMID:25925860

  19. A salting out-acetonitrile homogeneous extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of thirteen N-nitrosamines in skin care cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Guo, Xindong; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Wang, Bin; Wu, Yuluan

    2015-11-27

    A sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of thirteen N-nitrosamines (NAs) in skin care cosmetics. The cosmetics samples were firstly dispersed by water and subsequently extracted and purified using salting out-acetonitrile homogeneous extraction method. Finally, the extracting solution was concentrated by slow nitrogen gas blowing. All of the samples were separated by INNOWAX capillary chromatographic column, and detected by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by isotope internal standard method. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Under the optimized condition, the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges of 2-500μg/L for all the thirteen analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R(2)) of greater than 0.996. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the method were 3-15μg/kg and 10-50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries were calculated at three levels of concentration spiked in two kinds of cosmetics (skin care cream and water). The values were found between 93.8% and 121.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.5-7.2% for intra-day precision (n=6) and 3.3-6.7% for inter-day precision (n=5). The method was successfully applied to analyze twenty-two cosmetics samples and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in one sample with the concentration of 207μg/kg. PMID:26518490

  20. Development of a novel high-throughput analytical methodology, multiple injection method, for quantitative analysis in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukari; Ohkawa, Tomoyuki; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel methodology, multiple injection method (MIM), for higher-throughput screening of compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). MIM involves continuous injections of multiple samples containing a different compound respectively into the column, and then temporarily trapping of analytes at the column head in high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. This is followed by elution of all the compounds from the column and detection of them by MS/MS. In this study, fexofenadine, verapamil, risperidone, ondansetron, and imipramine were used as model compounds to investigate the effectiveness of MIM in pharmacokinetic studies. Analytical time of validation samples of these model compounds could be shortened to one third by MIM, compared with the conventional method. In addition, both the accuracy and precision of MIM met the general criteria for quantitative analysis. The peak intensity was found to be unaffected by overlapping compounds even if they have wide range of ionization efficiency. As a result of the comparison of MIM and conventional method in the analysis of samples in pharmacokinetic studies using model compounds, no difference was shown in the quantification values. Consequently, this method has some advantages, reduction of analytical time, the improvement of sensitivity, and the simplicity of system, compared to the conventional methods. MIM should be very useful and powerful method for drug development without an additional hardware and can be used for the measurement of compounds in biological samples for pharmacokinetic studies, especially it greatly contributes to accelerating drug development in its discovery stages. PMID:21804204

  1. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Donkuru, McDonald; Michel, Deborah; Awad, Hanan; Katselis, George; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-05-13

    Diquaternary gemini surfactants have successfully been used to form lipid-based nanoparticles that are able to compact, protect, and deliver genetic materials into cells. However, what happens to the gemini surfactants after they have released their therapeutic cargo is unknown. Such knowledge is critical to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of gemini surfactant nanoparticles. We have developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of various structures of gemini surfactants in cells. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was employed allowing for a short simple isocratic run of only 4min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 3ng/mL. The method was valid to 18 structures of gemini surfactants belonging to two different structural families. A full method validation was performed for two lead compounds according to USFDA guidelines. The HILIC-MS/MS method was compatible with the physicochemical properties of gemini surfactants that bear a permanent positive charge with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements within their molecular structure. In addition, an effective liquid-liquid extraction method (98% recovery) was employed surpassing previously used extraction methods. The analysis of nanoparticle-treated cells showed an initial rise in the analyte intracellular concentration followed by a maximum and a somewhat more gradual decrease of the intracellular concentration. The observed intracellular depletion of the gemini surfactants may be attributable to their bio-transformation into metabolites and exocytosis from the host cells. Obtained cellular data showed a pattern that grants additional investigations, evaluating metabolite formation and assessing the subcellular distribution of tested compounds. PMID:27086283

  2. Limited penetration of perfluorocarbon in porcine pancreas preserved by two-layer method with (19)fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy and headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aditya; So, Po-Wah; Penman, Andy; Powis, Steve; Davidson, Brian; Press, Martin; Fuller, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of the two-layer method (TLM) of pancreas preservation is unclear. Facilitating oxygen diffusion into preserved pancreas has been suggested, but direct measurements of tissue pO(2) have yielded conflicting results. The degree of penetration of perfluorocarbon (PFC) into the pancreas during TLM storage is unknown. Segments of porcine pancreas (7.5 cm in length) were preserved either in University of Wisconsin solution (UW) alone (n = 6) or in TLM for 24 h (n = 6). Pancreatic samples were analyzed using Varian INOVA 9.4 T MR scanner. External PFC standard was introduced for quantification. Four consecutive transverse images of 4 mm thickness were obtained using a spin-echo sequence. (19)Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19)F MRS) was performed with the same parameters except with more averages. MR data were confirmed by headspace chromatography. PFC standard was readily detected in (19)F MR images. There was no signal from pancreas in (19)F MR images following either UW or TLM storage. (19)F MR spectra typical of PFC were not obtained from either UW- or TLM-preserved pancreas with nonlocalized (19)F MRS. Mean concentration of PFC in TLM pancreas measured by head space chromatography was 0.011 nl/g (SD ± 0.006), not significantly different from background concentration (0.012 nl/g, SD ± 0.006) in UW pancreas (p = 0.42). There was no evidence of penetration of PFC into pancreas tissues investigated either by MR or chromatography in organs preserved at hypothermia by TLM, and mechanisms of TLM remain speculative. PMID:20350348

  3. Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.

    Gas chromatography (GC) has many applications in the analysis of food products. GC has been used for the determination of fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, gases, water, alcohols, pesticides, flavor compounds, and many more. While GC has been used for other food components such as sugars, oligosaccharides, amino acids, peptides, and vitamins, these substances are more suited to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. GC is ideally suited to the analysis of volatile substances that are thermally stable. Substances such as pesticides and flavor compounds that meet these criteria can be isolated from a food and directly injected into the GC. For compounds that are thermally unstable, too low in volatility, or yield poor chromatographic separation due to polarity, a derivatization step must be done before GC analysis. The two parts of the experiment described here include the analysis of alcohols that requires no derivatization step, and the analysis of fatty acids which requires derivatization. The experiments specify the use of capillary columns, but the first experiment includes conditions for a packed column.

  4. A liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method to measure a selected panel of uremic retention solutes derived from endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Loor, Henriette; Poesen, Ruben; De Leger, Wout; Dehaen, Wim; Augustijns, Patrick; Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn

    2016-09-14

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease, which is, at least partly, mediated by the accumulation of so-called uremic retention solutes. Although there has been an increasing interest in the behavior of these solutes, derived from both the endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism, methods to simultaneously and accurately measure a broad panel of relevant uremic retention solutes remain scarce. We developed a highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. A high throughput sample preparation was used with extraction of analytes from 50 μl serum using Ostro plate technology. For most solutes, stable isotopes labelled metabolites were used as internal standards. Chromatography was achieved using an Acquity UPLC CSH Fluoro Phenyl column. The total run time was 8 min, the mobile phase was a gradient of 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water and pure methanol at a flow rate of 0.5 ml min(-1). Detection was performed using a tandem mass spectrometer with alternated positive and negative electrospray ionization. Calibration curves were linear for all solutes. Precision was assessed according to the NCCLS EP5-T guideline, being below 15% for all metabolites. Mean recoveries were between 83 and 104% for all metabolites. The validated method was successfully applied in a cohort of 488 patients with CKD. We developed and validated a sensitive and robust UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of 15 uremic retention solutes derived from endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism. This method allows for studying the behavior and relevance of these solutes in patients with CKD. PMID:27566350

  5. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    PubMed

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included. PMID:26830634

  6. Simple, quantitative method for low molecular weight dissolved organic matter extracted from natural waters based upon high performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alfonso; Sandron, Sara; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2016-02-25

    A simple, high-performance counter-current chromatography method with sequential UV absorbance (254 nm) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was developed for the quantification of pre-extracted low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from natural waters. The method requires solid-phase extraction (SPE) extraction of only small volumes of water samples, here using poly(styrenedivinylbenzene)-based extraction cartridges (Varian PPL). The extracted and concentrated DOM was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), with a water/methanol (5:5) mobile phase and hexane/ethyl acetate (3:7) stationary phase. The critical chromatographic parameters were optimised, applying a revolution speed of 1900 rpm and a flow-rate of 1 mL min(-1). Under these conditions, 50 μL of extracted DOM solution could be injected and quantified using calibration against a reference natural dissolved material (Suwannee River), based upon UV absorbance at 254 nm and ELSD detection. Both detection methods provided excellent linearity (R(2) > 0.995) for DOM across the concentration ranges of interest, with limits of detection of 4 μg ml(-1) and 7 μg ml(-1) for ELSD and UV absorbance, respectively. The method was validated for peak area precision (<5%), and accuracy and recovery based upon spiking seawater samples prior to extraction, together with DOM solutions post-extraction (>95% recovery). The developed method was applied to the determination of the concentration of DOM in seawater, based upon initial sample volumes as small as 20 mL. PMID:26851093

  7. Comparison of Two Derivatization Methods for the Analysis of Fatty Acids and Trans Fatty Acids in Bakery Products Using Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Salimon, Jumat; Omar, Talal A.; Salih, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl) and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMS–DM) method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs) from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r) between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99) and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P = 0.05) can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs), specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R) and higher variation (from 84% to 112%), especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%), and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp.) than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples. PMID:24719581

  8. Development of fast screening methods for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in milk by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Aguilera-Luiz, María M; Romero-González, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    Two rapid multi-residue screening methods for the determination of 21 veterinary drugs in milk by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) have been developed and compared. For both methods, veterinary drugs were extracted from milk samples using a rapid extraction procedure based on the modification of the well-known QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method, and no further clean-up steps were necessary. One screening method was based on the selection of a characteristic neutral loss or product ion of the various families of compounds, whereas another one was based on the choice of a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for each compound. These methods were compared with regards to false negatives, cut-off values and the unreliability region. The total run time for both methods was 3 min, allowing quick selection of samples that contained veterinary drugs. Non-negative samples were re-analyzed by the UHPLC-MS/MS confirmation/quantification method, which consisted in the monitoring of two SRM for each compound. The methods were validated according to international guides. The proposed analytical methods allow for the identification and confirmation of the target veterinary drugs at trace levels employing quick analysis time. PMID:20101501

  9. Statistical theory of chromatography: new outlooks for affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Denizot, F C; Delaage, M A

    1975-01-01

    We have developed further the statistical approach to chromatography initiated by Giddings and Eyring, and applied it to affinity chromatography. By means of a convenient expression of moments the convergence towards the Laplace-Gauss distribution has been established. The Gaussian character is not preserved if other causes of dispersion are taken into account, but expressions of moments can be obtained in a generalized form. A simple procedure is deduced for expressing the fundamental constants of the model in terms of purely experimental quantities. Thus, affinity chromatography can be used to determine rate constants of association and dissociation in a range considered as the domain of the stopped-flow methods. PMID:1061072

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetics of a proliposome formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginaton in rats by a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Xing, Gaoyang; Bi, Ye; Yan, Guodong; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yingkun; Liu, Yan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Xie, Jing

    2016-01-01

    As a novel oral drug delivery system, proliposome was applied to improve the solubility of active components of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). There are currently few reports focusing on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of proliposome of GbE (GbP). A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of active components of GbP and a commercial tablet product (Ginaton) in rat plasma was developed and successfully validated. The method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation of GbP and Ginaton in rat plasma. The results indicated that GbP has a significant effect on absorption, elimination and bioavailability of flavonoids and terpenoid lactones in comparison with Ginaton. The obtained results would be helpful for evaluating the absorption mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract in pharmacokinetic level and guiding the development of the novel oral drug delivery system. PMID:26858539

  11. A new and rapid method for the determination of nicarbazin residues in poultry feed, eggs and muscle tissue using supercritical fluid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Matabudul, D K; Crosby, N T; Sumar, S

    1999-04-01

    A simple and rapid method, using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with off-line high-performance liquid chromatography for the isolation and determination of nicarbazin, a popular broad-spectrum coccidiostatic drug used principally in poultry, is described. Results show good repeatability with a minimum quantification level of 0.4 microgram g-1 and mean 'spiked' recoveries of 98%, 100% and 99% using poultry feeds (n = 18), eggs (n = 28) and chicken tissue (n = 20), respectively. SFE using carbon dioxide is proposed as an alternative isolation method to the current Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) procedure which involves the use of large volumes of a harmful solvent (dimethylformamide) and requires a long tedious separation and clean-up regime (6 h) prior to its determination. PMID:10605879

  12. Validation of a multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory method for 10 anticoccidials in eggs according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    Dubreil-Chéneau, Estelle; Bessiral, Mélaine; Roudaut, Brigitte; Verdon, Eric; Sanders, Pascal

    2009-11-13

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of halofuginone, robenidine, diclazuril, nicarbazin, monensin, narasin, lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin and semduramicin in whole egg has been developed and validated. The anticoccidial residues were extracted by acetonitrile, evaporated and dissolved in a sodium acetate/acetonitrile mixture. Then, the samples were injected on a C8 column in a gradient mode. Diclazuril-bis, DNC-d8 and nigericin were used as internal standards. The results of the full validation in accordance with the guidelines of the Commission Decision no 2002/657/EC are presented. This rapid and sensitive method was found suitable to confirm the anticoccidials at 1 and at 75 microg kg(-1) for the MRL compound lasalocid. PMID:19442981

  13. Challenges in implementing a screening method for veterinary drugs in milk using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Lohne, Jack J; Storey, Joseph M; Andersen, Wendy C; Young, Susan L; Carr, Justin R; Madson, Mark R

    2014-04-30

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is a valuable tool for the analysis of chemical contaminants in food. Our laboratory has successfully developed methods to screen for veterinary drug residues using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF). There have been, however, significant challenges as methods are transferred from the development stage to routine regulatory analysis. Having experimental retention time and product ion information for analytes greatly facilitates the ability to determine if residues found by the HRMS searching software are false detects. These data were collected for over 200 veterinary drug residues using LC Q-TOF MS. The screening levels of detection for over 150 veterinary drug residues in milk were determined, and over half of those tested can be detected at concentrations of 10 ng/mL or less; 72% can be found in milk when present at 100 ng/mL. Tentative identification of the product ions from these analytes is also presented. PMID:24432774

  14. Simple and rapid method for the determination of the diastereomers of difenacoum in blood and liver using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M J; Chambers, J; MacNicoll, A D

    1993-10-22

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of cis and trans diastereomers of the anticoagulant rodenticide difenacoum has been described. The methodology demonstrates potential for the analysis of diastereomers of related 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulants. Separations were achieved by reversed-phase chromatography on a Zorbax ODS column with gradient elution using acetonitrile-water, modified with 0.1% acetic acid, as the mobile phase. Detection of the analytes was effected by fluorescence at excitation and emission wavelengths of 310 and 390 nm, respectively. Sample preparation from both plasma and liver has been simplified to reduce preparation time and manipulation. The minimum detectable concentration of each diastereomer was 5 ng/ml. Recoveries of 100% were obtained from plasma and 93% from liver tissue. This method has been used for the investigation of the pharmacokinetics of difenacoum diastereomers in rats, and for investigation of unexplained hypoprothrombinaemic events encountered clinically. PMID:8106576

  15. A rapid method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Pan Panax notoginseng powders by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yu, He-Shuil; Zhang, Li-Juan; Song, Xin-Bo; Kang, Li-Ping; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Man; Yu, Kate; Kang, Ting-Guo; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2015-06-01

    A method coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Qtof MS) using the electrospray ionization (ESI) source was developed for the identification of the major saponins from Panax notoginseng powder (PNP). Ten different PNP samples were analyzed and evaluated for their quality by similarity evaluation and principle component analysis (PCA). Based on the accurate mass, summarized characteristic fragmentation behaviors, retention times of different types of saponins, related botanical biogenesis, and reported chromatographic behavior of saponins, fifty-one common peaks were effectively separated and identified, including 28 protopanaxadiol saponins and 18 protopanaxatriol saponins. Simultaneously, 15 significant discrepancy compounds were identified from the disqualified PNP samples. The established UPLC/Qtof MS fingerprint method was successfully applied for profiling and identifying the major saponins of PNP, providing a fast quality evaluation tool for distinguishing the authentic PNP and the adulterated products. PMID:26073345

  16. Analytical method for the quantitative determination of cyanuric acid as the degradation product of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in urine by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Katan; Jones, Kate

    2007-06-15

    A simple and selective analytical method for the quantitative determination of cyanuric acid, the degradation product of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), in human urine is reported herein. The sample preparation involved the use of diatomaceous earth extraction columns. Quantification was achieved by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using negative ion electrospray with a cyano (CN) column. Between day relative standard deviation less than 10% (n=6) was obtained at the 5 mg L(-1) level. The assay was linear over the investigated range 0-20 mg L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was confirmed to be 0.1 mg L(-1). The method was applied to monitoring levels of cyanuric acid in healthcare workers using disinfectants products containing NaDCC. PMID:17409034

  17. Development and validation of automatic HS-SPME with a gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry method for analysis of volatiles in wines.

    PubMed

    Paula Barros, Elisabete; Moreira, Nathalie; Elias Pereira, Giuliano; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Moraes Rezende, Claudia; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2012-11-15

    An automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) was developed in order to quantify a large number of volatile compounds in wines such as alcohols, ester, norisoprenoids and terpenes. The procedures were optimized for SPME fiber selection, pre-incubation temperature and time, extraction temperature and time, and salt addition. A central composite experimental design was used in the optimization of the extraction conditions. The volatile compounds showed optimal extraction using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, incubation of 5 ml of wine with 2g NaCl at 45 °C during 5 min, and subsequent extraction of 30 min at the same temperature. The method allowed the identification of 64 volatile compounds. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully for the most significant compounds and was applied to study the volatile composition of different white wines. PMID:23158309

  18. Validation of a method for simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles and chloramphenicols in swine tissues by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Li, Yun; Zhong, Feng; Li, Xiaowei; Huang, Yaoling; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-31

    This paper presents a sensitive and confirmatory multi-residue method for the analysis of 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites belonging to three classes (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicols) in porcine muscle, liver, and kidney. After extracted with ethyl acetate and basic ethyl acetate sequentially, the crude extracts were defatted with hexane and further purified using Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction cartridges. Rapid determination was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data acquisition was performed under positive and negative mode simultaneously. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations for meat, liver, and kidney ranged from 50.6 to 108.1%. The method quantification limits were in the range of 3-100ng/kg. PMID:23017446

  19. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Based Screening Method for the Analysis of Atrazine, Alachlor, and Ten of Their Transformation Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroyer, B.R.; Capel, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    A high-performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method is presented for the for the fast, quantitative analysis of the target analytes in water and in low organic-carbon, sandy soils that are known to be contaminated with the parent herbicides. Speed and ease of sample preparation was prioritized above minimizing detection limits. Soil samples were extracted using 80:20 methanol:water (volume:volume). Water samples (50 ??L) were injected directly into the HPLC without prior preparation. Method quantification limits for soil samples (10 g dry weight) and water samples ranged from 20 to 110 ng/g and from 20 to 110 ??g/L for atrazine and its transformation products and from 80 to 320 ng/g and from 80 to 320 ??g/L for alachlor and its transformation products, respectively.

  20. A green method for the quantification of plastics-derived endocrine disruptors in beverages by chemometrics-assisted liquid chromatography with simultaneous diode array and fluorescent detection.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rocío B Pellegrino; Ibañez, Gabriela A; Escandar, Graciela M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel analytical method for the determination of bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate, compounds known for their endocrine-disruptor properties, based on liquid chromatography with simultaneous diode array and fluorescent detection. Following the principles of green analytical chemistry, solvent consumption and chromatographic run time were minimized. To deal with the resulting incomplete resolution in the chromatograms, a second-order calibration was proposed. Second-order data (elution time-absorbance wavelength and elution time-fluorescence emission wavelength matrices) were obtained and processed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS). Applying MCR-ALS allowed quantification of the analytes even in the presence of partially overlapped chromatographic and spectral bands among these compounds and the potential interferents. The obtained results from the analysis of beer, wine, soda, juice, water and distilled beverage samples were compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limits of detection (LODs) in the range 0.04-0.38ngmL(-1) were estimated in real samples after a very simple solid-phase extraction. All the samples were found to contain at least three EDs, in concentrations as high as 334ngmL(-1). PMID:27474316

  1. Development of a method for the analysis of underivatized amino acids by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: application on Standard Reference Material 1649a (urban dust).

    PubMed

    Buiarelli, Francesca; Gallo, Valentina; Di Filippo, Patrizia; Pomata, Donatella; Riccardi, Carmela

    2013-10-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical procedure has been developed for the detection and quantitative determination of underivatized amino acids at low concentrations in a Standard Reference Material-urban dust. In order to minimize interferences of other compounds, an accelerated solvent extraction followed by a solid phase extraction on two different cartridges was applied prior to LC-MS-MS. Fourteen amino acids were separated by high resolution liquid chromatography, detected and quantified by multiple reaction monitoring on a triple quadrupole. The proposed methodology has been applied for the first time on Standard Reference Material 1649a (urban dust) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, that does not report certification values for these compounds. This methodology avoids the derivatization step and allows the amino acid quantification in a complex matrix, such as that of atmospheric particulate matter, and represent a good method suitable to analyze this class of compounds in atmospheric aerosol. The selected strategy demonstrated to be fit-for-purpose, by applying it to a real atmospheric sample with the aim to verify the efficacy of the study and to provide information about the organic matter content. PMID:24054689

  2. A one-step method for priority compounds of concern in tar from former industrial sites: trimethylsilyl derivatisation with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gauchotte-Lindsay, C; Richards, P; McGregor, L A; Thomas, R; Kalin, R M

    2012-08-31

    A dense non-aqueous phase liquid sample formed by release of coal tar into the environment was derivatised by trimethylsilylation using the reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and extracted in hexane using accelerated solvent extraction. This procedure enables comprehensive extraction of an extensive suite of organic compounds from tar, which has not previously been described. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was used for the analysis of the sample for concurrent evaluation of -OH functional group-containing compounds along with aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other typical tar compounds normally determined via classic gas chromatography. Using statistically designed experiments, a range of conditions were tested for complete recovery of four different surrogates. The robustness and repeatability of the optimised derivatisation/extraction method was demonstrated. Finally, more than a hundred and fifty derivatised compounds were identified using mass spectra elucidation and GC×GC logical order of elution. PMID:22818775

  3. A rapid and non-invasive method to determine toxic levels of alcohols and γ-hydroxybutyric acid in saliva samples by gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Criado-García, L; Ruszkiewicz, D M; Eiceman, G A; Thomas, C L P

    2016-03-01

    A polydimethylsiloxane oral sampler was used to extract methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, 1,3-propandiol and γ-hydroxybutyric acid from samples of human saliva obtained using a passive drool approach. The extracted compounds were recovered by thermal desorption, isolated by gas chromatography and detected with differential mobility spectrometry, operating with a programmed dispersion field. Complex signal behaviours were also observed that were consistent with hitherto unobserved fragmentation behaviours in differential mobility spectrometry. These yielded high-mobility fragments obscured within the envelope of the water-based reactant ion peak. Further, compensation field maxima shifts were also observed which were attributable to transport gas modification phenomena. Nevertheless, the responses obtained indicated that in vivo saliva sampling with thermal desorption gas chromatography may be used to provide a semi-quantitative diagnostic screen over the toxicity threshold concentration ranges of 100 mg dm(-3) to 3 g dm(-3). A candidate method suitable for use in low resource settings for the non-invasive screening of patients intoxicated by alcohols and volatile sedatives has been demonstrated. PMID:26744364

  4. An on-line normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid detection of radical scavengers in non-polar food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; van der Klift, Elbert J C; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; van Beek, Teris A

    2009-10-23

    An on-line method for the rapid pinpointing of radical scavengers in non-polar mixtures like vegetable oils was developed. To avoid problems with dissolving the sample, normal-phase chromatography on bare silica gel was used with mixtures of hexane and methyl tert-butyl ether as the eluent. The high performance liquid chromatography-separated analytes are mixed post-column with a solution of stable free radicals in hexane. Reduced levels of the radical as a result of a reaction with a radical scavenger are detected as negative peaks by an absorbance detector. After investigating a number of different reagents, solvents, concentrations and solution flow rates an optimized instrumental set-up incorporating a superloop for pulse-free delivery of the reagent solution is presented. Both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-alpha-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)-p-tolyloxy (galvinoxyl) were used as stable free radicals. The method is suitable for both isocratic and gradient HPLC operation. The method has a simple experimental protocol, uses standard instruments and inexpensive and stable reagents, and accepts any hexane-soluble sample. It can also be used for semi-quantitative analysis. The method was applied to several pure, non-polar natural antioxidants, vegetable oils and lipid-soluble rosemary extract. The limits of detection varied from 0.2 to 176 microg/ml, depending on the compound tested. PMID:19726044

  5. Development, validation and application of a method to analyze phenols in water samples by solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Lanças, Fernando M; Olivares, Igor R B; Alves, Priscila M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the development, validation and application of method using Solid Phase Microexctration (SPME) for the analyses of five pollutants (phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloro, 3-methyl phenol) in supplying water, using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) is described. The optimal conditions obtained for SPME were: fiber type: Poliacrylate (PA); extraction time: 40 minutes; extraction temperature: 70 degrees C; amount of salt added to sample (NaCl): 15%; desorption temperature: 8 minutes. The parameters studied in the method validation were: limit of detection (0.3 and 3.5 microg.L(- 1)); precision, measured by the variation coefficient (between 2.1 and 8.8%); calibration curve and linearity, by using the external standardization method (between 1 and 50 50 microg.L(- 1)). After the methodology development, samples of water collected in Atibaia River (São Paulo - Brazil) were analyzed, using the optimized methodology. Three water samples collected in the rain season showed a peak with retention time close to 4-chloro, 3 methyl phenol further analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the identity confirmation. In spite of the fact that none target compounds were found in the river water samples analyzed, the presence of two phenols different from those investigated (p-terc butyl phenol; butylated hydroxytoluene) were detected. These results together with the results of the limit of detection (that showed to be lower than the maximum concentration of phenols demanded by different environment control agencies), and the results of the validation, indicate the applicability of this method for the analysis of selected phenols in river water samples. PMID:17562456

  6. A fast and sensitive method for the separation of carotenoids using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jumaah, Firas; Plaza, Merichel; Abrahamsson, Victor; Turner, Charlotta; Sandahl, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS) method has been developed and partially validated for the separation of carotenoids within less than 6 min. Six columns of orthogonal selectivity were examined, and the best separation was obtained by using a 1-aminoanthracene (1-AA) column. The length of polyene chain as well as the number of hydroxyl groups in the structure of the studied carotenoids determines their differences in the physiochemical properties and thus the separation that is achieved on this column. All of the investigated carotenoids were baseline separated with resolution values greater than 1.5. The effects of gradient program, back pressure, and column temperature were studied with respect to chromatographic properties such as retention and selectivity. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were compared in both positive and negative mode, using both direct infusion and hyphenated with UHPSFC. The ESI in positive mode provided the highest response. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) for all calibration curves were greater than 0.998. Limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 2.6 and 25.2 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively, whereas limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 7.8 and 58.0 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Repeatability and intermediate precision of the developed UHPSFC-MS method were determined and found to be RSD < 3 % and RSD < 6 %, respectively. The method was applied in order to determine carotenoids in supercritical fluid extracts of microalgae and rosehip. Graphical Abstract Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-a rapid separation method for the analysis of carotenoids in rosehip and microalgae samples. PMID:27349917

  7. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for detection and quantification of C4NP in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    You, J.; Wang, L.; Yang, F.; Shang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Combretastatins, which are excellent anticancer agents, are isolated from Combretum. A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of a combretastatin analog (C4NP) in rats. Methods Sample pretreatment was finished by simple protein precipitation in which methanol was added to plasma containing an internal standard (buspirone hydrochloride). Liquid chromatograph separation was accomplished on a reverse-phase Kinetex XB-C18 column [50×4.6 mm; internal diameter: 2.6 μm (Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, U.S.A.)] with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile (0.05% formic acid, volume for volume) and water (0.05% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were analyzed in the positive ion by electrospray ionization and quantified in the selective reaction monitoring mode. The entire procedure was validated following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines for bioanalytical methods validation. Results Our study investigated, for the first time, the detection and pharmacokinetic characteristics of C4NP in Sprague–Dawley rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic results suggest that C4NP is predominantly restricted to blood or extracellular fluid and is not extensively distributed to most organ tissues. In addition, C4NP can be cleared by renal filtration and active tubular secretion in Sprague–Dawley rats. Toxicokinetics of C4NP in these rats indicate that no saturation of the metabolic or excretion process occurs for C4NP, and metabolic induction and accumulation of toxic injury from multiple dosing are both absent. Conclusions For 100 μL of analyte, recovery plus high accuracy and reproducibility indicate that our new ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method is a reliable and high-throughput analytical tool for the pharmacokinetic study of C4NP in rats. Those results should be useful for risk assessment. PMID:26966419

  8. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Losartan, Losartan Carboxylic Acid, Ramipril, Ramiprilat, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Rat Plasma by a Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Ramkumar; Ghosh, Manik

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of the plasmatic concentrations of cardiovascular drugs is crucial for understanding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. A simple, sensitive, specific, and high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation and pharmacokinetic study of losartan (LOS), losartan carboxylic acid (LCA), ramipril (RAM), ramiprilate (RPT), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in rat plasma using irbesartan (IBS) and metolazone (MET) as internal standards (ISs). After solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes and ISs were separated on an Agilent Poroshell 120, EC-C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 2.7 μm) column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol/water (85:15, v/v) containing 5 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The precursor → product ion transitions for the analytes and ISs were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and switching the electrospray ionization (ESI) mode during chromatography from positive (to detect LOS, LCA, RAM, RPT, and IBS) to negative (to detect HCZ and MET). The method was validated as per the FDA guidelines and it exhibited sufficient specificity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be linear in the range of 3–3000 ng/mL for LOS and LCA, 0.1–200 ng/mL for RAM and RPT, and 1–1500 ng/mL for HCZ. The described method was successfully applied to the preclinical pharmacokinetic study of analytes after oral administration of a mixture of LOS (10 mg/kg), RAM (1 mg/kg), and HCZ (2.5 mg/kg) in rats. PMID:26839805

  9. Simultaneous determination of amlodipine and bisoprolol in rat plasma by a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huichao; Li, Jinyin; Li, Ji; Guan, Xiaoduo; Sun, Fanlu; Qian, Zhongzhi; Bi, Kaishun; Fan, Guorong

    2012-12-01

    A sensitive, specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the quantitative determination of amlodipine and bisoprolol, using clenbuterol as the internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were isolated from 100μL plasma samples by a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) separation was accomplished on a Diamonsil C(18) column (50mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water-formic acid (75:25:0.01, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The method had a chromatographic total run time of 3min. Multiple reacting monitoring (MRM) transitions of m/z [M+H](+) 409.1→237.9 (amlodipine), m/z [M+H](+) 326.2→116.0 (bisoprolol) and m/z [M+H](+) 277.0→203.0 (clenbuterol, IS) were used to quantify amlodipine, bisoprolol and IS, respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.2ng/mL for both amlodipine and bisoprolol, and the linear range was 0.2-50ng/mL for both amlodipine and bisoprolol (r(2)>0.9961). All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision and inter-day repeatability, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of amlodipine and bisoprolol in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. PMID:22947502

  10. Determination of rosmarinic acid in sage and borage leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography with different detection methods.

    PubMed

    Bandoniene, Donata; Murkovic, Michael; Venskutonis, Petras R

    2005-08-01

    Rosmarinic acid is separated and identified on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV-mass spectrometry data in 80% methanol in water extracts from the leaves of Salvia species (S. officinalis, S. glutinosa, S. aethiopis, S. sclarea, and Borago officinalis) as a dominant radical scavenger towards the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) stable radical in HPLC-DPPH* system. The content of rosmarinic acid in the plants is calibrated and quantitated from chromatograms obtained by UV detection at 280 nm. The concentration ranges from 13.3 to 47.3 mg of the phenolic acid per gram dried leaves of all plants is tested. S. glutinosa and S. sclarea have the highest concentration of rosmarinic acid. The amount of rosmarinic acid in borage leaves is similar compared with Salvia officinalis (15 mg/g). The HPLC-DPPH* system is calibrated for quantitative DPPH* scavenging assessment of rosmarinic acid. The results reveal excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between the rosmarinic acid concentration and antiradical activity. PMID:16176651

  11. A novel method using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of betaxanthins.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

    2005-06-17

    Betaxanthins are natural water-soluble yellow pigments present in plants of the order Caryophyllales. The native fluorescence of these compounds is extensively characterized in this work, with study of the fluorescent properties of 14 different betaxanthins. All the species showed a similar behavior, with excitation maxima between 463 and 475 nm and emission maxima between 506 and 515 nm. Thus, betaxanthins absorb light corresponding to the blue color and emit visible green light. Similarities in excitation and emission spectra point to the responsibility of betalamic acid in fluorescence. The influence of the amine moiety is discussed. For the first time fluorescent properties of betaxanthins are applied to the detection of these pigments after separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. Wavelengths used were 460 nm for excitation and 510 nm for emission, which were suitable for detecting the native fluorescence of all the pigments assayed. Calibration was performed in each case and it exhibited linearity within the range considered, at least 20 microM. The lowest detection limit was 100 nM, corresponding to betaxanthins derived from methionine sulfoxide and leucine. Fluorescence detection was applied to the quantification of betaxanthins present in Carpobrotus acinaciformis. The present work opens up new possibilities for the analysis of betaxanthins by improving existing protocols through fluorescence detection. PMID:16007985

  12. Optimization of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method using central composite design for the analysis of components in Yangwei granule*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-fang; Fang, Hai-yan; Qu, Hai-bin

    2011-01-01

    Central composite design (CCD), together with multiple linear regression, was successfully used to optimize the electrophoretic buffer system of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) for the determination of albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, Yangwei granule. Concentrations of sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and borate, and proportions of ammonia, acetonitrile, and methanol were optimized. The total resolutions of peaks between the analytes and their adjacent peaks in real samples were integrated into the evaluation index of separation efficiency. The optimum electrophoretic buffer contained 80 mmol/L SDC, 20 mmol/L borate, 5% (v/v) methanol, 0.5% (v/v) ammonia, and 5% (v/v) acetonitrile. The correlation coefficients (R2) between the peak areas and the corresponding concentrations of analytes were greater than 0.9956. The limits of detection (LODs) (S/N=3) of the analytes were 0.97–4.00 μg/ml. The results indicate the superiority of CCD in optimizing the separation conditions of complex samples such as TCM prescriptions. PMID:21370504

  13. A broad-spectrum equine urine screening method for free and enzyme-hydrolysed conjugated drugs with ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Colton H F; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

    2011-07-01

    The authors' laboratory at one time employed four liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods for the detection of a large variety of drugs in equine urine. Drug classes covered by these methods included anti-diabetics, anti-ulcers, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, sedatives, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, sulfur diuretics, xanthines, etc. With the objective to reduce labour and instrumental workload, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS/MS) method has been developed, which encompasses all target analytes detected by the original four LC/MS methods. The new method has better detection limits than the superseded methods. In addition, it covers new target analytes that could not be adequately detected by the four LC/MS methods. The new method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) of two aliquots of equine urine using two Abs Elut Nexus cartridges. One aliquot of the urine sample is treated with β-glucuronidase before subjecting to SPE. A second aliquot of the same urine sample is processed directly using another SPE cartridge, so that drugs that are prone to decomposition during enzyme hydrolysis can be preserved. The combined eluate is analysed by UPLC/MS/MS using alternating positive and negative electrospray ionisation in the selected-reaction-monitoring mode. Exceptional chromatographic separation is achieved using an UPLC system equipped with a UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (10 cm L×2.1 mm ID with 1.7 μm particles). With this newly developed UPLC/MS/MS method, the simultaneous detection of 140 drugs at ppb to sub-ppb levels in equine urine can be achieved in less than 13 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. Matrix interference for the selected transitions at the expected retention times is minimised by the excellent UPLC chromatographic separation. The method has been validated for recovery and precision, and is being used regularly in the authors' laboratory as an important component of the

  14. High-performance membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Belenkii, B G; Malt'sev, V G

    1995-02-01

    In gradient chromatography for proteins migrating along the chromatographic column, the critical distance X0 has been shown to exist at which the separation of zones is at a maximum and band spreading is at a minimum. With steep gradients and small elution velocity, the column length may be reduced to the level of membrane thickness--about one millimeter. The peculiarities of this novel separation method for proteins, high-performance membrane chromatography (HPMC), are discussed and stepwise elution is shown to be especially effective. HPMC combines the advantages of membrane technology and high-performance liquid chromatography, and avoids their drawbacks. PMID:7727132

  15. Qualification and application of a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric method for the determination of trastuzumab in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Ho; Lee, Min-Woo; Shin, Young G

    2016-04-01

    An liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of humanized or human monoclonal antibodies in rat plasma at the early drug discovery stage. Trastuzumab was used as a model monoclonal antibody. The method consisted of immunoprecipitation followed by tryptic digestion for sample preparation and LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis of specific signature peptides in the positive ion mode using electrospray ionization for analysis. A stable isotope-labeled signature peptide was also used as internal standard. A quadratic regression (weighted 1/concentration(2) ), with an equation y = ax(2)  + bx + c, was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range of 0.500-100 µg/mL for trastuzumab. Samples from a pharmacokinetic study in rat were analyzed by this qualified LC-TOF-MS/MS method and concentrations were compared with those generated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays method. The LC-TOF-MS/MS method was accurate and precise, with quantitative results comparable with those of ELISA. The qualification run met the acceptance criteria of ±25% accuracy and precision values for quality control samples. Within-run accuracy ranged from 1.53 to 9.20% with precision values ≤10.29%. This LC-TOF-MS/MS method approach could be used as a complementary method for humanized or human monoclonal antibodies at the early drug discovery stage. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26317190

  16. Development of liquid chromatography methods coupled to mass spectrometry for the analysis of substances with a wide variety of polarity in meconium.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Monath, Marie; Chatellier, Claudine; Cabooter, Deirdre; Rouget, Florence; Morel, Isabelle; Lestremau, Francois

    2015-06-01

    Meconium is the first fecal excretion of newborns. This complex accumulative matrix allows assessing the exposure of the fetus to xenobiotics during the last 6 months of pregnancy. To determine the eventual effect of fetal exposure to micropollutants in this matrix, robust and sensitive analytical methods must be developed. This article describes the method development of liquid chromatography methods coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for relevant pollutants. The 28 selected target compounds had different physico-chemical properties from very polar (glyphosate) to non-polar molecules (pyrethroids). Tests were performed with three different types of columns: reversed phase, ion exchange and HILIC. As a unique method could not be determined for the simultaneous analysis of all compounds, three columns were selected and suitable chromatographic methods were optimized. Similar results were noticed for the separation of the target compounds dissolved in either meconium extract or solvent for reversed phase and ion exchange columns. However, for HILIC, the matrix had a significant influence on the peak shape and robustness of the method. Finally, the analytical methods were applied to "real" meconium samples. PMID:25863396

  17. Validation of a multi-residue method to determine deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin in mosquito nets by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-μECD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) are frequently used around the world to protect people against malaria vectors. As they contain insecticide, laboratory control is needed to check whether the content of the active ingredient follows the conditions of the manufacturer and also if the active ingredient is still present after some time of use. For this purpose, an analytical method had to be developed. The fact that LNs include a range of polymers for the yarn and use coated or incorporated technologies for the active ingredient, it is a challenge to find only one analytical method determining the active ingredient in LNs, which takes into account both impregnation technologies. Some methods are provided by international organizations but are limited by the determination of only one pesticide per method. The aim of this study was to optimize a short time extraction method for deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin from coated and incorporated mosquito nets and also to detect both insecticides in one analytical run, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-μECD). Methods Based on the literature, the most suitable solvent and the adequate extraction process for the insecticides used for net making were identified and adapted for the new multi-residue method. Results The validation data of the multi-residue method to determine deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin in mosquito nets by GC-μECD are given. Depending on the concentration of the active ingredient spiked on the nets, the mean recovery for alpha-cypermethrin ranged between 86% and 107% with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. For deltamethrin it ranged between 90% and 108% with a relative standard deviation also below 3.5%. The limit of detection is 0.009 g.a.i/kg of net (0.3 mg a.i./m2 of net) both for alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Conclusions Data obtained are excellent. A 30 minutes reflux extraction method with xylene was developed to determine

  18. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farre, M.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a combined analytical method involving toxicity and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water samples. The drugs investigated were the analgesics: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, the decomposition product of the acetyl salicylic acid: salicylic acid and one lipid lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The selected compounds are acidic substances, very polar and all of them are analgesic compounds that can be purchased without medical prescription. The developed protocol consisted, first of all, on the use Microtox?? and ToxAlert??100 toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri for the different pharmaceutical drugs. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values and the toxicity units (TU) were determined for every compound using both systems. Sample enrichment of water samples was achieved by solid-phase extraction procedure (SPE), using the Merck LiChrolut?? EN cartridges followed by LC-ESI-MS. Average recoveries loading 1 l of samples with pH=2 varied from 69 to 91% and the detection limits in the range of 15-56 ng/l. The developed method was applied to real samples from wastewater and surface-river waters of Catalonia (north-east of Spain). One batch of samples was analyzed in parallel also by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HRGC-MS) and the results have been compared with the LC-ESI-MS method developed in this work. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-residue method for the detection of veterinary drugs in distillers grains by liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaklamanos, George; Vincent, Ursula; von Holst, Christoph

    2013-12-27

    Distillers Grain (DG) is an important by-product of ethanol production. The ethanol production process uses only the starch portion of the plant and all the remaining nutrients, protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins remain in DGs, a valuable feed material for livestock. The use of antimicrobial drugs is helpful to limit harmful bacterial growth during the early part of the fermentation process. This can lead to the possible presence of contaminants in the by-products that are used in the food and feed industries, resulting in a major concern for the development of bacterial resistance in both humans and animals. To facilitate the detection of antimicrobial and other commonly used veterinary drugs in DGs, a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed targeting a wide range of 12 chemical classes of anti-bacterial substances and drugs, such as ionophore and non-ionophore authorized coccidiostats, banned coccidiostats, macrolides, tetracyclines, nitroimidazoles, amphenicols, quinolones, sulphonamides, tranquilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzimidazoles. Following a simple and fast extraction step with a mixture of organic solvents, the extract was directly injected into the LC coupled to an Orbitrap mass analyzer. The identification of residues is based on accurate mass measurement. The high mass resolution of 50,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) and corresponding narrow mass windows permitted a very selective and sensitive detection of the analytes in such a complex matrix. A single-laboratory validation procedure was carried out evaluating selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method showed satisfactory analytical performance for precision and trueness, and allowed the determination of the compounds at low concentration. The proposed multi-method demonstrated that liquid chromatography coupled to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a promising analytical technique, suitable for

  20. New Method for Development of Carbon Coated Silica Phases for Liquid Chromatography Part I. Preparation of Carbon Phases

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Changyub; McCormick, Alon V.; Carr, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its combination of unique selectivity and mechanical strength, commercial carbon clad zirconia (C/ZrO2) has been widely used for many applications, including fast two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2DLC). However, the low surface area available (only 20 - 30 m2/g for commercial porous ZrO2) limits its retentivity. We have recently addressed this limitation by developing a carbon phase coated on the high surface area of HPLC grade alumina (C/Al2O3). This material provides higher retentivity and comparable selectivity, but its use is still limited by how few HPLC quality types of alumina particles (e.g., particle size, surface area, pore size) are available. In this work, we have developed useful carbon phases on silica particles, which are available in various particle sizes, pore sizes and forms of HPLC grade. To make the carbon phase on silica, we first treat the silica surface with a monolayer or less of metal cations that bind to deprotonated silanols to provide catalytic sites for carbon deposition. After Al (III) treatment, a carbon phase is formed on the silica surface by chemical vapor deposition at 700 °C using hexane as the carbon source. The amount of Al (III) on the surface was varied to assess its effect on carbon deposition, and the carbon loading was varied at different Al (III) levels to assess its effect on the chromatographic properties of the various carbon adsorbents. We observed that use of a concentration of Al (III) corresponding to a full monolayer leads to the most uniform carbon coating. A carbon coating sufficient to cover all the Al (III) sites, required about 4 – 5 monolayers in this work, provided the best chromatographic performance. The resulting carbon phases behave as reversed phases with reasonable efficiency (50,000 – 79,000 plates/meter) for non-aromatic test species. PMID:21295308

  1. Within-laboratory validation of a multiresidue method for the analysis of 98 pesticides in mango by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fleury Filho, N; Nascimento, C A; Faria, E O; Cruvinel, A R; Oliveira, J M

    2012-01-01

    A within-laboratory validation procedure for a selective and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 98 pesticide residues in mango is presented. QuEChERS extraction was adapted to laboratory conditions. Mango samples (10 g) mixed with sodium sulfate (4 g) and sodium acetate (1 g) were extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (99/1 v/v), cleaned using dispersive solids, and subsequently identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pesticides were separated on a reversed-phase column using a gradient elution in conjunction with positive-mode electrospray ionisation. The analytical performance of the method was demonstrated by analysis of spiked mango samples at three concentration levels (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg kg(-1)) for 3 different days, and the analysis was performed by three analysts. Calibration curves were statistically acceptable by the ordinary last-square method (OLSM), with a regression coefficient above 0.98 for all analytes. The method accuracy (n = 18) was between 80% and 110%, and precisions were below 20% for 95% of the analytes. The method uncertainty at the LOQ was evaluated considering the uncertainty associated with the calibration curve and the uncertainty associated with the method precision. The validation data for all pesticides were in accordance with Brazilian and European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. PMID:22014095

  2. The Verification of the Usefulness of Electronic Nose Based on Ultra-Fast Gas Chromatography and Four Different Chemometric Methods for Rapid Analysis of Spirit Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Dymerski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Spirit beverages are a diverse group of foodstuffs. They are very often counterfeited which cause the appearance of low quality products or wrongly labelled products on the market. It is important to find a proper quality control and botanical origin method enabling the same time preliminary check of the composition of investigated samples, which was the main goal of this work. For this purpose, the usefulness of electronic nose based on ultra-fast gas chromatography (fast GC e-nose) was verified. A set of 24 samples of raw spirits, 33 samples of vodkas, and 8 samples of whisky were analysed by fast GC e-nose. Four data analysis methods were used. The PCA was applied for the visualization of dataset, observation of the variation inside groups of samples, and selection of variables for the other three statistical methods. The SQC method was utilized to compare the quality of the samples. Both the DFA and SIMCA data analysis methods were used for discrimination of vodka, whisky, and spirits samples. The fast GC e-nose combined with four statistical methods can be used for rapid discrimination of raw spirits, vodkas, and whisky and in the same for preliminary determination of the composition of investigated samples. PMID:27446633

  3. Development and validation of a fast high pressure liquid chromatography method for the analysis of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis and fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Scarlata, Christopher J; Hyman, Deborah A

    2010-04-01

    A simple, precise, and accurate 10-min high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of organic acids, alcohols, and furans from processing biomass into renewable fuels. The method uses an H(+) form cation-exchange resin stationary phase that has a five-fold shorter analysis time versus that in the traditional method. The new method was used for the analysis of acetic acid, ethanol, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, and furfural. Results were compared with a legacy method that has historically has been used to analyze the same compounds but with a 55 min run time. Linearity was acceptable on the new method with r(2)>0.999 for all compounds using refractive index detection. Limits of detection were between 0.003 and 0.03 g/L and limits of quantification were between 0.1 and 0.01 g/L. The relative standard deviations for precision were less than 0.4% and recoveries ranged from 92% to 114% for all compounds. PMID:20202640

  4. Rapid and sensitive method for the determination of sibutramine active metabolites in human plasma by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jignesh; Shah, Bhavin; Kambli, Sandeep; Subbaiah, Gunta; Singh, Sadhana; Ameta, Suresh

    2007-02-01

    A new, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method is developed and validated to quantitate the sibutramine active metabolites mono desmethyl sibutramine (M1) and di-desmethyl sibutramine (M2) using imipramine as the internal standard in human plasma samples for routine bioequivalence studies. The method involves rapid solid-phase extraction from plasma, eliminating the drying and reconstitution steps. The analytes are chromatographed on a C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column and analyzed by mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, which enables a quantitation limit at the sub-nanogram level. The method has a chromatographic run time of 2.8 min. The proposed method is validated with a linear range of 0.1-8.0 and 0.2-16.0 ng/mL for M1 and M2, respectively, with a correlation coefficient of regression > or = 0.9990. The method is sensitive and reproducible, having intra- and inter-assay precision at the lower limit of quantitation (0.1 ng/mL for M1 and 0.2 ng/mL for M2) < 10.0%. The overall recovery for M1 and M2 is 93.5% and 77.9%, respectively. The method has been applied to a bioequivalence clinical study with great success. PMID:17425138

  5. Development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for routine identification and purity assessment of high-purity steviol glycoside sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Bililign, Tsion; Moore, Jeffrey C; Tan, Shane; Leeks, Allan T

    2014-02-12

    The widespread application of stevia-based sweeteners in food products has resulted in the need for reliable analytical methods for measuring the purity and identity of high-purity steviol glycoside ingredients. The objective of this research was to develop and validate a new reversed-phase separation method capable of separating and quantifying nine steviol glycosides present in typical high-purity stevia extract ingredients. Results of the study established the linearity of the method at a correlation factor of 1.000 for the two major components and other minor components of this food ingredient. Method accuracy values were in the range of 99.1-100.9%. The percent relative standard deviation for six independent assay determinations was 1.0%. The method was determined to be robust for minor changes in column temperature, initial acetonitrile content, flow rate, and wavelength. The validated high-performance liquid chromatography method was found to be suitable to be included by USP as a Food Chemicals Codex compendial standard for steviol glycosides. PMID:24443893

  6. The Verification of the Usefulness of Electronic Nose Based on Ultra-Fast Gas Chromatography and Four Different Chemometric Methods for Rapid Analysis of Spirit Beverages.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Dymerski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Spirit beverages are a diverse group of foodstuffs. They are very often counterfeited which cause the appearance of low quality products or wrongly labelled products on the market. It is important to find a proper quality control and botanical origin method enabling the same time preliminary check of the composition of investigated samples, which was the main goal of this work. For this purpose, the usefulness of electronic nose based on ultra-fast gas chromatography (fast GC e-nose) was verified. A set of 24 samples of raw spirits, 33 samples of vodkas, and 8 samples of whisky were analysed by fast GC e-nose. Four data analysis methods were used. The PCA was applied for the visualization of dataset, observation of the variation inside groups of samples, and selection of variables for the other three statistical methods. The SQC method was utilized to compare the quality of the samples. Both the DFA and SIMCA data analysis methods were used for discrimination of vodka, whisky, and spirits samples. The fast GC e-nose combined with four statistical methods can be used for rapid discrimination of raw spirits, vodkas, and whisky and in the same for preliminary determination of the composition of investigated samples. PMID:27446633

  7. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  8. Development of On-Line High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-Biochemical Detection Methods as Tools in the Identification of Bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Malherbe, Christiaan J.; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical detection (BCD) methods are commonly used to screen plant extracts for specific biological activities in batch assays. Traditionally, bioactives in the most active extracts were identified through time-consuming bio-assay guided fractionation until single active compounds could be isolated. Not only are isolation procedures often tedious, but they could also lead to artifact formation. On-line coupling of BCD assays to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is gaining ground as a high resolution screening technique to overcome problems associated with pre-isolation by measuring the effects of compounds post-column directly after separation. To date, several on-line HPLC-BCD assays, applied to whole plant extracts and mixtures, have been published. In this review the focus will fall on enzyme-based, receptor-based and antioxidant assays. PMID:22489144

  9. Validation of a method for the analysis of quinolones residues in bovine muscle by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Rubies, A; Vaquerizo, R; Centrich, F; Compañó, R; Granados, M; Prat, M D

    2007-04-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination and confirmation of nine quinolones was optimised and validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Analytes were extracted from veal muscle with water and extracts purified with 96-well plates Oasis HLB cartridges. Separation was carried out in a silica-based C(18) column (50mmx2.1mm) with mobile phases consisting of water/acetonitrile mixtures containing acetic acid. Linear calibration curves in the ranges 4-400 and 50-800ngg(-1), with correlation coefficients at least 0.995, were obtained for all the analytes. At concentration levels above 10ngg(-1), quantification errors were lower than 10% and repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility standard deviations below 6% and 10%, respectively. Decision limits and detection capabilities are reported. PMID:19071613

  10. New evidences on efficacy of boronic acid-based derivatization method to identify sugars in plant material by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Faraco, Marianna; Fico, Daniela; Pennetta, Antonio; De Benedetto, Giuseppe E

    2016-10-01

    This work presents an analytical procedure based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry which allows the determination of aldoses (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose) and chetoses (fructose) in plant material. One peak for each target carbohydrate was obtained by using an efficient derivatization employing methylboronic acid and acetic anhydride sequentially, whereas the baseline separation of the analytes was accomplished using an ionic liquid capillary column. First, the proposed method was optimized and validated. Successively, it was applied to identify the carbohydrates present in plant material. Finally, the procedure was successfully applied to samples from a XVII century painting, thus highlighting the occurrence of starch glue and fruit tree gum as polysaccharide materials. PMID:27474277

  11. Separation and determination of tetrandrine and fangchinoline in herbal medicines by flow injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with internal standard method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Liu, Xiumei; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-12-01

    A simple, rapid and precision flow injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (FI-MEKC) system with trimethoprim as internal standard (IS) for automated quantitative analysis of tetrandrine (TET) and fangchinoline (FAN) in various herbal medicines was demonstrated. The real sample throughput was 19-40 samples per hour using the background electrolyte (BGE) containing 15mM acetic acid-15mM sodium acetate-3% (v/v) polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20)-5% (v/v) methanol at pH 5.5. The method resulted in excellent linearity, with correlation coefficient of regression equation of 0.9996 and 0.9991 for TET and FAN, respectively. Recoveries were in the range 95-109% and 92-106% for TET and FAN, respectively. PMID:16314176

  12. The development and validation of a method for quantifying olanzapine in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti Bedor, Noely Camila Tavares; Galindo Bedor, Danilo César; Miranda de Sousa, Carlos Eduardo; Nunes Bonifácio, Felipe; da Mota Castelo Branco, Daniel; Bastos Leal, Leila; Pereira de Santana, Davi

    2015-03-01

    1. A rapid method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of olanzapine (OLZ) in human plasma was developed and validated. Venlafaxine was used as the internal standard (IS), and the samples were extracted from 400-μL human plasma with methyl tert-butyl ether for liquid-liquid extraction. 2. Chromatography was performed using an ACE C18, 125 × 4.6-mm i.d., 5-μm column. The mobile phase consisted of water with 0.1% formic acid for solvent A and acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid for solvent B (50 : 50 v/v) in isocratic mode. The flow rate was 1.2 mL/min. The retention times for OLZ and the IS were 0.78 and 1.04 min, respectively. Tandem mass spectrometry operating in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring was used to detect OLZ and the IS (m/z: 313.1 > 256.1 and 278.1 > 260.2, respectively). 3. No significant matrix effects were observed on OLZ and the IS retention times, and the mean recovery of OLZ was 90.08%. The assay was linear in the concentration range of 1-20 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.9976). The intra- and inter-day precision were < 11.60% and the accuracy was < 1.66%. 4. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in which 10-mg OLZ tablets were administered to healthy volunteers and their plasma OLZ levels were monitored over time. The tests showed that the OLZ test and reference drug (Zyprexa(®)) were bioequivalent, as 90% of the confidence intervals were within the 80-125% interval proposed by regulatory agencies. PMID:25491375

  13. Simultaneous determination of major type A and B trichothecenes, zearalenone and certain modified metabolites in Finnish cereal grains with a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Syvähuoko, Jenna; Malachová, Alexandra; Jestoi, Marika; Varga, Elisabeth; Michlmayr, Herbert; Adam, Gerhard; Sieviläinen, Elina; Berthiller, Franz; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2015-06-01

    A reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination in cereals of the Fusarium mycotoxins HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the modified metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, HT-2-3-glucoside, nivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-14-glucoside, zearalenone-14-sulphate, zearalenone-16-glucoside, α-zearalenol-14-glucoside and β-zearalenol-14-glucoside. The 'dilute and shoot' approach was used for sample preparation after extraction with acetonitrile:water:acetic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v). Separation was carried out using reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was in-house validated according to performance characteristics, established in Commission Regulation EC No 401/2006 and Commission Decision EC No 657/2002, prior to its application in a nationwide survey for the analysis of barley, oat and wheat samples (n = 95) harvested in Finland during 2013. Deoxynivalenol and its glucosylated form were the most abundant of the analytes, being detected in 93 and 81 % of the samples, respectively. Concentrations of deoxynivalenol were unusually high in 2013, especially in oats, with some cases exceeding the maximum legislative limits for unprocessed oats placed on the market for first-stage processing. All modified mycotoxins analysed were detected, and the natural occurrence of some of these compounds (e.g. zearalenone-16-glucoside and nivalenol-3-glucoside) in barley, oats and/or wheat was documented for the first time. PMID:25935671

  14. Sensitive and rapid analytical method for the quantification of glucosamine in human plasma by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Zheng, Xiaohong; Simpemba, Ernest; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2015-06-01

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of glucosamine in human plasma using miglitol as the internal standard. Special attention was paid to achieve the high throughput and sensitivity of the established method, and the absence of a matrix effect on the analytes. The sample preparation procedure involved a simple deproteinization step. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY HSS Cyano column using a mixture of acetonitrile/2 mM ammonium acetate solution containing 0.03% formic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase with a very short run time of 1.5 min. This method was validated over the concentration range of 10-3000 ng/mL for glucosamine. The intra- and inter-batch precision was <13.9% for the low, medium, and high quality control samples. The established method is highly sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 10 ng/mL, low enough to determine the circadian rhythm on endogenous glucosamine level in human plasma, which has not been reported in detail until now. The method was successfully applied to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of glucosamine in healthy volunteers following a single oral administration of 750 or 1500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride. PMID:25802209

  15. Improvement of a headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of wheat bread volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Antonio; Carcea, Marina; Castagna, Claudia; Magrì, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    An improved method based on headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was proposed for the semi-quantitative determination of wheat bread volatile compounds isolated from both whole slice and crust samples. A DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was used to extract volatiles from the headspace of a bread powdered sample dispersed in a sodium chloride (20%) aqueous solution and kept for 60min at 50°C under controlled stirring. Thirty-nine out of all the extracted volatiles were fully identified, whereas for 95 other volatiles a tentative identification was proposed, to give a complete as possible profile of wheat bread volatile compounds. The use of an array of ten structurally and physicochemically similar internal standards allowed to markedly improve method precision with respect to previous HS-SPME/GC-MS methods for bread volatiles. Good linearity of the method was verified for a selection of volatiles from several chemical groups by calibration with matrix-matched extraction solutions. This simple, rapid, precise and sensitive method could represent a valuable tool to obtain semi-quantitative information when investigating the influence of technological factors on volatiles formation in wheat bread and other bakery products. PMID:26118802

  16. Analysis of veterinary drug residues in shrimp: a multi-class method by liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Kijak, Philip James; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Cui, Wei

    2006-05-19

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to screen and confirm veterinary drug residues in raw shrimp meat. This method simultaneously monitors 18 drugs of different classes, including oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfonamides, quinolones, cationic dyes, and toltrazuril sulfone (TOLS). The homogenized shrimp meat is extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid. The extract is further cleaned using polymer-based SPE. A 50 mm phenyl column separates the analytes, prior to analysis with an ion trap mass spectrometer interfaced with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. This method is able to confirm oxytetracycline residues at 200 ng/g, toltrazuril sulfone at 50 ng/g, sulfaquinoxaline at 20 ng/g, and the other 15 drugs at 10 ng/g or lower levels. An estimate of the level of residues can also be made so that only confirmed samples above action levels will be sent for quantitation. The method is validated with both fortified and incurred samples, using multiple shrimp species as well. This multi-class method can provide a means to simultaneously monitor for a wide range of illegal drug residues in shrimp. PMID:16597519

  17. Development and validation of a confirmatory method for the determination of sulphonamides in milk by liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Valentina; Terzano, Chiara; Fioroni, Laura; Moretti, Simone; Dusi, Guglielmo; Galarini, Roberta

    2009-04-01

    A simple and rapid multiresidue method for the determination of seven sulphonamides residues (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline) in milk samples was developed and validated. The drugs were extracted with a mixture chloroform/acetone and simply cleaned up on a cation exchange solid phase extraction column. The analytes determination was carried out using liquid chromatography with diode array detection (DAD). The procedure has validated as a quantitative confirmatory method according to the European Union (EU) Decision 2002/657/EC. The developed method shows good linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility), ruggedness and is able to confirm each sulphonamide residue above 30mugkg(-1). Decision limits (CCalpha) around 110mugkg(-1) and recovery above 56% were obtained for all the analytes. The results of the validation process demonstrate that the method is suitable for application, as confirmatory method, in European Union statutory veterinary drug residue surveillance programmes. In addition, a hypothetical situation of sample judgement (compliance or not) in the case in which, at the same time, two different sulphonamides are found, is discussed. PMID:19286007

  18. Universal method to determine acidic licit and illicit drugs and personal care products in water by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight

    PubMed Central

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Carmona, Eric; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are emerging contaminants widely distributed in water. Currently, a number of solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) have been reported. However, target analysis of selected compounds is commonly used whereas other related contaminants present in the sample remain invisible. Carmona et al. [1] described a method for determining 21 emerging contaminants by LC–MS/MS with improved mobile phases. We tested this protocol in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument to get a wide non-target screening approach in order to have a broader scope and more practical method for detecting licit and illicit drugs and personal care products than traditional target methods. The essential points in the method are: • The screening capabilities of QqTOF (ABSciex Triple TOF™) are used for detecting and identifying non-target pharmaceuticals and a large number of other emerging contaminants in water. • The quantitative features of the instrument, the Achilles heel of the QqTOF mass spectrometers, are established for few selected compounds. • The method may be applied to identify a large number of emerging contaminants in water. However, pre-validation will be needed to quantify them. PMID:27144129

  19. A confirmatory method for the determination of phenolic endocrine disruptors in honey using restricted-access material-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, E; García-Gómez, D; Carabias-Martínez, R

    2010-10-01

    The present work describes the development and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography (LC), coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) that allows the determination and confirmation of several endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in honey. The EDCs studied were nine phenols of different nature: chlorophenols (2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol), alkylphenols (4-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, and 4-n-octylphenol) bisphenols (bisphenol-A and bisphenol-F), and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid. The method incorporates a restricted-access material (RAM), coupled on-line to the LC-MS/MS system, which allows direct injection of the matrix into the RAM-LC-MS/MS system. The optimized method developed, RAM-LC-MS/MS, was applied to fortified honey samples, affording detection limits in the 0.6-7.2 ng g(-1) range, calculated for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. In addition, the method was validated as a quantitative confirmatory method according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. The validation criteria evaluated were linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, decision limits, detection capabilities, specificity, and ruggedness. Repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were evaluated at two concentration levels, being +/-11% or below at 20 ng g(-1). The decision limits (CC(alpha)) and detection capabilities (CC(beta)) were in the 1.7-12.6 and 2.8-21.6 ng g(-1) range, respectively. PMID:20336451

  20. A rapid & sensitive liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of busulfan levels in plasma & application for routine therapeutic monitoring in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Desire, Salamun; Mohanan, Ezhil Pavai; George, Biju; Mathews, Vikram; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok; Balasubramanian, Poonkuzhali

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Busulfan (Bu) in combination with cyclophosphamide is widely used in myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Its narrow therapeutic range and toxic side effects at high systemic exposure and graft rejection at low exposure emphasize the need for busulfan dose optimization using targeted dose adjustment prior to HSCT. We report here a rapid and sensitive method to quantitate busulfan plasma levels in patients receiving busulfan as part of pre-transplant conditioning. Methods: The method involves simple protein precipitation of the plasma followed by analysis using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry - electrospray ionization technique (LC-ESI MS/MS) in positive ionization mode and quantified using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Deuterated busulfan (d8-busulf`an) was used as the internal standard. Results: The method was linear for the concentration ranging from 0 to 4000 ng/ml of busulfan with a limit of detection of 2 ng/ml and limit of quantitation of 5 ng/ml. The assay was accurate for serial concentrations of Bu in plasma for five consecutive days and the CV was less than 10 per cent. Conclusion: Using this rapid and sensitive method, busulfan levels were targeted and subsequent doses adjusted at our center in 26 patients receiving high dose busulfan in combination with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine. PMID:23703347

  1. Development of a rapid, multi-class method for the confirmatory analysis of anti-inflammatory drugs in bovine milk using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malone, E M; Dowling, G; Elliott, C T; Kennedy, D G; Regan, L

    2009-11-13

    A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous identification, confirmation and quantitation of seven licensed anti-inflammatory drugs (AIDs) in bovine milk. The method was validated in accordance with the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Two classes of AIDs were investigated, corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The developed method is capable of detecting and confirming dexamethasone (DXM), betamethasone (BTM), prednisolone (PRED), tolfenamic acid (TLF), 5-hydroxy flunixin (5-OH-FLU), meloxicam (MLX) and 4-methyl amino antipyrine (4-MAA) at their associated maximum residue limits (MRLs). These compounds represent all the corticosteroids and NSAIDs licensed for use in bovine animals producing milk for human consumption. These compounds have never been analysed before in the same method and also 4-methyl amino antipyrine has never been analysed with the other licensed NSAIDs. The method can be considered rapid as permits the analysis of up to 30 samples in one day. Milk samples are extracted with acetonitrile; sodium chloride is added to aid partition of the milk and acetonitrile mixture. The acetonitrile extract is then subjected to liquid-liquid purification by the addition of hexane. The purified extract is finally evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in a water/acetonitrile mixture and determination is carried out by LC-MS/MS. Decision limit (CCalpha) values and detection capability (CCbeta) values have been established for each compound. PMID:19467664

  2. Development and validation of a generic method for quantification of collagen in food supplement tablets using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Bilgin; Senal, Merve Oztug; Akgoz, Muslum; Goren, Ahmet C

    2015-03-01

    A generic method for the quantification of type II collagen in protein-based dietary supplements is described. This quantitative analysis was conducted using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF MS). Compared to classical methods with the use of isotope-labeled standards, our method includes, for the first time, the quantification of hydroxyproline using histidine as an internal standard. Separation of the analytes was performed on a Phenomenex Synergi 4 μm Fusion-RP 80 Ǻ column (150 × 2.0 mm, 4.0 μm) with a mobile phase made of 10 mM ammonium formate in water (A) and 10 mM ammonium formate in methanol (B). The assay was fully validated according to FDA guidelines, and the method exhibited sufficient specificity, accuracy, and precision. Intra- and inter-batch accuracy, determined as a deviation between nominal and measured values, ranged from -4.8 to 9.1% and from 0.9 to 6.4 %, respectively. All analytes (hydroxyproline and histidine) at three concentration levels showed extraction recoveries from 89 to 98 %. The method was successfully applied to protein-based dietary supplements of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25585887

  3. Development and Validation of a Multiclass Method for Analysis of Veterinary Drug Residues in Milk Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Leung, Daniel; Chow, Willis; Chang, James; Wong, Jon W

    2015-10-21

    This paper presents the development and validation of a multiclass method for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in milk using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap). The 12 classes of veterinary drugs (a total of 125) included in this study were endectocides, fluoroquinolones, ionophores, macrolides, nitroimidazole, NSAIDs, β-lactams, penicillins, phenicols, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Veterinary drug residues in milk were extracted using a modified salting-out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE) method, which entailed the precipitation of milk proteins using an extraction buffer (oxalic acid and EDTA, pH 3) and acetonitrile, a salting-out acetonitrile/water phase separation using ammonium sulfate, and solid-phase extraction (SPE) using polymeric reversed-phase sorbent cartridges. The final extracts were concentrated and reconstituted into a buffer solution and analyzed using UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated using a nested experimental design to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty. The method was able to quantify or screen up to 105 veterinary drugs from 11 different classes, except aminoglycosides. The limits of quantification were as low as 1.0 μg/kg, with an analytical range from 1.0 to 100.0 μg/kg in milk. PMID:26416602

  4. Comparison of rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry methods for determination of glycoalkaloids in transgenic field-grown potatoes.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Britta; Catchpole, Gareth; Draper, John; Fiehn, Oliver

    2005-01-15

    Two rapid methods for highly selective detection and quantification of the two major glycoalkaloids in potatoes, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, were compared for robustness in high-throughput operations for over 1000 analytical runs using potato tuber samples from field trials. Glycoalkaloids were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. An electrospray interface was used in the detection of glycoalkaloids in positive ion mode. Classical reversed phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) columns were investigated for chromatographic separation, ruggedness, recovery, precision, and accuracy. During the validation procedure both methods proved to be precise and accurate enough in relation to the high degree of endogenous biological variability found for field-grown potato tubers. However, the RP method was found to be more precise, more accurate, and, more importantly, more rugged than the HILIC method for maintaining the analytes' peak shape symmetry in high-throughput operation. When applied to the comparison of six classically bred potato cultivars to six genetically modified (GM) lines engineered to synthesize health beneficial inulins, the glycoalkaloid content in potato peels of all GM lines was found within the range of the six cultivars. We suggest complementing current unbiased metabolomic strategies by validating quantitative analytical methods for important target analytes such as the toxic glycoalkaloids in potato plants. PMID:15620882

  5. Strategy of accelerated method development for high-throughput bioanalytical assays using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guowen; Snapp, Heidi M; Ji, Qin C; Arnold, Mark E

    2009-11-15

    Here we report a strategy for rapid method development of high-throughput bioanalytical assays using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (uHPLC-MS/MS). First, a data set was established for the removal of representative phospholipids under different sample treatments to guide subsequent method development for various compounds. The recovery information of the analyte(s) of interest under different extraction conditions was then obtained during method development. With the recovery profiles and the pre-established knowledge of phospholipids removal in place, an optimal extraction condition was identified to give not only a satisfactory recovery but also a good cleanup of the sample. A rapid LC or uHPLC method was developed without the need of extensive column wash after the elution of the analyte. This strategy was demonstrated through the method development of a uHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical assay for the quantitation of ketoconazole in human plasma with liquid-liquid extraction using a hexane and ethyl acetate solvent system. The retention time for ketoconazole through an isocratic elution was 18 s. Good accuracy and precision were obtained. Assay ruggedness was demonstrated by consistent internal standard responses and retention time for 500 sequential injections. In addition, consistent results were obtained for incurred sample reanalysis. PMID:19856950

  6. Development and comparison of two multiresidue methods for the analysis of 17 mycotoxins in cereals by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurelien; Oberson, Jean-Marie; Tella, Patricia; Gremaud, Eric; Seefelder, Walburga; Mottier, Pascal

    2010-07-14

    Two multiresidue methods based on different extraction procedures have been developed and compared for the liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 17 mycotoxins including ochratoxin A, aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)), zearalenone, fumonisins (B(1) and B(2)), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in cereal-based commodities. The extraction procedures considered were a QuEChERS-like method and one using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Both extraction procedures gave similar performances in terms of linearity (r(2) > 0.98) and precision (both RSD(r) and RSD(iR) < 20%). Trueness was evaluated through participation in four proficiency tests and by the analysis of two certified reference materials and one quality control material. Satisfactory Z scores (|Z| < 2) and trueness values (73-130%) were obtained by the proposed procedures. Limits of quantification were similar by both methods and were within the 1.0-2.0 microg/kg range for aflatoxins, 0.5 microg/kg for ochratoxin A, and the 5-100 microg/kg range for all other mycotoxins tested. The QuEChERS-like method was found to be easier to handle and allowed a higher sample throughput as compared to the ASE method. PMID:20527950

  7. Universal method to determine acidic licit and illicit drugs and personal care products in water by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Carmona, Eric; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are emerging contaminants widely distributed in water. Currently, a number of solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have been reported. However, target analysis of selected compounds is commonly used whereas other related contaminants present in the sample remain invisible. Carmona et al. [1] described a method for determining 21 emerging contaminants by LC-MS/MS with improved mobile phases. We tested this protocol in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument to get a wide non-target screening approach in order to have a broader scope and more practical method for detecting licit and illicit drugs and personal care products than traditional target methods. The essential points in the method are: •The screening capabilities of QqTOF (ABSciex Triple TOF™) are used for detecting and identifying non-target pharmaceuticals and a large number of other emerging contaminants in water.•The quantitative features of the instrument, the Achilles heel of the QqTOF mass spectrometers, are established for few selected compounds.•The method may be applied to identify a large number of emerging contaminants in water. However, pre-validation will be needed to quantify them. PMID:27144129

  8. Development of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of intact glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in Brassicaceae seeds and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Franco, P; Spinozzi, S; Pagnotta, E; Lazzeri, L; Ugolini, L; Camborata, C; Roda, A

    2016-01-01

    A new high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates, as glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, and the corresponding isothiocyanates, as sulforaphane and erucin, was developed and applied to quantify these compounds in Eruca sativa defatted seed meals and enriched functional foods. The method involved solvent extraction, separation was achieved in gradient mode using water with 0.5% formic acid and acetonitrile with 0.5% formic acid and using a reverse phase C18 column. The electrospray ion source operated in negative and positive mode for the detection of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, respectively, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was selected as acquisition mode. The method was validated following the ICH guidelines. Replicate experiments demonstrated a good accuracy (bias%<10%) and precision (CV%<10%). Detection limits and quantification limits are in the range of 1-400ng/mL for each analytes. Calibration curves were validated on concentration ranges from 0.05 to 50μg/mL. The method proved to be suitable for glucosinolates and isothiocyanates determination both in biomasses and in complex matrices such as food products enriched with glucosinolates, or nutraceutical bakery products. In addition, the developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in bakery product enriched with glucosinolates, to evaluate their thermal stability after different industrial processes from cultivation phases to consumer processing. PMID:26363943

  9. Development of a multi-class steroid hormone screening method using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Boggs, Ashley S P; Bowden, John A; Galligan, Thomas M; Guillette, Louis J; Kucklick, John R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring complex endocrine pathways is often limited by indirect measurement or measurement of a single hormone class per analysis. There is a burgeoning need to develop specific direct-detection methods capable of providing simultaneous measurement of biologically relevant concentrations of multiple classes of hormones (estrogens, androgens, progestogens, and corticosteroids). The objectives of this study were to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for multi-class steroid hormone detection using biologically relevant concentrations, then test limits of detection (LOD) in a high-background matrix by spiking charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (FBS) extract. Accuracy was tested with National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) with certified concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone. 11-Deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, adrenosterone, androstenedione, cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, estriol, estrone, equilin, pregnenolone, progesterone, and testosterone were also measured using isotopic dilution. Dansyl chloride (DC) derivatization was investigated maintaining the same method to improve and expedite estrogen analysis. Biologically relevant LODs were determined for 15 hormones. DC derivatization improved estrogen response two- to eight-fold, and improved chromatographic separation. All measurements had an accuracy ≤14 % difference from certified values (not accounting for uncertainty) and relative standard deviation ≤14 %. This method chromatographically separated and quantified biologically relevant concentrations of four hormone classes using highly specific fragmentation patterns and measured certified values of hormones that were previously split into three separate chromatographic methods. PMID:27039201

  10. Validation and application of a multi-residue method, using accelerated solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography, for pesticides quantification in soil.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Morales, J B; Valdez-Torres, J B; Bastidas-Bastidas, P J; Betancourt-Lozano, M

    2015-01-01

    A multi-residue method was developed to determine different types of pesticides in soils. An extraction with pressure and temperature, through accelerated solvent extraction (dichloromethane:acetone, 50:50, v/v). The pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with several selective detectors: electron capture detector, pulsed flame photometric detector and thermionic specific detector. The following parameters were determined: limit of detection, limit of quantification, equipment linearity (working interval), method linearity as well as, method accuracy and precision. The average recoveries ranged between 76 and 106%, with the exception of chlorothalonil, which had an average recovery of 46%. Additionally, detection limits from 0.9 to 7.6ng g -: (1) and the quantification limits from 3.00 to 25.47ng g -: (1) were estimated. In terms of linearity and precision, the results obtained were in the ranges considered adequate (R(2) ≥ 0.98 and coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 20%), with the exception of aldrin (R(2) = 0.946, CV = 35.79%), lindane (R(2) = 0.917, CV = 32.91%) and chlorothalonil (R(2) = 0.8184, CV = 81.35%). The proposed method was used to evaluate pesticides in real soil samples, detecting concentrations over 1000ng g -: (1) for some pesticides. The method was correctly validated and provided for the rapid determination of pesticides in soil. PMID:26041247

  11. Application of the Reference Method Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (ID/GC/MS) to Establish Metrological Traceability for Calibration and Control of Blood Glucose Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Andreis, Elisabeth; Küllmer, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG) by means of handheld BG systems is a cornerstone in diabetes therapy. The aim of this article is to describe a procedure with proven traceability for calibration and evaluation of BG systems to guarantee reliable BG measurements. Isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (ID/GC/MS) is a method that fulfills all requirements to be used in a higher-order reference measurement procedure. However, this method is not applicable for routine measurements because of the time-consuming sample preparation. A hexokinase method with perchloric acid (PCA) sample pretreatment is used in a measurement procedure for such purposes. This method is directly linked to the ID/GC/MS method by calibration with a glucose solution that has an ID/GC/MS-determined target value. BG systems are calibrated with whole blood samples. The glucose levels in such samples are analyzed by this ID/GC/MS-linked hexokinase method to establish traceability to higher-order reference material. For method comparison, the glucose concentrations in 577 whole blood samples were measured using the PCA-hexokinase method and the ID/GC/MS method; this resulted in a mean deviation of 0.1%. The mean deviation between BG levels measured in >500 valid whole blood samples with BG systems and the ID/GC/MS was 1.1%. BG systems allow a reliable glucose measurement if a true reference measurement procedure, with a noninterrupted traceability chain using ID/GC/MS linked hexokinase method for calibration of BG systems, is implemented. Systems should be calibrated by means of a traceable and defined measurement procedure to avoid bias. PMID:24876614

  12. A simple and specific high performance liquid chromatography method for the assay of a series of novel dermal penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Michniak, B B; Seyda, K L

    1993-02-01

    Synopsis A series of clofibric acid amides has been synthesized and previously reported by the authors as possessing enhancer activity in vitro in athymic nude mouse skin against model drugs, hydrocortisone-21-acetate and beta-methasone-17-valerate. An assay was required for each of these enhancers however, which would be specific for each compound and would also separate model drugs and their metabolite peaks. This study reports reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography assays for clofibric acid amide and seven derivatives (Ia-Ig). All enhancers showed maximum absorption at 232 nm, betamethasone (BM) and its valerate (BMV) at 238 nm, and hydrocortisone (HC) and its acetate (HCA) at 242 nm. Practical units of detection for the amides were 0.46-2.8 mug ml(-1) and peaks were sharp and well-separated from steroid peaks in three vehicles - methanol alone. Franz diffusion cell receptor phase samples (isotonic phosphate buffer), and full-thickness athymic nude mouse skin extracts in methanol. Mobile phases consisted of various proportions of acetonitrile and water, some with 2-propanol. The octyl amide for example, with mobile phase CH(3)CN: H(2)O (85:15) at 1 ml min(-1) had a retention time (t(R)) of 7.9 mins. Under the same conditions, retention times for the steroids were HC, t(R)= 3.3 mins; HCA, t(R)= 4.3 mins; BM, t(R)= 3.4 mins; BMV, t(R)= 4.6 mins. Résumé Les auteurs avaient démontré dans un article précédent le pouvoir accélérateur de pénétration dermique in vitro d'une gamme d'amides d'acide clofibrique sur la peau de souris sans poils, et sans thymus avec des médicaments types tels que l'acetate 21 d'hydrocortisone et le valerate 17 de beta-metasone. Il a cependant été requis, pour chacun de ces accélérateurs, un test spécifique pour chaque composition, permettant de séparer chaque médicament et les pics des métabolites. Cette étude décrit des tests par chromatographie liquide à haute performance en phase inverse pour l

  13. Development of a method to screen and isolate potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography, and counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Tang, Ying; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2015-06-01

    A new assay based on ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed for the rapid screening and identification of the ligands for α-glucosidase from the extract of Panax japonicus. Six saponins were identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors. Subsequently, the specific binding ligands, namely, notoginsenoside R1 , ginsenoside Rb1 , chikusetsusaponin V, chikusetsusaponin IV, chikusetsusaponin IVa, and ginsenoside Rd (the purities were 94.18, 95.43, 96.09, 93.26, 94.50, 93.86%, respectively) were separated by counter-current chromatography using two-phase solvent systems composed of tert-butyl methyl ether, acetonitrile, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (3.8:1.0:4.4, v/v/v) and the solvent system composed of methylene chloride, isopropanol, methanol, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (5.8:1.0:6.0:2.2, v/v/v). The results demonstrate that ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography might provide not only a powerful tool for screening and isolating α-glucosidase inhibitors in complex samples but also a useful platform for discovering bioactive compounds for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25847676

  14. Extension of the two-dimensional mass channel cluster plot method to fast separations utilizing low thermal mass gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-03-24

    Implementation of a data reduction and visualization method for use with high-speed gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) is reported. The method, called the "2D m/z cluster method" facilitates analyte detection, deconvolution, and identification, by accurately measuring peak widths and retention times using a fast TOFMS sampling frequency (500 Hz). Characteristics and requirements for high speed GC are taken into consideration: fast separations with narrow peak widths and high peak capacity, rapid data collection rate, and effective peak deconvolution. Transitioning from standard GC (10-60+ minute separations) to fast GC (1-10 min separations) required consideration of how to properly analyze the data. This report validates use of the 2D m/z cluster method with newly developed GC technology that produces ultra-fast separations (∼1 min) with narrow analyte peak widths. Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) operated at a heating rate of 250 °C/min coupled to a LECO Pegasus III TOFMS analyzed a 115 component test mixture in 120 s with peak widths-at-base, wb (4σ), of 350 ms (average) to produce a separation with a high peak capacity, nc ∼ 340 (at unit resolution Rs = 1). The 2D m/z cluster method is shown to separate overlapped analytes to a limiting Rs ∼ 0.03, so the effective peak capacity was increased nearly 30-fold to nc ∼10,000 in the 120 s separation. The method, when coupled with LTM-GC-TOFMS, is demonstrated to provide unambiguous peak rank (i.e. the number of analytes per overlapped peak in the total ion current (TIC)), by visualizing locations of pure and chromatographically overlapped m/z. Hence, peak deconvolution and identification using MCR-ALS (multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares) is demonstrated. PMID:26945000

  15. Validation of a method for the determination of narasin in the edible tissues of chickens by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tracey L Cash; Moran, John W; Turner, James M; Coleman, Mark R

    2005-01-01

    Maxiban and Monteban are 2 products marketed by Elanco Animal Health. They contain narasin and are used for the prevention of coccidiosis in chickens. Products used in the European market must be regularly re-registered with new data to support label claims. This study was undertaken as part of such a re-registration effort. A method for the determination of narasin in poultry tissue was previously registered with the authorities; however, a method with more environmentally friendly solvents was desired. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency accomplished this goal and published an improved method. In order to register the method with European authorities as the official Elanco method for determination of narasin, Elanco scientists were required to provide validation data for all edible poultry tissues. This paper shows the validation of the method to detect residues of narasin using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatographic analysis utilizing post-column derivatization. PMID:15759731

  16. Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Champ, Martine; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37 degrees C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization > or =3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (S(R)) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action. PMID:20334184

  17. [Evaluation of QuEchERS methods for the analysis of 66 organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Lin, Dejuan; Zheng, Shaohui

    2012-02-01

    A comparison was made between the two versions of QuEChERS sample preparation method for the extraction of 66 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPS) in vegetables. The two QuEChERS methods were the original method without buffer published in 2003, and the AOAC Official Method 2007. 01 with acetate buffer. The adsorption behaviors of primary secondary amine (PSA) sorbent and C18 sorbent on the OPPS were studied. The method of after-extraction addition was used to evaluate matrix effects for OPPS in matrix of broccoli, tomato, green soybean, radish and shallot during liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. As a result, the QuEChERS method with acetate buffer gave higher and more consistent recoveries for some of OPPS. The PSA sorbent and C18 sorbent can adsorb dibrom, so the QuEChERS method was not suitable for the analysis of dibrom. The maximum matrix effects were in the extracts of broccoli during LC-MS/MS analysis. In this article, OPPS were extracted using the QuEChERS method with acetate buffer, and analysed by LC-MS/MS under the optimized conditions with monitoring 132 MS/MS transitions of precursor ions (two for each pesticide) in one single run. Recoveries for all but dibrom at fortification levels of 10, 40, 80 microg/kg in broccoli, tomato, green soybean, radish and shallot ranged from 55% to 122% with relative standard deviations of 1.6% - 18%. The limits of quantification (S/N > or = 10) were 0.1 - 8 microg/kg. Based on these results, the analytical method was proven to be highly efficient, robust and sensitive, and suitable for the monitoring of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of 66 OPPS in vegetables. PMID:22679828

  18. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xianrui; Ma, Meiling; Su, Weike

    2013-01-01

    Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) combined with similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative retention times (RRT) and relative peak areas (RPA) of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin) in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent. PMID:23930008

  19. A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in fresh fish and dried seafoods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenshuo; Han, Zheng; Aerts, Johan; Nie, Dongxia; Jin, Mengtong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhiyong; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhao, Yong; Wu, Aibo

    2015-03-27

    A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine mycotoxins, i.e., aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin, HT2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON), in fresh fish (muscle and entrails) as well as dried seafoods. Special focus was given to sample pretreatment which is crucial for an accurate and reliable analytical method. With regards to the high complexity of the matrices, extraction solvent, time, and temperature as well as clean-up cartridges were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce matrix effects. The optimum procedure included ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v) at 40 °C for 30 min, defatting with n-hexane and purification by Oasis HLB cartridges. The method was further validated by determining the linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9989), sensitivity (limit of detection ≤ 2 μg/kg, limit of quantitation ≤ 3 μg/kg), recovery (72.2-119.9%) and precision (≤ 18.3%) in muscle and entrails of fresh crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as well as dried fish products. The method was proven to be suitable for its intended purposes. Mycotoxins of OTA, ZEN and AFB2 have been found in fresh fish and dried seafoods for the first time. PMID:25711425

  20. Development of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in fish and Fatty food.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi Ho

    2014-06-25

    This paper reports the development of a method for the quantitative analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C6-C14 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C4-C12 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), in fish and fatty foods by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) in which the UPLC was equipped a PFC Analysis Kit to eliminate background contamination. Rapid baseline separation was achieved for 17 PFCs within 12 min, and PFCs were well-resolved from potential interferences from taurodeoxycholic acid and branched isomers of PFCs. The method was validated according to Commission Regulation 2002/657/EC of the European Commission with matrices including salmon, beef, egg, and butter. Average spiked recoveries, measured at concentration levels of 0.02 (method limit of quantification (MLOQ)), 0.2, and 2 μg/kg, were in the range of 68-117% with relative standard deviations below 20%. Matrix effects were evaluated and found to be correctable by internal standardization, especially for short- and long-chained PFCs. Trueness was verified against two certified reference materials. The method has also been successfully applied to the analysis of more than 200 food samples of a risk assessment study. PMID:24901300

  1. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream. PMID:26592621

  2. Validation of a multiclass multiresidue method and monitoring results for 210 pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uclés, Samanta; Belmonte, Noelia; Mezcua, Milagros; Martínez, Ana B; Martinez-Bueno, M Jesus; Gamón, Miguel; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable multiresidue method for the identification and quantification of 210 relevant pesticides in four representative fruit and vegetable commodities (tomato, potato, spring onion and orange) has been developed and validated by gas chromatography in tandem with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The method has been fully validated and applied to 292 samples from different countries. Prior to instrumental analysis, an extraction procedure based on a sample extraction of multiclass analytes, using the ethyl acetate method was employed. Mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimized for each compound in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to achieve maximum sensitivity. The pesticides were separated in less than 25 min. This was followed by an exhaustive control of the retention times. The Retention Time Locking Method was applied, working at a constant pressure throughout the analysis. System maintenance was reduced by using a purged capillary flow device that provided backflush capabilities by reversing column flow immediately after elution of the last compound of interest. Istotopically labelled internal standards were employed to improve the quality of the analytical results. PMID:24901959

  3. Multi-residue method for the determination of organofluorine pesticides in fish tissue by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jinhua; Lv, Lei; Peng, Jie; Li, Jinping; Xiong, Zhiting; Chen, Daqing; He, Li

    2016-09-15

    A multiresidue method for the determination of organofluorine pesticides in fish tissue samples was developed and optimized. This method is based on a cleanup step of the extracted samples with acetonitrile, and carried out by solid phase extraction (SPE) with aminopropyl (NH2) cartridge, before the identification and quantification of the residues by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The performance characteristics, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), for each pesticide were determined. The proposed method allowed high recoveries (80.4-99.2%) of spiked extracted fat samples at 0.5-10 ng g(-1), and very low LODs (between 0.10 and 0.15 ng g(-1)) and LOQs (between 0.3 and 0.5 ng g(-1)) determined in the fish samples. The practicality and high sensitivity of this method have been demonstrated in the determination of residues of OFPs in carp fish fed in water containing 10 ng mL(-1) OFPs. PMID:27080897

  4. Multiresidue method for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin M1, avermectins, organophosphate pesticides and milbemycin in milk by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Marianna Ramos; Castro, Izabela Miranda de; Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes de; de Lima, Virgínia Verônica; de Aquino-Neto, Francisco Radler

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin M1, abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin, acephate, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, diazinon, methamidophos, methidathion, mevinphos, pirimiphos-ethyl and pirimiphos-methyl in whole raw milk, based on the QuEChERS method for extraction and clean-up, with detection and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is described. The method was validated according to parameters of the Analytical Quality Assurance Manual from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, and proved suitable for analysis of these analytes within the proposed working range, with recovery values between 77% and 110%, a standard deviation lower than 20%, limits of detection between 0.05 and 0.99 µg l(-)(1), and limits of quantification between 0.15 and 1.98 µg l(-1). Samples from animals treated with abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and diazinon were analysed by the validated method. Residues of aflatoxin M1 were also found in field samples at levels below the established maximum residue limit. PMID:27144891

  5. Analytical method of free and conjugated neutral aroma components in tobacco by solvent extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Shaomin; Yu, Hanqing; Dai, Ya

    2013-03-01

    A reliable and simple method for quantitative analysis of free and conjugated neutral aroma components (including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and alkenes) in tobacco using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is described. Simple solvent extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) ensured extraction of the neutral aroma components in their free form. The components present as conjugates were isolated using MTBE extraction following acid-catalysed hydrolysis. The GC × GC-TOFMS analysis was performed to comprehensively identify different forms of neutral aroma components in tobacco. Compared with the conventional methods, our method not only simplified the process but also saved time and solvent. It also exhibited higher selectivity and sensitivity and demonstrated the following results: the limit of detection of the neutral aroma components varied from 0.006 μg/g for 2-acetylfuran to 0.133 μg/g for 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, the relative standard deviations were from 0.5% to 6.8% and the recovery ranged from 82.4% to 118.2%. The optimized method was successfully employed to analyse real tobacco samples. Eighty-three neutral aroma components of interest were identified. PMID:23357748

  6. Development of a screening method for the analysis of organic pollutants in water using dual stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tölgyessy, Peter; Vrana, Branislav; Krascsenits, Zoltán

    2011-12-15

    The development of a method for screening of organic compounds with a wide range of physico-chemical properties in water, based on dual stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (dual SBSE-TD-GC-MS) is described. The investigated water sample is divided into two aliquots and extracted with stir bar sorptive extraction at two different conditions: using addition of methanol or sodium chloride, respectively. Following extraction, the two stir bars are inserted into the same glass thermal desorption liner and are simultaneously desorbed and analysed by GC-MS. The method optimisation was performed using 45 environmentally harmful substances with different volatilities (boiling point from 193 to 495°C), polarity (logK(ow) from 2.17 to 8.54) and acido-basic properties. The majority of model compounds was selected from the EU list of priority substances in the field of water policy and from the US EPA method 625, respectively. Optimisation was performed for extraction parameters (sample volume, extraction time, stirring rate, addition of modifiers) as well as for the thermal desorption conditions (desorption flow, desorption time, cryofocusing temperature). Performance characteristics (recovery, repeatability, carryover, linearity, limits of detection and quantification) were determined for the optimised method. An example of analysis of a contaminated groundwater sample is presented. PMID:22099662

  7. Development and validation of a sensitive thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method for the determination of phosgene in air samples.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Y; Dubois, C; Bintein, F; Dissard, J; Bossée, A

    2014-08-01

    A new rapid, sensitive and reliable method was developed for the determination of phosgene in air samples using thermal desorption (TD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is based on a fast (10 min) active sampling of only 1 L of air onto a Tenax® GR tube doped with 0.5 mL of derivatizing mixture containing dimercaptotoluene and triethylamine in hexane solution. Validation of the TD-GC-MS method showed a low limit of detection (40 ppbv), acceptable repeatability, intermediate fidelity (relative standard deviation within 12 %) and excellent accuracy (>95%). Linearity was demonstrated for two concentration ranges (0.04 to 2.5 ppmv and 2.5 to 10 ppmv) owing to variation of derivatization recovery between low and high concentration levels. Due to its simple on-site implementation and its close similarity with recommended operating procedure (ROP) for chemical warfare agents vapour sampling, the method is particularly useful in the process of verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. PMID:24817348

  8. Method development for gypenosides fingerprint by high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and the addition of internal standard.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ren, Dequan; Guo, De-an; Pan, Yifeng; Zhang, Huzhe; Hu, Ping

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for liquid chromatographic fingerprint of saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (THUNB.) MAKINO was developed. The G. pentaphyllum powder was defatted by Soxhlet extraction with petroleum ether and then gypenosides were extracted from the residue with methanol by sonicating. Column chromatography with macro pore resin was then used to separate and enrich gypenosides. HPLC fingerprint analysis of gypenosides fraction was performed on a C18 column, with an isocratic elution of 34% acetonitrile for 60 min at 0.8 ml/min, sample injection volume was 20 microl and the wavelength was 203 nm. To cover the lack of standard compounds, the addition of an internal standard of ginsenoside Rb2 was employed in the gypenosides fingerprint profile. The relative retention time (RRT) and relative peak area (RPA) of the gypenosides peaks in the fingerprint were calculated by setting the ginsenoside Rb2 as the marker compound. The relative standard deviation (RSDs) of RRT of five common peaks vs. ginsenoside Rb2 in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 1%, and the RSDs of RPA were less than 5%. The method validation data proved that the proposed method for the fingerprint with internal standard of G. pentaphyllum saponins is adequate, valid and applicable. Finally, three batches of crude drug samples collected from Shanxi province were tested by following the established method. PMID:18310956

  9. A simple and rapid method to identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata using ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Li, Wei; Wang, Hanqing; Kuang, Xinzhu; Li, Qin; Wang, Yinghua; Xie, Peng; Koike, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Ardisia plant species have been used in traditional medicines, and their bioactive constituents of 13,28-epoxy triterpenoid saponins have excellent biological activities for new drug development. In this study, a fast and simple method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) was developed to simultaneously identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata extracts. In total, 22 triterpenoid saponins, including two new compounds, were identified from A. crenata. The method exhibited good linearity, precision and recovery for the quantitative analysis of eight marker saponins. A relative quantitative method was also developed using one major saponin (ardisiacrispin B) as the standard to break through the choke-point of the lack of standards in phytochemical analysis. The method was successfully applied to quantitatively analyze saponins in commercially available plant samples. This study describes the first systematic analysis of 13,28-epoxy-oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins in the genus Ardisia using LC-ESI-MS. The results can provide the chemical support for further biological studies, phytochemotaxonomical studies and quality control of triterpenoid saponins in medicinal plants of the genus Ardisia. PMID:25459939

  10. Optimization and development of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of vitamin E and carotenoids in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Irakli, Maria; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Kadoglidou, Kalliopi; Tsivelika, Nektaria

    2016-09-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of lipophilic antioxidants in tomato fruits using C30 column operated at 15°C and a gradient mobile phase based on acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane in a total run time of 30 min. Diode array and fluorescence detectors were used respectively for the detection of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene) and vitamin E analogs (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols, and tocotrienols). The best extraction yield of analytes in tomato fruits was achieved by employing ethyl acetate/hexane (1:1, v/v) after several treatments with various solvents. In addition, low extraction yields were obtained for carotenoids compared to tocopherols by adopting solid-phase extraction as a second clean-up step. The method was validated on the basis of recovery, precision, linearity, and limit of detection and quantification using spiked tomato samples. The method was applied to cherry and medium-sized tomato fruits. Lycopene was found to be present in largest amount in tomato pulp, followed by β-carotene and lutein. Due to its simplicity, rapidity, and efficiency, the method is suitable for routine analysis of lipophilic antioxidants in tomato fruits, and may also be applied to other vegetables of similar phytochemical profiles. PMID:27400402

  11. A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of menadione in human plasma after derivatization with 3-mercaptopropionic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruijuan; Wang, Mengmeng; Ding, Li

    2014-10-01

    Menadione (VK3), an essential fat-soluble naphthoquinone, takes very important physiological and pathological roles, but its detection and quantification is challenging. Herein, a new method was developed for quantification of VK3 in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after derivatization with 3-mercaptopropionic acid via Michael addition reaction. The derivative had been identified by the mass spectra and the derivatization conditions were optimized by considering different parameters. The method was demonstrated with high sensitivity and a low limit of quantification of 0.03 ng mL(-1) for VK3, which is about 33-fold better than that for the direct analysis of the underivatized compound. The method also had good precision and reproducibility. It was applied in the determination of basal VK3 in human plasma and a clinical pharmacokinetic study of menadiol sodium diphosphate. Furthermore, the method for the quantification of VK3 using LC-MS/MS was reported in this paper for the first time, and it will provide an important strategy for the further research on VK3 and menadione analogs. PMID:25059129

  12. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection for simultaneous determination of nine flavonoids in Senecio cannabifolius Less.

    PubMed

    Niu, Tian-Zeng; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Bao, Yong-Li; Wu, Yin; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yi, Jing-Wen; Huang, Yan-Xin; Li, Yu-Xin

    2013-03-25

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the first time for the simultaneous determination of 9 flavonoids in Senecio cannabifolius, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column was used at room temperature and the mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid (v/v) in water in the gradient elution mode at a flow-rate of 1.0mlmin(-1), detected at 360nm. Validation of this method was performed to verify the linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification, intra- and inter-day variabilities, reproducibility and recovery. The calibration curves showed good linearities (R(2)>0.9995) within the test ranges. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was less than 3.0% for intra- and inter-day assays. The samples were stable for at least 96h, and the average recoveries were between 90.6% and 102.5%. High sensitivity was demonstrated with detection limits of 0.028-0.085μg/ml for flavonoids. The newly established HPLC method represents a powerful technique for the quality assurance of S. cannabifolius. PMID:23291442

  13. A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of organosulfur compounds in petroleum asphalt cements.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Géssica Domingos; Faccin, Henrique; Claussen, Luis; Goularte, Rayane Bueno; Do Nascimento, Paulo C; Bohrer, Denise; Cravo, Margareth; Leite, Leni F M; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado

    2016-07-29

    We present a sensitive liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for the determination of selected organosulfur compounds in Brazilian asphalt cements. It was possible to detect 14 organosulfur compounds of different classes where sulfoxides and sulfones presented higher sensibility in ionization than thiophenes and aromatic sulfides. A dopant-assisted APPI method was also tested, however, when chromatographic flow rate was optimized a decrease in signal was observed for all compounds. PAHs were tested and ruled out as possible interfering compounds and the matrix effect of asphalt cements was within an acceptable range for the quantification of organosulfur compounds. The proposed method was found to have satisfactory linearity and accuracy with recoveries between 83.85 and 110.28% for thianaphthene and 3-methylbenzothiophene, respectively. Therefore, the method allowed the characterization of organosulfur compounds in Brazilian asphalt cements and demonstrated changes in the amount quantified in asphaltenic and maltenic fractions after the RTFOT+SUNTEST aging process. PMID:27342135

  14. Quality by design based optimization of a high performance liquid chromatography method for assay determination of low concentration preservatives in complex nasal formulations.

    PubMed

    Zakrajšek, Jure; Stojić, Vladimir; Bohanec, Simona; Urleb, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    The effects of seven different chromatographic parameters and five sample preparation parameters in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assay determination of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in a nasal formulation were evaluated using two fractional factorial experimental designs. The design space of the analytical method was modeled using Umetrics Modde software and the optimal method conditions were predicted. The optimum HPLC chromatographic conditions were obtained using a Luna CN column (150 x 4.6 mm, 3 µm). The results show that mobile phase pH, amount of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and column temperature are the most important factors in obtaining good separation of BKC homologs from an interfering peak. In the sample preparation step, the use of an aqueous solution for dissolving the samples was the most important factor since it eliminated the interfering effect of the active compound. The optimal method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. The use of experimental designs enables obtaining the maximum amount of information with the least possible number of experiments. Such designs are an economical manner in evaluating a variety of different factors and their interactions. PMID:25830962

  15. Robust Method Using Online Steric Exclusion Chromatography-Ultraviolet-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry To Investigate Nanoparticle Fate and Behavior in Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Al-Sid-Cheikh, Maya; Pédrot, Mathieu; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Dia, Aline; Davranche, Mélanie; Neaime, Chrystelle; Grasset, Fabien

    2015-10-20

    The foundation of nanoscience is that the properties of materials change as a function of their physical dimensions, and nanotechnology exploits this premise by applying selected property modifications for a specific benefit. However, to investigate the fate and effect of the engineered nanoparticles on toxic metal (TM) mobility, the analytical limitations in a natural environment remain a critical problem to overcome. Recently, a new generation of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns developed with spherical silica is available for pore sizes between 5 and 400 nm, allowing the analysis of nanoparticles. In this study, these columns were applied to the analysis of metal-based nanoparticles in environmental and artificial samples. The new method allows quantitative measurements of the interactions among nanoparticles, organic matter, and metals. Moreover, because of the new nanoscale SEC, our method allows the study of these interactions for different size ranges of nanoparticles and weights of organic molecules with a precision of 1.2 × 10(-2) kDa. The method was successfully applied to the study of nanomagnetite spiked in complex matrixes, such as sewage sludge, groundwater, tap water, and different artificial samples containing Leonardite humic acid and different toxic metals (i.e., As, Pb, Th). Finally, our results showed that different types of interactions, such as adsorption, stabilization, and/or destabilization of nanomagnetite could be observed using this new method. PMID:26383030

  16. Analytical method for 44 pesticide residues in spinach using multi-plug-filtration cleanup based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuhong; Huang, Baoyong; Zhang, Jingru; Han, Yongtao; Li, Yanjie; Zou, Nan; Yang, Jianguo; Pan, Canping

    2016-05-01

    Spinach is one of the most commonly planted vegetables worldwide. A high chlorophyll content makes spinach a complicated matrix in pesticide residue analysis. In this study, a rapid clean-up method was developed for the analysis of pesticide multi-residues in spinach followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. A modified QuEChERS method with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbon material was adopted in the multi-Plug Filtration Cleanup procedure. This method was validated for 44 representative pesticides spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. The pesticides of different physicochemical properties were registered on spinach in China. The recoveries were between 76 and 114% for major pesticides with relative standard deviations of less than 15%, except for quizalofop-P-ethyl, pyrimethanil, and carbendazim. Matrix-matched calibration curves were performed with the coefficients of determination higher than 0.995 for the studied pesticides for concentration levels of 10-500 μg/kg. The limits of quantitation ranged from 2 to 10 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in Chinese market spinach samples. PMID:26968118

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of a general method to screen foods for pesticides using QuEChERs extraction with high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eitzer, Brian D; Hammack, Walter; Filigenzi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of a multipesticide residue analytical method is reported. The goal of the comparison was to evaluate the potential for liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry along with a specific automated screening procedure to allow the determination of the presence or absence of a set of targeted compounds without additional manual review. The method utilized an off the shelf QuEChERs based extraction followed by analysis with an orbitrap mass spectrometer with the data evaluated by ToxID. The method was tested at three laboratories, with three produce matrices (spinach, carrots, and oranges), and three levels of spiked pesticides with all analyses in triplicate. A series of 247 compounds were tested, and it was found that the three laboratories produced consistent data; however, manual review was still necessary. The data was shown to have no false negatives for 211 compounds in the three produce matrixes at 200 ppb. Of these 211 compounds, 189 had no false negatives at 50 ppb, and 129 had no false negatives at 10 ppb. The HRMS method was shown to be robust with similar data being achieved by all three laboratories and detectable concentrations only slightly above the range shown for triple quadrupole MS/MS. PMID:24320559

  18. [Application of the quechers method coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) in analysis of pesticide residues in food].

    PubMed

    Snopczyński, Tomasz; Struciński, Paweł; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 Anastassiades and Lehotay described the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" (QuEChERS) method for the multi-class, multiresidue analysis of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The QuEChERS method allows to obtain high quality results with a minimum number of steps and a low solvent and glassware consumption. The QuEChERS method based on liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile followed by a cleanup step with dispersive-SPE (Solid Phase Extraction). The aim of this study was to check the usefulness of the QuEChERS method coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) in analysis of pesticide residues in food. Ready-to-use QuEChERS reagents kits and own-weighed reagents have been applied. In recovery experiment for 15 selected pesticides, three matrices belonging to different groups--carrots (high carotenoids content), raspberry (highly acidic matrix) and tomatoes (high water content)--have been used, according to the SANC0/10684/2009 guideline and PN-EN 15662:2008 requirements. Fourteen compounds showed a recovery in the range of 70-120% and only one compound (trifluralin in raspberry) presented a recovery lower than 70% at the 0.5 mg/kg fortification level. The repeatability was satisfying with a RSD lower than 20% apart from trifluralin in raspberry (27.16%). PMID:21980859

  19. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with pressurized liquid extraction method for the determination of benzimidazole residues in edible tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Zhang, Huahai; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Yuan, Zonghui

    2011-06-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with a pressure liquid extraction (PLE) was developed for the determination of 11 benzimidazole and 10 metabolites of albendazole, fenbendazole and mebendazole in the muscles and livers of swine, cattle, sheep and chicken. For sample preparation, we used an automated technique of PLE method. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using an 11 ml Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) cells, acetonitrile/hexane as the extraction solvent. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 5 mmol l(-1) formic ammonium as mobile phase. The analytes were detected in the positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by the LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The recoveries of benzimidazole (BZDs) spiked at the levels of 0.5 μg kg(-1) ranged from 70.1% to 92.7%; the between-day relative standard deviations were no more than 10%. The limits of quantification were 0.02-0.5 μg kg(-1). The optimized method was successfully applied to monitor real samples containing BZDs, demonstrating the method to be simple, fast, robust and suitable for identification and quantification of BZDs residues in animal products. PMID:21543271

  20. Single laboratory validation of a method for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by using solid-phase extraction cleanup and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Driffield, Malcolm; Chan, Danny; Macarthur, Roy; MacDonald, Susan; Brereton, Paul; Wood, Roger

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in honey. The method, which is based on solid-phase extraction cleanup followed by liquid chromatography (LC) with UV absorbance detection, was tested on a variety of different honey types: liquid, set, blended, filtered, crystalline, and comb honey. A sample of honey fortified with a known amount of HMF acted as an in-house reference material. LC with diode-array detection showed that the HMF peak did not contain any peaks of coeluting interfering species. Stability studies showed that honey samples should not be repeatedly frozen and thawed because the temperature changes caused a gradual increase in the HMF concentration. It was also shown that aqueous HMF standard solutions should be kept in the dark at 4 degrees C to avoid degradation of the HMF. The method was internally validated, and the measurement uncertainty was estimated to be +/-9.0 at 40 mg/kg, the legal limit. A comparison of the relative standard uncertainty with the Horwitz relative standard deviation showed that the method was suitable for its purpose and should be validated by a collaborative trial. PMID:15759734

  1. Direct connection of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography as a rapid quantitative method for capsaicinoids in placentas of Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Sasaki, S S; Goda, Y; Yamada, T; Nunomura, O; Ishikawa, K; Maitani, T

    1999-11-01

    The fruits of Capsicum annuum L. are used worldwide as chili peppers and in folk medicines. The pungent components of C. annuum, which are irritants, are called capsaicinoids (CAPS), and the most abundant components are capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. To analyze CAPS in the placentas of Capsicum fruits rapidly and safely, we used a directly connected system of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFE/SFC). As a column for SFE/SFC, only a silica-type column was found to be suitable. The CAPS contents in placentas of C. annuum cv. Jalapeno (hot type) and C. annuum cv. Shishitoh (less-hot type) determined by the SFE/SFC method agreed well with those in the range of 0-13.81 mg g(-1) fr. wt determined by the usual extraction-HPLC method. The SFE/SFC method has the advantages of no need for pretreatment and no (or minimal) need for organic solvents. We conclude that this method is useful as a rapid (20 min) and safe screening test for the pungency of various Capsicum fruits. PMID:10552868

  2. Development of a sensitive method for the determination of acrylamide in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pugajeva, Iveta; Jaunbergs, Janis; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trend towards high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) alternatives was evaluated by the application of Orbitrap MS for the determination of acrylamide in coffee samples. The high resolving power of the Orbitrap MS provided the high selectivity and sensitivity that enabled quantitative analysis of acrylamide in complex matrices, such as coffee. Several sample preparation methods and scanning modes of the MS (full MS, t-SIM, t-MS2) were assessed in order to optimise parameters of the analytical method. The final procedure involved the extraction of acrylamide with acetonitrile, solid-phase extraction with dispersive primary secondary amine (PSA) and amino columns, and the detection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap) operated in targeted MS2 scanning mode. The repeatability of the method at the lowest calibration level (10 μg kg(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.8% and the average recovery of acrylamide was 111%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of acrylamide in 22 samples of roasted coffee obtained from the Latvian retail market. Acrylamide concentration in coffee samples was in the range of 166-503 μg kg(-1). PMID:25530195

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of endothelin receptor antagonist drug, ambrisentan, in human plasma and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lukram, Ojit Kumar; Sharma, Ramkishor

    2014-08-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the quantification of ambrisentan (AMB) in human plasma using midazolam (MID) as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed using a Beta Basic-8 (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with an isocratic mobile phase. AMB and MID were detected with proton adducts at m/z 379.09 → 303.12 and 326.15 → 291.14 in multiple reaction monitoring-positive mode, respectively. A solid-phase extraction method was used for extraction of the analyte and IS from the plasma samples. The method was shown to be reproducible and reliable with within-run precision <11%, between-run precision <14% and linear concentration range from 10.0 to 2000.2 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient (r(2) ) of >0.995. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of oral administration of AMB (10 mg) in 24 healthy Indian male human volunteers under fasting conditions. PMID:24616031

  4. A method of test for residual isophorone diisocyanate trimer in new polyester-polyurethane coatings on light metal packaging using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Driffield, Malcolm; Bradley, Emma L; Castle, Laurence

    2007-02-01

    A method of test for residual isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer in experimental formulation polyester-polyurethane (PEPU) thermoset coatings on metal food packaging is described. The method involves extraction of coated panels using acetonitrile containing dibutylamine for concurrent derivatisation, and then high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Single laboratory validation was carried out using three different experimental PEPU-based coatings. The calibrations were linear, the analytical recovery was good, no interferences were seen, and substance identification criteria were met. The detection limit of the method is around 0.02 micro g/100 cm(2) of coating, which for a typical sized can and assuming complete migration of any residual IPDI trimer, corresponds to about 0.2 micro g/kg food or beverage. Separate studies indicated that, even if migration occurred at such low levels, the IPDI trimer would not be expected to persist in canned aqueous or fatty foodstuffs as it would hydrolyse to the corresponding aliphatic amine or react with food components to destroy the isocyanate moiety. The method of test developed here for residual IPDI trimer in thermoset polyester-polyurethane coatings should prove to be a valuable tool for investigating the cure kinetics of these novel coatings and help to guide the development of enhanced formulations. PMID:17178416

  5. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  6. Comparison of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of carbamazepine with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Guerrero Garduño, Óscar; González-Esquivel, Dinora F; Escalante-Membrillo, Carmen; Fernández, Ángeles; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Jung Cook, Helgi; Castro, Nelly

    2016-06-01

    Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. In the National Institute of Neurology, monitoring has been performed using the technique chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) in an automated way during the last five years. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid HPLC analytical method coupled to DAD-UV detection for the determination of plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and compare its feasibility with those used in routine analysis. The developed HPLC method was fully validated and the applicability of the proposed method was verified through the analysis of plasma samples of patients and later compared with the quantification of the same plasma samples with the CMIA method. The limit of quantification obtained was 0.5 μg/mL. The mean value for recovery was 99.05% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 5.6%. The precision and accuracy of this method were within the acceptable limits; inter- and intraday CV values were <10%. The correlation between the CMIA method and the developed HPLC method was very good (r ≈ 0.999). A Bland-Altman plot showed no significant bias between the results. The HPLC-DAD method may b