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1

Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

Nizkorodov, Sergey

2

Differential Protein Expression Analysis via Liquid-Chromatography/Mass-Spectrometry Data Visualization  

E-print Network

Differential Protein Expression Analysis via Liquid-Chromatography/Mass-Spectrometry Data, Germany (a) (b) Figure 1: Interactive visualization of liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry data: (a of liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry data in a 3D space, which allows for the understanding

Linsen, Lars

3

Classification of natural resins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty-six resins from six botanical sources belonging to the class Magnoliopsida were compared based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The extracts were analysed by GC after silylation and by reversed phase LC combined with atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) mass spectrometry. The chromatograms were re-organized in data matrices, where each sample was represented by a single column comprising 2755 observations (intensity, time, m/z) in GC-MS and 360 observations in LC-MS. A simple comparison of resin fingerprints was attempted by organizing data according to a three dimensional bubble chart (retention time against m/z where each point was a bubble which size represented the ion intensity) where it is possible to easily superimpose the fingerprints. Thus the common and different species can be easily observed enabling to classify the resins. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on characteristics of GC-MS and LC-MS profiles affords a complete description of the classes of the resins and shows that 26 resins are divided into five main clusters Commiphora mukul, Daniella oliveri, Gardenia gummifera, Canarium madagascariensis, Boswellia dalzielii and Boswellia serrata, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method has been applied to three other resinous samples from the Burseraceae family to evaluate their alteration state. PMID:22885042

Rhourrhi-Frih, B; West, C; Pasquier, L; André, P; Chaimbault, P; Lafosse, M

2012-09-21

4

AN EPA MANUAL FOR ORGANICS ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This procedural manual defines the areas of applicability of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in environmental analysis. The manual includes sample preparation methods specifically adapted to this measurement technique, data processing and interpretation methods, quality cont...

5

Proteomic Analysis of SARS Associated Coronavirus Using Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and  

E-print Network

Proteomic Analysis of SARS Associated Coronavirus Using Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Mass 25, 2003 The proteomes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS in the analysis of other viruses. Keywords: coronavirus · proteome · mass spectrometry · glycosylation

Tian, Weidong

6

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GC/MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY) DATA ANALYSIS PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectra obtained by fused silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/data system (GC/MS/DS) analysis of mixtures of organic chemicals adsorbed on Tenax GC cartridges was subjected to manual and automated interpretative techniques. Synthetic mixtures (85 chemicals ...

7

Applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for food analysis.  

PubMed

HPLC-MS applications in the agrifood sector are among the fastest developing fields in science and industry. The present tutorial mini-review briefly describes this analytical methodology: HPLC, UHPLC, nano-HPLC on one hand, mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on the other hand. Analytical results are grouped together based on the type of chemicals analyzed (lipids, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, vitamins, flavonoids, mycotoxins, pesticides, allergens and food additives). Results are also shown for various types of food (ham, cheese, milk, cereals, olive oil and wines). Although it is not an exhaustive list, it illustrates the main current directions of applications. Finally, one of the most important features, the characterization of food quality (including problems of authentication and adulteration) is discussed, together with a future outlook on future directions. PMID:22560344

Di Stefano, Vita; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bongiorno, David; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Muccilli, Vera; Sforza, Stefano; Dossena, Arnaldo; Drahos, László; Vékey, Károly

2012-10-12

8

Direct analysis of several Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals by capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Fusarium mycotoxins by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) using cold on-column injection was improved. Eight typical mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADN), fusarenon-X (FX), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 15-monoacetylscirpenol (15MAS), T-2 toxin (T-2), scirpentriol (SCT), and zearalenone (ZEA) were subjected to GC–MS without chemical derivatization by means of the on-column injection technique. Chromatographic separation of

Yoshiki Onji; Yoshinari Aoki; Naoto Tani; Kiyoshi Umebayashi; Yoshimi Kitada; Yoshiko Dohi

1998-01-01

9

Emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies improving dried blood spot analysis.  

PubMed

Dried blood spots (DBS), a micro blood sampling technique, has recently gained interest in drug discovery and development due to its inherent advantages over the conventional whole blood, plasma or serum sample collection. Since the regulatory authorities have agreed to the use of blood as an acceptable biological matrix for drug exposure measurements, its applications have been extended not only to therapeutic drug monitoring but also to toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies. The pharmaceutical industry is keen to promote DBS as a prominent tool in bioanalytical applications due to the financial, ethical and organizational issues involved in clinical trials. This could be accomplished due to the latest advances in modern analytical technology, particularly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present review discusses some of the emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies in improving DBS analysis for its innovative applications in the development of new drugs. PMID:24697571

Rao, Ramisetti Nageswara

2014-08-01

10

Simultaneous analysis of cocaine and its metabolites in rat liver microsome s9 fraction by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous analysis of cocaine and its in-vitro metabolites in rat liver micro some S9 fraction is described. Cocaine was incubated with rat liver micro some S9 fraction firstly, and then the incubation sample mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. The main metabolites of cocaine were identified from the determination of molecular ions and the results of tandem mass spectrometry analysis. There were two metabolites were identified in the rat liver S9 fractions referring to the literature reports. PMID:25262520

Chen, Xueguo

2014-09-01

11

Qualitative Analysis of Herbs by Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry (GC\\/MS). An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory exercise to be used in an undergraduate instrumental methods course is presented for the qualitative analysis of interesting real-world herbal extracts. The objective of this experiment is to familiarize students with a modern experimental method gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS).

JEREMY TIPTON; TICIA BARNICKI; EUGENE T. SMITH

1998-01-01

12

Verification of Chemical Composition of Commercially Available Propolis Extracts by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Propolis is a resin that is collected by honeybees from various plant sources. Due to its pharmacological properties, it is used in commercial production of nutritional supplements in pharmaceutical industry. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied for quality control analysis of the three commercial specimens containing aqueous-alcoholic extracts of bee propolis. More than 230 constituents were detected in analyzed products, including flavonoids, chalcones, cinnamic acids and their esters, phenylpropenoid glycerides, and phenylpropenoid sesquiterpenoids. An allergenic benzyl cinnamate ester was also identified in all tested samples. This analytical method allows to evaluate biological activity and potential allergenic components of bee glue simultaneously. Studies on chemical composition of propolis samples may provide new approach to quality and safety control analysis in production of propolis supplementary specimens. PMID:25198412

Czy?ewska, Urszula; Kono?czuk, Joanna; Teul, Joanna; Dr?gowski, Pawe?; Pawlak-Morka, Renata; Sura?y?ski, Arkadiusz; Miltyk, Wojciech

2014-09-01

13

Multivariate analysis of progressive thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal decomposition of poly dimethyl siloxane compounds, Sylgard{reg_sign} 184 and 186, were examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. The technique involves sequentially heating a sample of the material of interest with subsequent analysis in a commercial GC/MS system. The decomposition chromatograms were analyzed using multivariate analysis tools including principal component analysis (PCA), factor rotation employing the varimax criterion, and multivariate curve resolution. The results of the analysis show seven components related to offgassing of various fractions of siloxanes that vary as a function of temperature. Thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for analyzing chemical mixtures. It has great potential in numerous analytic areas including materials analysis, sports medicine, in the detection of designer drugs; and biological research for metabolomics. Data analysis is complicated, far from automated and can result in high false positive or false negative rates. We have demonstrated a step-wise TD/GC-MS technique that removes more volatile compounds from a sample before extracting the less volatile compounds. This creates an additional dimension of separation before the GC column, while simultaneously generating three-way data. Sandia's proven multivariate analysis methods, when applied to these data, have several advantages over current commercial options. It also has demonstrated potential for success in finding and enabling identification of trace compounds. Several challenges remain, however, including understanding the sources of noise in the data, outlier detection, improving the data pretreatment and analysis methods, developing a software tool for ease of use by the chemist, and demonstrating our belief that this multivariate analysis will enable superior differentiation capabilities. In addition, noise and system artifacts challenge the analysis of GC-MS data collected on lower cost equipment, ubiquitous in commercial laboratories. This research has the potential to affect many areas of analytical chemistry including materials analysis, medical testing, and environmental surveillance. It could also provide a method to measure adsorption parameters for chemical interactions on various surfaces by measuring desorption as a function of temperature for mixtures. We have presented results of a novel method for examining offgas products of a common PDMS material. Our method involves utilizing a stepped TD/GC-MS data acquisition scheme that may be almost totally automated, coupled with multivariate analysis schemes. This method of data generation and analysis can be applied to a number of materials aging and thermal degradation studies.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2010-09-01

14

ANALYSIS OF TRACE-LEVEL ORGANIC COMBUSTION PROCESS EMISSIONS USING NOVEL MULTIDIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the analysis of trace-level organic combustion process emissions using novel multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) procedures. It outlines the application of the technique through the analyses of various incinerator effluent and produ...

15

DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SOILS USING EQUILIBRIUM HEADSPACE ANALYSIS AND CAPILLARY COLUMN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing methods for determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil matrices using the purge and trap technique with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have several problems, which include preserving sample integrity from collection to analysis and efficient...

16

Chromatography?-?mass spectrometry in aerospace industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applications of chromatography?-?mass spectrometry in aerospace industry are considered. The primary attention is devoted to the development of physicochemical grounds of the use of various chromatography?-?mass spectrometry procedures to solve topical problems of this industry. Various methods for investigation of the composition of rocket fuels, surfaces of structural materials and environmental media affected by aerospace activities are compared. The application of chromatography?-?mass spectrometry for the development and evaluation of processes for decontaminations of equipment, industrial wastes and soils from rocket fuel components is substantiated. The bibliography includes 135 references.

Buryak, A. K.; Serdyuk, T. M.

2013-01-01

17

Headspace Analysis of Philippine Civet Coffee Beans Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Nose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civet coffee, the most expensive and best coffee in the world, is an economically important export product of the Philippines. With a growing threat of food adulteration and counterfeiting, a need for quality authentication is essential to protect the integrity and strong market value of Philippine civet coffee. At present, there is no internationally accepted method of verifying whether a bean is an authentic civet coffee. This study presented a practical and promising approach to identify and establish the headspace qualitative profile of Philippine civet coffee using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). E-nose analysis revealed that aroma characteristic is one of the most important quality indicators of civet coffee. The findings were supported by GC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clearly separated civet coffees from their control beans. The chromatographic fingerprints indicated that civet coffees differed with their control beans in terms of composition and concentration of individual volatile constituents.

Ongo, E.; Sevilla, F.; Antonelli, A.; Sberveglieri, G.; Montevecchi, G.; Sberveglieri, V.; de Paola, E. L.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.

2011-11-01

18

Purification of dinosterol for hydrogen isotopic analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-preparative normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS) method is presented for the purification of various alcohol fractions from total lipid extracts derived from sediments, for the purpose of hydrogen isotopic measurement by gas chromatography–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–IRMS). 4-Methylsterols, including the dinoflagellate-specific marker dinosterol (4,23,24-trimethylcholestan-22-en-3?-ol), were successfully separated from notoriously co-eluting plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid alcohols and alkyl alcohols. We

Rienk H. Smittenberg; Julian P. Sachs

2007-01-01

19

Enhanced analysis of steroids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using microwave-accelerated derivatization.  

PubMed

Derivatization of steroids is typically required before analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); nevertheless, the derivatization process can often be time-consuming and irreproducible. Although several strategies have been employed to enhance this process, few have the potential of microwave-accelerated derivatization (MAD) to be more efficient than traditional thermal derivatization methods. MAD using a synthesis microwave system was evaluated and compared to traditional thermal derivatization methods in terms of yield, reproducibility, and overall analysis time. Parameters affecting MAD, including reaction temperature, time, and power, were systematically optimized for several silyl reagents (BSTFA with TMCS, MSTFA, and BSA) and other derivatization procedures (MOX reagent and MTBSTFA). MSTFA was found to derivatize best with the microwave, as demonstrated by the enhanced relative response factors (RRFs). BSTFA with TMCS, on the other hand, did not couple as well, but RRF values improved significantly upon addition of polar solvents. The rapid (1 min) derivatization reactions associated with MAD had comparable RRFs for all reagents with those obtained with thermal heating (>30 min). This study highlights the best methods for analyzing a comprehensive variety of steroids and also provides ideal strategies for MAD of steroids on an individual or class level. PMID:19606839

Bowden, John A; Colosi, Dominic M; Stutts, Whitney L; Mora-Montero, Diana C; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

2009-08-15

20

Direct analysis of several Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Fusarium mycotoxins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using cold on-column injection was improved. Eight typical mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADN), fusarenon-X (FX), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 15-monoacetylscirpenol (15MAS), T-2 toxin (T-2), scirpentriol (SCT), and zearalenone (ZEA) were subjected to GC-MS without chemical derivatization by means of the on-column injection technique. Chromatographic separation of the toxins extracted from barley was achieved as a single peak, and the specific EI mass spectra of each toxin were obtained. The fatty acids in the extract that interfere with measurements of the toxins on the gas chromatogram were removed by precipitation as an insoluble metal soap with zinc acetate. Additional clean-up was accomplished using a Bond Elut Florisil cartridge. The quantitative detection limit in barley ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 micrograms/g. The average recoveries of 93.1% for DON, 3ADN, 15MAS, DAS, T-2 and ZEA, and 46.0% for FX and SCT added to barley at the level of 1 microgram/g were obtained. PMID:9718707

Onji, Y; Aoki, Y; Tani, N; Umebayashi, K; Kitada, Y; Dohi, Y

1998-07-31

21

Rapid Fc glycosylation analysis of Fc fusions with IdeS and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

We developed a rapid method to analyze Fc glycosylation of Fc fusion proteins, especially those with mutated Fc hinge regions. Fc fusion proteins were digested with IdeS, an IgG specific protease with exosites for substrate recognition and cleavage. The resultant fragments were directly analyzed through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The structures and relative quantities of Fc glycans were deduced from their masses and intensities. The separated substrate recognition and cleavage property of IdeS makes this method applicable to a broad range of Fc fusion proteins having either standard or non-canonical hinge regions. PMID:23839239

Lynaugh, Heather; Li, Huijuan; Gong, Bing

2013-01-01

22

Thermal Degradation Behavior of Waste Video Cards Using Thermogravimetric Analysis and Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation characteristics of a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA), specifically video cards from waste computers, was studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The video-card waste was dismantled into substrate, integrated circuits (ICs), and plastic slots for comparable investigation. The results by TGA revealed that the initial temperature at which degradation began was 300 °C

Huabo Duan; Jinhui Li; Jyh-Feng Hwang; Wang Chen; Elisabeth Gilmore; Peter Adams; Lester Lave; Weifeng Jia; Violeta Mugica; Sara Hernandez; Miguel Torres; Rocio García; Antton Melendez; Estibaliz García; Pedro Carnicer; Egoitz Pena; Miren Larrion; Juan Legarreta; Cristina Gutierrez-Canas; Parikhit Sinha; William Schew; Aniket Sawant; Kyle Kolwaite; Sarah Strode; Stephanie Weber; Jill Engel-Cox; Raymond Hoff; Ana Prados; Hai Zhang; Valerie Garcia; Kristen Foley; Edith Gego; David Holland; S. Rao; Sundar Christopher; Pawan Gupta; Chengwen Wang; Yujue Wang; Yanqi Zhang; Qi Zhao; Ran Wang; Christian Murray; Frederick Lipfert; Jung-Nan Hsu; Hsunling Bai; Shou-Nan Li; Chuen-Jinn Tsai

2010-01-01

23

Analysis of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smokeless tobacco by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Smokeless tobacco contains 28 known carcinogens and causes precancerous oral lesions and oral and pancreatic cancer. A recent study conducted by our research team identified 8 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in U.S. moist snuff, encouraging further investigations of this group of toxicants and carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products. In this study, we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method that allows simultaneous analysis of 23 various PAH in smokeless tobacco after a simple two-step extraction and purification procedure. The method produced coefficients of variation under 10% for most PAH. The limits of quantitation for different PAH varied between 0.3 ng/g tobacco and 11 ng/g tobacco, starting with a 300-mg sample. The recovery of the stable isotope-labeled internal standards averaged 87%. The method was applied to analysis of 23 moist snuff samples that include various flavors of the most popular U.S. moist snuff brands, as well as 17 samples representing the currently marketed brands of spit-free tobacco pouches, a relatively new type of smokeless tobacco. The sum of all detected PAH in conventional moist snuff averaged 11.6 (± 3.7) µg/g dry weight, 20% of this amount being comprised by carcinogenic PAH. The levels of PAH in new spit-free tobacco products were much lower than those in moist snuff, the sum of all detected PAH averaging 1.3 (±0.28) µg/g dry weight. Our findings render PAH one of the most prevalent groups of carcinogens in smokeless tobacco, along with tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Urgent measures are required from the U.S. tobacco industry to modify manufacturing processes so that the levels of these toxicants and carcinogens in the U.S. moist snuff are greatly reduced. PMID:19860436

Stepanov, Irina; Villalta, Peter W.; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S.

2009-01-01

24

Linker-assisted immunoassay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of glyphosate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A novel, sensitive, linker-assisted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (L'ELISA) was compared to on-line solidphase extraction (SPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) for the analysis of glyphosate in surface water and groundwater samples. The L'ELISA used succinic anhydride to derivatize glyphosate, which mimics the epitotic attachment of glyphosate to horseradish peroxidase hapten. Thus, L'ELISA recognized the derivatized glyphosate more effectively (detection limit of 0.1 ??g/L) and with increased sensitivity (10-100 times) over conventional ELISA and showed the potential for other applications. The precision and accuracy of L'ELISA then was compared with on-line SPE/HPLC/MS, which detected glyphosate and its degradate derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate using negative-ion electrospray (detection limit 0.1 ??g/L, relative standard deviation ??15%). Derivatization efficiency and matrix effects were minimized by adding an isotope-labeled glyphosate (2-13C15N). The accuracy of L'ELISA gave a false positive rate of 18% between 0.1 and 1.0 ??g/L and a false positive rate of only 1% above 1.0 ??g/L. The relative standard deviation was ??20%. The correlation of L'ELISA and HPLC/MS for 66 surface water and groundwater samples was 0.97 with a slope of 1.28, with many detections of glyphosate and its degradate in surface water but not in groundwater.

Lee, E.A.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Bhullar, B.S.; Thurman, E.M.

2002-01-01

25

[Analysis of cracking gas compressor fouling by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

The fouling from the different sections of the cracked gas compressor in Daqing Petrochemical Corporation was analyzed by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC-MS). All the samples were cracked in RJ-1 tube furnace cracker at the cracking temperature of 500 degrees C, and separated with a 60 m DB-1 capillary column. An electron impact ionization (EI) source was used with the ionizing voltage of 70 eV. The results showed the formation of fouling was closely related with cyclopentadiene which accounted for about 50% of the cracking products. Other components detected were 1-butylene, propylene, methane and n-butane. This Py/GC-MS method can be used as an effective approach to analyze the causes of fouling in the petrochemical plants. PMID:24063202

Hu, Yunfeng; Fang, Fei; Wei, Tao; Liu, Shuqing; Jiang, Guangshen; Cai, Jun

2013-06-01

26

Multiresidue analysis of pollutants as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper reports a multiresidue analysis procedure which permits the identification and quantification of sixty-three water-soluble pollutants. Subsequent to their solid-phase extraction (SPE) enrichment, analyses of species have been carried out from one solution, by a single injection, as their trimethylsilyl-oxime ether/ester derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, within 31min. Based on our optimized extraction, derivatization and mass fragmentation studies separation have been performed in the total ion current mode, identification and quantification of compounds have been carried out on the basis of their selective fragment ions. Including various pharmaceuticals, benzoic acid, its substituted species, different aromatic carboxylic acids, cholic acids, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, as well as synthetic pollutants of various origins (2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, different phthalates). Standard compounds were added to 500 mL effluent wastewater samples, at three concentrations (1-5 microg/L, 5-10 microg/L and 10-20 microg/L). Recoveries, using the Waters Oasis cartridges performing extractions at pH 2, pH 4 and pH 7 proved to be the optimum at pH 4 (average recoveries (94.5%), except for cholesterol (10%), paracetamol (18%) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (25%). Carbamazepine could be recovered at pH 7, only. Responses, obtained with derivatized standards proved to be linear in the range of 4-80 microg/L levels. Limit of quantitation values varied between 0.92 ng/L (4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) and 600 ng/L (dehydrocholic acid) concentrations. One of the most important messages of this work is the confirmation of the origin of blank values. It was shown that contaminants, mainly 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, different phthalates and fatty acids, are sourced both from the reagents and mainly from the SPE procedure, independent on the cartridge applied. Reproducibilities, characterized with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of measurements, varied between 0.71% and 10%, with an average of 4.38% RSD. The practical utility of the method was shown by the identification and quantification of the pollutant contents of Hungarian influent and effluent wastewaters (for six consecutive months and that of the Danube River for 2 months). PMID:19201001

Sebok, A; Vasanits-Zsigrai, A; Helenkár, A; Záray, Gy; Molnár-Perl, I

2009-03-20

27

DIRECT ANALYSIS OF RAT BILE FOR ACETAMINOPHEN AND TWO OF ITS CONJUGATED METABOLITES VIA THERMOSPRAY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bile from rats treated with acetaminophen was analyzed by direct injection onto a thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system. Two conjugated metabolites of acetaminophen were separated by the high-pressure liquid chromatographic system and analyzed by mass spectro...

28

Analysis of L-serine-O-phosphate in cerebrospinal spinal fluid by derivatization-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

L-serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP), the precursor of L-serine, is a potent agonist against the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and, thus, is of interest as a potential biomarker for monitoring modulation of neurotransmitter release. So far, no reports are available on the analysis of L-SOP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here a novel method is presented to determine L-SOP levels in CSF employing precolumn derivatization with (5-N-succinimidoxy-5-oxopentyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (SPTPP) coupled to liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (derivatization-LC/MS, d-LC/MS). PMID:24534252

McNaney, Colleen A; Benitex, Yulia; Luchetti, David; Labasi, Jeffrey M; Olah, Timothy V; Morgan, Daniel G; Drexler, Dieter M

2014-05-01

29

Analysis of isothiazolinones in environmental waters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes an analytical method for the determination of five biocides of isothiazolinone type (2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT), 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI), 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (DCOI)) in environmental waters. The method is based on pre-concentration of the analytes by solid-phase extraction onto a mixture of a polymeric material and RP-C18 material and subsequent determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One of the target compounds (BIT) is derivatised with diazomethane after pre-concentration to improve its chromatographic performance. The method was optimised with respect to pre-concentration conditions (liquid-liquid extraction versus solid-phase extraction, solid-phase material, elution solvent and volume) and extensively validated. Applying the method to surface waters, groundwaters, and drinking waters, limits of detection between 0.01 and 0.1 microg/l could be achieved and the repeatability was below 10% for all compounds except for MI. Additional investigations showed that the stability of the isothiazolinones in environmental waters is limited and sample storage at 4 degrees C is mandatory to preserve the target biocides. First investigations of influents and effluents of a wastewater treatment plant showed that conventional wastewater treatment exhibits a high efficiency for removal of the isothiazolinones. In river waters, the target isothiazolinones could not be detected. PMID:17681349

Rafoth, Astrid; Gabriel, Sabine; Sacher, Frank; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

2007-09-14

30

Analysis of extractable organic compounds in water by gas chromatography mass spectrometry: applications to surface water.  

PubMed

Contamination of water by organic pollutants is a common environmental problem. Over a period of 1 year, the surface water of a canal network (Languedoc-Roussillon area, France) was analysed in order to identify organic compounds and to monitor its quality. Pollutants were extracted from 19 l of raw water using methylene chloride in a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extractor with a pulsed column. The extraction was performed at a pH above 11 and again at a pH below 2 according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 625. The extract was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, using two ionization techniques, namely electron ionization and chemical ionization. Mass spectra obtained by electron ionization were compared with those in a database (NIST). Some natural compounds and micropollutants were identified. Their structures were confirmed by chemical ionization (methane). One hundred and ten substances, making up the broad spectrum of extractable compounds in the surface water studied, were found by this method at a nanogram per litre concentration level. Among them, 13 are priority pollutants. These specific pollutants were qualified. PMID:18966498

Deroux, J M; Gonzalez, C; Le Cloirec, P; Kovacsik, G

1996-03-01

31

Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended. PMID:24146441

Nurul Syazana, M S; Gan, S H; Halim, A S; Shah, Nurul Syazana Mohamad; Gan, Siew Hua; Sukari, Halim Ahmad

2013-01-01

32

Trace analysis of environmental matrices by large-volume injection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The time-honored convention of concentrating aqueous samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) is being challenged by the increasingly widespread use of large-volume injection (LVI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the determination of traces of polar organic contaminants in environmental samples. Although different LVI approaches have been proposed over the last 40 years, the simplest and most popular way of performing LVI is known as single-column LVI (SC-LVI), in which a large-volume of an aqueous sample is directly injected into an analytical column. For the purposes of this critical review, LVI is defined as an injected sample volume that is ?10% of the void volume of the analytical column. Compared with other techniques, SC-LVI is easier to set up, because it requires only small hardware modifications to existing autosamplers and, thus, it will be the main focus of this review. Although not new, SC-LVI is gaining acceptance and the approach is emerging as a technique that will render SPE nearly obsolete for many environmental applications. In this review, we discuss: the history and development of various forms of LVI; the critical factors that must be considered when creating and optimizing SC-LVI methods; and typical applications that demonstrate the range of environmental matrices to which LVI is applicable, for example drinking water, groundwater, and surface water including seawater and wastewater. Furthermore, we indicate direction and areas that must be addressed to fully delineate the limits of SC-LVI. PMID:21847530

Busetti, Francesco; Backe, Will J; Bendixen, Nina; Maier, Urs; Place, Benjamin; Giger, Walter; Field, Jennifer A

2012-01-01

33

Headspace Single-Drop Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Herba Asari  

PubMed Central

A rapid headspace single-drop microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SDME-GC-MS) for the analysis of the volatile compounds in Herba Asari was developed in this study. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and time, sample amount, and particle size were optimized. A mixed solvent of n-tridecane and butyl acetate (1?:?1) was finally used for the extraction with sample amount of 0.750?g and 100-mesh particle size at 70°C for 15?min. Under the determined conditions, the pound samples of Herba Asari were directly applied for the analysis. The result showed that SDME-GC–MS method was a simple, effective, and inexpensive way to measure the volatile compounds in Herba Asari and could be used for the analysis of volatile compounds in Chinese medicine. PMID:23607049

Wang, Guan-Jie; Tian, Li; Fan, Yu-Ming; Qi, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

34

Analysis of kerogens by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selective ion monitoring. III. Long-chain alkylbenzenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the 3 principal kerogen types by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P-GC-MS) has been undertaken using the mass spectrometer as a selective ion detector. By monitoring the fragment ions with {m}/{e} values of 91, 105 and 119 information has been obtained concerning differences in the content of long-chain alkylbenzenes in the kerogen pyrolysates, thus implying differences in the kerogen structures. Simulated maturation of the kerogens followed by specific ion ( {m}/{e} 105) gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of the extracted liquid products, and specific ion ( {m}/{e} 105) GC-MS analysis of 3 crude oils is also described. The use of long-chain alkylbenzenes for geochemical correlation studies is discussed.

Solli, H.; Larter, S. R.; Douglas, A. G.

35

Analysis of volatile components in a Chinese fish sauce, Fuzhou Yulu, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry*  

PubMed Central

Volatile components of Fuzhou Yulu, a Chinese fish sauce, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and two pretreatment methods, i.e., purge and trap (P&T) GC-MS and ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS, were compared. P&T-GC-MS method determined 12 components, including sulfur-containing constituents (such as dimethyl disulfide), nitrogen-containing constituents (such as pyrazine derivatives), aldehydes and ketones. Ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS method detected 10 components, which were mainly volatile organic acids (such as benzenepropanoic acid) and esters. Neither of the two methods detected alcohols or trimethylamine. This study offers an important reference to determine volatile flavor components of traditional fish sauce through modern analysis methods. PMID:19067466

Yang, Yuan-fan; Chen, Shen-ru; Ni, Hui; Ye, Xing-qian

2008-01-01

36

Analysis of plant galactolipids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement.  

PubMed

The composition of plant membrane lipids was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement. The data dependent methods for the analysis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs) have been developed. The optimised chromatographic systems were based on a 2.0 mm i.d. Nucleosil C18 column with methanol/water (MGDGs) or acetonitrile/methanol/water (DGDGs) gradients. The galactolipids were ionised by electrospray operated in the positive ion mode and identified based on their MS/MS spectra. High resolution spectra with accurate masses were found to be essential for correct interpretation of the MS data. The elution order of non-oxidised MGDGs and DGDGs followed the equivalent carbon numbers. The methods were applied for detailed characterisation of the MGDGs and DGDGs in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana and Melissa officinalis. PMID:22465211

Zábranská, Marie; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Sobotníková, Jana; Cva?ka, Josef

2012-07-01

37

Determination of ametryn herbicide by bioassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in analysis of residues in drinking water.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and quantitative bioassay method was compared to a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) procedure for the analysis of ametryn in surface and groundwater. This method was based on the activity of ametryn in inhibiting the growth of the primary root and shoot of germinating letuce, Lactuca sativa L. seed. The procedure was sensitive to 0.01 microgram/l and was applicable from this concentration up to 0.6 microgram/l. Initial surface sterilization of the seed, selection of pregerminated seed of certain root lengths and special equipment are not necessary. So, we concluded that the sensitivity of the bioassay method is compatible with the chromatographic method (GC-MS). However, the study of the correlation between methods suggests that the bioassay should be used only as a screening technique for the evaluation of ametryn residues in water. PMID:10464973

Queiroz, R H; Lanchote, V L; Bonato, P S; Tozato, E; de Carvalho, D; Gomes, M A; Cerdeira, A L

1999-06-01

38

Simultaneous analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in cosmetics by supercritical fluid extraction combined with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) combined with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) to determine trace preservatives and antioxidants including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ?-tocopherol (?-t) and ?-tocopherol acetate (?-ta) in cosmetic products. A supercritical fluid extraction procedure was used to isolate four paraben preservatives and four antioxidants from the

Maw-Rong Lee; Chueh-Yu Lin; Zu-Guang Li; Tzu-Feng Tsai

2006-01-01

39

Chemometric optimization of derivatization reactions prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Derivatization is a methodological technique that can be used to make an organic compound more suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis (e.g. pharmaceuticals). However, many analysts try to avoid this analytical procedure as it is time-consuming and labour-intensive. On the other hand, an inter-laboratory study demonstrated that with regard to sensitivity and measurement uncertainty, gas chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry was superior to liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the trace analysis of organic compounds in matrices of greater complexity. In our previous paper (Kumirska et al., J. Chemometr. 25 (2011) 636-643) we suggested using principal component analysis (PCA) to optimize the derivatization of six compounds (5 oestrogenic steroids and diethylstilbestrol) prior to GC-MS analysis. In the present work we applied a highly sophisticated model - 24 pharmaceuticals derived from six classes of drugs. The efficiency of different derivatization reactions was evaluated by PCA and compared with that obtained from cluster analysis (CA), the latter method being applied in this context for the first time. Derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine and ethyl acetate (2:1:1, v/v/v) for 30min at 60°C was found to be optimal. The SPE-GC-MS method was also validated and successfully applied to the analysis of selected pharmaceuticals in wastewater and surface waters in Poland. PMID:23706154

Kumirska, Jolanta; Plenis, Alina; ?ukaszewicz, Paulina; Caban, Magda; Migowska, Natalia; Bia?k-Bieli?ska, Anna; Czerwicka, Ma?gorzata; Stepnowski, Piotr

2013-06-28

40

Modern developments in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based environmental analysis.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) continues to play an important role in the identification and quantification of organic contaminants in environmental samples. GC-MS is one of the most attractive and powerful techniques for routine analysis of some ubiquitous organic pollutants due to its good sensitivity and high selectivity and versatility. This paper presents an overview of recent developments and applications of the GC-MS technique in relation to the analysis in environmental samples of known persistent pollutants and some emerging contaminants. The use of different mass analysers such as linear quadrupole, quadrupole ion-trap, double-focusing sectors and time-of-flight analysers is examined. The advantages and limitations of GC-MS methods for selected applications in the field of environmental analysis are discussed. Recent developments in field-portable GC-MS are also examined. PMID:12877169

Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

2003-06-01

41

Quantitative Analysis and Fingerprint Profiles for Quality Control of Fructus Schisandrae by Gas Chromatography: Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a simple, rapid, and effective quality assessment method for Fructus Schisandrae by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). The method was established by using specific lignan fingerprint profiles and quantitation of characteristic compounds in this herbal medicine. The GC-MS fingerprints of 15 batches of Schisandra samples from different regions of China showed similar lignan profiles. Five peaks were selected as characteristic peaks, and all of these were identified by using GC-MS techniques. The relative retention times of these characteristic peaks in the GC-MS fingerprint were established as an important parameter for identification of Schisandra samples. Meanwhile, relative peak areas may be a feasible approach to discriminate the S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera. Finally, these pharmacologically active constituents in the titled plant, schisandrins A–C and schizandrols A and B, were quantitatively determined using a validated GC-MS method. PMID:24574919

Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Di; Kuang, Hai-Xue

2014-01-01

42

Routine application using single quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to pesticides analysis in citrus fruits.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method has been developed for the routine analysis of buprofezin, bupirimate, hexaflumuron, tebufenpyrad, fluvalinate and pyriproxyfen in citrus fruits. Extracts were obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) using C18 as dispersant and dichloromethane-methanol (80:20, v/v) as eluent. Matrix effects were tested for all matrices by addition of standard to sample blank extracts (samples containing no detectable residues). Mean recoveries obtained at fortification levels between 0.01 and 5 mg kg(-1) were 57-97% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 5 to 19%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.01-0.2 mg kg(-1) and lower than maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Spanish legislation. The MSPD was compared with conventional ethyl acetate extraction, showing equivalent recoveries and precision. Although the sample is more concentrated (5-fold) by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with ethyl acetate than by MSPD, LOQs obtained by both techniques, were almost equal, because MSPD reduces matrix effects, baseline noise, and interfering peaks from the matrix. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of selected pesticides in real samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and triple quadrupole (TQ) have been used as confirmatory tool for positive samples according to a recent No. SANCO/10476/2003 European Union Guideline. PMID:16130755

Soler, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

2005-09-23

43

Targeted Chiral Analysis of Bioactive Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Using Liquid-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SRM/MS); whereas the highest specificity is obtained with an SRM transitions between an intense parent ion, which contains the intact molecule (M) and a structurally significant product ion. This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for the analysis of the structurally diverse eicosanoids that arise. PMID:24957514

Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

2012-01-01

44

Wastewater analysis for volatile organic sulfides using purge-and-trap with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper presented a modified method for the analysis of volatile organic sulfides (VOS) simultaneously with volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater using purge-and-trap with gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Calibration standards were prepared using filtered and nitrogen-purged VOS-free wastewater, acidified to pH 1.4. Samples were also acidified to pH 1.4. This approach minimized the oxidation of methanethiol to dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which hampered the liquid-phase analysis of VOS. Compounds were concentrated from the liquid phase, and automated analyses were performed without additional equipment, other than that required for routine wastewater VOC analysis. The linear range was 5 to 500 microg/L, with r2 > or = 0.99. The average recovery from replicate analyses of spiked samples was 81 +/- 0.5% for methanethiol, 100 +/- 1.5% fordimethyl sulfide (DMS), and 92 +/- 1.5% for DMDS. Method detection limits were 4.8, 2.8, and 1.2 microg/L for methanethiol, DMS, and DMDS, respectively. The relative percent differences were between 0 and 8%. PMID:17489280

Cheng, Xianhao; Peterkin, Earl; Narangajavana, Kanthaka

2007-04-01

45

[Matrix effects in analysis of three beta-agonist residues in pig edible tissues using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the determination of the residues of three beta-agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol and ractopamine) in pig edible tissues. The matrix effects (MEs) in the analysis of the three compounds with the developed method were determined. The influences of matrix state and its weight on MEs were evaluated statistically. The analytes in pig liver and muscle and their corresponding freeze-dried powders were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Then the derivatives were determined in selected ion monitoring mode and the intensities of MEs of the three beta-agonists were obtained. Significant matrix enhancement was observed for the three analytes, and especially, the ME of ractopamine was more than 1000%. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that MEs were significantly different for the three analytes in two matrices among different matrix weights (P < 0.05), and MEs of the three analytes increased from 1 g to 5 g with the increase of matrix weight. MEs for the three analytes were not significantly different between fresh pig tissues and its freeze-dried powder matrices (P > 0.05), indicating that the freeze-dried powder matrices might be used to conveniently prepare the matrix-matched calibration solution, which could efficiently compensate the MEs of the beta-agonists in GC-MS analysis. PMID:24822451

Bian, Kui; Lin, Tao; Liu, Min; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Zongnan; He, Limin

2014-02-01

46

Targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of serum acylcarnitines in acetaminophen toxicity in children  

PubMed Central

Aim Long-chain acylcarnitines have been postulated to be sensitive biomarkers of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse models. In the following study, the relationship of acylcarnitines with other known indicators of APAP toxicity was examined in children receiving low-dose (therapeutic) and high-dose (‘overdose’ or toxic ingestion) exposure to APAP. Materials & methods The study included three subject groups: group A (therapeutic dose, n = 187); group B (healthy controls, n = 23); and group C (overdose, n = 62). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected for each subject. Serum samples were used for measurement of APAP protein adducts, a biomarker of the oxidative metabolism of APAP and for targeted metabolomics analysis of serum acylcarnitines using ultra performance liquid chromatography–triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results Significant increases in oleoyl- and palmitoyl-carnitines were observed with APAP exposure (low dose and overdose) compared with controls. Significant increases in serum ALT, APAP protein adducts and acylcarnitines were observed in overdose children that received delayed treatment (time to treatment from overdose >24 h) with the antidote N-acetylcysteine. Time to peak APAP protein adducts in serum was shorter than that of the acylcarnitines and serum ALT. Conclusion Perturbations in long-chain acylcarnitines in children with APAP toxicity suggest that mitochrondrial injury and associated impairment in the ?-oxidation of fatty acids are clinically relevant as biomarkers of APAP toxicity. PMID:24521011

Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa M; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda G; Beger, Richard D; Sullivan, Janice E; Kearns, Gregory L; Reed, Michael D; Marshall, James D; Van Den Anker, John N; James, Laura P

2014-01-01

47

High Sensitivity Quantitative Lipidomics Analysis of Fatty Acids in Biological Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Historically considered to be simple membrane components serving as structural elements and energy storing entities, fatty acids are now increasingly recognized as potent signaling molecules involved in many metabolic processes. Quantitative determination of fatty acids and exploration of fatty acid profiles have become common place in lipid analysis. We present here a reliable and sensitive method for comprehensive analysis of free fatty acids and fatty acid composition of complex lipids in biological material. The separation and quantitation of fatty acids is achieved by capillary gas chromatography. The analytical method uses pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization and negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatographic procedure provides base line separation between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of different chain lengths as well as between most positional isomers. Fatty acids are extracted in the presence of isotope-labeled internal standards for high quantitation accuracy. Mass spectrometer conditions are optimized for broad detection capacity and sensitivity capable of measuring trace amounts of fatty acids in complex biological samples. PMID:21787881

Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron M.; Dennis, Edward A.

2011-01-01

48

Different headspace solid phase microextraction--gas chromatography/mass spectrometry approaches to haloanisoles analysis in wine.  

PubMed

Three approaches in determination of six haloanisoles (2,4,6-trichloroanisole, 2,3,4-trichloroanisole, 2,3,6-trichloroanisole, tetrachloroanisole, pentachloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole) in wine were compared. Comprehensive gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was described for the first time for this application and compared to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using triple quadrupole instrument. These techniques were compared with "standard" analytical approach using GC-MS(SIM). SPME method was developed and used for all separation methods (DVB/PDMS fiber, 70 °C, 30%NaCl, 20 min extraction). Extraction dependence on matrix was discussed using model wines with different ethanol contents (8%, 12%, and 18%) as well as water and different wines (dry white, dry red and sweet liqueur), with the lowest sensitivities obtained for highest ethanol contents in model wine and for liqueur wine. Limits of detection for GC×GC-ToF-MS method were 0.09-2.92 ng/L depending on the examined compound and matrix (compared to 0.1-13.3 ng/L obtained using GC/MS(SIM)). For GC-MS/MS method lower detection limits were achieved than for the GC×GC method (0.01-0.1 ng/L), however comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry provides full spectral information on analyzed compounds. Both methods had limits of detection far below odor thresholds of haloanisoles in wine, good linearity up to 2000 ng/L tested and good precision, what makes them suitable for analysis of these compounds in low ppt levels. PMID:23932370

Jele?, Henryk H; Dziadas, Mariusz; Majcher, Ma?gorzata

2013-10-25

49

ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CHEMICAL GROUPS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of the moving-belt liquid chromatographic interface in combination with mass spectrometry was evaluated for determining detection limits of selected members of various chemical classes. mong the chemical classes examined were benzidines, nitrosoamines, anilines, nitroarom...

50

Combination of TLC blotting and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of peroxidized cholesterol.  

PubMed

We have established a sensitive and convenient method for analysis of cholesterol hydroperoxides (Chol-OOHs) as trimethylsilyloxyl derivatives using diphenylpyrenylphosphine (DPPP)-thin-layer chromatography (TLC) blotting and gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry/selected-ion monitoring (GC-EI-MS/SIM). Chol-OOH standards were prepared by photosensitized oxidation and azo radical-induced peroxidation of cholesterol. Trimethylsilyloxyl derivatives of cholesterol 5alpha-hydroperoxide (Chol 5alpha-OOH), cholesterol 7alpha-hydroperoxide (Chol 7alpha-OOH), and cholesterol 7beta-hydroperoxide (Chol 7beta-OOH) could be separated from one another in the SIM chromatogram using a fragment ion with elimination of trimethylsilanol from the molecular ion. This method was used to characterize peroxidized cholesterol from azo radical-exposed human low-density lipoprotein and UVA-irradiated human keratinocytes in the presence of hematoporphyrin. Finally, we succeeded in the quantification of each Chol-OOH isomer present in hairless mouse skin with and without UVA irradiation by use of beta-sitosterol hydroperoxide as internal standard. The accumulation of Chol 5alpha-OOH with Chol 7alpha/betaOOH in the skin indicates that singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)) participated in the peroxidation of skin cholesterol, because Chol 5alpha-OOH is known to be a (1)O(2) specific cholesterol peroxidation product. We concluded that the combination of DPPP-TLC blotting and GC-EI-MS/SIM is useful for quantifying peroxidized cholesterol in biological samples and confirming the participation of (1)O(2) in oxidative stress. PMID:17701239

Minami, Yuko; Yokoi, Sayuri; Setoyama, Mari; Bando, Noriko; Takeda, Sayaka; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

2007-11-01

51

Study of the chemical derivatization of zearalenone and its metabolites for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental samples.  

PubMed

This study compares different silylation procedures of zearalenone and its metabolites: alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol, zearalanone, alpha-zearalanol and beta-zearalanol for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Four silylating agents among the most frequently used to derivatize polar organic compounds were tested: N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), N,N-diethyltrimethylsilylamine (TMSDEA) and a commercial mixture of N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide, trimethylchlorosilane and N-trimethylsilyimidazole. Previous studies showed that the addition of polar and/or basic solvents can significantly improve the yield of a reaction of derivatization. In this work, four solvents were tested: pyridine, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile and acetone. The influence of each solvent was studied as a function of the silylating agent/solvent ratio. The influences of the temperature and of the reaction time on the reaction yields were also evaluated. A GC-MS quantitation method associating methanol chemical ionization and selected ion storage with three ions was developed and successfully tested on a reconstituted sediment spiked in zearalenone and its metabolites. PMID:18394636

Kinani, Said; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Bourcier, Sophie; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim

2008-05-01

52

Solid-phase analytical derivatization of alkylphenols in fish bile for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Solid-phase analytical derivatization (SPAD) with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) has successfully been used as a sample preparation method for determination of (APs) in fish bile treated with beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase. Derivatized APs were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). Overall limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 5 to 18ng/g bile for 19 out of 21 investigated compounds. LODs were not determined for 4-methylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol due to high background levels in control bile. Recoveries ranged from 83 to 109%. The analysed APs vary in degree of alkylation from methyl (C(1)) to nonyl (C(9)), and represent various pollution sources, including produced water (PW) discharge from the offshore oil industry. The applicability and sensitivity of the method has been demonstrated by analysis of bile taken from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exposed to two dilutions of PW (1:500 and 1:1500) in a continuous flow system. PMID:18243219

Jonsson, Grete; Cavcic, Admira; Stokke, Tone U; Beyer, Jonny; Sundt, Rolf C; Brede, Cato

2008-03-01

53

Analysis of benzothiazole in Italian wines using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Benzothiazoles are a part of the molecular structure of a large number of natural products, biocides, drugs, food flavors, and industrial chemicals. They also appear in the environment mainly as a result of their production and use as rubber vulcanization accelerators. A new headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method for analysis of benzothiazole (BTH) in wine is described. This method is fast, inexpensive, and does not require solvents. The detection limit of BTH in wine was 45 ppt with linearity up to 100 ppb. The quantification of BTH is performed by the standard additions method and does not require the use of an internal standard. We have analyzed 12 wines from different grape varieties grown in several regions, using SPME extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Under these experimental conditions, benzothiazole was found in all wines analyzed. Concentration levels in samples varied from 0.24 microg/L (Vermentino) to 1.09 microg/L (Franciacorta). PMID:10775378

Bellavia, V; Natangelo, M; Fanelli, R; Rotilio, D

2000-04-01

54

ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN FOOD USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most common ionization sources available today to couple liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometry (MS) are atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources that form ions at ambient pressure and sample them into the high vacuum region of the mass analyzer. The two most popular API sources...

55

Analysis of chemical profiles of insect adhesion secretions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This article reports on the chemical analysis of molecular profiles of tarsal secretions of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsskål, 1775) by gas chromatography hyphenated with quadrupol mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Special focus of this study was to elaborate on sampling methods which enable selective microscale extraction of insect secretions in a spatially controlled manner, in particular tarsal adhesive secretions and secretions located on cuticle surfaces at the tibia. Various solvent sampling procedures and contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods were compared in terms of comprehensiveness and extraction efficiencies as measured by signal intensities in GC-MS. Solvent sampling with water as extraction solvent gave access to the elucidation of chemical profiles of polar compound classes such as amino acids and carbohydrates, but is extremely tedious. Contact SPME on the other hand can be regarded as a simplified and more elegant alternative, in particular for the lipophilic compound fraction. Many proteinogenic amino acids and ornithine as well as carbohydrate monomers arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose were detected in tarsal secretions after acid hydrolysis of aqueous extracts. Qualitatively similar but quantitatively significantly different molecular profiles were found for the lipid fraction which contained mainly n-alkanes and internally branched monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-alkanes in the C23-C49 range as well as long chain fatty acids and aldehydes. Especially, hydrocarbons with >C40 carbon numbers have previously been rarely reported for insect secretions. The results suggest that the investigated insect secretions are complex emulsions which allow the attachment of tarsi on various otherwise incompatible materials of smooth and rough surfaces. The solid consistence of the established alkanes at ambient temperatures might contribute to a semi-solid consistence of the adhesive, amalgamating partly opposing functions such as slip resistance, tarsal release, desiccation resistance, and mechanical compliance. The methods developed can be extended to other similar applications of studying compositions of insect secretions of other species. PMID:25479867

Reitz, Manuela; Gerhardt, Heike; Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

2015-01-01

56

ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXTRACTS BY CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY AND CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative sensitivities of fused-silica capillary column gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FSCC/GC/FT-IR) versus packed-column GC/FT-IR and FSCC/GC/FT-IR versus fused-silica capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (FSCC/GC/MS) were compa...

57

Correlating sensory attributes to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and e-nose responses using partial least squares regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory scores for 15 attributes identified in soy sauce aroma by quantitative descriptive analysis were correlated with purge and trap gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) profiles and electronic nose (e-nose) responses using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. Highly predictive PLS models were obtained for every attribute based on whole GC–MS profiles. However, the predictability has been greatly improved in the

Tetsuo Aishima

2004-01-01

58

Development of a method for analysis of Iranian damask rose oil: Combination of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with Chemometric techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) combined with Chemometric resolution techniques were proposed as a method for the analysis of volatile components of Iranian damask rose oil. The essential oil of damask rose was extracted using hydrodistillation method and analyzed with GC–MS in optimized conditions. A total of 70 components were identified using similarity searches between mass spectra and MS database. This

Mehdi Jalali-Heravi; Hadi Parastar; Hassan Sereshti

2008-01-01

59

Analysis of poly(vinyl chloride) and other polymers in sediments and suspended matter of a coastal lagoon by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used for the analysis of synthetic polymers in core sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the coastal lagoon Pialassa Baiona (Adriatic Sea). Pyrograms exhibited a multitude of peaks deriving from the thermal degradation of natural organic matter (humic substances, planktonic material), artificial resins and synthetic rubbers. Upon pyrolysis, sediments generated high levels of styrene

Daniele Fabbri; Daniele Tartari; Claudio Trombini

2000-01-01

60

ANALYSIS OF HOUSTON AEROSOL SAMPLES BY GC/MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY) METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis procedure developed to give a qualitative and quantitative analysis for organic compounds adsorbed on aerosols collected by Hi-Vol filters was adapted and applied to a similar analysis of aerosols collected by dichotomous filters. Analysis was conducted for five dicho...

61

Development and Application of Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Bound Trinitrotoluene Residues in Soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

TNT (trinitrotoluene) is a contaminant of global environmental significance, yet determining its environmental fate has posed longstanding challenges. To date, only differential extraction-based approaches have been able to determine the presence of covalently bound, reduced forms of TNT in field soils. Here, we employed thermal elution, pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to distinguish between covalently bound and noncovalently bound reduced forms of TNT in soil. Model soil organic matter-based matrixes were used to develop an assay in which noncovalently bound (monomeric) aminodinitrotoluene (ADNT) and diaminonitrotoluene (DANT) were desorbed from the matrix and analyzed at a lower temperature than covalently bound forms of these same compounds. A thermal desorption technique, evolved gas analysis, was initially employed to differentiate between covalently bound and added 15N-labeled monomeric compounds. A refined thermal elution procedure, termed "double-shot analysis" (DSA), allowed a sample to be sequentially analyzed in two phases. In phase 1, all of an added 15N-labeled monomeric contaminant was eluted from the sample at relatively low temperature. In phase 2 during high-temperature pyrolysis, the remaining covalently bound contaminants were detected. DSA analysis of soil from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP; ???5000 ppm TNT) revealed the presence of DANT, ADNT, and TNT. After scrutinizing the DSA data and comparing them to results from solvent-extracted and base/acid-hydrolyzed LAAP soil, we concluded that the TNT was a noncovalently bound "carryover" from phase 1. Thus, the pyrolysis-GC/MS technique successfully defined covalently bound pools of ADNT and DANT in the field soil sample.

Weiss, J.M.; Mckay, A.J.; Derito, C.; Watanabe, C.; Thorn, K.A.; Madsen, E.L.

2004-01-01

62

Simultaneous analysis of urinary phthalate metabolites of residents in Korea using isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Phthalates are used in industry products, household items, and medical tools as plasticizers. Human exposure to phthalates has raised concern about its toxicity. In the present study, optimization was conducted for the simultaneous analysis of eight kinds of phthalate metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MiNP, MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP. In order to minimize the matrix effect and to do quantitative analysis, isotope dilution and LLE-GC-MS methods were performed. Urine samples were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted with a mixture of n-hexane and ethyl ether (8:2; v:v), and subsequently derivatized with trimethylsilylation. All eight kinds of analytes showed clear resolution and high reproducibility in GC-MS results. The method detection limit ranged from 0.05 ng/mL to 0.2 ng/mL. Calibration curves were found to be linear from 0.2 to 100 ng/mL with -(2)>0.992. The relative standard deviation of the intraday precision using water and urine ranged from 2.1% to 16.3%. The analysis was performed with urine samples that were collected from adults residing in the Republic of Korea. The analyzed concentration results were compared according to gender and region. As a result, DEHP metabolites showed the highest detected concentration (75.92 ?g/g creatinine, 100%), and MiNP, a metabolite of DiNP, showed the lowest detected concentration (0.42 ?g/g creatinine, 22.5%). On average, female urine (200.76 ?g/g creatinine) had a higher detected concentration of ?8 phthalate metabolites than male urine. Samples from rural regions (211.96 ?g/g creatinine) had higher levels than samples from urban regions. PMID:23928369

Kim, Miok; Song, Na Rae; Choi, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jeongae; Pyo, Heesoo

2014-02-01

63

Characterization of human expired breath by solid phase microextraction and analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and differential mobility spectrometry  

E-print Network

Breath analysis has potential to become a new medical diagnostic modality. In this thesis, a method for the analysis of human expired breath was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was subsequently ...

Merrick, William (William F. W.)

2005-01-01

64

Integrated microscale analysis system for targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry proteomics on limited amounts of enriched cell populations.  

PubMed

Limited samples, such as those that are in vivo sourced via biopsy, are closely representative of biological systems and contain valuable information for drug discovery. However, these precious samples are often heterogeneous and require cellular prefractionation prior to proteomic analysis to isolate specific subpopulations of interest. Enriched cells from in vivo samples are often very limited (<10(4) cells) and pose a significant challenge to proteomic nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS) sample preparation. To enable the streamlined analysis of these limited samples, we have developed an online cell enrichment, microscale sample preparation, nanoLCMS proteomics workflow by integrating fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), focused ultrasonication, microfluidics, immobilized trypsin digestion, and nanoLCMS. To assess the performance of the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow, 5000 fluorescent labeled cells were enriched from a 5% heterogeneous cell population and processed for LCMS proteomics in less than 2 h. Within these 5000 enriched cells, 30 peptides corresponding to 17 proteins spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude of cellular abundance were quantified using a QExactive MS. The results from the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow starting from 5000 enriched cells were directly compared to results from a traditional macroscale sample preparation workflow starting from 2.0 × 10(6) cells. The microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow demonstrated high cellular enrichment efficiency and high peptide recovery across the wide dynamic range of targeted peptides. Overall the microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow has shown effectiveness in efficiently preparing limited amounts of FACS enriched cells in an online manner for proteomic LCMS. PMID:24083476

Martin, Jeffrey G; Rejtar, Tomas; Martin, Stephen A

2013-11-19

65

Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation: metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry*  

PubMed Central

A novel metabolomic method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the metabolites in the serum of piglets in response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation. Thirty-six 21-d-old piglets were randomly assigned into three groups. One group continued to suckle from the sows (suckling group), whereas the other two groups were weaned and their diets were supplemented with 1% (w/w) Gln or isonitrogenous L-alanine, respectively, representing Gln group or control group. Serum samples were collected to characterize metabolites after a 7-d treatment. Results showed that twenty metabolites were down-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in control piglets compared with suckling ones. These data demonstrated that early weaning causes a wide range of metabolic changes across arginine and proline metabolism, aminosugar and nucleotide metabolism, galactose metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, and fatty acid metabolism. Dietary Gln supplementation increased the levels of creatinine,D-xylose, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, palmitelaidic acid, and ?-L-galactofuranose (P<0.05) in early weaned piglets, and were involved in the arginine and proline metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. A leave-one-out cross-validation of random forest analysis indicated that creatinine was the most important metabolite among the three groups. Notably, the concentration of creatinine in control piglets was decreased (P=0.00001) compared to the suckling piglets, and increased (P=0.0003) in Gln-supplemented piglets. A correlation network for weaned and suckling piglets revealed that early weaning changed the metabolic pathways, leading to the abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism, which could be partially improved by dietary Gln supplementation. These findings provide fresh insight into the complex metabolic changes in response to early weaning and dietary Gln supplementation in piglets. PMID:22761248

Xiao, Ying-ping; Wu, Tian-xing; Hong, Qi-hua; Sun, Jiang-ming; Chen, An-guo; Yang, Cai-mei; Li, Xiao-yan

2012-01-01

66

[Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of volatile components from Atractlodes macrocephala Koidz].  

PubMed

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was employed to extract the volatile components from Chinese traditional medicine, Atractlodes macrocephala Koidz. The volatile components were isolated and identified successfully by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results from HS-SPME-GC-MS were compared with those obtained from steam distillation-GC-MS (SD-GC-MS) with a good agreement. The volatiles were collected using a polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB) fiber by HS-SPME. The best response was obtained when the extraction temperature was 70 degrees C, the equilibrium time and extraction time were all 30 min and the desorption time was 4 min. Analysis was performed by GC-MS with a polysiloxane capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 microm) using He as the carrier gas and a programmed temperature run. Forty-one components accounting for 90.81% were identified. The main components (relative amount more than 1%) of the samples by HS-SPME were atractylone (40.12%), gamma-elemene (14.73%), aromadendrene (13.05%), eudesma-4 (14), 11-diene (5.46%), caryophyllene (2.56%), patchoulene (2.55%), 6,10,11,11-tetramethyl-tricyclo [6.3.0.1(2,3)] undec-7-ene (2.11%), cedrene (1.48%), alpha-caryophyllene (1.48%) and selina-4 (14) -7 (11) diene-8-one (1.01%). By SD-GC-MS, 31 components accounting for 88.19% were identified and all these components could be extracted by SPME except trans-beta-ocimene which accounts only 0.10%. The results showed that the HS-SPME technique can be used to extract the the volatile components from Atractlodes macrocephala Koidz. in place of the traditional time-consuming SD. PMID:17432574

Guo, Fangqiu; Huang, Lanfang; Zhou, Shaoyun

2007-01-01

67

Chemometric Analysis of Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry Data using Fast Retention Time Alignment via a Total Ion Current Shift Function  

SciTech Connect

A critical comparison of methods for correcting severely retention time shifted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data is presented. The method reported herein is an adaptation to the Piecewise Alignment Algorithm to quickly align severely shifted one-dimensional (1D) total ion current (TIC) data, then applying these shifts to broadly align all mass channels throughout the separation, referred to as a TIC shift function (SF). The maximum shift varied from (-) 5 s in the beginning of the chromatographic separation to (+) 20 s toward the end of the separation, equivalent to a maximum shift of over 5 peak widths. Implementing the TIC shift function (TIC SF) prior to Fisher Ratio (F-Ratio) feature selection and then principal component analysis (PCA) was found to be a viable approach to classify complex chromatograms, that in this study were obtained from GC-MS separations of three gasoline samples serving as complex test mixtures, referred to as types C, M and S. The reported alignment algorithm via the TIC SF approach corrects for large dynamic shifting in the data as well as subtle peak-to-peak shifts. The benefits of the overall TIC SF alignment and feature selection approach were quantified using the degree-of-class separation (DCS) metric of the PCA scores plots using the type C and M samples, since they were the most similar, and thus the most challenging samples to properly classify. The DCS values showed an increase from an initial value of essentially zero for the unaligned GC-TIC data to a value of 7.9 following alignment; however, the DCS was unchanged by feature selection using F-Ratios for the GC-TIC data. The full mass spectral data provided an increase to a final DCS of 13.7 after alignment and two-dimensional (2D) F-Ratio feature selection.

Nadeau, Jeremy S.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

2010-04-15

68

Accurate analysis of trace earthy-musty odorants in water by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of trace earthy-musty compounds including geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2,3,4-trichloroanisole, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, and 2,3,6-trichloroanisole in water samples. This method combined headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and used naphthalene-d(8) as internal standard. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber exposing at 90°C for 30 min provided effective sample enrichment in HS-SPME. These compounds were separated by a DB-1701MS capillary column and detected in selected ion monitoring mode within 12 min. The method showed a good linearity from 1 to 100 ng L(-1) and detection limits within (0.25-0.61 ng L(-1)) for all compounds. Using naphthalene-d(8) as the internal standard, the intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) was within (2.6-3.4%), while the inter-day RSD was (3.5-4.9%). Good recoveries were obtained for tap water (80.5-90.6%), river water (81.5-92.4%), and lake water (83.5-95.2%) spiked at 10 ng L(-1). Compared with other methods using HS-SPME for determination of odor compounds in water samples, this present method had more analytes, better precision, and recovery. This method was successfully applied for analysis of earthy-musty odors in water samples from different sources. PMID:22740259

Ma, Kang; Zhang, Jin Na; Zhao, Min; He, Ya Juan

2012-06-01

69

Analysis of pharmaceutical and other organic wastewater compounds in filtered and unfiltered water samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research on the effects of exposure of stream biota to complex mixtures of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds associated with wastewater requires the development of additional analytical capabilities for these compounds in water samples. Two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical methods used at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to analyze organic compounds associated with wastewater were adapted to include additional pharmaceutical and other organic compounds beginning in 2009. This report includes a description of method performance for 42 additional compounds for the filtered-water method (hereafter referred to as the filtered method) and 46 additional compounds for the unfiltered-water method (hereafter referred to as the unfiltered method). The method performance for the filtered method described in this report has been published for seven of these compounds; however, the addition of several other compounds to the filtered method and the addition of the compounds to the unfiltered method resulted in the need to document method performance for both of the modified methods. Most of these added compounds are pharmaceuticals or pharmaceutical degradates, although two nonpharmaceutical compounds are included in each method. The main pharmaceutical compound classes added to the two modified methods include muscle relaxants, opiates, analgesics, and sedatives. These types of compounds were added to the original filtered and unfiltered methods largely in response to the tentative identification of a wide range of pharmaceutical and other organic compounds in samples collected from wastewater-treatment plants. Filtered water samples are extracted by vacuum through disposable solid-phase cartridges that contain modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. Unfiltered samples are extracted by using continuous liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The compounds of interest for filtered and unfiltered sample types were determined by use of the capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The performance of each method was assessed by using data on recoveries of compounds in fortified surface-water, wastewater, and reagent-water samples. These experiments (referred to as spike experiments) consist of fortifying (or spiking) samples with known amounts of target analytes. Surface-water-spike experiments were performed by using samples obtained from a stream in Colorado (unfiltered method) and a stream in New York (filtered method). Wastewater spike experiments for both the filtered and unfiltered methods were performed by using a treated wastewater obtained from a single wastewater treatment plant in New York. Surface water and wastewater spike experiments were fortified at both low and high concentrations and termed low- and high-level spikes, respectively. Reagent water spikes were assessed in three ways: (1) set spikes, (2) a low-concentration fortification experiment, and (3) a high-concentration fortification experiment. Set spike samples have been determined since 2009, and consist of analysis of fortified reagent water for target compounds included for each group of 10 to18 environmental samples analyzed at the NWQL. The low-concentration and high-concentration reagent spike experiments, by contrast, represent a one-time assessment of method performance. For each spike experiment, mean recoveries ranging from 60 to 130 percent indicate low bias, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than ( Of the compounds included in the filtered method, 21 had mean recoveries ranging from 63 to 129 percent for the low-level and high-level surface-water spikes, and had low ()132 percent]. For wastewater spikes, 24 of the compounds included in the filtered method had recoveries ranging from 61 to 130 percent for the low-level and high-level spikes. RSDs were 130 percent) or variable recoveries (RSDs >30 percent) for low-level wastewater spikes, or low recoveries ( Of the compounds included in the unfiltered method, 17 had mean spike recoveries ranging from 74

Zaugg, Steven D.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Smith, Steven G.

2014-01-01

70

Combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of pharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometer (PDMS) for the analysis of thin layers from nonvolatile organic samples has been set up to be combined with a liquid chromatograph. A novel interface performs the direct inlet of the liquid sample through a capillary into the vacuum system of the spectrometer. Samples of drugs are periodically collected, transferred to the ion source and analysed using a rotating disk. This on-line sample preparation has been tested for three antiarrhythmic drugs using various solvents and mixtures.

Schmidt, Lothar; Danigel, Harald; Jungclas, Hartmut

1982-07-01

71

Carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric methane by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Less than 15 min are required for the determination of delta C(sub PDB)-13 with a precision of 0.2 ppt(1 sigma, single measurement) in 5-mL samples of air containing CH4 at natural levels (1.7 ppm). An analytical system including a sample-introduction unit incorporating a preparative gas chromatograph (GC) column for separation of CH4 from N2, O2, and Ar is described. The 15-min procedure includes time for operation of that system, high-resolution chromatographic separation of the CH4, on-line combustion and purification of the products, and isotopic calibration. Analyses of standards demonstrate that systematic errors are absent and that there is no dependence of observed values of delta on sample size. For samples containing 100 ppm or more CH4, preconcentration is not required and the analysis time is less than 5 min. The system utilizes a commercially available, high-sensitivity isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For optimal conditions of smaple handling and combustion, performance of the system is within a factor of 2 of the shot-noise limit. The potential exists therefore for analysis of samples as small as 15 pmol CH4 with a standard deviation of less than 1 ppt.

Merritt, Dawn A.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, David J.

1995-01-01

72

Electron ionization and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of amino acids.  

PubMed

The mass spectra of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives of 17 amino acids were obtained using electron ionization (EI) and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization (APPhCI) mass spectrometry. The APPhCI mass spectra for all of the derivatives except arginine were shown to consist of only molecular [M](+.) and quasimolecular [MH](+) ions whereas, in the case of EI, the compounds in question underwent a drastic fragmentation. The application of APPhCI to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables a reliable identification of the TBDMS derivatives of amino acids in a mixture, even if its components are only partially resolved, due to the unique molecular masses for each compound. Comparison of the respective positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) mass spectra available in the literature with APPhCI spectra has shown that, in the case of PICI, unlike APPhCI, noticeable fragmentation occurs. PMID:14624019

Revelsky, Igor A; Yashin, Yuri S; Sobolevsky, Tim G; Revelsky, Alexander I; Miller, Barbara; Oriedo, Vincent

2003-01-01

73

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was examined for the separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins using the stationary phase TSK-gel Amide-80. The parameters tested included type of organic modifier and percentage in the mobile phase, buffer concentration, pH, flow rate and column temperature. Using mass spectrometric (MS) detection, the HILIC column allowed the determination of all the major PSP toxins in one 30 min analysis with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity. The high percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase and the omission of ion pairing reagents, both favored in HILIC, provided limits of detection (LOD) in the range 50-100 nM in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode on a single quadrupole LC-MS system. LOD in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode on a sensitive triple quadrupole system were as low as 5-30 nM. Excellent linearity of response was observed. PMID:16038209

Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

2005-07-22

74

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Chromotography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analysis used in many laboratory testing situations. This laboratory exercise explains this method and uses this method to analyse DMSO. This exercise includes images and screenshots, as well as group discussion questions and questions for individual exploration of mass spectrometry online. Users may download this experiment in Microsoft Word doc file format.

Solow, Mike

75

Chemical Composition of Latent Fingerprints by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in which gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used for latent fingerprint extraction and analysis on glass beads or glass slides is conducted. The results determine that the fingerprint residues are gender dependent.

Hartzell-Baguley, Brittany; Hipp, Rachael E.; Morgan, Neal R.; Morgan, Stephen L.

2007-01-01

76

Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.  

PubMed

Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800?gg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between 0.093 and 247?gg(-1). In the case of phthalates, the forbidden phthalates dibutyl phtalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were also found in thirteen samples at low levels. All the samples contained fragrance allergens in many cases at high levels (up to 2400?gg(-1)) and three musks were detected in the samples. Excluding the banned compounds, all samples complied with the concentration limits established by the European Regulation although 25% of them did not fulfill the labeling requirements for fragrance allergens. PMID:25662066

Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

2015-03-01

77

Quantitative Analysis of Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine ("Tetramine") Spiked into Beverages by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Validation by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, commonly known as tetramine, is a highly neurotoxic rodenticide (human oral LD{sub 50} = 0.1 mg/kg) used in hundreds of deliberate food poisoning events in China. Here we describe a method for quantitation of tetramine spiked into beverages, including milk, juice, tea, cola, and water and cleaned up by C8 solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Quantitation by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was based upon fragmentation of m/z 347 to m/z 268. The method was validated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in SIM mode for ions m/z 212, 240, and 360. The limit of quantitation was 0.10 {micro}g/mL by LC/MS/MS versus 0.15 {micro}g/mL for GC/MS. Fortifications of the beverages at 2.5 {micro}g/mL and 0.25 {micro}g/mL were recovered ranging from 73-128% by liquid-liquid extraction for GC/MS analysis, 13-96% by SPE and 10-101% by liquid-liquid extraction for LC/MS/MS analysis.

Owens, J; Hok, S; Alcaraz, A; Koester, C

2008-11-13

78

Quantitative solid phase microextraction--gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of five megastigmatrienone isomers in aged wine.  

PubMed

Megastigmatrienone is a key flavor compound in tobacco. It has also been detected in wine, where it may contribute to a tobacco/incense aroma, but its importance and concentration in wines had never previously been evaluated. A method was developed and validated for quantifying the five megastigmatrienone isomers in red and white wines. Megastigmatrienone isomers were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), with a 65 ?m film thickness polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB) fiber and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). Several parameters affecting the length of the adsorption process (i.e., adding salt, extraction time and extraction temperature) were tested. The optimum analytical conditions were established. The LOQ were between 0.06 ?g L(-1) and 0.49 ?g L(-1) for white wine and 0.11 ?g L(-1) and 0.98 ?g L(-1) for red wine, repeatability in both types of wine was less than 10% and recovery ranged from 96% for white wine to 94% for red wine. The five isomers of megastigmatrienone were quantified in red and white wines for the first time. Concentrations ranged from 2 ?g L(-1) to 41 ?g L(-1) in both red and white wines. Initial results revealed a link between wine aging and megastigmatrienone levels, indicating that megastigmatrienone may be a component in wine "bouquet". PMID:24528661

Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand-Marion, Stéphanie; Tempere, Sophie; de Revel, Gilles

2014-02-27

79

Differentiation of the volatile profile of microbiologically contaminated canned tomatoes by dynamic headspace extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

The aromatic profile of microbiologically contaminated canned tomatoes was analyzed by the dynamic headspace extraction technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Canned tomatoes contaminated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus carbonarius were analyzed after 2 and 7 days. About 100 volatiles were detected, among which alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were the most abundant compounds. Gas chromatographic peak areas were used for statistical purposes. First, principal component analysis was carried out in order to visualize data trends and clusters. Then, linear discriminant analysis was performed in order to detect the set of volatile compounds ables to differentiate groups of analyzed samples. Five volatile compounds, i.e. ethanol, beta-myrcene, o-methyl styrene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and 1-octanol, were found to be able to better discriminate between uncontaminated and contaminated samples. Prediction ability of the calculated model was estimated to be 100% by the "leave-one-out" cross-validation. An electronic nose device was then used to analyze the same contaminated and not contaminated canned tomato samples. Preliminary results were compared with those obtained by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, showing a good agreement. PMID:19064076

Bianchi, F; Careri, M; Mangia, A; Mattarozzi, M; Musci, M; Concina, I; Falasconi, M; Gobbi, E; Pardo, M; Sberveglieri, G

2009-01-15

80

Ribbon storage techniques for liquid chromatography: mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed which allows semipermanent storage of the chromatographically separated material on a moving ribbon permitting multiple temperature analyses of a single LC separation. The new interface removes the major disadvantage of conventional moving ribbon devices by allowing analysis of a single LC separation at several different temperatures. Reconstructed ion chromatograms for the molecular ions in a standard mixture of benzopyrene, chrysene, carbazole, 7 amino-4-hydroxyquinoline, 5-hydroxyquinoline, 5-aminoquinoline, 5-hydroxy indole, and o-cresol are presented. The results are for a single injection and two passes of the separated material through desorption region at 195/sup 0/C and 285/sup 0/C. Reconstructed ion chromatograms are also presented for eight typical ions in an analysis of a biomass product for a single injection at three different ribbon passes through the flash heater.

Smith, R.D.; Johnson, A.L.

1981-06-01

81

Comparison of liquid chromatography-microchip/mass spectrometry to conventional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of steroids.  

PubMed

The feasibility of a microfluidic-based liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric system (HPLC-Chip/ESI/MS) was studied and compared to a conventional narrow-bore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric (LC-ESI/MS) system for the analysis of steroids. The limits of detection (LODs) for oxime derivatized steroids, expressed as concentrations, were slightly higher with the HPLC-Chip/MS system (50-300 pM) using an injection volume of 0.5 ?L than with the conventional LC-ESI/MS (10-150 pM) using an injection volume of 40 ?L. However, when the LODs are expressed as injected amounts, the sensitivity of the HPLC-Chip/MS system was about 50 times higher than with the conventional LC-ESI/MS system. The results indicate that the use of HPLC-Chip/MS system is clearly advantageous only in the analysis of low-volume samples. Both methods showed good linearity and good quantitative and chromatographic repeatability. In addition to the instrument comparisons with oxime derivatized steroids, the feasibility of the HPLC-Chip/MS system in the analysis of non-derivatized and oxime derivatized steroids was compared. The HPLC-Chip/MS method developed for non-derivatized steroids was also applied to the quantitative analysis of 15 mouse plasma samples. PMID:22405309

Ahonen, Linda; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Saarelainen, Taija; Paviala, Jenni; Ketola, Raimo A; Auriola, Seppo; Poutanen, Matti; Kostianen, Risto

2012-04-01

82

Quantification of Protein Phosphorylation by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

that affect protein-protein interactions. The ability to link protein phosphorylation and the regulationQuantification of Protein Phosphorylation by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Michael J. Matthews*,,§, Cell and Molecular Biology Program and Departments of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics

Vigoreaux, Jim O.

83

Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

Gochman, Nathan; And Others

1979-01-01

84

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomics  

SciTech Connect

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics has become increasingly applied for a broad range of biological applications due to growing capabilities for broad proteome coverage and good accuracy in quantification. Herein, we review the current LC-MS-based quantification methods with respect to their advantages and limitations, and highlight their potential applications.

Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.

2011-07-22

85

Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for improved analysis of geosmin and other fungal "off" volatiles in grape juice.  

PubMed

Geosmin is a volatile fungal metabolite with an earthy aroma produced in grape products from rotten grapes. The accumulation of geosmin in grapes is caused by the interaction of Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) has great utility for collecting volatile compounds in wine. However, contamination with earthy odours may have occurred previously in the must and novel methods are required for this commodity. In the present report, several parameters of the SPME were evaluated to optimize geosmin extraction. The method permitted quantification of geosmin and other fungal volatiles by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) at very low concentrations. Limits of detection and quantification (L(D) and L(Q)) for geosmin were 4.7 ng L(-1) and 15.6 ng L(-1) respectively. The RSD was 4.1% and the recovery rates ranged from 115% to 134%. Uniquely, haloanisoles were analyzed by using only one internal standard (2,3,6-trichloroanisole) thus avoiding the synthesis of deuterated anisole analogues that are used as internal standard in other methods. The method was used for the analysis of grape juice samples inoculated with B. cinerea and P. expansum. Geosmin and methylisoborneol were the compounds that appeared to contribute most to earthy odours, although other fungal compounds which are claimed to cause earthy or mouldy off-odours were detected (e.g. 1-octen-3-ol and fenchol). PMID:20655340

Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Oliveira, J M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

2010-10-01

86

Preparation of durable graphene-bonded titanium fibers for efficient microextraction of phthalates from aqueous matrices and analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A solid-phase microextraction fiber (SPME) was synthesized for pre-concentration of 15 phthalates from aqueous samples. Graphene oxide was immobilized on Ti wire with titanol groups using a cross-linking agent and subsequently reduced to yield a folded and wrinkled graphene coating. This graphene-Ti fiber demonstrated durable mechanical robustness and enhanced stability for more than 200 extraction cycles due to the Ti substrate and chemical bond. The extraction efficiencies reached highest when the graphene layers were four and their performances were superior to commercial SPME fibers. The prepared fiber was used for pre-concentration of phthalates from aqueous samples by direct immersion extraction and thermal desorption for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method was utilized for the simultaneous analysis of 15 phthalates with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 82.8-97.8% for bottled water and 73.3-102.0% for intravenous drips in plastic packaging. PMID:25454125

Zhang, Bo-Tao; Li, Hai-Fang; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Teng, Yanguo; Liu, Yan; Lin, Jin-Ming

2014-11-28

87

Molecularly imprinted fibers with renewable surface for solid-phase microextraction of triazoles from grape juice samples followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber able to renew its selective binding sites because of the gradual thermal decomposition of the polymeric network. The injector of the chromatograph operates at 300 °C, and during the desorption step of the analytes (in a short period), the polymeric network is degraded from the surface to the core in volatile compounds that do not interfere with the analysis. The renewable MIP fiber was successfully employed to extract triazole fungicides (triadimenol, tebuconazole, and metconazole) from grape juice samples followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The method was adjusted to the quadratic models from 100 to 2000 ?g L(-1), with good precision and accuracy. The limits of quantification (100 ?g L(-1) for all analytes) were sufficient to analyze triadimenol, tebuconazole, and metconazole in grape juice samples, where their maximum residue limits in Brazil are 100, 2000, and 1000 ?g L(-1), respectively. PMID:24317365

Freitas, Lissara Aparecida de Souza; Vieira, André Coutinho; Mendonça, João Antônio Felipe Risolia; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa

2014-02-01

88

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

WU, XIN; LI, YUBO; XU, DAOQING; ZHOU, HONG; WANG, JINLEI; GUO, XUEJUN; ZHANG, YANJUN

2015-01-01

89

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

Wu, Xin; Li, Yubo; Xu, Daoqing; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Jinlei; Guo, Xuejun; Zhang, Yanjun

2015-01-01

90

Acidic metabolite profiling analysis of catecholamine and serotonin as O-ethoxycarbonyl/tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel derivatization method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six acidic metabolites of catecholamine and serotonin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The metabolites were converted to O-ethoxycarbonyl/tert-butyldimethylsilyl (EOC/TBDMS) derivatives for the direct GC-MS analysis in selected ion monitoring mode. Their mass spectral pattern as EOC/TBDMS derivatives showed characteristic fragment ions of [M - 15](+) and [M - 57](+), which permitted rapid and accurate structural confirmation of acidic metabolites. The present method was linear (r ? 0.998), reproducible (percentage relative standard deviation = 1.0-10.0) and accurate (% relative error = -9.7-9.8) with detection limits of 0.001-4.7 ng/mL. When applied to human urine samples, the method allowed simultaneous determination of six acidic metabolites of catecholamine and serotonin. PMID:22777873

Nguyen, Duc-Toan; Cho, In-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Kim, Kyoung-Rae; Lee, Gwang; Paik, Man-Jeong

2013-02-01

91

Differentiation of the volatile profile of microbiologically contaminated canned tomatoes by dynamic headspace extraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aromatic profile of microbiologically contaminated canned tomatoes was analyzed by the dynamic headspace extraction technique coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Canned tomatoes contaminated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus carbonarius were analyzed after 2 and 7 days. About 100 volatiles were detected, among which alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were the most abundant compounds. Gas chromatographic peak areas were

F. Bianchi; M. Careri; A. Mangia; M. Mattarozzi; M. Musci; I. Concina; M. Falasconi; E. Gobbi; M. Pardo; G. Sberveglieri

2009-01-01

92

Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

2012-01-01

93

Rapid differentiation of three Chamaecyparis species (Cupressaceae) grown in Taiwan using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Three Chamaecyparis species (C. formosensis, C. obtusa, and C. obtusa var. formosana) are difficult to distinguish by the naked eye. Therefore, from the chemotaxonomic point of view, it would be valuable to find a simple and rapid method to differentiate these three Chamaecyparis species. In this study, the chemical compositions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from mature leaves were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Then cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted for the BVOC constituents to reveal the differences among these three species. Results from SPME-GC/MS showed that the compositions of BVOCs from the three species were distinctly different. Moreover, these species were clearly differentiated according to the results of CA and PCA. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that SPME-GC/MS coupled with CA and PCA is a feasible and rapid technique to differentiate Chamaecyparis species with similar morphological characteristics. PMID:21913656

Lin, Chun-Ya; Chen, Ying-Ju; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

2011-10-26

94

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM CHARCOAL BADGES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (RTI/ACS-AP-209-112)  

EPA Science Inventory

This protocol provides guidelines for determining volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) in air samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This method is for the analysis of VOCs in air by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). Charcoal badge samplers are ex...

95

Assessment of a new method for the analysis of decomposition gases of polymers by a combining thermogravimetric solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

For analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products of polymers, the common techniques are thermogravimetry, combined with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These methods offer a simple approach to the decomposition mechanism, especially for small decomposition molecules. Complex spectra of gaseous mixtures are very often hard to identify because of overlapping signals. In this paper a new method is described to adsorb the decomposition products during controlled conditions in TGA on solid-phase extraction (SPE) material: twisters. Subsequently the twisters were analysed with thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS), which allows the decomposition products to be separated and identified using an MS library. The thermoplastics polyamide 66 (PA 66) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were used as example polymers. The influence of the sample mass and of the purge gas flow during the decomposition process was investigated in TGA. The advantages and limitations of the method were presented in comparison to the common analysis techniques, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS. PMID:24929909

Duemichen, E; Braun, U; Senz, R; Fabian, G; Sturm, H

2014-08-01

96

Pathway of diethyl phthalate photolysis in sea-water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific isotope analysis.  

PubMed

The degradation mechanism of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in natural seawater under UV irradiation was investigated using a combination of intermediates detection and determination of stable carbon isotopic fractionation. Typical intermediates identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and phthalic anhydride. Stable carbon isotope signature was determined by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry through a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS). A profound (13)C enrichment, with a ?(13)C isotope shift of 12.3±0.3‰ (f=0.09) in residual DEP molecule, was clearly an indicator to its photolysis. The reactive position isotope enrichment factor (?(reactive position)) and apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) were -35.25±2.26‰ and 1.075, respectively, indicating that the initial reaction step was cleavage of a CO bond in DEP photolysis. Based on these observations, a degradation pathway was proposed. First, a CO bond in DEP molecule was broken to form MEP. Then, MEP was further degraded to phthalic anhydride. Our work demonstrates that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), when combined with intermediates analysis, is a reliable measure to deduce the mechanism of DEP photolysis. This approach might be extended as a reference for mechanism investigation in complicated environment systems. PMID:22883110

Peng, Xuewei; Feng, Lijuan; Li, Xianguo

2013-01-01

97

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Components of Agrimonia eupatoria from Leaves and Roots by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Curve Resolution.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution were applied to the differential analysis of the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria specimens from different plant parts. After extracted with water distillation method, the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria from leaves and roots were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in the main root of Agrimonia eupatoria was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. 68 of 87 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components were identified and quantified, accounting for about 87.03% of the total content. Then, the common peaks in leaf were extracted with orthogonal projection resolution method. Among the components determined, there were 52 components coexisting in the studied samples although the relative content of each component showed difference to some extent. The results showed a fair consistency in their GC-MS fingerprint. It was the first time to apply orthogonal projection method to compare different plant parts of Agrimonia eupatoria, and it reduced the burden of qualitative analysis as well as the subjectivity. The obtained results proved the combined approach powerful for the analysis of complex Agrimonia eupatoria samples. The developed method can be used to further study and quality control of Agrimonia eupatoria. PMID:24286016

Feng, Xiao-Liang; He, Yun-Biao; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Lan-Fang; Xie, Jian-Wei

2013-01-01

98

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Components of Agrimonia eupatoria from Leaves and Roots by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Curve Resolution  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution were applied to the differential analysis of the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria specimens from different plant parts. After extracted with water distillation method, the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria from leaves and roots were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in the main root of Agrimonia eupatoria was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. 68 of 87 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components were identified and quantified, accounting for about 87.03% of the total content. Then, the common peaks in leaf were extracted with orthogonal projection resolution method. Among the components determined, there were 52 components coexisting in the studied samples although the relative content of each component showed difference to some extent. The results showed a fair consistency in their GC-MS fingerprint. It was the first time to apply orthogonal projection method to compare different plant parts of Agrimonia eupatoria, and it reduced the burden of qualitative analysis as well as the subjectivity. The obtained results proved the combined approach powerful for the analysis of complex Agrimonia eupatoria samples. The developed method can be used to further study and quality control of Agrimonia eupatoria. PMID:24286016

Feng, Xiao-Liang; He, Yun-biao; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Lan-Fang; Xie, Jian-Wei

2013-01-01

99

A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA*  

PubMed Central

We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models. PMID:25264474

Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

2014-01-01

100

Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. Methods: A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. Results: The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-?-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural ?-bisabolene.

Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

2014-01-01

101

Analysis of alkyl and 2-6-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quality assurance and determination in Spanish river sediments.  

PubMed

An accurate, precise and sensitive method is described for the analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including 19 2-6-ringed PAHs and 10 alkyl-PAHs. The method is based on an isotope dilution technique using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and available labeled PAHs as internal standards. Quality parameters were calculated with satisfactory results and 36 Spanish river sediments were analysed. Results were evaluated regarding to the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on the effects range-low (ERL) and the effects range-median (ERM) values. Most analysed sediments showed a good quality, since only 7 of them exceeded ERL values, including one sample surpassing ERM values. PAH profiles were studied in order to identify PAH sources as mainly petrogenic or pyrogenic. Most samples showed petrogenic-type fingerprints, although 6 of the 11 sediments with the highest PAH concentrations (> 1000 ng/g) were classified as pyrogenic, including 4 of the 7 samples exceeding ERL values. Quality assurance was carried out by the triplicate analysis of one preanalysed river sediment without PAHs subsequently spiked at a medium (500 ng/g) and a low concentration level (10 ng/g) of each analyte. Main quality requirements for methods based on isotope dilution were accomplished. Method accuracy was 80-120% for most PAHs, method precision was <15% for all the analysed compounds and method detection limits (MDLs) were 1-3 ng/g. PMID:16513126

Planas, Carles; Puig, Alejandra; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

2006-04-28

102

Analysis of the volatile organic matter of engine piston deposits by direct sample introduction thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This article establishes an alternative method for the characterization of volatiles organic matter (VOM) contained in deposits of the piston first ring grooves of diesel engines using a ChromatoProbe direct sample introduction (DSI) device coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The addition of an organic solvent during thermal desorption leads to an efficient extraction and a good chromatographic separation of extracted products. The method was optimized investigating the effects of several solvents, the volume added to the solid sample, and temperature programming of the ChromatoProbe DSI device. The best results for thermal desorption were found using toluene as an extraction solvent and heating the programmable temperature injector from room temperature to 300 degrees C with a temperature step of 105 degrees C. With the use of the optimized thermal desorption conditions, several components have been positively identified in the volatile fraction of the deposits: aromatics, antioxidants, and antioxidant degradation products. Moreover, this work highlighted the presence of diesel fuel in the VOM of the piston deposits and gave new facts on the absence of the role of diesel fuel in the deposit formation process. Most importantly, it opens the possibility of quickly performing the analysis of deposits with small amounts of samples while having a good separation of the volatiles. PMID:19894696

Diaby, M; Kinani, S; Genty, C; Bouchonnet, S; Sablier, M; Le Negrate, A; El Fassi, M

2009-12-01

103

Development of a method for analysis of Iranian damask rose oil: combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with Chemometric techniques.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with Chemometric resolution techniques were proposed as a method for the analysis of volatile components of Iranian damask rose oil. The essential oil of damask rose was extracted using hydrodistillation method and analyzed with GC-MS in optimized conditions. A total of 70 components were identified using similarity searches between mass spectra and MS database. This number was extended to 95 components with concentrations higher than 0.01% accounting for 94.75% of the total relative content using Chemometric techniques. For the first time in this work, an approach based upon subspace comparison is used for determination of the chemical rank of GC-MS data. The peak clusters were resolved using heuristic evolving latent projection (HELP) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS) by applying proper constraints, and the combination of both methods for some cases. It is concluded that a thorough analysis of the complex mixtures such as Iranian damask rose requires sophisticated GC-MS coupled with the Chemometric techniques. PMID:18611452

Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Parastar, Hadi; Sereshti, Hassan

2008-08-01

104

Recent applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to residue analysis of antimicrobials in food of animal origin.  

PubMed

Residual antimicrobials in food constitute a risk to human health. Although epidemiological data on the real magnitude of their adverse effects are very scarce, they indicate that food could be an important vehicle for evolution and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Public health agencies in many countries rely on detection by mass spectrometry (MS) for unambiguous identification of residues of antimicrobial agents in animal food products for human consumption. The introduction of relatively inexpensive and robust liquid chromatography (LC)-MS systems has given a strong impulse to the development of confirmatory methods for the above medicines in foodstuffs. The initial part of this review, after a brief introduction into the field of antimicrobials, is dedicated to the most important EU regulations and directives for control of residues of these substances in animal products. The main attention in this review is on the sample-treatment and MS detection systems in use today for analysing the most important classes of antimicrobials in various biological matrices (milk, animal tissues, eggs, and honey). As evidenced by this review, reversed-phase LC combined with tandem MS, usually triple-quadrupole MS (QqQMS), is currently the preferred technique in most residue analysis of a single-class of antimicrobials. A recently emerging analytical strategy is that of developing methods for detecting a large variety of veterinary drugs belonging to different classes, including pesticides (multi-class residue analysis). To do this, simple and generic extraction and separation techniques applicable to a broad range of compounds differing in physical and chemical properties have been adopted. Such methods are still based mainly on LC-QqQMS. Emerging alternative MS detection systems are time-of-flight MS, which provides accurate mass of the analyte(s), or Q-linear ion trap (IT) MS that eliminates some limitations of ITMS(n). PMID:19609510

Bogialli, Sara; Di Corcia, Antonio

2009-10-01

105

Development of a screening method for the analysis of organic pollutants in water using dual stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The development of a method for screening of organic compounds with a wide range of physico-chemical properties in water, based on dual stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (dual SBSE-TD-GC-MS) is described. The investigated water sample is divided into two aliquots and extracted with stir bar sorptive extraction at two different conditions: using addition of methanol or sodium chloride, respectively. Following extraction, the two stir bars are inserted into the same glass thermal desorption liner and are simultaneously desorbed and analysed by GC-MS. The method optimisation was performed using 45 environmentally harmful substances with different volatilities (boiling point from 193 to 495°C), polarity (logK(ow) from 2.17 to 8.54) and acido-basic properties. The majority of model compounds was selected from the EU list of priority substances in the field of water policy and from the US EPA method 625, respectively. Optimisation was performed for extraction parameters (sample volume, extraction time, stirring rate, addition of modifiers) as well as for the thermal desorption conditions (desorption flow, desorption time, cryofocusing temperature). Performance characteristics (recovery, repeatability, carryover, linearity, limits of detection and quantification) were determined for the optimised method. An example of analysis of a contaminated groundwater sample is presented. PMID:22099662

Tölgyessy, Peter; Vrana, Branislav; Krascsenits, Zoltán

2011-12-15

106

Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in environmental water.  

PubMed

The continuous contamination of surface waters by pharmaceuticals is of most environmental concern. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs currently prescribed for the treatment of depressions and other psychiatric disorders and then, they are among the pharmaceuticals that can occur in environmental waters. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied to the extraction of five SSRIs--venlafaxine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram and sertraline--from water samples. Some of the analytes were not efficiently extracted as underivatized compounds and so, an in situ acetylation step was introduced in the sample preparation procedure. Different parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as extraction mode, fiber coating and temperature were studied. A mixed-level fractional factorial design was also performed to simultaneously study the influence of other five experimental factors. Finally, a method based on direct SPME at 100 degrees C using polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fibers is proposed. The performance of the method was evaluated, showing good linearity and precision. The detection limits were in the sub-ng/mL level. Practical applicability was demonstrated through the analysis of real samples. Recoveries obtained for river water and wastewater samples were satisfactory in all cases. An important aspect of the proposed method is that no matrix effects were observed. Two of the target compounds, venlafaxine and citalopram, were detected and quantified in a sewage water sample. PMID:15387194

Lamas, J Pablo; Salgado-Petinal, Carmen; García-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, María; Cela, Rafael; Gómez, Mariano

2004-08-13

107

Analysis of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV filters in soils and sediments by simultaneous extraction cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of UV filters in soil and sediment has been developed and validated considering benzophenones (BP) and salicylates as target analytes. Soil and sediment samples were extracted with ethyl acetate-methanol (90:10, v/v) assisted with sonication, performing a simultaneous clean-up step. Quantification of these compounds was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization of the extracts with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Recoveries from spiked soil samples ranged from 89.8% to 104.4% and they were between 88.4% and 105.3% for spiked sediment samples. The effect of the residence time and soil moisture content on the recovery of these compounds was also studied. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in all cases below 6.1% and the limits of detection (S/N=3) varied from 0.07 to 0.10 ng g(-1) and from 0.11 to 0.28 ng g(-1) for soils and sediments, respectively. The validated method was applied to the analysis of five benzophenone and two salicylate UV filters in soil and sediment samples collected in different areas of Spain. PMID:21636087

Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Ester; Albero, Beatriz; Tadeo, José L

2011-07-15

108

Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

PubMed

Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were ?-pinene, ?-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

2015-01-01

109

Quantitation of total homocysteine in human plasma by derivatization to its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Much evidence supports the hypothesis that mild or moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an important and independent risk factor for occlusive vascular diseases. Therefore, the accurate and reliable determination of total plasma homocysteine has gained major importance for risk assessment. Furthermore, it can help in the detection of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. This has prompted us to develop a sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method in order to quantify total homocysteine in human plasma. Prior to chromatography, reduced homocysteine was released from disulfide bonds by incubation with excess dithiothreitol and converted into its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester by derivatization with n-propyl chloroformate. Aminoethylcysteine served as internal standard. The method proved to be highly linear over the entire concentration range examined (corresponding to 0-266 microM homocysteine) and showed intra-assay and inter-assay variation (relative standard deviations) of approximately 5 and 5-10%, respectively. External quality control by comparison with duplicate analysis performed on a HPLC-based system revealed satisfactory correlation. The newly developed GC-MS based method provides simple, reliable and fast quantification of total homocysteine and requires only inexpensive chemicals, which are easy to obtain. PMID:9291598

Sass, J O; Endres, W

1997-08-01

110

Study of solvent sublation for concentration of trace phthalate esters in plastic beverage packaging and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel trace analytical method based on solvent sublation (SS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the trace determination of twenty-two phthalate esters (PAEs) from plastic beverage packaging. In the solvent sublation section, the effects of solution pH, NaCl concentration, nitrogen flow rate, and sublation time on the sublation efficiency were investigated in detail, and the optimal conditions were obtained. The trace PAEs migrated from plastic beverage packaging to food simulants were separated and concentrated by solvent sublation, and then the trace target compounds in the concentrated solution were analyzed by GC-MS. According to the European Union Regulation, the food simulants including distilled water for the normal beverages and acetic acid solution (3%) for the acetic beverage of yogurt were prepared for migration tests. The trace analysis method showed good linearity, low limits of detection (LODs) of 1.6-183.5ng/L, and satisfied recoveries (67.3-113.7%). PMID:25660867

Chang, Lin; Bi, Pengyu; Li, Xiaochen; Wei, Yun

2015-06-15

111

The mechanism of adenosine to inosine conversion by the double-stranded RNA unwinding/modifying activity: A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used directly combined high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to examine the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by the double-stranded RNA unwinding/modifying activity. A double-stranded RNA substrate in which all adenosines were uniformly labeled with {sup 13}C was synthesized. An LC/MS analysis of the nucleoside products from the modified, labeled substrate confirmed that adenosine is modified to inosine during the unwinding/modifying reaction. Most importantly, they found that no carbons are exchanged during the reaction. By including H{sub 2} {sup 18}O in the reaction, they showed that water serves efficiently as the oxygen donor in vitro. These results are consistent with a hydrolytic deamination mechanism and rule out a base replacement mechanism. Although the double-stranded RNA unwinding/modifying activity appears to utilize a catalytic mechanism similar to that of adenosine deaminase, coformycin, a transition-state analogue, will not inhibit the unwinding/modifying activity.

Polson, A.G.; Crain, P.F.; Pomerantz, S.C.; McCloskey, J.A.; Bass, B.L. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1991-12-10

112

Supported liquid membrane-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of cyanobacterial toxins in fresh water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming of great concern to water resources worldwide due to indiscriminate waste disposal habits resulting in water pollution and eutrophication. When cyanobacterial cells lyse (burst) they release toxins called microcystins (MCs) that are well known for their hepatotoxicity (causing liver damage) and have been found in eutrophic lakes, rivers, wastewater ponds and other water reservoirs. Prolonged exposure to low concentrated MCs are equally of health importance as they are known to be bioaccumulative and even at such low concentration do exhibit toxic effects to aquatic animals, wildlife and human liver cells. The application of common treatment processes for drinking water sourced from HABs infested reservoirs have the potential to cause algal cell lyses releasing low to higher amounts of MCs in finished water. Trace microcystins in water/tissue can be analyzed and quantified using Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) following solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up procedures. However, extracting MCs from algal samples which are rich in chlorophyll pigments and other organic matrices the SPE method suffers a number of drawbacks, including cartridge clogging, long procedural steps and use of larger volumes of extraction solvents. We applied a supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique as an alternative sample clean-up method for LC-ESI-MS analysis of MCs from both water and algal cells. Four (4) MC variants (MC-RR, -YR, -LR and -WR) from lyophilized cells of Microcystis aeruginosa and water collected from a wastewater pond were identified) and quantified using LC-ESI-MS following a SLM extraction and liquid partitioning step, however, MC-WR was not detected from water extracts. Within 45 min of SLM extraction all studied MCs were extracted and pre-concentrated in approximately 15 ?L of an acceptor phase at an optimal pH 2.02 of the donor phase (sample). The highest total quantifiable intracellular and extracellular MCs were 37.039 ± 0.087 ?g/g DW and 5.123 ± 0.018 ?g/L, respectively. The concentrations of MC-RR were the highest from all samples studied recording maximum values of 21.579 ± 0.066 ?g/g DW and 3.199 ± 0.012 ?g/L for intracellular and extracellular quantities, respectively.

Mbukwa, Elbert A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

113

Identification of polychlorinated styrene compounds in heron tissues by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unknown compounds detected in Ardea herodias tissues are identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as residues of octachlorostyrene. Heptachlorostyrene and hexachlorostyrene were tentatively identified.

Reichel, W.L.; Prouty, R.M.; Gay, M.L.

1977-01-01

114

Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry: a review of recent technologies and applications in forensic and environmental explosives analysis.  

PubMed

The development and application of ion chromatography (IC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed herein for the quantitative determination of low-order explosives-related ionic species in environmental and forensic sample types. Issues relating to environmental explosives contamination and the need for more confirmatory IC-MS based applications in forensic science are examined. In particular, the compatibility of a range of IC separation modes with MS detection is summarised along with the analytical challenges that have been overcome to facilitate determinations at the ng-?g L(-1) level. Observed trends in coupling IC to inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry form a particular focus. This review also includes a discussion of the relative performance of reported IC-MS methods in comparison to orthogonal ion separation-based, spectrometric and spectroscopic approaches to confirmatory detection of low-order explosives. Finally, some promising areas for future research are highlighted and discussed with respect to potential IC-MS applications. PMID:24331039

Barron, Leon; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

115

Evaluation of the QuEChERS Method and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment  

PubMed Central

A method for the determination of pesticide residues in water and sediment was developed using the QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits. The recovery percentages obtained for the pesticides in water at different concentrations ranged from 63 to 116%, with relative standard deviations below 12%. The corresponding results from the sediment ranged from 48 to 115% with relative standard deviations below 16%. The limits of detection for the pesticides in water and sediment were below 0.003 mg L?1 and 0.02 mg kg?1, respectively. PMID:21165598

de Macedo, A. N.; Vicente, G. H. L.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

2010-01-01

116

Performance and Attributes of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Targeted Charge Separation in Quantitative Analysis of Therapeutic Peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we describe a new method, targeted enhanced multiply charged scans (tEMC), for the quantification of therapeutic peptides in tandem mass spectrometry on the linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Therapeutic peptides with chain lengths between eight and 39 amino acid residues and charge states from 2+ to 6+ were used to evaluate and illustrate the method which relies on the ability to separate ions trapped in a linear ion trap according to their charges. In particular, interference from singly charged ions on multiply charged ions can be effectively minimized. The method requires optimization of relatively few parameters, the most important of which being the exit lens barrier (EXB) voltage, thereby offering substantial time saving in a high-throughput quantification environment that currently relies on selected reaction monitoring.

Hao, Changtong; Campbell, J. Larry; Verkerk, Udo H.; Le Blanc, J. C. Yves; Siu, K. W. Michael

2011-01-01

117

Serum fatty acid profiles and potential biomarkers of ankylosing spondylitis determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis.  

PubMed

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Early and accurate detection is essential for effective disease treatment. Recently, research has focused on genomics and proteomics. However, the associated metabolic variations, especially fatty acid profiles, have been poorly discussed. In this study, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to investigate the metabolic profiles of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and esterified fatty acids (EFAs) in AS patients. The results showed that significant differences in most of the FFA (C12:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:3, C20:4, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6) and EFA (C12:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:4 and C22:6) concentrations were found between the AS patients and healthy controls (p?analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were performed to classify the AS patients and controls. Additionally, FFAs C20:4, C12:0, C18:3 and EFAs C22:6, C12:0 were confirmed as potential biomarkers to identify AS patients and healthy controls. The present study highlights that differences in the serum FFA and EFA profiles of AS patients reflect the metabolic disorder. Moreover, FFA and EFA biomarkers appear to have clinical applications for the screening and diagnosis of AS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25223299

Chen, Rui; Han, Su; Dong, Daming; Wang, Yansong; Liu, Qingpeng; Xie, Wei; Li, Mi; Yao, Meng

2014-09-15

118

Methods of Analysis - Determination of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Water and Sediment Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 14 pyrethroid insecticides in environmental water and sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in response to increasing concern over the effects of pyrethroids on aquatic organisms. The pyrethroids included in this method are ones that are applied to many agricultural and urban areas. Filtered water samples are extracted for pyrethroids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a microwave-assisted extraction system, and the pyrethroids of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences by passing the extracts through stacked graphitized carbon and alumina SPE cartridges, along with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography (HPLC/GPC). Quantification of the pyrethroids from the extracted water and sediment samples is done using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 10 ng/L ranged from 83 to 107 percent, and recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 ug/kg ranged from 82 to 101 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 9 percent in the water samples and 3 to 9 percent in the sediment samples. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), in water ranged from 2.0 to 6.0 ng/L using GC/MS and 0.5 to 1.0 ng/L using GC/MS/MS. For sediment, the MDLs ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS and 0.2 to 0.5 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS/MS. The matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged for 12 environmental water samples, ranged from 84 to 96 percent, and when averaged for 27 environmental sediment samples, ranged from 88 to 100 percent.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

2009-01-01

119

An alternative derivatization method for the analysis of amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The determination of the concentrations of l-amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been used to gain biochemical insight into central nervous system disorders. This paper describes a microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) method using N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) as a derivatizing agent for determining the concentrations of l-amino acids in human CSF by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental design used to optimize the conditions showed that the optimal derivatization time was 3min with a microwave power of 210W. The method showed good performance for the validation parameters. The sensitivity was very good, with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.01?molL(-1) to 4.24?molL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) ranging from 0.02 to 7.07?molL(-1). The precision, measured using the relative standard deviation (RSD), ranged from 4.12 to 15.59% for intra-day analyses and from 6.36 to 18.71% for inter-day analyses. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were above 0.990 for all amino acids. The optimized and validated method was applied to the determination of amino acid concentrations in human CSF. PMID:23770739

de Paiva, Maria José Nunes; Menezes, Helvécio Costa; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes

2013-07-15

120

Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.  

PubMed

A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD?0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD?0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). PMID:24548435

Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

2014-03-14

121

Automated and sensitive analysis of 28-epihomobrassinolide in Arabidopsis thaliana by on-line polymer monolith microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

By on-line solid phase microextraction with polymer monolith coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS), an automated and sensitive method for analysis of the endogenous 28-epihomobrassinolide (28-epihomoBR) in Arabidopsis thaliana was developed in this work. Firstly, a poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(MAA-co-EDMA)) monolith was prepared in the capillary and applied in in-tube SPME. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as porogen to adjust the specific surface area and hydrophobicity of the target monolith to get satisfactory permeability, high mechanical strength and good stability. The optimized monolith was then served as extraction medium for analysis of the derivatized 28-epihomoBR in plant samples with the cleanup of matrix and enrichment of desired analyte at the same time. Good linearity was obtained in the linear range of 5-500 ng/L with the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.9996. The limit of detection (S/N=3) of 28-epihomoBR was found to be 2.0 ng/L and the limit of quantification (S/N=10) was 5.0 ng/L. Using this method, the endogenous 0.101 ng/g (FW) 28-epihomoBR was successfully detected from only 400mg A. thaliana samples with satisfactory recovery (80.3-92.1%) and reproducibility (RSD 6.8-9.6%). Comparing with other sample pretreatment methods, this automated on-line SPME-LC-MS method is rapid, sensitive, reproducible and laborsaving. PMID:23915641

Wang, Xin; Ma, Qiao; Li, Min; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Feng, Yuqi; Liu, Huwei

2013-11-22

122

High sensitivity quantitative lipidomics analysis of fatty acids in biological samples by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically considered to be simple membrane components serving as structural elements and energy storing entities, fatty acids are now increasingly recognized as potent signaling molecules involved in many metabolic processes. Quantitative determination of fatty acids and exploration of fatty acid profiles have become common place in lipid analysis. We present here a reliable and sensitive method for comprehensive analysis of

Oswald Quehenberger; Aaron M. Armando; Edward A. Dennis

2011-01-01

123

Estimation of brassylic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this work is to estimate Brassylic Acid (BA) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BA is a product obtained from the oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). BA has various applications for making nylons and high performance polymers. BA is a 13 carbon compound with two carboxylic acid functional groups at the terminal end. BA has a long hydrocarbon chain that makes the molecule less sensitive to some of the characterization techniques. Although BA can be characterized by NMR, both the starting material (EA) and products BA and nonanoic acid (NA) have peaks at similar {delta}, ppm values. Hence it becomes difficult for the quick estimation of BA during its synthesis.

Mohammed J. Nasrullah, Erica N. Pfarr, Pooja Thapliyal, Nicholas S. Dusek, Kristofer L. Schiele, Christy Gallagher-Lein, and James A. Bahr

2010-10-29

124

EVALUATION OF PARTICLE BEAM LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLAR SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the initial evaluation of a particle beam liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer for the analysis of polar semivolatile organic compounds in air samples. This study was concentrated on examining and optimizing instrumental operating parameters, evaluating th...

125

Beta2-adrenergic agonist residues: simultaneous methyl- and butylboronic derivatization for confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A derivatization procedure for confirmatory residue analysis of beta2-agonists is described. Methyl (MBA) and butyl (BBA) boronic acids are simultaneously used for the derivatization of tulobuterol, mabuterol, mapenterol, salbutamol, clenproperol, clenbuterol, clenpenterol and bromobuterol by GC-MS determination. A temperature of 55 degrees C during 60 min was selected as optimal temperature-time condition for simultaneous MBA and BBA beta2-agonists derivatization. It was also observed that stability of boronic derivatives was maintained at -20 degrees C over a period of four days. The proposed methodology was tested in urine and it could be applied for confirmatory residue analysis of clenbuterol-like compounds. PMID:9824253

Ramos, F; Santos, C; Silva, A; da Silveira, M I

1998-09-25

126

Recombinant factor C (rFC) assay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of endotoxin variability in four agricultural dusts.  

PubMed

Endotoxin exposure is a significant concern in agricultural environments due to relatively high exposure levels. The goals of this study were to determine patterns of 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) distribution in dusts from four types of agricultural environments (dairy, cattle feedlot, grain elevator, and corn farm) and to evaluate correlations between the results of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis (total endotoxin) and biological recombinant factor C (rFC) assay (free bioactive endotoxin). An existing GC/MS-MS method (for house dust) was modified to reduce sample handling and optimized for small amount (<1 mg) of agricultural dusts using GC/EI-MS. A total of 134 breathing zone samples using Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable samplers were collected from agricultural workers in Colorado and Nebraska. Livestock dusts contained approximately two times higher concentrations of 3-OHFAs than grain dusts. Patterns of 3-OHFA distribution and proportion of each individual 3-OHFA varied by dust type. The rank order of Pearson correlations between the biological rFC assay and the modified GC/EI-MS results was feedlot (0.72) > dairy (0.53) > corn farm (0.33) > grain elevator (0.11). In livestock environments, both odd- and even-numbered carbon chain length 3-OHFAs correlated with rFC assay response. The GC/EI-MS method should be especially useful for identification of specific 3-OHFAs for endotoxins from various agricultural environments and may provide useful information for evaluating the relationship between bacterial exposure and respiratory disease among agricultural workers. PMID:19638393

Saito, Rena; Cranmer, Brian K; Tessari, John D; Larsson, Lennart; Mehaffy, John M; Keefe, Thomas J; Reynolds, Stephen J

2009-10-01

127

A validated method for the analysis of cannabinoids in post-mortem blood using liquid-liquid extraction and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A validated method for the identification and quantification of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), 11-hydroxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in post-mortem blood specimens is described. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the cannabinoids from 1 mL of post-mortem blood. The extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The final derivatized extracts were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was 0.25 ng/mL for all analytes and the limit of quantification of the assay was 0.25 ng/mL for THC, CBN, 11-OH-THC and 0.5 ng/mL for CBD and THC-COOH. The assay was linear across the concentration range 0.25-50 ng/mL (determined with a low and a high calibration range) with correlation coefficients ?0.992 for all analytes. Inter-day and intra-day accuracy was within ±15% of the target concentration for all analytes. The co-efficients of variation (%CV) for inter-day and intra-day precision were ?12% for all analytes. The extraction efficiency was >73% for all analytes. The method has successfully been applied to 54 post-mortem blood specimens to date. To the authors knowledge this is the first validated 2D GC-MS method for the analysis of THC, CBD, CBN, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH following LLE and its application to post-mortem specimens. PMID:22717553

Andrews, Rebecca; Paterson, Sue

2012-10-10

128

ANALYSIS OF SEVEN CAPSAICINOIDS IN PEPPERS AND PEPPER-CONTAINING FOODS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diverse procedures have been reported for the separation and analysis of secondary metabolites called capsaicinoids, pungent compounds in the fruit of various species of the Capsicum (Solanaceae) plant. To further improve the usefulness of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid-ch...

129

Simultaneous analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes by using a derivatisation step and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a new method to analyse simultaneously by GC–MS 31 pesticides from different chemical classes (2,4 D, 2,4 MCPA, alphacypermethrin, bifenthrin, bromoxynil, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, clopyralid, cyprodinil, deltamethrin dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, diflufenican, diuron, fenoxaprop, flazasulfuron, fluroxypyr, ioxynil, isoxaben, mecoprop-P, myclobutanil, oryzalin, oxadiazon, picloram, tau-fluvalinate tebuconazole, triclopyr, trifluralin and trinexapac-p-ethyl). This GC–MS method will be applied to the analysis

Caroline Raeppel; Marie Nief; Marie Fabritius; Lucie Racault; Brice M. Appenzeller; Maurice Millet

2011-01-01

130

Headspace analysis of volatile metabolites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related species by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of headspace volatiles was performed on cultures of 11 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 1 strain each of Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas maltophilia. All strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a distinctive series of odd-carbon methyl ketones, particularly 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, and 2-aminoacetophenone. The other strains failed to produce 2-aminoacetophenone. Two sulfur compounds, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide, were present in strains of P. aeruginosa and in variable amounts in other species. Butanol, 2-butanone, 1-undecene, and isopentanol were also detected in P. aeruginosa cultures. PMID:6775012

Labows, J N; McGinley, K J; Webster, G F; Leyden, J J

1980-01-01

131

Improved high sensitivity analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the value of a high resolution, high mass accuracy time-of-flight analyzer in combination with nanoliquid chromatography for the analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites. The goal was to create a method that utilizes small volumes of biological fluids and provides a significant improvement in sensitivity compared with existing methods. Accordingly, nanoLC-MS and nanoLC-pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods were developed that had a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 nM for several polyphenols and were linear over 2-3 orders of magnitude (R(2)>0.999). Using urine samples, the ability to observe and quantify polyphenols in such a complex biological fluid depended on much narrower mass windows (0.050 amu or less) on a TOF analyzer than those used on a quadrupole analyzer (0.7 amu). Although a greater selectivity was possible with the low mass resolution of a triple quadrupole instrument using the MRM approach, for the daidzein metabolite O-DMA, a chromatographically resolvable second peak could only be substantially reduced by using a 0.01 amu mass window. The advantage of a TOF analyzer for product ion data is that the whole MSMS spectrum is collected at high mass accuracy and MRM experiments are conducted in silico after the analysis. PMID:24967696

Wilson, Landon; Arabshahi, Ali; Simons, Brigitte; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen

2014-10-01

132

Simultaneous analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes by using a derivatisation step and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work presents a new method to analyse simultaneously by GC-MS 31 pesticides from different chemical classes (2,4 D, 2,4 MCPA, alphacypermethrin, bifenthrin, bromoxynil, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, clopyralid, cyprodinil, deltamethrin dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, diflufenican, diuron, fenoxaprop, flazasulfuron, fluroxypyr, ioxynil, isoxaben, mecoprop-P, myclobutanil, oryzalin, oxadiazon, picloram, tau-fluvalinate tebuconazole, triclopyr, trifluralin and trinexapac-p-ethyl). This GC-MS method will be applied to the analysis of passive samplers (Tenax(®) tubes and SPME fiber) used for the evaluation of the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by non-agricultural pesticides. The method involves a derivatisation step for thermo-labile or polar pesticides. Different agents were tested and MtBSTFA (N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide), a sylilation agent producing very specific fragments [M-57], was retained. However, diuron could not be derivatised and the isocyanate product was used for identification and quantification. Pesticides which did not need a derivatisation step were not affected by the presence of the derivatisation agent and they could easily be analysed in mixture with derivatised pesticides. The method can be coupled to a thermal-desorption unit or to SPME extraction for a multiresidue analysis of various pesticides in atmospheric samples. PMID:21962330

Raeppel, Caroline; Nief, Marie; Fabritius, Marie; Racault, Lucie; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

2011-11-01

133

Predication of Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) ranking by volatile profiling using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

The sensory quality ranking of Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) was evaluated and predicted using volatile profiling and multivariate data analyses. The volatile constituents were extracted from tea infusion using vacuum hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC/MS. A quality of green tea could be discriminated to a high or low grade regarding the volatile profile by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). A quality ranking predictive model was developed from the relationship between subjective attributes (sensory quality ranking) and objective attributes (volatile profile) using partial least squares projections to latent structures together with the preprocessing filtering technique, orthogonal signal correction (OSC). Several volatile compounds highly contributed to model prediction were identified as various odor-active compounds, including geraniol, indole, linalool, cis-jasmone, dihydroactinidiolide, 6-chloroindole, methyl jasmonate, coumarin, trans-geranylacetone, linalool oxides, 5,6-epoxy-?-ionone, phytol, and phenylethyl alcohol. The whole fingerprints of these volatile compounds could be possible markers for the overall quality evaluation of green tea beverage. PMID:21664180

Jumtee, Kanokwan; Komura, Hajime; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

2011-09-01

134

Formation of dehydroalanine from mimosine and cysteine: artifacts in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Trimethylsilyation is a chemical derivatization procedure routinely applied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics. In this report, through de novo structural elucidation and comparison with authentic standards, we demonstrate that mimosine can be completely converted into dehydroalanine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine during the trimethylsilyating process. Similarly, dehydroalanine can be formed from derivatization of cysteine. This conversion is a potential interference in GC-MS-based global metabolomics, as well as in analysis of amino acids.

Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O.; Hu, Zeping; Wiedner, Susan D.; Kim, Jong Seo; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.; Zhang, Qibin

2011-08-15

135

Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

Choi, Y.; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

1994-01-01

136

Development and application of a method for analysis of phthalates in ham sausages by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay was developed and successfully applied for the determination of phthalates in ham sausage migrated from packaging film. The phthalates studied were dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), with dibutyl adipate (DBA) as internal standard. The sample pre-treatments included extraction with n-hexane, solvent evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile before and after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extraction and cleaning up procedure was carried out with cartridges containing dimethyl butylamine groups, which showed extraction efficiencies over 87.3%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The method proved to be accurate and precise for the six phthalates used. It was successfully applied to a study on the migration of phthalates from packaging PVC film into ham sausage. PMID:20374814

Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui; Wei, Danyi; Wang, Meili; Zhang, Huina; Gai, Panpan; Duan, Jing

2010-03-01

137

Fast analysis of principal volatile compounds in crude and processed Atractylodes macrocephala by an automated static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Objective: Atractylodes macrocephala, a famous herbal medicine, is used extensively in the practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Processing procedure is a common approach that usually occurs before A. macrocephala is prescribed. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of principal volatile compounds in crude and processed A. macrocephala. Materials and Methods: The present study concentrated on the development of a static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC/MS) for separating and identifying of volatile compounds from crude and processed A. macrocephala samples. Results: The results showed that the volatile oil in crude and processed A. macrocephala was markedly quantitatively and qualitatively different. Processing resulted in the reduction of volatile oil contents and variation of chemical compositions in A. macrocephala. Conclusion: The proposed method proved that SHS-GC/MS is rapid and specific, and should also be useful for evaluating the quality of crude and processed medicinal herbs. PMID:25210311

Zhang, Jida; Cao, Gang; Xia, Yunhua; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

2014-01-01

138

Dielectric barrier discharge ionization for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An atmospheric pressure microplasma ionization source based on a dielectric barrier discharge with a helium plasma cone outside the electrode region has been developed for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). For this purpose, the plasma was realized in a commercial atmospheric pressure ionization source. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) was compared to conventional electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in the positive ionization mode. Therefore, a heterogeneous compound library was investigated that covered polar compounds such as amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, and nonpolar compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and functionalized hydrocarbons. It turned out that DBDI can be regarded as a soft ionization technique characterized by only minor fragmentation similar to APCI. Mainly protonated molecules were detected. Additionally, molecular ions were observed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives thereof. During DBDI, adduct formation with acetonitrile occurred. For aromatic compounds, addition of one to four oxygen atoms and to a smaller extend one nitrogen and oxygen was observed which delivered insight into the complexity of the ionization processes. In general, compounds covering a wider range of polarities can be ionized by DBDI than by ESI. Furthermore, limits of detection compared to APCI are in most cases equal or even better. PMID:19911793

Hayen, Heiko; Michels, Antje; Franzke, Joachim

2009-12-15

139

Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD???10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24924921

Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

2015-01-01

140

Study of the microbiodegradation of terpenoid resin-based varnishes from easel painting using pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alterations produced by microbiological attack on terpenoid resin-based varnishes from panel and canvas paintings have\\u000a been evaluated using pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py–GC–MS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS).\\u000a The proposed methods include the on-line derivatisation of drying oils and diterpenoid resins using hexamethyldisilazane during\\u000a pyrolysis and the application of methyl chloroformate as a derivatisation reagent for triterpenoid resins in GC–MS.

María Teresa Doménech-Carbó; Laura Osete-Cortina; Juana de la Cruz Cañizares; Fernando Bolívar-Galiano; Julio Romero-Noguera; María Antonia Fernández-Vivas; Inés Martín-Sánchez

2006-01-01

141

CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANICS IN TANNERY EFFLUENTS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Combined high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using a moving belt interface has been used to study extracts from five tannery and leather finishing industry discharges. Liquid chromatographic separation was performed with a Zorbax CN column using a normal phas...

142

Identification of polychlorinated styrene compounds in heron tissues by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Unknown compounds detected in Ardea herodias tissues are identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as residues of octachlorostyrene. Heptachlorostyrene and hexachlorostyrene were tentatively identified. PMID:833106

Reichel, W L; Prouty, R M; Gay, M L

1977-01-01

143

Statistical Assessment of Time and Mass Alignment Quality in Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

This research evaluated the efficacy of an alignment quality algorithm and follows its development. Proteomics research frequently involves liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods for data collection. To correct for systematic errors...

Velando, Isaac

2011-01-11

144

Nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and on-the-fly orthogonal array optimization for quantification of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and the application in preclinical analysis.  

PubMed

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) constitute a group of highly effective agents for treating various refractory diseases. Nonetheless it is challenging to achieve selective and accurate quantification of mAb in pharmaceutical matrices, which is required by PK studies. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry under selected reaction monitoring mode (LC/SRM-MS) is emerging as an attractive alternative to immunoassays because of the high specificity and multiplexing capacity it provides, but may fall short in terms of sensitivity, reliability and quantitative accuracy. Moreover, the strategy for optimization of the MS conditions for many candidates of signature peptides (SP) and the selection of the optimal SP for quantification remains elusive. In this study, we employed a suite of technical advances to overcome these difficulties, which include: (i) a nano-LC/SRM-MS approach to achieve high analytical sensitivity, (ii) a high-resolution nano-LC/LTQ/Orbitrap for confident identification of candidate peptides, (iii) an on-the-fly orthogonal array optimization (OAO) method for the high-throughput, accurate and reproducible optimization for numerous candidate peptides in a single LC/MS run without using synthesized peptides, (iv) a comprehensive evaluation of stability of candidates in matrix using the optimized SRM parameters, (v) the use of two unique SP for quantification of one mAb to gauge possible degradation/modification in biological system and thus enhancing data reliability (e.g. rejection of data if the deviation between the two SP is greater than 25%) and (vi) the utilization of purified target protein as the calibrator to eliminate the risk of severe negative biases that could occur when a synthesized peptide is used as calibrator. To show a proof of concept, this strategy is applied in the quantification of cT84.66, a chimeric, anti-CEA antibody, in preclinical mouse models. A low detection limit of the mAb down to 3.2 ng/mL was achieved, which is substantially more sensitive than established immunoassay methods for anti-CEA antibodies. The quantitative method showed good linearity (within the range of 12.9 ng/mL to 32.3 ?g/mL in plasma), accuracy and precision. Additionally, the ultra-low sample consumption (2 ?L plasma per preparation) permits the acquisition of an entire set of time course data from the same mouse, which represents a prominent advantage for PK study using small-animal models. The developed method enabled an accurate PK investigation of cT84.66 in mice following intravenous and subcutaneous administrations at relatively low doses over an extended period of time. The strategy employed in this study can be easily adapted to the sensitive and accurate analysis of other mAb and therapeutic proteins. PMID:22770385

Duan, Xiaotao; Dai, Lipeng; Chen, Shang-Chiung; Balthasar, Joseph P; Qu, Jun

2012-08-17

145

[Applications of multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device for analysis of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device has been designed and made for the silylation derivatization of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl )-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) with 1% catalyst tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (TBDMCS) at a high temperature. The tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives then could be automatically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using the pressure-assisted device, the silylation reaction may occur at a temperature higher than the boiling points of the reagents, and several micro-volume samples can be simultaneously pretreated in the same device to shorten the sample-preparation time and to improve the repeatability. The derivatization conditions including the headspace volume of the vial, the evaporative surface area of the reagent, derivatization temperature and time have been discussed for the use of the pressure-assisted device. The experimental results proved that the device is an effective way for the simultaneous derivatization of several micro-volume samples at a high temperature. Compared with a common device, the derivative amounts were obviously increased when using the pressure-assisted device at 90 degrees C. Quantitative derivatization can be achieved even at 150 degrees C while there was no common device could be applied at such a high temperature due to the heavy losses of reagents by evaporation. However, no obviously higher reaction speed has been observed in such a circumstance with a higher temperature and a higher pressure using the pressure-assisted device. PMID:23667982

Wang, Yiru; Chen, Fangxiang; Shi, Yamei; Tan, Connieal; Chen, Xi

2013-01-01

146

Accurate analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs homologs in crude oil for improving the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performance.  

PubMed

The common gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) approaches such as selective ion monitoring (SIM) or single ion extraction (SIE) from full scan data produce the error (over- or underestimation) estimates for the high level alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to rectify the error, the alkylated PAHs in the crude oil samples are quantified by deeply investigating the existing full scan data of 1D GC/MS, instead of resuming with the complex and inaccessible equipments (multidimensional gas chromatography or mass spectrometry). The aim of this study is to provide the detailed qualitative and quantitative basis data (confirming ions, relative abundance, retention indices, and area counts) of the high level alkylated PAHs by a comprehensive three-step method: (1) the potential confirming ions per isomer are selected by exploring the multiple fragment patterns formation mechanism; (2) the reasonable confirming ions are estimated by comparing extracted ion chromatography (EIC) of the potential confirming ions; (3) after deconvolution, composite chromatograms of the reasonable confirming ions illustrate the basis data by assigning peaks for target PAHs definitively. The validation data, resulting concentrations and diagnostic ratios for each homolog are compared with those obtained from SIM. The experimental data demonstrate that significant inaccurate identifications and concentration estimates are obtained when SIM mode is used for C4 Naphthalene (C4 N), C3 Phenanthrene (C3 P), C4 Phenanthrene (C4 P), C3 Dibenzothiophene (C3 D), C3 Fluorene (C3 F), C2-4 Chrysene (C2-4 C) and C1 Fluoranthene (C1 Flt). This study evaluates the usefulness of the previous fragmentation patterns, and confirms compound presence by GC/MS using the different spectral deconvolution software. This approach is developed as a broad screen for environmental samples (including petrol, diesel fuel and coal tar), with only the crude oil results being presented here. PMID:24229786

Zhao, Yue; Hong, Bo; Fan, Yuqing; Wen, Mei; Han, Xue

2014-02-01

147

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of biogenic volatile organic compounds emitted by plants.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is one of the most widely used methods for analyzing the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants. Preconcentration of VOCs on the cartridges filled with different adsorbents is a well-accepted method for sampling of headspace. Here, we describe a gas-chromatographic method for determination of different isoprenoids (isoprene, monoterpenes, homoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes). The technique is based on adsorption of compounds of interest on multibed adsorbent cartridges followed by thermodesorption, and detection and analysis by GC-MS. PMID:24777796

Kännaste, Astrid; Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

2014-01-01

148

An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

2011-01-01

149

Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - determination of organonitrogen herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the isolation of organonitrogen herbicides from natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to remove the herbicides. The cartridges are dried using carbon dioxide, and adsorbed herbicides are removed from the cartridges by elution with 1.8 milliliters of hexaneisopropanol (3:1). Extracts of the eluants are analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of at least three characteristic ions. The method detection limits are dependent on sample matrix and each particular herbicide. The method detection limits, based on a 100-milliliter sample size, range from 0.02 to 0.25 microgram per liter. Recoveries averaged 80 to 115 percent for the 23 herbicides and 2 metabolites in 1 reagent-water and 2 natural-water samples fortified at levels of 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter.

Sandstrom, Mark W.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Zamboni, Jana L.; Foreman, William T.

1992-01-01

150

Optimization of large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the determination of estrogenic compounds in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-PTV-GC-MS) was optimized for the determination of estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), 17?-ethynyl estradiol (EE2), mestranol (MeEE2) and estriol (E3) for their determination in environmental samples (estuarine water, wastewater, fish bile and fish homogenate) after derivatization with 25 ?L (BSTFA+1% TMCS) and 125 ?L of pyridine. Experimental designs such as Plackett-Burman (PBD) and central composite designs (CCDs) were used to optimize the LVI-PTV variables (cryo-focusing temperature, vent time, vent flow, vent pressure, injection volume, purge flow to split vent, splitless time and injection speed). Optimized conditions were as follows: 45 ?L of n-hexane extract are injected at 60°C and 6 ?L/s with a vent flow and a vent pressure of 50 mL/min and 7.7 psi, respectively, during 5 min; then the split valve is closed for 1.5 min and afterwards the injector is cleaned at 100 mL/min before the next injection. The method was applied to the determination of estrogenic compounds in environmental samples such as estuarine water, wastewater, and fish homogenate and bile. Limits of detection (0.04-0.15 ng/L for water samples, 0.04-0.67 ng/g for fish bile and 0.1-7.5 ng for fish homogenate) obtained were approx. ten times lower than those obtained by means of a common split/splitless inlet. PMID:21092978

Vallejo, A; Fernández, L A; Olivares, M; Prieto, A; Etxebarria, N; Usobiaga, A; Zuloaga, O

2010-12-24

151

Development of stir-bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of musks in vegetables and amended soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and environment-friendly method based on stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) to determine 8 synthetic musks (musk ambrette, musk ketone, celestolide, tonalide, galaxolide, phantolide, traseolide, and cashmeran) in vegetables (lettuce, carrot, and pepper) and amended soil samples. In a first step sorptive extraction was studied both in the headspace (HSSE) and in the immerse mode (SBSE). The best results were obtained in the immersion mode which was further studied. The influence of the main factors: methanol (20%) and NaCl addition (0%), extraction temperature (40°C) and time (180 min), extraction solvent volume (9 mL) and stirring rate (600 rpm) on the efficiency of SBSE was evaluated by means of experimental designs. In the case of TD, desorption time (10 min), desorption temperature (300°C), cryo-focusing temperature (-30°C), vent flow (75 mL/min) and vent pressure (7.2 psi) were studied using both a fractioned factorial design and a central composite design (CCD). The method was validated in terms of apparent recoveries (AR%), method detection limits (MDLs) and precision at two different concentration levels. Although quantification using instrumental calibration rendered odd results in most of the cases, satisfactory recoveries (74-126%) were obtained in the case of matrix-matched calibration approach for all of the analytes and matrices studied at the two concentration levels evaluated. MDLs in the range of 0.01-0.8 ng/g and 0.01-1.1 ng/g were obtained for vegetables and amended soil samples, respectively. RSD values within 1-23% were obtained for all the analytes and matrices. Finally, the method was applied to the determination of musks in vegetable and amended soil samples. PMID:24491767

Aguirre, Josu; Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Iparraguirre, Arantza; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Zuloaga, Olatz; Prieto, Ailette

2014-02-17

152

MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (R823292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with mass spectrometry (MS) is very attractive for the direct identification of analyte molecules, for the possibility of selectivity enhancement, and for the structure confirmation and analysis in a MS-MS mode. The...

153

Analysis of heterocyclic amines and beta-carbolines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic amines (HAs), which form in meats during heating and cooking, are recognized as mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In this study, 13 HAs and 2 beta-carbolines (BCs) were analyzed in cooked Korean meat products, including griddled bacon, griddled pork loin, boiled pork loin, boiled chicken meat, chicken meat stock, chicken breast for salad and chicken patty. The samples were either cooked in the laboratory or purchased from local fast-food restaurants. The HAs and BCs in the samples were separated using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The most frequently detected HAs and BCs in the cooked meats were harman (1-methyl-9H pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 990.9 ng g(-1)), norharman (9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 412.7 ng g(-1)) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 258.2 ng g(-1)). The griddled pork loin and bacon contained higher levels of norharman, harman and PhIP than the other cooked meats. PhIP, which is classified as a Group 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, had levels of 258.2 and 168.2 ng g(-1) in the griddled pork loin and griddled bacon, respectively. The griddled bacon was the only sample containing TriMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 79.9 ng g(-1)). IQ (2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and AalphaC (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) were detected at trace levels in all samples. PMID:19680902

Back, Y M; Lee, J H; Shin, H S; Lee, K G

2009-03-01

154

ON SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. FULL-SCAN MODE  

EPA Science Inventory

Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are requ...

155

ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE FULL-SCAN MODE  

EPA Science Inventory

Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are requ...

156

Independent evaluation of a commercial deconvolution reporting software for gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) deconvolution reporting software (DRS) from Agilent Technologies has been evaluated for its ability as a screening tool to detect a large number of pesticides in incurred and fortified samples extracted with acetone/dichloromethane/light petroleum (Mini-Luke method). The detection of pesticides is based on fixed retention times using retention time locking (RTL) and full scan mass spectral comparison with a partly customer built automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS) database. The GC-MS was equipped with a programmable temperature vaporising (PTV) injector system which enables more sample to be injected. In a blind study of 52 real samples a total number of 158 incurred pesticides were found. In addition to the 85 pesticides found by manual interpretation of GC-NPD/ECD chromatograms, the DRS revealed 73 more pesticides (+46%). The DRS system also shows its potential to discover pesticides which are normally not searched for (EPN in long beans from Thailand). A spiking experiment was performed to blank matrices of apple, orange and lettuce with 177 different pesticides at concentration levels 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg. The samples were analysed on GC-MS full scan and the AMDIS match factor was used as a mass spectral quality criterion. The threshold level of the AMDIS match factor was set at 20 to eliminate most of the false positives. AMDIS match factors from 20 up to 69 are regarded only as indication of a positive hit and must be followed by manual interpretation. Pesticides giving AMDIS match factors at > or = 70 are regarded as identified. To simplify and decrease the large amount of data generated at each concentration level, the AMDIS match factors > or = 20 was averaged (mean AMF) for each pesticide including the commodities and their replicates. Among 177 different pesticides spiked at 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg level, the percentage of mean AMF values > or = 70 were 23% and 80%, respectively. For 531 individual detections of pesticides (177 pesticides x 3 replicates) giving AMDIS match factor 20 in apple, orange and lettuce, the detection rates at 0.02 mg/kg were 71%, 63% and 72%, respectively. For the 0.1 mg/kg level the detection rates were 89%, 85% and 89%, respectively. In real samples some manual interpretation must be performed in addition. However, screening by GC-MS/DRS is about 5-10 times faster compared to screening with GC-NPD/ECD because the time used for manual interpretation is much shorter and there is no need for re-injection on GC-MS for the identification of suspect peaks found on GC-NPD/ECD. PMID:20172528

Norli, Hans Ragnar; Christiansen, Agnethe; Holen, Børge

2010-03-26

157

Simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde and its metabolite in rat tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cinnamaldehyde (CA), an active ingredient isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Cinnamomi, has a wide range of bioactivities. To clarify the distribution characteristics of CA, a selective and sensitive method utilizing gas chromatography-mass spetrometry was initially developed for simultaneously determining the concentration of CA and its metabolite cinnamyl alcohol in rat tissues. Selected ion masses of m/z 131, 105 and 92 were chosen, and separation of the analytes was performed on a DB-5?ms (30?m?×?0.25?mm, 0.25?µm, thickness) capillary column by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The calibration curves demonstrated good linearity and reproducibility over the range of 20-2000 and 20-4000?ng/mL for various tissue samples. Recoveries ranged from 86.8 to 107.5%, while intra- and interday relative standard deviations were all <11.3%. The analysis method was successfully applied in tissue distribution studies for CA and cinnamyl alcohol. As CA and cinnamyl alcohol may inter-convert to one another, simultaneous determination of both analytes provides a comparative and accurate data for tissue study. The concentrations of CA and cinnamyl alcohol remaining in spleen were the highest among the main organs, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain. In addition, there was no long-term accumulation of CA in rat tissues. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24898181

Zhao, Hang; Yang, Qian; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tu, Honghai; Cao, Wei; Wang, Siwang

2015-02-01

158

Microextraction with polyethersulfone for bisphenol-A, alkylphenols and hormones determination in water samples by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

In the present work, the suitability of polyethersulfone (PES) tube was assessed for the simultaneous sorptive microextraction of commonly found endocrine disrupting compounds in natural waters such as bisphenol-A (BPA), nonylphenol technical mixture (NP mix), 4-tert-octylphenol (4tOP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-nOP), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-ethynilestradiol (EE2). After the concentration of target compounds in the PES polymer, the analytes were recovered soaking the polymer with a suitable solvent (ethyl acetate or methanol), derivatized using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide with 1% of trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA+1% TMCS) and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis was also performed without derivatization step by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Extraction parameters (addition of MeOH, ionic strength, extraction speed and time and desorption time) were evaluated and the optimum conditions were fixed as follows: 150mL water samples containing a 10% (w/v) of sodium chloride and using 5 tubular PES sorbent fibers (1.5cm length×0.7mm o.d.). Equilibrium conditions were achieved after 9h, with absolute extraction efficiencies ranging from 27 to 56%. On the whole, good apparent recoveries were achieved (68-103% and 81-122% for GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively) using deuterated analogues as surrogates. Achieved quantification limits (LOQs) varied between 2-154ng/L and 2-63ng/L for all the compounds using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The effect of organic matter was evaluated previous to apply the final method to the analysis of estuarine and wastewater real samples. The comparison of both methods showed that overall, PES-LC-MS/MS provided shorter sample preparation time and better LODs, but PES-silylation-GC-MS allowed the simultaneous determination of all the studied compounds with adequate repeatability and accuracy. PMID:25618664

Ros, O; Vallejo, A; Blanco-Zubiaguirre, L; Olivares, M; Delgado, A; Etxebarria, N; Prieto, A

2015-03-01

159

Investigation of hexabromocyclododecane thermal degradation pathways by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The decomposition products of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a widely used brominated flame retardant, were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). HBCD thermal degradation was conducted under a moderate heating rate (10 degrees C/min) in a batch reactor using both inert and oxidizing atmospheres. GC/MS analysis allowed the identification of substances derived from the primary pyrolysis process at the moderate heating rates used. The presence of oxygen seems to have a negligible influence on the degradation products obtained in HBCD decomposition, at least at moderate heating rates. Based on the identified products, the main pathways of HBCD thermal degradation were assessed and a mechanism for HBCD decomposition was proposed. The results obtained indicate that hexa-, penta- and tetrabrominated polyaromatic structures seem not to be primary products of HBCD decomposition, and may only be obtained by secondary bromination reactions. PMID:11319791

Barontini, F; Cozzani, V; Cuzzola, A; Petarca, L

2001-01-01

160

Procedure for detecting and confirming pentobarbital residues in dog food by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The method described detects and confirms presence of pentobarbital residues in dry, extruded feeds at concentrations of 5-20 ppb. Dried feed is ground to a uniform powder and shaken overnight in methanol. A portion of the methanolic extract is evaporated, and the residue is reconstituted in phosphate-buffered saline. The aqueous extract is cleaned with a solid-phase extraction cartridge designed to extract barbiturate residues from biological matrixes. Dimethyl sulfoxide, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, and iodomethane are added to derivatize pentobarbital, 1,3-Dimethyl-pentobarbital is then acidified with dilute hydrochloric acid and extracted with isooctane. The organic layer is transferred and evaporated under a stream of nitrogen. The residue is reconstituted in a small volume of ethyl acetate for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The limit of detection is approximately 0.7 ppb. The method was validated with pentobarbital-fortified feed samples containing high concentrations of meat and bone meal. PMID:9549069

Adam, L A; Reeves, V B

1998-01-01

161

Isolation, enrichment, and analysis of erythropoietins in anti-doping analysis by receptor-coated magnetic beads and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human erythropoietin (hEPO) is an erythropoiesis stimulating hormone frequently employed in antianemia therapy. Its capability to increase the amount of red blood cells however makes hEPO and its derivatives also attractive to dishonest athletes aiming at an artificial and illicit enhancement of their endurance performance. A major objective of the international antidoping fight is the elimination of drug misuse and prevention of severe adverse effects caused by nontherapeutic administrations of highly potent drugs. The emergence of novel and innovative erythropoietin-mimetic agents (EMAs) has been continuously growing in the last years, and the option of using dedicated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for analytical and sample preparation approaches is gradually reaching limits. In the present study the common ability and property of all EMAs, to bind on the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR), is therefore exploited. An alternative methodology to isolate and analyze EMAs, in particular endogenous EPO and the recombinant forms EPOzeta, darbepoetin alfa, and C.E.R.A., from human urine is described, employing conventional ultrafiltration for preconcentration of the target analytes followed by EMA-specific isolation via hEPOR-bound magnetic beads. Analytical data were generated by means of gel-based electrophoretic analysis and nanoliquid chromatography/high resolution/high accuracy tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection enabled by the established sample preparation protocols were approximately 20 pg/mL for EPOzeta, 30 pg/mL for darbepoetin alfa, and 80 pg/mL for C.E.R.A. PMID:25423444

Vogel, Matthias; Blobel, Mike; Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Reichel, Christian; Thevis, Mario

2014-12-16

162

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

2011-06-24

163

Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated thermal desorption (ATD)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of selected chemical warfare (CW) agents. Suitable methods were developed for analytes of high volatility to low volatility. The less volatile CW agents required the purchase and installation of a high-temperature valve upgrade kit allowing valve temperatures of up to 260°C to be reached. The limit of

Wendy A. Carrick; David B. Cooper; Bob Muir

2001-01-01

164

Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the art field. 2--The characterization of proteinaceous binders.  

PubMed

Curie point pyrolysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been employed to characterize some proteinaceous media used in the art field as painting binders: milk casein, egg yolk, egg albumin, bone glue, skin glue, rabbit glue and fish glue. A careful analysis of the gas chromatograms so obtained has led to the distinction of the different proteinaceous binders in terms of different chromatographic profiles. Some of the pyrolysis products have been identified by library search. PMID:8759333

Carbini, M; Stevanato, R; Rovea, M; Traldi, P; Favretto, D

1996-01-01

165

Determination of volatility distributions of primary organic aerosol emissions from internal combustion engines using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for measuring the primary organic aerosol emissions from internal combustion engines is presented. The method combines thermal-optical OC\\/EC analysis and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) of quartz filter samples collected using a dilution sampler to quantify the total emissions of low-volatility organics and to distribute them across the volatility basis set. These data can be

Albert A. Presto; Christopher J. Hennigan; Ngoc T. Nguyen; Allen L. Robinson

2012-01-01

166

APPLICATION OF A SPRAY DEPOSITION METHOD FOR REVERSED PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Four coal gasification wastewater samples were analyzed for nonvolatile and polar organics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Samples were separated on a reverse phase liquid chromatographic column using an aqueous solvent as the eluant. A special spray depositio...

167

Neonatal ketosis is not rare: experience of neonatal screening using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes and effects of transient neonatal ketosis, discovered during a pilot study of screening for abnormalities in neonatal metabolism using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, were investigated. Of the 21?342 neonates that were screened, 47 had significant ketosis. The organic acid profile accompanying ketosis in the urine of neonates followed the pattern of ketotic dicarboxylic aciduria in approximately half of the

Takahiro Inokuchi; Ichiro Yoshida; Akiyo Kaneko; Kyoko Tashiro; Satomi Tashiro; Misa Jogo; Kumiko Aoki; Masatoshi Tanaka

2001-01-01

168

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PARTICLE BEAM LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ACID HERBICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Particle beam liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was evaluated for the measurement of acid herbicides. n acetic acid/ammonium acetate/methano1 solvent system with a C-8 reversed Phase column gave baseline resolution of all target analytes. etection limits in the full...

169

Incorporation of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for detection, identification, and quantification of many volatile organic compounds. However, many colleges and universities have not fully incorporated this technique into undergraduate teaching laboratories despite its wide application and ease of use in organic…

Giarikos, Dimitrios G.; Patel, Sagir; Lister, Andrew; Razeghifard, Reza

2013-01-01

170

Data Pre-processing in Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Xiang Zhang1*  

E-print Network

1 Data Pre-processing in Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics Xiang Zhang1 of Computer Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Abstract Motivation: In a liquid chromatography into peptides and subjected to multi-dimensional liquid chromatography for separation. Each peptide fraction

Elmagarmid, Ahmed K.

171

Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.  

PubMed

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS. PMID:25050447

Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2014-08-13

172

Qualitative and quantitative characterization of plasma proteins when incorporating traveling wave ion mobility into a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry workflow for biomarker discovery: use of product ion quantitation as an alternative data analysis tool for label free quantitation.  

PubMed

Discovery of protein biomarkers in clinical samples necessitates significant prefractionation prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Integrating traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) enables in-line gas phase separation which when coupled with nanoflow liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition tandem mass spectrometry, confers significant advantages to the discovery of protein biomarkers by improving separation and inherent sensitivity. Incorporation of TWIMS leads to a packet of concentrated ions which ultimately provides a significant improvement in sensitivity. As a consequence of ion packeting, when present at high concentrations, accurate quantitation of proteins can be affected due to detector saturation effects. Human plasma was analyzed in triplicate using liquid-chromatography data independent acquisition mass spectrometry (LC-DIA-MS) and using liquid-chromatography ion-mobility data independent acquisition mass spectrometry (LC-IM-DIA-MS). The inclusion of TWIMS was assessed for the effect on sample throughput, data integrity, confidence of protein and peptide identification, and dynamic range. The number of identified proteins is significantly increased by an average of 84% while both the precursor and product mass accuracies are maintained between the modalities. Sample dynamic range is also maintained while quantitation is achieved for all but the most abundant proteins by incorporating a novel data interpretation method that allows accurate quantitation to occur. This additional separation is all achieved within a workflow with no discernible deleterious effect on throughput. Consequently, TWIMS greatly enhances proteome coverage and can be reliably used for quantification when using an alternative product ion quantification strategy. Using TWIMS in biomarker discovery in human plasma is thus recommended. PMID:24397486

Daly, Charlotte E; Ng, Leong L; Hakimi, Amirmansoor; Willingale, Richard; Jones, Donald J L

2014-02-18

173

Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Plasma Proteins When Incorporating Traveling Wave Ion Mobility into a Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Workflow for Biomarker Discovery: Use of Product Ion Quantitation As an Alternative Data Analysis Tool for Label Free Quantitation  

PubMed Central

Discovery of protein biomarkers in clinical samples necessitates significant prefractionation prior to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis. Integrating traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) enables in-line gas phase separation which when coupled with nanoflow liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition tandem mass spectrometry, confers significant advantages to the discovery of protein biomarkers by improving separation and inherent sensitivity. Incorporation of TWIMS leads to a packet of concentrated ions which ultimately provides a significant improvement in sensitivity. As a consequence of ion packeting, when present at high concentrations, accurate quantitation of proteins can be affected due to detector saturation effects. Human plasma was analyzed in triplicate using liquid-chromatography data independent acquisition mass spectrometry (LC-DIA-MS) and using liquid-chromatography ion-mobility data independent acquisition mass spectrometry (LC-IM-DIA-MS). The inclusion of TWIMS was assessed for the effect on sample throughput, data integrity, confidence of protein and peptide identification, and dynamic range. The number of identified proteins is significantly increased by an average of 84% while both the precursor and product mass accuracies are maintained between the modalities. Sample dynamic range is also maintained while quantitation is achieved for all but the most abundant proteins by incorporating a novel data interpretation method that allows accurate quantitation to occur. This additional separation is all achieved within a workflow with no discernible deleterious effect on throughput. Consequently, TWIMS greatly enhances proteome coverage and can be reliably used for quantification when using an alternative product ion quantification strategy. Using TWIMS in biomarker discovery in human plasma is thus recommended. PMID:24397486

2014-01-01

174

The state of the art in thin-layer chromatography–mass spectrometry: a critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-layer chromatography–mass spectrometry (TLC–MS) is a readily implemented technique that, in its simplest form, puts few demands on either chromatography or spectrometry. Nevertheless, compared to the situation with high performance liquid chromatography, it is much less highly developed. Currently, the bulk of the practical applications of TLC–MS are directed towards the use of fast atom, or ion bombardment. Recent developments,

I. D Wilson

1999-01-01

175

Phosphorothioate oligonucleotide quantification by ?-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Phosporothioate oligonucleotides represent an important class of therapeutic oligonucleotides, in which none-bridging oxygen atoms of the phosphate groups are replaced by sulfur. These oligonucleotides are designed to treat disease by modulating gene expression of an affected individual. As the development and application of these therapeutical oligonucleotides require analytical support, the development, validation, and application of an assay for the quantitative analysis of a phosporothioate oligonucleotide in rat plasma is described. The method employs ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography on a monolithic capillary column with acetonitrile gradients in cyclohexyldimethylammonium acetate for separation and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry for detection of nucleic acids. Chromatographic parameters (i.e. column temperature, mobile phase composition) as well as mass spectrometric parameters (i.e. spray voltage, gas flow, and capillary position, scan mode) have been optimized for sensitive oligonucleotide quantification. Furthermore, a solid-phase extraction method was developed which enabled processing of 10 ?l of plasma. The five-point calibration curve showed linearity over the range of concentrations from 100 to 1,000 nM of the oligonucleotide. The limit of detection was 50 nM. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracies were always better than 10.2 %. Using this assay, we performed a pharmacokinetic study of the phosporothioate oligonucleotide in rat treated with a single intravenous dose of 0.39 ?mol/kg. The assay sensitivity was sufficient to study the early phase elimination of the oligonucleotide. Small amounts of the oligonucleotide were detectable up to 3 h after dosing. PMID:22806756

Erb, Robert; Leithner, Katharina; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Oberacher, Herbert

2012-12-01

176

Advancing liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry based technologies for proteome research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In proteomics, high-tech nano-liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation is used to routinely sequence proteins at a large scale. In this thesis, several technological developments are described to advance proteomics and their applicability is demonstrated in several different research lines. HILIC is an LC phase that exhibits some features that can be utilized in proteomics. The orthogonality of

P. J. Boersema

2010-01-01

177

Multivariate approach for the enantioselective analysis in micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry. I. Simultaneous optimization of binaphthyl derivatives in negative ion mode.  

PubMed

A mixture of two molecular micelles polysodium N-undecenoxy carbonyl-L-leucinate, (poly-L-SUCL) and polysodium N-undecanoyl leucylvalinate, (poly-L-SULV) was utilized in micellar electrokinetic chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (MEKC-ESI-MS) to simultaneously separate and detect enantiomers of binaphthyl derivatives. Separation parameters such as background buffer composition, voltage, temperature, and nebulizer pressure were optimized using a multivariate central composite design (CCD). Baseline enantioseparation for both analytes was achieved. The CCD was also used in the optimization of sheath liquid and spray chamber parameters to achieve optimum ESI-MS response. The results demonstrate that CCD is a powerful tool for the optimization of MEKC-MS parameters and the response surface model analysis can provide in-depth statistical understandings of the significant factors required to achieve maximum enantioresolution and ESI-MS sensitivity. PMID:19110258

He, Jun; Shamsi, Shahab A

2009-01-30

178

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods applied for the analysis of a Round Robin sample containing materials present in samples of works of art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Users' Group for Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (MaSC) was established as a discussion forum for scientists involved in the study of artworks and cultural artefacts who wish to exchange information regarding sampling strategies and protocols, preparation of samples, chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis, data treatment and interpretation of results. Comparing protocols and different approaches to the interpretation of results requires the use of standard reference materials and Round Robin tests. To this end, an artificial, complex Round Robin sample was sent to fifteen laboratories specializing in the analysis of cultural materials. Ten of the participants analyzed the sample and reported their results, which were anonymously discussed at the MaSC meeting in Philadelphia, September 2007. In this paper, the results of the confirming GC/MS analysis of the sample by the author are presented and compared with the results of the participants. The confirming analysis was performed with thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation GC/MS in combination with pyrolysis, and by a combined method for the analysis of proteins and carbohydrates. A number of different instrumental setups and methods were used by the Round Robin participants. The results show that stepwise extraction followed by different types of derivatization is a successful approach for the analysis and identification of complex samples. A disadvantage is the need for relatively large samples, which are not always available in practice. Pyrolysis with or without tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) or hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used by four of the participants. The results show that thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation GC/MS in combination with pyrolysis is a powerful technique for the analysis of multi-component samples. The presence of gums and proteins can be indicated. Synthetic resins such as acrylics can also be analyzed in combination with the traditional binders and resins.

van Keulen, Henk

2009-07-01

179

Analytical Variables Affecting Analysis of F2-Isoprostanes and F4-Neuroprostanes in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are a gold marker of lipid peroxidation in vivo, whereas F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain tissue selectively indicate neuronal oxidative damage. Gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) is the most sensitive and robust method for quantifying these compounds, which is essential for CSF samples because abundance of these compounds in CSF is very low. The present study revealed potential interferences on the analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF by GC/NICI-MS due to the use of improper analytical methods that have been employed in the literature. First, simultaneous quantification of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF samples processed for F4-NPs analysis could cause poor chromatographic separation and falsely higher F2-IsoPs values for CSF samples with high levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs. Second, retention of unknown substances in GC columns from CSF samples during F4-NPs analysis and from plasma samples during F2-IsoPs analysis might interfere with F4-NPs analysis of subsequent runs, which could be solved by holding columns at a high temperature for a period of time after data acquisition. Therefore, these special issues should be taken into consideration when performing analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF to avoid misleading results. PMID:23957004

Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Wei, Hsing-Ju; Chen, Ting-Wei

2013-01-01

180

Identification of new flavonols in hybrid grapes by combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches.  

PubMed

Grape flavonols are involved in the phenomenon of copigmentation in red wines. These compounds are characterised by nutraceutical properties, have antioxidant activity and are studied for chemotaxonomy of grapes. In general, hybrid grapes are characterised by presence of polyphenols often qualitatively and quantitatively different from Vitis vinifera varieties. In this work, flavonols of 34 hybrid grape varieties (22 red and 12 white) produced by crossing of V. vinifera, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Vitis lincecumii and Vitis rupestris species, were studied. Compounds were characterised by combining different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods: precursor-ion and neutral-loss multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM), and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-four glycoside flavonols were identified, including 4 quercetin, 5 myricetin, 4 kaempferol, 3 isorhamnetin, 2 laricitrin, 3 syringetin and 3 dihydroflavonol derivatives; myricetin hexoside-glucuronide, myricetin O-di-hexoside, syringetin O-di-hexoside, isorhamnetin rutinoside and kaempferol rutinoside were found in grape for the first time. Statistical analysis (PCA and cluster analysis) divided the samples in four groups on the basis of their flavonol profiles. PMID:24912722

De Rosso, M; Tonidandel, L; Larcher, R; Nicolini, G; Dalla Vedova, A; De Marchi, F; Gardiman, M; Giust, M; Flamini, R

2014-11-15

181

Shotgun proteome analysis utilising mixed mode (reversed phase-anion exchange chromatography) in conjunction with reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

The 2-D peptide separations employing mixed mode reversed phase anion exchange (MM (RP-AX)) HPLC in the first dimension in conjunction with RP chromatography in the second dimension were developed and utilised for shotgun proteome analysis. Compared with strong cation exchange (SCX) typically employed for shotgun proteomic analysis, peptide separations using MM (RP-AX) revealed improved separation efficiency and increased peptide distribution across the elution gradient. In addition, improved sample handling, with no significant reduction in the orthogonality of the peptide separations was observed. The shotgun proteomic analysis of a mammalian nuclear cell lysate revealed additional proteome coverage (2818 versus 1125 unique peptides and 602 versus 238 proteins) using the MM (RP-AX) compared with the traditional SCX hyphenated to RP-LC-MS/MS. The MM analysis resulted in approximately 90% of the unique peptides identified present in only one fraction, with a heterogeneous peptide distribution across all fractions. No clustering of the predominant peptide charge states was observed during the gradient elution. The application of MM (RP-AX) for 2-D LC proteomic studies was also extended in the analysis of iTRAQ-labelled HeLa and cyanobacterial proteomes using nano-flow chromatography interfaced to the MS/MS. We demonstrate MM (RP-AX) HPLC as an alternative approach for shotgun proteomic studies that offers significant advantages over traditional SCX peptide separations. PMID:20662100

Phillips, Helen L; Williamson, James C; van Elburg, Karin A; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Wright, Phillip C; Dickman, Mark J

2010-08-01

182

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group?Determination of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in water using online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method for the determination of 6 acetamide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, metolachlor, and propachlor) and 16 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is described in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using octadecylsilane as the solid-phase extraction media on online automated equipment followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method uses only 10 milliliters of sample per injection. Three different water-sample matrices, a reagent-water, a ground-water, and a surface-water sample spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter, were analyzed to determine method performance. Method detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.051 microgram per liter for the parent acetamide herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the acetamide compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 62.3 to 117.4 percent. The secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) was recovered at an average rate of 43.5 percent. The mean recoveries for propachlor and propachlor oxanilic acid (OXA) were next lowest, ranging from 62.3 to 95.5 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 90.3 to 118.3 percent for all compounds. Overall the mean of the mean recoveries of all compounds in the three matrices spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter ranged from 89.9 to 100.7 percent, including the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA and the propachlor compounds. The acetamide herbicides and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit is 2.0 micrograms per liter for all compounds without dilution. With the exception of the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA, good precision and accuracy for the chloroacetanalide herbicides and their degradation compounds were demonstrated for the method in buffered reagent water, ground water, and surface water. The extraction method as used did not optimize the recovery of the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA.

Lee, E.A.; Strahan, A.P.

2003-01-01

183

Online capillary solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of chiral secondary alcohol products in yeast catalyzed stereoselective reduction cell culture.  

PubMed

An online solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of trace R- and S-4-phenyl-2-butanol (R- and S-pbol) in salt rich cell culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed stereoselective reduction of 4-pheny-2-butanone (pbone). A Supel-Q PLOT capillary column was used for the extraction and deionized distilled water was used as the extraction mobile phase. The extraction flow rate and extraction time were at 0.1mLmin(-1) and 0.95min, respectively. The three target analytes, pbone, R-pbol, and S-4-pbol, were desorbed and eluted by the mobile phase of water/methanol/isopropanol (55/25/20, v/v/v) with a flow rate of 0.5mLmin(-1) and analyzed by a chiral column. The mass spectrometric detection of the three target analytes was in positive ion mode with the signal [M+Na](+). The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves with linear concentration range between 0 and 50?gmL(-1) were used for quantitative analysis. The linear regression correlation coefficients (r(2)) of the standard calibration curves were between 0.9950 and 0.9961. The yeast mediated reduction was performed with a recation culture of yeast incubation culture/glycerol (70/30, v/v) for 4 days. This biotransformation possessed 82.3% yield and 92.9% S-enantomeric excess. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) for pbone, R-pbol, and S-pbol was 0.02/0.067, 0.01/0.033, and 0.01/0.033?gmL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions from repeated measurements were 10.8-21.1% and 11.6-18.7%, respectively. The analysis accuracy from spike recovery was 84-91%. PMID:25563398

Cheng, Cheanyeh; Nian, Yu-Chuan

2015-02-01

184

Comparison and analysis of organochlorine pesticides and hexabromobiphenyls in environmental samples by gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two analytical methods, gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), were evaluated and compared for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants, specifically for 26 organochlorine pesticides and two hexabromobiphenyls, in atmospheric particulate matter and soil samples. The hypothesis tested was that the coelution of non-target compounds may lead to false positives when analyzed by GC-ECD, and that the overestimation associated with these false positives can be eliminated using GC-NCI-MS. The study showed that both methods had satisfactory linearity and reproducibility for the target compounds. Although the sensitivities of GC-ECD for most of the compounds investigated were higher than those observed with the GC-NCI-MS method, the matrices interference was obvious with GC-ECD. There was indeed an apparently high false-positive rate or overestimate when GC-ECD was used for environmental samples, implying that the GC-ECD method has been used with care and that GC-NCI-MS is generally superior for the analysis of trace amounts of these compounds in environmental samples. Based on these results, the sample extraction and cleanup procedures of the GC-NCI-MS method were optimized for achieving acceptable recoveries and less matrices interference. PMID:24872522

Liu, Yu; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Liang; Li, Wei; Meng, Bingjun

2015-02-01

185

Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles in orujo spirits from a defined geographical origin.  

PubMed

A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-selective ion monitoring/mass spectrometry (GC-SIM/MS) method was optimized for analysis of 22 volatile compounds in orujo spirit samples from the Geographic Denomination "Orujo de Galicia/Augardente de Galicia". HS-SPME experimental conditions, such as fiber coating, extraction temperature, extraction and pre-equilibrium time, sample volume, and the presence of salt, were studied to improve the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a 65 microm Carbowax-divinylbenzene fiber during a headspace extraction at 40 degrees C with constant magnetic stirring for 15 min and after a 5 min period of pre-equilibrium time. The sample volume was 6 mL of orujo containing 25% of NaCl, placed in 12 mL glass vials equipped with a screw cap and PTFE/silicone septum. Desorption was performed directly in the gas chromatograph injector port for 5 min at 250 degrees C using the splitless mode. The proposed method is sensible (with detection limits between 0.0045 and 0.2399 mg/L), precise (with coefficients of variation in the range 0.99-8.18%), and linear over more than 1 order of magnitude. The developed method presented recoveries comprised between 76.0 and 112.4%. The applicability of the new method was demonstrated by determining the considered 22 volatile compounds in nine orujo commercial samples with quality and origin brands. PMID:18361494

Peña, Rosa M; Barciela, Julia; Herrero, Carlos; García-Martín, Sagrario

2008-04-23

186

Investigation of atrazine metabolism in river sediment by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Microbial degradation processes play an important role in chemical water clearance taking place in river sediments. Bacteria remove not only easily degradable organic species, but various xenobiotics as well, producing clear and xenobiotic free water for bank-filtered wells. Atrazine is a widely used herbicide, and it is one of the most common xenobiotics present in Danube water. In this study the pathway and kinetics of atrazine metabolism of sedimental microbiota were studied. Samples were collected from river sediment and from pure microbial growth cultures. An analytical scheme including sample preparation, chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed and optimised. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was found to be satisfactory for sample preparation. For qualitative analysis of samples both reversed-phase and normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) methods were developed and used. Selectivity, detection limits and accuracy of the two methods were compared. Using this analytical scheme, the full atrazine metabolism of the organism Comamonas acidovorans was explored. Altogether, 12 metabolites were identified from the original compound to the urea end product. Detection limits in the range of 50 ng L(-1)-1 microg L(-1) were obtained for different metabolites. PMID:11555874

Takáts, Z; Vargha, M; Vékey, K

2001-01-01

187

Enantiomeric resolution of biomarkers in space analysis: Chemical derivatization and signal processing for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chiral amino acids.  

PubMed

The work compares two GC-MS methods for enantioselective separation of amino acids as suitable candidate for stereochemical analysis of chiral amino acids on board spacecrafts in space exploration missions of solar system body environments. Different derivatization reagents are used: a mixture of alkyl chloroformate-alcohol-pyridine to obtain the alkyl alkoxy carbonyl esters and a mixture of perfluorinated alcohols and anhydrides to form perfluoroacyl perfluoroalkyl esters. 20 proteinogenic amino acids were derivatized with the two procedures and submitted to GC-MS analysis on a Chirasil-l-Val stationary phase. The results were then compared in terms of the enantiomeric separation achieved and intensity of MS response. The combination of methyl chloroformate (MCF) and heptafluoro-1-butanol (HFB) allows separation of 14 enantiomeric pairs, five of which display a resolution (R(s)>or=1.2) supposed to be sufficient to quantify the enantiomeric excess. Three mixtures of trifluoroacetic (TFAA) and heptafluorobutyric (HFBA) anhydrides were combined with the corresponding perfluorinated alcohols - TFE (2,2,2-trifluoro-1-ethanol) and HFB (2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol) - to give three different reagents (TFAA-TFE, TFAA-HFB, HFBA-HFB): the derivatives obtained show separation of the same number of proteinogenic amino acids (14 of 20) at a temperature lower than column bleeding limit (200 degrees C) and 8 of them give a separation with R(s)>or=1.2. Linearity study and limit of detection (X(LOD)) computation show that both methods are suitable for quantitative determination of several amino acid diastereomers at trace level (X(LOD) approximately 0.5nmol as derivatized quantity). Both the procedures were coupled with automatic data handling to increase their suitability for space analysis: the simplified data treatment is especially helpful to handle the low quality data recovered from space experiments and labor and time are saved, as imposed by the space experiments requiring a rapid delivery of the results. To achieve this aim, a chemometric approach based on the computation of the Autocovariance Function (ACVF) was applied to extract information on the enantiomeric pairs present in the sample and the enantioseparation achieved on the chiral column. PMID:19815225

Pietrogrande, M C; Basaglia, G

2010-02-12

188

Pesticide residue determination in fruit and vegetables by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of pesticide residue determination in fruit and vegetables by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Emphasis is placed on the thermospray, particle beam and atmospheric pressure ionization interfaces including advantages and drawbacks and typical detection limits. The capacity of each interface to provide useful data for identification\\/confirmation of analytes and the possibility of obtaining structural information for the

Y Picó; J. C Moltó; J Mañes

2000-01-01

189

Identification of higenamine and its metabolites in rat by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

(±)-Higenamine is known as a cardiotonic principle of aconite root (root ofAconitum spp., Ranunculaceae). A simple and sensitive detection method for higenamine was developed by using gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The recovery of higenamine after extraction and concentration with XAD-2 resin column was around 95%\\u000a from rat biological fluids such as bile, plasma and urine. The limits of detection of

Jae-Chun Ryu; Yun-Seon Song; Myungsoo Kim; Jung-Hyuck Cho; Hye Sook Yun-Choi

1993-01-01

190

Determination of imidazole and triazole fungicide residues in honeybees using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method employing clean up by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Florisil cartridges was developed to determine residues of eleven imidazole and triazole ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting (EBI) fungicides in honeybee samples. Detection was by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was validated by fortifying control samples at levels

Andrew J. A. Charlton; Ainsley Jones

2007-01-01

191

Determination of Perfluorooctane Sulphonate in Fabrics and Leathers using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was established for the determination of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in fabrics and leathers using liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS). PFOS in fabrics and leathers was extracted by sonication with 0.1 M HCl and methanol. The extract was separated on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 ?m) with methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate (70:30) as the

Huang Xiao-Lan; Wu Hui-Qin; Huang Fang; Lin Xiao-Shan; Zhu Zhi-Xin

2007-01-01

192

Determination of Five Phthalate Monoesters in Human Urine Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method to determine five phthalate monoesters (monoethyl\\u000a phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBz))\\u000a in human urine. Human urine samples were subjected to enzymatic deconjugation of the glucuronides followed by extraction with\\u000a hexane. The extracted phthalate monoesters were methylated with diazomethane, purified on a

Fumio Kondo; Yoshitomo Ikai; Rumiko Hayashi; Masanao Okumura; Satoshi Takatori; Hiroyuki Nakazawa; Shun-ichiro Izumi; Tsunehisa Makino

2010-01-01

193

Determination of grinding aids in portland cement by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of Portland cement followed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry is described for the determination of chemical additives interground with cement clinkers known as grinding aids. This technique, coupled with in situ derivitization using BSTFA-TMCS reagent, has been found to be readily applicable for detecting phenol, along with five glycol and alkanolamine-type compounds in cement. The recovery rate was found

A. A Jeknavorian; E. F Barry; F Serafin

1998-01-01

194

Assay of serum allantoin in humans by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The small amount of allantoin present in human serum results from free radical (FR) action on urate and may provide a stable marker of free radical activity in vivo. We describe a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) assay for serum allantoin and report a reference range in healthy individuals. Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 134 healthy middle-aged volunteers

Darrell V Pavitt; Sue de Fonseka; Nisrin Al-Khalaf; Janice M Cam; David A Reaveley

2002-01-01

195

Variability of matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues after QuEChERS sample preparation of different food crops.  

PubMed

Gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) serve as the most powerful analytical tools commonly used to monitor pesticide residues in food, among other applications. However, both GC-MS and LC-MS are susceptible to matrix effects which can adversely affect quantification depending on the analyte, matrix, sample preparation, instrumentation, and operating conditions. Among the approaches that reduce matrix effects, the most common in pesticide residue applications is matrix-matched calibration because it is relatively inexpensive and simple. Also, it has been shown to work well during method validation when fortified samples are exactly matched with samples used for calibration. However, the quality of matrix-matched results in real-world analyses depends on the consistency of matrix effects among diverse samples. In this study, the variability of matrix effects was measured for 38 representative pesticides in 20 samples each (including different varieties) of rice, orange, apple, and spinach extracted using the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) method for analysis by LC-MS/MS and low-pressure GC-MS. Using LC-MS/MS, only oranges gave >20% matrix effects for a few pesticides. GC-MS exhibited larger matrix effects, but as in LC-MS/MS, the differences were reasonably consistent among the 20 samples tested. Main conclusions of this study are that for the conditions utilized: (1) matrix-matching was not needed for most pesticides in the simpler food matrices; and (2) for the more complex orange matrix, acceptably accurate quantitative results were achieved by using matrix-matching even with a different sample of the same type. However, full confidence cannot be extended to matrix-matched results, and for consequential applications such as regulatory enforcement, confirmatory analyses using alternate quantitative determinations should also be conducted. PMID:23182936

Kwon, Hyeyoung; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía

2012-12-28

196

Determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine in cosmetic products by headspace solid phase microextraction using a novel aluminum hydroxide grafted fused silica fiber followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

A method based on headspace solid phase microextraction with a new fiber, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of NDELA in cosmetic samples. The fiber provides Lewis acid-base interaction between its surface and analyte functional groups. The fiber was prepared by grafting aluminum tri-tert-butoxide on the surface of a fused silica. The optimization of SPME conditions showed that NDELA can be most effectively extracted at 70°C, in 15 min, with a sample volume of 0.5 (Vs/Vt), stirring rate of 150 rpm, desorption time of 5 min, desorption temperature of 260°C and at 12.5% (w/w) concentration of NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, LOD of 1 ?g Kg(-1) and a calibration curve with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9897 and a linearity range from 6 to 10000 ?g Kg(-1) were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy were evaluated at four concentration levels. All of the values for accuracy and precision were lower than the acceptable limit of 15%. The fiber to fiber repeatability was 8.7%. The method was applied for the analysis of real samples including hair shampoo, body shampoo, dishwashing liquid and hand washing liquid. Relative recoveries were achieved in the range of 95-99%. PMID:23598029

Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Masoomi, Leila; Banitaba, Mohammad Hossein; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Sadeghi, Omid; Samiei, Azam

2013-02-15

197

Analysis of pesticides and metabolites in Spanish surface waters by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with previous automated solid-phase extraction Estimation of the uncertainty of the analytical results.  

PubMed

A method based on isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) is described for the analysis of 32 pesticides and metabolites in surface waters. This approach consist in the use of nine isotopically labelled representative pesticides as internal standards, which allows high accuracy (trueness and precision) and sensitivity for most analysed compounds, as it is required for isotope dilution-based methods. Uncertainties associated with pesticide determination in real samples were estimated using quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data. For most pesticides expanded uncertainty was below 40%, according to the commonly established requirements for analytical results. Ninety three Spanish surface waters collected in June-July and September-November 2004 were analysed. Concentration and occurrence of pesticides were evaluated. These parameters were higher in the summer than in the autumn period. In summer four pesticides were found in more than 50% of the analysed samples and four compounds were detected above the concentration level of 1 microg/l (atrazine, terbutylazine, 3,4-dichloroaniline and fenitrothion), while in autumn percentage of detection was below 50% for all pesticides and only one compound (terbutylazine) exceeded 1 microg/l. PMID:16962600

Planas, Carles; Puig, Alejandra; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

2006-10-27

198

Online in situ analysis of selected semi-volatile organic compounds in water by automated microscale solid-phase extraction with large-volume injection/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A fully automated analytical method was developed for the online in situ analysis of selected semi-volatile organic compounds in water. The method used a large-volume injection/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with a fully automated microscale solid-phase extraction technique, which was based on x-y-z robotic techniques. Water samples were extracted by using a 96-well solid-phase extraction plate. For most analytes included in this study, the obtained linear calibrations ranged from 0.05 to 5.0 microg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.996-1.000, the method detection limits were less than 0.1 microg/L, and the relative recoveries were in the range of 70-120% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15% for fortified reagent water samples. The applications to chlorinated tap water, well water, and river water have been validated. The obtained results were similar to those resulting from fortified reagent water samples for all analytes except metribuzin, bromacil, aldrin, and methoxychlor. Matrix effects were observed for these analytes. In general, this fully automated analytical method was rugged, reliable, and easy to operate, and was capable of providing real-time data to water treatment and distribution systems as well as water reservation and protection systems. In addition, the method could reduce the analytical costs associated with sample collection, transportation, storage, and preparation. PMID:18036538

Li, Yongtao; George, John E; McCarty, Christina L

2007-12-28

199

Methods of analysis and quality-assurance practices of the U.S. Geological Survey organic laboratory, Sacramento, California; determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical method and quality-assurance practices were developed for a study of the fate and transport of pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Sacramento and San Joaquin River. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended parti- culate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide, and the pesticides were eluted with three 2-milliliter aliquots of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1). The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for analytes determined per 1,500-milliliter samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.047 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 89 percent for 12 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.05 and 0.26 microgram per liter. The method was modified to improve the pesticide recovery by reducing the sample volume to 1,000 milliliters. Internal standards were added to improve quantitative precision and accuracy. The analysis also was expanded to include a total of 21 pesticides. The method detection limits for 1,000-milliliter samples ranged from 0.022 to 0.129 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 38 to 128 percent for 21 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.10 and 0.75 microgram per liter.

Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

1994-01-01

200

Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

201

Advanced Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Proteomics  

SciTech Connect

The liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of peptides has become a routine method for proteomics – the study of the entire complement of proteins e.g., expressed by a cell under a specific set of conditions at a specific time. Mixtures of peptides, such as those generated from enzymatic (e.g., trypsin) digestion of globally recovered proteins (i.e. a proteome), are typically very complex and >100,000 different molecular species may be observable using MS detection [1]. LC separations implemented prior to MS for broad protein identification have three major roles: 1) to isolate individual components or reduce complexity as much as possible, 2) to increase sensitivity by concentrating the components into narrow zones prior to MS, and 3) to eliminate or displace interfering species (e.g., salts and polymers) that may be present in proteomics samples. A desired quality of LC separation can be achieved from the use of either multiple steps of moderate quality separations, or fewer steps of high power separations. The former approach is generally more easily accessible for very high quality separations due to the variety of commercialized LC platforms available, while the latter still often requires considerable developmental efforts (for both columns and instrumentation). In addition to proteomics data quality, other differences between these two approaches include proteomics analysis time and sample consumption (and subsequent analysis costs), as well as direct impact on potential proteomics applications that have special requirements in terms of analysis coverage, sample size, dynamic range, sensitivity, and throughput.

Shen, Yufeng; Page, Jason S.; Smith, Richard D.

2009-02-23

202

Laser desorption fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams.  

PubMed

A novel method for fast analysis is presented. It is based on laser desorption injection followed by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in supersonic molecular beams. The sample was placed in an open air or purged laser desorption compartment, held at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature conditions. Desorption was performed with a XeCl Excimer pulsed laser with pulse energy of typically 3 mJ on the surface. About 20 pulses at 50 Hz were applied for sample injection, resulting in about 0.4 s injection time and one or a few micrograms sample vapor or small particles. The laser desorbed sample was further thermally vaporized at a heated frit glass filter located at the fast GC inlet. Ultrafast GC separation and quantification was achieved with a 50-cm-long megabore column operated with a high carrier gas flow rate of up to 240 mL/min. The high carrier gas flow rate provided effective and efficient entrainment of the laser desorbed species in the sweeping gas. Following the fast GC separation, the sample was analyzed by mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams. Both electron ionization and hyperthermal surface ionization were employed for enhanced selectivity and sensitivity. Typical laser desorption analysis time was under 10 s. The laser desorption fast GC-MS was studied and demonstrated with the following sample/matrices combinations, all without sample preparation or extraction: (a) traces of dioctylphthalate plasticizer oil on stainless steel surface and the efficiency of its cleaning; (b) the detection of methylparathion and aldicarb pesticides on orange leaves; (c) water surface analysis for the presence of methylparathion pesticide; (d) caffeine analysis in regular and decaffeinated coffee powder; (e) paracetamol and codeine drug analysis in pain relieving drug tablets; (f) caffeine trace analysis in raw urine; (g) blood analysis for the presence of 1 ppm lidocaine drug. The features and advantages of the laser desorption fast GC-MS are demonstrated and discussed. PMID:9879375

Shahar, T; Dagan, S; Amirav, A

1998-06-01

203

Development of a technique for mercury speciation and quantification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

One element of concern to DOE is mercury. Mercury was used extensively at the DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee from 1950 to 1963 in the process of making lithium deuteride, a component of nuclear weapons. Although both the inorganic and organometallic forms of mercury are toxic to humans, the organic compounds are often more toxic. Since the toxicity of mercury is a function of its chemical form, an understanding of the interactions between commercially discharged mercury, naturally occurring mercury, and the environment in which they are present is vital. In this report, the authors have been investigating gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the analysis of both the organometallic and inorganic forms of mercury in the same environmental sample (e.g., solutions, soils, and sludges). Although gas chromatography is the classical technique for analyzing organic molecules, (e.g., organometallic compounds) little has been done on the analysis of inorganic compounds. In a previous publication, the authors described how a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber could be used to sample organomercurials from aqueous samples. An alkylation reaction was then carried out to transform chemically mercury nitrate into dimethylmercury; subsequent GC/MS analysis of this compound permitted quantification of the inorganic constituent. Subsequently, several different alkylation reagents have been synthesized that methylate any inorganic mercury compound to methylmercury iodide. Here, the authors report results on alkylation reaction time and the effect of pH on the population of the product.

Barshick, S.A.; Barshick, C.M.; Britt, P.F.; Vance, M.A.; Duckworth, D.C.

1997-07-01

204

Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-GCMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Earth, the C-13 content of organic compounds is depleted by roughly 13 to 23 permil from atmospheric carbon dioxide. This difference is largely due to isotope effects associated with the fixation of inorganic carbon by photosynthetic organisms. If life once existed on Mars, then it is reasonable to expect to observe a similar fractionation. Although the strongly oxidizing conditions on the surface of Mars make preservation of ancient organic material unlikely, carbon-isotope evidence for the existence of life on Mars may still be preserved. Carbon depleted in C-13 could be preserved either in organic compounds within buried sediments, or in carbonate minerals produced by the oxidation of organic material. A technique is introduced for rapid and precise measurement of the C-13 contents of individual organic compounds. A gas chromatograph is coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer through a combustion interface, enabling on-line isotopic analysis of isolated compounds. The isotope ratios are determined by integration of ion currents over the course of each chromatographic peak. Software incorporates automatic peak determination, corrections for background, and deconvolution of overlapped peaks. Overall performance of the instrument was evaluated by the analysis of a mixture of high purity n-alkanes of know isotopic composition. Isotopic values measured via IRM-GCMS averaged withing 0.55 permil of their conventionally measured values.

Freeman, K. H.; Ricci, S. A.; Studley, A.; Hayes, J. M.

1989-01-01

205

Determination of oxadiazon residues by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of trace amounts of the herbicide oxadiazon was developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and selected ion monitoring. It was applied to determine oxadiazon in ground water, agricultural soil, must, wine and human urine samples. To determine oxadiazon in liquid samples, a response surface methodology generated with a Doehlert design was applied to optimize the HS-SPME conditions using a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre. For the analysis of soil samples, they were mixed with water and the SPME fibre suspended in the headspace above the slurry. Ground water, human urine and must show linear concentration range of application of 0.5-50 ng ml(-1)' with detection limits < or =0.02 ng ml(-1). HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis yielded good reproducibility (RSD values between 6.5 and 13.5%). The method validation was completed with spiked matrix samples. The developed analytical procedure is solvent free, cost effective and fast. PMID:11873973

Navalón, Alberto; Prieto, Avismelsi; Araujo, Lilia; Vílchez, José Luis

2002-02-01

206

Determination of starch lysophospholipids in rice using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).  

PubMed

Acquiring a complete understanding of rice starch lysophospholipids (LPLs), their biosynthetic pathways and genetic diversity, and the influence of genotype by environment interactions has been hampered by the lack of efficient high-throughput extraction and analysis methods. It was hypothesized a single-step aqueous n-propanol extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) could be employed to analyze starch LPLs in white rice. The investigation found different grinding methods showed little effect on the final LPL detected, and a simple single-step extraction with 75% n-propanol (8 mL/0.15 g) heated at 100 °C for 2 h was as effective as an onerous multistep extraction method. A LC-MS method was optimized to simultaneously quantify 10 major LPLs in rice starch within 15 min. This method enables total and individual starch LPL analysis of a large number of rice samples at little cost. This approach could be applied to starch LPLs in other cereals. PMID:24953871

Liu, Lei; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; King, Graham J

2014-07-16

207

Derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.  

PubMed

A sensitive and rapid analytical methodology based on derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative determination of the toxic contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC, urethane, C(2)H(5)OCONH(2)) in alcoholic samples. EC was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction technique, and then silylated with bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, analysed finally by GC-MS. The isopropyl carbamate was used as the internal standard for quantitative analysis of EC in alcoholic samples. In this work, the sample extraction and derivatization reaction conditions were investigated, and the optimal extraction conditions obtained were: pH 9 and solvent of ethyl acetate, and the derivatization conditions were: derivatization reaction temperature of 80°C and time duration of 30 min. With the optimal conditions, the method validations were also studied. In the validation studies, EC exhibited good linearity with a regression coefficient of 0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.30 and 5.0 ?g/kg, respectively. The precision was less than 8.4%. Finally, the proposed technique was successfully applied to the analysis of EC in 35 kinds of alcoholic samples. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed technique is a fast, reliable and low-cost method for determination of EC in alcoholic samples. PMID:22383421

Xu, Xuejiao; Gao, Yihan; Cao, Xiujun; Wang, Xiang; Song, Guoxin; Zhao, Jianfeng; Hu, Yaoming

2012-04-01

208

Analysis of protein composition of red wine in comparison with rose? and white wines by electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS).  

PubMed

Wine proteins not only influence wine stability but are also being discussed as potential allergens. Proteins from red, rose?, and white wines were enriched by dialysis and lyophilization followed by separation by SDS-PAGE. Significant differences were detected in the protein compositions of the analyzed wine varieties, and the major protein bands were identified by mass spectrometry after in-gel digestion with trypsin. In German Portugieser red wine, a total of 121 tryptic peptides were identified, which were attributed to 12 grape proteins and 6 proteins derived from yeast. Among the identified constituents are several proteins considered to influence wine stability and previously described potential grape allergens. The pathogenesis-related proteins represent the main proteins in all of the wines, but only some red wines show a band with a molecular mass of 12 kDa, identified as a lipid transfer protein (LTP). The occurrence and distribution of LTP depend on the wine variety. PMID:19385597

Wigand, Petra; Tenzer, Stefan; Schild, Hansjoerg; Decker, Heinz

2009-05-27

209

Study on essential oils from four species of Zhishi with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus fruits are widely used as food and or for medicinal purposes, and they contain a host of active substances that contribute to health. The immature fruits of Citrus sinensis Osbeck and its cultivars (CS), C. junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (CJ), C. aurantium L. and its cultivars (CA) and Poncirus trifoliate Raf. (PT) are the most commonly used medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine, called Zhishi. And their mature fruits can be used as food. Results In this study, the essential oils of four different Zhishi species were extracted by steam distillation and detected using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 39 volatiles from the four species were tentatively identified. The limonene was the most abundant amongst the four species. Principal component analysis (PCA) of essential oils showed a clear separation of volatiles among CS, CJ and PT. However, CA could not be separated from these three species. Additionally, the volatiles accounting for the variations among the widely separated species were characterized through their corresponding loading weight. Conclusion Sesquiterpenes were identified as characteristic markers for PT. The content of some monoterpenes could be as taxonomic markers between CS and CJ. This work is of great importance for the evaluation and authentication of Zhishi samples through essential oils. PMID:24708882

2014-01-01

210

[Determination of five representative ultraviolet filters in water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of five representative organic UV filters: ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), octocrylene (OC), homosalate (HMS) in water was investigated. The method was ased on derivatization, solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by determination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The variables involved in the derivatization of BP-3 and HMS were optimized, and SPE conditions were studied. For derivatization, 100 microL N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) was used as derivatization reagent and reacted with BP-3 and HMS at 100 degrees C for 100 min. For SPE, the pH value of water sample was adjusted to 3-5. The Oasis HLB cartridges were employed and the solution of ethyl acetate and dichloromethane (1 : 1, v/v) was used as the eluting solvent, and good recoveries of the target compounds were obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the five target compounds in water samples were 0.5-1.2 ng/L and 1.4-4.0 ng/L, respectively. The recoveries of spiked water samples were 87.85%-102.34% with good repeatability and reproducibility (RSD < 5%, n = 3) for all the target compounds. Finally, the validated method was applied to analysis the representative UV filters in water samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Kunming city of Yunnan province. PMID:25269262

Ding, Yiran; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Tingting; Cai, Qian; Luo, Yu; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Yuxia; Pan, Xuejun

2014-06-01

211

Determination of Morphine and Codeine in Human Urine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine. The GC-MS conditions were developed. The analysis was carried out on a HP-1MS column (30?m × 0.25?mm, 0.25??m) with temperature programming, and Helium was used as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0?mL/min. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to quantify morphine and codeine. The derivation solvent, temperature, and time were optimized. A mixed solvent of propionic anhydride and pyridine (5?:?2) was finally used for the derivation at 80°C for 3?min. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 25–2000.0?ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 25?ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD) values were below 13%, and the accuracy was in the range 87.2–108.5%. This developed method was successfully used for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine for forensic identification study. PMID:24222889

Zhang, Xiaoqian; Cao, Gaozhong; Hu, Guoxin

2013-01-01

212

Multiplicative effects model with internal standard in mobile phase for quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays suffer from signal instability caused by the gradual fouling of the ion source, vacuum instability, aging of the ion multiplier, etc. To address this issue, in this contribution, an internal standard was added into the mobile phase. The internal standard was therefore ionized and detected together with the analytes of interest by the mass spectrometer to ensure that variations in measurement conditions and/or instrument have similar effects on the signal contributions of both the analytes of interest and the internal standard. Subsequently, based on the unique strategy of adding internal standard in mobile phase, a multiplicative effects model was developed for quantitative LC-MS assays and tested on a proof of concept model system: the determination of amino acids in water by LC-MS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently mitigate the detrimental effects of continuous signal variation, and achieved quantitative results with average relative predictive error values in the range of 8.0-15.0%, which were much more accurate than the corresponding results of conventional internal standard method based on the peak height ratio and partial least squares method (their average relative predictive error values were as high as 66.3% and 64.8%, respectively). Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can be developed and extended in quantitative LC-MS analysis of more complex systems. PMID:24840455

Song, Mi; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Jin, Jing-Wen

2014-07-01

213

Relative quantitation of transfer RNAs using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and signature digestion products  

PubMed Central

Transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are challenging to identify and quantify from unseparated mixtures. Our lab previously developed the signature digestion approach for identifying tRNAs without specific separation. Here we describe the combination of relative quantification via enzyme-mediated isotope labeling with this signature digestion approach for the relative quantification of tRNAs. These quantitative signature digestion products were characterized using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and we find that up to 5-fold changes in tRNA abundance can be quantified from sub-microgram amounts of total tRNA. Quantitative tRNA signature digestion products must (i) incorporate an isotopic label during enzymatic digestion; (ii) have no m/z interferences from other signature digestion products in the sample and (iii) yield a linear response during LC-MS analysis. Under these experimental conditions, the RNase T1, A and U2 signature digestion products that potentially could be used for the relative quantification of Escherichia coli tRNAs were identified, and the linearity and sequence identify of RNase T1 signature digestion products were experimentally confirmed. These RNase T1 quantitative signature digestion products were then used in proof-of-principle experiments to quantify changes arising due to different culturing media to 17 tRNA families. This method enables new experiments where information regarding tRNA identity and changes in abundance are desired. PMID:20587503

Castleberry, Colette M.; Limbach, Patrick A.

2010-01-01

214

Measurement of F2- isoprostanes and isofurans using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

F2-Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are isomers of prostaglandin F2? formed from the nonenzymatic free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Since discovery of these molecules by Morrow and Roberts in 1990, F2-IsoPs have been shown to be excellent biomarkers as well as potent mediators of oxidative stress in vivo in humans. Isofurans (IsoFs) are also oxidation products generated from the none-nzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. IsoFs are preferentially formed instead of F2-IsoPs in settings of increased oxygen tension. The protocol presented herein is the current methodology that our laboratory uses to quantify F2-IsoPs and IsoFs in biological tissues and fluids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A variety of analytical procedures to measure F2-IsoPs, including other GC/MS methods and liquid chromatography/MS and immunological approaches, are reported in the literature. This method provides a very low limit of quantitation and is suitable for analysis of both F2-IsoPs and IsoFs from a variety of biological sources including urine, plasma, tissues, cerebral spinal fluid, exhaled breath condensate, and amniotic fluid, among others. PMID:23044261

Milne, Ginger L.; Gao, Benlian; Terry, Erin S.; Zackert, William E.; Sanchez, Stephanie C.

2015-01-01

215

Compound Identification Using Partial and Semi-partial Correlations for Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Data  

PubMed Central

Compound identification is a key component of data analysis in the applications of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Currently, the most widely used compound identification is mass spectrum matching, in which dot product and its composite version are employed as spectral similarity measures. Several forms of transformations for fragment ion intensities have also been proposed to increase the accuracy of compound identification. In this study, we introduced partial and semi-partial correlations as mass spectral similarity measures and applied them to identify compounds along with different transformations of peak intensity. The mixture versions of the proposed method were also developed to further improve the accuracy of compound identification. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed spectral similarity measures, the National Institute of Standard Technology (NIST) mass spectral library and replicate spectral library were used as the reference library and the query spectra, respectively. Identification results showed that the mixture partial and semi-partial correlations always outperform both the dot-product and its composite measure. The mixture similarity with semi-partial correlation has the highest accuracy of 84.6% in compound identification with a transformation of (0.53, 1.3) for fragment ion intensity and m/z value, respectively. PMID:22794294

Kim, Seongho; Koo, Imhoi; Jeong, Jaesik; Wu, Shiwen; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Xiang

2012-01-01

216

Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei). PMID:20349349

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick

2010-06-01

217

S-nitrosoglutathione in rat cerebellum: identification and quantification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Given the extreme lability and the facile inactivation of the messenger nitric oxide (NO) by many reactive biochemical species, it has been suggested that some intermediate compounds, for example, S-nitrosothiols, may act to stabilize NO and at the same time to preserve its biological activity. To test this hypothesis, we investigated if the S-nitrosothiol of glutathione, which is the predominant low molecular weight thiol in CNS, is present in the rat brain. The HPLC analysis of cerebellar extract from [35S]cysteine-prelabeled slices suggested that S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was indeed present in rat brain. To detect endogenous GSNO, a methodology based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. Besides an unequivocal identification of the endogenous GSNO, this method also permitted its precise quantification using 15N-labeled GSNO ([15N]GSNO) as internal standard. GSNO level in adult cerebellum amounts to 15.4 +/- 1.4 pmol/mg of protein. This is the first direct demonstration of the presence of endogenous GSNO in CNS. The packaging of NO in the form of GSNO might serve to facilitate its transport, prolong its life, and target its delivery to specific effectors. PMID:9375694

Kluge, I; Gutteck-Amsler, U; Zollinger, M; Do, K Q

1997-12-01

218

Profiling of Serum Metabolites in Canine Lymphoma Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Canine lymphoma is a common cancer that has high rates of complete remission with combination chemotherapy. However, the duration of remission varies based on multiple factors, and there is a need to develop a method for early detection of recurrence. In this study, we compared the metabolites profiles in serum from 21 dogs with lymphoma and 13 healthy dogs using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The lymphoma group was separated from the control group in an orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) plot using ions of m/z 100–600, indicating that the metabolites profiles in lymphoma cases differed from those in healthy dogs. The lymphoma group was also separated from the control group on OPLS-DA plot using 29 metabolites identified in all serum samples. Significant differences were found for 16 of these metabolites with higher levels in the lymphoma group for 15 of the metabolites and lower levels for inositol. An OPLS-DA plot showed separation of the lymphoma and healthy groups using these 16 metabolites only. These results indicate that metabolites profile with GC-MS may be a useful tool for detection of potential biomarker and diagnosis of canine lymphoma. PMID:25131950

TAMAI, Reo; FURUYA, Masaru; HATOYA, Shingo; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; YAMAMOTO, Ryohei; KOMORI, Yoshiaki; YOKOI, Shin-ichi; TANI, Kenichiro; HIRANO, Yuji; KOMORI, Masayuki; TAKENAKA, Shigeo

2014-01-01

219

Profiling of serum metabolites in canine lymphoma using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Canine lymphoma is a common cancer that has high rates of complete remission with combination chemotherapy. However, the duration of remission varies based on multiple factors, and there is a need to develop a method for early detection of recurrence. In this study, we compared the metabolites profiles in serum from 21 dogs with lymphoma and 13 healthy dogs using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The lymphoma group was separated from the control group in an orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) plot using ions of m/z 100-600, indicating that the metabolites profiles in lymphoma cases differed from those in healthy dogs. The lymphoma group was also separated from the control group on OPLS-DA plot using 29 metabolites identified in all serum samples. Significant differences were found for 16 of these metabolites with higher levels in the lymphoma group for 15 of the metabolites and lower levels for inositol. An OPLS-DA plot showed separation of the lymphoma and healthy groups using these 16 metabolites only. These results indicate that metabolites profile with GC-MS may be a useful tool for detection of potential biomarker and diagnosis of canine lymphoma. PMID:25131950

Tamai, Reo; Furuya, Masaru; Hatoya, Shingo; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Komori, Yoshiaki; Yokoi, Shin-Ichi; Tani, Kenichiro; Hirano, Yuji; Komori, Masayuki; Takenaka, Shigeo

2014-12-01

220

Determination of five phthalate monoesters in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We have developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine five phthalate monoesters (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBz)) in human urine. Human urine samples were subjected to enzymatic deconjugation of the glucuronides followed by extraction with hexane. The extracted phthalate monoesters were methylated with diazomethane, purified on a Florisil column and then subjected to GC-MS analysis. The recoveries from urine spiked with five phthalate monoesters were 86.3%-119% with coefficients of variation of 0.6%-6.1%. We measured phthalate monoester levels in human urine by analyzing 36 samples from volunteers. MBP and MEP were detected in all samples, and their median concentrations were 60.0 and 10.7 ng/mL, respectively. MBzP and MEHP were found in 75% and 56% of samples, and their median concentrations were 10.9 and 5.75 ng/mL, respectively. MINPs were not detected in most samples (6% detectable). Women had significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of MBP and MEP than men. The estimated daily exposure levels for the four parent phthalates excluding diisononyl phthalate ranged from 0.27 to 5.69 mug/kg/day (median). PMID:20574658

Kondo, Fumio; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Hayashi, Rumiko; Okumura, Masanao; Takatori, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Shun-ichiro; Makino, Tsunehisa

2010-07-01

221

Evaluation of column hardware on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of phosphorylated compounds.  

PubMed

The influences of column hardware, such as chromatographic tubes and frits, on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of phosphorylated compounds were evaluated. The signal to noise ratio (S/N) and the intensity of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) using a glass lined tube and polyethylene frit (GL-PE) column was approximately 170 and 90 times higher, respectively, than those using conventional stainless steel tube and stainless steel frit (S-S) column. In addition, the retention time of FAD using GL-PE column was the shortest compared to other columns. Interaction between phosphorylated compounds and metal ions in the flow path in the S-S column was stronger than that between them and the GL-PE column. Thus, the metal ions in the flow path in GL-PE column were low. Since the specific surface area of a pair of frits was 70 times larger than that of a chromatographic tube (150mm×2.1mm), the frits were found to have more effective improvement of the S/N as well as the intensity than the chromatographic tubes, when phosphorylated compounds were analyzed by LC-MS. When the evaluated phosphorylated compounds were analyzed by LC-MS(/MS) using a GL-PE column, the intensity and S/N were increased. PMID:25604270

Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, Takeharu; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide

2015-02-13

222

Optimization of focused ultrasonic extraction of propellant components determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for focused ultrasonic extraction of nitroglycerin, triphenyl amine and acetyl tributyl citrate presented in double-base propellant samples following by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis was developed. A face-centered central composite design of the experiments and response surface modeling was used for optimization of the time, amplitude and sample amount. The dichloromethane was used as the extractant solvent. The optimal extraction conditions with respect to the maximum yield of the lowest abundant compound triphenyl amine were found at the 20 min extraction time, 35% amplitude of ultrasonic waves and 2.5 g of the propellant sample. The results obtained under optimal conditions were compared with the results achieved with validated Soxhlet extraction method, which is typically used for isolation and pre-concentration of compounds from the samples of explosives. The extraction yields for acetyl tributyl citrate using both extraction methods were comparable; however, the yield of ultrasonic extraction of nitroglycerin and triphenyl amine was lower than using Soxhlet extraction. The possible sources of different extraction yields are estimated and discussed. PMID:22967558

Fryš, Ond?ej; ?esla, Petr; Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Ventura, Karel

2012-09-15

223

Rapid and sensitive method for the determination of propylene oxide in cigarette mainstream smoke by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of propylene oxide in cigarette mainstream smoke is reported. Validation data show the method, which requires a minimum of sample preparation, to be selective, sensitive, reliable, and robust. Propylene oxide is found in the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F at concentrations of 0.93 and 0.65 microg/cigarette, respectively, with a quantitation limit of 0.135 microg/cigarette. PMID:16599409

Diekmann, Joerg; Douda, Michael; Rustemeier, Klaus

2006-01-01

224

Using microwave distillation-solid-phase microextraction--gas chromatography--mass spectrometry for analyzing fish tissue.  

PubMed

A technique for the analysis of the volatile compounds from fish tissue employing microwave distillation-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. A qualitative listing of 174 compounds observed in the headspace is given, and a quantitative method for the determination of the off-flavor contaminants (2-methylisoborneol and geosmin) is presented. Borneol and decahydro-1-naphthol are used as the surrogate and internal standards, respectively. A linear calibration curve is obtained for 0.1 to 5 ppb with a recovery level of 60% at 2.5 ppb. Comparison of the instrumental method with a human flavor checker showed good agreement. PMID:10901414

Grimm, C C; Lloyd, S W; Batista, R; Zimba, P V

2000-07-01

225

Comprehensive drug screening by integrated use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Remedi HS.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated an integrated approach for the screening of drugs in biosamples consisting of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of serum or whole blood (SB/GC-MS) and of high-performance liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis of urine with the REMEDi HS Biorad system (U/REM) (Bio-rad; Segrate, MI, Italy). Urine and blood samples from 26 suspected intoxicated patients and from 22 suspected lethal poisoning cases were examined. Eighty-one of the 99 parent drugs/main metabolites detected were identified by SB/GC-MS and 54 with U/REM. Thirty-six drugs/metabolites were identified with both methods, 45 by SB/GC-MS alone, and 18 by U/REM alone. Absence of the mass spectrometry (MS) spectra in the reference library and high polarity of the analytes were the main reasons for failed identification by SB/GC-MS. Unsuccessful identifications with U/REM were basically caused by the absence of the UV spectra in the reference library or by low chromatographic and spectroscopic selectivity as in the case of barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BZD), which represented 11% and 51%, respectively, of the 45 SB/GC-MS unique identifications. Urine samples of 14 BZD-positive cases were also submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and analyzed with the REMEDi UBz assay, and results were compared with those obtained by SB/GC-MS: 14 of the 22 identified BZD were detected with both methods, three by U/REM only, and five by SB/GC-MS only. In conclusion, the integrated use of SB/GC-MS and U/REM approaches greatly enhances the amount and quality of analytical information obtainable by applying either method alone. PMID:11360040

Valli, A; Polettini, A; Papa, P; Montagna, M

2001-06-01

226

Analysis of trichothecene mycotoxins in contaminated grains by gas chromatography/matrix isolation/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/matrix isolation/Fourier transform infrared (GC/MI/FTIR) spectroscopy and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) were used to confirm the identities of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of trichothecene mycotoxins in naturally contaminated grains. Infrared spectral bands observed in the fingerprint region were unique for 10 trichothecene standards. Characteristic absorption bands were observed for the ester (near 1750 cm-1) and ketone (near 1700 cm-1) carbonyl stretching vibrations, the acetate CH3 symmetric bend (1370 cm-1), the epoxide ring (1262 cm-1), the trimethylsilyl CH3 in-plane deformation (1253 cm-1), the ester (O)C-O asymmetric stretching vibration (near 1244 cm-1), and several other bands including intense features due to the TMS function. Infrared bands observed under cryogenic matrix isolation conditions were compared with those found at room temperature in a potassium bromide matrix for 5 of these standards. Identities of deoxynivalenol (DON) from barley and mixed feed, nivalenol from wheat and barley, and DON and fusarenon-x from sweet corn were confirmed by comparison of their infrared spectral bands with those of standards. The identity of DON in the same test samples of sweet corn was confirmed further by GC/MS. GC/MS was also used to quantitate the levels of DON (67-455 ppm) in sweet corn test samples. PMID:8823920

Mossoba, M M; Adams, S; Roach, J A; Trucksess, M W

1996-01-01

227

Solid-phase microextraction on-fiber derivatization for the analysis of some polyphenols in wine and grapes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present study describes a new environmentally friendly sample pretreatment system based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the sensitive determination of polyphenols. A derivatization process was necessary to convert the polar non-volatile compounds into volatile derivatives. Direct immersion (DI) SPME was used for the adsorption of polyphenols, and then the fiber was placed in the headspace of the derivatizing reagent, bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The separation was carried out by coupling gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode, after silylation. Optimal extraction conditions were 25 degrees C for 10 min under continuous stirring using DI and a polyacrylate fiber. After extraction, the fiber was inserted into the headspace of BSTFA (10 microL) and the polyphenols were derivatized for 15 min at 50 degrees C. Desorption was carried out at 280 degrees C for 5 min. The method allowed the determination of both isomers cis- and trans-resveratrol, piceatannol, catechin and epicatechin in wine and grapes, and it was validated for linearity, detection and quantitation limits, selectivity, accuracy and precision. Detection limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.9 ng mL(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound. Recoveries obtained for spiked samples were satisfactory for all compounds. PMID:19150539

Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Martínez-Castillo, Nelson; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

2009-02-27

228

Quantitative Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Isomer-Specific Measurement of Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Biological Samples and Food as a Marker of Lipid Peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of individual positional isomers of monohydroxy fatty acids derived from linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acid. Peroxidation of a particular polyunsaturated fatty acid results already in a complex mixture of positional isomers of hydroperoxy and hydroxy fatty acids. Catalytic hydrogenation of lipid extracts produces stable saturated hydroxy

R. Wilson; R. Smith; P. Wilson; M. J. Shepherd; R. A. Riemersma

1997-01-01

229

Adsorption of OrganicAcidsfromAmnioticFluidandUrineonto SilicaGel beforeAnalysisbyGasChromatography andCombined Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for adsorbing organic acids from amniotic fluid and urine specimens onto a column of silica gel before analysis by gas chromatography and by com- bined gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Analytical recoveries of individual organic acids by our adsorption method compare favorably with those obtained by a more laborious manual extraction with ethyl acetate. Results for specimens of

Vincent P. Williams; Dexter K. Ching

230

Analysis of fatty acids in sputum from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry preceded by solid-phase microextraction and post-derivatization on the fiber.  

PubMed

A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and post-derivatization on the fiber coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the analysis of fatty acids in sputum from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The sputum specimens were digested, hydrolyzed, extracted, derivertized, injected and analyzed without cultivation or isolation of the microorganism. Under optimized conditions, the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) for all analytes were below 17% and the limits of detection varied from 1.68 (C(24:0)) to 150.4 microg L(-1) (C(12:0)). Good linearity was observed for all the fatty acids studied except for C(12:0) within a wide concentration range of three orders of magnitudes with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.91 (C(24:0)) to 0.99 (C(14:0)). Fatty acids in sputum specimens from 21 persons were directly analyzed using the proposed method. The results show that in all the sputum specimens from patients, who were clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), tuberculosis stearic acid (TBSA) was detected, while in all the sputum samples from persons without TB, TBSA was not found. The possibility of using the proposed method to detect mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) via the identification of TBSA in sputum was discussed. The comparison with other methods including sputum culture and microscopy of direct smears indicated that the proposed method is fast and sensitive for the analysis of fatty acids in sputum and offers an alternative for the detection of MTB in sputum. PMID:19171347

Cha, Dongmei; Cheng, Dong'e; Liu, Mingming; Zeng, Zhaorui; Hu, Xiaowei; Guan, Wenwu

2009-02-27

231

An accurate and reproducible method for the quantitative analysis of isoflavones and their metabolites in rat plasma using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with photodiode array detection.  

PubMed

To study the safety and potential health benefits of soy isoflavones, a rapid and simple method based on liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and photodiode array detector (PDA) was developed for the determination of isoflavones in rat plasma. The analytes included daidzein, genistein, glycitein, equol, 4-ethyl phenol, and biochanin A over a concentration range of 1.0-4320.0 nM using 75 microL of rat plasma. Rat plasma samples were hydrolyzed by adding an enzyme mixture from Helix pomatia containing glucuronidase and sulfatase to convert the isoflavone beta-glycosides daidzin, genistin, and glycitin to their active aglycone forms. A liquid-liquid extraction method using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent was used to extract aglycones and the internal standards (phenolphthalein beta-D glucuronide, 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfate, and apigenin) from digested plasma samples. The extract was evaporated to dryness under a nitrogen stream, reconstituted with 0.1% formic acid in water-acetonitrile (85 + 15), and injected into a Zorbax SB-CN reversed-phase column (4.6 x 75 mm, 3.5 microm particle size). The Micromass ZQ detector was operated in the positive ion selected-ion monitoring mode. The flow rate for LC was 1.0 mL/min, with a split where 25% of the effluent was introduced into the electrospray ionization probe of the MS instrument and 75% into the PDA. The chromatographic run time was 16.0 min, with delay of 10 min/injection. The interday precision and accuracy of the standard samples were <2.6% relative standard deviation and <10% relative error, respectively. Recovery of the reported isoflavones with this method varied from 86 to 100%. PMID:16915859

Sepehr, Estatira; Robertson, Patrick; Gilani, G Sarwar; Cooke, Gerard; Lau, Benjamin Pui-Yan

2006-01-01

232

COMPUTER SURVEY OF GC/MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY) DATA ACQUIRED IN EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PRIORITY POLLUTANT SCREENING ANALYSIS: SYSTEM AND RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The screening analysis phase of the best available treatment (BAT) review of wastewater treatment techniques by EPA was initiated to assess 21 industrial categories for the 129 'priority pollutants.' Implicit in the purpose of the screening analysis for these pollutants was the n...

233

Characterization of human skin emanations by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) extraction of volatiles and subsequent analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to develop and validate a collection and analysis protocol for human skin emanations. The protocol developed included the rubbing of glass beads on the palms and backs of hands for 20 ...

Akin James (James J.)

2005-01-01

234

Analysis of endocrine disrupting alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol-A using hollow fiber-protected liquid-phase microextraction coupled with injection port-derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine alkylphenols (APs), chlorophenols (CPs) and bisphenol-A (BPA) in aqueous samples. APs, CPs and BPA are highly polar compounds and need to be derivatized before analysis by GC-MS. In this work, they were derivatized in the GC injection port with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The analytes were extracted directly from 5 ml of sample solution using 5 microl of organic solvent though a porous polypropylene hollow fiber. The hollow fiber, filled with an immiscible organic solvent (ca. 5 microl), was immersed in the sample solution which was stirred during the 30-min extraction. An aliquot (2 microl) of the extract and 2 microl of BSTFA were then consecutively injected into the GC injection port. Extraction parameters such as extraction time, pH of sample, concentration of salt added, and stirring rate were optimised. The proposed LPME provided a good average enrichment factor of up to 162-fold, reproducibility ranging from 5.9 to 13.9% (n = 4), and good linearity (r2 = 0.995) for spiked water samples. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged between 0.005 and 0.015 microgl(-1) (S/N = 3) using GC-MS with selective ion monitoring and limits of quantification were in the range of 0.012-0.026 microg l(-1). A comparative study was performed between LPME, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The results obtained suggested that hollow fiber LPME was a rapid, simple and efficient technique for APs, CPs and BPA, and provided a good alternative to SPME and LLE. Finally, the proposed method was applied to monitor Singapore coastal water samples. PMID:15584235

Basheer, Chanbasha; Lee, Hian Kee

2004-11-19

235

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Moderate-Use Pesticides and Selected Degradates in Water by C-18 Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the isolation and analysis of 21 parent pesticides and 20 pesticide degradates in natural-water samples is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase-extraction columns that contain octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the analytes. The columns are dried by using nitrogen gas, and adsorbed analytes are eluted with ethyl acetate. Extracted analytes are determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of three characteristic ions. The upper concentration limit is 2 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for most analytes. Single-operator method detection limits in reagent-water samples range from 0.00 1 to 0.057 ?g/L. Validation data also are presented for 14 parent pesticides and 20 degradates that were determined to have greater bias or variability, or shorter holding times than the other compounds. The estimated maximum holding time for analytes in pesticide-grade water before extraction was 4 days. The estimated maximum holding time for analytes after extraction on the dry solid-phase-extraction columns was 7 days. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time. The method complements existing U.S. Geological Survey Method O-1126-95 (NWQL Schedules 2001 and 2010) by using identical sample preparation and comparable instrument analytical conditions so that sample extracts can be analyzed by either method to expand the range of analytes determined from one water sample.

Sandstrom, Mark W.; Stroppel, Max E.; Foreman, William T.; Schroeder, Michael P.

2001-01-01

236

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Update and Additions to the Determination of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Degradation Compounds in Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1999 for the analysis of selected chloroacetanilide herbicide degradation compounds in water. These compounds were acetochlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. The HPLC/MS method was updated in 2000, and the method detection limits were modified accordingly. Four other degradation compounds also were added to the list of compounds that can be analyzed using HPLC/MS; these compounds were dimethenamid ESA, dimethenamid OXA, flufenacet ESA, and flufenacet OXA. Except for flufenacet OXA, good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for the updated HPLC/MS method in buffered reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the degradation compounds from water samples spiked at 0.20 and 1.0 ?g/L (microgram per liter) ranged from 75 to 114 percent, with relative standard deviations of 15.8 percent or less for all compounds except flufenacet OXA, which had relative standard deviations ranging from 11.3 to 48.9 percent. Method detection levels (MDL's) using the updated HPLC/MS method varied from 0.009 to 0.045 ?g/L, with the flufenacet OXA MDL at 0.072 ?g/L. The updated HPLC/MS method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

Lee, E.A.; Kish, J.L.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.

2001-01-01

237

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN CONGENERS IN GREAT LAKES FISH EXTRACTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY AND IN VITRO ENZYME INDUCTION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The high-resolution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of 25 Great Lakes fish extracts confirmed the identities of several 2,3,7,8-tetrasubstituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). The dominant congener in extracts from Lake Michig...

238

Method Development for the Analysis of 1,4-Dioxane in Drinking Water Using Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

EPA Science Inventory

1,4-Dioxane has been identified as a probable human carcinogen and an emerging contaminant in drinking water. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a method for the analysis of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water at ng/L concentrations. The method consists of...

239

Probing new approaches using atmospheric pressure photo ionization for the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their related degradation products by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure photo ionisation has been evaluated for the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their related degradation products by LC–MS. Degradation mixtures obtained from the photochemical degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A and decabromodiphenylether were used as model systems for the assessment of the developed methodology. Negative ion mode gave best results for TBBPA and its degradation compounds. [M?H]? ions were

Laurent Debrauwer; Anne Riu; Majdouline Jouahri; Estelle Rathahao; Isabelle Jouanin; Jean-Philippe Antignac; Ronan Cariou; Bruno Le Bizec; Daniel Zalko

2005-01-01

240

Foodomics platform for the assay of thiols in wines with fluorescence derivatization and ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using multivariate statistical analysis.  

PubMed

The presence of specific volatile and aminothiols in wine is associated with quality, worth, price, and taste. The identification of specific thiol-containing compounds in various wines has been reported in many valuable and interesting works. In this study, a novel foodomics assay of thiol-containing compounds, such as free aminothiols and related conjugates, was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence (FL) and electrospray (ESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) detections. FL specific derivatization was applied along with multivariate statistical analysis. First, the optimal experimental conditions were studied using representative thiols, such as l-cysteine, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, cysteamine, and l-glutathione, and then the UPLC-FL derivatization and separation steps were fixed for the subsequent screening of unknown thiol-containing compounds. The screening assay consisted of monitoring the UPLC-TOF/MS peaks of unknown thiols, which decreased due to the derivatization as compared to the nonderivatized thiols. The principal component analysis of the UPLC-TOF/MS data could be well-differentiated and categorized into two groups. The orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis, the so-called S-plot, showed that the quality differentiation is directly related to the decrease of native thiols and increase of derivatized thiols. With this strategy, the mass difference from the derivatization reagent (+m/z 198) could be utilized for the identification of these thiols using the FL peaks retention time and metabolomics-databases. The presence of l-glutathione in rice wine was for the first time reported on the basis of the available metabolomics-databases and standard matching. This novel concept based on foodomics could be applied in food analysis for the ready screening of specific functional compounds by exploiting the various derivatization modes available. PMID:23339461

Inoue, Koichi; Nishimura, Maiko; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

2013-02-13

241

Analysis of French and American oak chips with different toasting degrees by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes the optimisation of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) conditions for the analysis of volatile compounds in oak chips used to accelerate wine aging as an alternative to traditional aging in oak barrels. The direct extraction of ground wood samples and the extraction of sample aqueous slurries using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) fibre were studied and compared. Optimal conditions for direct extraction were 110 degrees C and 60 min, whereas for aqueous slurries they were obtained by adding 2mL of a 7.1 molL(-1) sodium chloride solution, at 70 degrees C and for 60 min. The two optimised HS-SPME approaches were compared in terms of repeatability and extraction efficiency; water addition to the sample prior to HS-SPME was selected because it yielded better repeatability (6.6% versus 8.5% relative standard deviation) and efficiency (around 1.4-4.8 times higher analyte amount extracted for most of the compounds). Finally, the method was applied in the analysis of oak chip samples from American and French oak with different degrees of toasting. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the results showed that the first principal component was correlated with the toasting degree whereas the second, which was strongly influenced by whisky lactones and eugenol, allowed us to differentiate between American and French oak chips. PMID:17964587

Bozalongo, Ruth; Carrillo, José David; Torroba, Miguel Angel Fernández; Tena, María Teresa

2007-11-30

242

A new silylation reagent dimethyl(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)silyldiethylamine for the analysis of estrogenic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study we applied DIMETRIS (dimethyl(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)silyldiethylamine), a new silylating reagent, to derivative natural estrogens such as estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3), as well as the synthetic 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and the non-steroid diethylstilbestrol (DES). Its derivatizing properties were compared with those of the commonly used mixture of BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide)+1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and with MTBSTFA (N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide). The use of DIMETRIS for the silylation all of them is reported for the first time. The nucleophilic properties of DIMETRIS were found to be superior to those of MTBSTFA, but slightly inferior to those of BSTFA. It was used to derivatize steroid (E1, E2, E3 and EE2) and non-steroid (DES) estrogens at 30°C prior to GC/MS analysis. These DMTFPS-derivatives exhibited good separation (low retention times despite the high molecular masses) and ionization properties in GC/MS analyses (the highest relative response factors for DMTFPS-derivatives among those tested). However, DIMETRIS and MTBSTFA (which produce mono-O-silyl derivatives of EE2) should not be used for the simultaneous analysis of EE2 and E1. Only a mixture of BSTFA+1% TMCS in pyridine, which generates the fully derivatized EE2 product (stable in GC injector), permits the determination of these two estrogenic compounds during one GC-MS run. On the other hand, because DIMETRIS requires a lower derivatization temperature than BSTFA, it could be very useful for the derivatization of thermally unstable estrogenic compounds. In the next step of this study, the SPE-GC-MS method based on DIMETRIS derivatization for the analysis of DES, E2 and E3 in aqueous samples was evaluated and validated. The MQL values: 1.4, 1.6 and 1.5ngL(-1) for DES, E2 and E3, respectively, proved its suitability to determine target compounds in environmental samples. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of selected estrogenic compounds in real seawater and wastewater samples in Poland. PMID:23806354

Caban, Magda; Czerwicka, Ma?gorzata; ?ukaszewicz, Paulina; Migowska, Natalia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Kumirska, Jolanta

2013-08-01

243

Development of a Method of Analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry using Selected Ion Monitoring for the Measurement of Fish Sex Steroids in Water .  

E-print Network

??A method for the analysis of testosterone, androstenedione, 5?-dihydrotestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estrone, 17?-estradiol, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 5?-pregnane-3?,17?,20?-triol, 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol, 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol, 5?-pregnane-3?,17?,20?-triol, 5?-androstane-3?,11?-diol-17-one, 5?-pregnane-3?,17?-diol-20-one, 17?,20?,21-trihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one and 11-deoxycortisol in water… (more)

Boult, Cherie Helen

2009-01-01

244

Comparison of solid-phase extraction and micro-solid-phase extraction for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of pesticides in water samples.  

PubMed

Our recent on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) device for micro-liquid chromatography, known as micro-solid-phase extraction (microSPE), was compared with traditional SPE for the analysis, from aqueous samples, of 4 pesticides belonging to different classes. Two different kinds of adsorbents, C18 and graphitized carbon black, were tested. A 2-stage ion trap mass spectrometer, equipped with homemade microflow electrospray ion (ESI) source, was used. Detection limits with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 for both extraction methods were in the range of 0.1 microg/L for all compounds. However, better recoveries were obtained when microSPE traps were used. PMID:14632395

Famiglini, Giorgio; Trufelli, Helga; Pierini, Elisabetta; De Simoni, Elisa; Mangani, Filippo; Cappiello, Achille

2003-01-01

245

Quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Multiple Reaction Monitoring (LC-MS-MRM) Analysis of Site-specific Glycoforms of Haptoglobin in Liver Disease*  

PubMed Central

Development of liver disease is associated with the appearance of multiply fucosylated glycoforms of haptoglobin. To analyze the disease-related haptoglobin glycoforms in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, we have optimized an LC-MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) workflow for glycopeptide quantification. The final quantitative analysis included 24 site-specific glycoforms generated by treatment of a tryptic digest of haptoglobin with ?(2–3,6,8)-neuraminidase and ?(1–4)-galactosidase. The combination of LC-MS-MRM with exoglycosidase digests allowed resolution of isobaric glycoforms of the haptoglobin-T3 glycopeptide for quantification of the multiply fucosylated Lewis Y-containing glycoforms we have identified in the context of liver disease. Fourteen multiply fucosylated glycoforms of the 20 examined increased significantly in the liver disease group compared with healthy controls with an average 5-fold increase in intensity (p < 0.05). At the same time, two tri-antennary glycoforms without fucoses did not increase in the liver disease group, and two tetra-antennary glycoforms without fucoses showed a marginal increase (at most 40%) in intensity. Our analysis of 30 individual patient samples (10 healthy controls, 10 cirrhosis patients, and 10 hepatocellular carcinoma patients) showed that these glycoforms were substantially increased in a small subgroup of liver disease patients but did not significantly differ between the groups of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis patients. The tri- and tetra-antennary singly fucosylated glycoforms are associated with a MELD score and low platelet counts (p < 0.05). The exoglycosidase-assisted LC-MS-MRM workflow, optimized for the quantification of fucosylated glycoforms of haptoglobin, can be used for quantification of these glycoforms on other glycopeptides with appropriate analytical behavior. PMID:23389048

Sanda, Miloslav; Pompach, Petr; Brnakova, Zuzana; Wu, Jing; Makambi, Kepher; Goldman, Radoslav

2013-01-01

246

Fast quantitative analysis of boric acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with a simple and selective derivatization reaction using triethanolamine.  

PubMed

A fast, selective, and sensitive GC-MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of boric acid in the drinking water by derivatization with triethanolamine. This analytic strategy successfully converts the inorganic, nonvolatile boric acid B(OH)(3) present in the drinking water to a volatile triethanolamine borate B(OCH(2)CH(2))(3)N in a quantitative manner, which facilitates the GC measurement. The SIM mode was applied in the analysis and showed high accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility, as well as reducing the matrix effect effectively. The calibration curve was obtained from 0.01 microg/mL to 10.0 microg/mL with a satisfactory correlation coefficient of 0.9988. The limit of detection for boric acid was 0.04 microg/L. Then the method was applied for detection of the amount of boric acid in bottled drinking water and the results are in accordance with the reported concentration value of boric acid. This study offers a perspective into the utility of GC-MS as an alternate quantitative tool for detection of B(OH)(3), even for detection of boron in various other samples by digesting the boron compounds to boric acid. PMID:20080047

Zeng, Li-Min; Wang, Hao-Yang; Guo, Yin-Long

2010-03-01

247

Comprehensive profiling analysis of bioamines and their acidic metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with selective derivatization.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analytical method was developed for the profiling of biogenic amines in human urine using GC/MS in SIM mode. Biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites were converted into their volatile O-trimethylsilyl/N-heptafluorobutyryl (OTMS/-NHFBA) derivatives for GC/MS analysis. Dual hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)/-N-methyl-bis-heptafluorobutyramide (MBHFBA) derivatizations have been shown to be quite effective, with high derivatization yields and the absence of side products for primary biogenic amines. In this study, selective derivatization conditions by HMDS/MBHFBA were optimized in terms of the reagent amount, reaction temperature and reaction time period. The highest derivatization reaction yield was obtained at 40°C for 10min for OTMS derivatization and 80°C for 5min for N-HFBA derivatization. The use of MCX SPE cartridges with different SPE elution solvents was effective for the pre-concentration and selective cleanup of the biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in human urine. The selection of appropriate ions in SIM mode provided reliable quantification and identification and a reduction in background effects. The established method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), precision, and accuracy. The present method was linear (r(2)>0.996), reproducible (relative standard deviation range 1.1-6.9%), and accurate (range 87.9-111.9%), with LOQs of 0.17-17.84ng/mL. The biogenic amine profiling of human urine was successfully accomplished by GC/MS in SIM mode combined with selective HMDS/MBHFBA derivatization and MCX SPE cleanup. PMID:23890555

Park, Na-Hyun; Hong, Joo Yeon; Shin, Hyun Ju; Hong, Jongki

2013-08-30

248

Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-(2,3,4,6,6-2H5)glucose and L-(1,2,3-13C3)alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-(3-3H)glucose and L-(1,2,3-14C3)alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86).

Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.

1985-12-01

249

Direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques to study organic coatings on archaeological amphorae.  

PubMed

Two different analytical approaches, direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were compared in a study of archaeological resinous materials. DE-MS was found to be an efficient fingerprinting tool for the fast screening of organic archaeological samples and for providing information on the major components. GC/MS appeared to be more efficient in unravelling the sample composition at a molecular level, despite the long analysis time and the need for a wet chemical pretreatment. Both procedures were applied to characterize the organic material present as coatings in Roman and Egyptian amphorae. DE-MS successfully identified abietanic compounds, hence a diterpenic resinous material could be identified and its degree of oxidation assessed. GC/MS enabled us to identify dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid, retene, tetrahydroretene, norabietatriene, norabietatetraene and methyl dehydroabietate. These oxidized and aromatized abietanes provided evidence that the amphorae examined were waterproofed with a pitch produced from resinous wood of plants from the Pinaceae family. The chemometric evaluation of the GC/MS data highlighted significant chemical differences between the pitches found in the two archaeological sites, basically related to differences in the production techniques of the materials and in their degradation pathways. PMID:15739159

Colombini, Maria Perla; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

2005-05-01

250

Systematic derivatization, mass fragmentation and acquisition studies in the analysis of chlorophenols, as their silyl derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An exhaustive GC-MS sample preparation, derivatization, mass fragmentation and acquisition study was performed, for the simultaneous analysis of chlorophenols (CPs). Selected species were 2-CP, 3-CP, 4-CP, 3,5-dichlorophenol (diCP), 2,5-diCP, 2,6-diCP, 2,4-diCP, 2,3-diCP, 3,4-diCP 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (triCP), 2,4,5-triCP, 2,3,4-triCP, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (tetraCP) and pentachlorophenol (pentaCP), in total 14 compounds. As novelties to the field, basic researches, like systematic derivatization, mass fragmentation and acquisition methods have been optimized for the trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives of CPs. The reactivity of chlorophenols with silylating agents has not been systematically analyzed. Here, we studied the reactivity of 14 chlorophenols with five silylating reagents. The three acquisition techniques, the full scan (FS), the multiple ion monitoring (MIM), and the currently optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods, have been compared. We developed a new analytical approach, simultaneously monitoring the fragmentation pattern of the (35)Cl and the (37)Cl containing fragment ions both as precursor and as product ions. This principle resulted in remarkable specificity and sensitivity of detection and quantification; particularly in the cases of the tetraCP and pentaCP derivatives containing the (35)Cl and the (37)Cl fragment ions at an approximate ratio of <1:1. Detailed documentation of the loss of HCl via fragmentation processes, without decomposition of the benzene ring, was attributed to the "ring-walk" mechanism described first for monochlorophenol. Critical evaluation of the derivatization and acquisition protocols was collated and validated with the same characteristics. Data of six point calibration along with the corresponding relative standard deviation percentage (RSD%) values, in the line of FS, MIM and MRM methods (r(2): 0.9987, 0.9992, 0.9989; RSD%: 8.7, 5.6, 8.1), proved to be independent on the acquisition processes. The practical utility of the optimized MRM acquisition techniques was confirmed by the quantitation of the CP contents of Danube River, tap water and distilled water samples. Results confirmed at the first time the primary importance of the MRM acquisition method, even in comparison to the MIM one: we revealed that distilled water contains higher chlorophenol content than tap water, which might have a great significance for the water industry. PMID:23834956

Faludi, T; Andrási, N; Vasanits-Zsigrai, A; Záray, Gy; Molnár-Perl, I

2013-08-01

251

A Microscale Technique for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Picogram Amounts of Indole3Acetic Acid in Plant Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microscale technique has been developed for routine quanti- fications of picogram amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in plant tissues by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Low- and high-resolution selected-ion-monitoring and selected-reaction- monitoring mass spectrometry techniques were compared for selectivity and precision. The best selectivity was obtained with selected-reaction-monitoring analysis, and 1 -mg samples containing 500 fg of IAA could be

Agneta Edlund; Staffan Eklof; Bjorn Sundberg; Thomas Moritz; Goran Sandberg

252

Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) developed and implemented a graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method to determine polar pesticide concentrations in surface- and ground-water samples. Subsequently, the NWQL developed a complementary analysis that uses high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect, identify, and quantify polar pesticides and pesticide metabolites in filtered water at concentrations as low as 10 nanograms per liter. This new method was designed to improve sensitivity and selectivity over the prior method, and to reduce known interferences from natural organic matter. In this new method, pesticides are extracted from filtered water samples by useing a 0.5-gram graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction cartridge, eluted from the cartridge, and concentrations determined by using high-perforance liquid chromatography with elecrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The upper concentratoin limit is 1.000 microgram per liter (ug/L) for most compounds. Single-operator method detection limits in organic-free water samples fortified with pesticdes at a concentration of 0.025 ug/L ranged from 0.0019 to 0.022 ug/L for all compunds in the method. The grand mean (mean of mean recoveries for individual compounds) recoveries in organic-free water samples ranged from 72 to 89 percent, fortified wit hpesticides at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Grand mean recoveries in ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 46 to 119 percent, also fortified with pesticies at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Long-term recoveries from reagent water spikes were used to demonstrate that 38 of 65 compounds can be reported without qualification of the quantitative result across the analytical range of the method. The remaining 27 are reported with qualified estimates of concentration because of greater variability of recovery.

Furlong, Edward T.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Soliven, Paul P.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

2001-01-01

253

Triple sorbent thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination of vapor phase organic contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A thermal desorption/ps chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vapor phase samples using Carbosieve S-III/Carbotrap/Carotrap C triple sorbent traps (TST) similar to those available from a commercial source. The analysis was carried out with a Hewlett-Packard 5985A or 5995 GC/MS system with a modified injector to adapt an inhouse manufactured short-path desorber for transferring desorbate directly onto a cryofocusing loop for subsequent GC/MS analysis. Vapor phase standards generated from twenty six compounds were used for method validation, including alkanes, alkyl alcohols, alkyl ketones, and alkyl nitrites, a group of representative compounds that have previously been identified in a target airborne matrix. The method was validated based on the satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility, recovery rate, stability, and linearity. A relative, standard deviation of 0.55 to 24.3 % was obtained for the entire TD process (generation of gas phase standards, spiking the standards on and desorbing from TST) over a concentration range of 20 to 500 ng/trap. Linear correlation coefficients for the calibration curves as determined ranged from 0.81 to 0.99 and limits of detection ranged from 3 to 76 ng. For a majority of standards, recoveries of greater than 90% were observed. For three selected standards spiked on TSTS, minimal loss (10 to 22%) was observed after storing the spiked in, a 4{degree}C refrigerator for 29 days. The only chromatographable artifact observed was a 5% conversion of isopropanol to acetone. The validated method been successfully applied, to the determination of VOCs collected from various emission sources in a diversified concentration range.

Ma, C.Y.; Skeen, J.T.; Dindal, A.B.; Higgins, C.E.; Jenkins, R.A.

1994-05-01

254

[Simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated biphenyls in human serum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A comprehensive analytical method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated biphenyl congeners (PBBs: BB-15, 18, 52, 101, 153, 180, 194 and 206) in human serum. After the protein was removed, the sample was cleaned-up by an Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, then purified further by a two-layer cartridge containing activated silica gel and a mixture of silica gel and sulfuric acid, in which elution solvent was optimized. The eluent was evaporated to about 100 microL by a gentle nitrogen stream for GC-MS analysis. The separation was performed on a DB-5ms column (15 m x 0.25 mm x 0.1 microm) and the qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out in electron impact (EI) selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, in which isotope was used as internal standard. The limits of detection (LODs, 3.14 times of standard deviation) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, 10 times of standard deviation) were 0.002-0.029 ng/mL and 0.008-0.092 ng/mL respectively for the 8 PBBs. The average recoveries for all PBBs at three spiked levels were 74.24%-119.49% with the relative standard deviations in the range of 1.23%-12.02%. The method was verified by accurate analysis of BB-153 in organic contaminant standard reference materials (SRM) 1957 and 1958. This method is simple, rapid, accurate, precise and fit for the determination of PBBs in human serum. PMID:22934409

Liu, Xiao; Li, Jingguang; Huang, Feifei; Wu, Yongning

2012-05-01

255

Liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of steroid hormone metabolites and its applications  

PubMed Central

Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be used to measure steroid hormone metabolites in vitro and in vivo. We find that LC-Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-MS using a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode can be used to monitor the product profile that results from 5?–dihydrotestosterone(DHT)-17?-glucuronide, DHT-17?-sulfate, and tibolone-17?-sulfate reduction catalyzed by human members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C subfamily and assign kinetic constants to these reactions. We also developed a stable-isotope dilution LC-electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the quantitative analysis of estrone (E1) and its metabolites as pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives in human plasma in the attomole range. The limit of detection for E1-PFB was 740 attomole on column. Separations can be performed using normal-phase LC because ionization takes place in the gas phase rather than in solution. This permits efficient separation of the regioisomeric 2- and 4-methoxy-E1. The method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of plasma E2 and its metabolites: 2-methoxy-E2, 4-methoxy-E2, 16?-hydroxy-E2, estrone (E1), 2-methoxy-E1, 4-methoxy-EI, and 16?-hydroxy-E1 from 5 pg/mL to 2,000 pg/mL. Our LC-MS methods have sufficient sensitivity to detect steroid hormone levels in prostate and breast tumors and should aid their molecular diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20083198

Penning, Trevor M.; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jin, Yi; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Blair, Ian A.

2010-01-01

256

Assay of blood and tissue oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The assay of oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate in biological samples is complicated by their chemical instability and low concentrations. We present a quantitative assay for physiological concentrations of these metabolites by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples are spiked with the corresponding internal standards of [U-13C4]oxaloacetate and [U-13C5] alpha-ketoglutarate prior to their treatment with hydroxylamine. After ethyl acetate extraction and evaporation of the organic phases, the oximes are converted to t-butyldimethylsilyl ethers and analyzed by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the [M-57]+ ion in electron impact. Although the internal standards of [U-13C4]oxaloacetate and [U-13C5] alpha-ketoglutarate are not commercially available, they can easily be synthesized in 30 min by reacting [1,2,3,6-13C4]citrate with citrate lyase, and L-[U-13C5]glutamate with pyruvate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, respectively. Because of their chemical instability, the internal standards are prepared on the day of the analysis. A stock solution of [1,2,3,6-13C4]citrate is prepared from L-[U-13C4]aspartate using citrate synthase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and then purified and kept frozen until required. The detection limit of the method is 0.05 nmol in a given sample. The method was applied to measurements of oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate in human blood and rat liver. PMID:7733461

Laplante, A; Comte, B; Des Rosiers, C

1995-01-20

257

Analysis of organo-chlorine pesticides residue in raw coffee with a modified "quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe" extraction/clean up procedure for reducing the impact of caffeine on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement.  

PubMed

The control of pesticide residues on raw coffee is a task of great importance due to high consumption of this beverage in Italy and in many other countries. High caffeine content can hamper extraction and measurement of any pesticide residue. A tandem extraction protocol has been devised by exploiting the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) scheme for extraction, coupled to a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) in order to drastically reduce caffeine content in the final extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for quantification of organo-chlorine pesticides in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method has been validated and performances meet the criteria prescribed by European Union regulations. PMID:25537171

Bresin, Bruno; Piol, Maria; Fabbro, Denis; Mancini, Maria Antonietta; Casetta, Bruno; Del Bianco, Clorinda

2015-01-01

258

Identification of Unknown Contaminants in Water Samples from ISS Employing Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) is a powerful technique for identifying unknown organic compounds. For non-volatile or thermally unstable unknowns dissolved in liquids, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is often the variety of MS/MS used for the identification. One type of LC/MS/MS that is rapidly becoming popular is time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. This technique is now in use at the Johnson Space Center for identification of unknown nonvolatile organics in water samples from the space program. An example of the successful identification of one unknown is reviewed in detail in this paper. The advantages of time-of-flight instrumentation are demonstrated through this example as well as the strategy employed in using time-of-flight data to identify unknowns.

Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.

2008-01-01

259

Automated determination of carboxyhemoglobin contents in autopsy materials using head-space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To establish a method for the routine analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in autopsy materials including those which have undergone postmortem changes, e.g. thermo-coagulation, putrifaction and contamination, an automated head-space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was utilized. The procedure consisted of preparation of the sample in a vial and a carbon monoxide (CO) saturated sample, for estimation of hemoglobin content, in another vial, the addition of n-octanol, potassium ferricyanide and an internal standard (t-butanol), GC separation and determination of CO using a GC/MS system equipped with an automated head-space gas sampler. The method was practical not only with the blood and bone marrow aspirates to confirm the findings on the CO-oximeter system, but also with the thermo-coagulated and putrified blood. PMID:10978651

Oritani, S; Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Shimotouge, K; Quan, L; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

2000-09-11

260

Identification of thioketone analogues of sildenfil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sildenafil analogues have been found adulterated in herbal preparations and food products that claim to have natural aphrodisiacs. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assay was developed for the screening and identification of thioketone analogues of sildenafil. Thiopyrazolopyrimidine, a precursor or a cleavage product of thioketone analogue, exhibited characteristic fragment ions of m/z 328 and m/z 299 was found to be the best marker to screen the presence of general thioketone analogues. Identification by GC-MS assay was rapid and specific as all the studied thioketones showed characteristic mass fragmentations including their intact molecular ions. The developed GC-MS assay had successfully identified thiosildenafil, thiohomosildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil in herbal preparation and food products. PMID:21872876

Man, Che Nin; Noor, Norjuliana Mohd; Lajis, Razak

2011-09-28

261

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: Recent evolution and current trends.  

PubMed

The present contribution is focused on the evolution and current trends of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC?×?GC-MS), with respect to a review that described this specific methodology published at the beginning of 2008 (Mondello et al., 2008). In fact, since then there has been considerable evolution in the MS field, certainly exceeding that observed in GC?×?GC. In particular, the present paper will cover the combination of novel MS machines [single quadrupole (Q) and triple quadrupole, isotope ratio, low- and high-resolution time-of-flight (ToF), hybrid (Q-ToF)] to GC?×?GC systems, and will position comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography within the wider context of separation science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. XX: 1-11, 2014. PMID:25269651

Tranchida, Peter Q; Franchina, Flavio A; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2014-09-30

262

[A case of chloropicrin detection by purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Chloropicrin (CP) is an agricultural chemical used as insecticide or fungicide, which occasionally causes accidental poisoning and may used in criminal cases including suicide and homicide. Although CP is usually analyzed using gas chromatography/electron capture detection technique (GC/ECD), further identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) may be required from the view point of forensic chemistry and also clinical toxicology. However, it is very difficult to detect a trace of CP by routine GC/MS. The present paper describes a criminal case, in which GC/MS equipped with curie point purge and trap sampler was successfully applied to detect a small amount of CP. PMID:14582358

Ishizawa, Fujio; Ishiwata, Tetsuya; Miyata, Katsufumi; Yoshida, Tsutomu

2003-07-01

263

Principles and Applications of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Biochemistry  

PubMed Central

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now a routine technique with the development of electrospray ionisation (ESI) providing a simple and robust interface. It can be applied to a wide range of biological molecules and the use of tandem MS and stable isotope internal standards allows highly sensitive and accurate assays to be developed although some method optimisation is required to minimise ion suppression effects. Fast scanning speeds allow a high degree of multiplexing and many compounds can be measured in a single analytical run. With the development of more affordable and reliable instruments, LC-MS is starting to play an important role in several areas of clinical biochemistry and compete with conventional liquid chromatography and other techniques such as immunoassay. PMID:19224008

Pitt, James J

2009-01-01

264

Qualitative Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analyses Using Amines as Chemical Ionization Reagent Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia is a very useful chemical ionization (CI) reagent gas for the qualitative analyses of compounds by positive ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The gas is readily available, inexpensive, and leaves no carbon contamination in the MS source. Compounds of interest to our laboratory typically yield abundant protonated or ammoniated species, which are indicative of a compound's molecular weight. Nevertheless, some labile compounds fragment extensively by substitution and elimination reactions and yield no molecular weight information. In these cases, a CI reagent gas mixture of methylamine in methane prepared dynamically was found to be very useful in obtaining molecular weight data. Likewise, deuterated ammonia and deuterated methylamine are useful CI reagent gases for determining the exchangeable protons in organic compounds. Deuterated methylamine CI reagent gas is conveniently prepared by dynamically mixing small amounts of methylamine with excess deuterated ammonia.

Little, James L.; Howard, Adam S.

2013-12-01

265

Trace detection of meglumine and diatrizoate from Bacillus spore samples using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, letters containing Bacillus anthracis were distributed through the United States postal system killing five people. A complex forensic investigation commenced to identify the perpetrator of these mailings. A novel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry protocol for the qualitative detection of trace levels of meglumine and diatrizoate in dried spore preparations of B. anthracis was developed. Meglumine and diatrizoate are components of radiographic imaging products that have been used to purify bacterial spores. Two separate chromatographic assays using multiple mass spectrometric analyses were developed for the detection of meglumine and diatrizoate. The assays achieved limits of detection for meglumine and diatrizoate of 1.00 and 10.0 ng/mL, respectively. Bacillus cereus T strain spores were effectively used as a surrogate for B. anthracis spores during method development and validation. This protocol was successfully applied to limited evidentiary B. anthracis spore material, providing probative information to the investigators. PMID:22537353

Swider, Catherine; Maguire, Kelly; Rickenbach, Michael; Montgomery, Madeline; Ducote, Matthew J; Marhefka, Craig A

2012-07-01

266

Rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of ropinirole in human plasma.  

PubMed

A rapid and robust liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for non-ergoline dopamine D(2)-receptor agonist, ropinirole in human plasma using Es-citalopram oxalate as an internal standard. The method involves solid phase extraction from plasma, reversed-phase simple isocratic chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection that enables a detection limit at picogram levels. The proposed method was validated with linear range of 20-1,200 pg/ml. The extraction recoveries for ropinirole and internal standard were 90.45 and 65.42%, respectively. The R.S.D.% of intra-day and inter-day assay was lower than 15%. For its sensitivity and reliability, the proposed method is particularly suitable for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:16289706

Bhatt, Jignesh; Jangid, Arvind; Shetty, Raghavendra; Shah, Bhavin; Kambli, Sandeep; Subbaiah, Gunta; Singh, Sadhana

2006-03-18

267

Analytical strategies for characterizing organic paint media using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Throughout history, artists have experimented with a variety of organic-based natural materials, using them as paint binders, varnishes, and ingredients for mordants in gildings. Artists often use many layers of paint to produce particular effects. How we see a painting is thus the final result of how this complex, highly heterogeneous, multimaterial, and multilayered structure interacts with light. The chemical characterization of the organic substances in paint materials is of great importance for artwork conservation because the organic components of the paint layers are particularly subject to degradation. In addition, understanding the organic content and makeup of paint materials allows us to differentiate between the painting techniques that have been used over history. Applying gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis to microsamples of paint layers is widely recognized as the best approach for identifying organic materials, such as proteins, drying oils, waxes, terpenic resins, and polysaccharide gums. The method provides essential information for reconstructing artistic techniques, assessing the best conditions for long-term preservation, and planning restoration. In this Account, we summarize the more common approaches adopted in the study of the organic components of paint materials. Our progress in developing GC/MS analytical procedures in the field of cultural heritage is presented, focusing on problems that arise from (i) the presence of mixtures of many chemically complex and degraded materials, (ii) the interference of inorganic species, (iii) the small size of the samples, and (iv) the risk of contamination. We outline some critical aspects of the analytical strategy, such as the need to optimize specific wet-chemical sample pretreatments in order to separate the various components, hydrolyze macromolecular analytes, clean-up inorganic ions, and derivatize polar molecules for subsequent GC/MS separation and identification. We also discuss how to interpret the chromatographic data so as to be able to identify the materials. This identification is based on the presence of specific biomarkers (chemotaxonomy), on the evaluation of the overall chromatographic profile, or on the quantitative analysis of significant compounds. GC/MS-based analytical procedures have for 20 years provided important contributions to conservation science, but challenges and opportunities still coexist in the field of organic-based paint materials. We give selected examples and provide case studies showing how a better understanding of the chemical composition of organic paint materials and of their degradation pathways contribute to a better knowledge our cultural heritage, and to its preservation for future generations. PMID:20180544

Colombini, Maria Perla; Andreotti, Alessia; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

2010-06-15

268

Direct quantitative determination of cyanamide by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cyanamide is a multifunctional agrochemical used, for example, as a pesticide, herbicide, and fertilizer. Recent research has revealed that cyanamide is a natural product biosynthesized in a leguminous plant, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). In the present study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with a capillary column for amines was used for direct quantitative determination of cyanamide. Quantitative signals for ((14)N(2))cyanamide, ((15)N(2))cyanamide (internal standard for stable isotope dilution method), and m-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile (internal standard for correcting errors in GC-MS analysis) were recorded as peak areas on mass chromatograms at m/z 42 (A(42)), 44 (A(44)), and 171 (A(IS)), respectively. Total cyanamide content, ((14)N(2))cyanamide plus ((15)N(2))cyanamide, was determined as a function of (A(42)+A(44))/A(IS). Contents of ((14)N(2))cyanamide and ((15)N(2))cyanamide were then calculated by multiplying the total cyanamide content by A(42)/(A(42)+A(44)) and A(44)/(A(42)+A(44)), respectively. The limit of detection for the total cyanamide content by the GC-MS analysis was around 1ng. The molar ratio of ((14)N(2))cyanamide to ((15)N(2))cyanamide in the injected sample was equal to the observed A(42)/A(44) value in the range from 0.1 to 5. It was, therefore, possible to use the stable isotope dilution method to quantify the natural cyanamide content in samples; i.e., the natural cyanamide content was derived by subtracting the A(42)/A(44) ratio of the internal standard from the A(42)/A(44) ratio of sample spiked with internal standard, and then multiplying the resulting difference by the amount of added ((15)N(2))cyanamide (SID-GC-MS method). This method successfully gave a reasonable value for the natural cyanamide content in hairy vetch, concurring with the value obtained by a conventional method in which cyanamide was derivatized to a photometrically active compound 4-cyanimido-1,2-naphthoquinone and analyzed with reversed-phase HPLC (CNQ-HPLC method). The determination range of cyanamide in the SID-GC-MS method was almost the same as that in the CNQ-HPLC method; however, the SID-GC-MS method was much simpler than the CNQ-HPLC method. PMID:16314170

Hiradate, Syuntaro; Kamo, Tsunashi; Nakajima, Eri; Kato, Kenji; Fujii, Yoshiharu

2005-12-01

269

Authentication of Organically and Conventionally Grown Basils by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Chemical Profiles  

PubMed Central

Basil plants cultivated by organic and conventional farming practices were accurately classified by pattern recognition of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data. A novel extraction procedure was devised to extract characteristic compounds from ground basil powders. Two in-house fuzzy classifiers, i.e., the fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) and the fuzzy optimal associative memory (FOAM) for the first time, were used to build classification models. Two crisp classifiers, i.e., soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA) and the partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used as control methods. Prior to data processing, baseline correction and retention time alignment were performed. Classifiers were built with the two-way data sets, the total ion chromatogram representation of data sets, and the total mass spectrum representation of data sets, separately. Bootstrapped Latin partition (BLP) was used as an unbiased evaluation of the classifiers. By using two-way data sets, average classification rates with FuRES, FOAM, SIMCA, and PLS-DA were 100 ± 0%, 94.4 ± 0.4%, 93.3 ± 0.4%, and 100 ± 0%, respectively, for 100 independent evaluations. The established classifiers were used to classify a new validation set collected 2.5 months later with no parametric changes except that the training set and validation set were individually mean-centered. For the new two-way validation set, classification rates with FuRES, FOAM, SIMCA, and PLS-DA were 100%, 83%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Thereby, the GC/MS analysis was demonstrated as a viable approach for organic basil authentication. It is the first time that a FOAM has been applied to classification. A novel baseline correction method was used also for the first time. The FuRES and the FOAM are demonstrated as powerful tools for modeling and classifying GC/MS data of complex samples and the data pretreatments are demonstrated to be useful to improve the performance of classifiers. PMID:23398171

Wang, Zhengfang; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli; Harrington, Peter de B.

2013-01-01

270

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk.  

PubMed

In this work, the polar metabolite pool of commercial caprine milk was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical data analysis. Experimental data were compared with those of cow milk and the discriminant analysis correctly classified milk. By the same means, differences due to heat treatments (UHT or pasteurization) on milk samples were also investigated. Results of the 2 discriminant analyses were combined, with the aim of finding the discriminant metabolites unique for each class and shared by 2 classes. Valine and glycine were specific to goat milk, talose and malic acid to cow milk, and hydroxyglutaric acid to pasteurized samples. Glucose and fructose were shared by cow milk and UHT-treated samples, whereas ribose was shared by pasteurized and goat milk. Other discriminant variables were not attributed to specific metabolites. Furthermore, with the aim to reduce food fraud, the issue of adulteration of caprine milk by addition of cheaper bovine milk has been also addressed. To this goal, mixtures of goat and cow milk were prepared by adding the latter in a range from 0 to 100% (vol/vol) and studied by multivariate regression analysis. The error in the level of cow milk detectable was approximately 5%. These overall results demonstrated that, through the combined approach of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical data analysis, we were able to discriminate between milk typologies on the basis of their polar metabolite profiles and to propose a new analytical method to easily discover food fraud and to protect goat milk uniqueness. The use of appropriate visualization tools improved the interpretation of multivariate model results. PMID:25108860

Scano, Paola; Murgia, Antonio; Pirisi, Filippo M; Caboni, Pierluigi

2014-10-01

271

Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. Results A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver–operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and ?-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences between CK and SK. Conclusion Our study shows that some new biomarkers of ketosis from plasma may find new metabolic changes to have clinically new utility and significance in diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of ketosis in the future. PMID:24070026

2013-01-01

272

Monitoring of bacterial sugars and hydroxy Fatty acids in dust from air conditioners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Bacterial levels in dust collected from hospital air-conditioning filters were examined by chemical analysis (without prior culture). The dust was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after hydrolysis and derivatization. l-Glycero-d-mannoheptose and hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH 12:0 and 3-OH 14:0) (primarily found in lipopolysaccharide) and muramic acid (a chemical marker for bacterial peptidoglycan) were present at higher levels in dust collected from filters primarily contacting outdoor (as opposed to indoor) air. The ratio of l-glycero-d-mannoheptose to muramic acid in dust (compared with those of a group of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) suggested that both dust types contained appreciable numbers of gram-negative bacteria. There is potential for the chemical assessment of the microbial content of airborne dust. PMID:16349134

Fox, A; Rosario, R M; Larsson, L

1993-12-01

273

Rapid determination of quetiapine in blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to post-mortem cases.  

PubMed

A simple, fast and sensitive method for the determination of quetiapine in human blood has been developed and validated. The method involved a basic liquid-liquid extraction procedure and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, previous derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoro-acetamide and chorotrimethylsilane (99 : 1). The methods of validation included linearity with a correlation coefficient?>?0.99 over the range 0.02-1?µg?ml(-1), intra- and interday precision (always?

López-Guarnido, Olga; Tabernero, María Jesús; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Bermejo, Ana M

2014-10-01

274

Ink Dating Using Thermal Desorption and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry: Comparison of Results Obtained in Two Laboratories.  

PubMed

An ink dating method based on solvent analysis was recently developed using thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and is currently implemented in several forensic laboratories. The main aims of this work were to implement this method in a new laboratory to evaluate whether results were comparable at three levels: (i) validation criteria, (ii) aging curves, and (iii) results interpretation. While the results were indeed comparable in terms of validation, the method proved to be very sensitive to maintenances. Moreover, the aging curves were influenced by ink composition, as well as storage conditions (particularly when the samples were not stored in "normal" room conditions). Finally, as current interpretation models showed limitations, an alternative model based on slope calculation was proposed. However, in the future, a probabilistic approach may represent a better solution to deal with ink sample inhomogeneity. PMID:25389038

Koenig, Agnès; Bügler, Jürgen; Kirsch, Dieter; Köhler, Fritz; Weyermann, Céline

2014-11-12

275

Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2012-01-01

276

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of biological particulates collected during recent space shuttle missions.  

PubMed

Biological particulates collected on air filters during shuttle missions (STS-40 and STS-42) were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). A method was developed for identifying the atmospheric particles and their sources through the analysis of standard materials and the selection of "marker" compounds specific to the particle type. Pyrolysis spectra of biological standards were compared with those of airborne particles collected during two space shuttle missions; marker compounds present in the shuttle particle spectra were matched with those of the standards to identify the source of particles. Particles of 0,5--1-mm diameter and weighing as little as 40 micrograms could be identified using this technique. The Py-GC/MS method identified rat food and soilless plant-growth media as two sources of particles collected from the shuttle atmosphere during flight. PMID:11536649

Matney, M L; Limero, T F; James, J T

1994-09-15

277

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of biological particulates collected during recent space shuttle missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological particulates collected on air filters during shuttle missions (STS-40 and STS-42) were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). A method was developed for identifying the atmospheric particles and their sources through the analysis of standard materials and the selection of "marker" compounds specific to the particle type. Pyrolysis spectra of biological standards were compared with those of airborne particles collected during two space shuttle missions; marker compounds present in the shuttle particle spectra were matched with those of the standards to identify the source of particles. Particles of 0,5--1-mm diameter and weighing as little as 40 micrograms could be identified using this technique. The Py-GC/MS method identified rat food and soilless plant-growth media as two sources of particles collected from the shuttle atmosphere during flight.

Matney, M. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1994-01-01

278

MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS BY PARTICLE-BEAM/HIGH-PERFORMANCE/LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An analytical method was developed for the measurement of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANs) in soils and sediments by particle beam liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. he method applies to PANs with a molecular weight greater than 220. Samples are prepared by S...

279

Isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry of D/H by high temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Of all the elements, hydrogen has the largest naturally occurring variations in the ratio of its stable isotopes (D/H). It is for this reason that there has been a strong desire to add hydrogen to the list of elements amenable to isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (irm-GC/MS). In irm-GC/MS the sample is entrained in helium as the carrier gas, which is also ionized and separated in the isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Because of the low abundance of deuterium in nature, precise and accurate on-line monitoring of D/H ratios with an IRMS requires that low energy helium ions be kept out of the m/z 3 collector, which requires the use of an energy filter. A clean mass 3 (HD(+.)) signal which is independent of a large helium load in the electron impact ion source is essential in order to reach the sensitivity required for D/H analysis of capillary GC peaks. A new IRMS system, the DELTA(plus)XL(trade mark), has been designed for high precision, high accuracy measurements of transient signals of hydrogen gas. It incorporates a retardation lens integrated into the m/z 3 Faraday cup collector. Following GC separation, the hydrogen bound in organic compounds must be quantitatively converted into H(2) gas prior to analysis in the IRMS. Quantitative conversion is achieved by high temperature conversion (TC) at temperatures >1400 degrees C. Measurements of D/H ratios of individual organic compounds in complicated natural mixtures can now be made to a precision of 2 per thousand (delta notation) or, better, with typical sample amounts of approximately 200 ng per compound. Initial applications have focused on compounds of interest to petroleum research (biomarkers and natural gas components), food and flavor control (vanillin and ethanol), and metabolic studies (fatty acids and steroids). Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10407302

Hilkert; Douthitt; Schlüter; Brand

1999-07-01

280

Sensory screening for large-format natural corks by "dry soak" testing and its correlation to headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) releasable trichloroanisole (TCA) analysis.  

PubMed

Large-format natural corks were individually screened for trichloroanisole (TCA) taint and other non-characteristic cork odors by smelling the high relative humidity headspace of the jarred closure during expert panel sensory sessions. The method was coined "dry soak sensory screening". Out of a population of 2296 corks, 138 specimens [6% of the total population (TP)] were retained because of unusual odors, ranging from mild to severe. All retained corks were analyzed for releasable TCA (RTCA) by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Results indicated that 30 corks (1.3% TP) had concentrations between 1.0 and 5.0 ppt. Most of these corks had non-typical TCA odors described as ashtray, musty, moldy, dirty, and wet cardboard. A total of 13 retained corks (0.57% TP) had RTCA values higher than 5.0 ppt, mostly displaying the typical TCA odor. Dry soak screening has been determined to be a clean, fast, and most importantly, a nondestructive method ideal for screening large-format natural corks with off odors. PMID:19722710

Macku, Carlos; Gonzalez, Lesa; Schleussner, Christiane; Mesquita, Ana Cristina; Herwatt, James W; Kirch, Leonard C; Schwartz, Rob J

2009-09-01

281

Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of geosmin and methylisoborneol in water using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of two common odor-causing compounds in water, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, was modified and verified by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. The optimized method involves the extraction of odor-causing compounds from filtered water samples using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane cross-link coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. Detection of the compounds is accomplished using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Precision and accuracy were demonstrated using reagent-water, surface-water, and ground-water samples. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 35 nanograms per liter ranged from 60 to 123 percent for geosmin and from 90 to 96 percent for 2-methylisoborneol. Method detection limits were 1.9 nanograms per liter for geosmin and 2.0 nanograms per liter for 2-methylisoborneol in 45-milliliter samples. Typically, concentrations of 30 and 10 nanograms per liter of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, respectively, can be detected by the general public. The calibration range for the method is equivalent to concentrations from 5 to 100 nanograms per liter without dilution. The method is valuable for acquiring information about the production and fate of these odor-causing compounds in water.

Zimmerman, L.R.; Ziegler, A.C.; Thurman, E.M.

2002-01-01

282

[Differentiation of ballpoint pen inks by thermodesorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Differentiation and classification of ink entries with dated samples of a reference collection are important aspects in the examination of questioned documents. Classification of writing inks is presently achieved by analysis of dyes and colorants contained in the ink. This technique has its limitations in newly developed ink formulations with identical dye composition but differing in their solvents and binder resins. This paper introduces a method for the determination of solvents and binder resins of an ink sample directly from paper without sample preparation. This aim is accomplished by thermodesorption of the sample followed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The method was tested on numerous samples of ballpoint pen inks, which were subsequently grouped into several solvent and resin subgroups. A case study shows the applicability of the newly developed method. PMID:15666970

Bügler, Jürgen; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

2004-01-01

283

Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

2014-01-01

284

Ultra performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry studies of formalin-induced alterations of human brain lipidome.  

PubMed

The development of 'omics' sciences offers new opportunities for the study of neurodegenerative diseases but increases at the same time the sample demand on brain banks that collect and store valuable human post-mortem tissue. Our study aims to evaluate in lipidomics the potential of formalin-fixed tissue compared with the cryopreservation method, considered as the gold standard for biochemical research. Two complementary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analytical platforms were used on the basis of hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. Untargeted fingerprinting, semitargeted profiling of specific lipid classes and targeted monitoring of lipid species were performed in formalin-fixed and cryopreserved samples to provide detailed information at the molecular level on the formalin-induced alterations of the brain tissue. In vitro incubations of lipid standards were also performed to further describe the degradation processes induced by formaldehyde. Phospholipid compounds were found to be extensively hydrolysed, whilst the sphingolipid ones were preserved. N-methylation and N-formylation of amine-containing phospholipids have also been evidenced. These findings show that the potential detrimental effect of formalin on the analytes of interest must be taken into account when analysing formalin-fixed samples. PMID:25303393

Gaudin, Mathieu; Panchal, Maï; Ayciriex, Sophie; Werner, Erwan; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Auzeil, Nicolas; Walther, Bernard; Duyckaerts, Charles; Laprévote, Olivier

2014-10-01

285

Determination of residual clopidol in chicken muscle by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Clopidol was extracted from chicken with acetonitrile, and the extract was evaporated to about 5 mL. The concentrated solution was centrifuged and applied to a glass column filled with basic alumina. The column was eluted with methanol and the methanol was evaporated to dryness. The residue was derivatized with Sylon BFT and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Mass characteristics of trimethylsilyl derivative of clopidol were interpreted manually. The selected-ion monitoring mode was performed at m/z 191, 248, 263, and 265. A sensitive, reproducible GC/MS method was developed for monitoring residues of clopidol in chickens. All recoveries of the drug from chicken muscle fortified at 1, 10, and 100 ng/g were > 65%, and relative standard deviations were < 15%. The detection limit was about 0.5 ng/g, and the quantitation limit was the lower limit of the standard curve, which was about 1 ng/g. PMID:16152927

He, Limin; Liu, Yahong; Zeng, Zhenling; Huang, Xianhui; Liu, Rong

2005-01-01

286

Gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of trimethylsilyl ethers of bile alcohols.  

PubMed

This report describes the gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) of the trimethylsilyl ethers of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol with mono- or dihydroxy substitution in the side chain. Compounds with 24- and 25-unsaturation in the side chain were also studied. The gas-liquid chromatographic separation of the different bile alcohols was carried out using 3% QF-1 and 1% HI-EFF 8BP as column packings. Both columns were useful in that the retention times of the trimethyl-silyl ethers of the various 5 beta-cholestanetetrols varied linearly with the position of the side-chain trimethylsiloxyl substituent. The major fragmentations in the GLC-MS of all bile alcohols tested were due to the trimethylsiloxyl side-chain substituent(s). A trimethylsiloxyl group at C-22 was the most effective in promoting side-chain fragmentation, followed, in order of decreasing effectiveness, by substituents at carbons 25, 23, 24, and 26. The side-chain fragments generally gave rise to one or two intense mass peaks and a series of weaker peaks, 90 mass units apart, owing to the loss of successive molecules of trimethylsilanol. Most 5 beta-cholestane-triols, -tetrols, and -pentols can be unequivocally identified by their strong side-chain fragmentation peaks, except for 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 26-tetrol, the trimethylsilyl ether of which exhibited very low intensity side-chain fragments. PMID:731130

Tint, G S; Dayal, B; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Cheng, F W; Salen, G; Mosbach, E H

1978-11-01

287

Determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 as emulsifier by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel approach for identification and determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 (sorbitol mono-oleate) as the emulsifier and their postblast residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. 24 kinds of emulsion explosives collected have been processed by transesterification reaction with metholic KOH solution and the emulsifier has turned into methyl esters of fatty acids. From the peak area ratios of their methyl esters, most of these emulsion explosives can be differentiated. In order to detect the postblast residues of emulsion explosives, the sorbitols in the emulsifier Span-80 obtained after transesterification reaction have been further derivatized by silylation reaction with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) as the derivatizing reagent. The derivatization conditions were optimized and the derivatives were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the silylation derivatives of sorbitol and it isomers, combined with hydrocarbon compounds and methyl esters of fatty acids, were the characteristic components for identification of the emulsion explosives. The established approach was applied to analyze the postblast residues of emulsion explosives. It has been found that the method was sensitive and specific, especially when detecting the derivatives of sorbitol and its isomers by GC-MS in selecting ion mode. The information of the characteristic components can help probe the origin of the emulsion explosives and providing scientific evidences and clues for solving the crimes of the emulsion explosive explosion. PMID:21497820

Tian, Fei-Fei; Yu, Jing; Hu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Meng-Xia; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Hai-Ling; Han, Jie

2011-06-01

288

[Determination of hormone multi-residues in animal tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine sex hormone residues, such as hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol, etiocholan-3alpha-ol-17-one, epitestosterone, estrone, estradiol, ethinylestradiol and estriol, in animal tissues was developed. The sex hormones were extracted with acetonitrile, then cleaned-up with a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The microwave-assisted derivatization of the target components with N,O-bis( trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) (99:1, v/v) using pyridine as solvent was performed, and then the derivatives were analyzed by GC-MS. The limits of detection were 0.1-1 microg/kg for all hormones, and the limits of quantification were 0.2-2 microg/kg. The average recoveries of sex hormones were 68.8%-93.1%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of inter- and intra-assay were 4.1%-22.3% and 3.1%-17.9%, respectively. The real sample tests showed this method can be used for the sensitive and accurate determination of multi-sex hormones residues in biological samples. PMID:19803132

Lin, Weixuan; Dong, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Tian, Miao; Yu, Ling; Zhao, Jinghong; Yang, Chunguang

2009-05-01

289

Presence of phthalate esters in intravenous solution evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the production of poly-(vinyl) chloride (PVC) materials. It is a reproductive and developmental toxicant in animals and a suspected endocrine modulator in humans. DEHP is not covalently bound within the PVC molecule, which is why migration into a suitable medium can be expected. Since application of infusion solutions is one of the most common medical treatments, the objective of this study was to determine the migration of phthalates from softened PVC storage bags into infusion solution in different time periods within one year from date of production using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The measured values of DEHP ranged between 0.22 and 14.00?µg l(-1) , but the unexpected presence of other phthalate esters was also detected. It was concluded that values obtained in infusion solutions match the reference data and represent a minor risk for the patient. The presence of other phthalate esters leads to the conclusion that the pharmacopeic requirement for polymer cleanness was not fully met. Since phthalate esters are among the most extensively used industrial chemicals and are widely distributed in the environment, special precautions and further monitoring should be conducted to minimize any possible health risks. PMID:22034089

Strac, Ivona Vidi?; Puši?, Maja; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

2013-03-01

290

[Microstructural characterization for pyrolysis hydrogenation fragments in polyethylene by pyrolysis hydrogenation gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

The microstructural characterization of 47 samples, respectively of high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), copolymer of ethylene and alpha-olefins, was performed by pyrolysis hydrogenation gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-H-GC/MS) with 10% Pt on 80-100 mesh Diasolid H as a hydrogenation catalyst. The samples were obtained from 12 domestic plants and 12 plants abroad as well. The sample sizes ranging from 30 to 80 microg were pyrolyzed at 770 degrees C in a flow of hydrogen carrier gas. It was found that short methyl branches as the characteristic isoalkanes of pyrolysis hydrogenation in polyethylene would be related closely to the different classes of polyethylene. The microstructural characterization has been carried out by means of Py-H-GC/MS, according to the relative amount of the four short methyl branches, 5-methyldodecane (5-MC12), 4-methyldodecane (4-MC12), 2-methyldodecane (2-MC12) and 3-methyldodecane (3-MC12) existed in C12-C13 isoalkanes. The Py-H-GC/MS technique will be providing further scientific evidences for the characterization of polyethylene plastics in forensic science. PMID:17165536

Ding, Junkai; Song, Ming; Huang, Li

2006-09-01

291

Determination of sixteen pesticides in peppers using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the detection and quantification of 16 pesticides: flufenoxuron, fenoxycarb, dimethomorph, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, lufenuron, thiacloprid, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl, spinosad, fenbutatin oxide, methoxyfenozide, oxamyl, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and carbendazim has been developed based on high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were extracted from the samples according to the QuEChERS method which stands for quick, essay, cheap, effective, rugged and safe. Homogenised analytical portions (10 g ± 0.1) of samples of peppers were spiked at two levels (10 and 100 ?g kg?¹) with a small volume of an appropriate standard mixture solution containing each pesticide. Analyses were performed using electrospray ionization (ESI) and a MSD trap system. Chromatography separation was achieved using a ZORBAX SB-C18 3.5 ?m particle size analytical column, 2.1 × 50 mm from Agilent, with gradient elution at a flow-rate of 0.4 mL/min with mobile phases: waters-0.1 % HCOOH-5 mM HCOONH? and MeOH-5 mM HCOONH?. The method has been validated based on the SANCO European Guidelines. Under the optimized conditions the recoveries (n = 7) were in the range 70-110 % with satisfactory precision (CV ? 20 %). A linear dynamic range was obtained over a range of concentrations from 10 to 100 ?g kg?¹ for each of the analytes, with correlation coefficients >0.997. PMID:21726151

Morales, Ascensión; Ruiz, Irene; Oliva, José; Barba, Alberto

2011-01-01

292

[Determination of alditols in foods by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of alditols in foods by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS) has been developed. The samples were extracted and cleaned up with the solid phase extraction (SPE). Then, the ion chromatographic separation was performed on a CarboPar MA1 column. The alditols were determined by MS with the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and quantified by the external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the certain ranges with the correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.99. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) of erythritol, xylitol, D-sorbitol, D-mannitol, lactitol, maltitol were 0.98, 1.99, 2.24, 5.92, 13.56, 13.21 mg/kg and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.28, 0.59, 0.71, 1.74, 4.14, 4.03 mg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries of the alditols in the foods at different levels were in the range of 82.5%-108.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-7.6%. The sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method meet the technical standards of the determination. The method can be applied to the determination of alditols in foods. PMID:24558846

Zhou, Hongbin; Xiong, Zhiyu; Li, Ping; Li, Jing; Sun, Li; Zhao, Yunxia

2013-11-01

293

ChromA: signal-based retention time alignment for chromatography–mass spectrometry data  

PubMed Central

Summary: We describe ChromA, a web-based alignment tool for chromatography–mass spectrometry data from the metabolomics and proteomics domains. Users can supply their data in open and standardized file formats for retention time alignment using dynamic time warping with different configurable local distance and similarity functions. Additionally, user-defined anchors can be used to constrain and speedup the alignment. A neighborhood around each anchor can be added to increase the flexibility of the constrained alignment. ChromA offers different visualizations of the alignment for easier qualitative interpretation and comparison of the data. For the multiple alignment of more than two data files, the center-star approximation is applied to select a reference among input files to align to. Availability: ChromA is available at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/chroma. Executables and source code under the L-GPL v3 license are provided for download at the same location. Contact: stoye@techfak.uni-bielefeld.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19505941

Hoffmann, Nils; Stoye, Jens

2009-01-01

294

Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonates in recent sediments by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Alkylbenzenesulfonates together with soap are the most widely used anionic surfactants. Linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS) were introduced in the mid-1960s as substitutes for the poorly biodegradable tetrapropylenebenzenesulfonates (TPS). A method is presented for the selective and quantitative determination of LAS and TPS in recent sediments. Alkylbenzenesulfonates were extracted from sediments using methanol. The methanolic extract was passed through a strong anionic exchange column. The alkylbenzenesulfonates contained in the acidic eluate were then derivatized to their corresponding trifluoroethyl esters and quantitatively determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using positive chemical ionization. Limits of quantitation for 10 g sediment samples varied between 1.5 and 21 ?g/kg of dry sediment for single LAS isomers and between 71 and 220 ?g/kg for total LAS. Limits of quantitation for the total of TPS were at ?200 ?g/kg. Relative standard deviations of replicate analyses typically ranged from 5 to 10%. Recovery rates of LAS in spiked sediment samples ranged from 79 to 113%. The presented method was applied to surface and subsurface sediments also containing long-chain (C(14)-C(16))-LAS and mixtures of LAS and TPS. PMID:21639162

Reiser, R; Toljander, H O; Giger, W

1997-12-01

295

Determination of free and ethoxylated alkylphenols in leather with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical approach was developed to determine nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO(n)) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO(n)) in leather samples involving the conversion of NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) into the corresponding NP and OP. The four targets were extracted from samples using ultrasonic-assisted acetonitrile extraction. NP and OP in the extracts were directly isolated with hexane and quantitatively determined with 4-n-nonylphenol as internal standard by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) in the extracts, they were first converted into NP and OP with aluminum triiodide as cleavage agent, and the yielded NP and OP were determined by GC-MS. The contents of NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) were calculated by normalizing to NPEO(9) and OPEO(9), respectively. This method was properly validated and the real sample tests revealed the pollution significance of leather by NPEO(n) and OPEO(n). PMID:21067757

Ma, He-Wei; Cheng, Ya

2010-12-10

296

The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry can be used for dose estimation in irradiated pork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food safety can be improved using ionizing radiation to reduce food spoilage and to extend its shelf life. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been validated by the European Community as a powerful method to identify irradiated food containing fat. The preliminary goals of our research were: (i) to set up this method, based on the detection of radiation induced 2-dodecylcyclobutanones (2-DCB) in pork muscle samples and (ii) to check the microbiological efficacy of the treatment. The main objective was to render the GC/MS a quantitative technique for dose estimation, through the measurement of the 2-DCB concentration in the irradiated sample. Our results show that the reduction of the microbial population is substantially reduced even at 2 kGy, and that a clear identification of irradiated samples can be achieved also one month after irradiation at 2 kGy in frozen-stored samples. The 2-DCB concentration showed a linear dependence on dose in the range 1-10 kGy, no matter the origin of the sample; a unique calibration function was obtained, that allowed dose estimation in irradiated pork samples. A retrospective evaluation on the quality of the treatment could be carried out this way.

D'Oca, M. C.; Bartolotta, A.; Cammilleri, M. C.; Giuffrida, S. A.; Parlato, A.; Di Noto, A. M.; Caracappa, S.

2009-07-01

297

Metabolomic analysis of normal (C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) mice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: detection of strain and gender differences.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that the C57 and 129 strains of mice display marked differences in behavioural performance, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and synaptic plasticity. However, few metabolomic studies of their biofluids have been performed. As part of a series of metabolic phenotyping, the effects of gender and strain upon serum metabolite composition and variation are examined in this study using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in normal C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ strains of mice. The 129S1/SvImJ strain is phenotypically distinct from the C57BL/6J strain and characteristic metabotypes are produced for both male and female mice of each strain. These data demonstrate that the C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ strains of mice show a wide range of metabolic differences across glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis; and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways. Remarkably, the concentration of glyceric acid in the 129S1/SvImJ strain is significantly increased compared to the C57BL/6J mouse strain, reflecting important considerations for studies that use the 129S1/SvImJ mouse as the human d-glycericaciduria model. We infer that a deficiency of d-glycerate kinase would explain such a glyceric acid accumulation in the 129S1/SvImJ strain. More importantly, this differential metabolite level data provide insight into specific metabolic pathways and lay the groundwork for integrated studies of the mouse models. PMID:21645764

Qiao, Qian; Li, Tonghua; Sun, Jiangming; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Jianke; Fei, Jian

2011-07-15

298

Monitoring of atmospheric gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in South African platinum mines utilising portable denuder sampling with analysis by thermal desorption-comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Concentrations of diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in platinum mine environments are likely to be higher than in ambient air due to the use of diesel machinery in confined environments. Airborne PAHs may be present in gaseous or particle phases each of which has different human health impacts due to their ultimate fate in the body. Here we report on the simultaneous sampling of both phases of airborne PAHs for the first time in underground platinum mines in South Africa, which was made possible by employing small, portable denuder sampling devices consisting of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) multi-channel traps connected in series separated by a quartz fibre filter, which only require small, battery operated portable personal sampling pumps for air sampling. Thermal desorption coupled with comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TofMS) was used to analyse denuder samples taken in three different platinum mines. The samples from a range of underground environments revealed that PAHs were predominantly found in the gas phase with naphthalene and mono-methylated naphthalene derivatives being detected at the highest concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 18?gm(-3). The particle bound PAHs were found in the highest concentrations at the idling load haul dump vehicle exhausts with a dominance of fluoranthene and pyrene. Particle associated PAH concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 260ngm(-3) and included benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene. This work highlights the need to characterise both phases in order to assess occupational exposure to PAHs in this challenging sampling environment. PMID:25582484

Geldenhuys, G; Rohwer, E R; Naudé, Y; Forbes, P B C

2015-02-01

299

Disposition of the Herbicide 2-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (Atrazine) and Its Major Metabolites in Mice: A Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Urine, Plasma, and Tissue Levels  

PubMed Central

2-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (atrazine, ATR) is a toxicologically important and widely used herbicide. Recent studies have shown that it can elicit neurological, immunological, developmental, and biochemical alterations in several model organisms, including in mice. Because disposition data in mice are lacking, we evaluated ATR's metabolism and tissue dosimetry after single oral exposures (5–250 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (Ross and Filipov, 2006). ATR was metabolized and cleared rapidly; didealkyl ATR (DACT) was the major metabolite detected in urine, plasma, and tissues. Plasma ATR peaked at 1 h postdosing and rapidly declined, whereas DACT peaked at 2 h and slowly declined. Most ATR and metabolite residues were excreted within the first 24 h. However, substantial amounts of DACT were still present in 25- to 48-h and 49- to 72-h urine. ATR reached maximal brain levels (0.06–1.5 ?M) at 4 h (5–125 mg/kg) and 1 h (250 mg/kg) after dosing, but levels quickly declined to <0.1 ?M by 12 h in all the groups. In contrast, strikingly high concentrations of DACT (1.5–50 ?M), which are comparable with liver DACT levels, were detectable in brain at 2 h. Brain DACT levels slowly declined, paralleling the kinetics of plasma DACT. Our findings suggest that in mice ATR is widely distributed and extensively metabolized and that DACT is a major metabolite detected in the brain at high levels and is ultimately excreted in urine. Our study provides a starting point for the establishment of models that link target tissue dose to biological effects caused by ATR and its in vivo metabolites. PMID:19116264

Ross, Matthew K.; Jones, Toni L.; Filipov, Nikolay M.

2009-01-01

300

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Wastewater Compounds by Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene Solid-Phase Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 67 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater on aquatic organisms. This method also may be useful for evaluating the impact of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are an indicator of wastewater or that have been chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are extracted by vacuum through disposable solid-phase cartridges that contain polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. Cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted with dichloromethane-diethyl ether (4:1) and determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 4 micrograms per liter averaged 74 percent ? 7 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds (excluding hormones and sterols) averaged 0.15 microgram per liter. Samples are preserved by filtration, the addition of 60 grams NaCl, and storage at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory has established a sample-holding time (prior to sample extraction) of 14 days from the date of sample collection until a statistically accepted method can be used to determine the effectiveness of these sample-preservation procedures.

Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Barber, Larry B.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

2002-01-01

301

Determination of carbamate residues in fruits and vegetables by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen carbamates were analysed in orange, grape, onion and tomatoes by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Electrospray (ES) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) were compared and both gave similar results in terms of sensitivity and structural information because at 20 V fragmentor voltages the fragmentation is minimal. The efficiency of different solid-phases (C18, C8,

M Fernández; Y Picó; J Mañes

2000-01-01

302

Low flow high-performance liquid chromatography solvent delivery system designed for tandem capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent delivery system is described that is designed to increase the efficiency of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a (LC\\/MS) analyses. Gradients formed by using two low pressure syringe pumps are stored in a length of narrow bore tubing (gradient\\u000a loop) mounted on a standard high pressure switching valve. The preformed gradient is pushed through the column by using a\\u000a high pressure

M. T. Davis; D. C. Stahl; T. D. Lee

1995-01-01

303

Gas Chromatography?Mass Spectrometry?Basic Principles, Instrumentation and Selected Applications for Detection of Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini?review discusses the analytical technique of gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS), specifically basic principles and instrumentations. The applications of GC?MS to a number of studies for determining organic compounds from around the world are presented and highlight its universal use and acceptance. Selected applications show that GC?MS is an integral and complimentary part of many field studies involving organic compound

J. Sneddon; S. Masuram; J. C. Richert

2007-01-01

304

Characterization of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus) lignin by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was applied to kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers in order to clarify the chemical composition of in situ lignin. The core and bast samples obtained from the middle position of variety Chinpi-3 were pyrolyzed at 500°C for 4 s with TMAH. The core pyrogram revealed peaks retaining the structural attributes

Ken-ichi Kuroda; Akiko Izumi; Bibhuti B Mazumder; Yoshito Ohtani; Kazuhiko Sameshima

2002-01-01

305

Analytical method for the determination of strychnine in tissues by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry: two case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an analytical method for strychnine determination in biological samples by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and their application in the investigation of two cases involving strychnine ingestion: A fatal case and a clinical one. The strychnine is isolated from biological samples using a liquid–liquid extraction procedure. The clean-up procedure is performed using an acid solution. Papaverine is used as

E. P. Marques; F. Gil; P. Proença; P. Monsanto; M. F. Oliveira; A. Castanheira; D. N. Vieira

2000-01-01

306

Development and validation of a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry assay for opiates and cocaine in human teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is described for determination of opiates (6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine and codeine) and cocaine and metabolites (cocaine, benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene) in human teeth. After addition of nalorphine as internal standard, pulverized samples were incubated in HCl at 37°C for 18h. Then, after pH adjustment to 6, and the analytes were extracted with two volumes

Manuela Pellegrini; Adriana Casá; Emilia Marchei; Roberta Pacifici; Ruth Mayné; Vanessa Barbero; Oscar Garcia-Algar; Simona Pichini

2006-01-01

307

Rapid quantification of juvenile hormones and their metabolites in insect haemolymph by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, fast and sensitive method was developed for routine determination of juvenile hormone (JH), JH diols and JH acids in insect haemolymph, by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Sample clean-up involves the precipitation of proteins by methanol\\/isooctane (1:1, v\\/v), centrifugation and partial evaporation of the organic solvents. Since JH is bound to a carrier protein in the haemolymph, a binding

Stephanie A. Westerlund; Klaus H. Hoffmann

2004-01-01

308

Identification of New Metabolites of Bacterial Transformation of Indole by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

Arthrobacter sp. SPG transformed indole completely in the presence of an additional carbon source. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde as biotransformation products. This is the first report of the formation of indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde from indole by any bacterium.

Arora, Pankaj Kumar

2014-01-01

309

Fluoroacetylation/fluoroethylesterification as a derivatization approach for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in metabolomics: preliminary study of lymphohyperplastic diseases.  

PubMed

Metabolic fingerprinting in combination with gas chromatography and multivariate analysis is being extensively employed for the improved understanding of biological changes induced by endogenous or exogenous factors. Chemical derivatization increases the sensitivity and specificity of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for polar or thermally labile biological compounds, which bear derivatizable groups. Thus, there is a constant demand for simple methods of derivatization and separation that satisfy the need for metabolite analysis, identifying as many chemical classes of compounds as possible. In this study, an optimized protocol of extraction and derivatization is established as a generally applicable method for the analysis of a wide range of classes of metabolites in urine, whole blood and saliva. Compounds of biological relevance bearing hydroxyl- carboxyl- and amino-groups are derivatized using single-step fluoroacetylation/fluoroethylesterification after proper optimization of the protocol. Subsequently, the developed derivatization procedure is engaged in finding blood metabolic biomarkers, induced by lymphohyperplastic disease, through the metabolomic fingerprinting approach, the multivariate modeling (hierarchical cluster analysis) and GC-MS. Our preliminary, GC-MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting study underlines the contribution of certain metabolites to the discrimination of patients with lymphohyperplastic diseases. PMID:23806352

Karamani, Anna A; Fiamegos, Yiannis Ch; Vartholomatos, George; Stalikas, Constantine D

2013-08-01

310

Fully automated solid-phase microextraction-fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method using a new ionic liquid column for high-throughput analysis of sarcosine and N-ethylglycine in human urine and urinary sediments.  

PubMed

A fully automated, non invasive, rapid and high-throughput method for the direct determination of sarcosine and N-ethylglycine in urine and urinary sediments using hexyl chloroformate derivatization followed by direct immersion solid-phase micro extraction and fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis was developed and validated. The use of a new ionic liquid narrow bore column, as well as the automation and miniaturization of the preparation procedure by a customized configuration of the utilized XYZ robotic system, allowed a friendly use of the GC apparatus achieving a quantitation limit of 0.06 ?g L(-1) for sarcosine, good repeatability with CV always lower than 7% and reduced analysis times useful for point-of-care testing. The method was then applied for the analysis of 56 samples of urine and urinary sediments in healthy subjects, in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy and in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. The results obtained showed that the medians of sarcosine/creatinine in urine were 103, 137 and 267 ?g g(-1) respectively, thus assessing the potential use of sarcosine as urinary biomarker for prostate cancer detection. The highest values of sensitivity (79%) and specificity (87%) were obtained in correspondence of a cut-off value of 179 ?g sarcosine(g creatinine)(-1), thus by using this cut-off threshold, sarcosine was significantly associated with the presence of cancer (p<0.0001). Finally, ROC analyses proved that the discrimination between clinically localized prostate cancer and patients without evidence of tumor is significantly correlated with sarcosine. PMID:22027139

Bianchi, F; Dugheri, S; Musci, M; Bonacchi, A; Salvadori, E; Arcangeli, G; Cupelli, V; Lanciotti, M; Masieri, L; Serni, S; Carini, M; Careri, M; Mangia, A

2011-11-30

311

Versatile characterization of glycosylation modification in CTLA4-Ig fusion proteins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

CTLA4-Ig is a highly glycosylated therapeutic fusion protein that contains multiple N- and O-glycosylation sites. Glycosylation plays a vital role in protein solubility, stability, serum half-life, activity, and immunogenicity. For a CTLA4-Ig biosimilar development program, comparative analytical data, especially the glycosylation data, can influence decisions about the type and amount of animal and clinical data needed to establish biosimilarity. Because of the limited clinical experience with biosimilars before approval, a comprehensive level of knowledge about the biosimilar candidates is needed to achieve subsequent development. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a versatile technique for characterizing N- and O-glycosylation modification of recombinant therapeutic proteins, including 3 levels: intact protein analysis, peptide mapping analysis, and released glycans analysis. In this report, an in-depth characterization of glycosylation of a candidate biosimilar was carried out using a systematic approach: N- and O-linked glycans were identified and electron-transfer dissociation was then used to pinpoint the 4 occupied O-glycosylation sites for the first time. As the results show, the approach provides a set of routine tools that combine accurate intact mass measurement, peptide mapping, and released glycan profiling. This approach can be used to comprehensively research a candidate biosimilar Fc-fusion protein and provides a basis for future studies addressing the similarity of CTLA4-Ig biosimilars. PMID:25484062

Zhu, Lei; Guo, Qingcheng; Guo, Huaizu; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Yingxin; Gu, Peiming; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hao; Hou, Sheng; Guo, Yajun

2014-11-01

312

Global profiling of ultraviolet-induced metabolic disruption in Melissa officinalis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis contains various secondary metabolites that have health benefits. Generally, irradiating plants with ultraviolet (UV)-B induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. To understand the effect of UV-B irradiation on the metabolism of M. officinalis, metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study. The GC-MS analysis revealed 37 identified metabolites from various chemical classes, including alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, and sugars. The metabolite profiles of the groups of M. officinalis irradiated with UV-B were separated and differentiated according to their irradiation times (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 h), using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), respectively. The PCA score plots of PC1 and PC2 showed that the three groups with different irradiation times followed a certain trajectory with increasing UV-B irradiation. HCA revealed that metabolic patterns differed among the three groups, and the 1 h-irradiated group was more similar to the control group (0 h) than the 2 h-irradiated group. In particular, UV-B irradiation of plants led to a decrease in sugars such as fructose, galactose, sucrose, and trehalose and an increase in metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, and the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolite profiling with GC-MS is useful for gaining a holistic understanding of UV-induced changes in plant metabolism. PMID:22729379

Kim, Sooah; Yun, Eun Ju; Hossain, Md Aktar; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-08-01

313

Nitrate Reduction in a Groundwater Microcosm Determined by 15N Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aerobic and anaerobic groundwater continuous-flow microcosms were designed to study nitrate reduction by the indigenous bacteria in intact saturated soil cores from a sandy aquifer with a concentration of 3.8 mg of NO3?-N liter?1. Traces of 15NO3? were added to filter-sterilized groundwater by using a Darcy flux of 4 cm day?1. Both assimilatory and dissimilatory reduction rates were estimated from analyses of 15N2, 15N2O, 15NH4+, and 15N-labeled protein amino acids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. N2 and N2O were separated on a megabore fused-silica column and quantified by electron impact-selected ion monitoring. NO3? and NH4+ were analyzed as pentafluorobenzoyl amides by multiple-ion monitoring and protein amino acids as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl ester derivatives by negative ion-chemical ionization. The numbers of bacteria and their [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation rates were simultaneously measured. Nitrate was completely reduced in the microcosms at a rate of about 250 ng g?1 day?1. Of this nitrate, 80 to 90% was converted by aerobic denitrification to N2, whereas only 35% was denitrified in the anaerobic microcosm, where more than 50% of NO3? was reduced to NH4+. Assimilatory reduction was recorded only in the aerobic microcosm, where N appeared in alanine in the cells. The nitrate reduction rates estimated for the aquifer material were low in comparison with rates in eutrophic lakes and coastal sediments but sufficiently high to remove nitrate from an uncontaminated aquifer of the kind examined in less than 1 month. PMID:16348048

Bengtsson, Göran; Annadotter, Heléne

1989-01-01

314

Aging Alters Hepatic DNA Hydroxymethylation, as Measured by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background: Aging is one of the most important risk factors for cancer. It appears that aberrant epigenetic changes might be a common driver of aging and cancer. Among them are changes in DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation. The 5? carbon of cytosines in CpG dinucleotides of DNA can be either methylated or hydroxymethylated. Like 5?-methylcytosine, changes in 5?-hydroxymethylcytosine may occur due to aging, potentially leading to downstream changes in transcription and cancer development. Methods: We set up a method to measure 5?-methyl-2?-deoxycytidine and 5?-hydroxymethyl-2?-deoxycytidine in DNA using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and used this method to measure the percentage of total cytosine that was either methylated or hydroxymethylated in the liver tissues of young and old C57Bl/6 male mice. The DNA was enzymatically hydrolyzed by sequential digestion with nuclease P1, phosphodiesterase I and alkaline phosphatase. The isotopomers [15N3]-2?-deoxycytidine and (methyl-d3, ring-6-d1)-5-methyl-2?-deoxycytidine were added to the DNA hydrolysates as internal standards. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were calculated as a percentage of total deoxycytidine in genomic DNA. Results: Within day variations for DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were 3.45% and 8.40%, while day to day variations were 6.14% and 17.68%, respectively. Using this method it was determined that hepatic DNA of old mice had increased levels of hydroxymethylation relative to young (0.32 ± 0.02% vs. 0.24 ± 0.01%, P = 0.02), with no significant changes in 5?-methylcytosine. Conclusions: DNA hydroxymethylation measured by LC/MS-MS method can be a novel biomarker of aging. It will be useful to investigate the potential role of DNA hydroxymethylation in the development and prevention of age-associated cancer. PMID:25574465

Tammen, Stephanie A.; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Ausman, Lynne M.; Liu, Zhenhua; Kim, Kyong-chol; Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

2014-01-01

315

Determination of bullatacin in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of bullatacin, a bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenin, in rat plasma. Squamostatin-A was selected as the internal standard. Analytes were extracted from rat plasma by liquid/liquid extraction using ethyl acetate with high efficiency. The chromatographical separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C?? column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 ?m). The mobile phase consisted of methanol and deionized water (95:5, v/v) containing 0.01% (v/v) formic acid. The chromatographic run time was 7 min per injection and flow rate was 0.2 mL/min. The retention time was 3.22 and 5.23 min for internal standard and bullatacin, respectively. The elutes were detected under positive electrospray ionization and the target analytes quantified by selected ion monitoring mode (645.9 m/z for bullatacin and 661.9 m/z for squamostatin-A). The method was sensitive with the limit of quantitation at 0.5 ng/mL in 100 ?L of rat plasma. Good linearity (r²=0.9998) was obtained covering the concentration of 0.5-2000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day assay precision ranged from 3.2 to 8.7% and 2.7 to 9.2%, respectively. In addition, the stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect involved in the method were also validated. This method was applied to measure the plasma bullatacin concentrations after a single tail vein intravenous administration of bullatacin in rats. PMID:22534655

Chen, Yong; Chen, Jian-wei; Liu, Shi-jia; Xu, Chun-lei; Xu, Hui-qing; Cai, Bao-chang; Li, Xiang; Ju, Wen-zheng

2012-05-15

316

MET-COFEA: a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data processing platform for metabolite compound feature extraction and annotation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) data processing and analysis platform, MET-COFEA (METabolite COmpound Feature Extraction and Annotation). MET-COFEA detects and clusters chromatographic peak features for each metabolite compound by first comprehensively evaluating retention time and peak shape criteria and then annotating the associations between each peak's observed m/z value with the corresponding metabolite compound's molecular mass. MET-COFEA integrates a series of innovative approaches, including novel mass trace based extracted-ion chromatogram (EIC) extraction, continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based peak detection, and compound-associated peak clustering and peak annotation algorithms. On the basis of the deduced neutral molecular mass and retention time, we have also developed a new alignment algorithm that uses compound-associated peak groups instead of individual peaks to align the same metabolite compound across samples from different electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, different instruments, even different experimental conditions. MET-COFEA has been systematically tested on a series of LC/MS profiles of mixed standards at different concentrations as well as real untargeted LC/MS plant metabolomics data. We compared the performances of MET-COFEA with the existing publicly available tools at LC/MS peak analysis level and demonstrated its excellent performance in this arena. MET-COFEA is freely available at http://bioinfo.noble.org/manuscript-support/met-cofea/. PMID:24856452

Zhang, Wenchao; Chang, Junil; Lei, Zhentian; Huhman, David; Sumner, Lloyd W; Zhao, Patrick X

2014-07-01

317

Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring to the urinanalysis of 4-pyridoxic acid.  

PubMed

An analytical protocol has been developed for the analysis of urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for use in metabolic studies. Aliquots of urine were deproteinised and fractionated by isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The eluent fraction containing the 4-PA was collected, freeze-dried and silylated using N-methyl-N-(tert.-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Derivatisation produced the mono-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivative of 4-PA lactone. This derivative was readily amenable to GC-MS analysis in the electron ionisation (70 eV) mode, yielding a prominent fragment ion at m/z 222 ([M-57]+; base peak). A heavy isotope-labelled derivative of pyridoxine [dideuteriated pyridoxine; 3-hydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-5-[hydroxymethyl-2H2]-2-methylpyridine] has been synthesised and is being employed to determine the kinetics of labelling of the body pools of vitamin B6. Kinetic measurements are based on the determination of the relative proportions of metabolically produced deuterium-labelled and non-labelled 4-PA in urine, obtained from stable isotope ratios determined by low-resolution selected ion monitoring using a bench-top quadrupole GC-MS system. PMID:1452608

Leyland, D M; Evershed, R P; Edwards, R H; Beynon, R J

1992-10-23

318

Linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in air by concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In the present work, a simple and fast method for the analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in ambient air based on active sampling combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The retention efficiency of five sampling sorbents (activated coconut charcoal, Carbopack B, Cromosorb 102, Cromosorb 106 and Isolute ENV+) was evaluated and Isolute ENV+ was found to be the most effective. A volume of 2700 L of air can be sampled without significant losses of the most volatile methylsiloxanes. To improve the sensitivity of the GC-MS method, concurrent solvent recondensation - large volume injection (CSR-LVI), using volumes up to 30 µl of sample extract, is proposed and limits of quantification down to 0.03-0.45 ng m(-3), good linearity (r>0.999) and precision (RSD %<9%) were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of ambient air. Concentrations of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in indoor air ranging from 3.9 to 319 ng m(-3) and between 48 and 292668 ng m(-3), were obtained, respectively, while levels from 6 to 22 ng m(-3) for linear and between 2.2 and 439 ng m(-3) for cyclic methylsiloxanes in outdoor air from Barcelona (Spain), were found. PMID:24274295

Companioni-Damas, E Y; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

2014-01-01

319

[Simultaneous determination of four trace aconitum alkaloids in urine using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A rapid, specific and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four trace alkaloids, including aconitine (AC), hypaconitine (HA), mesaconitine (MA) and yunaconitine (YA) in human urine samples. UPLC-MS-MS system coupled with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The sample preparation was performed with hollow fiber microextraction (HF-LPME) prior to the analysis. The enrichment factors of the four alkaloids were 102 - 301. The separation was applied on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 micro m) with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 10 mmol/L NH4HCO3, as mobile phase. The retention times , were less than 3 min. This method significantly improved the detection sensitivity, and the limits of quantitation were from 0. 01 to 0.1 ng/L. The calibration curves were linear over the ranges of 0.01 - 10 ng/L for AC, MA and YA, 0.1 - 100 ng/L for HA in human urine samples, and the correlation coefficients were 0. 998 1, 0.998 4, 0.999 5 and 0.998 6, respectively. The method was proved to be rapid and sensitive for aconitum alkaloid analysis in urine samples. PMID:23785992

Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Fucheng; Wang, Zhaohong; Jiang, Ye; Lu, Yongjiang

2013-03-01

320

Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.  

PubMed

Aroma composition of five Chinese premium famous liquors with different origins and liquor flavor types was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flash gas chromatographic electronic nose system. Eighty-six aroma compounds were identified, including 5 acids, 34 esters, 10 alcohols, 9 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 phenols, and 10 nitrous and sulfuric compounds. To investigate possible correlation between aroma compounds identified by GC-MS and sensory attributes, multivariate ANOVA-PLSR (APLSR) was performed. It turned out that there were 30 volatile composition, ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl benzenacetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-heptanol, phenylethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxy-3-methyl butane, furfural, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furanal, 2-octanone, 2-n-butyl furan, dimethyl trisulfied and 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, ethyl nonanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, octanoic acid, ethyl 5-methyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate,ethyl oleate, propyl hexanoate, butanoic acid and phenol, ethyl benzenepropanoate, which showed good coordination with Chinese liquor characteristics. The multivariate structure of this electronic nose responses was then processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). According to the obtained results, GC-MS and electronic nose can be used for the differentiation of the liquor origins and flavor types. PMID:24333641

Xiao, Zuobing; Yu, Dan; Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Feng; Song, Shiqing; Zhu, Jiancai; Zhu, Guangyong

2014-01-15

321

Headspace single drop microextraction of methylcyclopentadienyl-manganese tricarbonyl from water samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Headspace single drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry yielded a simple, fast and virtually solventless analytical protocol used for the headspace analysis of aqueous samples contaminated with methylcyclopentadienyl-manganese tricarbonyl (MMT). Initially, several experimental parameters were controlled and optimized and the optimum conditions found were 2.5 microl octane microdrop exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 10 ml aqueous sample (15 ml vial) containing 20% (w/v) NaCl and stirred at 1250 rpm. The calculated calibration curves gave a high level of linearity for MMT with correlation coefficients >0.9995 after conducting a 3-day study. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.21 microg l(-1). The proposed method achieved an enrichment factor of the order of 2100 and a 53% recovery after extracting the spiked aqueous solution for 20 min under the optimized experimental conditions. The repeatability and intra-day reproducibility of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation were 8.4 and 6.4%, respectively. Finally, analysis of spiked tap and wastewater samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction. PMID:18371611

Pereira, Francisco Javier Pena; Bendicho, Carlos; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Psillakis, Elefteria

2007-11-15

322

Chemical characterization of automotive polyurethane foam using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from heated automotive polyurethane (PU) foam collected from 17 different automobiles located in Yuen Long, HK SAR. The samples (0.05 g each) underwent incubation inside 5-mL glass vials for 30 min, and the VOCs were then collected from the headspace with a polydimethylsiloxane fiber by insertion for 30 min. The VOCs were then qualitatively identified by GC-MS analysis and were mostly found to be saturated hydrocarbons. However, differences were noted from car to car in the retention time range of 10-23 min. The VOCs collected during this segment of retention time from the PU foams ranged from antioxidants, food preservatives, pesticides, plasticizers, flame retardants to antiseptic agents. The results obtained from this study therefore highlight the usefulness of SPME/GC-MS as a form of chemical characterization in the analysis of PU foams in forensic casework. PMID:22994148

Parsons, Norah S; Lam, Michael H W; Hamilton, Sheilah E

2013-01-01

323

Characterization of nodularin variants in Nodularia spumigena from the Baltic Sea using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Nodularin is a potent hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptide produced by planktonic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. Bloom and culture samples of the cyanobacterium collected and isolated from the Gulf of Gda?sk, southern Baltic Sea, were analyzed. Hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (TOF-LC/MS/MS) with ionspray (ISP) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to characterize nodularin and its analogues. The identification process was based on the comparison of recorded product ion spectra with the previously reported FAB-MS/CID (high-energy) mass spectra of the corresponding nodularin variants. Amino acid structures and sequences were derived from the fragmentation pattern of the [M+H](+) ions. Apart from unmodified nodularin with an arginine residue (NOD-R), three demethylated variants have been found. The sites of demethylation were located on aspartic acid [Asp(1)]NOD, the Adda residue [DMAdda(3)]NOD, and dehydrobutyric acid [dhb(5)]NOD. In two other nodularin variants an additional methyl group is located in the Adda [MeAdda]NOD and Glu [Glu(4)(OMe)]NOD residues. The linear NOD and the geometrical isomer of NOD-R, reported earlier in N. spumigena from New Zealand, have also been detected. Two of the total eight nodularin variants characterized in the present study, [dhb(5)]NOD and [MeAdda]NOD, have not been described earlier. PMID:16755614

Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Pli?ski, Marcin; Szafranek, Janusz

2006-01-01

324

PRECISION AND ACCURACY IN THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANICS IN WATER BY FUSED SILICA CAPILLARY COLUMN GAS CHROMOTOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AND PACKED COLUMN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Two general methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in water are compared. One method employs packed column chromatography and the other fused silica capillary column chromatography. The two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods use diff...

325

Studying species composition of microbial communities with the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: microbial community of kaolin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of microbial communities has been investigated avoiding conventional cultural techniques by chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of chemical signature markers. Concentrations of fatty acids, hydroxy acids, aldehydes, sterols, and methanolysate of the biomass lipid fractions were used to determine the population size of the individual community members. The calculation is based on the information stored in a data bank about

George A. Osipov; Evgenia S. Turova

1997-01-01

326

MSPD procedure for determining buprofezin, tetradifon, vinclozolin, and bifenthrin residues in propolis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was developed to determine bifenthrin, buprofezin, tetradifon, and vinclozolin in propolis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS, SIM). Different method conditions were evaluated, for example type of solid phase (C(18), alumina, silica, and Florisil), the amount of solid phase and eluent (n-hexane, dichloromethane, dichloromethane-n-hexane (8:2 and 1:1, v/v) and dichloromethane-ethyl acetate (9:1, 8:2 and 7:3, v/v)). The best results were obtained using 0.5 g propolis, 1.0 g silica as dispersant sorbent, 1.0 g Florisil as clean-up sorbent, and dichloromethane-ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) as eluting solvent. The method was validated by analysis of propolis samples fortified at different concentration levels (0.25 to 1.0 mg kg(-1)). Average recoveries (four replicates) ranged from 67% to 175% with relative standard deviation between 5.6% and 12.1%. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 mg kg(-1) and 0.15 to 0.25 mg kg(-1) propolis, respectively. PMID:18193409

dos Santos, Thaíse Fernanda Santana; Aquino, Adriano; Dórea, Haroldo Silveira; Navickiene, Sandro

2008-03-01

327

Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates.

Hvastkovs, Eli, G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James, F.

2012-07-01

328

Simultaneous determination of 76 micropollutants in water samples by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the development of an analytical method based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of 76 micropollutants in water samples. The selected micropollutants include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g. chlorobenzenes, chloroalkanes), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (e.g. bisphenol A and tributyl phosphate), odour compounds (e.g. limonene, phenol), fragrance allergens (e.g. geraniol, eugenol) and some pesticides (e.g. heptachlor, terbutryn). The experimental conditions affecting their extraction, such as the type of fibre, temperature and time of extraction, sample volume and ionic strength of the samples were optimized using HS-SPME. The method showed good linear range, reproducibility between days, repeatability and low detection limits (at ng L(-1) levels). The validated method has been applied to determine the target organic micropollutants in aqueous samples from different experimental research units of surface water, sea water, waste water and those effluents of advance membrane treatments. The optimized method showed good performance in the different types of samples studied. The analysis revealed the presence of several micropollutants at concentrations between 20 and 5000 ?g L(-1), such as ethylbenzene, o-xylene, p-isopropilbenzene, D-limonene, citral and isoeugenol, due to the fact that these species are commonly used in domestic and industrial applications. PMID:24148498

Martínez, C; Ramírez, N; Gómez, V; Pocurull, E; Borrull, F

2013-11-15

329

Measurement of urinary F(2)-isoprostanes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is confounded by interfering substances.  

PubMed

Analysis of F(2)-isoprostanes in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is confounded by the presence of endogenous compounds interfering with the internal standard, 15-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4) (m/z 573). Previous efforts to resolve the 15-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4) from co-eluting peaks with different solid phase extractions were unsuccessful. This study has now used a highly-deuterated, d(9)-analogue of the derivatization agent N,O-Bis(trimethyl-d(9)-silyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA-d(9)) yielding trimethylsilyl ethers, but this was not successful in resolving the 15-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4) from co-eluting peaks. It was hypothesized that interfering peaks at m/z 573 could be the tetrahydro analogue of 15-F(2t)-IsoP. However, using an authentic standard showed the interfering peaks are not due to this metabolite. In subsequent experiments good resolution was shown of the 15-F(2t)-IsoP peak using 8-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4) (m/z 573) as the internal standard. These data show that care must be taken when using GC-MS for quantitation of F(2)-IsoPs to prevent interfering substances affecting the results. PMID:19929242

Mas, Emilie; Barden, Anne; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Croft, Kevin D; Mori, Trevor A

2010-02-01

330

A serum metabolomic investigation on lipoprotein lipase-deficient mice with hyperlipidemic pancreatitis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is often associated with acute pancreatitis. The relationship between these diseases and the role that hypertriglyceridemia plays in acute pancreatitis pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, in order to investigate the mechanisms of hyper-lipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLP), we established an animal model using lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-deficient heterozygous mice injected with caerulein. Susceptibility to pancreatitis in LPL-deficient heterozygous mice was compared with that of wild-type mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of caerulein by determining amylase release and pancreatic pathological scores. Furthermore, serum metabolome was detected through chemical derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS data were analyzed by orthogonal-projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Caerulein induced increased levels of serum amylase and more severe pancreatic inflammation in LPL-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. HLP was discriminated more accurately from healthy controls by the metabolites, including valine, leucine and citrate. The metabolites included valine, leucine, citrate, malic acid, proline, tetradecanoic acid (14:0), glutamine and oleic acid (18:1). Changes in energy, fat and amino acid metabolism were also evident. In conclusion, LPL-deficient heterozygous mice with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) exhibited enhanced susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. GC/MS data revealed differences between healthy and HLP mice. Therefore, this technique is novel and a useful tool for the study of the HLP pathogenetic mechanism. PMID:24648970

TANG, MAOCHUN; HU, GOUYONG; ZHAO, YAN; SU, MINGMING; WANG, YUHUI; JIA, WEI; QIU, YUNPING; LIU, GEORGE; WANG, XINGPENG

2013-01-01

331

Determination of fecal sterols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction and injection-port derivatization.  

PubMed

Injection-port derivatization combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed and applied for the first time to determine five types of fecal sterols (coprostanol, cholestanol, epicholestanol, epicoprostanol and cholesterol) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this method, silylation of fecal sterols was performed with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) at GC injection-port. The factors influential to this technique such as injection-port temperature, purge-off time, derivatization reagent (BSTFA) volume, and the type of organic solvent were investigated. In addition, the conditions of SPE (including the type of SPE cartridge, the type of elution organic solvent) were also studied. After SPE followed by injection-port silylation by GC-MS, good linearity of analytes was achieved in the range of 0.02-10ng/mL with coefficients of determination, R(2)>0.995. Good reproducibility was obtained with relative standard deviation less than 19.6%. The limits of detection ranged from 1.3ng/mL to 15ng/mL (S/N=3) in environmental water samples. Compared with traditional off-line silylation of fecal sterols performed with water bath (60 degrees C, 30min), this injection-port silylation method is much simpler and convenient. The developed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of fecal sterols from real environmental water samples. PMID:19147150

Wu, Jingming; Hu, Ruikang; Yue, Junqi; Yang, Zhaoguang; Zhang, Lifeng

2009-02-13

332

Determination of phosmet and its metabolites in olives by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An accurate method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for determination of phosmet residues and its metabolites (phosmet-oxon, phthalimide, N-hydroxymethylphthalimide, and phthalic acid) in olive fruits. After testing different sorbents and eluents for MSPD extraction, C(18) and acetonitrile were found to be the most appropriate for clean-up of the samples, in terms of yields and efficient removal of interfering compounds. All analytes were determined in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode following a derivatization step with N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% of trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), except for phosmet and phosmet-oxon which were analyzed directly. The method showed suitable linearity (correlation coefficients higher than 0.8919 for all the compounds) and suitable sensitivity (limit of detection lower than 0.06mg/kg). It was successfully applied in the analysis of olive fruits collected during the preharvest interval and olive oil. Phosmet residues found in all samples were lower than the maximum residue limits established by legislation (2mg/kg). PMID:19073064

Cunha, Sara C; Fernandes, José O; Beatriz, M; Oliveira, P P

2007-09-30

333

Validation of Biomarkers for Distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using Gas Chromatography?Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major international health problem. Rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is critical for decisions regarding patient management and choice of therapeutic regimen. Recently we developed a 20-compound model to distinguish between MTB and NTM. It is based on thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and partial least square discriminant analysis. Here we report the validation of this model with two independent sample sets, one consisting of 39 MTB and 17 NTM isolates from the Netherlands, the other comprising 103 isolates (91 MTB and 12 NTM) from Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa. All the MTB strains in the 56 Dutch samples were correctly identified and the model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94%. For the South African samples the model had a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 100%. Based on our model, we have developed a new decision-tree that allows the differentiation of MTB from NTM with 100% accuracy. Encouraged by these findings we will proceed with the development of a simple, rapid, affordable, high-throughput test to identify MTB directly in sputum. PMID:24146846

Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Walters, Elisabetta; Claassens, Mareli; van Soolingen, Dick; Vivo-Truyols, Gabriel; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Kolk, Arend H. J.

2013-01-01

334

Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates. PMID:22482786

Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

2012-01-01

335

Oligosaccharide Substrate Preferences of Human Extracellular Sulfatase Sulf2 Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Glycomics Approaches  

PubMed Central

Sulfs are extracellular endosulfatases that selectively remove the 6-O-sulfate groups from cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) chain. By altering the sulfation at these particular sites, Sulfs function to remodel HS chains. As a result of the remodeling activity, HSulf2 regulates a multitude of cell-signaling events that depend on interactions between proteins and HS. Previous efforts to characterize the substrate specificity of human Sulfs (HSulfs) focused on the analysis of HS disaccharides and synthetic repeating units. In this study, we characterized the substrate preferences of human HSulf2 using HS oligosaccharides with various lengths and sulfation degrees from several naturally occurring HS sources by applying liquid chromatography mass spectrometry based glycomics methods. The results showed that HSulf2 preferentially digests highly sulfated HS oligosaccharides with zero acetyl groups and this preference is length dependent. In terms of length of oligosaccharides, HSulf2 digestion induced more sulfation decrease on DP6 (DP: degree of polymerization) compared to DP2, DP4 and DP8. In addition, the HSulf2 preferentially digests the oligosaccharide domain located at the non-reducing end (NRE) of the HS and heparin chain. In addition, the HSulf2 digestion products were altered only for specific isomers. HSulf2 treated NRE oligosaccharides also showed greater decrease in cell proliferation than those from internal domains of the HS chain. After further chromatographic separation, we identified the three most preferred unsaturated hexasaccharide for HSulf2. PMID:25127119

Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Nugent, Matthew A.; Zaia, Joseph

2014-01-01

336

Quantitative determination of CGS 18102A, a new anxiolytic, in human plasma using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

CGS 18102A is a novel hexahydrobenzopyranopyridine that has a mixed pharmacological profile of 5-HT-1A agonist and 5-HT-2 antagonist properties. Based upon these mechanisms, the compound is predicted to have anxiolytic efficacy with possible efficacy in depression. Preclinical studies in the rat have shown the drug to be well absorbed and extensively metabolized. Because of the anticipated low plasma levels in humans a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical method has been developed and validated to determine plasma concentrations of CGS 18102A in early clinical studies. The method utilizes CGS 18416A as the internal standard. Samples (1 mL) were extracted with pentane:ethyl acetate (75:25, v:v). Extracts were then concentrated and analysed directly by GC/MS. Separation was accomplished on a methylsilicone capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm i.d.). GC/MS was carried out under positive ion ammonia CI conditions, with selected ion monitoring of the [M + H]+ ions (m/z = 262 and 248) for CGS 18102A and CGS 18416A, respectively. The method was successively applied to the analysis of clinical samples from an ascending multidose safety and tolerability study conducted in six normal healthy male volunteers. PMID:1361157

Leal, M; Hayes, M J; Powell, M L

1992-01-01

337

A serum metabolomic investigation on hepatocellular carcinoma patients by chemical derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum metabolic difference between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 20) male patients and normal male subjects (n = 20). Serum metabolome was detected through chemical derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The acquired GC/MS data was analyzed by stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) and support vector machine (SVM). The metabolites including butanoic acid, ethanimidic acid, glycerol, L-isoleucine, L-valine, aminomalonic acid, D-erythrose, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid in combination with each other gave the strongest segregation between the two groups. By applying these variables, our method provided a diagnostic model that could well discriminate between HCC patients and normal subjects. More importantly, the error count estimate for each group was 0%. The total classifying accuracy of the discriminant function tested by SVM 20-fold cross validation was 75%. This technique is different from traditional ones and appears to be a useful tool in the area of HCC diagnosis. PMID:18767022

Xue, Ruyi; Lin, Zhenxin; Deng, Chunhui; Dong, Ling; Liu, Taotao; Wang, Jiyao; Shen, Xizhong

2008-10-01

338

Unknown exposures: gaps in basic characterization addressed with person-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrumentation.  

PubMed

A newly developed person-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system was used to analyze several solvent standards, contact cement, paint thinner, and polychlorinated biphenyl samples. Passive solid phase microextraction sampling and fast chromatography with a resistively heated low thermal mass GC column were used. Results (combined sampling and analysis) were obtained in <2 min for solvent, contact cement, and paint thinner samples, and in <13 min for the polychlorinated biphenyl sample. Mass spectra produced by the small toroidal ion trap detector used were similar to those produced with heavily used transmission quadrupole mass spectrometers for polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, simple alkanes, and cycloalknes, while mass spectra for benzene and the ketone compounds analyzed showed evidence for ion/molecule reactions in the ion trap. For one of the contact cement samples analyzed, no evidence was found to indicate the presence of n-hexane, although the relevant material safety data sheet listed this ingredient. Specific chemical constituents corresponding to a potentially wide range of petroleum distillate compounds were identifiable from GC-MS analyses. The possibility for an improved basic characterization step in the exposure assessment process exists with the availability of fast, person-portable GC-MS, although work is needed to further refine this tool and understand the best ways it may be used. PMID:21318921

Smith, Philip A; Roe, Marc T A; Sadowski, Charles; Lee, Edgar D

2011-03-01

339

Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomic Approach for Optimization and Toxicity Evaluation of Earthworm Sub-Lethal Responses to Carbofuran  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals) for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to assess the soil ecotoxicity. Initially, we have optimized the extraction conditions which are suitable for high-throughput gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics for the tissue of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Upon evaluation of five different extraction solvent systems, 80% methanol was found to have good extraction efficiency based on the yields of metabolites, multivariate analysis, total number of peaks and reproducibility of metabolites. Later the toxicity evaluation was performed to characterize the tissue specific metabolomic perturbation of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma after exposure to carbofuran at three different concentration levels (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of soil). Seventeen metabolites, contributing to the best classification performance of highest dose dependent carbofuran exposed earthworms from healthy controls were identified. This study suggests that GC-MS based metabolomic approach was precise and sensitive to measure the earthworm responses to carbofuran exposure in soil, and can be used as a promising tool for environmental eco-toxicological studies. PMID:24324663

Saxena, Prem Narain

2013-01-01

340

[Simultaneous determination of neutral sugars and uronic acid constituents in a novel bacterial polysaccharide using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

The purified novel bacterial polysaccharide was acid-hydrolyzed, followed by the subsequent derivatization using ethanethiol-trifluoroacetic acid and acetic anhydride-pyridine systems sequentially. Our findings differ from the previous reports in that the glucuronic acid was obtained through effective derivatization. The neutral sugars and glucuronic acid were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with xyloses as an internal standard. The polysaccharide was found to be composed of fucose, glucose, glucuronic acid and galactose, with the relative molar ratio of 1.50: 1.0: 0.79: 2.06. The neutral sugars ratio was similar to the relative molar ratio for fucose, glucose and galactose of 1.76: 1.0: 1.98 through alditol acetates determined by GC. The percentages of glucuronic acid analyzed using either the carbazole and sulfuric acid method or the above method were 16.19% and 14.85%, respectively. These results indicate that it is practicable to use the derivatization method and GC-MS to quantitatively analyze neutral sugars and glucuronic acid simultaneously in polysaccharide. For GC-MS analysis, the procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of the derivatives in 25 min, and was performed using an HP-5MS column. Molecular ion peaks were observed in the electron ionization (EI) mass spectra. The fragmentation mechanism for glucuronic acid derivative is discussed in detail. PMID:23667990

Wang, Fengqin; Yang, Hangxian; Wang, Yizhen

2013-01-01

341

Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An automated thermal desorption (ATD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of selected chemical warfare (CW) agents. Suitable methods were developed for analytes of high volatility to low volatility. The less volatile CW agents required the purchase and installation of a high-temperature valve upgrade kit allowing valve temperatures of up to 260 degrees C to be reached. The limit of detection was 50 ng on the tube for most CW agents in full scan. Chloropicrin exhibited some temperature dependence, with detection limits improving as ATD temperatures were decreased below 150 degrees C. A sample storage trial was undertaken to establish the most suitable storage environment for CW agents adsorbed onto Tenax TA. Temperature and time of storage were found to influence recovery of analytes with best recoveries being observed after 1 day storage in a freezer (-12 degrees C). This method was evaluated during a trial of procedures for sampling and identification of chemical agents at Porton Down, UK. Sulfur mustard was detected downwind of a simulated exploded munition. PMID:11519809

Carrick, W A; Cooper, D B; Muir, B

2001-08-01

342

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose. PMID:21301821

Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-04-01

343

Speciation of butyltin compounds in marine sediments by preconcentration on C60 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method for the speciation of butyltin compounds by solid phase extraction and direct injection using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described. The compounds were complexed with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and retained on a C60 sorbent column. The neutral chelates of butyltin compounds were eluted with ethyl acetate containing NaBPr4 as derivatising reagent. The main analytical figures of merit of the proposed method for 10 ml of sample are: linear range 0.2-35 ng/g expressed as Sn; limits of detection, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.10 ng/g as Sn for monobutyltin, dibutyltin and tributyltin, respectively. No interferences from metal ions such as Zn2+, Fe3+, Sb3t, Pb2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were observed in the determination of organotin compounds. The validation of method was performed out by the analysis of a standard reference sediment (CRM 462). The method was also applied to the determination of butyltin compounds in marine sediment samples. PMID:14753683

Muñoz, J; Baena, J R; Gallego, M; Valcárcel, M

2004-01-16

344

Comparison of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay techniques on concentrations of atrazine in storm runoff.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to measure concentrations of dissolved atrazine in 149 surface-water samples. Samples were collected during May 1992-September 1993 near the mouth of the White River (Indiana) and in two small tributaries of the river. GC/MS was performed on a Hewlett-Packard 5971A with electron impact ionization and selected ion monitoring of filtered water samples extracted by C-18 solid phase extraction; ELISA was performed with a magnetic-particle-based assay with photometric analysis. ELISA results compared reasonably well to GC/MS measurements at concentrations below the Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (3.0 microg/L), but a systematic negative bias was observed at higher concentrations. When higher concentration samples were diluted into the linear range of calibration, the relation improved. A slight positive bias was seen in all of the ELISA data compared to the GC/MS results, and the bias could be partially explained by correcting the ELISA data for cross reactivity with other triazine herbicides. The highest concentrations of atrazine were found during the first major runoff event after the atrazine was applied. Concentrations decreased throughout the rest of the sampling period even though large runoff events occurred during this time, indicating that most atrazine loading to surface waters in the study area occurs within a few weeks after application. PMID:8854831

Lydy, M J; Carter, D S; Crawford, C G

1996-10-01

345

Supercritical fluid extraction of isoflavones from biological samples with ultra-fast high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An efficient method of modifier addition for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of polar isoflavones was developed and yielded extraordinarily high recoveries. To find the optimal extraction conditions, a temperature and pressure optimization and modifier impact study was performed in naturally contaminated and spiked samples. Ultra-fast high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was used for the determination of isoflavones on an Atlantis dC18 high-speed reversed phase chromatographic column (20 x 2.1 mm, 3 microm particle size). A newly elaborated supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedure allowed more accurate (< 5%) and precise (< 4-7%) determination of isoflavones in biological materials. The HPLC/MS method significantly reduced analysis time with simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and detection limits. The on-column limits of detection LOD (S/N = 3) for isoflavone glycosides (daidzin, genistin, glycitin, ononin, and sissotrin) were 1.3-3.6 fmol and 0.2-1.0 fmol for aglycones (daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A), respectively. PMID:16138685

Klejdus, Borivoj; Lojková, Lea; Lapcík, Oldrich; Koblovská, Radka; Moravcová, Jitka; Kubán, Vlastimil

2005-08-01

346

Characterization of important odorants in steamed male Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry.  

PubMed

Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) from Yangcheng Lake in Jiangsu Province is a popular species due to its unique pleasant aroma and intensive umami taste. In this study, odorants in steamed male E. sinensis were investigated using the headspace-monolithic material sorptive extraction technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). A total of 74 volatile compounds were found, and the results of the GC-MS-O analysis, combined with odor activity values, showed that trimethylamine (fishy, ammonia-like odor), (Z)-4-heptenal (mushroom-like odor), and benzaldehyde (paint-like odor) were the important odorants (IOs) in all 4 of the edible parts of steamed male E. sinensis. Furthermore, heptanal (mushroom-like odor) was common to the abdomen, claw, and leg meat but was not found as the IO in the gonad. The abdomen meat also contained 3-methylbutanal (vegetable-like, grassy odor), while 2 additional IOs were found in claw meat (2-methylbutanal, which has a mushroom odor and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, which has a chocolate-like, musty odor). Another IO (2-nonanone, chocolate-like odor) was also found in leg meat, while (E)-2-nonenal (green, fruity odor) was the IO found exclusively in the gonad. PMID:24962135

Wu, Na; Gu, Saiqi; Tao, Ningping; Wang, Xichang; Ji, Siru

2014-07-01

347

Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Methods for Measuring Dipeptide Abundance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE Metabolomic profiling is a promising methodology of identifying candidate biomarkers for disease detection and monitoring. Although lung cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide, the lung tumor metabolome has not been fully characterized. METHODS We utilized a targeted metabolomic approach to analyze discrete groups of related metabolites. We adopted a dansyl [5-(dimethylamino)-1-napthalene sulfonamide] derivatization with liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze changes of metabolites from paired tumor and normal lung tissues. Identification of dansylated dipeptides was confirmed with synthetic standards. A systematic analysis of retention times (RT) was required to reliably identify isobaric dipeptides. We validated our findings in a separate sample cohort. RESULTS We produced a database of the LC retention time and MS/MS spectra of 361 dansyl dipeptides. Interpretation of the spectra is presented. Using this standard data, we identified a total of 279 dipeptides in lung tumor tissue. The abundance of 90 dipeptides was selectively increased in lung tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. In a second set of validation tissues, 12 dipeptides were selectively increased. CONCLUSIONS A systematic evaluation of certain metabolite classes in lung tumors may identify promising disease-specific metabolites. Our database of all possible dipeptides will facilitate ongoing translational applications of metabolomic profiling as it relates to lung cancer. PMID:23943330

Fitch, William L.; Zheng, Ming; Merritt, Robert E.; Shrager, Joseph B.; Zhang, Weiruo; Dill, David L.; Peltz, Gary; Hoang, Chuong D.

2013-01-01

348

Sensitive determination of bromate in ozonated and chlorinated water, and sea water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization.  

PubMed

A sensitive gas chromatographic method has been established for the determination of bromate in ozonated and chlorinated water, and in sea water. With acidic conditions, bromate reacts with chloride to form bromine, which reacts with 2,6-dialkylphenol to form 4-bromo-2,6-dialkylphenol. The organic derivative was extracted with ethyl acetate after quenching remaining oxidants with ascorbic acid, and then measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The lowest detection limit and limit of quantification of bromate in drinking water were 0.02 and 0.07 ?g/L, respectively, and the calibration curve showed good linearity with r²=0.998. The 32 common ions did not interfere even when present in 100-fold excess over the bromated ion. The accuracy was in a range of 102-106% and the precision of the assay was less than 6% in chlorinated and ozonated tap water, ozonated mineral water, and sea water. The method was sensitive, reproducible and simple enough to permit reliable analysis of bromate to the ng/L level in water. PMID:22227358

Shin, Ho-Sang

2012-02-01

349

Comparison of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay techniques on concentrations of atrazine in storm runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to measure concentrations of dissolved atrazine in 149 surface-water samples. Samples were collected during May 1992-September 1993 near the mouth of the White River (Indiana) and in two small tributaries of the river. GC/MS was performed on a Hewlett- Packard 5971A with electron impact ionization and selected ion monitoring of filtered water samples extracted by C-18 solid phase extraction: ELISA was performed with a magnetic-particle-based assay with photometric analysis. ELISA results compared reasonably well to GC/MS measurements at concentrations below the Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (3.0 ??g/L), but a systematic negative bias was observed at higher concentrations. When higher concentration samples were diluted into the linear range of calibration, the relation improved. A slight positive bias was seen in all of the ELISA data compared to the GC/MS results, and the bias could be partially explained by correcting the ELISA data for cross reactivity with other triazine herbicides. The highest concentrations of atrazine were found during the first major runoff event after the atrazine was applied. Concentrations decreased throughout the rest of the sampling period even though large runoff events occurred during this time, indicating that most atrazine loading to surface waters in the study area occurs within a few weeks after application.

Lydy, M.J.; Carter, D.S.; Crawford, C.G.

1996-01-01

350

Sequential derivatization of polar organic compounds in cloud water using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride, N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Cloud water samples from Whiteface Mountain, NY were used to develop a combined sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GCMS) protocol for evaluating the complex mixture of highly polar organic compounds (HPOC) present in this atmospheric medium. Specific HPOC of interest were mono- and di keto-acids which are thought to originate from photochemical reactions of volatile unsaturated hydrocarbons from biogenic and manmade emissions and be a major fraction of atmospheric carbon. To measure HPOC mixtures and the individual keto-acids in cloud water, samples first must be derivatized for clean elution and measurement, and second, have low overall background of the target species as validated by GCMS analysis of field and laboratory blanks. Here, we discuss a dual derivatization method with PFBHA and BSTFA which targets only organic compounds that contain functional groups reacting with both reagents. The method also reduced potential contamination by minimizing the amount of sample processing from the field through the GCMS analysis steps. Once derivatized only gas chromatographic separation and selected ion monitoring (SIM) are needed to identify and quantify the polar organic compounds of interest. Concentrations of the detected total keto-acids in individual cloud water samples ranged from 27.8 to 329.3ngmL(-1) (ppb). Method detection limits for the individual HPOC ranged from 0.17 to 4.99ngmL(-1) and the quantification limits for the compounds ranged from 0.57 to 16.64ngmL(-1). The keto-acids were compared to the total organic carbon (TOC) results for the cloud water samples with concentrations of 0.607-3.350mgL(-1) (ppm). GCMS analysis of all samples and blanks indicated good control of the entire collection and analysis steps. Selected ion monitoring by GCMS of target keto-acids was essential for screening the complex organic carbon mixtures present at low ppb levels in cloud water. It was critical for ensuring high levels of quality assurance and quality control and for the correct identification and quantification of key marker compounds. PMID:25182854

Sagona, Jessica A; Dukett, James E; Hawley, Harmonie A; Mazurek, Monica A

2014-10-01

351

A demonstration of the use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry [UPLC\\/MS] in the determination of amphetamine-type substances and ketamine for forensic and toxicological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently seen the emergence of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry as an alternative to traditional high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The strengths of UPLC technology promote the ability to separate and identify drug compounds with significant gains in resolution and sensitivity and marked reductions in the overall time of analysis. As increased throughput is the desire

Luigino G. Apollonio; Dennis J. Pianca; Ian R. Whittall; William A. Maher; Jennelle M. Kyd

2006-01-01

352

On the conversion of a mass selective detector from gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry application to stand-alone, on-line, real-time mass spectrometry application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of initial versions of hardware and software for a Hewlett-Packard HP-5971A mass selective detector (MSD) was performed in order to improve its capabilities for monitoring gaseous waste streams. The development allowed for initial evaluation of the feasibility of the conversion of the MSD from an integrated gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detector to a stand-alone, on-line, real-time mass spectrometry (SOR-MS)

M. Koch

1994-01-01

353

Detecting Organic Compounds in Martian Soil Analogues Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary objectives of the 1976 Viking missions was to determine whether organic compounds, possibly of biological origin, were present in the Martian surface soils. The Viking gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments found no evidence for any organic compounds of Martian origin above a few parts per billion in the upper 10 cm of surface soil [l], suggesting the absence of a widely distributed Martian biota. However, Benner et d. have suggested that significant amounts of non-volatile organic compounds, possibly including oxidation products of bioorganic molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS [2]. Moreover, other key organic compounds important to biology, such as amino acids and nucleobases, would also likely have been missed by the Viking GCMS as these compounds require chemical derivatization to be stable in a GC column [3]. Recent pyrolysis experiments with a Mars soil analogue that had been innoculated with Escherichia coli bacteria have shown that amino acid decomposition products (amines) and nucleobases are among the most abundant products generated after pyrolysis of the bacterial cells [4,5]. At the part per billion level (Viking GCMS detection limit), these pyrolysis products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS instruments [4]. Analytical protocols are under development for upcoming in situ lander opportunities to target several important biological compounds including amino acids and nucleobases. For example, extraction and chemical derivatization techniques [3] are being adapted for space flight use to transform reactive or fragile molecules that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS instruments, into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by GCMS. Recent experiments carried out at NASA Goddard have shown that using this derivatization technique all of the targeted compounds mentioned above can be separated on a GC column and detected by MS at sub-picomole (< 10(exp -l2 mole) levels. With these methods, the detection limit for amino acids, carboxylic acids and nucleobases is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than the Viking GCMS instruments for these compounds. Preliminary results using this analytical technique on a variety of Martian soil analogues will be presented.

Glavin, D. P.; Buch, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2004-01-01

354

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of serum fatty acids in acetaminophen-induced liver injured rats.  

PubMed

In this study, we have developed and validated a simple, accurate and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 18 fatty acids in rat serum, including both non-esterified (NEFA) and esterified (EFA) fatty acids, and subsequent analysis of fatty acid metabolic profiles. This novel method was used to evaluate the serum levels of fatty acids from vehicle- and acetaminophen (APAP)-treated rats. Serum levels of 7 NEFAs and 14 EFAs were significantly higher in APAP-treated rats 24 h after APAP administration at 1500 mg kg?¹ when compared with vehicle-treated controls. Control and APAP-treated rats could be differentiated based on their metabolic profiles using two different chemometric analysis methods: principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). More importantly, we identified the following NEFAs as potential biomarkers of APAP-induced liver injury: oleic acid (C18:1n9), linoleic acid (C18:2n6), docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6). The serum concentrations of C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C22:6n3 were all positively correlated (r?>?0.8; Pearson's correlation analysis) with the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). These results suggest that a novel targeted metabolomics method based on the metabolic profiling of fatty acids analyzed by GC-MS provides exact serum concentrations of fatty acids as well as a prospective methodology to evaluate chemically induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23239188

Xiong, Yin-Hua; Xu, Ying; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2014-02-01

355

Differentiation of South American crack and domestic (US) crack cocaine via headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

South American 'crack' cocaine, produced directly from coca leaf, can be distinguished from US domestically produced crack on the basis of occluded solvent profiles. In addition, analysis of domestically produced crack indicates the solvents that were used for cocaine hydrochloride (HCl) processing in South America. Samples of cocaine base (N=3) from South America and cocaine from the USA (N=157 base, N=88 HCl) were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) to determine their solvent profiles. Each cocaine HCl sample was then converted to crack cocaine using the traditional crack production method and re-examined by HS-GC-MS. The resulting occluded solvent profiles were then compared to their original HCl solvent profiles. Analysis of the corresponding crack samples confirmed the same primary processing solvents found in the original HCl samples, but at reduced levels. Domestically seized crack samples also contained reduced levels of base-to-HCl conversion solvents. In contrast, analysis of South American crack samples confirmed the presence of low to high boiling hydrocarbons and no base-to-HCl conversion solvents. The presented study showed analysis of crack cocaine samples provides data on which processing solvents were originally utilized in the production of cocaine HCl in South America, prior to conversion to crack cocaine. Determination of processing solvents provides valuable information to the counter-drug intelligence community and assists the law enforcement community in determining cocaine distribution and trafficking routes throughout the world. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25303034

Colley, Valerie L; Casale, John F

2014-10-01

356

A simple and reliable procedure for the determination of psychoactive drugs in oral fluid by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and reliable gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for identifying and quantifying psychoactive drugs in oral fluid is described. Substances under investigation were: psychostimulant drugs (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxiamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, phentermine), cocaine and metabolites (benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and ecgonine methyl esther), cannabinoids (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol), opiates (6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine and codeine), hypnotics (flurazepam, flunitrazepam, dipotassium chlorazepate, alprazolam, diazepam and

Mitona Pujadas; Simona Pichini; Ester Civit; Elena Santamariña; Katherine Perez; Rafael de la Torre

2007-01-01

357

Identification of corrosion inhibiting long-chain primary alkyl amines by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been used to identify long-chain primary alkyl amines after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA)E Electron impact ionization (EI) and positive chemical ionization (PCI) mass spectra of trifluoroacetylated derivatives of the identified alkyl amines are presented. The corrosion inhibiting alkyl amines were applied in the investigation of a new anticorrosive and antifouling formulation for water-steam circuit of energy systems in the power industry.

Kusch, Peter; Knupp, Gerd; Hergarten, Marcus; Kozupa, Marian; Majchrzak, Maria

2007-05-01

358

Application of capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry/computer techniques to synoptic survey of organic material in bed sediment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bed sediment sample taken from an area impacted by heavy industrial activity was analyzed for organic compounds of environmental significance. Extraction was effected on a Soxhlet apparatus using a freeze-dried sample. The Soxhlet extract was fractionated by silica gel micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic compounds was accomplished by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. More than 50 compounds were identified; these include saturated hydrocarbons, olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes and ketones. The role of bed sediments as a source or sink for organic pollutants is discussed. ?? 1981.

Steinheimer, T.R.; Pereira, W.E.; Johnson, S.M.

1981-01-01

359

Comparative evaluation of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry versus gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of hexabromocyclododecanes and their degradation products in indoor dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic and office dust samples (n=37) were analyzed for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) using gas chromatography–electron-capture negative ionization–mass spectrometry (GC–ECNI\\/MS) and liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI\\/MS\\/MS). To determine the best method to quantify HBCDs using GC–ECNI\\/MS, BDE 128 was used as internal standard (I.S.) in all samples, while 13C-labeled ?-HBCD was used as I.S. in some samples. Total HBCD concentrations (sum

Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah; Catalina Ibarra; Hugo Neels; Stuart Harrad; Adrian Covaci

2008-01-01

360

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate quantification in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and a deuterated internal standard: a technique suitable for routine use or as a reference method  

SciTech Connect

A thermospray high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determination of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is described. The steroid was measured intact using (7,7-2H2)dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as internal standard. The analysis was carried out in the negative ion mode by determining the peak height ratio of the molecular anions of the analyte and internal standard. The method was used to determine the steroid in serum from 15 male and female normal adults and the following values were obtained: males, 272 +/- 45 micrograms/dl (range, 197 to 331 micrograms/dl) and females, 215 +/- 67 micrograms/dl (range, 107 to 347 micrograms/dl). In addition, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay (a commercial kit) on 25 individuals of all age groups. There was strong correlation between the values obtained, but the radioimmunoassay values were generally double those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three other steroid sulfates, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, and androst-5-ene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol sulfate, were also assayed. In males, these had mean values of 112, 44, and 13 micrograms/dl and, in females, they had mean values of 84, 25, and 6 micrograms/dl, respectively. Radioimmunoassay cross-reactivity measurement for these steroids (as reference compounds) showed that they were unlikely to contribute greatly to the discrepancy between radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry values.

Shackleton, C.H.; Kletke, C.; Wudy, S.; Pratt, J.H. (Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

361

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for analyzing sulfonamide antibacterials in cattle and fish muscle tissues.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method able to determine residues of 12 sulfonamide (SAs) antibacterials in cattle and trout muscle tissues is presented. This method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique with hot water as extractant followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The LC-MS instrumentation was equipped with an electrospray source and a single quadrupole. After 0.8 g of a flesh sample containing the analytes is deposited on sand (crystobalite), this material is packed into an extraction cell. SAs are extracted by flowing 4 mL of water through the cell heated at 80 degrees C. A 0.5-mL aliquot of the bovine tissue extract is then directly injected into the LC column, while the fish tissue extract is filtered prior to LC-MS analysis. MS data acquisition was performed in the positive-ion mode and monitoring at least three ions for each target compound. Confirmatory ions were produced by the in-source collision-induced dissociation process. At the tolerance levels issued by the EU and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, i.e., 100 ppb, recovery of the analytes in bovine and trout muscle tissues was 75-98% with RSDs ranging between 1 and 8%. Estimated limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were 6-15 ppb for SAs in bovine muscle tissue and 3-13 ppb in trout fillet. When trying to reduce the analysis time by using a short chromatographic run time, severe ion signal suppression was experienced for the early-eluted SAs. This effect was traced to competition effects by polar endogenous coextractives, maybe proteinaceous species, which are eluted in the first part of the chromatographic run. This unwelcome effect was removed by simply adopting more selective chromatographic conditions. PMID:12713036

Bogialli, Sara; Curini, Roberta; Di Corcia, Antonio; Nazzari, Manuela; Samperi, Roberto

2003-04-15

362

On the metabolism of the amphetamine-derived antispasmodic drug mebeverine: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies on rat liver microsomes and on human urine.  

PubMed

We describe gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of the metabolism of the antispasmodic drug mebeverine [Duspatal, (MB)]. MB is the veratric acid (VA) ester of 4-¿ethyl-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]amino¿butan-1-ol (MB-OH), which is an N-substituted ethylamphetamine derivative. The metabolites were first identified in rat liver microsome incubates and then detected in urine samples of volunteers through the use of electron impact and positive chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Urinary conjugates were enzymatically cleaved before analysis. The following phase I metabolites of MB could be identified: VA, O-demethyl VA (vanillic and/or isovanillic acid), O-bisdemethyl VA (protocatechuic acid), MB-OH, hydroxy MB-OH, O-demethyl MB-OH, O-demethyl-hydroxy MB-OH, N-desethyl MB-OH, N-desethyl-O-demethyl MB-OH, N-de(hydroxybutyl) MB-OH (methoxy-ethylamphetamine), N-de(hydroxybutyl)-O-demethyl MB-OH (hydroxy-ethylamphetamine), and N-bisdealkyl MB-OH (p-methoxy-amphetamine, known as the designer drug PMA). The following, partly overlapping metabolic pathways of MB could be postulated: ester hydrolysis, O-demethylation, ring hydroxylation, N-deethylation, and N-de(hydroxybutylation). The latter pathway led to ethylamphetamine derivatives and bisdealkylation led to PMA, which are substances of forensic interest. The metabolites containing alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy groups were partly excreted into urine as conjugates. PMID:10681380

Kraemer, T; Bickeboeller-Friedrich, J; Maurer, H H

2000-03-01

363

Quantification of branched-chain keto acids in tissue by ultra fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) are associated with increased susceptibility to several degenerative diseases. However, BCKA concentrations in tissues or the amounts of tissue available are frequently at the limit of detection for standard plasma methods. To accurately and quickly determine tissue BCKAs, we have developed a sensitive ultra fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) method. BCKAs from deproteinized tissue extractions were o-phenylenediamine (OPD) derivatized, ethyl acetate extracted, lyophilized in a vacuum centrifuge, and reconstituted in 200 mM ammonium acetate. Samples were injected onto a Shimadzu UFLC system coupled to an AB-Sciex 5600 Triple TOF mass spectrometer instrument that detected masses of the OPD BCKA products using a multiple reaction monitoring method. An OPD-derivatized (13)C-labeled keto acid was used as an internal standard. Application of the method for C57BL/6J (wild-type) and PP2Cm knockout mouse tissues, including kidney, adipose tissue, liver, gastrocnemius, and hypothalamus, is shown. The lowest tissue concentration measured by this method was 20 nM, with the standard curve covering a wide range (7.8-32,000 nM). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry run times for this assay were less than 5 min, facilitating high throughput, and the OPD derivatives were found to be stable over several days. PMID:23684523

Olson, Kristine C; Chen, Gang; Lynch, Christopher J

2013-08-15

364

Determination of alkylamines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years low molecular weight alkylamines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkylamines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkylamines in aerosol particles. Alkylamines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg (or 0.02-0.04 ng m-3). For the IC approach, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkylamines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkylamines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng (or 0.9-6.4 ng m-3), and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkylamines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Jia, W. T.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

2014-07-01

365

Determination of alkyl amines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years low molecular weight alkyl amines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkyl amines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkyl amines in aerosol particles. Alkyl amines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg. For the IC approach, a solid phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkyl amines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkyl amines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkyl amines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

2014-03-01

366

[Serum metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in patients with ulcerative colitis and celiac disease].  

PubMed

Metabolomics is the emerging science of measurement and analysis of metabolome--the complete set of low molecular weight compounds in a cell, tissue, organ or whole organism. One of the aims of metabolomics is to research the response of an organism to a pathophysiological insult by measuring the concentrations of small molecule metabolites in biofluids and tissues and its dynamics. Intestinal microbiota is most probably involved in the development and maintenance of autoimmune inflammation in ulcerative colitis and celiac disease. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC - MS) of serum generates comprehensive metabolic profiles, reflecting integrated human (systemic) and gut microbial metabolism which may be altered in disease states. The aim of this study was to investigate GC - MS-based serum metabolomic profiles in UC and CD patients. Serum metabolic profiles were collected from 75 individuals: 20 patients with mild-moderate active UC, 35 CD patients, and 20 healthy controls (HC). We characterized 84 serum metabolites by use GC-MS. 18 metabolites at least have a combined (human + microbial) origin. In serum of UC patients, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-indolylacetic acid (IAA), succinic acid (SA) and fumaric acid (FA) were the metabolites most prominently increased, whereas 3-phenylpropionic acid (PPA) was significantly decreased. Serum of CD patients showed significant increases in IAA, 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA), SA and FA. Increased serum levels of succinic acid suggest its possible damaging effect on intestinal mucosa especially in ulcerative colitis. Orally administered butyrate + inulin as supplement to mesalazine in UC or gluten free diet in CD was effective in reducing disease activity with a marked improvement of serum metabolomic profiles (including SA reduction) and gut microbiota in both diseases. There were no any adverse events. PMID:24933989

Sitkin, S I; Tkachenko, E I; Vakhitov, T Ia; Oreshko, L S; Zhigalova, T N

2013-01-01

367

Determination of perfluorodecalin and perfluoro-N-methylcyclohexylpiperidine in rat blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (SIM mode) was developed for the determination of perfluorodecalin (cis and trans isomers, 50% each) (FDC), and perfluoromethylcyclohexylpiperidine (3 isomers) (FMCP) in rat blood. The chromatographic separation was performed by injection in the split mode using a CP-select 624 CB capillary column. Analysis was performed by electronic impact ionization. The ions m/z 293 and m/z 181 were selected to quantify FDC and FMCP due to their abundance and to their specificity, respectively. The ion m/z 295 was selected to monitor internal standard. Before extraction, blood samples were stored at -30 degrees C for at least 24 h in order to break the emulsion. The sample preparation procedure involved sample clean-up by liquid-liquid extraction. The bis(F-butyl)ethene was used as the internal standard. For each perfluorochemical compound multiple peaks were observed. The observed retention times were 1.78 and 1.87 min for FDC, and 2.28, 2.34, 2.48 and 2.56 min for FMCP. For each compound, two calibration curves were used; assays showed good linearity in the range 0.0195-0.78 and 0.78-7.8 mg/ml for FDC, and 0.00975-0.39 and 0.39-3.9 mg/ml for FMCP. Recoveries were 90 and 82% for the two compounds, respectively with a coefficient of variation <8%. Precision ranged from 0.07 to 15.6%, and accuracy was between 89.5 and 111.4%. The limits of quantification were 13 and 9 microg/ml for FDC and FMCP, respectively. This method has been used to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of these two perfluorochemical compounds in blood following administration of 1.3 g of FDC and 0.65 g of FMCP per kg body weight, in emulsion form, in rat. PMID:11043752

Audran, M; Krafft, M P; De Ceaurriz, J; Maturin, J C; Sicart, M T; Marion, B; Bougard, G; Bressolle, F

2000-08-18

368

Full evaporation dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for uniform enrichment of odor compounds in aqueous samples.  

PubMed

A method for analysis of a wide range of odor compounds in aqueous samples at sub-ng mL?¹ to ?g mL?¹ levels was developed by full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compared to conventional DHS and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), FEDHS provides more uniform enrichment over the entire polarity range for odor compounds in aqueous samples. FEDHS at 80°C using 3 L of purge gas allows complete vaporization of 100 ?L of an aqueous sample, and trapping and drying it in an adsorbent packed tube, while providing high recoveries (85-103%) of the 18 model odor compounds (water solubility at 25°C: log0.54-5.65 mg L?¹, vapor pressure at 25°C: 0.011-3.2 mm Hg) and leaving most of the low volatile matrix behind. The FEDHS-GC-MS method showed good linearity (r²>0.9909) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.21-5.2 ng mL?¹) for the model compounds even with the scan mode in the conventional MS. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analyses of key odor compounds including hydrophilic and less volatile characteristics in beverages (whiskey and green tea). In a single malt whiskey sample, phenolic compounds including vanillin could be determined in the range of 0.92-5.1 ?g mL?¹ (RSD<7.4%, n=6). For a Japanese green tea sample, 48 compounds including 19 potent odorants were positively identified from only 100 ?L of sample. Heat-induced artifact formation for potent odorants was also examined and the proposed method does not affect the additional formation of thermally generated compounds. Eighteen compounds including 12 potent odorants (e.g. coumarin, furaneol, indole, maltol, and pyrazine congeners) were determined in the range of 0.21-110 ng mL?¹ (RSD<10%, n=6). PMID:22542289

Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori

2012-06-01

369

Pharmacokinetic study of eight coumarins of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae in rats by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive, specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the quantitative determination of eight coumarins of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae including coumarin, isopsoralen, psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, osthole, imperatorin and oxypeucedanin in rat plasma. Nitrendipine was used as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were extracted by acetonitrile. GC separation was accomplished on a DB-5MS column with temperature programmed from 160°C (17 min) to 190°C (10 min) at the rate of 20°C/min, then to 240°C (5 min) at 20°C/min, and finally to 280°C (14 min) at 20°C/min. The detection was performed on a quadrupole mass spectrometer detector operated by full-scan mode (m/z 50-500). The lower limit of quantitation was 5-10 ng/mL for eight coumarins, and the linear range was 5-1000 ng/mL for the coumarins (R(2)>0.9990). All the validation data were within the required limits. After oral administration, the plasma concentration-time curves showed that the time for maximum concentration (Tmax) was 1.29 for coumarin, 1.83 for isopsoralen, 1.93 for psoralen, 1.30 for xanthotoxin, 2.04 for bergapten, 0.64 for osthole, 1.41 for imperatorin and 0.51 h for oxypeucedanin. The plasma concentration of the eight coumarins was low, with a mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) <6.41 ?g/mL. Pharmacokinetic data analysis showed that the eight coumarins had different pharmacokinetic characteristics after oral administration. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of eight coumarins after oral administration in rats. PMID:23774663

Zhao, Gang; Peng, Cheng; Du, Wei; Wang, Sicen

2013-09-01

370

Analysis of Organic Molecules Extracted from Mars Analogues and Influence of Their Mineralogy Using N-Methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)Trifluoroacetamide Derivatization Coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Preparation for the Sample Analysis at Mars Derivatization Experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids will require a chemical extraction and derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed, a one-pot extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The temperature and duration the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analogue materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analogue materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA, The combination of pyrolysis and two different chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars,

Stalport, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; McAdam, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2012-01-01

371

Quantitative determination of a new anticonvulsant (CGS 18416A) in human plasma using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method has been developed for the determination of a new antiepileptic drug, CGS 18416A, in human plasma. CGS 18416A is a new anticonvulsant representative of a novel class of water-soluble agents being developed for the treatment of epilepsy. Preclinical trials indicate sustained efficacy at relatively low oral doses, indicating a need for a sensitive assay. The method is based on capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and utilizes stable isotope-labelled CGS 18416A as the internal standard. Samples (1 mL) are acidified, then washed with pentane/ethyl acetate, followed by liquid/liquid extraction at pH 11 with pentane/ethyl acetate. Extracts are then concentrated and analysed directly by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Separation is accomplished on a thick film methylsilicone capillary column. Mass spectrometry was carried out under positive ion ammonia Cl conditions with selected ion monitoring of the protonated molecular ions (m/z = 248 and 252) for CGS 18416A and the 13CD3-CGS 18416A, respectively. Specificity was demonstrated by the lack of interfering peaks at the retention time of CGS 18416A and the internal standard. Recovery and reproducibility assessments indicate good accuracy and precision over the validated concentration range of 0.2-51 ng/mL. The limit of quantification is 0.2 ng/mL and the method has sufficient sensitivity to support clinical trials. This is illustrated with an example of quantification in a normal volunteer following oral dosing. PMID:1463936

Hayes, M J; Khemani, L; Leal, M; Powell, M L

1992-01-01

372

Quantitation of diethylene glycol and its metabolites by gas chromatography mass spectrometry or ion chromatography mass spectrometry in rat and human biological samples.  

PubMed

The misuse of the commonly used chemical diethylene glycol (DEG) has lead to many poisonings worldwide. Methods were developed for analysis of DEG and its potential metabolites; ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, diglycolic acid and hydroxyethoxy acetic acid in human urine, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples, collected following a DEG-associated poisoning in the Republic of Panama during 2006. In addition, methods were developed for rat blood, urine, kidney and liver tissue to support toxicokinetic analysis during the conduct of DEG acute toxicity studies in the rat. Sample analysis was conducted using two techniques; ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity and negative ion electrospray ionization with MS detection or with gas chromatography using electron impact ionization or methane negative chemical ionization with MS detection. Stable-isotope-labeled analogs of each analyte were employed as quantitative internal standards in the assays. PMID:24668490

Perala, Adam W; Filary, Mark J; Bartels, Michael J; McMartin, Kenneth E

2014-05-01

373

Rapid Preconcentration for Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Assay of Trace Level Neuropeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of neuropeptides in the brain through in vivo microdialysis sampling provides direct correlation between neuropeptide concentration and brain function. Capillary liquid chromatography-multistage mass spectrometry (CLC-MSn) has proven to be effective at measuring endogenous neuropeptides in microdialysis samples. In the method, microliter samples are concentrated onto nanoliter volume packed beds before ionization and mass spectrometry analysis. The long times required for extensive preconcentration present a barrier to routine use because of the many samples that must be analyzed and instability of neuropeptides. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of 75 ?m inner diameter (i.d.) capillary column packed with 10 ?m reversed phase particles for increasing the throughput in CLC-MSn based neuropeptide measurement. Coupling a high injection flow rate for fast sample loading/desalting with a low elution flow rate to maintain detection sensitivity, this column has reduced analysis time from ˜30 min to 3.8 min for 5 ?L sample, with 3 pM limit of detection (LOD) for enkephalins and 10 pM LOD for dynorphin A1-8 in 5 ?L sample. The use of isotope-labeled internal standard lowered peptide signal variation to less than 5 %. This method was validated for in vivo detection of Leu and Met enkephalin with microdialysate collected from rat globus pallidus. The improvement in speed and stability makes CLC-MSn measurement of neuropeptides in vivo more practical.

Zhou, Ying; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kennedy, Robert T.

2013-11-01

374

High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of porphyrins by using an atmospheric pressure interface.  

PubMed

A method is described for the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mass spectrometry analysis of porphyrin mixtures by using an atmospheric pressure interface, which can operate in two modes: pneumatically assisted elecrrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Optimization of the conditions and evaluation of spectral information has been carried out by using direct injection of free-base and metallo porphyrin standards. The most effective results were obtained using APCI. HPLC-APCI mass spectrometry analysis of the demetallated vanadyl porphyrin fraction from the Triassic Serpiano oil shale has allowed rapid characterization of the distribution; more than 50 significant components are present. The presence of trace amounts of high molecular weight (>C33) cycloalkano porphyrins indicates the occurrence of photic zone anoxia in the ancient water column. This example illustrates the potential of the approach for studies of porphyrin mixtures of environmental or biological significance, which should be applicable to other types of metallo and free-base components that can be separated by HPLC under normal or reversed-phase conditions. PMID:24203611

Rosell-Melé, A; Carter, J F; Maxwell, J R

1996-09-01

375

Chemical study of triterpenoid resinous materials in archaeological findings by means of direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A systematic study of standard triterpenes (alpha-amyrine, oleanolic acid, betulin, lupeol, betulinic acid and lupenone) and of raw resinous materials (frankincense resin, mastic resin and birch bark pitch) was performed using direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). DE-MS provides a mass spectral fingerprint of organic materials in a few minutes which highlights the compounds that are the main components in the sample. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) on DE-MS data in the mass ranges m/z 181-260 and m/z 331-500, corresponding to the fragmentation of triterpenoid molecules, enabled us to distinguish between different triterpenoid materials such as mastic resin, frankincense resin and birch bark pitch, and to graphically plot the resinous substances in three separate clusters, retaining 89% of the total variance. GC/MS analysis of the same materials has permitted us to elucidate in detail the molecular composition and to identify minor components and species that act as markers of the degradation undergone by the materials. The paper also reports the results for the organic residues contained in an Egyptian censer (5th-7th century AD) which was recovered in the excavation of the Necropolis of Antinoe (Egypt), and for the hafting material found on a Palaeolithic tool recovered at the site of Campitello (Arezzo, Tuscany), dating back to the Mid-Pleistocene period. Although DE-MS was found to be a fast analytical tool, it failed to give any information on the presence of less abundant compounds when applied to mixtures of different materials: only mastic resin was found in the residues from the Roman censer, whereas GC/MS analysis identified the presence of a vegetable oil from Brassicaceae seeds and Pinaceae resin. Birch bark pitch as a pure material was identified in the sample from the Palaeolithic flint flake using both procedures. PMID:16676320

Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

2006-01-01

376

Analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, DL-lactic acid, glycolic acid, ethylene glycol and other glycols in body fluids by a direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for wide use.  

PubMed

Analysis of blood of severely intoxicated patients always requires prompt investigation. Diagnosis of intoxication with ethylene glycol, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid or D-lactic acid takes hours, since several different procedures are required. Rapid derivatization of the common hydroxyl function may resolve this analytical problem. Here we describe a fast method for the simultaneous measurement of ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and racemic lactic acid. Only 20 microl of serum, plasma or urine are required for immediate derivatization at 70 degrees C with 750 microl of bis-N,O-trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide after adding 20 microl of internal standard solution (1,3-propylene glycol) and 20 microl of the catalyst dimethylformamide. After centrifugation an aliquot is transferred to a gas chromatographic system and analyzed with electron-impact mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. The derivatized acids and ethylene glycol are well separated and detected with a limit of detection ranging from 0.12 mg/l for ethylene glycol to 0.95 mg/l for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, while the limit of quantification ranged from 0.4 mg/l for ethylene glycol to 3.15 mg/l for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. The method is linear from 0.5 to 1800 mg/l blood for ethylene glycol, from 0.7 to 1200 mg/l for lactic acid, from 1.2 to 1800 mg/l for glycolic acid, and from 3.2 to 200 mg/l for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, with analytical recoveries, accuracy, day-to-day and within-day precision well within the required limits. Total analysis time with one calibrator was 30 min, derivatization time included. This method is very suitable for emergency toxicology, since several toxic substances can be quantified simultaneously in a fast and sensitive manner. PMID:15576294

Van Hee, Paul; Neels, Hugo; De Doncker, Mireille; Vrydags, Nicolas; Schatteman, Katinka; Uyttenbroeck, Wim; Hamers, Nicole; Himpe, Dirk; Lambert, Willy

2004-01-01

377

Deamidation in ricin studied by capillary zone electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Deamidation in ricin, a toxin present in castor beans from the plant Ricinus communis, was investigated using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Potential sites for deamidation, converting asparagine (Asn) into aspartic or isoaspartic acid (Asp or isoAsp), were identified in silico based on the protein sequence motifs and tertiary structure. In parallel, CZE- and LC-MS-based screening were performed on the digested toxin to detect deamidated peptides. The use of CZE-MS was critical for the separation of small native/deamidated peptide pairs. Selected peptides were subjected to a detailed analysis by tandem mass spectrometry to verify the presence of deamidation and determine its exact position. In the ricin preparation studied, deamidation was confirmed and located to three asparagine residues: Asn54 in the A-chain, and Asn42 and Asn60 in the B-chain. Possible in vitro deamidation occurring during sample preparation was monitored using a synthetic peptide with a known and rapid rate of deamidation. Finally, we showed that the isoelectric diversity previously reported in ricin is related to the level of deamidation. PMID:25463205

Bergström, Tomas; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Nilsson, Calle; Astot, Crister

2015-01-01

378

Characterization and study of piperazinium salts, degradation products of nitrogen mustards by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We synthesized and analyzed the degradation products, piperazinium salts from bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine (HN2) and bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine (HN1) using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Piperazinium salt is the major degradation product of HN2, not N-methyldiethanolamine above a concentration of 0.01 M in water and is a non-scheduled chemical that may be generally assumed relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) within the context of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) proficiency test. In verification analysis, ¹H NMR offers real-time information about degradation pathway of nitrogen mustards and LC-MS is expected to play an increasing role in the analysis of environmental samples for the degradation products of chemical warfare agents. PMID:22296978

Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Han; Byun, Yong Gwan

2012-03-01

379

Volatile constituents of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves using headspace solid phase microextraction--gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The volatile components of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves, collected from Surat Thani province, Thailand were studied by using headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The four fibers employed to extract the volatiles were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), carboxane-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene-carboxane (PDMS-DVB-CAR). The volatile constituents of M. koenigii fresh leaves were also extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-one compounds were identified by these fibers. Five major compounds, ?-terpinene, ?-caryophyllene, ?-phellandrene, a-selinene and a-pinene, were detected in all fibers. The PDMS-DVB-CAR fiber was considered as the best for trapping key volatiles of M. koenigii fresh leaves. PMID:25632485

Sukkaew, Sayamol; Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Thongpoon, Chalermporn; Machan, Theeraphan; Wongchuphan, Rattana

2014-12-01

380

Gas chromatographymass spectrometry of JWH-018 metabolites in urine samples with direct comparison to analytical standards  

PubMed Central

JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is one of numerous potential aminoalkylindoles contained in products marketed as ‘K2’ or ‘Spice’. Investigation of the urinary metabolites from consumption of these compounds is important because they are banned in the United States and many European countries. An efficient extraction procedure and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) method were developed for detection of ‘K2’ metabolites in urine from individuals suspected of using these products. Analytical standards were used to elucidate the structure-specific mass spectral fragmentations and retention properties to confirm proposed identifications and support quantitative studies. A procedure for the synthesis of one of these metabolites (5-hydroxypentyl JWH-018) was also developed. Results are comparable to existing LC-MS/MS methods, with the same primary metabolites detected. The specific metabolite hydrolysis products include 4-hydroxpentyl, 5-hydroxypentyl, and N-pentanoic acid derivatives. PMID:23683902

Emerson, Beth; Durham, Bill; Gidden, Jennifer; Lay, Jackson O.

2013-01-01

381

Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

2012-02-01

382

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of JWH-018 metabolites in urine samples with direct comparison to analytical standards.  

PubMed

JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is one of numerous potential aminoalkylindoles contained in products marketed as 'K2' or 'Spice'. Investigation of the urinary metabolites from consumption of these compounds is important because they are banned in the United States and many European countries. An efficient extraction procedure and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method were developed for detection of 'K2' metabolites in urine from individuals suspected of using these products. Analytical standards were used to elucidate the structure-specific mass spectral fragmentations and retention properties to confirm proposed identifications and support quantitative studies. A procedure for the synthesis of one of these metabolites (5-hydroxypentyl JWH-018) was also developed. Results are comparable to existing LC-MS/MS methods, with the same primary metabolites detected. The specific metabolite hydrolysis products include 4-hydroxpentyl, 5-hydroxypentyl, and N-pentanoic acid derivatives. PMID:23683902

Emerson, Beth; Durham, Bill; Gidden, Jennifer; Lay, Jackson O

2013-06-10

383

The future of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies for biomarker discovery  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The future utility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies for biomarker discover will be discussed, beginning with a brief description of the evolution of metabolomics and the utilization of the three most popular analytical platforms in such studies: NMR, GC-MS, and LC-MS. Emphasis is placed on recent developments in high-efficiency LC separations, sensitive electrospray ionization approaches, and the benefits to incorporating both in LC-MS-based approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of various quantitative approaches are reviewed, followed by the current LC-MS-based tools available for candidate biomarker characterization and identification. Finally, a brief prediction on the future path of LC-MS-based methods in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies is given. PMID:19177179

Metz, Thomas O.; Zhang, Qibin; Page, Jason S.; Shen, Yufeng; Callister, Stephen J.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

2008-01-01

384

Simultaneous determination of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, and simazine in water and soil by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A multiresidue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations of the herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, and simazine in water and soil using isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Known amounts of /sup 15/N,/sup 13/C-alachlor and /sup 2/H/sub 5/-atrazine were added to each sample as internal standards. The samples were then prepared by a solid phase extraction with no further cleanup. A high resolution GC/low resolution MS system with data acquisition in selected ion monitoring mode was used to quantitate herbicides in the extract. The limit of detection was 0.05 ppb for water and 0.5 ppb for soil. Accuracy greater than 80% and precision better than 4% was demonstrated with spiked samples.

Huang, L.Q.

1989-03-01

385

A new extraction technique for in situ analyses of amino and carboxylic acids on Mars by gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to target key organic compounds in the Martian regolith using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we have developed a new extraction procedure coupled with chemical derivatization. This new technique was tested on a Mars analog soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert in Chile. We found that amino and carboxylic acids can be extracted from the Atacama soil in a 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and water after ultrasonic treatment for 30 min. The extracted organic compounds were then derivatized in a single-step reaction using N-methyl- N-( tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent in order to transform these compounds into volatile species that can then be detected by GC-MS. We are currently developing a miniaturized reaction cell suited for spaceflight, where both organic extraction and chemical derivatization processes can take place in a single step.

Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Rodier, C.; Navarro-González, R.; Raulin, F.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2006-12-01

386

Pyrolysis-high resolution gas chromatography and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of kerogens and kerogen precursors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of kerogens and kerogen precursors isolated from DSDP samples, oil shales and recent algal mats have been examined by Curie point pyrolysis-high resolution gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study has shown that the three main types of kerogens (marine, terrestrial and mixtures of both) can be characterized using these techniques. The marine (algal) kerogens yield principally aliphatic products and the terrestrial kerogens yield more aromatic and phenolic products with some n-alkanes and n-alkenes. The yields of n-alkanes and n-alkenes increase and phenols decrease with increasing geologic age, however, pyrolysis-GC cannot be used to characterize the influence of short term diagenesis on the kerogen structure.

Van De Meent, D.; Brown, S. C.; Philp, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R. T.

1980-01-01

387

Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of musk compounds in environmental water matrices.  

PubMed

Stir-bar-sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large-volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring acquisition mode (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) has been developed to monitor ultra-traces of four musks (celestolide (ADBI), galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK)) in environmental water matrices. Instrumental calibration (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) and experimental conditions that could affect the SBSE-LD efficiency are discussed. Assays performed on 30-mL water samples spiked at 200 ng L(-1) under optimized experimental conditions yielded recoveries ranging from 83.7?±?8.1% (MK) to 107.6?±?10.8% (HHCB). Furthermore, the experimental data were in very good agreement with predicted theoretical equilibria described by octanol-water partition coefficients (K (PDMS/W)???K (O/W)). The methodology also showed excellent linear dynamic ranges for the four musks studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9961, limits of detection and quantification between 12 and 19 ng L(-1) and between 41 and 62 ng L(-1), respectively, and suitable precision (< 20%). Application of this method for analysis of the musks in real water matrices such as tap, river, sea, and urban wastewater samples resulted in convenient selectivity, high sensitivity and accuracy using the standard addition methodology. The proposed method (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) was shown to be feasible and sensitive, with a low-sample volume requirement, for determination of musk compounds in environmental water matrices at the ultra-trace level, overcoming several disadvantages presented by other sample-preparation techniques. PMID:20049588

Silva, Ana Rita M; Nogueira, J M F

2010-03-01

388

High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for mapping and sequencing glycosaminoglycan-derived oligosaccharides  

PubMed Central

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have proven to be very difficult to analyze and characterize because of their high negative charge density, polydispersity and sequence heterogeneity. As the specificity of the interactions between GAGs and proteins results from the structure of these polysaccharides, an understanding of GAG structure is essential for developing a structure–activity relationship. Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly promising for the analysis of oligosaccharides chemically or enzymatically generated by GAGs because of its relatively soft ionization capacity. Furthermore, on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS greatly enhances the characterization of complex mixtures of GAG-derived oligosaccharides, providing important structural information and affording their disaccharide composition. A detailed protocol for producing oligosaccharides from various GAGs, using controlled, specific enzymatic or chemical depolymerization, is presented, together with their HPLC separation, using volatile reversed-phase ion-pairing reagents and on-line ESI-MS structural identification. This analysis provides an oligosaccharide map together with sequence information from a reading frame beginning at the nonreducing end of the GAG chains. The preparation of oligosaccharides can be carried out in 10 h, with subsequent HPLC analysis in 1–2 h and HPLC-MS analysis taking another 2 h. PMID:20448545

Volpi, Nicola; Linhardt, Robert J

2012-01-01

389

Extending the range of compounds amenable for gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) suffers from a major limitation in that an expanding number of thermally labile or low volatility compounds of interest are not amenable for analysis. We found that the elution temperatures of compounds from GC can be significantly lowered by reducing the column length, increasing the carrier gas flow rate, reducing the capillary column film thickness and lowering the temperature programming rate. Pyrene is eluted at 287 degrees C in standard GC-MS with a 30 m x 0.25 mm I.D. column with 1-microm DB5ms film and 1-ml/min He column flow rate. In contrast, pyrene is eluted at 79 degrees C in our "Supersonic GC-MS" system using a 1 m x 0.25 mm I.D. column with 0.1-microm DB5ms film and 100-ml/min He column flow rate. A simple model has been invoked to explain the significantly (up to 208 degrees C) lower elution temperatures observed. According to this model, every halving of the temperature programming rate, or number of separation plates (either through increased flow rate or due to reduced column length), results in approximately 20 degrees C lower elution temperature. These considerably lower elution temperatures enable the analysis of an extended range of thermally labile and low volatility compounds, that otherwise could not be analyzed by standard GC-MS. We demonstrate the analysis of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as decacyclene with ten fused rings, well above the current GC limit of PAHs with six rings. Even a metalloporphirin such as magnesiumoctaethylporphin was easily analyzed with elution temperatures below 300 degrees C. Furthermore, a range of thermally labile compounds were analyzed including carbamates such as methomyl, aldicarb, aldicarbsulfone and oxamyl, explosives such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate, Tetryl and HMX, and drugs such as reserpine (608 a.m.u.). Supersonic GC-MS was used, based on the coupling of a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) inlet and ion sources with a bench-top Agilent 6890 GC plus 5972 MSD. The Supersonic GC-MS provides enhanced molecular ion without any ion source related peak tailing. Thus, the lower GC separation power involved in the analysis of thermally labile and low volatility compounds is compensated by increased separation power of the MS gained from the enhanced molecular ion. Several implications of these findings are discussed, including our conclusion that slower chromatography leads to better analysis of thermally labile compounds. PMID:12741601

Fialkov, Alexander B; Gordin, Alexander; Amirav, Aviv

2003-04-01

390

Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices for determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey California District Organic Chemistry Laboratory, 1996-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed to study the fate and transport of pesticides in the San Francisco Bay-Estuary by the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended-particulate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide and the pesticides were eluted with three cartridge volumes of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1) solution. The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for pesticides ranged from 0.002 to 0.025 microgram per liter for 1-liter samples. Recoveries ranged from 44 to 140 percent for 25 pesticides in samples of organic-free reagent water and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Bay water fortified at 0.05 and 0.50 microgram per liter. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges ranged from 10 to 257 days.

Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Baker, Lucian M.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

2000-01-01

391

Quantitative determination of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides during copper oxidation of LDL and HDL by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide (PC 16:0/18:2-OOH) and 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide (PC 18:0/18:2-OOH) were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) using nonendogenous 1-palmitoyl-2-heptadecenoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide as an internal standard. The calibration curves for synthetic PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH, which were obtained by direct injection of the internal standard into the LC/MS system, were linear throughout the calibration range (0.8-12.8 pmol). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%, and the recoveries were between 86% and 105%. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined using synthetic standards. The LOD (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) was 0.01 pmol, and the LOQ (signal-to-noise ratio 6:1) was 0.08 pmol for both PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH. With use of this method, the concentrations of PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH in the lipoprotein fractions during copper-mediated oxidation were determined. We prepared oxLDL and oxHDL by incubating native LDL and native HDL from human plasma (n =? 10) with CuSO(4) for up to 4 h. The time course of the PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH levels during oxidation consisted of three phases. For oxidized LDL, both compounds exhibited a slow lag phase and a subsequent rapidly increasing propagation phase, followed by a gradually decreasing degradation phase. In contrast, for oxidized HDL, both compounds initially exhibited a prompt propagation phase with a subsequent plateau phase, followed by a rapid degradation phase. The analytical LC/MS method for phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides might be useful for the analysis of biological samples. PMID:22367245

Hui, Shu-Ping; Taguchi, Yudai; Takeda, Seiji; Ohkawa, Futaba; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Yamaki, Shinobu; Jin, Shigeki; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Kurosawa, Takao; Chiba, Hitoshi

2012-06-01

392

Structural determination of nerve agent markers using gas chromatography mass spectrometry after derivatization with 3-pyridyldiazomethane.  

PubMed

Nerve agents are a class of organophosphorous chemicals that are prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Their degradation products, phosphonic acids, are analyzed as markers of nerve agent contamination and use. Because the phosphonic acids are non-volatile and very polar, their identification by GC-MS requires a derivatization step prior to analysis. Standard derivatization methods for gas-chromatography electron-impact mass-spectrometry analysis give very similar spectra for many alkyl phosphonic acid isomers, which complicates the identification process. We present a new reagent, 3-pyridyldiazomethane, for preparing picolinyl ester derivatives of alkyl methylphosphonic acids facilitating the determination of their structure by enhancing predictable fragmentation of the O-alkyl chain. This fragmentation is directed by the nitrogen nucleus of the pyridyl moiety that abstracts hydrogen from the O-alkyl chain, inducing radical cleavage of the carbon-carbon bonds and thereby causing extensive fragmentation that can be used for detailed structure elucidation of the O-alkyl moiety. The separability of related isomers was tested by comparing the spectra of the picolinyl esters formed from twelve hexyl methylphosphonic acid isomers. Spectral library matches and principal component analysis showed that the picolinyl esters were more effectively separated than the corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives used in the standard operating procedures. The suggested method will improve the unambiguous structural determination process for phosphonic acids. PMID:23832937

Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Gustafsson, Tomas; Östin, Anders

2013-07-01

393

An empirical Bayes model using a competition score for metabolite identification in gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Mass spectrometry (MS) based metabolite profiling has been increasingly popular for scientific and biomedical studies, primarily due to recent technological development such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOF-MS). Nevertheless, the identifications of metabolites from complex samples are subject to errors. Statistical/computational approaches to improve the accuracy of the identifications and false positive estimate are in great need. We propose an empirical Bayes model which accounts for a competing score in addition to the similarity score to tackle this problem. The competition score characterizes the propensity of a candidate metabolite of being matched to some spectrum based on the metabolite's similarity score with other spectra in the library searched against. The competition score allows the model to properly assess the evidence on the presence/absence status of a metabolite based on whether or not the metabolite is matched to some sample spectrum. Results With a mixture of metabolite standards, we demonstrated that our method has better identification accuracy than other four existing methods. Moreover, our method has reliable false discovery rate estimate. We also applied our method to the data collected from the plasma of a rat and identified some metabolites from the plasma under the control of false discovery rate. Conclusions We developed an empirical Bayes model for metabolite identification and validated the method through a mixture of metabolite standards and rat plasma. The results show that our hierarchical model improves identification accuracy as compared with methods that do not structurally model the involved variables. The improvement in identification accuracy is likely to facilitate downstream analysis such as peak alignment and biomarker identification. Raw data and result matrices can be found at http://www.biostat.iupui.edu/~ChangyuShen/index.htm Trial Registration 2123938128573429 PMID:21985394

2011-01-01

394

Applications of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) in the study of grape and wine volatile compounds.  

PubMed

Volatile compounds are responsible for the wine "bouquet", which is perceived by sniffing the headspace of a glass, and of the aroma component (palate-aroma) of the overall flavor, which is perceived on drinking. Grape aroma compounds are transferred to the wine and undergo minimal alteration during fermentation (e.g., monoterpenes and methoxypyrazines); others are precursors of aroma compounds which form in winemaking and during wine aging (e.g., glycosidically-bound volatile compounds and C13-norisoprenoids). Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is a fast and simple technique which was developed for analysis of volatile compounds. This review describes some SPME methods coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) used to study the grape and wine volatiles. PMID:25529017

Panighel, Annarita; Flamini, Riccardo

2014-01-01

395

A quasi non-destructive approach for amber geological provenance assessment based on head space solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Head space (HS) solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile fraction of ambers of different geological origin. In particular, Romanian (romanite) and Baltic (succinite) amber samples were studied. Both types of amber have nearly similar bulk chemical compositions and could probably reflect only some differences of paleobiological and/or diagenetic origin. The present study shows that amber head space fingerprint, obtained by SPME/GC-MS, can provide a simple and quasi non-destructive method capable of romanite/succinite differentiation. Among the numerous compounds present in the head space, a number of few informative variables could be selected that were able to differentiate the ambers as demonstrated by Principal Component and Cluster Analysis. PMID:24401437

van der Werf, I D; Aresta, A; Truic?, G I; Radu, G L; Palmisano, F; Sabbatini, L

2014-02-01

396

Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

PubMed

The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

2015-02-15

397

Determination of musty odorants, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, in environmental water by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography--mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method for the determination of musty odorants, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM), in environmental water was developed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MIB and GSM were separated within 10 min using a DB-1 capillary column and detected in the selective ion monitoring mode. HS-SPME using a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber provided effective sample enr