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1

ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL CHLORDANE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The composition of technical chlordane has been investigated by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, employing a column commonly used for pesticide residue analysis. Partial or complete structure identification have been assigned to some 45 individual constituents. Many...

2

Classification of natural resins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty-six resins from six botanical sources belonging to the class Magnoliopsida were compared based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The extracts were analysed by GC after silylation and by reversed phase LC combined with atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) mass spectrometry. The chromatograms were re-organized in data matrices, where each sample was represented by a single column comprising 2755 observations (intensity, time, m/z) in GC-MS and 360 observations in LC-MS. A simple comparison of resin fingerprints was attempted by organizing data according to a three dimensional bubble chart (retention time against m/z where each point was a bubble which size represented the ion intensity) where it is possible to easily superimpose the fingerprints. Thus the common and different species can be easily observed enabling to classify the resins. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on characteristics of GC-MS and LC-MS profiles affords a complete description of the classes of the resins and shows that 26 resins are divided into five main clusters Commiphora mukul, Daniella oliveri, Gardenia gummifera, Canarium madagascariensis, Boswellia dalzielii and Boswellia serrata, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method has been applied to three other resinous samples from the Burseraceae family to evaluate their alteration state. PMID:22885042

Rhourrhi-Frih, B; West, C; Pasquier, L; André, P; Chaimbault, P; Lafosse, M

2012-09-21

3

Multiresidue pesticide analysis by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A multiresidue pesticide method using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) procedure and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described for the determination of 166 organochlorine, organophosphorus, and pyrethroid pesticides, metabolites, and isomers in spinach. The pesticides from spinach were extracted using acetonitrile saturated with magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, followed by solid-phase dispersive cleanup using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black sorbents and toluene. Analysis is performed using different GC-MS techniques emphasizing the benefits of non-targeted acquisition and targeted screening procedures. Non-targeted data acquisition of pesticides in the spinach was demonstrated using GC coupled to a single quadrupole mass spectrometery (GC-MS) in full scan mode or multidimensional GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometery (GC ?× ?GC-TOF/MS), along with deconvolution software and libraries. Targeted screening was achieved using GC-single quadrupole mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) mode or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The development of these techniques demonstrates the powerful use of GC-MS for the screening, identification, and quantitation of pesticide residues in foods. PMID:21643907

Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Hayward, Douglas G; Kai-Meng, Chin

2011-01-01

4

Targeted analysis of glycomics liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data  

PubMed Central

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is appropriate for all native and reductively aminated glycan classes. HILIC carries the advantage that retention times (RTs) vary predictably according to oligosaccharide composition. Chromatographic conditions are compatible with sensitive and reproducible glycomics analysis of large numbers of samples. The data are extremely useful for quantitative profiling of glycans expressed in biological tissues. With these analytical developments, the rate limiting factor for widespread use of HILIC LC/MS in glycomics is the analysis of the data. In order to eliminate this problem, a Java-based open source software tool, Manatee, was developed for targeted analysis of HILIC LC/MS glycan data sets. This tool uses user-defined lists of compositions that specify the glycan chemical space in a given biological context. The program accepts high resolution LC/MS data using the public mzXML format and is capable of processing a large data file in a few minutes on a standard desktop computer. The program allows mining of HILIC LC/MS data with an output compatible with multivariate statistical analysis. It is envisaged that the Manatee tool will complement more computationally intensive LC/MS processing tools based on deconvolution and deisotoping of LC/MS data. The capabilities of the tool were demonstrated using a set of HILIC LC/MS data on organ-specific heparan sulfates.

Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Jacobs, Christopher; Gindin, Yevgeniy; Benson, Gary; Staples, Gregory O.; Zaia, Joseph

2012-01-01

5

VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

6

AN EPA MANUAL FOR ORGANICS ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This procedural manual defines the areas of applicability of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in environmental analysis. The manual includes sample preparation methods specifically adapted to this measurement technique, data processing and interpretation methods, quality cont...

7

ANALYSIS OF CHLORINATED HERBICIDES BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A method that uses high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) for the analysis of chlorinated phenoxyacid herbicides is described. uring method development different techniques were used to increase both the sensitivity and the specificity of thermospray H...

8

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GC/MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY) DATA ANALYSIS PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectra obtained by fused silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/data system (GC/MS/DS) analysis of mixtures of organic chemicals adsorbed on Tenax GC cartridges was subjected to manual and automated interpretative techniques. Synthetic mixtures (85 chemicals ...

9

Analysis of radioactive mixed hazardous waste using derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitroso...

J. A. Campbell B. D. Lerner R. M. Bean K. E. Grant R. B. Lucke

1994-01-01

10

Direct analysis of several Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals by capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Fusarium mycotoxins by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) using cold on-column injection was improved. Eight typical mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADN), fusarenon-X (FX), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 15-monoacetylscirpenol (15MAS), T-2 toxin (T-2), scirpentriol (SCT), and zearalenone (ZEA) were subjected to GC–MS without chemical derivatization by means of the on-column injection technique. Chromatographic separation of

Yoshiki Onji; Yoshinari Aoki; Naoto Tani; Kiyoshi Umebayashi; Yoshimi Kitada; Yoshiko Dohi

1998-01-01

11

Sources of variation in the analysis of trichothecenes in cereals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of variation In the analysis of trichothecenes in cereals by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were\\u000a studied and Identified. Ways to decrease some of the variations identified are presented and discussed. The method Is validated\\u000a for deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin. The general\\u000a variability in the performance of the GC-MS apparatus itself, as

M Eskola; A Rizzo

2001-01-01

12

Analysis of tropane alkaloids with thermospray high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A thermospray high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for analysis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in plant cell culture samples is described. The alkaloids were separated on a polymeric reversed-phase column with an alkaline ammonium acetate buffer-acetonitrile eluent. Selected-ion recording of the protonated molecular ions was used for quantitation of the compounds. The compounds were fragmented by discharge-assisted ionization and elevated thermospray capillary temperatures or ion repeller potentials. PMID:2026736

Auriola, S; Martinsen, A; Oksman-Caldentey, K M; Naaranlahti, T

1991-01-01

13

Emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies improving dried blood spot analysis.  

PubMed

Dried blood spots (DBS), a micro blood sampling technique, has recently gained interest in drug discovery and development due to its inherent advantages over the conventional whole blood, plasma or serum sample collection. Since the regulatory authorities have agreed to the use of blood as an acceptable biological matrix for drug exposure measurements, its applications have been extended not only to therapeutic drug monitoring but also to toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies. The pharmaceutical industry is keen to promote DBS as a prominent tool in bioanalytical applications due to the financial, ethical and organizational issues involved in clinical trials. This could be accomplished due to the latest advances in modern analytical technology, particularly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present review discusses some of the emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies in improving DBS analysis for its innovative applications in the development of new drugs. PMID:24697571

Nageswara Rao, Ramisetti

2014-08-01

14

Analysis of psilocybin and psilocin in Psilocybe subcubensis GUZMÁN by ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method has been developed for the rapid analysis of psilocybin and\\/or psilocin in fungus material using ion mobility spectrometry. Quantitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after a simple one-step extraction involving homogenization of the dried fruit bodies of fungi in chloroform and derivatization with MSTFA. The proposed methods resulted in rapid procedures useful in analyzing psychotropic

Thomas Keller; Andrea Schneider; Priska Regenscheit; Richard Dirnhofer; Thomas Rücker; Jürgen Jaspers; Wolfgang Kisser

1999-01-01

15

Predicting percent composition of blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and partial least squares analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percent composition of blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel from a variety of retail sources were modeled and predicted using partial least squares (PLS) analysis applied to gas chromatography–total-ion-current mass spectrometry (GC–TIC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–total-ion-current mass spectrometry (GCxGC–TIC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCxGC–MS) separations of the blends. In all four cases, the

Karisa M. Pierce; Stephen P. Schale

2011-01-01

16

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatile organic compounds produced by some micromycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile organic compounds evolved from various fungi were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the fungi studied were selected for their relevance in human mycology. According to their behaviour in the production of volatile compounds the fungi were divided into three groups. Group I was composed of fungi characteristically yeasts producing very high levels of volatile compounds. Ethanol, ethyl

A. Caileux; J. P. Bouchara; V. Daniel; D. Chabasse; P. Allain

1992-01-01

17

Multivariate analysis of progressive thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal decomposition of poly dimethyl siloxane compounds, Sylgard{reg_sign} 184 and 186, were examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. The technique involves sequentially heating a sample of the material of interest with subsequent analysis in a commercial GC/MS system. The decomposition chromatograms were analyzed using multivariate analysis tools including principal component analysis (PCA), factor rotation employing the varimax criterion, and multivariate curve resolution. The results of the analysis show seven components related to offgassing of various fractions of siloxanes that vary as a function of temperature. Thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for analyzing chemical mixtures. It has great potential in numerous analytic areas including materials analysis, sports medicine, in the detection of designer drugs; and biological research for metabolomics. Data analysis is complicated, far from automated and can result in high false positive or false negative rates. We have demonstrated a step-wise TD/GC-MS technique that removes more volatile compounds from a sample before extracting the less volatile compounds. This creates an additional dimension of separation before the GC column, while simultaneously generating three-way data. Sandia's proven multivariate analysis methods, when applied to these data, have several advantages over current commercial options. It also has demonstrated potential for success in finding and enabling identification of trace compounds. Several challenges remain, however, including understanding the sources of noise in the data, outlier detection, improving the data pretreatment and analysis methods, developing a software tool for ease of use by the chemist, and demonstrating our belief that this multivariate analysis will enable superior differentiation capabilities. In addition, noise and system artifacts challenge the analysis of GC-MS data collected on lower cost equipment, ubiquitous in commercial laboratories. This research has the potential to affect many areas of analytical chemistry including materials analysis, medical testing, and environmental surveillance. It could also provide a method to measure adsorption parameters for chemical interactions on various surfaces by measuring desorption as a function of temperature for mixtures. We have presented results of a novel method for examining offgas products of a common PDMS material. Our method involves utilizing a stepped TD/GC-MS data acquisition scheme that may be almost totally automated, coupled with multivariate analysis schemes. This method of data generation and analysis can be applied to a number of materials aging and thermal degradation studies.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2010-09-01

18

ANALYSIS OF TRACE-LEVEL ORGANIC COMBUSTION PROCESS EMISSIONS USING NOVEL MULTIDIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the analysis of trace-level organic combustion process emissions using novel multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) procedures. It outlines the application of the technique through the analyses of various incinerator effluent and produ...

19

DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SOILS USING EQUILIBRIUM HEADSPACE ANALYSIS AND CAPILLARY COLUMN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing methods for determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil matrices using the purge and trap technique with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have several problems, which include preserving sample integrity from collection to analysis and efficient...

20

Analysis of autoxidized fats by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: II. Methyl linoleate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach developed in the preceding paper was applied for qualitative and\\u000a quantitative investigations of autoxidation products of methyl linoleate. A GC-MS computer summation method was standardized\\u000a with synthetic 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoate. Equal amounts of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides were found in all samples of linoleate\\u000a autoxidized at different temperatures and peroxide levels. The results are consistent

E. N. Frankel; W. E. Neff; W. K. Rohwedder; B. P. S. Khambay; R. F. Garwood; B. C. L. Weedon

1977-01-01

21

Analysis of autoxidized fats by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: I. Methyl oleate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural investigation of autoxidation products of methyl oleate was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a (GC-MS) of trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives. GC-MS using computer plots of selected masses afforded structural assignments\\u000a of GC peaks due to incompletely resolved mixtures. This method provided evidence of epoxy and keto esters which are not completely\\u000a separated from the main components consisting of

E. N. Frankel; W. E. Neff; W. K. Rohwedder; B. P. S. Khambay; R. F. Garwood; B. C. L. Weedon

1977-01-01

22

Analysis of Canadian and imported beers for Fusarium mycotoxins by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method was developed for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), ??zearalenol (??ZEL), ??zearalenol (??ZEL) and zearalenone (ZEN) in beer by capillary gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS) of their heptafluorobutyrate (HFB) derivatives. Recoveries averaging 90–103% were obtained from beers spiked with each mycotoxin in the 5–20 ng\\/ml concentration range. Limits of detection were 0.1–1.5 ng DON\\/ml, 0.01–0.3 ng NIV\\/ml,

P. M. Scott; S. R. Kanhere; D. Weber

1993-01-01

23

Analysis of dihydroartemisinin in plasma by liquid chromatography—Mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Artemisinin (ART), or qinghaosu, a sesquiterpene lactone containing an endoperoxide bridge, is an efficient drug against chloroquine-resistant\\u000a strains ofPlasmodium falciparum in the treatment of cerebral malaria. ART and its derivatives are rapidly metabolized into dihydroartemisinin (DHA), which\\u000a is responsible for the antimalarial activity. After a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), determination of DHA in plasma\\u000a was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

D. Ortelli; S. Rudaz; E. Cognard; J.-L. Veuthey

2000-01-01

24

Quantitative analysis of tropane alkaloids in biological materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method for quantitation of tropane alkaloids in biological materials has been developed using an Extrelut column with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Biological materials (serum and urine) were mixed with a borate buffer and then applied to an Extrelut column. The adsorbed tropane alkaloids were eluted with dichloromethane before a GC-MS analysis. Atropine-d(3) was used as an internal standard. The extracted tropane alkaloids were converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives prior to GC analysis, to improve the instability of tropane alkaloids from heating and the property of them for a GC column. The recoveries of the compounds, which had been spiked to biological materials, were more than 80%. The GC separation of the derivatives from endogenous impurities was generally satisfactory with the use of a semi-polar capillary column. Tropane alkaloids showed excellent linearity in the range of 10-5000 ng/ml and the limit of detection was 5.0 ng/ml for biological materials. The present method is simple and more rapid than those previously reported, and was applied to a poisoning case. It is useful for the routine analysis of tropane alkaloids in cases of suspected tropane alkaloids poisoning. PMID:12427448

Namera, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Hirose, Yasuo; Yamaji, Seiichi; Tani, Tadato; Kojima, Tohru

2002-11-01

25

In situ Analysis of Organic Compounds on Mars using Chemical Derivatization and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the core science objectives of NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is to determine the past or present habitability of Mars. The search for key organic compounds relevant to terrestrial life will be an important part of that assessment. We have developed a protocol for the analysis of amino acids and carboxylic acids in Mars analogue materials using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). As shown, a variety of carboxylic acids were readily identified in soil collected from the Atacama Desert in Chile at part-per-billion levels by GCMS after extraction and chemical derivatization using the reagent N,N-tert.-butyl (dimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Several derivatized amino acids including glycine and alanine were also detected by GCMS in the Atacama soil at lower concentrations (chromatogram not shown). Lacking derivatization capability, the Viking pyrolysis GCMS instruments could not have detected amino acids and carboxylic acids, since these non-volatile compounds require chemical transformation into volatile species that are stable in a GC column. We are currently optimizing the chemical extraction and derivatization technique for in situ GCMS analysis on Mars. Laboratory results of analyses of Atacama Desert samples and other Mars analogue materials using this protocol will be presented.

Glavin, D. P.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2005-01-01

26

Surface-sampling and analysis of TATP by swabbing and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The method of sample recovery for trace detection and identification of explosives plays a critical role in several criminal investigations. After bombing, there can be difficulties in sending big objects to a laboratory for analysis. Traces can also be searched for on large surfaces, on hands of suspects or on surfaces where the explosive was placed during preparatory phases (e.g. places where an IED was assembled, vehicles used for transportation, etc.). In this work, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) was synthesized from commercial precursors following reported methods. Several portions of about 6mg of TATP were then spread on different surfaces (e.g. floors, tables, etc.) or used in handling tests. Three different swabbing systems were used: a commercial swab, pre-wetted with propan-2-ol (isopropanol) and water (7:3), dry paper swabs, and cotton swabs wetted with propan-2-ol. Paper and commercial swabs were also used to sample a metal plate, where a small charge of about 4g of TATP was detonated. Swabs were sealed in small glass jars with screw caps and Parafilm(®) M and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Swabs were extracted and analysed several weeks later by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the three systems gave positive results, but wetted swabs collected higher amounts of TATP. The developed procedure showed its suitability for use in real cases, allowing TATP detection in several simulations, including a situation in which people wash their hands after handling the explosive. PMID:23219697

Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Cassioli, Luigi; Grossi, Silvana; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

2013-01-10

27

[Separation of tannins in Rhubarb and its analysis by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the pharmaceutical actions of rhubarb, a method for extracting, separating and analyzing the tannin components in rhubarb was studied. At first, a procedure for the group separation of tannins from the water-ethanol extract of rhubarb was established based on the formation of tannins-caffein precipitation. Then, a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the analysis of tannins in rhubarb was developed. This HPLC method is based on a reversed-phase C18 column and polar mobile-phase such as water and methanol with gradient elution, and the tannins can be well separated. Finally, the identification of the tannin components in rhubarb was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The structures of the main tannin components (gallic acid, catechin, the dimer, trimer, tetramer and pentamer of catechin) in rhubarb are suggested. The fragmentation laws of the tannin components are summarized. In comparing with previous methods, it is simple and without the interference of co-existed compounds. PMID:15807111

Ding, Mingyu; Ni, Weiwei

2004-11-01

28

[Analysis of supercritical fluid extracts of Radix caulophylli with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

To analyze the constituents in supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (SFE-CO2) of Radix caulophylli, the Radix caulophylli was extracted with SFE-CO2, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis with a DB-5MS capillary column (30 mm x 0.32 mm ID, 0.25 microm film thickness) was used. The inlet temperature was maintained at 280 degrees C. The column oven was held at 80 degrees C for 2 min, then programmed from 80 to 280 degrees C at 5 degrees C x min(-1) and, finally, held for 4 min. Helium at a constant flow rate of 2.0 mL x min(-1) was used as the carrier gas. The mass spectrometry conditions were as follows: ionization energy, 70 eV; ion source temperature, 200 degrees C. The mass selective detector was operated in the TIC mode (m/z was from 40 - 500). For the first time 49 peaks were separated and identified, the compounds were quantitatively determined by normalization method, and the identified compounds represent 97.44% of total GC peak areas. Viz, n-hexadecanoic acid (31.4%), (E, E) -9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (26.54%), (Z)-7-tetradecenal (9.4%), hexadecenoic acid (3.23%), 10-undecenal (3.22%), octadecanoic acid (2.25%), and caulophylline (1.76%) etc. The results will provide important foundation for understanding the constituents and further exploitation of Radix caulophylli. PMID:17703777

Wang, Si-Cen; Chen, Qin-Hua; Wei, Yao-Yuan; Li, Han-Wen; He, Lang-Chong

2007-05-01

29

Metabolite analysis of human fecal water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with ethyl chloroformate derivatization.  

PubMed

Fecal water is a complex mixture of various metabolites with a wide range of physicochemical properties and boiling points. The analytical method developed here provides a qualitative and quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, with high sensitivity and efficiency, coupled with derivatization of ethyl chloroformate in aqueous medium. The water/ethanol/pyridine ratio was optimized to 12:6:1, and a two-step derivatization with an initial pH regulation of 0.1M sodium bicarbonate was developed. The deionized water exhibited better extraction efficiency for fecal water compounds than did acidified and alkalized water. Furthermore, more amino acids were extracted from frozen fecal samples than from fresh samples based on multivariate statistical analysis and univariate statistical validation on GC/MS data. Method validation by 34 reference standards and fecal water samples showed a correlation coefficient higher than 0.99 for each of the standards, and the limit of detection (LOD) was from 10 to 500pg on-column for most of the standards. The analytical equipment exhibited excellent repeatability, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 4% for standards and lower than 7% for fecal water. The derivatization method also demonstrated good repeatability, with the RSD lower than 6.4% for standards (except 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and lower than 10% for fecal water (except dicarboxylic acids). The qualitative means by searching the electron impact (EI) mass spectral database, chemical ionization (CI) mass spectra validation, and reference standards comparison totally identified and structurally confirmed 73 compounds, and the fecal water compounds of healthy humans were also quantified. This protocol shows a promising application in metabolome analysis based on human fecal water samples. PMID:19573517

Gao, Xianfu; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Martin, Jean-François; Galan, Pilar; Juste, Catherine; Jia, Wei; Sebedio, Jean-Louis

2009-10-15

30

Linker-assisted immunoassay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of glyphosate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A novel, sensitive, linker-assisted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (L'ELISA) was compared to on-line solidphase extraction (SPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) for the analysis of glyphosate in surface water and groundwater samples. The L'ELISA used succinic anhydride to derivatize glyphosate, which mimics the epitotic attachment of glyphosate to horseradish peroxidase hapten. Thus, L'ELISA recognized the derivatized glyphosate more effectively (detection limit of 0.1 ??g/L) and with increased sensitivity (10-100 times) over conventional ELISA and showed the potential for other applications. The precision and accuracy of L'ELISA then was compared with on-line SPE/HPLC/MS, which detected glyphosate and its degradate derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate using negative-ion electrospray (detection limit 0.1 ??g/L, relative standard deviation ??15%). Derivatization efficiency and matrix effects were minimized by adding an isotope-labeled glyphosate (2-13C15N). The accuracy of L'ELISA gave a false positive rate of 18% between 0.1 and 1.0 ??g/L and a false positive rate of only 1% above 1.0 ??g/L. The relative standard deviation was ??20%. The correlation of L'ELISA and HPLC/MS for 66 surface water and groundwater samples was 0.97 with a slope of 1.28, with many detections of glyphosate and its degradate in surface water but not in groundwater.

Lee, E. A.; Zimmerman, L. R.; Bhullar, B. S.; Thurman, E. M.

2002-01-01

31

Applied analysis of lacquer films based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ancient lacquer film, a Nanban lacquer film, an old lacquer-ware object imported from an Asian country, and the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compared with the results of the natural lacquer film, it was revealed that the ancient lacquer film and Nanban lacquer film were made from Rhus vernicifera, and the old lacquer-ware imported from an Asian country was made from Melanorrhoea usitata. However, the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films obtained from the Doerner Institute in Munich, Germany were made from natural resins. 3-Pentadecylcatechol (MW=320) (urushiol), 3-heptadecylcatechol (MW=348) (laccol), and 4-heptadecylcatechol (MW=348) (thitsiol) were the main products of the pyrolysis of R. vernicifera, Rhus succedanea, and M. usitata. PMID:18970777

Lu, Rong; Kamiya, Yukio; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

2006-09-15

32

Analysis of adulterants in a traditional herbal medicinal product using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with herbal medicine and this can potentially cause serious adverse effects. It is therefore important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicine to ensure patients' safety. The objective of this study was to develop sensitive and specific methods to analyse phenylbutazone, caffeine and oxyphenbutazone present in a traditional Indonesian herbal product. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods in the selected reaction-monitoring (SRM) mode were developed. It was found that the sample contained 0.53% w/w (n=3, RSD=7.56%) phenylbutazone and 0.04% w/w (n=3, RSD=8.39%) caffeine. This corresponded to 43.17 mg phenylbutazone and 3.23 mg caffeine in each sachet of powder. The methods were validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ. LOD and LOQ were found to be 3.69 and 12.29 ng/ml, respectively for phenylbutazone. For caffeine, the LOD and LOQ were 0.84 and 2.80 ng/ml, respectively. Oxyphenbutazone in the sample was found to be present at a level below the quantification level of 10.2 ng/ml. With better methods developed for analysis of adulterants in herbal medicine, the quality and safety of these medicines can be better controlled and regulated to ensure patients' safety. PMID:12609680

Lau, Aik-Jiang; Holmes, Michael J; Woo, Soo-On; Koh, Hwee-Ling

2003-02-26

33

Direct Analysis of Rat Bile for Acetaminophen and Two of Its Conjugated Metabolites via Thermospray Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bile from rats treated with acetaminophen was analyzed by direct injection onto a thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system. Two conjugated metabolites of acetaminophen were separated by the high-pressure liquid chromatographic system and...

L. D. Betowski W. A. Korfmacher J. O. Lay D. W. Potter J. A. Hinson

1987-01-01

34

Multiclass mycotoxin analysis in food, environmental and biological matrices with chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mold metabolites that can elicit deleterious effects on other organisms are classified as mycotoxins. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mostly through the intake of contaminated agricultural products or residues due to carry over or metabolite products in foods of animal origin such as milk and eggs, but can also occur by dermal contact and inhalation. Mycotoxins contained in moldy foods, but also in damp interiors, can cause diseases in humans and animals. Nephropathy, various types of cancer, alimentary toxic aleukia, hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders are the most common diseases that can be related to mycotoxicosis. The absence or presence of mold infestation and its propagation are seldom correlated with mycotoxin presence. Mycotoxins must be determined directly, and suitable analytical methods are necessary. Hundreds of mycotoxins have been recognized, but only for a few of them, and in a restricted number of utilities, a maximum acceptable level has been regulated by law. However, mycotoxins seldom develop alone; more often various types and/or classes form in the same substrate. The co-occurrence might render the individual mycotoxin tolerance dose irrelevant, and therefore the mere presence of multiple mycotoxins should be considered a risk factor. The advantage of chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) is that many compounds can be determined and confirmed in one analysis. This review illustrates the state-of-the-art of mycotoxin MS-based analytical methods for multiclass, multianalyte determination in all the matrices in which they appear. A chapter is devoted to the history of the long-standing coexistence and interaction among humans, domestic animals and mycotoxicosis, and the history of the discovery of mycotoxins. Quality assurance, although this topic relates to analytical chemistry in general, has been also examined for mycotoxin analysis as a preliminary to the systematic literature excursus. Sample handling is a crucial step to devise a multiclass analytical method; so when possible, it has been treated separately for a better comparison before tackling the instrumental part of the whole analytical method. This structure has resulted sometimes in unavoidable redundancies, because it was also important to underline the interconnection. Most reviews do not deal with all the possible mycotoxin sources, including the environmental ones. The focus of this review is the analytical methods based on MS for multimycotoxin class determination. Because the final purpose to devise multimycotoxin analysis should be the assessment of the danger to health of exposition to multitoxicants of natural origin (and possibly also the interaction with anthropogenic contaminants), therefore also the analytical methods for environmental relevant mycotoxins have been thoroughly reviewed. Finally, because the best way to shed light on actual risk assessment could be the individuation of exposure biomarkers, the review covers also the scarce literature on biological fluids. PMID:22065561

Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

2012-01-01

35

Headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of free volatile compounds in Mango  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Manual headspace—solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a simple, rapid and sensitive\\u000a method, was employed for the identification and quantitative analysis of the main volatile constituents inMango juice. Nineteen compounds were quantified though standard addition. The main volatile compounds ofMango juice were terpenes, including mono-or sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, such as 1R-?-pinene, 3-carene, ?-terpinene, limonene,\\u000a E-?-ocimene, terpinolene, eremophiladiene, ?-caryophyllene, and guaiadiene

Chunqing Shang; Chunhui Deng; Xiaoyue Zhang; Zhengfu Chen; Yaoming Hu

2002-01-01

36

Comparative analysis of mass spectral matching-based compound identification in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Compound identification in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is usually achieved by matching query spectra to spectra present in a reference library. Although several spectral similarity measures have been developed and compared using a small reference library, it still remains unknown how the relationship between the spectral similarity measure and the size of reference library affects on the identification accuracy as well as the optimal weight factor. We used three reference libraries to investigate the dependency of the optimal weight factor, spectral similarity measure and the size of reference library. Our study demonstrated that the optimal weight factor depends on not only spectral similarity measure but also the size of reference library. The mixture semi-partial correlation measure outperforms all existing spectral similarity measures in all tested reference libraries, in spite of the computational expense. Furthermore, the accuracy of compound identification using a larger reference library in future is estimated by varying the size of reference library. Simulation study indicates that the mixture semi-partial correlation measure will have the best performance with the increase of reference library in future. PMID:23726352

Koo, Imhoi; Kim, Seongho; Zhang, Xiang

2013-07-12

37

Analysis of dencichine in Panax notoginseng by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with ethyl chloroformate derivatization.  

PubMed

Dencichine (beta-N-oxalyl-l-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid) is a haemostatic agent present in well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herbs such as Panax notoginseng, as well as other Panax species. It is also a reported neurotoxic agent found in Lathyrus sativus (grass pea seed) and cycad seeds. A method was developed for quantitative determination of the non-protein amino acid, dencichine, in plant samples of P. notoginseng and the adventitious roots directly from the explants of P. notoginseng after derivatization with ethyl chloroformate (ECF) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). l-2-chlorophenylalanine was used as an internal standard. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)=0.9988, n=6) in the range of 10-800 microg/ml for dencichine. Limit of detection and quantification for dencichine were 0.5 microg/ml and 2 microg/ml, respectively. This rapid and specific method may be applied to the quantification of dencichine in complex medicinal plants and their products. PMID:17029672

Xie, Guo-Xiang; Qiu, Yun-Ping; Qiu, Ming-Feng; Gao, Xian-Fu; Liu, Yu-Min; Jia, Wei

2007-02-19

38

Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended. PMID:24146441

Nurul Syazana, M S; Gan, S H; Halim, A S; Shah, Nurul Syazana Mohamad; Gan, Siew Hua; Sukari, Halim Ahmad

2013-01-01

39

Comparative Analysis of Mass Spectral Matching-based Compound Identification in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Compound identification in gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is usually achieved by matching query spectra to spectra present in a reference library. Although several spectral similarity measures have been developed and compared using a small reference library, it still remains unknown how the relationship between the spectral similarity measure and the size of reference library affects on the identification accuracy as well as the optimal weight factor. We used three reference libraries to investigate the dependency of the optimal weight factor, spectral similarity measure and the size of reference library. Our study demonstrated that the optimal weight factor depends on not only spectral similarity measure but also the size of reference library. The mixture semi-partial correlation measure outperforms all existing spectral similarity measures in all tested reference libraries, in spite of the computational expense. Furthermore, the accuracy of compound identification using a larger reference library in future is estimated by varying the size of reference library. Simulation study indicates that the mixture semi-partial correlation measure will have the best performance with the increase of reference library in future.

Koo, Imhoi; Kim, Seongho; Zhang, Xiang

2013-01-01

40

Analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple method for the analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed. A novel device was designed for direct extraction solid phase microextraction in order to avoid damage to the fiber. The analysis was performed without derivatization for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Selection fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time and pH, were optimized. The method was linear in the range 0.109-1.323 microg/mL for capsaicin and 0.107-1.713 microg/mL for dihydrocapsaicin with correlation coefficient up to r=0.9970 for both capsaicinoids. The precision of the method was less than 10%. The method was applied to the analysis of 11 varieties of peppers and four pepper sauces. A broad range of capsaicin (55.0-25 459 microg/g) and dihydrocapsaicin (93-1 130 microg/g) was found in the pepper and pepper sauces samples (4.3-717.3 and 1.0-134.8 microg/g), respectively. PMID:19100557

Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; Ramírez-Maya, Erika; Alvarado-Suárez, Luís Angel

2009-04-01

41

Analysis of fire ant pesticides in water by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of four widely used fire ant pesticides (chlorpyrifos, fenoxycarb, avermectin, and hydramethylnon) in water was accomplished by combining solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with either gas chromatography\\/quadruple ion trap mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography\\/quadruple ion trap MS (HPLC\\/MS). Solid-phase microextraction is a fast, selective, and solvent-free extraction technique that accomplishes both extraction and pre-concentration events in a single

Michelle L Reyzer; Jennifer S Brodbelt

2001-01-01

42

Direct analysis of oligomeric tackifying resins in rubber compounds by automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed

Two analytical methods, automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), were applied as direct methods for the analysis of oligomeric tackifying resins in a vulcanized rubber. The ATD-GC/MS method, based on discontinuous volatile extraction, was found to be an effective means for direct analysis of the oligomeric tackifying resins contained in a vulcanized rubber. The oligomeric tackifying resins, such as t-octylphenolformaldehyde (TOPF) resin, rosin-modified terpene resin, and cashew resin, could be directly analyzed in vulcanized rubber by ATD-GC/MS. Much simpler total ion chromatograms were obtained by ATD-GC/MS than by flash pyrolysis with a Curie-point pyrolyzer, permitting much easier interpretation. Ions at m/z 206, 135, and 107 were fingerprints in the characteristic mass spectra obtained by ATD-GC/MS for TOPF resin in the vulcanized rubber. 1H-Indene, styrene, and isolongifolene were observed as their characteristic mass spectra in the pyrolyzate of the rosin-modified terpene resin. From the cashew resin, phenol, 3-methylphenol, and 4-(1,1,3, 3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol were obtained as the characteristic pyrolyzates by discontinuous thermal extraction via ATD-GC/MS. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10589102

Kim

1999-01-01

43

Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Eupatorium odoratum extract as an oviposition repellent.  

PubMed

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to study volatile and semi-volatile compounds emitted by the Eupatorium odoratum (E. odoratum) extract. Variables of HS-SPME such as the type of SPME fiber, extraction time and temperature, incubation time, desorption time and temperature have been optimized. Optimized conditions were obtained by the use of divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber, 5 min/20 min incubation/extraction time at 65 degrees C, 5 min desorption time at 260 degrees C. Using three different polar chromatographic columns to get retention index and mass spectrometry data, 99 volatile and semi-volatile compounds were tentatively identified in the E. odoratum extract. This study has identified the promising source of E. odoratum oviposition repellent. PMID:19501027

Cui, Shufen; Tan, Shuo; Ouyang, Gangfeng; Jiang, Shihong; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2009-07-01

44

Supercritical-Fluid Extraction and Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Mycotoxins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of direct supercritical-fluid injection-mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of mycotoxins of the tricothecene group is demonstrated. A solution containing diacetoxyscirpenol or T-2 toxin is injected into a fluid consisting primarily of pentan...

R. D. Smith H. R. Udseth

1982-01-01

45

Headspace single-drop microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile compounds from herba asari.  

PubMed

A rapid headspace single-drop microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SDME-GC-MS) for the analysis of the volatile compounds in Herba Asari was developed in this study. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and time, sample amount, and particle size were optimized. A mixed solvent of n-tridecane and butyl acetate (1?:?1) was finally used for the extraction with sample amount of 0.750?g and 100-mesh particle size at 70°C for 15?min. Under the determined conditions, the pound samples of Herba Asari were directly applied for the analysis. The result showed that SDME-GC-MS method was a simple, effective, and inexpensive way to measure the volatile compounds in Herba Asari and could be used for the analysis of volatile compounds in Chinese medicine. PMID:23607049

Wang, Guan-Jie; Tian, Li; Fan, Yu-Ming; Qi, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

46

Headspace Single-Drop Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Herba Asari  

PubMed Central

A rapid headspace single-drop microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SDME-GC-MS) for the analysis of the volatile compounds in Herba Asari was developed in this study. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and time, sample amount, and particle size were optimized. A mixed solvent of n-tridecane and butyl acetate (1?:?1) was finally used for the extraction with sample amount of 0.750?g and 100-mesh particle size at 70°C for 15?min. Under the determined conditions, the pound samples of Herba Asari were directly applied for the analysis. The result showed that SDME-GC–MS method was a simple, effective, and inexpensive way to measure the volatile compounds in Herba Asari and could be used for the analysis of volatile compounds in Chinese medicine.

Wang, Guan-Jie; Tian, Li; Fan, Yu-Ming; Qi, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

47

Capillary column gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) using a 15 m long capillary column has been employed in our laboratory for the analysis of explosives. The technique is suitable for most of the common military explosives. Nitroaromatic compounds like TNT were analysed easily and with high sensitivity and so were the volatile nitrate esters like glycerine trinitrate. Success was also achieved in the

Tsippy Tamiri; Shmuel Zitrin

1986-01-01

48

Analysis of plant galactolipids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement.  

PubMed

The composition of plant membrane lipids was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement. The data dependent methods for the analysis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs) have been developed. The optimised chromatographic systems were based on a 2.0 mm i.d. Nucleosil C18 column with methanol/water (MGDGs) or acetonitrile/methanol/water (DGDGs) gradients. The galactolipids were ionised by electrospray operated in the positive ion mode and identified based on their MS/MS spectra. High resolution spectra with accurate masses were found to be essential for correct interpretation of the MS data. The elution order of non-oxidised MGDGs and DGDGs followed the equivalent carbon numbers. The methods were applied for detailed characterisation of the MGDGs and DGDGs in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana and Melissa officinalis. PMID:22465211

Zábranská, Marie; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Sobotníková, Jana; Cva?ka, Josef

2012-07-01

49

The analysis of tire rubber traces collected after braking incidents using Pyrolysis-GasChromatography/Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Automobile tire marks can routinely be found at the scenes of crime, particularly hit-and-run accidents and are left on road surfaces because of sudden braking or the wheels spinning. The tire marks are left due to the friction between the tire rubber and the solid road surface, and do not always demonstrate the tire tread pattern. However, the tire mark will contain traces of the tire. In this study, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze 12 tires from different manufacturer's and their traces collected after braking incidents. Tire marks were left on a conglomerate road surface with sudden braking. The samples were pyrolysed without removal of contaminant in a micro-furnace type pyrolyser. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were performed on all the samples. All 12 samples were distinguished from each other. Each of the tire traces were identified as coming from there original source. PMID:17767653

Sarkissian, Garry

2007-09-01

50

Analysis of CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, we analyzed the CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit Averrhoa carambola L., using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The stereoisomer of procyanidin B1 and B2 and/or the trimer consisting of catechin and/or epicatechin were suggested to be potent inhibitory components. PMID:18404300

Hosoi, Shinzo; Shimizu, Eri; Arimori, Kazuhiko; Okumura, Manabu; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yamada, Mitsuko; Sakushima, Akiyo

2008-07-01

51

The Analysis of Bud Exudate of Populus × euramericana, and of Propolis, by Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis and bud exudate of Populus × euramericana have been analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry; 104 compounds have been identified, including 26 not previously identified in propolis or bud exudate. The compounds identified in propolis are derived from three sources; plant exudate collected by bees, wax secreted by bees, and materials such as sugars, which are probably introduced accidentally

W. Greenaway; T. Scaysbrook; F. R. Whatley

1987-01-01

52

[Preparation of flavonoid reference standards from Scutellariae Radix under the guidance of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis].  

PubMed

Flavonoid reference standards were targeted-prepared from Scutellariae Radix under the guidance of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. With HPLC-MS analysis of Scutellariae Radix, 19 flavonoid components were identified by analyzing and comparing their retention times, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectrometry data with literature. The separation and purification protocols of all targeted flavonoid reference standards were optimally designed according to the results of HPLC-MS analysis and related literature. The ethanol extract of Scutellariae Radix was suspended in water and extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol successively. The ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract were separately subjected to primary separation by low pressure reverse phase preparative chromatography. Then the fractions containing targeted compounds were further purified by low pressure reverse and normal phases preparative chromatography. Finally, baicalin and wogonoside reference standards were obtained from n-butanol extract; baicaelin, wogonin, and oroxylin A reference standards were obtained from ethyl acetate extract. The structures of the 5 reference standards were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The HPLC analytical results showed that the purities of the 5 reference standards were all above 98%. It is demonstrated that the rapid targeted-preparation method under the guidance of the HPLC-MS analysis is applicable for the isolation and preparation of chemical components in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:23189664

Guo, Henan; Yang, Xuedong; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Wenfeng

2012-07-01

53

Analysis of human serum by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry: Improved sample preparation and data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of biomarkers is a fast developing field in proteomics research. Liquid chromatography coupled on line to mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has become a powerful method for the sensitive detection, quantification and identification of proteins and peptides in biological fluids like serum. However, the presence of highly abundant proteins often masks those of lower abundance and thus generally prevents their detection

N. I. Govorukhina; T. H. Reijmers; S. O. Nyangoma; R. C. Jansen; R. Bischoff

2006-01-01

54

Routine application using single quadrupole liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to pesticides analysis in citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry method has been developed for the routine analysis of buprofezin, bupirimate, hexaflumuron, tebufenpyrad, fluvalinate and pyriproxyfen in citrus fruits. Extracts were obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) using C18 as dispersant and dichloromethane-methanol (80:20, v\\/v) as eluent. Matrix effects were tested for all matrices by addition of standard to sample blank extracts

Carla Soler; Jordi Mañes; Yolanda Picó

2005-01-01

55

Supercritical-fluid extraction and chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of direct supercritical-fluid injection-mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of mycotoxins of the tricothecene group is demonstrated. A solution containing diacetoxyscirpenol or T-2 toxin is injected into a fluid consisting primarily of pentane or carbon dioxide and is rapidly brought to supercritical conditions. Direct injection of the fluid stream into a chemical ionization source allows thermally labile compounds

R. D. Smith; H. R. Udseth

1982-01-01

56

Supercritical-fluid extraction and chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of mycotoxins  

SciTech Connect

The use of direct supercritical-fluid injection-mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of mycotoxins of the tricothecene group is demonstrated. A solution containing diacetoxyscirpenol or T-2 toxin is injected into a fluid consisting primarily of pentane or carbon dioxide and is rapidly brought to supercritical conditions. Direct injection of the fluid stream into a chemical ionization source allows thermally labile compounds to be analyzed. Under these conditions trichothecene mass spectra showing significant (M + 1)/sup +/ ions and distinctive fragmentation patterns are obtained. Detection limits are in the subnanogram range. Direct analysis from complex substrates using selective supercritical-fluid extraction is proposed. 4 figures.

Smith, R.D.; Udseth, H.R.

1982-07-01

57

High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins Using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible, and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. Here we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these now deglycosylated peptides by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen-induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared with their control littermates.

Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Aebersold, Reudi

2005-02-01

58

Quantitative analysis and fingerprint profiles for quality control of Fructus Schisandrae by gas chromatography: mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes a simple, rapid, and effective quality assessment method for Fructus Schisandrae by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). The method was established by using specific lignan fingerprint profiles and quantitation of characteristic compounds in this herbal medicine. The GC-MS fingerprints of 15 batches of Schisandra samples from different regions of China showed similar lignan profiles. Five peaks were selected as characteristic peaks, and all of these were identified by using GC-MS techniques. The relative retention times of these characteristic peaks in the GC-MS fingerprint were established as an important parameter for identification of Schisandra samples. Meanwhile, relative peak areas may be a feasible approach to discriminate the S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera. Finally, these pharmacologically active constituents in the titled plant, schisandrins A-C and schizandrols A and B, were quantitatively determined using a validated GC-MS method. PMID:24574919

Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Di; Kuang, Hai-Xue

2014-01-01

59

Quantitative Analysis and Fingerprint Profiles for Quality Control of Fructus Schisandrae by Gas Chromatography: Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a simple, rapid, and effective quality assessment method for Fructus Schisandrae by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). The method was established by using specific lignan fingerprint profiles and quantitation of characteristic compounds in this herbal medicine. The GC-MS fingerprints of 15 batches of Schisandra samples from different regions of China showed similar lignan profiles. Five peaks were selected as characteristic peaks, and all of these were identified by using GC-MS techniques. The relative retention times of these characteristic peaks in the GC-MS fingerprint were established as an important parameter for identification of Schisandra samples. Meanwhile, relative peak areas may be a feasible approach to discriminate the S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera. Finally, these pharmacologically active constituents in the titled plant, schisandrins A–C and schizandrols A and B, were quantitatively determined using a validated GC-MS method.

Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Di; Kuang, Hai-Xue

2014-01-01

60

Targeted Chiral Analysis of Bioactive Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Using Liquid-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SRM/MS); whereas the highest specificity is obtained with an SRM transitions between an intense parent ion, which contains the intact molecule (M) and a structurally significant product ion. This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for the analysis of the structurally diverse eicosanoids that arise.

Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

2012-01-01

61

High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease, and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, to generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. In this paper, we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these, no de-glycosylated peptides by LC-ESI-MS, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared to their control littermates.

Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher; Aebersold, Ruedi

2005-02-01

62

Comparative Analysis of Mass Spectral Similarity Measures on Peak Alignment for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Peak alignment is a critical procedure in mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery in metabolomics. One of peak alignment approaches to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) data is peak matching-based alignment. A key to the peak matching-based alignment is the calculation of mass spectral similarity scores. Various mass spectral similarity measures have been developed mainly for compound identification, but the effect of these spectral similarity measures on the performance of peak matching-based alignment still remains unknown. Therefore, we selected five mass spectral similarity measures, cosine correlation, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation, partial correlation, and part correlation, and examined their effects on peak alignment using two sets of experimental GC×GC-MS data. The results show that the spectral similarity measure does not affect the alignment accuracy significantly in analysis of data from less complex samples, while the partial correlation performs much better than other spectral similarity measures when analyzing experimental data acquired from complex biological samples.

2013-01-01

63

Early gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Spectroscopy Laboratory, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan, USA In December 1955 or thereabouts, the authors coupled a homemade gas chromatograph to a research time-of-flight mass spectrometer constructed by W. C. Wiley, I. H. McLaren, and D. B. Harrington. This unique gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument generated mass spectra at a lo-kHz rate for display on an oscilloscope; eluted gas chromate graphic components, such as methanol, acetone, benzene, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride, could be visually identified immediately from the oscilloscope display. Many years of further research and development in many laboratories worldwide were necessary, however, to make continuous on-line GC/MS the uniquely valuable analytical tool that it is today. PMID:24234933

Gohlke, R S; McLafferty, F W

1993-05-01

64

Analytical platform for metabolome analysis of microbial cells using methyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This protocol describes an analytical platform for the analysis of intra- and extracellular metabolites of microbial cells (yeast, filamentous fungi and bacteria) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The protocol is subdivided into sampling, sample preparation, chemical derivatization of metabolites, GC-MS analysis and data processing and analysis. This protocol uses two robust quenching methods for microbial cultures, the first of which, cold glycerol-saline quenching, causes reduced leakage of intracellular metabolites, thus allowing a more reliable separation of intra- and extracellular metabolites with simultaneous stopping of cell metabolism. The second, fast filtration, is specifically designed for quenching filamentous micro-organisms. These sampling techniques are combined with an easy sample-preparation procedure and a fast chemical derivatization reaction using methyl chloroformate. This reaction takes place at room temperature, in aqueous medium, and is less prone to matrix effect compared with other derivatizations. This protocol takes an average of 10 d to complete and enables the simultaneous analysis of hundreds of metabolites from the central carbon metabolism (amino and nonamino organic acids, phosphorylated organic acids and fatty acid intermediates) using an in-house MS library and a data analysis pipeline consisting of two free software programs (Automated Mass Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) and R). PMID:20885382

Smart, Kathleen F; Aggio, Raphael B M; Van Houtte, Jeremy R; Villas-Bôas, Silas G

2010-09-01

65

Simple and rapid analysis of methyldibromo glutaronitrile in cosmetic products by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid gas chromatography (GC) method with mass spectrometry (MS) detection has been developed for the determination of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) in cosmetic products. The presence of this preservative in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited since 2007 because of its allergenic properties. The analyzed products were opportunely diluted in methanol and MDBGN was separated by fused silica capillary column and detected by electron impact (EI)-MS in positive ionization mode with a total run time of 7 min. The assay was validated in the range 0.005-0.100 mg MDBGN per g of examined product with good determination coefficients (r(2)?0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the calibration curves, mean recoveries were always higher than 95% for MDBGN in the tested cosmetics. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of cleansing gels, shampoo and solar waters to disclose the eventual presence of MDBGN illegally added in cosmetic products. PMID:21871753

Pellegrini, Manuela; Bossù, Elena; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

2011-12-15

66

Analysis of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides by microliquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

We report on microbore liquid chromatography (microLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation of glycopeptides and high-mannose-type oligosaccharides, digested from recombinant phospholipase C, expressed in Pichia pastoris. The glycopeptides were subject to microLC/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and microLC/ESI-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis that revealed high-mannose structure size variation between Man(7)GlcNAc(2) and Man(14)GlcNAc(2). Then, high-performance CE was applied to identify possible positional isomers of the high-mannose structures. For the CE experiments, the oligosaccharides were released from the glycoproteins by peptide-N-glycosidase F and labeled with 1-aminopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid (APTS). Excellent separation of the possible positional isomers was attained, suggesting one for Man(9)GlcNAc(2), two for Man(10)GlcNAc(2), three for Man(11)GlcNAc(2), Man(12)GlcNAc(2), and Man(13)GlcNAc(2), and two for Man(14)GlcNAc(2). The CE results provided complementary information to the microLC/ESI-MS and MS/MS data with respect to the possible number of positional isomers. PMID:15237400

Koller, Antonius; Khandurina, Julia; Li, Jincai; Kreps, Joel; Schieltz, David; Guttman, András

2004-07-01

67

Cellular Lipid Extraction for Targeted Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA), results in the formation of oxidized bioactive lipids, including numerous stereoisomers1,2. These metabolites can be formed from free or esterified fatty acids. Many of these oxidized metabolites have biological activity and have been implicated in various diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and cancer3-7. Oxidized bioactive lipids can be formed enzymatically or by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enzymes that metabolize fatty acids include cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs)1,8. Enzymatic metabolism results in enantioselective formation whereas ROS oxidation results in the racemic formation of products. While this protocol focuses primarily on the analysis of AA- and some LA-derived bioactive metabolites; it could be easily applied to metabolites of other fatty acids. Bioactive lipids are extracted from cell lysate or media using liquid-liquid (l-l) extraction. At the beginning of the l-l extraction process, stable isotope internal standards are added to account for errors during sample preparation. Stable isotope dilution (SID) also accounts for any differences, such as ion suppression, that metabolites may experience during the mass spectrometry (MS) analysis9. After the extraction, derivatization with an electron capture (EC) reagent, pentafluorylbenzyl bromide (PFB) is employed to increase detection sensitivity10,11. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is used to increase the selectivity of the MS analysis. Before MS analysis, lipids are separated using chiral normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC conditions are optimized to separate the enantiomers and various stereoisomers of the monitored lipids12. This specific LC-MS method monitors prostaglandins (PGs), isoprostanes (isoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxoETEs) and oxooctadecadienoic acids (oxoODEs); however, the HPLC and MS parameters can be optimized to include any fatty acid metabolites13. Most of the currently available bioanalytical methods do not take into account the separate quantification of enantiomers. This is extremely important when trying to deduce whether or not the metabolites were formed enzymatically or by ROS. Additionally, the ratios of the enantiomers may provide evidence for a specific enzymatic pathway of formation. The use of SID allows for accurate quantification of metabolites and accounts for any sample loss during preparation as well as the differences experienced during ionization. Using the PFB electron capture reagent increases the sensitivity of detection by two orders of magnitude over conventional APCI methods. Overall, this method, SID-LC-EC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization APCI-MRM/MS, is one of the most sensitive, selective, and accurate methods of quantification for bioactive lipids.

Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

2011-01-01

68

Characterisation of capillary ionic liquid columns for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.  

PubMed

Due to their distinct chemical properties, the application of ionic liquid (IL) compounds as gas chromatography (GC) stationary phases offer unique GC separation especially in the analysis of geometric and positional fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) isomers. Elution behaviour of FAME on several commercialised IL capillary columns including phosphonium based SLB-IL59, SLB-IL60, SLB-IL61 and SLB-IL76 and imidazolium based SLB-IL82, SLB-IL100, and SLB-IL111 as well as a general purpose column SLB-5ms, were evaluated in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The phases were further characterised by using a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) approach according to the equivalent chain length (ECL) index of FAME. Among all tested IL columns, elution temperatures of saturated FAME increased as their McReynolds' polarity value decreased, except for IL60. ECL values increased markedly as the stationary phase polarity increased, particularly for the polyunsaturated FAME. The LSER study indicated a lowest l/e value at 0.864 for IL111, displaying phase selectivity towards unsaturated FAME, with higher peak capacity within a carbon number isomer group. s and e descriptors calculated from LSER were validated by excellent correlation with dipole moments and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies, with R(2) values of 0.99 and 0.92 respectively, calculated using GAUSSIAN. PMID:24216211

Zeng, Annie Xu; Chin, Sung-Tong; Nolvachai, Yada; Kulsing, Chadin; Sidisky, Leonard M; Marriott, Philip J

2013-11-25

69

Extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and screening of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. for its antimicrobial potential  

PubMed Central

Background: Terminalia chebula is called the “king of medicines” in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing. Objective: Identification, isolation and screening of pyrogallol which are responsible for antimicrobial property of fruits of Terminalia chebula. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction of fruits of Terminalia chebula was subjected to Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the components present in the extract. Results: Sixty four constituents were identified out of which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside flavonoid and Vitamin E has been detected for the first time in fruits of this plant. Pyrogallol (46.26%) which was the major component of the extract in GC-MS analysis was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against selected test pathogens by Disc Diffusion Assay. Crude ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits was showing the same activity potential as was observed for pure pyrogallol which was the major component as per GC-MS analysis. The most sensitive species among the bacteria was Enterobacter aerogenes with highest inhibition zone (IZ = 31 mm; AI = 1.409 ± 0.046) even at minimum inhibitory concentration (0.039 mg/ml). Conclusion: Hence activity shown by crude ethyl acetate fraction might be due to pyrogallol present in the extract. On the basis of results it can be advocate that achieved crude ethyl acetate fraction can be explored for preparing antimicrobial drugs in future for the infectious caused by the pathogens tested in the study.

Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma

2013-01-01

70

High Sensitivity Quantitative Lipidomics Analysis of Fatty Acids in Biological Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Historically considered to be simple membrane components serving as structural elements and energy storing entities, fatty acids are now increasingly recognized as potent signaling molecules involved in many metabolic processes. Quantitative determination of fatty acids and exploration of fatty acid profiles have become common place in lipid analysis. We present here a reliable and sensitive method for comprehensive analysis of free fatty acids and fatty acid composition of complex lipids in biological material. The separation and quantitation of fatty acids is achieved by capillary gas chromatography. The analytical method uses pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization and negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatographic procedure provides base line separation between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of different chain lengths as well as between most positional isomers. Fatty acids are extracted in the presence of isotope-labeled internal standards for high quantitation accuracy. Mass spectrometer conditions are optimized for broad detection capacity and sensitivity capable of measuring trace amounts of fatty acids in complex biological samples.

Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron M.; Dennis, Edward A.

2011-01-01

71

Analysis of tetramethylene disulfotetramine in foods using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An automated solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) method for the determination of tetramethylene disulfotetramine in foods was developed. A comparison of direct immersion (DI) and headspace (HS) extraction techniques using a 70microm carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) fiber is presented. The optimized DI-SPME method provided an aqueous extraction limit of detection (LOD) of 9.0ng/g while the HS-SPME LOD was 2.7ng/g. In both SPME modes, recovery was highly matrix dependent and quantification requires standard addition calibrations. Analysis of foods using DI-SPME encountered many obstacles including fiber fouling, low recovery and poor reproducibility. HS-SPME was successfully applied to food analysis with minimal interferences. Standard addition calibration curves for foods gave high linearity (R2>0.98), reproducibility (RSD<12%) and sensitivity with LODs ranging from 0.9 to 4.3ng/g. PMID:18378250

De Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

2008-05-23

72

Hollow-fiber liquid phase microextraction for lignin pyrolysis acids in aerosol samples and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

A method based on three-phase hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction was developed and successfully applied to aerosols for the analysis of lignin pyrolysis acids such as syringic acid, vanillic acid and p-salicylic acid. Important parameters related to extraction process like organic solvent for membrane phase, tri-n-octylphosphine (TOPO) oxide contents in organic solvent, stirring speed, extraction time etc. were optimized. 6-Undecanone with 15% TOPO contents (w/v) was found a suitable solvent for organic liquid membrane, 900 rpm was the optimum stirring speed and time of 4h was found optimum extraction time. Donor phase pH was 1.3 while acceptor phase pH was adjusted to 9.5. The optimized extraction method was used for the extraction of real aerosol samples. Analytes were derivatized using BSTFA containing 1% trimethylsilyl chloride and gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used for analysis. Very low limits of detection in the range 0.2-1.0 ng L(-1) were found, corresponding to 10-50 pg m(-3) of analytes in aerosols. Extraction efficiency obtained ranged 60.3-71.7% and enrichment factors ranged 3015-3585 times. The optimized method was successfully applied to aerosol samples and all of the selected analytes were detected in the analyzed samples. PMID:22749581

Hyder, Murtaza; Jönsson, Jan Åke

2012-08-01

73

Chemical and technical challenges in the analysis of central carbon metabolites by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This review deals with chemical and technical challenges in the analysis of small-molecule metabolites involved in central carbon and energy metabolism via liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The covered analytes belong to the prominent pathways in biochemical carbon oxidation such as glycolysis or the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, for the most part, share unfavorable properties such as a high polarity, chemical instability or metal-affinity. The topic is introduced by selected examples on successful applications of metabolomics in the clinic. In the core part of the paper, the structural features of important analyte classes such as nucleotides, coenzyme A thioesters or carboxylic acids are linked to "problematic hotspots" along the analytical chain (sample preparation and-storage, separation and detection). We discuss these hotspots from a chemical point of view, covering issues such as analyte degradation or interactions with metals and other matrix components. Based on this understanding we propose solutions wherever available. A major notion derived from these considerations is that comprehensive carbon metabolomics inevitably requires multiple, complementary analytical approaches covering different chemical classes of metabolites. PMID:24326023

Siegel, David; Permentier, Hjalmar; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bischoff, Rainer

2014-09-01

74

Alternative method for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of short-chain fatty acids in faecal samples.  

PubMed

Short-chain fatty acids are the major end products of bacterial metabolism in the large bowel. They derive mostly from the bacterial breakdown of carbohydrates and are known to have positive health benefits. Due to the biological relevance of these compounds it is important to develop efficient, cheap, fast, and sensitive analytical methods that enable the identification and quantification of the short-chain fatty acids in a large number of biological samples. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of short-chain fatty acids in faecal samples. These volatile compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate and 4-methyl valeric acid was used as an internal standard. No further cleanup, concentration, and derivatization steps were needed and the extract was directly injected onto the column. Recoveries ranged between 65 and 105%, and no matrix effects were observed. The proposed method has wide linear ranges, good inter- and intraday variability values (below 2.6 and 5.6%, respectively) and limits of detection between 0.49 ?M (0.29 ?g/g) and 4.31 ?M (3.8 ?g/g). The applicability of this analytical method was successfully tested in faecal samples from rats and humans. PMID:22865755

García-Villalba, Rocio; Giménez-Bastida, Juan A; García-Conesa, Maria T; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Carlos Espín, Juan; Larrosa, Mar

2012-08-01

75

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acid profiles of Antarctic and non-Antarctic yeasts.  

PubMed

The fatty acid profiles of Antarctic (n = 7) and non-Antarctic yeasts (n = 7) grown at different temperatures were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Antarctic yeasts were enriched in oleic 18:1 (20-60 %), linoleic 18:2 (20-50 %) and linolenic 18:3 (5-40 %) acids with lesser amounts of palmitic 16:0 (<15 %) and palmitoleic 16:1 (<10 %) acids. The non-Antarctic yeasts (n = 4) were enriched in 18:1 (20-55 %, with R. mucilaginosa at 75-80 %) and 18:2 (10-40 %) with lesser amounts of 16:0 (<20 %), 16:1 (<20 %) and stearic 18:0 (<10 %) acids. By contrast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (n = 3) were enriched in 16:1 (30-50 %) and 18:1 (20-40 %) with lesser amounts of 16:0 (10-25 %) and 18:0 (5-10 %) acids. Principal component analysis grouped the yeasts into three clusters, one belonging to the S. cerevisiae strains (enriched in 16:0, 16:1 and 18:1), one to the other non-Antarctic yeasts (enriched in 18:1 and 18:2) and the third to the Antarctic yeasts (enriched in 18:2 and 18:3). PMID:24819689

Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Tucker, David; Watson, Kenneth

2014-08-01

76

Identification of microorganisms based on headspace analysis of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The identification of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microorganisms may assist in developing a fast and accurate methodology for the determination of pulmonary bacterial infections in exhaled air. As a first step, pulmonary bacteria were cultured and their headspace analyzed for the total amount of excreted VOCs to select those compounds which are exclusively associated with specific microorganisms. Development of a rapid, noninvasive methodology for identification of bacterial species may improve diagnostics and antibiotic therapy, ultimately leading to controlling the antibiotic resistance problem. Two hundred bacterial headspace samples from four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect a wide array of VOCs. Statistical analysis of these volatiles enabled the characterization of specific VOC profiles indicative for each microorganism. Differences in VOC abundance between the bacterial types were determined using ANalysis of VAriance-principal component analysis (ANOVA-PCA). These differences were visualized with PCA. Cross validation was applied to validate the results. We identified a large number of different compounds in the various headspaces, thus demonstrating a highly significant difference in VOC occurrence of bacterial cultures compared to the medium and between the cultures themselves. Additionally, a separation between a methicillin-resistant and a methicillin-sensitive isolate of S. aureus could be made due to significant differences between compounds. ANOVA-PCA analysis showed that 25 VOCs were differently profiled across the various microorganisms, whereas a PCA score plot enabled the visualization of these clear differences between the bacterial types. We demonstrated that identification of the studied microorganisms, including an antibiotic susceptible and resistant S. aureus substrain, is possible based on a selected number of compounds measured in the headspace of these cultures. These in vitro results may translate into a breath analysis approach that has the potential to be used as a diagnostic tool in medical microbiology. PMID:24737039

Boots, A W; Smolinska, A; van Berkel, J J B N; Fijten, R R R; Stobberingh, E E; Boumans, M L L; Moonen, E J; Wouters, E F M; Dallinga, J W; Van Schooten, F J

2014-06-01

77

Trace analysis of explosives in water by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry with a temperature-programmed injector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography—mass spectrometry with a cooled temperature-programmable injector was used to analyze picogram amounts of explosives in water. The analyzed explosives included 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4,6-N-tetranitro-N-methylaniline (Tetryl), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and a series of dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers (which are ingredients of explosives). Thermal decomposition, even in the thermolabile explosives, was minimal. Traces of explosives in water in

Jehuda Yinon

1996-01-01

78

Methods of analysis-Determination of pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 119 pesticides in environmental sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in support of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The pesticides included in this method were chosen through prior prioritization. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides along with degradates are included in this method and span a variety of chemical classes including, but not limited to, chloroacetanilides, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, triazines, and triazoles. Sediment samples are extracted by using an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE®, and the compounds of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences (including sulfur) by passing the extracts through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) along with the use of either stacked graphitized carbon and alumina solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges or packed Florisil®. Chromatographic separation, detection, and quantification of the pesticides from the sediment-sample extracts are done by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg) dry weight ranged from 75 to 102 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 13 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), ranged from 0.6 to 3.4 ?g/kg dry weight.

Hladik, Michelle L.; McWayne, Megan M.

2012-01-01

79

Development and Application of Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Bound Trinitrotoluene Residues in Soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

TNT (trinitrotoluene) is a contaminant of global environmental significance, yet determining its environmental fate has posed longstanding challenges. To date, only differential extraction-based approaches have been able to determine the presence of covalently bound, reduced forms of TNT in field soils. Here, we employed thermal elution, pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to distinguish between covalently bound and noncovalently bound reduced forms of TNT in soil. Model soil organic matter-based matrixes were used to develop an assay in which noncovalently bound (monomeric) aminodinitrotoluene (ADNT) and diaminonitrotoluene (DANT) were desorbed from the matrix and analyzed at a lower temperature than covalently bound forms of these same compounds. A thermal desorption technique, evolved gas analysis, was initially employed to differentiate between covalently bound and added 15N-labeled monomeric compounds. A refined thermal elution procedure, termed "double-shot analysis" (DSA), allowed a sample to be sequentially analyzed in two phases. In phase 1, all of an added 15N-labeled monomeric contaminant was eluted from the sample at relatively low temperature. In phase 2 during high-temperature pyrolysis, the remaining covalently bound contaminants were detected. DSA analysis of soil from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP; ???5000 ppm TNT) revealed the presence of DANT, ADNT, and TNT. After scrutinizing the DSA data and comparing them to results from solvent-extracted and base/acid-hydrolyzed LAAP soil, we concluded that the TNT was a noncovalently bound "carryover" from phase 1. Thus, the pyrolysis-GC/MS technique successfully defined covalently bound pools of ADNT and DANT in the field soil sample.

Weiss, J. M.; Mckay, A. J.; Derito, C.; Watanabe, C.; Thorn, K. A.; Madsen, E. L.

2004-01-01

80

Simultaneous analysis of urinary phthalate metabolites of residents in Korea using isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Phthalates are used in industry products, household items, and medical tools as plasticizers. Human exposure to phthalates has raised concern about its toxicity. In the present study, optimization was conducted for the simultaneous analysis of eight kinds of phthalate metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MiNP, MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP. In order to minimize the matrix effect and to do quantitative analysis, isotope dilution and LLE-GC-MS methods were performed. Urine samples were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted with a mixture of n-hexane and ethyl ether (8:2; v:v), and subsequently derivatized with trimethylsilylation. All eight kinds of analytes showed clear resolution and high reproducibility in GC-MS results. The method detection limit ranged from 0.05 ng/mL to 0.2 ng/mL. Calibration curves were found to be linear from 0.2 to 100 ng/mL with -(2)>0.992. The relative standard deviation of the intraday precision using water and urine ranged from 2.1% to 16.3%. The analysis was performed with urine samples that were collected from adults residing in the Republic of Korea. The analyzed concentration results were compared according to gender and region. As a result, DEHP metabolites showed the highest detected concentration (75.92 ?g/g creatinine, 100%), and MiNP, a metabolite of DiNP, showed the lowest detected concentration (0.42 ?g/g creatinine, 22.5%). On average, female urine (200.76 ?g/g creatinine) had a higher detected concentration of ?8 phthalate metabolites than male urine. Samples from rural regions (211.96 ?g/g creatinine) had higher levels than samples from urban regions. PMID:23928369

Kim, Miok; Song, Na Rae; Choi, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jeongae; Pyo, Heesoo

2014-02-01

81

High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of plant metabolites in brassicaceae.  

PubMed

The Brassicaceae family comprises a variety of plant species that are of high economic importance as -vegetables or industrial crops. This includes crops such as Brassica rapa (turnip, Bok Choi), B. oleracea (cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, etc.), and B. napus (oil seed rape), and also includes the famous genetic model of plant research, Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress). Brassicaceae plants contain a large variety of interesting secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids. These metabolites are also of particular importance due to their proposed positive effects on human health. Next to these well-known groups of phytochemicals, many more metabolites are of course also present in crude extracts prepared from Brassica and Arabidopsis plant material.High-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), especially if combined with a high mass resolution instrument such as a QTOF MS, is a powerful approach to separate, detect, and annotate metabolites present in crude aqueous-alcohol plant extracts. Using an essentially unbiased procedure that takes into account all metabolite mass signals from the raw data files, detailed information on the relative abundance of hundreds of both known and, as yet, unknown semipolar metabolites can be obtained. These comprehensive metabolomics data can then be used to, for instance, identify genetic markers regulating metabolic composition, determine effects of (a)biotic stress or specific growth conditions, or establish metabolite changes occurring upon food processing or storage.This chapter describes in detail a procedure for preparing crude extracts and performing comprehensive HPLC-QTOF MS-based profiling of semi-polar metabolites in Brassicaceae plant material. Compounds present in the extract can be (partially or completely) annotated based on their accurate mass, their MS/MS fragments and on other specific chemical characteristics such as retention time and UV-absorbance spectrum. PMID:22351174

De Vos, Ric C H; Schipper, Bert; Hall, Robert D

2012-01-01

82

Evaluation of fast gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the analysis of lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast and conventional gas chromatography (GC) techniques were applied to nine different lipidic matrices (butter, lard, tallow, and peanut, corn, sunflower, soya, olive, menhaden oils). Simultaneous methylic transesterification was performed on all samples prior to GC analysis. Several practical aspects concerning high speed analysis were investigated, such as the great increase in linear velocity, the use of fast temperature ramps,

Luigi Mondello; Alessandro Casilli; Peter Quinto Tranchida; Rosaria Costa; Biagina Chiofalo; Paola Dugo; Giovanni Dugo

2004-01-01

83

Intube solid-phase microextraction based on hybrid silica monolith coupled to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for automated analysis of ten antidepressants in human urine and plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive and automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction-liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (in-tube SPME\\/LC–MS) method was developed for the analysis of ten antidepressants in urine and plasma. A hybrid organic–inorganic silica monolith with cyanoethyl functional groups was prepared and used as a sorbent for in-tube SPME. Integration of the sample extraction, LC separation and MS detection into a single system permitted direct

Ming-Ming Zheng; Shao-Ting Wang; Wei-Kang Hu; Yu-Qi Feng

84

Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil by Curie point pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, an alternative to conventional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curie point pyrolysis gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py–GC–MS) has been compared with classical extraction procedures (Soxhlet, sonication, KOH digestion, microwave-assisted) followed by GC–MS analysis for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil. In each case, the efficiency of the technique was examined for 16 PAHs included in the US Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant List. The results indicate

S. Buco; M. Moragues; P. Doumenq; A. Noor; G. Mille

2004-01-01

85

Development of solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of volatile organic chemicals in mainstream cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel, simple and efficient method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed to the analysis of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS). Using a simple home-made smoking machine device, extraction and concentration of VOCs in MCS were performed by SPME fiber, and the VOCs adsorbed on fiber

Qing Ye

2008-01-01

86

Application of micro-scale sealed vessel thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the organic analysis of airborne particulate matter: linearity, reproducibility and quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-scale sealed vessel thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (MSSV-TD–GC–MS) has been applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter using the US NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM1649a) urban dust. We make qualitative comparisons with open system desorption and illustrate that caution should be used when using the technique without an open system comparison. We report linear responses over the same particulate

Daniel Waterman; Brian Horsfield; Keith Hall; Steve Smith

2001-01-01

87

Optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of aroma compound in palm sugar ( Arenga pinnata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the optimum sampling temperature, sampling time and types of fibre for the analysis of palm sugar volatile compounds using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sampling temperatures used in this study were 30, 40, 50and 60°C; sampling times were 10, 20, 30 and 40min; and there were four

C. W. Ho; W. M. Wan Aida; M. Y. Maskat; H. Osman

2006-01-01

88

Rapid quality checking of polyethylene water\\/gas-pipelines: a model based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and discriminant analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-five samples taken from polyethylene (PE) water\\/gas-ducts were pyrolyzed (from triplicate to 9-fold analyses) at 700°C for 20 s in an N2 atmosphere using a platinum coil pyrolyzer and a tube cooled in liquid nitrogen. The pyrolyzed products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS), and subjected to discriminant analysis. The samples included intact materials and sections fractured

Guido C Galletti; Paola Bocchini; Francesca Pinelli; Romina Pozzi

2003-01-01

89

Development of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and other rapid screening methods for the analysis of 16 'legal high' cathinone derivatives.  

PubMed

The prevalence of so-called 'legal high' drugs in forensic science drug casework has increased markedly in recent years. This has given rise to both legal and analytical challenges in the identification of these substances. The requirement for validated, reliable and rapid testing methodologies for these compounds is obvious. This work reports the analysis of sixteen synthesised cathinone derivatives encountered in casework using presumptive testing, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24438774

Nic Daeid, Niamh; Savage, Kathleen A; Ramsay, Donna; Holland, Ciara; Sutcliffe, Oliver B

2014-01-01

90

High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of protoberberine alkaloids in medicine herbs.  

PubMed

RP-HPLC is the main method for the analysis of alkaloids. However, peak tailing is a problem that commonly occurs in the separation of alkaloids. In order to overcome this, three kinds of RP columns were compared for the analysis of protoberberine alkaloids in Coptidis Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex in this work. XTerra MS C18 column was the best one which gave the best symmetry factor under the same conditions. With this column, a good separation of the crude extracts of C. Rhizoma and P. Cortex was achieved using 0.1% v/v formic acid buffer and methanol as mobile phase. At the same time, the crude extracts of C. Rhizoma and P. Cortex were analyzed by the LC-ESI-MSn and LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MSn methods. In the analysis of HPLC-ESI/MSn, structures of five protoberberine alkaloids were elucidated, compared to authentic standards, and data from the literature. At the same time, the structure of a novel compound was elucidated. In the HPLC-APCI/ MSn analysis, there was an interesting phenomenon that the relative abundance of the ions M+ and [M + 2]+ was different for different alkaloids. The possible fragmentation pathways of protoberberine alkaloids in APCI/MS analysis were studied for the first time in the present work. PMID:17536728

Ren, Lingling; Xue, Xingya; Zhang, Feifang; Xu, Qing; Liang, Xinmiao

2007-04-01

91

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of DNA Polymerase Reaction Products  

PubMed Central

This unit describes experimental and analytical procedures for characterizing the efficiency and fidelity of translesion DNA synthesis across various DNA damages by DNA polymerases in vitro. This procedure utilizes primer extension assays followed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of the extension products. Detailed explanations for the analysis of the LC-MS/MS data for deciphering the nucleotide sequences of the DNA fragments are also presented. This approach provides a significant improvement over conventional methods, as it allows detection of misincorporation, as well as frameshift products.

Chowdhury, Goutam; Guengerich, F. Peter

2013-01-01

92

APPLICATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY TO ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with nass spectronetry (MS) is described for the analysis of samples for environmental pollutants. uring the course of this work different techniques were used to increase both the sensitivity and specificity of HPLC/MS. hese ...

93

PRECOLUMN SAMPLE ENRICHMENT DEVICE FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANICS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) identification of air pollutants generally requires a preconcentration step to provide sufficient sample for analysis. Cryogenic trapping is often used to enrich the sample since nitrogen and oxygen are not condensed. It does, howeve...

94

Analysis of Origanum vulgare volatiles by direct thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile components of samples of a population of Spanish Origanum vulgare have been analyzed by direct thermal desorption coupled to GC–MS. The method is fast and reliable and requires a low amount of sample, allowing analysis of leaves and flowers from a single individual plant. Volatile yield is highly variable among individual plants and concentration also presents a high variation

M. A Garc??a; J Sanz

2001-01-01

95

Carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric methane by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Less than 15 min are required for the determination of delta C(sub PDB)-13 with a precision of 0.2 ppt(1 sigma, single measurement) in 5-mL samples of air containing CH4 at natural levels (1.7 ppm). An analytical system including a sample-introduction unit incorporating a preparative gas chromatograph (GC) column for separation of CH4 from N2, O2, and Ar is described. The 15-min procedure includes time for operation of that system, high-resolution chromatographic separation of the CH4, on-line combustion and purification of the products, and isotopic calibration. Analyses of standards demonstrate that systematic errors are absent and that there is no dependence of observed values of delta on sample size. For samples containing 100 ppm or more CH4, preconcentration is not required and the analysis time is less than 5 min. The system utilizes a commercially available, high-sensitivity isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For optimal conditions of smaple handling and combustion, performance of the system is within a factor of 2 of the shot-noise limit. The potential exists therefore for analysis of samples as small as 15 pmol CH4 with a standard deviation of less than 1 ppt.

Merritt, Dawn A.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, David J.

1995-01-01

96

Chemometric Analysis of Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry Data using Fast Retention Time Alignment via a Total Ion Current Shift Function  

SciTech Connect

A critical comparison of methods for correcting severely retention time shifted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data is presented. The method reported herein is an adaptation to the Piecewise Alignment Algorithm to quickly align severely shifted one-dimensional (1D) total ion current (TIC) data, then applying these shifts to broadly align all mass channels throughout the separation, referred to as a TIC shift function (SF). The maximum shift varied from (-) 5 s in the beginning of the chromatographic separation to (+) 20 s toward the end of the separation, equivalent to a maximum shift of over 5 peak widths. Implementing the TIC shift function (TIC SF) prior to Fisher Ratio (F-Ratio) feature selection and then principal component analysis (PCA) was found to be a viable approach to classify complex chromatograms, that in this study were obtained from GC-MS separations of three gasoline samples serving as complex test mixtures, referred to as types C, M and S. The reported alignment algorithm via the TIC SF approach corrects for large dynamic shifting in the data as well as subtle peak-to-peak shifts. The benefits of the overall TIC SF alignment and feature selection approach were quantified using the degree-of-class separation (DCS) metric of the PCA scores plots using the type C and M samples, since they were the most similar, and thus the most challenging samples to properly classify. The DCS values showed an increase from an initial value of essentially zero for the unaligned GC-TIC data to a value of 7.9 following alignment; however, the DCS was unchanged by feature selection using F-Ratios for the GC-TIC data. The full mass spectral data provided an increase to a final DCS of 13.7 after alignment and two-dimensional (2D) F-Ratio feature selection.

Nadeau, Jeremy S.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

2010-04-15

97

Accurate analysis of trace earthy-musty odorants in water by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of trace earthy-musty compounds including geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2,3,4-trichloroanisole, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, and 2,3,6-trichloroanisole in water samples. This method combined headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and used naphthalene-d(8) as internal standard. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber exposing at 90°C for 30 min provided effective sample enrichment in HS-SPME. These compounds were separated by a DB-1701MS capillary column and detected in selected ion monitoring mode within 12 min. The method showed a good linearity from 1 to 100 ng L(-1) and detection limits within (0.25-0.61 ng L(-1)) for all compounds. Using naphthalene-d(8) as the internal standard, the intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) was within (2.6-3.4%), while the inter-day RSD was (3.5-4.9%). Good recoveries were obtained for tap water (80.5-90.6%), river water (81.5-92.4%), and lake water (83.5-95.2%) spiked at 10 ng L(-1). Compared with other methods using HS-SPME for determination of odor compounds in water samples, this present method had more analytes, better precision, and recovery. This method was successfully applied for analysis of earthy-musty odors in water samples from different sources. PMID:22740259

Ma, Kang; Zhang, Jin Na; Zhao, Min; He, Ya Juan

2012-06-01

98

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Chromotography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analysis used in many laboratory testing situations. This laboratory exercise explains this method and uses this method to analyse DMSO. This exercise includes images and screenshots, as well as group discussion questions and questions for individual exploration of mass spectrometry online. Users may download this experiment in Microsoft Word doc file format.

Solow, Mike

2013-07-19

99

Analysis of polysulfides in drinking water distribution systems using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sulfide and polysulfides are strong nucleophiles and reducing agents that participate in many environmentally significant processes such as the formation of sulfide minerals and volatile organic sulfur compounds. Their presence in drinking water distribution systems are of particular concern and need to be assessed, since these species consume disinfectants and dissolved oxygen, react with metal ions to produce insoluble metal sulfides, and cause taste and odour problems. The analysis of sulfide and polysulfides in drinking water distribution systems is challenging due to their low concentrations, thermal instability and their susceptibility to undergo oxidation and disproportionation reactions. This paper reports on the development and optimisation of a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for the determination of sulfide and polysulfides in drinking water distribution systems. The method uses methyl iodide to derivatize sulfide and polysulfides into their corresponding dimethyl(poly)sulfides, which are then extracted using solid-phase microextraction in the headspace mode and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Good sensitivity was achieved for the analysis of dimethyl(poly)sulfides, with detection limits ranging from 50 to 240 ng L(-1). The method also demonstrated good precision (repeatability: 3-7%) and good linearity over two orders of magnitude. Matrix effects from raw drinking water containing organic carbon (3.8 mg L(-1)) and from sediment material from a drinking water distribution system were shown to have no interferences in the analysis of dimethyl(poly)sulfides. The method provides a rapid, robust, and reliable mean to analyse trace levels of sulfides and polysulfides in aqueous systems. The new method described here is more accessible and user-friendly than methods based on closed-loop stripping analysis, which have been traditionally used for the analysis of these compounds. The optimised method was used to analyse samples collected from various locations in a drinking water distribution system. Some of the samples were shown to contain inorganic polysulfides, and their presence was associated with high sediment density in the system and the absence of disinfectant residual in the bulk water. PMID:20708191

Kristiana, Ina; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia; Sathasivan, Arumugam

2010-09-17

100

Solid-phase microextraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of insecticides in honey.  

PubMed

An approach based on solid-phase microextraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS) has been developed for determining 12 insecticides (bromophos ethyl, chlorpyrifos methyl, chlorpyrifos ethyl, diazinon, fenoxycarb, fonofos, phenthoate, phosalone, pirimiphos methyl, profenofos, pyrazophos, and temephos) in honey. The influence of several parameters on the efficiency of the SPME was systematically investigated. Under optimal conditions, the procedure provided excellent linearity (>0.990), detection and quantification limits (between 0.001 and 0.1 microg g(-1) and between 0.005 and 0.5 microg g(-1), respectively), and precision (<19% at the quantification limits and from 6 to 14% at ten times higher concentrations). However, recoveries were not so good, ranging from 19 to 92%. Honey samples were found that were contaminated with bromophos ethyl, diazinon, fonofos, pirimiphos ethyl, pyrazophos, and temephos at estimated concentrations from 6.2 +/- 1.2 to 19 +/- 3 ng g(-1). PMID:17852391

Blasco, C; Font, G; Picó, Y

2008-01-01

101

Determination of microbial colonisation in water-damaged buildings using chemical marker analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the microbial contents of building materials subjected to water damage in a laboratory experiment and of materials collected from houses affected by water during the flood in Klodzko in south-western Poland, July 1997. The samples were examined for 3-hydroxy fatty acids, markers of bacterial endotoxin, and ergosterol, marker of fungal biomass. The amounts of both 3-hydroxy fatty acids and ergosterol were higher in materials that had been exposed to water than in unexposed ones. All markers were stable in the building materials for at least 6 weeks at room temperature and could thus be used to reveal microbial contamination even when cultivation results for bacteria and fungi were negative. Direct measurement of 3-hydroxy fatty acids and ergosterol in human environments could be a useful method, e.g. in monitoring indoor air as regards presence of potentially harmful microorganisms and microbial constituents. PMID:10842456

Szponar, B; Larsson, L

2000-03-01

102

Fragmentation study of hexanitrostilbene by ion trap multiple mass spectrometry and analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The fragmentation pathways of three explosive compounds with similar structures, hexanitrostilbene (HNS), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), have been investigated by multiple mass spectrometry (MSn, n = 1, 2, 3) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources. The electron capture mechanism for these compounds in negative ion APCI and ESI mode differs from the usual negative ion mechanism, deprotonation or addition of other species. This was shown for HNS and TNT, which both gave a [M]- anion but not a [M-H]- ion in APCI, and the [M]- anion of HNS was observed in ESI. The quantitative analysis of HNS was performed by liquid chromatography (LC)/ESI-MS, and the results obtained by the internal standard (ISTD) method were compared with those from the external standard (ESTD) method, demonstrating that both quantitation approaches are useful, with good sensitivity, reproducibility and linearity, and ESTD is preferable in routine applications. PMID:16941723

Fu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Shenhua; Gao, Fei; Wen, Dawei; Li, Wei; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

2006-01-01

103

Chemical Composition of Latent Fingerprints by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in which gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used for latent fingerprint extraction and analysis on glass beads or glass slides is conducted. The results determine that the fingerprint residues are gender dependent.

Hartzell-Baguley, Brittany; Hipp, Rachael E.; Morgan, Neal R.; Morgan, Stephen L.

2007-01-01

104

Quantitative Analysis of Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine ("Tetramine") Spiked into Beverages by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Validation by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, commonly known as tetramine, is a highly neurotoxic rodenticide (human oral LD{sub 50} = 0.1 mg/kg) used in hundreds of deliberate food poisoning events in China. Here we describe a method for quantitation of tetramine spiked into beverages, including milk, juice, tea, cola, and water and cleaned up by C8 solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Quantitation by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was based upon fragmentation of m/z 347 to m/z 268. The method was validated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in SIM mode for ions m/z 212, 240, and 360. The limit of quantitation was 0.10 {micro}g/mL by LC/MS/MS versus 0.15 {micro}g/mL for GC/MS. Fortifications of the beverages at 2.5 {micro}g/mL and 0.25 {micro}g/mL were recovered ranging from 73-128% by liquid-liquid extraction for GC/MS analysis, 13-96% by SPE and 10-101% by liquid-liquid extraction for LC/MS/MS analysis.

Owens, J; Hok, S; Alcaraz, A; Koester, C

2008-11-13

105

Rapid analysis of tile industry gaseous emissions by ion mobility spectrometry and comparison with solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present paper reports on a rapid method for the analysis of gaseous emissions from ceramic industry, based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as a means for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during tile baking. IMS was calibrated with a set of reference compounds (i.e. ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane, 1,3-dioxolane, 1,4-dioxane, benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, acetone, acetic acid) via air-flow permeation. The technique was tested on a laboratory-scale kiln and tiles prepared with selected glycol- and resin-based additives. Finally, the analytical method was applied to emissions from two industries in the Modena (Italy) ceramic area. The results of all experimental phases were compared to those obtained by solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS). IMS showed potential as a real-time monitoring device for quality assessment in ceramic industry emissions. IMS spectra, SPME/GC/MS data, relationship between additives/baking conditions and produced VOCs and advantages and limitations of both techniques will be discussed. PMID:17133278

Pozzi, R; Bocchini, P; Pinelli, F; Galletti, G C

2006-12-01

106

Screening and confirmatory analysis of beta-agonists, beta-antagonists and their metabolites in horse urine by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the screening and confirmatory analysis of beta-agonists and -antagonists in equine urine is described. Following initial enzymic hydrolysis, the basic drugs and metabolites are extracted using Clean Screen DAU or Bond Elut Certify cartridges, and analysed as their trimethylsilyl ether or 2-(dimethyl) silamorpholine derivatives by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method proved to be very sensitive and selective for basic drugs. After administration of therapeutic doses of propranolol, metoprolol, timolol, isoxsuprine and clenbuterol to thoroughbred horses, the parent compound/metabolites could be detected in urine for upto 14-120 h depending on the drug. PMID:1874855

Dumasia, M C; Houghton, E

1991-04-01

107

Analysis of 3-O-sulfo group-containing heparin tetrasaccharides in heparin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Complete heparin digestion with heparin lyase 2 affords a mixture of disaccharides and resistant tetrasaccharides with 3-O-sulfo group-containing glucosamine residues at their reducing ends. Quantitative online liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of these resistant tetrasaccharides is described in this article. The disaccharide and tetrasaccharide compositions of seven porcine intestinal heparins and five low-molecular-weight heparins were analyzed by this method. These resistant tetrasaccharides account for from 5.3 to 7.3wt% of heparin and from 6.2 to 8.3wt% of low-molecular-weight heparin. Because these tetrasaccharides are derived from heparin's antithrombin III-binding sites, we examined whether this method could be applied to estimate the anticoagulant activity of heparin. The content of 3-O-sulfo group-containing tetrasaccharides in a heparin correlated positively (r=0.8294) to heparin's anticoagulant activity. PMID:24680753

Li, Guoyun; Yang, Bo; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Xue, Changhu; Linhardt, Robert J

2014-06-15

108

Direct analysis of intact glycidyl fatty acid esters in edible oils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Glycidyl esters (GE), fatty acid esters of glycidol, are process contaminants formed during edible oil processing. A novel direct method for the determination of intact GE in oils and fats based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The method consists of a simple extraction step of GE from the lipid matrix, purification of the extract and isolation of GE by normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC). Individual GE in the final fraction are separated and quantified by standard GC-MS operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The setup and conditions of the GC-MS were optimized in such a way that thermal degradation of GE and artifact formation were prevented. The method exhibits very good performance parameters: the limit of detection was approximately 0.01 mg/kg for the individual GE (corresponding to 0.002-0.003 mg/kg of free glycidol), the repeatability was in the range of 5-12% for individual GE at levels above 0.1mg/kg, and recovery values ranged from 85 to 115% depending on the level and the chain identity of the GE. The comparison of experimental values with spiked levels and with the results obtained by other methods confirmed a good trueness. Over a period of several months of extensive use the method was found to be very reliable and rugged. PMID:23891377

Steenbergen, Herrald; Hrn?i?ík, Karel; Ermacora, Alessia; de Koning, Sjaak; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

2013-10-25

109

Development of analysis of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances in indoor air using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The study attempts to utilize thermal desorption (TD) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for determination of indoor airborne volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), including four fluorinated alcohols (FTOHs), two fluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and two fluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Standard stainless steel tubes of Tenax/Carbograph 1 TD were employed for low-volume sampling and exhibited minimal breakthrough of target analytes in sample collection. The method recoveries were in the range of 88-119% for FTOHs, 86-138% for FOSAs, exhibiting significant improvement compared with other existing air sampling methods. However, the widely reported high method recoveries of FOSEs were also observed (139-210%), which was probably due to the structural differences between FOSEs and internal standards. Method detection limit, repeatability, linearity, and accuracy were reported as well. The approach has been successfully applied to routine quantification of targeted PFASs in indoor environment of Singapore. The significantly shorter sampling time enabled the observation of variations of concentrations of targeted PFASs within different periods of a day, with higher concentration levels at night while ventilation systems were shut off. This indicated the existence of indoor sources and the importance of building ventilation and air conditioning system. PMID:22494639

Wu, Yaoxing; Chang, Victor W-C

2012-05-18

110

Effects of microcystins on broccoli and mustard, and analysis of accumulated toxin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptides and protein phosphatase inhibitors produced by many species of cyanobacteria. MCs have been shown to cause adverse effects on animals as well as plants and therefore methods are needed for analysing MCs in different matrices. We assessed the effects of MC exposure on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and mustard (Sinapis alba) by watering the seedlings with water containing 0, 1 or 10 microgMCsL(-1) (concentrations typically found in natural waters). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence were investigated, but the only distinct difference compared to control plants was a slight (<10%) growth inhibition seen in broccoli. Afterwards the MC concentration of selected plant samples was quantitated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the four MC variants present in the exposure mixture, only MC-LR was clearly detectable, and the toxin was found only in the roots of broccoli and mustard. The detected MC-LR concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 2.6ng (g fresh weight)(-1). PMID:17275870

Järvenpää, Suvi; Lundberg-Niinistö, Catharina; Spoof, Lisa; Sjövall, Olli; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Meriluoto, Jussi

2007-05-01

111

Quantitative ester analysis in cachaca and distilled spirits by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl octanoate, and ethyl laurate in cachaca, rum, and whisky by direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method is simple, selective, and appropriated for the determination of esters in distilled spirits. The limit of detection ranged from 29 (ethyl hexanoate) to 530 (ethyl acetate) microg L(-1), whereas the standard deviation for repeatability was between 0.774% (ethyl hexanoate) and 5.05% (isoamyl octanoate). Relative standard deviation values for accuracy vary from 90.3 to 98.5% for ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate, respectively. Ethyl acetate was shown to be the major ester in cachaca (median content of 22.6 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol), followed by ethyl lactate (median content of 8.32 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol). Cachaca produced in copper and hybrid alembic present a higher content of ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate than those produced in a stainless-steel column, whereas cachaca produced by distillation in a stainless-steel column present a higher content of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl laurate. As expected, ethyl acetate is the major ester in whiskey and rum, followed by ethyl lactate for samples of rum. Nevertheless, whiskey samples exhibit ethyl lactate at contents lower or at the same order of magnitude of the fatty esters. PMID:18570431

Nascimento, Eduardo S P; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

2008-07-23

112

Toward understanding molecular heterogeneity of polysorbates by application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with computer-aided data analysis.  

PubMed

Polysorbates (PS) are widely used as oil-in-water emulsifiers, stabilizers, wetting agents, solubilizers, and dispersants in the agricultural, food, personal care, and pharmaceutical industries due to their cost effectiveness, biocompatibility, formulation flexibility, low toxicity, and good stabilizing and protecting properties. The polysorbates are often pictured as polyoxyethylated sorbitan monoesters of saturated and/or unsaturated fatty acids. In reality, polysorbates are complex mixtures of multiple components, as follows from the reactions involved in their production. In this work, we report a novel application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the characterization of polysorbates. This method takes advantage of accurate mass measurements and information on the identity of a fatty acid from "in-source" generated characteristic dioxolanylium ions. The method allowed us to perform quick profiling of fatty acids in PS 20 and 80 which, combined with a computer-aided peak assignment algorithm, facilitated detailed characterization of their constituents. As a major finding, we determined that different samples of PS 20 varied from 0% to 15% in relative amounts of unsaturated oleic acid. Although the consequences of this difference were not fully evaluated in this work, one might expect that PS 20 with larger amounts of oleic acid will be more prone to autoxidation, thus potentially having greater impact on the oxidative degradation of the biotherapeutics it formulates. PMID:21491950

Borisov, Oleg V; Ji, Junyan A; Wang, Y John; Vega, Felix; Ling, Victor T

2011-05-15

113

Rapid chemical profiling of saponins in the flower buds of Panax notoginseng by integrating MCI gel column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

The flower buds of Panax notoginseng (Notoginseng flower, FBP) are used as the traditional Chinese medicine San-Qi-Hua. In this study, we conducted column chromatography fractionation and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to comprehensively profile bioactive notoginseng saponins (ginsenosides) in FBP. MCI gel column chromatography allowed separation and enrichment of minor saponins. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of [M-H](-) and [M+Na](+) precursor ions of the saponins provided reliable structural information for the sapogenin, and sequence of sugar chains. Confirmed by high-accuracy Q-TOF analysis, 170 notoginseng saponins were characterized from FBP, and 91 of them were reported from Panax species for the first time. The new ginsenosides contain acyl groups on ?-chain, malonyl group at 20-OH, or di-malonyl groups. This study also indicated that the flower buds of P. notoginseng contained more protopanaxadiol-type but less protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides than the roots. PMID:23561171

Yang, Wen-Zhi; Bo, Tao; Ji, Shuai; Qiao, Xue; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

2013-08-15

114

Analysis of quazepam and its metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to a forensic case.  

PubMed

A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of quazepam and two of its metabolites, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam, in human urine was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with an Rtx-5MS capillary column. The quazepam and its metabolites were extracted from human urine using a simple solid-phase extraction Oasis(®) HLB cartridge column, and the 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam was derivatised using BSTFA/1%TMCS and pyridine at 60 °C for 30 min. The mass spectrometric detection of the analytes was performed in the full scan mode, m/z 60-480, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, m/z 386, for quazepam; m/z 342, for 2-oxoquazepam; m/z 429, for 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam-TMS; and m/z 284, for alprazolam-d5 (internal standard), by electron ionization. The calibration curves of quazepam and its metabolites in urine showed good linearity in the concentration range of 2.5-500 ng/0.2 ml of urine. The average recoveries of quazepam and its metabolites from 0.2 ml of urine containing 500 ng and 50 ng of each drug were 71-83% and 88-90%, respectively. The limits of detection of quazepam, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-quazepam in urine by the selected ion monitoring mode were 0.096-0.37 ng/ml. This method would be applicable to other forensic biological materials containing low concentrations of quazepam and its metabolites. PMID:23290298

Terada, Masaru; Shinozuka, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Chika; Tanaka, Einosuke; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Kurosaki, Kunihiko

2013-04-10

115

Selective pressurized liquid extraction of estrogenic compounds in soil and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estriol (E3) and bisphenol A (BPA) from soil samples is described. The on-line clean-up of soil by SPLE was achieved using different organic matter retainers, including silica, alumina and Florisil, the most effective being silica. Thus, different amounts of silica, in conjunction with different extraction solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate, isohexane and dichloromethane), either alone or in combination, were used to extract the target chemicals from spiked soil samples. It was shown that 3g silica resulted in satisfactory rates of recovery of target compounds and acetone:dichloromethane (1:3, v/v) was efficient in extracting and eluting estrogenic compounds for SPLE. Variables affecting the SPLE efficiency, including temperature and pressure were studied; the optimum parameters were 60°C and 1500 psi, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method were 0.02-0.37 ng g(-1) for the different estrogenic chemicals studied. The outputs using the proposed method were linear over the range from 0.1 to 120 ng g(-1) for E1, E2, EE2, 0.2-120 ng g(-1) for E3, and 0.5-120 ng g(-1) for BPA. The optimized method was further verified by performing spiking experiments in natural soil matrices; good rates of recovery and reproducibility were achieved for all selected compounds and the method was successfully applied to soil samples from Northeast Scotland, for the determination of the target compounds. PMID:21168548

Zhang, Zulin; Rhind, Stewart M; Kerr, Christine; Osprey, Mark; Kyle, Carol E

2011-01-24

116

Pathway Confirmation and Flux Analysis of Central Metabolic Pathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry? †  

PubMed Central

Flux distribution in central metabolic pathways of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was examined using 13C tracer experiments. Consistent with the current genome annotation and independent evidence from enzyme activity assays, the isotopomer results from both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) indicate the lack of an oxidatively functional tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and an incomplete pentose phosphate pathway. Results from this study suggest that fluxes through both pathways are limited to biosynthesis. The data also indicate that >80% of the lactate was converted to acetate and that the reactions involved are the primary route of energy production [NAD(P)H and ATP production]. Independently of the TCA cycle, direct cleavage of acetyl coenzyme A to CO and 5,10-methyl tetrahydrofuran also leads to production of NADH and ATP. Although the genome annotation implicates a ferredoxin-dependent oxoglutarate synthase, isotopic evidence does not support flux through this reaction in either the oxidative or the reductive mode; therefore, the TCA cycle is incomplete. FT-ICR MS was used to locate the labeled carbon distribution in aspartate and glutamate and confirmed the presence of an atypical enzyme for citrate formation suggested in previous reports [the citrate synthesized by this enzyme is the isotopic antipode of the citrate synthesized by the (S)-citrate synthase]. These findings enable a better understanding of the relation between genome annotation and actual metabolic pathways in D. vulgaris and also demonstrate that FT-ICR MS is a powerful tool for isotopomer analysis, overcoming the problems with both GC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan, Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

2007-01-01

117

Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

Gochman, Nathan; And Others

1979-01-01

118

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomics  

SciTech Connect

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics has become increasingly applied for a broad range of biological applications due to growing capabilities for broad proteome coverage and good accuracy in quantification. Herein, we review the current LC-MS-based quantification methods with respect to their advantages and limitations, and highlight their potential applications.

Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.

2011-07-22

119

Comparative analysis of Pu-erh and Fuzhuan teas by fully automatic headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric methods.  

PubMed

Thirteen Pu-erh teas and 13 Fuzhuan teas obtained from two different production areas in China were profiled using fully automatic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with chemometric methods. A total of 93 aroma components were identified in 26 dark teas; among them, methoxyphenolic compounds (31.77%) were the most abundant components in Pu-erh teas, whereas ketone compounds were the most abundant components (25.42%) in Fuzhuan teas. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that these two types of dark teas could be clearly distinguished according to their chemical characteristics. This study suggested that the proposed strategy could provide a feasible and rapid technique to differentiate dark teas with similar morphological characteristics from different production areas by their volatile composition and relative content. PMID:24512533

Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Li, Changwen; Xu, Yongquan; Liu, Lun; Meng, Qingxiong

2014-02-26

120

Gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry analysis of human skin constituents as heptafluorobutyrate derivatives with special reference to long-chain bases.  

PubMed

The composition of the constituents (monosaccharides, long-chain bases, and fatty acids) found in an ethanol extract of the human skin could be determined, without time-consuming steps of purification, after acid-catalyzed anhydrous methanolysis, followed by the formation of volatile derivatives with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry analysis. Despite the extreme heterogeneity of such extracts, the electron impact analysis of the constituents allowed qualitative and quantitative determinations of monosaccharides, long-chain bases, fatty acids, and alkyl-glycerols. Throughout the different long-chain bases, sphingenines (Sphes), sphinganines, phytosphingosines, and 6-hydroxy-Sphes (6oh-Sphes) can be identified and quantified. Long-chain bases with a chain-length up to 28 carbon atoms can be identified through specific fragmentation patterns in the electron impact mode. Particular attention was drawn to the behavior of compounds of the family of 6oh-Sphes upon acid-catalyzed methanolysis. PMID:11971951

Pons, Alexandre; Timmerman, Philippe; Leroy, Yves; Zanetta, Jean-Pierre

2002-05-01

121

Lamotrigine analysis in plasma by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after conversion to a tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamotrigine (lamictal) is a new anticonvulsant drug recently approved by the FDA for clinical use. Therapeutic monitoring of lamotrigine is useful for patient management (therapeutic range 1–4 ?g\\/ml). Here we describe a gas chromatography–mass spectrometric identification and quantitation of lamotrigine after extraction from human serum and derivatization. Lamotrigine was extracted from alkaline serum with chloroform and derivatized with N-methyl-N-(tert.- butyldimethysilyl)

Amitava Dasgupta; Amy P Hart

1997-01-01

122

Stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of tetramethylene disulfotetramine in food: Method development and comparison to solid-phase microextraction.  

PubMed

A stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS) method for the determination of tetramethylene disulfotetramine is presented. The limits of detection (LOD) of the optimized method was 0.2ngg(-1) for extractions from water and 0.3-2.1ngg(-1) for extractions from foods. Recovery was highly matrix dependent (36-130%) and quantification required standard addition calibrations. Standard addition calibration lines had high linearity (R(2)>0.97) and replicate extractions had good reproducibility (R.S.D.=4.4-9.8%). A comparison of the SBSE method and a previously developed headspace (HS)-solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed. Generally, SBSE provided higher sensitivity with decreased analysis time. PMID:19216873

De Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

2009-03-01

123

Quantitative analysis of major plant hormones in crude plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to measure plant hormones quantitatively is important as plant hormones regulate plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic cues. In this protocol, we describe the quantitative analysis of major plant hormones from crude plant extracts. Plant hormones are determined using reverse-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring. The method provides quantification of most major

Ruth Welti; Xuemin Wang; Xiangqing Pan

2010-01-01

124

Validation of pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative for dual 2H gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 13C gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of glucose.  

PubMed

A reference method to accurately define kinetics in response to the ingestion of glucose in terms of total, exogenous and endogenous glucose is to use stable-isotope-labelled compounds such as 2H and 13C glucose followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) analysis. The use of the usual pentaacetyl (5Ac) derivative generates difficulties in obtaining accurate and reproducible results due to the two chromatographic peaks for the syn and anti isomers, and to the isotopic effect occurring during acetylation. Therefore, the pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative (Aldo) was validated for both isotopes, and compared with the 5Ac derivative. A correction factor including carbon atom dilution (stoichiometric equation) and the kinetic isotopic effect (KIE) was determined. Analytical validation results for the 2H GC/MS and 13C GC/C/IRMS measurements produced acceptable results with both derivatives. When 2H enrichments of plasma samples were < or = 1 mol % excess (MPE), the repeatability (RSD(Aldo Intra assay and Intra day) <0.94%, RSD(5Ac Intra assay and Intra day) <3.29%), accuracy (Aldo <3.4%, 5Ac <29.0%), and stability of the derivatized samples were significantly better when the Aldo derivatives of the plasma samples were used (p < 0.05). When the glucose kinetics were assessed in nine human subjects, after glucose ingestion, the plasma glucose 2H enrichments were identical with both derivatives, whereas the 13C enrichments needed a correction factor to fit together. Due to KIE variation, this correction factor was not constant and had to be calculated for each batch of analyses, to obtain satisfactory results. Mean quantities of exogenous glucose exhibit marked difference (20.9 +/- 1.3g (5Ac) vs. 26.7 +/- 2.5g (Aldo)) when calculated with stoichiometric correction, but fit perfectly when calculated after application of the correction factor (22.1 +/- 1.3g (5Ac) vs. 22.9 +/- 1.9g (Aldo)). Finally, the pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative, used here in GC/C/IRMS for the first time, enables measurement of 2H and 13C enrichments in plasma glucose with a single sample preparation. PMID:19904737

Sauvinet, Valérie; Gabert, Laure; Qin, Du; Louche-Pélissier, Corinne; Laville, Martine; Désage, Michel

2009-12-01

125

Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

2012-01-01

126

Triclosan and methyl-triclosan monitoring study in the northeast of Spain using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryFor the first time, the occurrence of triclosan and its metabolite methyl-triclosan was investigated in a typical Mediterranean area using a two-step methodology based on screening using a magnetic particle immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory analysis by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, 95 environmental samples were analyzed. A commercial immunoassay was assessed for use in the different types of water selected for this study. A large monitoring study was performed on the influent and the effluent of eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), water samples from Ebro and Llobregat rivers, and drinking water. All wastewater samples tested in this study (influents and effluents) showed the presence of triclosan, with concentrations for raw influents being high (10 ?g/L as average value). The percentages of triclosan removal for the WWTPs were evaluated (30-70%) along the different treatment processes showing that the best removal rates were obtained by the processes equipped with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, important concentrations of triclosan were detected even after treatment by MBRs. The presence of this biocide was confirmed in 50% of the river samples analyzed. Twenty two drinking water samples from the Barcelona city area were investigated, and in this case no triclosan was detected. Due to its properties and the widespread usage of triclosan, there is a need for monitoring and controlling the amounts present in wastewater effluents, river water, drinking water catchments areas, and drinking water. To this end, we present a feasible methodology using a magnetic particle-based immunoassay as a screening, followed by confirmatory analysis using solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS).

Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Asperger, Danijela; Rubio, Fernando; González, Susana; López de Alda, Maria J.; Petrovi?, Mira; Shelver, Weilin L.; Barceló, Damià

2008-10-01

127

Steroid Profiling by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Adrenal Diseases  

PubMed Central

The ability to measure steroid hormone concentrations in blood and urine specimens is central to the diagnosis and proper treatment of adrenal diseases. The traditional approach has been to assay each steroid hormone, precursor, or metabolite using individual aliquots of serum, each with a separate immunoassay. For complex diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adrenocortical cancer, in which the assay of several steroids is essential for management, this approach is time consuming and costly, in addition to using large amounts of serum. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry profiling of steroid metabolites in urine has been employed for many years but only in a small number of specialized laboratories and suffers from slow throughput. The advent of commercial high-performance liquid chromatography instruments coupled to tandem mass spectrometers offers the potential for medium- to high-throughput profiling of serum steroids using small quantities of sample. Here, we review the physical principles of mass spectrometry, the instrumentation used for these techniques, the terminology used in this field and applications to steroid analysis.

McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Matthew, Susan

2012-01-01

128

A METHOD FOR AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF 10 ML WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING ACIDIC, BASIC, AND NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILE COMPOUNDS LISTED IN USEPA METHOD 8270 BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Data is presented showing the progress made towards the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the single run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of acid, base and neutral compounds...

129

Assessment of a new method for the analysis of decomposition gases of polymers by a combining thermogravimetric solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

For analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products of polymers, the common techniques are thermogravimetry, combined with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These methods offer a simple approach to the decomposition mechanism, especially for small decomposition molecules. Complex spectra of gaseous mixtures are very often hard to identify because of overlapping signals. In this paper a new method is described to adsorb the decomposition products during controlled conditions in TGA on solid-phase extraction (SPE) material: twisters. Subsequently the twisters were analysed with thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS), which allows the decomposition products to be separated and identified using an MS library. The thermoplastics polyamide 66 (PA 66) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were used as example polymers. The influence of the sample mass and of the purge gas flow during the decomposition process was investigated in TGA. The advantages and limitations of the method were presented in comparison to the common analysis techniques, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS. PMID:24929909

Duemichen, E; Braun, U; Senz, R; Fabian, G; Sturm, H

2014-08-01

130

Pathway of diethyl phthalate photolysis in sea-water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific isotope analysis.  

PubMed

The degradation mechanism of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in natural seawater under UV irradiation was investigated using a combination of intermediates detection and determination of stable carbon isotopic fractionation. Typical intermediates identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and phthalic anhydride. Stable carbon isotope signature was determined by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry through a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS). A profound (13)C enrichment, with a ?(13)C isotope shift of 12.3±0.3‰ (f=0.09) in residual DEP molecule, was clearly an indicator to its photolysis. The reactive position isotope enrichment factor (?(reactive position)) and apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) were -35.25±2.26‰ and 1.075, respectively, indicating that the initial reaction step was cleavage of a CO bond in DEP photolysis. Based on these observations, a degradation pathway was proposed. First, a CO bond in DEP molecule was broken to form MEP. Then, MEP was further degraded to phthalic anhydride. Our work demonstrates that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), when combined with intermediates analysis, is a reliable measure to deduce the mechanism of DEP photolysis. This approach might be extended as a reference for mechanism investigation in complicated environment systems. PMID:22883110

Peng, Xuewei; Feng, Lijuan; Li, Xianguo

2013-01-01

131

Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling techniques to the analysis of heathland plant diets of sheep.  

PubMed

Little is known about how plant biochemistry influences the grazing behavior of animals consuming heterogeneous plant communities. The biochemical profiles of grassland species are mostly restricted to major nutritional characteristics, although recent developments in analytical techniques and data analysis have made possible the detailed analysis of minor components that may influence animal feeding preferences, performance, and health. In the present study, gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) was used to profile the abundances of metabolites in nine specific heathland plant groups and in three mixed forage diets containing 10, 20, or 30% heather (Calluna vulgaris) and also in plasma and feces from sheep offered one of the three diets. Statistical and chemometric approaches, that is, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), were used to discriminate between these diets and between individual animals maintained on these diets. It is shown that GC-TOF/MS analysis of sheep plasma allowed distinction between the very similar diets by PCA and HCA, and, moreover, the plant metabolites responsible for the differences observed have been identified. Furthermore, metabolite markers of herbage mixtures and individual plant groups have been identified, and markers have been detected in sheep plasma and feces. PMID:17249687

Parveen, Ifat; Moorby, Jon M; Fraser, Mariecia D; Allison, Gordon G; Kopka, Joachim

2007-02-21

132

[Analysis of volatile and non-volatile compositions in ginger oleoresin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Ginger oleoresin was extracted from Zingiber officinale Rose. var. Laiwudajiang by the technique of supercritical fluid extraction. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry technique were employed to analyze the ginger oleoresin. This analysis resulted in the detection of 3 hitherto unknown natural compounds, 24 compounds previously reported as pungent compounds and 50 volatile compounds from ginger. The volatile compounds were mainly alpha-zingiberene (22.29%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (8.58%), alpha-farnesene (3.93%), beta-bisabolene (3.87%), alpha-curcumene (2.63%), which were mostly consisted of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The pungent compounds of ginger were mainly 6-gingerol (9.38%), 6-shogaol (7.59%), zingerone (9.24%) produced by the thermal degradation of gingerols or shogaols. The mass spectral fragmentation patterns for the three new compounds (6-isogingerol, (Z)-10-isoshogaol, (E)-10-isoshogaol) are discussed and interpreted. PMID:19253546

Zhan, Kunyou; Wang, Chao; Xu, Kun; Yin, Hongzong

2008-11-01

133

Analysis of urinary oligosaccharides in lysosomal storage disorders by capillary high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Many lysosomal storage diseases are characterized by an increased urinary excretion of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides that are characteristic for the underlying enzymatic defect. Here, we have used capillary high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) hyphenated to mass spectrometry to analyze free oligosaccharides from urine samples of patients suffering from the lysosomal storage disorders fucosidosis, ?-mannosidosis, G(M1)-gangliosidosis, G(M2)-gangliosidosis, and sialidosis. Glycan fingerprints were registered, and the patterns of accumulated oligosaccharides were found to reflect the specific blockages of the catabolic pathway. Our analytical approach allowed structural analysis of the excreted oligosaccharides and revealed several previously unpublished oligosaccharides. In conclusion, using online coupling of HPAEC with mass spectrometric detection, our study provides characteristic urinary oligosaccharide fingerprints with diagnostic potential for lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:22526647

Bruggink, Cees; Poorthuis, Ben J H M; Deelder, André M; Wuhrer, Manfred

2012-06-01

134

Analysis of cantharidin in false blister beetles (Coleoptera: Oedemeridae) by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method was developed to determine a type of terpenoid named as cantharidin in the false blister beetles, family Oedemeridae. The experimental parameters for HS-SPME method were optimized. Six commercial fibers for HS-SPME method development were tested and the divinylbenzene\\/carboxene\\/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was selected to provide the best detection of analyzed

Ali Mehdinia; Mina Asiabi; Ali Jabbari; S. Mohammad Abtahi

2011-01-01

135

Solid phase microextraction of alkenylbenzenes and other flavor-related compounds from tobacco for analysis by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some constituents found in natural flavorings are known to exhibit toxic properties. We developed a rapid method for quantifying 12 flavor-related compounds in cigarette tobacco using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Using selected ion monitoring, we quantified and positively identified coumarin; pulegone; piperonal and nine alkenylbenzenes, including trans-anethole, safrole, methyleugenol and myristicin in one or more brands

Stephen B Stanfill; David L Ashley

1999-01-01

136

Analysis of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV filters in soils and sediments by simultaneous extraction cleanup and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for the determination of UV filters in soil and sediment has been developed and validated considering benzophenones (BP) and salicylates as target analytes. Soil and sediment samples were extracted with ethyl acetate–methanol (90:10, v\\/v) assisted with sonication, performing a simultaneous clean-up step. Quantification of these compounds was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after derivatization of

Consuelo Sánchez-Brunete; Ester Miguel; Beatriz Albero; José L. Tadeo

2011-01-01

137

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbohydrates in green juices (wild mix grass and alfalfa) from a green biorefinery by gas chromatography \\/ mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green juices from biorefinery original raw material (wild mix grass and alfalfa after wet fractionation and protein separation)\\u000a have been investigated by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The carbohydrates, involved in the green juices, were derivatized\\u000a and identified by both their retention times in the gas chromatogram and EI mass spectra compared to those of pure reference\\u000a compounds. Additionally, chemical ionization mass

Ines Starke; Anja Holzberger; Birgit Kamm; Erich Kleinpeter

2000-01-01

138

Methods for supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry: New approaches  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SFC-MS) provides a significantly enhanced chromatographic efficiency per unit time compared to HPLC, and more than 3000 and 12,000 effective theoretical plates can be obtained with 50..mu..m and 25..mu..m (i.d.) columns, respectively. The mass spectrometer, with the ability to acquire both chemical ionization and electron ionization spectra, provides the basis for obtaining both high sensitivity and selectivity or structural information for identification of unknown materials. (WRF)

Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Udseth, H.R.; Chess, E.K.

1986-09-01

139

Analysis of oligosaccharides derived from heparin by ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Current chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques have limitations for analyzing heparin and heparin oligomers due to their high polarity, structural diversity, and sulfate lability. A rapid method for the analysis of heparin oligosaccharides was developed using ion-pair reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IPRP-UPLC ESI Q-TOF MS). The method utilizes an optimized buffer system containing a linear pentylamine and a unique additive, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), to achieve highly efficient separation together with enhanced mass response of heparin oligosaccharides. Analyses of a heparin oligosaccharide test mixture, dp6 through dp22, reveal that the chromatographic conditions enable baseline resolution of isomeric heparin oligosaccharides (dp6) and produce intact molecular ions with no sulfate losses during mass spectrometric analysis. In addition, the described conditions are amenable to the detection of heparin oligosaccharides in positive ion mode, yield stronger positive ion signals for corresponding oligosaccharides compared to the negative ion mode, and allow identification of structural isomers by an MS/MS approach. Because sensitive detection of oligosaccharides is also achieved with ultraviolet (UV) detection, the method utilizes a dual detection scheme (UV and MS in series) along with IPRP UPLC to simultaneously obtain quantification (UV) and characterization (MS) data for heparin oligosaccharides. The broad potential of this new method is further demonstrated for the analysis of a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) preparation from porcine heparin. This approach will be of particular utility for profiling the molecular entities of heparin materials, as well as for structural variability comparison for samples from various sources. PMID:19344114

Doneanu, Catalin E; Chen, Weibin; Gebler, John C

2009-05-01

140

Cortisol production rates measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Cortisol production rates (FPRs) in physiologic and pathologic states in humans have been investigated over the past 30 years. However, there has been conflicting evidence concerning the validity of the currently accepted value of FPRs in humans (12 to 15 mg/m2/d) as determined by radiotracer methodology. The present study reviews previous methods proposed for the measurement of FPRs in humans and discusses the applications of the first method for the direct determination of 24-hour plasma FPRs during continuous administration of a stable isotope, using a thermospray high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The technique is fast, sensitive, and, unlike gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, does not require derivatization, allowing on-line detection and quantification of plasma cortisol after a simple extraction procedure. The results of determination of plasma FPRs by stable tracer/mass spectrometry are directly in units of mass/time and, unlike radiotracer methods, are independent of any determination of volume of distribution or cortisol concentration. Our methodology offers distinct advantages over radiotracer techniques in simplicity and reliability since only single measurements of isotope ratios are required. The technique was validated in adrenalectomized patients. Circadian variations in daily FRPs were observed in normal volunteers, and, to date, results suggest a lower FRP in normal children and adults than previously believed. 88 references.

Esteban, N.V.; Yergey, A.L. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-04-01

141

Optimization of a sample preparation method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in tobacco by single and multi-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive multiresidue analysis method, comprising 4 7pesticides, was developed and validated in tobacco matrix. The optimized sample preparation procedure in combination with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in selected-ion-monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) mode offered limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in the range of 3-5 and 7.5-15ng/g, respectively, with recoveries between 70 and 119% at 50-100ng/g fortifications. In comparison to the modified QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe method: 2g tobacco+10ml water+10ml acetonitrile, 30min vortexing, followed by dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup), the method performed better in minimizing matrix co-extractives e.g. nicotine and megastigmatrienone. Ambiguity in analysis due to co-elution of target analytes (e.g. transfluthrin-heptachlor) and with matrix co-extractives (e.g. ?-HCH-neophytadiene, 2,4-DDE-linolenic acid) could be resolved by selective multi-dimensional (MD)GC heart-cuts. The method holds promise in routine analysis owing to noticeable efficiency of 27 samples/person/day. PMID:24746872

Khan, Zareen S; Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar; Girame, Rushali; Utture, Sagar C; Gadgil, Manasi; Banerjee, Kaushik; Reddy, D Damodar; Johnson, Nalli

2014-05-23

142

Multidimensional proteomic analysis of photosynthetic membrane proteins by liquid extraction-ultracentrifugation-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The membrane protein components of photosystem I (PSI) and II (PSII) from different species were prefractionated by liquid extraction and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and subsequently analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-ESI-MS) using poly-(styrene-divinylbenzene)-based monolithic capillary columns. The analytical method was shown to be very flexible and enabled the identification of antenna proteins as well as most of the proteins of the reaction center from PSI and PSII in various plant species with few RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analyses necessitating only minor adaptations in the gradients of acetonitrile in 0.05% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid. The membrane proteins, ranging in molecular mass (Mr) from 4196 (I protein) to more than 80,000 (PSI A/B) as well as isoforms were identified on the basis of their intact Mr and comparison with Mr deduced from known DNA or protein sequences. High quality mass spectra enabled the identification and quantitation of the nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated reaction center subunits D1, D2, and CP43 of PSII, containing five to seven membrane-spanning alpha-helices. Because of its high flexibility and suitability for proteins having a very wide range of Mr and hydrophobicities, the method is generally applicable to the analysis of complex mixtures of membrane proteins. PMID:15449339

Huber, Christian G; Walcher, Wolfgang; Timperio, Anna-Maria; Troiani, Sonia; Porceddu, Andrea; Zolla, Lello

2004-12-01

143

Tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester determination by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography were used for tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester quantitation. Several factors determined the differences in tequila volatile profiles obtained by the SPME technique, namely, sampling mode, fiber coating, and fiber exposure time. Each of these factors determined the most suitable conditions for the analysis of volatile profiles in tequila. Volatile extraction consisted of placing 40 mL of tequila in a sealed vial kept at 40 degrees C. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber was immersed in the liquid for 60 min and desorbed for 5 min into the gas chromatograph. The identified volatiles by mass spectrometry were mainly alcohols, esters, and ketones. The calibration curves for ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, and decanoate followed linear relationships with highly significant (p < 0.001) determination coefficients (R2 = 0.99). The coefficients of variation of less than 10% for ethyl ester concentrations indicated that the technique was reproducible. The limits of quantitation for ethyl esters were 0.05 parts per million, which were below the concentration range (0.27-15.03 ppm) found for different tequila samples. Quantitative differences in ethyl esters were found for the four most commonly known tequila types: silver, gold, aged, and extra-aged. PMID:15373393

Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón Fernando; del Carmen Estrada-Montoya, María

2004-09-01

144

Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing.  

PubMed

Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruit juices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruit juices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ?1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described. PMID:21361392

Ehling, Stefan; Cole, Shannon

2011-03-23

145

Recent applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to residue analysis of antimicrobials in food of animal origin.  

PubMed

Residual antimicrobials in food constitute a risk to human health. Although epidemiological data on the real magnitude of their adverse effects are very scarce, they indicate that food could be an important vehicle for evolution and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Public health agencies in many countries rely on detection by mass spectrometry (MS) for unambiguous identification of residues of antimicrobial agents in animal food products for human consumption. The introduction of relatively inexpensive and robust liquid chromatography (LC)-MS systems has given a strong impulse to the development of confirmatory methods for the above medicines in foodstuffs. The initial part of this review, after a brief introduction into the field of antimicrobials, is dedicated to the most important EU regulations and directives for control of residues of these substances in animal products. The main attention in this review is on the sample-treatment and MS detection systems in use today for analysing the most important classes of antimicrobials in various biological matrices (milk, animal tissues, eggs, and honey). As evidenced by this review, reversed-phase LC combined with tandem MS, usually triple-quadrupole MS (QqQMS), is currently the preferred technique in most residue analysis of a single-class of antimicrobials. A recently emerging analytical strategy is that of developing methods for detecting a large variety of veterinary drugs belonging to different classes, including pesticides (multi-class residue analysis). To do this, simple and generic extraction and separation techniques applicable to a broad range of compounds differing in physical and chemical properties have been adopted. Such methods are still based mainly on LC-QqQMS. Emerging alternative MS detection systems are time-of-flight MS, which provides accurate mass of the analyte(s), or Q-linear ion trap (IT) MS that eliminates some limitations of ITMS(n). PMID:19609510

Bogialli, Sara; Di Corcia, Antonio

2009-10-01

146

Water analysis of the sixteen environmental protection agency-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via solid-phase nanoextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The growing concern with a sustainable environment poses a new challenge to analytical chemists facing the routine monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. The new method presented here meets several features of green analytical chemistry. PAHs are extracted from 500?L of water sample with 1mL of a gold nanoparticles aqueous solution and released with 100?L of organic solvents for subsequent analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The relative standard deviations of the overall procedure ranged from 2.4 (acenaphthene) to 7.8% (dibenz[a,h]anthracene). The limits of detection were excellent as well and varied from 4.94 (fluoranthene) to 65.5ngL(-1) (fluorene). The excellent analytical figures of merit, the simplicity of the experimental procedure, the short analysis time and the reduced solvent consumption demonstrate the potential of this approach for the routine monitoring of the sixteen priority pollutants via and environmentally friendly methodology. PMID:24794939

Wilson, Walter B; Hewitt, Udienza; Miller, Mattheu; Campiglia, Andres D

2014-06-01

147

Highly sensitive analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human whole blood using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and highly sensitive method for analysis of derivatized methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in whole blood was developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry electron impact ionization selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-EI-SIM). A whole blood sample, deuterated-MA (d(5)-MA), as an internal standard (IS), tri-n-propylamine and pentafluorobenzyl bromide were placed in a vial. The vial was heated and stirred at 90 degrees C for 30min. Then the extraction fiber of the SPME was exposed at 90 degrees C for 30min in the headspace of the vial while being stirred. The derivatives adsorbed on the fiber were desorbed by exposing the fiber in the injection port of a GC-MS. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.5-1000ng/g for both MA and AM. The time for analysis was about 80min per sample. In addition, this proposed method was applied to two autopsy cases where MA ingestion was suspected. In one case, MA and AM concentrations in the mixed left and right heart blood were 165 and 36.9ng/g, respectively. In the other case, MA and AM concentrations were 1.79 and 0.119 microg/g in the left heart blood, and 1.27 and 0.074 microg/g in the right heart blood, respectively. PMID:11118748

Okajima, K; Namera, A; Yashiki, M; Tsukue, I; Kojima, T

2001-02-01

148

Development of solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of volatile organic chemicals in mainstream cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel, simple and efficient method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to the analysis of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS). Using a simple home-made smoking machine device, extraction and concentration of VOCs in MCS were performed by SPME fiber, and the VOCs adsorbed on fiber were desorbed, and analyzed by GC-MS. The extraction fiber types and the desorption conditions were studied, and the method precision was also investigated. After the investigation, the optimal fiber was divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydemethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), and the optimal desorption condition was 250 degrees C for 3 min. The method precision was from 2% to 11%. Finally, the proposed method was tested by its application of the analysis of VOCs in MCS from 10 brands of cigarettes and one reference cigarette. A total of 70 volatile compounds were identified by the proposed method. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was a simple, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free technique for the determination of VOCs in MCS. PMID:18992893

Ye, Qing

2008-12-12

149

Planar solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in tea by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Efficient clean-up is indispensable for preventing matrix effects in multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food by liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). High-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was recently introduced as a new clean-up concept in residue analysis of pesticides in fruit and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011 [45]). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to completely separate pesticides from matrix compounds and to focus them into a sharp zone, followed by extraction of the target zone by the TLC-MS interface. As rather challenging matrices, tea samples were chosen in this study. Besides chlorophylls and polyphenols, high amount of caffeine is co-extracted resulting in strong matrix effects both in LC-MS and GC-MS. The former HTpSPE procedure was adapted to initial extracts of green and black tea resulting in colorless extracts nearly free of matrix effects and interferences, as shown for seven chemically representative pesticides (acetamiprid, penconazole, azoxystrobin, chlorpyrifos, pirimicarb, fenarimol, and mepanipyrim). LC-MS/MS calibration curves obtained in the range of 0.002-0.5 mg/kg from matrix-matched standards and solvent standards were nearly identical and demonstrated the effectiveness of clean-up by HTpSPE. Mean recoveries determined by LC-MS/MS against solvent standards at spiking levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg ranged between 72 and 114% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.7-4.7% (n=4), while LC-MS measurements of tea samples spiked at 1 mg/kg provided recoveries of 81-104% with RSDs of 1.2-4.9% (n=6). Using LC-MS/MS, the method showed high sensitivity with signal-to-noise ratios>10 for concentrations below 0.002 mg/kg. HTpSPE of one sample was done in a few minutes, while numerous samples were cleaned in parallel at minimal costs with very low sample and solvent consumption. PMID:22981507

Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

2012-10-19

150

Analysis of trace levels of sulfonamide and tetracycline antimicrobials in groundwater and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method has been developed for the trace analysis of two classes of antimicrobials consisting of six sulfonamides (SAs) and five tetracyclines (TCs), which commonly are used for veterinary purposes and agricultural feed additives and are suspected to leach into ground and surface water. The method used solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) with positive ion electrospray. The unique combination of a metal chelation agent (Na2EDTA) with a macroporous copolymer resulted in quantitative recoveries by solid-phase extraction (mean recovery, 98 ?? 12%) at submicrogram-per-liter concentrations. An ammonium formate/formic acid buffer with a methanol/water gradient was used to separate the antimicrobials and to optimize the signal intensity. Mass spectral fragmentation and ionization characteristics were determined for each class of compounds for unequivocal identification. For all SAs, a characteristic m/z 156 ion representing the sulfanilyl fragment was identified. TCs exhibited neutral losses of 17 amu resulting from the loss of ammonia and 35 amu from the subsequent loss of water. Unusual matrix effects were seen only for TCs in this first survey of groundwater and surface water samples from sites around the United States, requiring that TCs be quantitated using the method of standard additions.

Lindsey, M. E.; Meyer, M.; Thurman, E. M.

2001-01-01

151

Quantitation of total homocysteine in human plasma by derivatization to its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Much evidence supports the hypothesis that mild or moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an important and independent risk factor for occlusive vascular diseases. Therefore, the accurate and reliable determination of total plasma homocysteine has gained major importance for risk assessment. Furthermore, it can help in the detection of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. This has prompted us to develop a sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method in order to quantify total homocysteine in human plasma. Prior to chromatography, reduced homocysteine was released from disulfide bonds by incubation with excess dithiothreitol and converted into its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester by derivatization with n-propyl chloroformate. Aminoethylcysteine served as internal standard. The method proved to be highly linear over the entire concentration range examined (corresponding to 0-266 microM homocysteine) and showed intra-assay and inter-assay variation (relative standard deviations) of approximately 5 and 5-10%, respectively. External quality control by comparison with duplicate analysis performed on a HPLC-based system revealed satisfactory correlation. The newly developed GC-MS based method provides simple, reliable and fast quantification of total homocysteine and requires only inexpensive chemicals, which are easy to obtain. PMID:9291598

Sass, J O; Endres, W

1997-08-01

152

Novel biomarkers of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol exposure by ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabonomic analysis of rat urine.  

PubMed

To select early, sensitive biomarkers of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) exposure, a single dose of 30 mg/kg/day 3-MCPD was administered to male Wistar rats for 40 days. Significant elevations of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were observed on day 40, and urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) activities were observed on day 20. Slight renal tubule hydropic degeneration and spermatozoa decreases were observed on day 10. The endogenous metabolite profile of rat urine was investigated by ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). Principal component analysis and partial least-squares enabled clusters to be visualized, with a trend of clustering on day 10 in ESI- and the greatest differences on days 30 and 40. Galactosylglycerol, a marker contributing to the clusters, which had earlier variations than conventional biomarkers and the most significant elevations as compared to other novel biomarkers, was first considered to be an early, sensitive biomarker in evaluating the effect of 3-MCPD exposure. The identification of galactosylglycerol was carried out by beta-Gal catalysis, and the possible mechanism of urine galactosylglycerol variation was elucidated. PMID:20158273

Li, Ying; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Cheng; Li, Kang; Shan, Yu-Juan; Wang, Xi-Jun; Sun, Chang-Hao

2010-06-21

153

Rapid analysis of Fructus forsythiae essential oil by ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation and analytical technique, i.e. ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction (ILAMD-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the analysis of essential oil (EO) in Fructus forsythiae. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were not only used as the absorption medium of microwave irradiation but also as the destruction agent of plant cell walls. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) was chosen as the optimal ILs. Moreover, n-heptadecane (2.0 ?L) was selected as the appropriate suspended solvent for the extraction and concentration of EO. Extraction conditions of the proposed method were optimized using the relative peak area of EO constituents as the index, and the optimal operational parameters were obtained as follows: irradiation power (300 W), sample mass (0.7 g), mass ratio of ILs to sample (2.4), temperature (78°C) and time (3.4 min). In comparison to previous reports, the proposed method was faster and required smaller sample amount but could equally monitor all EO constituents with no significant differences. PMID:24267075

Jiao, Jiao; Ma, Dan-Hui; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

2013-12-01

154

Simultaneous analysis of phthalates, adipate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils using isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for simultaneous determination of 12 priority phthalates, adipate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils by isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID-GC-MS) was developed for fast, accurate and trace analysis. The extraction and clean-up procedures were optimised, and using stable isotope-labelled internal standards for each analyte, relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.92-10.6% and spiked sample recoveries of 80.6-97.8% were obtained. Limits of detection for PAHs were in the range of 0.15-0.77 µg/kg and those for phthalates were in the range of 4.6-10.0 µg/kg. The calibration curves exhibited good linearities with regression coefficients of R(2) ? 0.99. Twelve edible oils were examined to evaluate the efficiency of this method. Among the 12 analytes, dibutyl phthalates (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalates (DEHP), diethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), chrysene (Chry) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) were detected in the range of 1.17-806 µg/kg. PMID:25029399

Oh, Min-Seok; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Moon, Myeong Hee; Lee, Dong Soo; Park, Hyun-Mee

2014-09-01

155

Classification of bacteria by simultaneous methylation-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.  

PubMed

Direct methylation and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were used as a sample preparation technique for classification of bacteria based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. Methanolic tetramethylammonium hydroxide was applied as a dual-function reagent to saponify and derivatize whole-cell bacterial fatty acids into FAMEs in one step, and SPME was used to extract the bacterial FAMEs from the headspace. Compared with traditional alkaline saponification and sample preparation using liquid-liquid extraction, the method presented in this work avoids using comparatively large amounts of inorganic and organic solvents and greatly decreases the sample preparation time as well. Characteristic gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of FAME profiles was achieved for six bacterial species. The difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was clearly visualized with the application of principal component analysis of the GC/MS data of bacterial FAMEs. A cross-validation study using ten bootstrap Latin partitions and the fuzzy rule building expert system demonstrated 87 +/- 3% correct classification efficiency. PMID:20521142

Lu, Yao; Harrington, Peter B

2010-08-01

156

Pyrolysis kinetic and product analysis of different microalgal biomass by distributed activation energy model and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To assess the energy potential of different microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Monoraphidium were selected for studying the pyrolytic behavior at different heating rates with the analytical method of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results presented that Monoraphidium 3s35 showed superiority for pyrolysis at low heating rate. Calculated by DAEM, during the conversion rate range from 0.1 to 0.7, the activation energies of C. sorokiniana 21 were much lower than that of Monoraphidium 3s35. Both C. sorokiniana 21 and Monoraphidium 3s35 can produce certain amount (up to 20.50%) of alkane compounds, with 9-Octadecyne (C18H34) as the primary compound. Short-chain alkanes (C7-C13) with unsaturated carbon can be released in the pyrolysis at 500°C for both microalgal biomass. It was also observed that the pyrolysis of C. sorokiniana 21 released more alcohol compounds, while Monoraphidium 3s35 produced more saccharides. PMID:24835746

Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Juan; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Sun, Yuan

2014-07-01

157

Solid phase extraction with pyrenebutyric acid-bonded silica for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A solid phase extraction (SPE) method using pyrenebutyric acid-bonded silica (PYB) as sorbent was developed to determine 23 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Factors were optimized in SPE procedures including elution solvent, pH, and cartridge burden. The recoveries of 23 PCB congeners were 69.44-111.91% under optimized conditions. Comparisons were also conducted among PYB-SPE, C(18)-SPE and United States Environmental Protection Agency 608 (USEPA608) methods in the analysis of PCBs in sewage water samples. The results showed that the performance of PYB-SPE method was similar with USEPA608 method and better than C(18)-SPE method. Both PYB-SPE and USEPA608 methods were then employed to analyze PCBs in real spiked sewage water samples. The recoveries of PCB congeners determined by PYB-SPE method ranged from 70.6% to 92.4% in real spiked sewage water samples which were identified to be in accordance with USEPA608 method. Limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.06-0.22ngL(-1) for PCB congeners. The optimized PYB-SPE method was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in sewage water samples. PMID:20884041

Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Meng, Diya; Xu, Ying

2010-11-01

158

Analysis of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV filters in soils and sediments by simultaneous extraction cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of UV filters in soil and sediment has been developed and validated considering benzophenones (BP) and salicylates as target analytes. Soil and sediment samples were extracted with ethyl acetate-methanol (90:10, v/v) assisted with sonication, performing a simultaneous clean-up step. Quantification of these compounds was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization of the extracts with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Recoveries from spiked soil samples ranged from 89.8% to 104.4% and they were between 88.4% and 105.3% for spiked sediment samples. The effect of the residence time and soil moisture content on the recovery of these compounds was also studied. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in all cases below 6.1% and the limits of detection (S/N=3) varied from 0.07 to 0.10 ng g(-1) and from 0.11 to 0.28 ng g(-1) for soils and sediments, respectively. The validated method was applied to the analysis of five benzophenone and two salicylate UV filters in soil and sediment samples collected in different areas of Spain. PMID:21636087

Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Ester; Albero, Beatriz; Tadeo, José L

2011-07-15

159

Quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Simple and rapid quantitative determination of fatty-acid-based biofuels is greatly important for the study of genetic engineering progress for biofuels production by microalgae. Ideal biofuels produced from biological systems should be chemically similar to petroleum, like fatty-acid-based molecules including free fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols and fatty alkanes. This study founded a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven free fatty acids, nine fatty acid methyl esters, five fatty acid ethyl esters, five fatty alcohols and three fatty alkanes produced by wild-type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically engineered strain. Data obtained from GC-MS analyses were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. The linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and precision (RSD) of the method were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fatty-acid-based biofuels can be directly determined by GC-MS without derivation. Therefore, rapid and reliable quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria can be achieved using the GC-MS method founded in this work. PMID:21982444

Guan, Wenna; Zhao, Hui; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Cong; Yang, Menglong; Bai, Fali

2011-11-11

160

Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.  

PubMed

A novel method for analysis of essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. using simultaneous ultrasonic nebulization extraction and headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. Experimental parameters, including the kind of suspended solvent, microdrop volume, sample amount, extraction time, enrichment time and salt concentration were examined and optimized. Compared with hydrodistillation (HD), UNE-HS-SDME provides the advantages of a small amount of sample (50 mg), time-saving (20 min), simplicity, cheapness and low toxicity. In addition, UNE-HS-SDME also provided higher enrichment efficiency and sensitivity compared with stirring extraction (SE)-HS-SDME, ultrasonic assistant extraction (UAE) and UNE. Some constituents in the essential oil, were identified and the detection limits for beta-pinene, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene range from 6.67 pLL(-1) to 14.8 pLL(-1). The results indicated that the UNE-HS-SDME is simple and highly efficient extraction and enrichment technique. PMID:19576388

Wang, Lu; Wang, Ziming; Zhang, Huihui; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi

2009-08-01

161

Chemical synthesis of dioxygen-18 labelled omega-/beta-oxidized cysteinyl leukotrienes: analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) C4, LTD4 and LTE4 are potent mediators of anaphylaxis and inflammation. LTE4 is extensively metabolized in man mainly by omega-oxidation followed by subsequent beta-oxidation to more polar and biologically inactive metabolites. This paper describes a method for the synthesis of [1,20-18O2]-carboxy-LTE4, [1,18-18O2]-carboxy-dinor-LTE4, and [1,16-18O2]-carboxy-14,15-dihydro-tetranor-LTE4 starting from the unlabelled dimethyl esters of 20-carboxy-LTA4, 18-carboxy-dinor-LTA4 and 16-carboxy-14,15-dihydro-tetranor-LTA4, respectively, by separate chemical conjugation with cysteine hydrochloride in H2-18O-methanol followed by alkaline hydrolysis with Li18OH. The isotopic purity of the isolated reaction products was 94% at 18O for all three preparations while only 0.3% remained unlabelled as confirmed by negative-ion chemical-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) after their catalytical reduction/desulphurization and derivatization. The 18O2-labelled compounds are demonstrated to be suitable internal standards for quantification by GC-NICI-MS and GC-NICI-tandem MS. We found by GC-NICI-tandem MS that the excretion rate of 20-carboxy-LTE4 is comparable to that of LTE4 (both in nmol/mol creatinine, mean +/- S.E.) in healthy children (26.7 +/- 4.7 vs. 32.0 +/- 6.0, n = 9) and adults (13.9 +/- 1.1 vs. 27.2 +/- 5.4, n = 3). PMID:7663693

Tsikas, D; Fauler, J; Frölich, J C

1995-05-19

162

Performance and Attributes of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Targeted Charge Separation in Quantitative Analysis of Therapeutic Peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we describe a new method, targeted enhanced multiply charged scans (tEMC), for the quantification of therapeutic peptides in tandem mass spectrometry on the linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Therapeutic peptides with chain lengths between eight and 39 amino acid residues and charge states from 2+ to 6+ were used to evaluate and illustrate the method which relies on the ability to separate ions trapped in a linear ion trap according to their charges. In particular, interference from singly charged ions on multiply charged ions can be effectively minimized. The method requires optimization of relatively few parameters, the most important of which being the exit lens barrier (EXB) voltage, thereby offering substantial time saving in a high-throughput quantification environment that currently relies on selected reaction monitoring.

Hao, Changtong; Campbell, J. Larry; Verkerk, Udo H.; Le Blanc, J. C. Yves; Siu, K. W. Michael

2011-01-01

163

Comprehensive chemical analysis of the rhizomes of Drynaria fortunei by orthogonal pre-separation and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of Drynaria fortunei, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is very complicated. In order to separate these chemicals to obtain their structural information, an orthogonal sample enrichment procedure was established. The ethyl acetate extract of D. fortunei was pre-separated by Sephadex LH-20 × polyamide columns to yield 15 fractions. These fractions were analyzed successively using a reversed-phase Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column, coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The method reduced co-elution and enriched minor compounds on the basis of their chemical features. A total of 369 compounds were detected by LC/MSn, compared to less than 50 compounds without pre-separation. The pretreatment facilitated the analytical separation of flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, triterpenoids, phenolic acids, and lignans in D. fortunei, and allowed a comprehensive chemical profiling of these constituents. This method could be applied to other multicomponent herbal extracts. PMID:24549926

Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Liang, Yong-hong; Dong, Jing; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

2014-03-01

164

Derivatization and fragmentation pattern analysis of natural and synthetic steroids, as their trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether derivatives by gas chromatography mass spectrometry: analysis of dissolved steroids in wastewater samples.  

PubMed

This paper reports the extension of our multiresidue analysis (MA) procedure with 18 natural and synthetic steroids; permitting the identification and quantification, in total of 81 pollutants from one solution, by a single injection, as their trimethylsilyl (TMS)-oxime ether/ester derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), within 31 min. As a novelty to the field, basic researches, such as fragmentation pattern analysis and derivatization optimization studies were performed for androsterone, transdehydroandrosterone, transandrosterone, mestranol, dihydrotestosterone, ethinylestradiol, testosterone, norethisterone, estriol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, gestodene, levonorgestrel, etonogestrel, coprostanol, progesterone, cholesterol, medroxy-progesterone-acetate, stigmasterol and ?-sitosterol. Results confirmed that (i) the TMS oxime-ether derivatives of the keto steroids provide from 1.40 times (gestodene) up to 4.25 times (norethisterone) higher responses compared to their TMS-ether ones, and (ii) the distribution of syn/anti oximes is characteristic to the ketosteroid species examined. Based on our optimized mass fragmentation, solid phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization studies separations have been performed in the total ion current (TIC) mode, identification and quantification of compounds have been carried out on the basis of their selective fragment ions. Responses, obtained with derivatized standards proved to be linear (hydroxysteroids), or have been calculated from calibration curves (ketosteroids) in the range of 1.88-750ng/L levels. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) values varied between 1.88ng/L and 37.5ng/L concentrations. The most important practical messages of this work are the high androsterone (0.744-4.28?g/L), transandrosterone (0.138-4.00?g/L), coprostanol (2.11-302?g/L), cholesterol (0.308-41?g/L), stigmasterol (1.21-8.40?g/L) and ?-sitosterol (1.12-11.0?g/L) contents of influent wastewaters. ?-Estradiol (100ng/L) and estriol (54ng/L) were found in one influent sample, only. Reproducibilities, characterized with the relative standard deviation percentages (RSD%) of measurements, varied between 1.73 RSD% (?-estradiol) and 5.4 RSD% (stigmasterol), with an average of 4.82 RSD%. PMID:21367426

Andrási, N; Helenkár, A; Záray, Gy; Vasanits, A; Molnár-Perl, I

2011-04-01

165

Evaluation of solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the headspace analysis of volatile compounds in cocoa products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aroma profile of cocoa products was investigated by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). SPME fibers coated with 100?m polydimethylsiloxane coating (PDMS), 65?m polydimethylsiloxane\\/divinylbenzene coating (PDMS-DVB), 75?m carboxen\\/polydimethylsiloxane coating (CAR-PDMS) and 50\\/30?m divinylbenzene\\/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane on a StableFlex fiber (DVB\\/CAR-PDMS) were evaluated. Several extraction times and temperature conditions were also tested to achieve optimum recovery.

Sylvie Ducki; Javier Miralles-Garcia; Albert Zumbé; Antonio Tornero; David M. Storey

2008-01-01

166

Evaluation of the QuEChERS Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment  

PubMed Central

A method for the determination of pesticide residues in water and sediment was developed using the QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits. The recovery percentages obtained for the pesticides in water at different concentrations ranged from 63 to 116%, with relative standard deviations below 12%. The corresponding results from the sediment ranged from 48 to 115% with relative standard deviations below 16%. The limits of detection for the pesticides in water and sediment were below 0.003 mg L?1 and 0.02 mg kg?1, respectively.

de Macedo, A. N.; Vicente, G. H. L.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

2010-01-01

167

Simultaneous analysis of benzophenone sunscreen compounds in water sample by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous measurement of benzophenone (BP) sunscreen compounds, its derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4?-methylbenzophenone (BP-10), 2-hydroxybenzophenone (2OH-BP), 3-hydroxybenzophenone (3OH-BP) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4OH-BP), in water samples was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ derivatization followed by thermal desorption (TD)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The detection limit is 0.5–2ngL?1 (ppt) for the seven BPs. The

Migaku Kawaguchi; Rie Ito; Hidehiro Honda; Naoyuki Endo; Noriya Okanouchi; Koichi Saito; Yasuo Seto; Hiroyuki Nakazawa

2008-01-01

168

Methods of Analysis - Determination of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Water and Sediment Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 14 pyrethroid insecticides in environmental water and sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in response to increasing concern over the effects of pyrethroids on aquatic organisms. The pyrethroids included in this method are ones that are applied to many agricultural and urban areas. Filtered water samples are extracted for pyrethroids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a microwave-assisted extraction system, and the pyrethroids of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences by passing the extracts through stacked graphitized carbon and alumina SPE cartridges, along with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography (HPLC/GPC). Quantification of the pyrethroids from the extracted water and sediment samples is done using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 10 ng/L ranged from 83 to 107 percent, and recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 ug/kg ranged from 82 to 101 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 9 percent in the water samples and 3 to 9 percent in the sediment samples. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), in water ranged from 2.0 to 6.0 ng/L using GC/MS and 0.5 to 1.0 ng/L using GC/MS/MS. For sediment, the MDLs ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS and 0.2 to 0.5 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS/MS. The matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged for 12 environmental water samples, ranged from 84 to 96 percent, and when averaged for 27 environmental sediment samples, ranged from 88 to 100 percent.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

2009-01-01

169

Simultaneous analysis of 10 trihalomethanes at nanogram per liter levels in water using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass-spectrometry.  

PubMed

Trihalomethanes are predominantly formed during disinfection of water via reactions of the oxidant with natural organic matter. Even though chlorinated and brominated trihalomethanes are the most widespread organic contaminants in drinking water, when iodide is present in raw water iodinated trihalomethanes can also be formed. The formation of iodinated trihalomethanes can lead to taste and odor problems and is a potential health concern since they have been reported to be more toxic than their brominated or chlorinated analogs. Currently, there is no published standard analytical method for I-THMs in water. The analysis of 10 trihalomethanes in water samples in a single run is challenging because the iodinated trihalomethanes are found at very low concentrations (ng/L range), while the regulated chlorinated and brominated trihalomethanes are present at much higher concentrations (above ?g/L). An automated headspace solid-phase microextraction technique, with a programmed temperature vaporizer inlet coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was developed for routine analysis of 10 trihalomethanes i.e. bromo-, chloro- and iodo-trihalomethanes in water samples. The carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber was found to be the most suitable. The optimization, linearity range, accuracy and precision of the method are discussed. The limits of detection range from 1 ng/L to 20 ng/L for iodoform and chloroform, respectively. Matrix effects in treated groundwater, surfacewater, seawater, and secondary wastewater were investigated and it was shown that the method is suitable for the analysis of trace levels of iodinated trihalomethanes in a wide range of waters. The method developed in the present study has the advantage of being rapid, simple and sensitive. A survey conducted throughout various process stages in an advanced water recycling plant showed the presence of iodinated trihalomethanes at ng/L levels. PMID:22494640

Allard, Sebastien; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna

2012-05-18

170

Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the rapid analysis of synthetic polycyclic musks using thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and solvent-free method for the rapid analysis of five synthetic polycyclic musks in water samples is described. The method involves the use of dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-?-SPE) coupled with direct thermal desorption (TD) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in the selected-ion-storage (SIS) mode. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from water sample and the thermal desorption conditions in the GC injection-port were optimized using a central composite design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved immersing 3.2mg of a typical octadecyl (C18) bonded silica adsorbent (i.e., ENVI-18) in a 10mL water sample. After extraction by vigorously shaking for 1.0min, the adsorbents were collected and dried on a filter. The adsorbents were transferred to a micro-vial, which was directly inserted into GC temperature-programmed injector, and the extracted target analytes were then thermally desorbed in the GC injection-port at 337°C for 3.8min. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were determined to be 1.2-3.0ng/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 9% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 74 and 90%. A preliminary analysis of the river water samples revealed that galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the two most common synthetic polycyclic musks present. Using a standard addition method, their concentrations were determined to in the range from 11 to 140ng/L. PMID:23932027

Chung, Wu-Hsun; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

2013-09-13

171

Hydrocarbons and fuels analyses with the supersonic gas chromatography mass spectrometry--the novel concept of isomer abundance analysis.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon analysis with standard GC-MS is confronted by the limited range of volatile compounds amenable for analysis and by the similarity of electron ionization mass spectra for many compounds which show weak or no molecular ions for heavy hydrocarbons. The use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (Supersonic GC-MS) significantly extends the range of heavy hydrocarbons that can be analyzed, and provides trustworthy enhanced molecular ion to all hydrocarbons. In addition, unique isomer mass spectral features are obtained in the ionization of vibrationally cold hydrocarbons. The availability of molecular ions for all hydrocarbons results in the ability to obtain unique chromatographic isomer distribution patterns that can serve as a new method for fuel characterization and identification. Examples of the applicability and use of this novel isomer abundance analysis (IAA) method to diesel fuel, kerosene and oil analyses are shown. It is suggested that in similarity to the "three ions method" for identification purposes, three isomer abundance patterns can serve for fuel characterization. The applications of the Supersonic GC-MS for engine motor oil analysis and transformer oil analysis are also demonstrated and discussed, including the capability to achieve fast 1-2s sampling without separation for oil and fuel fingerprinting. The relatively fast analysis of biodiesel is described, demonstrating the provision of molecular ions to heavy triglycerides. Isomer abundance analysis with the Supersonic GC-MS could find broad range of applications including petrochemicals and fuel analysis, arson analysis, environmental oil/fuel spill analysis, fuel adulteration analysis and motor oil analysis. PMID:18495139

Fialkov, Alexander B; Gordin, Alexander; Amirav, Aviv

2008-06-27

172

An automated method for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing micro-extraction coupled on-line to gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry with in-liner derivatisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing ‘Micro-extraction in packed sorbent’ (MEPS) coupled on-line to in-liner derivatisation-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The ion-pairing reagent served a dual purpose. It was used both to improve extraction yields of the more polar analytes and as the methyl donor in the automated in-liner derivatisation method.

Sonja Peters; Erwin Kaal; Iwan Horsting; Hans-Gerd Janssen

2012-01-01

173

EVALUATION OF PARTICLE BEAM LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLAR SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the initial evaluation of a particle beam liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer for the analysis of polar semivolatile organic compounds in air samples. This study was concentrated on examining and optimizing instrumental operating parameters, evaluating th...

174

Automated and sensitive analysis of 28-epihomobrassinolide in Arabidopsis thaliana by on-line polymer monolith microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

By on-line solid phase microextraction with polymer monolith coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS), an automated and sensitive method for analysis of the endogenous 28-epihomobrassinolide (28-epihomoBR) in Arabidopsis thaliana was developed in this work. Firstly, a poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(MAA-co-EDMA)) monolith was prepared in the capillary and applied in in-tube SPME. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as porogen to adjust the specific surface area and hydrophobicity of the target monolith to get satisfactory permeability, high mechanical strength and good stability. The optimized monolith was then served as extraction medium for analysis of the derivatized 28-epihomoBR in plant samples with the cleanup of matrix and enrichment of desired analyte at the same time. Good linearity was obtained in the linear range of 5-500 ng/L with the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.9996. The limit of detection (S/N=3) of 28-epihomoBR was found to be 2.0 ng/L and the limit of quantification (S/N=10) was 5.0 ng/L. Using this method, the endogenous 0.101 ng/g (FW) 28-epihomoBR was successfully detected from only 400mg A. thaliana samples with satisfactory recovery (80.3-92.1%) and reproducibility (RSD 6.8-9.6%). Comparing with other sample pretreatment methods, this automated on-line SPME-LC-MS method is rapid, sensitive, reproducible and laborsaving. PMID:23915641

Wang, Xin; Ma, Qiao; Li, Min; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Feng, Yuqi; Liu, Huwei

2013-11-22

175

Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.  

PubMed

A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD?0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD?0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). PMID:24548435

Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

2014-03-14

176

Environmentally friendly analysis of emerging contaminants by pressurized hot water extraction-stir bar sorptive extraction-derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work describes the development, optimization, and validation of a new method for the simultaneous determination of a wide range of pharmaceuticals (beta-blockers, lipid regulators…) and personal care products (fragrances, UV filters, phthalates…) in both aqueous and solid environmental matrices. Target compounds were extracted from sediments using pressurized hot water extraction followed by stir bar sorptive extraction. The first stage was performed at 1,500 psi during three static extraction cycles of 5 min each after optimizing the extraction temperature (50-150 °C) and addition of organic modifiers (% methanol) to water, the extraction solvent. Next, aqueous extracts and water samples were processed using polydimethylsiloxane bars. Several parameters were optimized for this technique, including extraction and desorption time, ionic strength, presence of organic modifiers, and pH. Finally, analytes were extracted from the bars by ultrasonic irradiation using a reduced amount of solvent (0.2 mL) prior to derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The optimized protocol uses minimal amounts of organic solvents (<10 mL/sample) and time (?8 h/sample) compared to previous existing methodologies. Low standard deviation (usually below 10%) and limits of detection (sub-ppb) vouch for the applicability of the methodology for the analysis of target compounds at trace levels. Once developed, the method was applied to determine concentrations of these compounds in several types of sample (wastewater, seawater, pore water, and sediment) from Cadiz Bay (SW Spain). To our knowledge, these findings represent the first information available on the presence of some of the target compounds in the marine environment. PMID:23064672

Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

2013-01-01

177

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of di-n-octyl disulfide in a straight oil metalworking fluid: application of differential permeation and Box-Cox transformation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify and quantify an unknown peak in the chromatogram of a very complex mixture, a straight oil metalworking fluid (MWF). The fraction that permeated through a thin nitrile polymer membrane had less mineral oil background than the original MWF did at the retention time of the unknown peak, thus facilitating identification by total ion current (TIC) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The peak proved to be di-n-octyl disulfide (DOD) through retention time and mass spectral comparisons. Quantitation of DOD was by extracted ion chromatogram analysis of the DOD molecular ion (mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 290), and of the m/z 71 ion for the internal standard, n-triacontane. Linear models of the area ratio (y) of these two ions versus DOD concentration showed a systematic negative bias at low concentrations, a common occurrence in analysis. The linear model of y(0.8) (from Box-Cox power transformation) versus DOD concentration showed negligible bias from the lowest measured standard of 1.51 mg/L to the highest concentration tested at 75.5 mg/L. The intercept did not differ statistically from zero. The concentration of DOD in the MWF was then calculated to be 0.398+/-0.034% (w/w) by the internal standard method, and 0.387+/-0.036% (w/w) by the method of standard additions. These two results were not significantly different at p < or = 0.05. The Box-Cox transformation is therefore recommended when the data for standards are non-linear. PMID:16233901

Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

2006-01-01

178

Estimation of brassylic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this work is to estimate Brassylic Acid (BA) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BA is a product obtained from the oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). BA has various applications for making nylons and high performance polymers. BA is a 13 carbon compound with two carboxylic acid functional groups at the terminal end. BA has a long hydrocarbon chain that makes the molecule less sensitive to some of the characterization techniques. Although BA can be characterized by NMR, both the starting material (EA) and products BA and nonanoic acid (NA) have peaks at similar {delta}, ppm values. Hence it becomes difficult for the quick estimation of BA during its synthesis.

Mohammed J. Nasrullah, Erica N. Pfarr, Pooja Thapliyal, Nicholas S. Dusek, Kristofer L. Schiele, Christy Gallagher-Lein, and James A. Bahr

2010-10-29

179

Analysis of faecal neutral sterols in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have increased faecal excretion of cholesterol but a reduction in cholesterol metabolites. It was consequently proposed that the degree of faecal cholesterol degradation could be used as a means of diagnosis. Developments in the extraction and analysis of faecal neutral sterols as well as the accurate means of diagnosing

G. M. Barker; S. Radley; A. Davis; K. D. R. Setchell; N. O'Connell; I. A. Donovan; M. R. B. Keighley; J. P. Neoptolemos

1993-01-01

180

Simultaneous analysis of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, and ecgonine in plasma using an exchange resin and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method is described for the simultaneous analysis of cocaine and the hydrolytic products benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine and ecgonine from plasma (0.25–2 ?g\\/ml). Isopropylecgonine was incorporated as an internal standard. Samples were extracted using a sulfonate cation exchange resin, then derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol. Analytical separations were on a dimethylsilicone capillary column using a temperature program,

C. C. Okeke; J. E. Wynn; K. S. Patrick

1994-01-01

181

Volatile profiles of sparkling wines obtained by three extraction methods and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) show great capacity for organic compound extraction. Here we used these techniques to obtain and characterize a wide range of volatile compounds from aged cava sparkling wine. We also explored the potential application of head space-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) to determine the distinctive volatile compounds of aged cava as this

Joan Bosch-Fusté; Montserrat Riu-Aumatell; Josep M. Guadayol; Josep Caixach; Elvira López-Tamames; Susana Buxaderas

2007-01-01

182

Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based fingerprinting analysis and mass profiling of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dietary supplement raw materials.  

PubMed

Chemical fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify biologically active compounds in botanical dietary supplements is gaining much attention in recent years. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) has been reported to be rich in health-beneficial chemical constituents. We have developed LC/MS based fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify fatty acids, anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin polyphenols in three processed raw materials; non-organic açaí powder (ADSR-1), raw-organic açaí powder (ADSR-2) and freeze-dried açaí powder (ADSR-3) that are used in the preparation of botanical dietary supplements. For LC/MS analysis of fatty acids and non-anthocyanin polyphenols, the açaí samples were extracted sequentially with dichloromethane followed by methanol. To study fingerprinting analysis of anthocyanins, açaí samples were extracted with acidic methanol-water. The LC separation of fatty acids, non-anthocyanin polyphenols and anthocyanins in açaí raw materials was achieved using a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of solvents A (0.1% formic acid in water), and B (0.1% formic acid in methanol). MS experiments were carried out with negative and positive mode electrospray ionization. LC/MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts of (ADSR-1), (ADSR-2) and (ADSR-3) açaí powders have shown to contain fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. Whereas, the fingerprinting analysis of methanol extracts of ADSR-1, ADSR-2 and ADSR-3 led to the identification of phenolic acids, anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenols. The results from our study may be useful for the authentication and quality assessment of açaí dietary supplement raw materials. PMID:23107743

Mulabagal, Vanisree; Calderón, Angela I

2012-09-15

183

The Mars Organic Molecule Analyser : in situ analysis of organic compounds on Mars by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for signs of past or present life is one of the primary goals of the future Mars exploratory missions. With this aim the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars 2016-2018 next coming joint ESA\\/NASA mission is designed to perform the in situ analysis of exobiological organic molecules of exobiological interest in the Martian soil such

Arnaud Buch; Robert Sternberg; Caroline Freissinet; Veronika Pinnick; Cyril Szopa; Patrice Coll; Claude Geffroy-Rodier; Francois Raulin; Fred Goesmann

2010-01-01

184

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry versus liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection in the analysis of phenols in mainstream cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

A new gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) technique for the analysis of hydroxybenzenes (phenols) in mainstream cigarette smoke has been developed. The technique allows the measurement of 24 individual compounds, and the sum of a few other alkyl-dihydroxybenzenes. A critical evaluation is done for the new technique and for an established high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique reported in the literature for the analysis of hydroxybenzenes in cigarette smoke, which uses fluorescence detection. Compared with the HPLC procedure, the new technique has similar accuracy, precision, and robustness. However, the GC/MS procedure allows for a larger number of phenols to be analyzed simultaneously, and eliminates any potential interference that may appear in the HPLC method. Using the GC/MS analysis, it was found that besides the main phenols typically measured in mainstream cigarette smoke such as phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, and cresols, many other phenols that are present at lower levels can be quantitated in mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:17182049

Moldoveanu, Serban C; Kiser, Melissa

2007-02-01

185

Clinical applications of gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article underlines the importance of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for determination of steroids in man. The use of steroids labelled with stable isotopes as internal standard and subsequent analysis by GC–MS yields up to now the only reliable measurement of steroids in serum. Isotope dilution GC–MS is the reference method for evaluation of routine analysis of serum steroid

B. G. Wolthers; G. P. B. Kraan

1999-01-01

186

Analysis of perfluorinated compounds in sewage sludge by pressurized solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are widely used in everyday life and one of the main recipients of these compounds is waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). Due to the structure and physicochemical properties of PFCs, these compounds could be redistributed from influent water to sludge. This work reports a new validated protocol for the analysis of 13 perfluorinated acids, 4 perfluorosulfonates and the perfluorooctanesulfonamide. The present work has been focused to develop a sensitive and robust method for the analysis of 18 PFCs in sewage sludge, based on pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, analytes separation by liquid chromatography and analysis in a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QLiT-MS/MS) working in single reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The final methodology was validated using a blank sewage sludge fortified at different concentration levels. The method limits of detection were ranging in general from 15 to 79 ng/kg. These values were comparable to the decision limit (CC?) and the detection capability (CC?), which were 17-1134 ng/kg and 18-1347 ng/kg, respectively. The percentage of recovery was from 79 to 111% in the most cases at different spiked levels. Finally, the repeatability of the method was in the range 4% (PFOS and PFOA) to 25% (RSD %). In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, 5 sludge samples were analyzed. The results showed that the 18 PFCs were present in all samples. However, the concentrations for most of them were below the limits of quantification. The compound present at higher concentrations was perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), which was in concentrations from 53.0 to 121.1 ?g/kg. The other PFCs were at concentrations between 0.3 and 30.3 ?g/kg. PMID:21377684

Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

2011-07-29

187

Simultaneous analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes by using a derivatisation step and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work presents a new method to analyse simultaneously by GC-MS 31 pesticides from different chemical classes (2,4 D, 2,4 MCPA, alphacypermethrin, bifenthrin, bromoxynil, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, clopyralid, cyprodinil, deltamethrin dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, diflufenican, diuron, fenoxaprop, flazasulfuron, fluroxypyr, ioxynil, isoxaben, mecoprop-P, myclobutanil, oryzalin, oxadiazon, picloram, tau-fluvalinate tebuconazole, triclopyr, trifluralin and trinexapac-p-ethyl). This GC-MS method will be applied to the analysis of passive samplers (Tenax(®) tubes and SPME fiber) used for the evaluation of the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by non-agricultural pesticides. The method involves a derivatisation step for thermo-labile or polar pesticides. Different agents were tested and MtBSTFA (N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide), a sylilation agent producing very specific fragments [M-57], was retained. However, diuron could not be derivatised and the isocyanate product was used for identification and quantification. Pesticides which did not need a derivatisation step were not affected by the presence of the derivatisation agent and they could easily be analysed in mixture with derivatised pesticides. The method can be coupled to a thermal-desorption unit or to SPME extraction for a multiresidue analysis of various pesticides in atmospheric samples. PMID:21962330

Raeppel, Caroline; Nief, Marie; Fabritius, Marie; Racault, Lucie; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

2011-11-01

188

Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.  

PubMed

Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. PMID:24881546

Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

2014-08-01

189

Trace analysis of acidic pharmaceutical residues in waters with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via methylation derivatization.  

PubMed

Acidic pharmaceutical residues are pollutants of emerging concern and are generally monitored by HPLC-MS/MS. However, due to the limited separation efficiency of HPLC column and lack of suitable mass transition for confirmation analysis, some interference may not be separated completely and differentiated from ibuprofen, which may cause the results with interference, especially in sample with complex matrix. The objective of this study is to develop a sensitive and reliable method for the determination of acidic pharmaceutical residues in water samples by GC-MS with better resolution by using methylation derivatization and isotope dilution techniques. TMSDM, a mild reagent, was used as the derivatization reagent coupling with the isotope dilution technique, for the first time, to improve the precision and accuracy of the analytical method to determine the pharmaceutical residues in water. The MDLs for the five acidic organic compounds: ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ketoprofen and diclofenac were from 0.7 to 1.1 ng/L, with recoveries ranging from 93 to 110%. Alternative to the HPLC-MS/MS method, the developed GC-MS protocols provides an additional option for the analysis of acidic pharmaceutical residues in water, with better separation efficiency in reducing interferences from complicated sample matrix, for determination of ibuprofen residues. PMID:21872014

Hu, Ruikang; Yang, Zhaoguang; Zhang, Lifeng

2011-09-30

190

Analysis of anthocyanin pigments in Lonicera (Caerulea) extracts using chromatographic fractionation followed by microcolumn liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins from the fruit Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica (blueberry honeysuckle, Caprifoliaceae) were studied via (semi)preparative chromatographic fractionation followed by MS and ?LC/MS analysis. The extraction procedure was optimized with respect to analytical purposes as well as its potential use for the preparation of nutraceuticals. The highest yield of anthocyanins was obtained using acidified methanol as the extraction medium. A comparable total anthocyanin content was obtained using a mixture of methanol and acetone. However, when Lonicera anthocyanins were in contact with acetone, a condensation reaction occurred to a large extent and related 5-methylpyranoanthocyanins were found. The effect of other extraction media, including ethanol as a "green" solvent, is also discussed. The potential of two fractionation procedures for extract purification differing in their chromatographic selectivity and scale was studied (i.e. using a Sephadex LH-20 gel column and a reversed phase). Fractions obtained by both procedures were used for a detailed analysis. MS and ?LC/MS(2) methods were used for monitoring anthocyanin and 5-methylpyranoderivatives content as well as identifying less common and more complex dyes (dimer of cyanidin-3-hexoside, cyanidin-ethyl-catechin-hexosides, etc.). These more complex dyes are most likely formed during fruit treatment. PMID:21111888

Myjavcová, Renáta; Marhol, Petr; K?en, Vladimír; Simánek, Vilím; Ulrichová, Jitka; Palíková, Irena; Papoušková, Barbora; Lemr, Karel; Bedná?, Petr

2010-12-17

191

Construction of an automated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for the analysis of ambient volatile organic compounds with on-line internal standard calibration.  

PubMed

An automated sampling and enrichment apparatus coupled with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was constructed for the analysis of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A sorbent trap was built within the system to perform on-line enrichment and thermal desorption of VOCs onto GC/MS. In order to improve analytical precision, calibration accuracy, and to safe-guard the long-term stability of this system, a mechanism to allow on-line internal standard (I.S.) addition to the air sample stream was configured within the sampling and enrichment apparatus. A sub-ppm (v/v) level standard gas mixture containing 1,4-fluorobenzene, chloropentafluorobenzene, 1-bromo-4-fluorobenzene was prepared from their pure forms. A minute amount of this I.S. gas was volumetrically mixed into the sample stream at the time of on-line enrichment of the air sample to compensate for measurement uncertainties. To assess the performance of this VOC GC/MS system, a gas mixture containing numerous VOCs at sub-ppb (v/v) level served as the ambient air sample. Various internal standard methods based on total ion count (TIC) and selective ion monitoring (SIM) modes were attempted to assess the improvement in analytical precision and accuracy. Precision was improved from 7-8% RSD without I.S. to 2-3% with I.S. for the 14 target VOCs. Uncertainties in the calibration curves were also improved with the adoption of I.S. by reducing the relative standard deviation of the slope (Sm%) by an average a factor of 4, and intercept (Sb%) by a factor of 2 for the 14 target VOCs. PMID:18405905

Su, Yuan-Chang; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin

2008-08-01

192

Isolation of polyketides from Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta) and their detection by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolic fingerprint analysis.  

PubMed

Prymnesium parvum is a microalga that forms blooms coupled with the presence of potent exotoxins; however, no chemical standards are currently available for the toxins. Streamlined methods are presented for the separation and enrichment of polyketide toxins, prymnesin-1 (prym1) and prymnesin-2 (prym2). Prymnesins were separated by reversed-phase chromatography and detected by positive-mode electrospray ionization MS to generate a unique metabolic fingerprint. More than 10 ions were detected and mass assignments were in agreement with predicted isotopic distributions for the intact compounds and related fragments; ions occurred as multiply protonated species and with common salt adducts. The most prevalent ion was observed at 919.88 m/z, which represents the aglycone [prymagly+2H](2+) backbone structure common to both molecules. Expanded mass spectra for this and related ions were in excellent agreement (<0.5ppm) with empirically derived spectra based on elemental composition and naturally occurring isotopes. These investigations have confirmed the isolation of polyketide prymnesins from whole cells, which heretofore has not been reproduced since their original characterization. Moreover, this study represents the first time these compounds have been verified in aqueous materials. These tools should allow the direct identification and analysis of polyketide prymnesins, which will greatly improve our understanding of these toxins in P. parvum. PMID:23916560

Manning, Schonna R; La Claire Ii, John W

2013-11-15

193

Predication of Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) ranking by volatile profiling using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

The sensory quality ranking of Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) was evaluated and predicted using volatile profiling and multivariate data analyses. The volatile constituents were extracted from tea infusion using vacuum hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC/MS. A quality of green tea could be discriminated to a high or low grade regarding the volatile profile by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). A quality ranking predictive model was developed from the relationship between subjective attributes (sensory quality ranking) and objective attributes (volatile profile) using partial least squares projections to latent structures together with the preprocessing filtering technique, orthogonal signal correction (OSC). Several volatile compounds highly contributed to model prediction were identified as various odor-active compounds, including geraniol, indole, linalool, cis-jasmone, dihydroactinidiolide, 6-chloroindole, methyl jasmonate, coumarin, trans-geranylacetone, linalool oxides, 5,6-epoxy-?-ionone, phytol, and phenylethyl alcohol. The whole fingerprints of these volatile compounds could be possible markers for the overall quality evaluation of green tea beverage. PMID:21664180

Jumtee, Kanokwan; Komura, Hajime; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

2011-09-01

194

Carbon isotope ratio analysis of organic moieties from fossil mummified wood: establishing optimum conditions for off-line pyrolysis extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mummified fossil wood was studied using off-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to reveal detailed insights into the pyrolysis conditions that are needed to obtain simultaneously sufficient amounts of both cellulose and lignin markers for stable carbon isotope analyses. The off-line pyrolysis was applied at a range of temperatures (200, 250 and 300 degrees C) and times (1 and 2 h) to determine the optimum temperature and time that yielded the highest quantity of true markers for lignin and cellulose. Increasing the time from 1 to 2 h had no effect whereas increasing the temperature led to large differences. The products released during the low-temperature pyrolysis were mostly related to thermally labile moieties. Only at 300 degrees C were sufficient amounts of products released that represent true cellulose and lignin building blocks and which could be studied using gas chromatography/combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:12362390

Poole, Imogen; van Bergen, Pim F

2002-01-01

195

Simultaneous Determination of 70 Pesticide Residues in Coffees by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 70 pesticide residues in coffees has been established and validated. The multiresidue analysis of the pesticides in coffees involved extraction with ethyl acetate, clean-up using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE), and subsequent identification and quantification of the selected pesticides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). and then quantified with

Xin Yang; Jing Wang; Hua Zhang; Dechang Xu; Jianwei Qiu; ZhenYu Wang; WeiQiang Cao

2010-01-01

196

Formation of dehydroalanine from mimosine and cysteine: artifacts in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Trimethylsilyation is a chemical derivatization procedure routinely applied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics. In this report, through de novo structural elucidation and comparison with authentic standards, we demonstrate that mimosine can be completely converted into dehydroalanine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine during the trimethylsilyating process. Similarly, dehydroalanine can be formed from derivatization of cysteine. This conversion is a potential interference in GC-MS-based global metabolomics, as well as in analysis of amino acids.

Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O.; Hu, Zeping; Wiedner, Susan D.; Kim, Jong Seo; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.; Zhang, Qibin

2011-08-15

197

Simultaneous determination of dimethylamphetamine and its metabolites in rat hair by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the disposition of dimethylamphetamine (DMAP) and its metabolites, DMAP N-oxide, methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP), from plasma to hair in rats, a simultaneous determination method for these compounds in biological samples using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC–MS-SIM) was developed. As DMAP N-oxide partially degrades to DMAP and MA during GC–MS analysis, it was

Ruri Kikura; Yuji Nakahara; Shigeo Kojima

2000-01-01

198

Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea, L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate,

Fabio Augusto; Antonio Luiz Pires Valente; Eduardo dos Santos Tada; Sandra Regina Rivellino

2000-01-01

199

Compositional analysis of copoly (DL-lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with one-step thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Rapid and precise compositional analysis of copoly (DL-lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) was performed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) combined with one-step hydrolysis and methylation in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Pyrolysis of PLGA with TMAH gave two characteristic products, derivatives of DL-lactic acid and glycolic acid, which directly reflect the average molar composition of PLGA. The analytical results for PLGA samples with various compositional ratios were in good agreement with those obtained by 1H-NMR spectrometry, and the precision was satisfactory. PMID:11217110

Urakami, K; Higashi, A; Umemoto, K; Godo, M; Watanabe, C; Hashimoto, K

2001-02-01

200

Analysis of t-butylphenol acetylene condensed resin with methyl-methine linkages in vulcanized rubber by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed

Methyl-methine linkages of Novolac, a commercially available t-butylphenol acetylene condensed (TBPA) resin, have been identified by recognition of pyrolysis pathways using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/mS) in vulcanized rubber. The diagnostic mass spectrum of t-butylphenol with methyl-methine linkages between phenolic rings was observed at m/z 192, corresponding to 4-t-butyl-2-ethyl-6-methylphenol. Other molecular ions were observed at m/z 178, 164, and 150 in the characteristic pyrolyzates. The ion at m/z 192 in the TBPA resin was observed to be characteristic for methyl-methine linkages between the phenolic groups, and the analytical pyrolysis-GC/mS method was thus able to identify the resin at low levels in vulcanized rubber. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10482900

Kim; Lee

1999-01-01

201

Microwave distillation followed by headspace single drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for fast analysis of volatile components of Echinophora platyloba DC.  

PubMed

To avoid the traditional and time consuming hydrodistillation, the analyses of volatile components in aerial parts of Echinophora platyloba DC was carried out by a simple microwave distillation followed by headspace single drop microextraction (MD-HS-SDME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The headspace volatile compounds were collected after irradiation using a single drop of n-heptadecan. The extraction conditions were optimised using the relative peak areas as index. The chemical composition of the MD-HS-SDME extracts was confirmed according to their retention indexes and mass spectra. Fifty-three components were extracted and identified by using the MD-HS-SDME method. E-?-ocimene (53.81%), R-D-decalactone (12.75%), ?-pinene (6.43%), n-heptanol (6.27%), ?-phellanderne (2.70%) and linalool (1.89%) were the major constituents. PMID:23265484

Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Piryaei, Marzieh; Maassoumi, Sayed Mohammad; Papzan, Abdolhamid

2013-05-01

202

Use of headspace sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in herbal infusions.  

PubMed

A solvent-free method is described for the determination of 10 volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), considered as priority pollutants by the EU, in different herbal infusions using headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The parameters affecting both the extraction and thermal desorption steps in the HSSE were optimized by means of Plackett-Burman designs. Ten millilitres of the herbal infusion was submitted to the HSSE preconcentration in the presence of salt for 4h at 88°C. The use of d(10)-phenanthrene as internal standard not only improved the repeatability of the method but allowed quantification of the samples against external aqueous standards. Detection limits ranged between 11 and 26ngL(-1). PMID:25001331

Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

2014-08-22

203

Simultaneous analysis of benzophenone sunscreen compounds in water sample by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous measurement of benzophenone (BP) sunscreen compounds, its derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-methylbenzophenone (BP-10), 2-hydroxybenzophenone (2OH-BP), 3-hydroxybenzophenone (3OH-BP) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4OH-BP), in water samples was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ derivatization followed by thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The detection limit is 0.5-2 ng L(-1) (ppt) for the seven BPs. The method shows good linearity and the correlation coefficients are equal to or higher than 0.990 for all the analyte. The average recoveries of BPs range from 102.0 to 128.1% (RSD<15.4%, n=6). Trace amounts of BPs in river water samples were determined by the present method. PMID:18550077

Kawaguchi, Migaku; Ito, Rie; Honda, Hidehiro; Endo, Naoyuki; Okanouchi, Noriya; Saito, Koichi; Seto, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

2008-07-25

204

Biotransformation of cyclizine in greyhounds. 1: Identification and analysis of cyclizine and some basic metabolites in canine urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

1. The partial in vivo biotransformation of Marezine [(cyclizine.HCl); 1-diphenylmethyl-4-methylpiperazine hydrochloride] in the racing greyhound and the excretion of the unconjugated and conjugated (Phase II) basic metabolites of cyclizine in canine urine are reported. 2. Using copolymeric bonded mixed-mode solid-phase extraction cartridges, the basic isolates from both unhydrolysed and enzyme hydrolysed urine samples were isolated, derivatized as trimethylsilyl ethers and analysed by positive-ion electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI(+)-GC-MS). Selected samples were analysed by positive-ion methane chemical ionization (CI(+))-GC-MS to aid structure elucidation of the putative metabolites. 3. Cyclizine was the major component excreted in post-administration urine. Five substrate-related basic compounds (M1--> M5) were tentatively identified by EI(+)- and CI(+)-GC-MS. The major Phase I metabolite was identified as norcyclizine [1-diphenylmethylpiperazine] (M1), the other metabolites (M2 --> M5) were tentatively identified as monohydroxylated products based on MS data. 4. Cyclizine and the N(4)-desmethyl metabolite (M1) are excreted unconjugated; the other four hydroxylated metabolites are excreted as Phase II conjugates (glucuronides and/or sulphates). Structures of the putative basic metabolites are presented. At least four other basic metabolites were also detected in post-administration urine, but could not be characterized from GC-MS data. 5. All unhydrolysed post-administration urine samples were analysed by selected ion monitoring EI(+)-GC-MS to quantify cyclizine and norcyclizine (M1) using authentic cyclizine as the analyte and chlorcyclizine as the internal standard. The level of M1 is expressed as 'cyclizine equivalents'. The duration of urinary elimination of cyclizine and M1 was obtained from their excretion profiles. 6. From these studies, cyclizine and norcyclizine (M1) would be the target compounds of choice in the development of screening and confirmatory methods for the detection of cyclizine administration to racing greyhounds. Information on any of the other metabolites may also be of some value for confirmatory analysis. PMID:12396276

Dumasia, M C; Grainger, L; Houghton, E

2002-09-01

205

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in sediment by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 25 alkylated PAH homolog groups in sediment samples is described. The compounds are extracted from sediment by solvent extraction, followed by partial isolation using high-performance gel permeation chromatography. The compounds are identified and uantitated using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The report presents performance data for full-scan ion monitoring. Method detection limits in laboratory reagent matrix samples range from 1.3 to 5.1 micrograms per kilogram for the 28 PAHs. The 25 groups of alkylated PAHs are homologs of five groups of isomeric parent PAHs. Because of the lack of authentic standards, these homologs are reported semiquantitatively using a response factor from a parent PAH or a specific alkylated PAH. Precision data for the alkylated PAH homologs are presented using two different standard reference manuals produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology: SRM 1941b and SRM 1944. The percent relative standard deviations for identified alkylated PAH homolog groups ranged from 1.55 to 6.98 for SRM 1941b and from 6.11 to 12.0 for SRM 1944. Homolog group concentrations reported under this method include the concentrations of individually identified compounds that are members of the group. Organochlorine (OC) pesticides--including toxaphene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organophosphate (OP) pesticides--can be isolated simultaneously using this method. In brief, sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess water and extracted overnight with dichloromethan (95 percent) and methanol (5 percent). The extract is concentrated and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoroethylene syringe filter. The PAH fraction is isolated by quantitatively injecting an aliquot of sample onto two polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel-permeation chromatographic columns connected in series. The compounds are eluted with dichloromethane, a PAH fraction is collected, and a portion of the coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, is separated and discarded. The extract is solvent exchanged, the volume is reduced, and internal standard is added. Sample analysis is completed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer and full-scan acquisition.

Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Schroeder, Michael P.

2004-01-01

206

Analyzing haloacetic acids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are a group of disinfection by-products formed in chlorinated water. Due to their potential health effects and widespread occurrences, HAAs are regulated in drinking water in the United States under a promulgated regulation. To better control the formation of HAAs in drinking water, a reliable and accurate analytical method is needed for HAA monitoring. In the present study, a liquid-liquid microextraction, acidic methanol derivatization, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection method was developed for determining HAAs and dalapon in drinking water. The newly developed method is capable of analyzing all nine HAAs and dalapon at microgram/l levels. The method performance, including the method detection limit (MDL) and spiking recovery, was evaluated. In comparison to EPA Method 552.2, which uses gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD), this GC/MS method gave cleaner baselines and had few interfering peaks. For each of all nine HAAs and dalapon, the MDL was less than 1 microgram/l and the spiking recovery ranged from 73 to 165%. Using the GC/MS method, the run time could also be significantly reduced without compromising the analytical results. Further study is needed to fine-tune this GC/MS based analytical method, especially in the detection of brominated trihaloacetic acids and monochloroacetic acid. PMID:11317908

Xie, Y

2001-04-01

207

CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANICS IN TANNERY EFFLUENTS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Combined high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using a moving belt interface has been used to study extracts from five tannery and leather finishing industry discharges. Liquid chromatographic separation was performed with a Zorbax CN column using a normal phas...

208

Determination of Dihydroqinghaosu in Blood by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sensitive and specific method using packed or capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed for the quantitation of the major active metabolite dihydroqinghaosu (DQHS) of the antimalarial drug artesunic acid in blood. ...

A. D. Theoharides J. M. Halverson M. H. Smyth R. W. Ashmore Z. M. Zhou

1988-01-01

209

Analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor suspended particulate matter by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

People are exposed to multiple pollutants, especially indoors. In the perspective of a cumulative risk assessment, a multi-residue analytical method was developed to assess the contamination of indoor suspended particulate matter by 55 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) including musk fragrances, organochlorines (OCs), organophosphates (OPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), phthalates and pyrethroids. It is based on thermal desorption (TD) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Once the thermal desorption conditions were optimized, the method was validated in terms of quantification limits and accuracy using a standard reference material (SRM 2585). Instrumental quantification limits were 10 pg (some OCs, some pyrethroids, musk fragrances, OPs, PAHs, PBDEs and PCBs), 100 pg (phthalates and other OCs) and 1000 pg (other pyrethroids) corresponding respectively to method quantification limits of 1, 10, and 100 pg/m³ for a sampled air volume of 20 m³. Calibration quadratic curves for ranges of 10-1000, 100-10,000, and 1000-100,000 pg, depending on the substance, exhibit determination coefficients above 0.999. Recoveries were between 61 and 96% for chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, PBDEs and PCBs present in the SRM 2585. A test of the method on indoor particulate matter samples (PM??) collected on quartz fiber filters in French dwellings demonstrated its ability to quantify SVOCs from a small amount of PM. PMID:22840824

Mercier, Fabien; Glorennec, Philippe; Blanchard, Olivier; Le Bot, Barbara

2012-09-01

210

Analysis of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in water by large-volume on-line derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work presents a modified method to analyze chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in water samples. The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Silvex (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid) and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) were used to evaluate the method. The method involves extraction of samples by a graphitized carbon black cartridge, and on-line derivatization in the GC injection port using a large-volume (10-20 microl) direct sample introduction (DSI) device with tetraalkylammonium salts. The analytes were then identified and quantitated by ion-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The large-volume DSI injection-port derivatization technique provides sensitivity, fast and reproducible results for chlorophenoxy acid herbicides residues, to quantitation at 0.1 to 0.2 microg/l in 500-ml water samples. An enhanced characteristic mass chromatogram of molecular ions of butylated chlorophenoxy acid herbicides with a significant chlorine isotope pattern by electron impact ionization MS allows us to determine herbicides residues at trace levels in aqueous samples. Recovery of the herbicide residues in spiked various water samples ranged from 70 to 99% while RSDs ranged from 1 to 13%. PMID:11093646

Ding, W H; Liu, C H; Yeh, S P

2000-10-27

211

Periodic modulation-based stochastic resonance algorithm applied to quantitative analysis for weak liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry signal of granisetron in plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodic modulation-based stochastic resonance algorithm (PSRA) was used to amplify and detect the weak liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) signal of granisetron in plasma. In the algorithm, the stochastic resonance (SR) was achieved by introducing an external periodic force to the nonlinear system. The optimization of parameters was carried out in two steps to give attention to both the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and the peak shape of output signal. By applying PSRA with the optimized parameters, the signal-to-noise ratio of LC-MS peak was enhanced significantly and distorted peak shape that often appeared in the traditional stochastic resonance algorithm was corrected by the added periodic force. Using the signals enhanced by PSRA, this method extended the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of granisetron in plasma from 0.05 and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively, to 0.01 and 0.02 ng/mL, and exhibited good linearity, accuracy and precision, which ensure accurate determination of the target analyte.

Xiang, Suyun; Wang, Wei; Xiang, Bingren; Deng, Haishan; Xie, Shaofei

2007-05-01

212

Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a powerful technique that could be used to elucidate components of a complex mixture while offering the benefits of high-precision quantitative analysis. The natural wintergreen oil is examined for its phenol concentration to determine the level of refining…

Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor

2005-01-01

213

Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber. PMID:10757290

Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

2000-03-17

214

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of biogenic volatile organic compounds emitted by plants.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is one of the most widely used methods for analyzing the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants. Preconcentration of VOCs on the cartridges filled with different adsorbents is a well-accepted method for sampling of headspace. Here, we describe a gas-chromatographic method for determination of different isoprenoids (isoprene, monoterpenes, homoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes). The technique is based on adsorption of compounds of interest on multibed adsorbent cartridges followed by thermodesorption, and detection and analysis by GC-MS. PMID:24777796

Kännaste, Astrid; Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ulo

2014-01-01

215

An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

2011-01-01

216

Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils by flash evaporation\\/pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances in environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, heteroaromatics, elemental sulfur, cyanides, and pyrolysis products of synthetic polymers are among the anthropogenic substances that can be readily detected by this

J. W. de Leeuw; E. W. B. de Leer; J. S. Sinninghe. Damste; P. J. W. Schuyl

1986-01-01

217

Development of a thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determining personal care products in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development of a new analytical method for determining 14 personal care products (PCPs) – nine synthetic musks, four parabens and one insect repellent – in air samples. The method is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, and is rapid, sensitive and drastically reduces the risk of sample contamination. Three

Noelia Ramírez; Rosa Maria Marcé; Francesc Borrull

2010-01-01

218

Development of thermal desorption gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry as a rapid method for ambient particulate characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct thermal desorption gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (TD GC\\/MS) method for air particulate matter (PM) analysis of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds was investigated. This technique uses a specially designed microdesorption GC inlet utilizing an inductively heated ferromagnetic foil with a Curie point temperature suitable for desorption, which can accommodate microgram amounts of material deposited on a thin strip of

Sue Anne N. Sheya

2002-01-01

219

Magnetic nanoparticles of nitrogen enriched carbon (mnNEC) for analysis of pesticides and metabolites in zebrafish by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Nanosized carbon based sorbents have been widely used for separation, enrichment and desalting of biological samples because of their distinguished characteristics. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles of nitrogen enriched carbon (mnNEC) have been developed for enrichment of organochlorine pesticide DDT and metabolite DDE that have been accumulated in zebrafish during the course of environmental exposure. Polymerization of pyrrole was performed in the aqueous suspension of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. Resultant core-shell nanoparticules coated with polypyrrole were then subjected to a process of carbonization under high temperature and nitrogen atmospheric condition. The presence of nitrogen atoms in carbon nanoparticles increases the hydrophilicity and dispersability in aqueous samples. It has been experimentally demonstrated that mnNEC can be effectively dispersed in aqueous samples and rapidly isolated by the application of an external magnetic field. Recoveries of DDT and DDE from water range from 90% to 102% and 85-97% respectively. In combination with Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) experiments of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the detection limit can be down to low ng/mL level. By using mnNEC approach, two interesting results have been found for zebrafish with 60 days exposure to DDT (1 ?g/l). (1) There is higher concentration of DDT (37-143 ng/g) and DDE (173-1108 ng/g) in male zebrafish body tissues than that of female (7-52 ng/g and 146-362 ng/g for DDT and DDE respectively). (2) There is high ratio of DDE/DDT for both female and male zebrafish, implying high environmental persistence and ongoing bioaccumulation. PMID:23328251

Zhou, Youe; Xia, Qian; Ding, Mengjie; Kageruka, Hubert; Jiang, Haiying; Jiang, Yan; Jing, Huifen; Xiao, Xiao; Zhong, Hongying

2013-02-01

220

Analysis of plasticizers and synthetic musks in cosmetic and personal care products by matrix solid-phase dispersion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for the rapid determination of 18 plasticizers (phthalates and adipates), 7 polycyclic musks and 5 nitromusks, which makes a total of 30 targets, in both rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic formulations. The MSPD method was miniaturized and customized to avoid or minimize risks of phthalate contamination and to reduce residues and costs. The amount of sample and extraction solvent employed were 0.1g and 1mL, respectively. The procedure was optimized by means of an experimental design and under the optima conditions it showed satisfactory linearity, repeatability and intermediate precision. LOQs were, in general, in the low ngg(-1), and recoveries were quantitative for all the 18 plasticizers and the 12 fragrances. Twenty-six cosmetic products such as creams, emulsions, lotions, gels for the skin, bath and shower preparations, deodorants, hair-setting, hair-cleansing and hair-conditioning products, shaving products, and sunbathing products, were analyzed. Twenty-five out of thirty targets were detected in the samples. The most frequently found compounds were galaxolide and tonalide reaching concentrations above 0.1% (1000?gg(-1)), and diethyl phthalate (between 0.7 and 357?gg(-1)). The presence of banned substances (Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009) such as dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dimethoxyethyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, diisopentyl phthalate and dipentyl phthalate, musk ambrette and musk tibetene was confirmed in sixteen of the twenty-six personal care products (62%). PMID:23622555

Llompart, Maria; Celeiro, Maria; Pablo Lamas, J; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

2013-06-01

221

Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - determination of organonitrogen herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the isolation of organonitrogen herbicides from natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to remove the herbicides. The cartridges are dried using carbon dioxide, and adsorbed herbicides are removed from the cartridges by elution with 1.8 milliliters of hexaneisopropanol (3:1). Extracts of the eluants are analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of at least three characteristic ions. The method detection limits are dependent on sample matrix and each particular herbicide. The method detection limits, based on a 100-milliliter sample size, range from 0.02 to 0.25 microgram per liter. Recoveries averaged 80 to 115 percent for the 23 herbicides and 2 metabolites in 1 reagent-water and 2 natural-water samples fortified at levels of 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter.

Sandstrom, Mark W.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Zamboni, Jana L.; Foreman, William T.

1992-01-01

222

MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (R823292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with mass spectrometry (MS) is very attractive for the direct identification of analyte molecules, for the possibility of selectivity enhancement, and for the structure confirmation and analysis in a MS-MS mode. The...

223

Screening for post-translational modifications in conotoxins using liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry: an important component of conotoxin discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry has emerged as an important technique for conotoxin analysis due to its capacity for selective, sensitive, information-rich analyses. Using liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry, Conus venom can be fractionated and the peptides surveyed for specific post-translational modifications, indicating those toxin components likely to have an important biological function. With Conus striatus and Conus victoriae venom as models, bromination, carboxylation and

Jennifer A. Jakubowski; Wayne P. Kelley; Jonathan V. Sweedler

2006-01-01

224

Determination of essential oil components of Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss. using simultaneous hydrodistillation-static headspace liquid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for extraction and analysis of volatile compounds of Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss., using simultaneous hydro-distillation and static headspace liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SHD-SHLPME-GCMS) is developed. SHLPME parameters including nature of extracting solvent, headspace volume and design, extraction time, sample weight and microdrop volume were optimized. Comparison of hydro-distillation gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and HD-SHLPME-GCMS showed that

M. Jalali Heravi; H. Sereshti

2007-01-01

225

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with chemometric analysis for determining ¹²C and ¹³C labeled contributions in metabolomics and ¹³C flux analysis.  

PubMed

A novel method for the analysis of nearly co-eluting ¹²C and ¹³C isotopically labeled metabolites has been developed and evaluated for gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. The method utilizes parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) with two-dimensional GC-MS data when sample replicates are aligned and stacked in series to create a three-dimensional data cube for mathematical peak deconvolution and ¹²C and ¹³C contribution isolation, with the intent of increasing the accuracy and precision of quantitative metabolomics and ¹³C flux analysis. The platform is demonstrated with ¹³C-labeled metabolite extracts, generated via biosynthesis, added as an internal standard to unlabeled ¹²C metabolites extracted from the methanol-utilizing bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Eleven representative metabolites that are common targets for flux analysis were chosen for validation. Good quantitative accuracy and precision were acquired for a 5.00 ?M known metabolite concentration (for the 11 metabolites), with an average predicted concentration of 5.07 ?M, and a RSD range of 1.2-13.0%. This study demonstrates the ability to reliably deconvolute ¹²C-unlabeled and ¹³C-labeled contributions for a given metabolite. Additionally, using this chemical analysis platform, a dynamic flux experiment is presented in which the incorporation of ¹³C-labeled cell extract can be detected in the methane-utilizing bacterium Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and measured temporally. PMID:22503618

Yang, Song; Nadeau, Jeremy S; Humston-Fulmer, Elizabeth M; Hoggard, Jamin C; Lidstrom, Mary E; Synovec, Robert E

2012-06-01

226

Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere - Analysis at the parts-per-trillion level by GC-MS. [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propellant gases (Freons) used in aerosol spray cans can diffuse into the earth's upper atmosphere where they can react with the unfiltered ultraviolet radiation from the sun to reduce the earth's protective ozone layer. These Freons have been identified commonly by gas chromatography. Mass spectrometer data confirm other reports on the widespread concentrations of the Freons in the troposphere and demonstrate the presence of Freon 113 which has not been previously identified.

Tyson, B. J.

1975-01-01

227

Determination of mammalian lignans in biological samples by modified gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Lignans in flaxseed have been part of the human diet for centuries. In 1955, the isolation and structure of the lignan derivative secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was reported. The biological role of SDG and mammalian lignan metabolites enterodiol and enterolactone was initially reported 20 years later. Experimental evidences showed the beneficial effects of lignans on breast, colon, and thyroid cancer. A modified gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) assay was developed for lignans in serum and colon samples of rats fed flaxseed meal. The method developed for the analysis of metabolites involves extraction and derivatization of samples and quantitative analysis by selected ion monitoring using GC/MS. The levels of lignan metabolites enterodiol and enterolactone were determined to be 0.013 and 0.23 microM in serum samples and 0.008 and 1.63 microM in colon samples. PMID:17580615

Bommareddy, Ajay; Arasada, Bhanu L; Mathees, Duane P; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

2007-01-01

228

Analytical procedures for quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical research by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Peptide quantification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) combines the high resolving power of reversed-phase (RP) chromatography with the excellent selectivity and sensitivity of mass spectrometric detection. On the basis of comprehensive practical experience in the analysis of small molecules, pharmaceutical research is developing technologies for analysis of a growing number of peptidic drug candidates. This article is a detailed review of procedures based on LC-MS techniques for quantitative determination of peptides. With the focus on pharmaceutical applications several technologies for sample preparation, various aspects of peptide chromatography, important characteristics of ESI-MS, selectivity of MS-detection modes, the large variability of internal standards, and modern instrumentation are discussed. The demand for reliable, robust, sensitive, and accurate methods is discussed using numerous examples from the literature, complemented by experiments and results from our laboratory. PMID:14647953

John, Harald; Walden, Michael; Schäfer, Sandra; Genz, Sandra; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg

2004-02-01

229

Rapid quantification of dimethyl methylphosphonate from activated carbon particles by static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Activated carbon (AC) particles are utilized as an adsorbent for binding hazardous vapors in protective equipment. The binding affinity and utilization of these AC particles should be known to ensure effective and efficient use. Therefore, a simple and effective method was developed for the quantification of the chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), from AC particles. Static headspace gas chromatography mass-spectrometry with internal standard, DMMP-d6, was used to perform the analysis. The method produced a linear dynamic range of 2.48-620g DMMP/kg carbon and a detection limit of 1.24g DMMP/kg carbon. Furthermore, the method produced a coefficient of variation of less than 16% for all intra- and inter-assay analyses. The method provided a simple and effective procedure for quantifying DMMP from AC particles and was applied to the analysis of a DMMP-exposed AC protective respirator filter. PMID:23639122

Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

2013-06-01

230

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

2011-06-24

231

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Profiling of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Epileptic Dogs  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data analysis. Profiles for subjects with idiopathic epilepsy differed significantly from those of healthy controls and subjects with symptomatic epilepsy. Among 60 identified metabolites, the levels of 20 differed significantly among the three groups. Glutamic acid was significantly increased in idiopathic epilepsy, and some metabolites including ascorbic acid were changed in both forms of epilepsy. These findings show that metabolic profiles of CSF differ between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that metabolites including glutamic acid and ascorbic acid in CSF may be useful for diagnosis of canine epilepsy.

HASEGAWA, Tetsuya; SUMITA, Maho; HORITANI, Yusuke; TAMAI, Reo; TANAKA, Katsuhiro; KOMORI, Masayuki; TAKENAKA, Shigeo

2013-01-01

232

[Determination of oxadiazon residues in cereals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

An efficient method with microchemical method and solid phase extraction (SPE) technique for the determination of oxadiazon residues in cereals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been established. The oxadiazon was extracted from the sample with benzene-hexane(1:1, V/V). The extract was cleaned-up by a column of 500 mg Supelclean LC-Alumina-N. When the blank rice and corn were spiked with oxadiazon in the range of 0.005 mg/kg-5.00 mg/kg, the recoveries were 90.4%-115.7% for rice and 81.3-109.7% for corn, and with RSD of 2%-6% and 4%-9% respectively. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg. The method is rapid, sensitive, accurate and suitable for the analysis of pesticide residues. PMID:12541984

Li, Yong-Jun; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Yi, Wei-Liang

2002-03-01

233

Determination of fluoxetine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using stir bar sorptive extraction.  

PubMed

This article presents a method employing stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ derivatization, in combination with either thermal or liquid desorption on-line coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of fluoxetine in plasma samples. Ethyl chloroformate was employed as derivatizing agent producing symmetrical peaks. Parameters such as solvent polarity, time for analyte desorption, and extraction time, were evaluated. During the validation process, the developed method presented specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.99), precision (R.S.D.<15%), and limits of quantification (LOQ) of 30 and 1.37 pg mL(-1), when liquid and thermal desorption were employed, respectively. This simple and highly sensitive method showed to be adequate for the measurement of fluoxetine in typical and trace concentration levels. PMID:18420052

Fernandes, Christian; Van Hoeck, Els; Sandra, Pat; Lanças, Fernando M

2008-05-01

234

Determination of tetrahydrozoline in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is widely used for the symptomatic relief of conjunctival and nasal congestion; however, intentional or unintentional high doses can result in toxicity manifested by hypotension, tachycardia, and CNS depression. The detection of the drug in blood and urine is helpful in the diagnosis and management of a toxic patient. For the analysis, plasma, serum, or urine is added to a tube containing alkaline buffer and organic extraction solvents, and tetrahydrozoline from the sample is extracted into the organic phase by gentle mixing. After centrifugation, the upper organic solvent layer containing the drug is removed and dried under stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue is reconstituted in a hexane-ethanol mixture and analyzed using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitation of the drug is done by comparing responses of unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. Naphazoline is used as an internal standard. PMID:20077102

Peat, Judy; Garg, Uttam

2010-01-01

235

Detecting naphthenic acids in waters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (general formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2)) are water-soluble, toxic compounds found in petroleum and bitumen. Some of the current methods for detecting these acids in waters depend on measuring the presence of the carboxylic acid functional group, and therefore many of these methods also detect naturally occurring carboxylic acids that are not naphthenic acids. We report a procedure that includes liquid-liquid extraction, cleanup, and derivatization to form t-butyldimethylsilyl esters prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Using low- and high-resolution MS to detect the ion C(15)H(27)O(2)Si(+) (nominal m/z=267) is an excellent indicator of the presence of naphthenic acids at concentrations > or =10microgL(-1). PMID:17173926

Merlin, Mireya; Guigard, Selma E; Fedorak, Phillip M

2007-01-26

236

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid from epileptic dogs.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data analysis. Profiles for subjects with idiopathic epilepsy differed significantly from those of healthy controls and subjects with symptomatic epilepsy. Among 60 identified metabolites, the levels of 20 differed significantly among the three groups. Glutamic acid was significantly increased in idiopathic epilepsy, and some metabolites including ascorbic acid were changed in both forms of epilepsy. These findings show that metabolic profiles of CSF differ between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that metabolites including glutamic acid and ascorbic acid in CSF may be useful for diagnosis of canine epilepsy. PMID:24334864

Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Sumita, Maho; Horitani, Yusuke; Tamai, Reo; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Komori, Masayuki; Takenaka, Shigeo

2014-04-01

237

Detection of polar metabolites through the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a highly reproducible and sensitive analytical technique that has had significant use in the area of metabolite profiling. GC-MS is able to detect a wide variety of metabolites, with highly differing chemistries. In general, extracted biological samples are volatilized prior to separation on a capillary column with a stationary phase suited to the analysis of the compounds of interest. Separated compounds are eluted into a mass spectrometer equipped with an electron impact ionization source, thereby generating a quantifiable mass spectral fingerprint. This chapter describes a method for the trimethylsilyl derivatization of polar metabolites, followed by detection and relative quantification using a gas chromatograph coupled to a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. Using this method will enable the profiling of the greatest range of polar metabolites. PMID:23963901

De Souza, David P

2013-01-01

238

Electrospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry fingerprinting of Acanthophis (death adder) venoms: taxonomic and toxinological implications.  

PubMed

Death adders (genus Acanthophis) are unique among elapid snakes in both morphology and venom composition. Despite this genus being among the most divergent of all elapids, the venom has been historically regarded as relatively quite simple. In this study, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis has revealed a much greater diversity in venom composition, including the presence of molecules of novel molecular weights that may represent a new class of venom component. Furthermore, significant variation exists between species and populations, which allow for the LC/MS fingerprinting of each species. Mass profiling of Acanthophis venoms clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique which underpins fundamental studies ranging from chemotaxonomy to drug design. PMID:11870898

Fry, Bryan G; Wickramaratna, Janith C; Hodgson, Wayne C; Alewood, Paul F; Kini, R M; Ho, Hao; Wüster, Wolfgang

2002-01-01

239

DEVELOPMENTS IN DIRECT THERMAL EXTRACTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY OF FINE AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This examines thermal extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TE/GC/MS) applied to aerosols collected on filters. Several different TE/GC/MS systems as a group have speciated hundreds of individual organic constituents in ambient fine aerosols. Molecular marker source ap...

240

PERFORMANCE TESTS FOR THE EVALUATION OF COMPUTERIZED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY EQUIPMENT AND LABORATORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of ten general purpose tests are described which are used to evaluate the performance of computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. All of the tests use the continuous, repetitive measurement of spectra method of data acquisition, and no selected ion moni...

241

Incorporation of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for detection, identification, and quantification of many volatile organic compounds. However, many colleges and universities have not fully incorporated this technique into undergraduate teaching laboratories despite its wide application and ease of use in organic…

Giarikos, Dimitrios G.; Patel, Sagir; Lister, Andrew; Razeghifard, Reza

2013-01-01

242

Simultaneous determination of trichothecene mycotoxins and zearalenone in cereals by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichothecene mycotoxins are commonly distributed in crop fields in the world, and zearalenone has been found in cereals. Rapid and accurate methods for the determination of these mycotoxins is required to prevent the intoxication of humans, and to contribute to the supply of safe foods and feeds for human and livestock. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is a useful method for

Toshitsugu Tanaka; Atsushi Yoneda; Shigeto Inoue; Yoshitsugu Sugiura; Yoshio Ueno

2000-01-01

243

Triple sorbent thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination of vapor phase organic contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thermal desorption/ps chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vapor phase samples using Carbosieve S-III/Carbotrap/Carotrap C triple sorbent traps (TST) similar to thos...

C. Y. Ma J. T. Skeen A. B. Dindal C. E. Higgins R. A. Jenkins

1994-01-01

244

Solidphase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the rapid screening of triazole residues in wine and strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of triazole residues, such as triadimefon, propiconazole, myclobutanil and penconazole. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of strawberries and wine samples. The procedure is solvent-free, simple and highly sensitive. Within-day and day-to-day RSDs ranged between 2–11% and 7–28%, respectively. Detection limits estimated at a

C. G Zambonin; A Cilenti; F Palmisano

2002-01-01

245

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied\\u000a using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA).\\u000a A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty

Sooah Kim; Min Hye Shin; Eun Ju Yun; Hojoung Lee; Kyoung Heon Kim

2011-01-01

246

Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated thermal desorption (ATD)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of selected chemical warfare (CW) agents. Suitable methods were developed for analytes of high volatility to low volatility. The less volatile CW agents required the purchase and installation of a high-temperature valve upgrade kit allowing valve temperatures of up to 260°C to be reached. The limit of

Wendy A. Carrick; David B. Cooper; Bob Muir

2001-01-01

247

Method of determination of some aromatic acids in soil solution from paddy fields by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified method for the determination of benzoic 2-phenylpropionic, 3-phenylpropionic, and 4-phenylbutyric acids in paddy field soils using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a capillary column is described. The entire procedure of this method involves the collection of the soil solution, extraction with chloroform, methylation of the acids with diazo- methane and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In this

Fukuyo Tanaka

1990-01-01

248

Determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in air by solid phase micro-extraction\\/gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to analyse BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) in air by solid phase micro-extraction\\/gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (SPME\\/GC\\/MS), and this article presents the features of the calibration method proposed. Examples of real-world air analysis are given. Standard gaseous mixtures of BTEX in air were generated by dynamic dilution. SPME sampling was carried out under non-equilibrium

Simonetta Tumbiolo; Jean-François Gal; Pierre-Charles Maria; Orfeo Zerbinati

2004-01-01

249

Volatile composition of hybrids Citrus juices by headspace solid-phase micro extraction\\/gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile compounds of Citrus juices have been extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). This work deals with the analysis of 65 cross pollinated hybrid fruits and their parents: mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Willow Leaf) and clementine (Citrus reticulata×Citrus sinensis var. Commune). Among the 44 components identified which

Toussaint Barboni; François Luro; Nathalie Chiaramonti; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

2009-01-01

250

Determination of part-per-trillion levels of atmosphere dimethyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopic dilution was applied to the determination of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in ambient air at the low part-per-trillion by volume (pptrv) levels. Perdeuterated DMS was used as an internal standard in the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination. The isotopically labelled internal standard provided insensitivity to possible losses of DMS in sampling and analysis. The lower limit of detection (LLD) was 1 pptrv with a sample acquisition time of 2 min.

Thornton, Donald C.; Bandy, Alan R.; Ridgeway, Robert G.; Driedger, Arthur R., III; Lalevic, Marija

1990-11-01

251

Identification of a pharmaceutical packaging off-odor using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling technique, in conjunction with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) analysis, to identify an off-odor in a heat-stressed pharmaceutical packaging material is described. The ability of the commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated microfiber to concentrate a trace volatile compound of interest enabled identification of the odor compound of interest. Despite being present at

Scott L Sides; Karen B Polowy; Alan D Thornquest; David J Burinsky

2001-01-01

252

The detection of nicotine in a Late Mayan period flask by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods.  

PubMed

Several ancient Mayan vessels from the Kislak Collection of the US Library of Congress were examined for the presence of alkaloids. One of them, a codex-style flask, bears a text that appears to read yo-'OTOT-ti 'u-MAY, spelling y-otoot 'u-may 'the home of its/his/her tobacco'. Samples extracted from this Late Classic period (600 to 900?AD) container were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods. Nicotine was identified as the major component of the extracts. LC/MS analyses also yielded signals due to nicotine mono-oxides. The identities of the compounds were determined by comparison of the chromatographic and/or mass spectral characteristics with those from standards and literature data. High-resolution high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra of protonated nicotine and nicotine mono-oxides were measured to verify and to correct previous product ion assignments. These analyses provided positive evidence for nicotine from a Mayan vessel, indicating it as a likely holder of tobacco leafs. The result of this investigation is the first physical evidence of tobacco from a Mayan container, and only the second example where the vessel content recorded in a Mayan hieroglyphic text has been confirmed directly by chromatography/mass spectrometry trace analysis. PMID:22279016

Zagorevski, Dmitri V; Loughmiller-Newman, Jennifer A

2012-02-29

253

Detecting trace components in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data sets with two-dimensional wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TWiGS (two-dimensional wavelet transform with generalized cross validation and soft thresholding) is a novel algorithm for denoising liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data for use in "shot-gun" proteomics. Proteomics, the study of all proteins in an organism, is an emerging field that has already proven successful for drug and disease discovery in humans. There are a number of constraints that limit the effectiveness of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for shot-gun proteomics, where the chemical signals are typically weak, and data sets are computationally large. Most algorithms suffer greatly from a researcher driven bias, making the results irreproducible and unusable by other laboratories. We thus introduce a new algorithm, TWiGS, that removes electrical (additive white) and chemical noise from LC-MS data sets. TWiGS is developed to be a true two-dimensional algorithm, which operates in the time-frequency domain, and minimizes the amount of researcher bias. It is based on the traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT), which allows for fast and reproducible analysis. The separable two-dimensional DWT decomposition is paired with generalized cross validation and soft thresholding. The Haar, Coiflet-6, Daubechie-4 and the number of decomposition levels are determined based on observed experimental results. Using a synthetic LC-MS data model, TWiGS accurately retains key characteristics of the peaks in both the time and m/z domain, and can detect peaks from noise of the same intensity. TWiGS is applied to angiotensin I and II samples run on a LC-ESI-TOF-MS (liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization) to demonstrate its utility for the detection of low-lying peaks obscured by noise.

Compton, Duane C.; Snapp, Robert R.

2007-10-01

254

Perfusion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of intact soybean proteins for the characterization of soybean cultivars.  

PubMed

Perfusion reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC)-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed for the characterization of soybean cultivars through the analysis of intact soybean proteins. The similarities and differences between yellow soybeans (the most usual soybeans) and other beans with different pigmentation (green, red, and black) commercialized as soybean were investigated. Red beans commercialized as azuki that are frequently sold as red soybean were also analyzed. Separation was carried out using a perfusion column at a flow-rate of 0.5 mL/min and a gradient elution. A step-by-step procedure was used for the optimization of the mass spectrometry parameters enabling the most sensitive detection. The method was applied to the analysis of the above-mentioned beans and the main soybean proteins (11S and 7S globulins) obtained by a fractionation procedure. MS spectra obtained from every peak in the beans and in their fractions were compared observing clear differences between yellow soybeans and the other beans with different pigmentation. The identification of some soybean proteins in yellow soybeans was also possible. PMID:17915236

Castro-Rubio, Florentina; Marina, Ma Luisa; García, Ma Concepción

2007-11-01

255

The state of the art in thin-layer chromatography–mass spectrometry: a critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-layer chromatography–mass spectrometry (TLC–MS) is a readily implemented technique that, in its simplest form, puts few demands on either chromatography or spectrometry. Nevertheless, compared to the situation with high performance liquid chromatography, it is much less highly developed. Currently, the bulk of the practical applications of TLC–MS are directed towards the use of fast atom, or ion bombardment. Recent developments,

I. D Wilson

1999-01-01

256

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews techniques for online coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, emphasizing those suitable for application to nonvolatile samples. Also summarizes the present status, strengths, and weaknesses of various techniques and discusses potential applications of recently developed techniques for combined liquid…

Vestal, Marvin L.

1984-01-01

257

Analytical Variables Affecting Analysis of F2-Isoprostanes and F4-Neuroprostanes in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are a gold marker of lipid peroxidation in vivo, whereas F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain tissue selectively indicate neuronal oxidative damage. Gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) is the most sensitive and robust method for quantifying these compounds, which is essential for CSF samples because abundance of these compounds in CSF is very low. The present study revealed potential interferences on the analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF by GC/NICI-MS due to the use of improper analytical methods that have been employed in the literature. First, simultaneous quantification of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF samples processed for F4-NPs analysis could cause poor chromatographic separation and falsely higher F2-IsoPs values for CSF samples with high levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs. Second, retention of unknown substances in GC columns from CSF samples during F4-NPs analysis and from plasma samples during F2-IsoPs analysis might interfere with F4-NPs analysis of subsequent runs, which could be solved by holding columns at a high temperature for a period of time after data acquisition. Therefore, these special issues should be taken into consideration when performing analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF to avoid misleading results.

Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Wei, Hsing-Ju; Chen, Ting-Wei

2013-01-01

258

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of Alternaria mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heptafluorobutyrate (HFB) derivatives have not previously been used for GC of Alternative mycotoxins. Capillary (0.5 ?m film) GC-mass spectrometry (MS) showed that full and partial derivatives of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and altenuene (ALT); a structurally uncharacterized derivative of altertoxin I (ALTX-I); and a tris-HFB derivative of tenuazonic acid (TA) were formed with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and a basic

P. M. Scott; D. Weber; S. R. Kanhere

1997-01-01

259

Direct thermal desorption in the analysis of cheese volatiles by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace.  

PubMed

Direct thermal desorption (DTD) has been used as a technique for extracting volatile components of cheese as a preliminary step to their gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. In this study, it is applied to different cheese varieties: Camembert, blue, Chaumes, and La Serena. Volatiles are also extracted using other techniques such as simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace. Separation and identification of the cheese components are carried out by GC-mass spectrometry. Approximately 100 compounds are detected in the examined cheeses. The described results show that DTD is fast, simple, and easy to automate; requires only a small amount of sample (approximately 50 mg); and affords quantitative information about the main groups of compounds present in cheeses. PMID:11396685

Valero, E; Sanz, J; Martínez-Castro, I

2001-06-01

260

Absolute quantification of peptides by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute quantitation of peptides\\/proteins in dilute calibration solutions used in various diagnostic settings is a major challenge. Here we report the absolute quantitation of peptides by non-species-specific isotope dilution liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID LC-ICPMS) based on stoichiometric Eu tagging. The method was validated by species-specific isotope dilution gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) analysis of constituent amino acids of

R. a b c Liu; X. b Hou; Y. b Lv; M. a McCooeye; L. a Yang; Z.a Mester

2013-01-01

261

Determination of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nonivamide in self-defense weapons by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) methods for the analysis of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nonivamide in pepper spray products have been developed. Chromatographic separation of the capsaicinoid analogues was achieved using a reversed-phase HPLC column and a stepwise gradient of methanol and distilled water containing 0.1% (v\\/v) formic acid. Identification and quantification of

Christopher A. Reilly; Dennis J. Crouch; Garold S. Yost; Alim A. Fatah

2001-01-01

262

5-Diethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (DensCl): a novel triplex isotope labeling reagent for quantitative metabolome analysis by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We describe a new set of isotope reagents, (12)C4-, (12)C2(13)C2-, and (13)C4-5-diethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (DensCl), in combination with liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR-MS), for improved analysis of the amine- and phenol-containing submetabolome. The synthesis of the reagents is reported, and an optimized derivatization protocol for labeling amines and phenols is described. To demonstrate the utility of the triplex reagents for metabolome profiling of biological samples, urine samples collected daily from a healthy volunteer over a period of 14 days were analyzed. The overall workflow is straightforward, including differential isotope labeling of individual samples and a pooled sample that serves a global internal standard, mixing of the isotope differentially labeled samples and LC-MS analysis for relative metabolome quantification. Comparing to the dansyl chloride (DnsCl) duplex isotope reagents, the new triplex DensCl reagents offer the advantages of improved metabolite detectability due to enhanced sensitivity (i.e., about 1000 peak pairs detected by DensCl labeling vs about 600 peak pairs detected by DnsCl labeling) and analysis speed (i.e., simultaneous analysis of two comparative samples by DensCl vs only one comparative sample analyzed by DnsCl). PMID:24200037

Zhou, Ruokun; Guo, Kevin; Li, Liang

2013-12-01

263

Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and on natural ambient air samples by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the development of a routine analytical method using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionisation (GC\\/NICI-MS) for the determination of 17 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) present at low concentrations in the atmosphere. This method includes a liquid chromatography purification procedure on solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Application of

A. Albinet; E. Leoz-Garziandia; H. Budzinski; E. ViIlenave

2006-01-01

264

Oil-spill identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two approaches are proposed for the identification of a contaminant caused by the spilling of oil or oil products in water. A capillary gas chromatography (CGC)-mass spectrometry (MS) method for oil spill identification is applied. The presented approaches describe the use of MS data of 18 selective ions of spilled product and the probable pollutant. The spill identification is accomplished on the bases of a quantitative comparison between the ion chromatograms of the samples taken from the probable pollutant and from the spill itself. The other approach is made by chemometric treatment of complete CGC-MS data. PMID:12841957

Pavlova, A; Papazova, D

2003-01-01

265

Identification of new flavonols in hybrid grapes by combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches.  

PubMed

Grape flavonols are involved in the phenomenon of copigmentation in red wines. These compounds are characterised by nutraceutical properties, have antioxidant activity and are studied for chemotaxonomy of grapes. In general, hybrid grapes are characterised by presence of polyphenols often qualitatively and quantitatively different from Vitis vinifera varieties. In this work, flavonols of 34 hybrid grape varieties (22 red and 12 white) produced by crossing of V. vinifera, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Vitis lincecumii and Vitis rupestris species, were studied. Compounds were characterised by combining different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods: precursor-ion and neutral-loss multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM), and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-four glycoside flavonols were identified, including 4 quercetin, 5 myricetin, 4 kaempferol, 3 isorhamnetin, 2 laricitrin, 3 syringetin and 3 dihydroflavonol derivatives; myricetin hexoside-glucuronide, myricetin O-di-hexoside, syringetin O-di-hexoside, isorhamnetin rutinoside and kaempferol rutinoside were found in grape for the first time. Statistical analysis (PCA and cluster analysis) divided the samples in four groups on the basis of their flavonol profiles. PMID:24912722

De Rosso, M; Tonidandel, L; Larcher, R; Nicolini, G; Dalla Vedova, A; De Marchi, F; Gardiman, M; Giust, M; Flamini, R

2014-11-15

266

Identification of Major Histocompatibility Complex-Regulated Body Odorants by Statistical Analysis of a Comparative Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Gas chromatography (GC), combined with mass spectrometry (MS) detection, is a powerful analytical technique that can be used to separate, quantify, and identify volatile compounds in complex mixtures. This paper examines the application of GC-MS in a comparative experiment to identify volatiles that differ in concentration between two groups. A complex mixture might comprise several hundred or even thousands of volatile compounds. Because their number and location in a chromatogram generally are unknown, and because components overlap in populous chromatograms, the statistical problems offer significant challenges beyond traditional two-group screening procedures. We describe a statistical procedure to compare two-dimensional GC-MS profiles between groups, which entails (1) signal processing: baseline correction and peak detection in single ion chromatograms; (2) aligning chromatograms in time; (3) normalizing differences in overall signal intensities; and (4) detecting chromatographic regions that differ between groups. Compared to existing approaches, the proposed method is robust to errors made at earlier stages of analysis, such as missed peaks or slightly misaligned chromatograms. To illustrate the method, we identify differences in GC-MS chromatograms of ether-extracted urine collected from two nearly identical inbred groups of mice, to investigate the relationship between odor and genetics of the major histocompatibility complex.

Willse, Alan R.; Belcher, Ann; Preti, George; Wahl, Jon H.; Thresher, Miranda; Yang, Peter; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary

2005-04-15

267

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group?Determination of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in water using online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method for the determination of 6 acetamide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, metolachlor, and propachlor) and 16 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is described in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using octadecylsilane as the solid-phase extraction media on online automated equipment followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method uses only 10 milliliters of sample per injection. Three different water-sample matrices, a reagent-water, a ground-water, and a surface-water sample spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter, were analyzed to determine method performance. Method detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.051 microgram per liter for the parent acetamide herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the acetamide compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 62.3 to 117.4 percent. The secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) was recovered at an average rate of 43.5 percent. The mean recoveries for propachlor and propachlor oxanilic acid (OXA) were next lowest, ranging from 62.3 to 95.5 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 90.3 to 118.3 percent for all compounds. Overall the mean of the mean recoveries of all compounds in the three matrices spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter ranged from 89.9 to 100.7 percent, including the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA and the propachlor compounds. The acetamide herbicides and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit is 2.0 micrograms per liter for all compounds without dilution. With the exception of the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA, good precision and accuracy for the chloroacetanalide herbicides and their degradation compounds were demonstrated for the method in buffered reagent water, ground water, and surface water. The extraction method as used did not optimize the recovery of the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA.

Lee, E. A.; Strahan, A. P.

2003-01-01

268

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of triazine and phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method for the determination of 7 triazine and phenylurea herbicides and 12 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using 0.5 gram graphitized carbon as the solid-phase extraction media followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three different water-sample matrices?ground-water, surface-water, and reagent-water samples?spiked at 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter were analyzed. Method detection limits ranged from 0.013 to 0.168 microgram per liter for the parent triazine herbicides and the triazine degradation products. Method detection limits ranged from 0.042 to 0.141 microgram per liter for the parent phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the triazine compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples generally ranged from 72.6 to 117.5 percent, but deethyl-cyanazine amide was recovered at 140.5 percent. Mean recoveries from the ground- and surface-water samples for the phenylurea compounds spiked at the 2.0-micrograms-per-liter level ranged from 82.1 to 114.4 percent. The mean recoveries for the phenylureas spiked at 0.2-microgram per liter were less consistent, ranging from 87.0 to 136.0 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 87.0 to 109.5 percent for all compounds. The triazine compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter, with the exception of deethylcyanazine and deethylcyanazine amide which are reported at 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The phenylurea compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit was 2.0 micrograms per liter for all compounds without dilution.

Lee, Edward Alan; Strahan, Alex P.; Thurman, Earl Michael

2002-01-01

269

Robust Algorithm for Alignment of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analyses in an Accurate Mass and Time Tag Data Analysis Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) has become a standard technique for analyzing complex peptide mixtures to determine composition and relative quantity. Several high-throughput proteomics techniques attempt to combine complementary results from multiple LC-MS and LC-MS\\/MS analyses to provide more comprehensive and accurate results. To effectively collate results from these techniques, variations in mass

Navdeep Jaitly; Matthew E. Monroe; Vladislav A. Petyuk; Therese R. W. Clauss; Joshua N. Adkins; Richard D. Smith

2006-01-01

270

Classification of High Speed Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Data by Principal Component Analysis Coupled with Piecewise Alignment and Feature Selection  

SciTech Connect

A useful procedure is introduced for the analysis of data obtained via gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) utilizing a complete mass spectrum at each retention time interval in which a mass spectrum was collected. Principal component analysis (PCA) with preprocessing by both piecewise retention time alignment and analysis of variance (ANOVA) feature selection is applied to all mass channels collected. The procedure involves concatenating all concurrently measured individual m/z chromatograms from m/z 20 to 120 for each GC-MS separation into a row vector. All of the sample row vectors are incorporated into a matrix where each row is a sample vector. This matrix is piecewise aligned and reduced by ANOVA feature selection. Application of the preprocessing steps (retention time alignment and feature selection) to all mass channels collected during the chromatographic separation allows considerably more selective chemical information to be incorporated in the PCA classification, and is the primary novelty of the report. This procedure is objective and requires no knowledge of the specific analytes of interest, as in selective ion monitoring (SIM), and does not restrict the mass spectral data used, as in both SIM and total ion current (TIC) methods. Significantly, the procedure allows for the classification of data with low resolution in the chromatographic dimension because of the added selectivity from the complete mass spectral dimension. This allows for the successful classification of data over significantly decreased chromatographic separation times, since high-speed separations can be employed. The procedure is demonstrated through the analysis of a set of four differing gasoline samples that serve as model complex samples. For comparison, the gasoline samples are analyzed by GC-MS over both ten-minute and ten-second separation times. The ten-minute GC-MS TIC data served as the benchmark analysis to compare to the ten-second data. When only alignment and feature selection was applied to the ten-second gasoline separations using GC-MS TIC data, PCA failed. PCA was successful for ten-second gasoline separations when the procedure was applied with all the m/z information. With ANOVA feature selection, chromatographic regions with Fisher Ratios greater than 1500 were retained in a new matrix and subjected to PCA yielding successful classification for the ten-second separations.

Watson, Nathaniel E.; VanWingerden, Matthew M.; Pierce, Karisa M.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

2006-09-01

271

An automated method for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing micro-extraction coupled on-line to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with in-liner derivatisation.  

PubMed

A new method is presented for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing 'Micro-extraction in packed sorbent' (MEPS) coupled on-line to in-liner derivatisation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ion-pairing reagent served a dual purpose. It was used both to improve extraction yields of the more polar analytes and as the methyl donor in the automated in-liner derivatisation method. In this way, a fully automated procedure for the extraction, derivatisation and injection of a wide range of phenolic acids in plasma samples has been obtained. An extensive optimisation of the extraction and derivatisation procedure has been performed. The entire method showed excellent repeatabilities of under 10% and linearities of 0.99 or better for all phenolic acids. The limits of detection of the optimised method for the majority of phenolic acids were 10ng/mL or lower with three phenolic acids having less-favourable detection limits of around 100 ng/mL. Finally, the newly developed method has been applied in a human intervention trial in which the bioavailability of polyphenols from wine and tea was studied. Forty plasma samples could be analysed within 24h in a fully automated method including sample extraction, derivatisation and gas chromatographic analysis. PMID:22099223

Peters, Sonja; Kaal, Erwin; Horsting, Iwan; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

2012-02-24

272

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of N- Heptafluorobutyryl Isobutyl Esters of Amino Acids in the Analysis of the Kinetics of [15N]H4+ Assimilation in Lemna minor L  

PubMed Central

Rapid, sensitive, and selective methods for the determination of the 15N abundance of amino acids in isotopic tracer experiments with plant tissues are described and discussed. Methodology has been directly tested in an analysis of the kinetics of [15N]H4+ assimilation in Lemna minor L. The techniques utilize gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring of major fragments containing the N moiety of N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl esters of amino acids. The ratio of selected ion pairs at the characteristic retention time of each amino acid derivative can be used to calculate 15N abundance with an accuracy of ±1 atom% excess 15N using samples containing as little as 30 picomoles of individual amino acids. Up to 11 individual amino acid derivatives can be selectively monitored in a single chromatogram of 30 minutes. It is suggested that these techniques will be useful in situations where the small quantities of N available for analysis have hitherto hindered the use of 15N-labeled precursors.

Rhodes, David; Myers, Ann C.; Jamieson, Gene

1981-01-01

273

Trace analysis of diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and hexestrol in environmental water by Nylon 6 nanofibers mat-based solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES), dienestrol (DE) and hexestrol (HEX) was developed by using the Nylon 6 nanofibers mat-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These estrogens were separated within 8 min by LC using an ODS column and methanol/water (80/20, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Electrospray ionization conditions in the negative ion mode were optimized for MS detection of the estrogens. Under the optimum SPE conditions, all target analytes in 50 mL environmental water samples can be completely extracted by 1.5 mg Nylon 6 nanofibers mat at flow rate of 3.0 mL min(-1) and easily eluted by passage of 500 ?L mobile phase. By using the novel SPE-LC/MS method, good linearity of the calibration curve (r(2) ? 0.9992) was obtained in the concentration range from 0.10 ng L(-1) to 1.0 mg L(-1) (except for DE which was 0.20 ng L(-1) to 1.0 mg L(-1)) for all analytes examined. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) of the three estrogens ranged from 0.05 ng L(-1) to 0.10 ng L(-1). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples without any other pretreatment and interference peaks. Several water samples were collected from Jinchuan River and Xuanwu Lake, and in Jinchuan River water DES was detected at 0.13 ng L(-1). The recoveries of estrogens spiked into tap water were above 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were below 4.78%. PMID:21994916

Xu, Qian; Wang, Min; Yu, ShuQin; Tao, Qing; Tang, Meng

2011-12-01

274

Variability of matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues after QuEChERS sample preparation of different food crops.  

PubMed

Gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) serve as the most powerful analytical tools commonly used to monitor pesticide residues in food, among other applications. However, both GC-MS and LC-MS are susceptible to matrix effects which can adversely affect quantification depending on the analyte, matrix, sample preparation, instrumentation, and operating conditions. Among the approaches that reduce matrix effects, the most common in pesticide residue applications is matrix-matched calibration because it is relatively inexpensive and simple. Also, it has been shown to work well during method validation when fortified samples are exactly matched with samples used for calibration. However, the quality of matrix-matched results in real-world analyses depends on the consistency of matrix effects among diverse samples. In this study, the variability of matrix effects was measured for 38 representative pesticides in 20 samples each (including different varieties) of rice, orange, apple, and spinach extracted using the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) method for analysis by LC-MS/MS and low-pressure GC-MS. Using LC-MS/MS, only oranges gave >20% matrix effects for a few pesticides. GC-MS exhibited larger matrix effects, but as in LC-MS/MS, the differences were reasonably consistent among the 20 samples tested. Main conclusions of this study are that for the conditions utilized: (1) matrix-matching was not needed for most pesticides in the simpler food matrices; and (2) for the more complex orange matrix, acceptably accurate quantitative results were achieved by using matrix-matching even with a different sample of the same type. However, full confidence cannot be extended to matrix-matched results, and for consequential applications such as regulatory enforcement, confirmatory analyses using alternate quantitative determinations should also be conducted. PMID:23182936

Kwon, Hyeyoung; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía

2012-12-28

275

Whole Microorganisms Studied by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Significance for Extraterrestrial Life Detection Experiments 1  

PubMed Central

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric studies of two microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis var. niger, indicate that the majority of thermal fragments originate from the principal classes of bio-organic matter found in living systems such as protein and carbohydrate. Furthermore, there is a close qualitative similarity between the type of pyrolysis products found in microorganisms and the pyrolysates of other biological materials. Conversely, there is very little correlation between microbial pyrolysates and comparable pyrolysis studies of meteoritic and fossil organic matter. These observations will aid in the interpretation of a soil organic analysis experiment to be performed on the surface of Mars in 1975. The science payload of this landed mission will include a combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument as well as several “direct biology experiments” which are designed to search for extraterrestrial life.

Simmonds, Peter G.

1970-01-01

276

Improved accuracy and precision of gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry measurements for metabolic tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stable-isotope tracer methodology to study substrate metabolic kinetics requires accurate measurement of the tracer to tracee ratio (TTR), often by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Many approaches for measurement of the TTR by GC\\/MS do not use standards of known isotopic enrichment to control for variability in instrument response. In addition, most GC\\/MS applications exhibit some degree of

Bruce W. Patterson; Guohong Zhao; Samuel Klein

1998-01-01

277

An integrated method for spectrum extraction and compound identification from gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for extracting individual component spectra from gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) data files\\u000a and then using these spectra to identify target compounds by matching spectra in a reference library. It extends a published\\u000a “model peak” approach which uses selected ion chromatograms as models for component shape. On the basis of this shape, individual\\u000a mass spectral peak abundance

S. E. Stein

1999-01-01

278

Determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in blood by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We devised a sensitive and simple method for determining cyanide And its major metabolite, thiocyanate, in blood using an extractive alkylation technique. Pentafluorobenzyl bromide was used as the alkylating agent, and tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride was used as the phase-transfer catalyst. The derivatives obtained were analyzed qualitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantitatively by gas chromatography with an electron-capture detection. The detection

Shigetoshi Kage; Takeaki Nagata; Keiko Kudo

1996-01-01

279

Determination of oxadiazon residues by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of trace amounts of the herbicide oxadiazon was developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and selected ion monitoring. It was applied to determine oxadiazon in ground water, agricultural soil, must, wine and human urine samples. To determine oxadiazon in liquid samples, a response surface methodology generated with a Doehlert design was

Alberto Navalón; Avismelsi Prieto; Lilia Araujo; José Luis V??lchez

2002-01-01

280

Determination of amprolium in feed by a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of the finding of veterinarian drugs in food European Community banned several compounds like coccidiostats as amprolium (APL). This antibiotic has been used as a preventive and clinical anticoccidial drug in chicken. The 2005\\/187\\/CE, 2005\\/925\\/EC Recommendations ban the use of amprolium as additive in chicken feed. For this reason a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS)

S. Squadrone; C. Mauro; G. L. Ferro; G. Amato; M. C. Abete

2008-01-01

281

Characterization of Volatile Compounds from Ethnic Agave Alcoholic Beverages by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethnic Agave alcoholic beverages such as raicilla, sisal, tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol and pulque have been analyzed by gas chromatography and headspace solid-phase micro- extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). There were 105 com- pounds identified, eleven were classified as major compounds and the others were classi- fied as minor compounds. Seventeen minor compounds could be used as authenticity markers since

Antonio De León-Rodríguez; Pilar Escalante-Minakata; María I. Jiménez-García; Leandro G. Ordoñez-Acevedo; José L. Flores Flores; Ana P. Barba de la Rosa

282

QUANTIFICATION OF CILNIDIPINE IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) assay was developed and validated for the quantification of cilnidipine, a calcium channel antagonist, in human plasma. Plasma samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction and the analyte, along with nimodipine (an internal standard), and analyzed using selected ion monitoring (SIM) for detection. The absolute extraction recovery was determined to be not less than 89.1% for

Kyeong-Ryoon Lee; Yoon-Jee Chae; Jong-Hwa Lee; Dae-Duk Kim; Saeho Chong; Chang-Koo Shim; Suk-Jae Chung

2012-01-01

283

Determination of terpenes in tequila by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid phase microextraction and capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry were used for the determination of seven terpenes in tequila. The method was selected based on the following parameters: coating selection (PA, PDMS, CW\\/DVB, and PDMS\\/DVB), extraction temperature, addition of salt, and extraction time profile. The extraction conditions were: PDMS\\/DVB fiber, Headspace, 100% NaCl, 25°C extraction temperature, 30min extraction time and stirring

Araceli Peña-Alvarez; Santiago Capella; Rocío Juárez; Carmen Labastida

2006-01-01

284

Determination of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GB/MS) method for determining atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) with a precision better than 2% is reported. High precision and insensitivity to sample loss and changes in detector response were achieved by using isotopically labeled OCS as an internal standard. Tenax, Molecular Sieve 5A, Carbosieve B, and Carbosieve S were evaluated for collecting atmospheric OCS. Molecular Sieve 5A provided the best trapping and recovery efficiencies.

Lewin, E.E.; Taggart, R.L.; Lalevic, M.; Bandy, A.R.

1987-05-01

285

Quantification of veterinary antibiotics (sulfonamides and trimethoprim) in animal manure by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast and cost effective method was developed to extract and quantify residues of veterinary antimicrobial agents (antibiotics) in animal manure by liquid–liquid extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The compounds investigated include six sulfonamides, one metabolite, and trimethoprim. The method was performed without sample clean up. Recoveries from spiked manure slurry samples (spike level=1 mg\\/kg) were as follows: sulfaguanidine (52%),

Michel Y. Haller; Stephan R. Muller; Christa S. McArdell; Alfredo C. Alder; Marc J.-F. Suter

2002-01-01

286

Advanced Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Proteomics  

SciTech Connect

The liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of peptides has become a routine method for proteomics – the study of the entire complement of proteins e.g., expressed by a cell under a specific set of conditions at a specific time. Mixtures of peptides, such as those generated from enzymatic (e.g., trypsin) digestion of globally recovered proteins (i.e. a proteome), are typically very complex and >100,000 different molecular species may be observable using MS detection [1]. LC separations implemented prior to MS for broad protein identification have three major roles: 1) to isolate individual components or reduce complexity as much as possible, 2) to increase sensitivity by concentrating the components into narrow zones prior to MS, and 3) to eliminate or displace interfering species (e.g., salts and polymers) that may be present in proteomics samples. A desired quality of LC separation can be achieved from the use of either multiple steps of moderate quality separations, or fewer steps of high power separations. The former approach is generally more easily accessible for very high quality separations due to the variety of commercialized LC platforms available, while the latter still often requires considerable developmental efforts (for both columns and instrumentation). In addition to proteomics data quality, other differences between these two approaches include proteomics analysis time and sample consumption (and subsequent analysis costs), as well as direct impact on potential proteomics applications that have special requirements in terms of analysis coverage, sample size, dynamic range, sensitivity, and throughput.

Shen, Yufeng; Page, Jason S.; Smith, Richard D.

2009-02-23

287

Analysis of a mixture of linear and cyclic siloxanes by cryo-gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes was analysed to characterize the different types of siloxane structures using gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Siloxane structures are formed by hydrolysis of dimethyldichlorosilane under controlled conditions in technical applications. In the presence of methyltrichlorosilane or even trimethylchlorosilane, linear polydimethylsiloxanes and mono-, bi- or polycyclic methylsiloxanes

S. Wachholz; F. Keidel; U. Just; H. Geissler; K. Käppler

1995-01-01

288

Determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine in cosmetic products by headspace solid phase microextraction using a novel aluminum hydroxide grafted fused silica fiber followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

A method based on headspace solid phase microextraction with a new fiber, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of NDELA in cosmetic samples. The fiber provides Lewis acid-base interaction between its surface and analyte functional groups. The fiber was prepared by grafting aluminum tri-tert-butoxide on the surface of a fused silica. The optimization of SPME conditions showed that NDELA can be most effectively extracted at 70°C, in 15 min, with a sample volume of 0.5 (Vs/Vt), stirring rate of 150 rpm, desorption time of 5 min, desorption temperature of 260°C and at 12.5% (w/w) concentration of NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, LOD of 1 ?g Kg(-1) and a calibration curve with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9897 and a linearity range from 6 to 10000 ?g Kg(-1) were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy were evaluated at four concentration levels. All of the values for accuracy and precision were lower than the acceptable limit of 15%. The fiber to fiber repeatability was 8.7%. The method was applied for the analysis of real samples including hair shampoo, body shampoo, dishwashing liquid and hand washing liquid. Relative recoveries were achieved in the range of 95-99%. PMID:23598029

Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Masoomi, Leila; Banitaba, Mohammad Hossein; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Sadeghi, Omid; Samiei, Azam

2013-02-15

289

Peptide analysis as amino alcohols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to hyperoligopeptiduria. Detection of Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp and Gly-Pro-4Hyp-Gly.  

PubMed

A method for the qualitative analysis of oligopeptides in human urine in cases of peptiduria is described. After sample precleaning on a strongly acidic ion exchanger, the trifluoroacetyl/methyl esters were formed and the peptide derivatives were transformed into trifluoroethyl oligoamino alcohols according to Nau and Biemann. It was found that oligoamino alcohols could be isolated selectively on a weakly acidic ion exchanger. The O-trimethylsilylated trifluoroethyl oligoamino alcohols were separated on a SE-30 glass capillary column and analyzed by computer-assisted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to increase specificity and to facilitate mass spectrometric interpretation, aliquots of the sample were reduced separately with lithium-aluminium deuteride and hydride. Each peptide gave a pair of derivatives with characteristic mass differences of the ions, namely 2 mass units per reduced oxo group (deuterium-hydrogen-labelling of oxo groups by reduction). Correct identification is assumed only if both mass spectral patterns fit the theory. Sample volumes of 5--100 ml of urine are needed. About six samples can be derivatized per week. Three cases with suspected peptiduria were investigated and the following peptides were found: Gly-Pro-4Hyp-Gly; Gly-Pro-4Hyp; Gly-Hyp-Hyp (postulated isomer Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp); Pro-4Hyp and Gly-Pro. With exception of the tetrapeptide, these compounds could be detected also in the urine of a healthy child. PMID:436283

Steiner, W; Niederwieser, A

1979-03-15

290

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) were developed for the analysis of the following chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water: acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for both the HPLC-DAD and HPLC/MS methods in reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC-DAD recoveries of the chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.25, 0.50, and 2.0 mg/L (micrograms per liter) ranged from 84 to 112 percent, with relative standard deviations of 18 percent or less. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.05, 0.20, and 2.0 mg/L ranged from 81 to 125 percent, with relative standard deviations of 20 percent or less. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all metabolites using the HPLC-DAD method was 0.20 mg/L, whereas the LOQ using the HPLC/MS method was 0.05 mg/L. These metabolite-determination methods are valuable for acquiring information about water quality and the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

Zimmerman, L. R.; Hostetler, K. A.; Thurman, E. M.

2000-01-01

291

Residual solvents in methylenedioxymethamphetamine tablets as a source of strategic information and as a tool for comparative analysis: the development and application of a static headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Various solvents can be used in the synthesis of the illicit synthetic drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy). In the crystallization process, traces of those solvents can be trapped inside crystals; during the following tabletting process, the solvent traces remain present in the tablets. The forensic investigation of tablets for solvents may increase knowledge of production methods and contribute to a possible choice of monitoring or regulating certain organic solvents. Further, the identification and quantification of solvents in MDMA tablets may contribute to the chemical characterization of illicit tablets for comparative examination. The methods of analysis of volatile components in illicit MDMA tablets described so far are often based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME). To avoid several disadvantages of SPME, a quantitative static headspace method was developed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); for quantification, the standard addition method appeared to be advantageous. The residual solvents in 155 MDMA tablets were analysed and 150 of them were quantified. PMID:21338020

Visser, H A A H; Visser-van Leeuwen, M; Huizer, H

2005-01-01

292

Methods of analysis and quality-assurance practices of the U.S. Geological Survey organic laboratory, Sacramento, California; determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical method and quality-assurance practices were developed for a study of the fate and transport of pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Sacramento and San Joaquin River. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended parti- culate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide, and the pesticides were eluted with three 2-milliliter aliquots of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1). The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for analytes determined per 1,500-milliliter samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.047 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 89 percent for 12 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.05 and 0.26 microgram per liter. The method was modified to improve the pesticide recovery by reducing the sample volume to 1,000 milliliters. Internal standards were added to improve quantitative precision and accuracy. The analysis also was expanded to include a total of 21 pesticides. The method detection limits for 1,000-milliliter samples ranged from 0.022 to 0.129 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 38 to 128 percent for 21 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.10 and 0.75 microgram per liter.

Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

1994-01-01

293

Online in situ analysis of selected semi-volatile organic compounds in water by automated microscale solid-phase extraction with large-volume injection/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A fully automated analytical method was developed for the online in situ analysis of selected semi-volatile organic compounds in water. The method used a large-volume injection/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with a fully automated microscale solid-phase extraction technique, which was based on x-y-z robotic techniques. Water samples were extracted by using a 96-well solid-phase extraction plate. For most analytes included in this study, the obtained linear calibrations ranged from 0.05 to 5.0 microg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.996-1.000, the method detection limits were less than 0.1 microg/L, and the relative recoveries were in the range of 70-120% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15% for fortified reagent water samples. The applications to chlorinated tap water, well water, and river water have been validated. The obtained results were similar to those resulting from fortified reagent water samples for all analytes except metribuzin, bromacil, aldrin, and methoxychlor. Matrix effects were observed for these analytes. In general, this fully automated analytical method was rugged, reliable, and easy to operate, and was capable of providing real-time data to water treatment and distribution systems as well as water reservation and protection systems. In addition, the method could reduce the analytical costs associated with sample collection, transportation, storage, and preparation. PMID:18036538

Li, Yongtao; George, John E; McCarty, Christina L

2007-12-28

294

Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-GCMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Earth, the C-13 content of organic compounds is depleted by roughly 13 to 23 permil from atmospheric carbon dioxide. This difference is largely due to isotope effects associated with the fixation of inorganic carbon by photosynthetic organisms. If life once existed on Mars, then it is reasonable to expect to observe a similar fractionation. Although the strongly oxidizing conditions on the surface of Mars make preservation of ancient organic material unlikely, carbon-isotope evidence for the existence of life on Mars may still be preserved. Carbon depleted in C-13 could be preserved either in organic compounds within buried sediments, or in carbonate minerals produced by the oxidation of organic material. A technique is introduced for rapid and precise measurement of the C-13 contents of individual organic compounds. A gas chromatograph is coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer through a combustion interface, enabling on-line isotopic analysis of isolated compounds. The isotope ratios are determined by integration of ion currents over the course of each chromatographic peak. Software incorporates automatic peak determination, corrections for background, and deconvolution of overlapped peaks. Overall performance of the instrument was evaluated by the analysis of a mixture of high purity n-alkanes of know isotopic composition. Isotopic values measured via IRM-GCMS averaged withing 0.55 permil of their conventionally measured values.

Freeman, K. H.; Ricci, S. A.; Studley, A.; Hayes, J. M.

1989-01-01

295

A thermogravimetry-capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry interface.  

PubMed

An interface and gas chromatograph oven are described that couple a thermogravimetric analyzer with a mass spectrometer and permit multiple capillary gas chromatographic separations of volatile thermal decomposition products generated during a single thermogravimetric analysis. Examples of the use of this apparatus for identifying the volatile products generated during poly(vinyl butyral) thermal decomposition in the presence of ?-alumina and catalytic cracking of poly(styrene) and poly(ethylene) are described. TG-GC/MS analyses employing isothermal, temperature programmed, and subambient temperature ramp gas chromatography separations are described. The apparatus permits repetitive temperature-programmed capillary gas chromatographic analyses of thermogravimetric effluent containing more than 25 constituents in 3-min intervals. PMID:21639396

Sikabwe, E C; Negelein, D L; Lin, R; White, R L

1997-07-01

296

Automated headspace solid-phase microextraction versus headspace for the analysis of furan in foods by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, fast and fully automated method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry (HS-SPME–GC–ITMS) is proposed for furan determination in foods. The performance of the proposed method was compared to the automated headspace-GC–MS method, proposed by the US Food and Drugs Administration (US FDA), in terms of repeatability, limits of the detection and

M. S. Altaki; F. J. Santos; M. T. Galceran

2009-01-01

297

Flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a supersonic molecular beam.  

PubMed

A new approach of flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC x GC-MS) with supersonic molecular beam (SMB) and a quadrupole mass analyzer is presented. Flow modulation uniquely enables GC x GC-MS to be achieved even with the limited scan speed of quadrupole MS, and its 20 ml/min column flow rate is handled, splitless, by the SMB interface. Flow modulation GC x GC-SMB-MS shares all the major benefits of GC x GC and combines them with GC-MS including: (a) increased GC separation capability; (b) improved sensitivity via narrower GC peaks; (c) improved sensitivity through reduced matrix interference and chemical noise; (d) polarity and functional group sample information via the order of elution from the second polar column. In addition, GC x GC-SMB-MS is uniquely characterized by the features of GC-MS with SMB of enhanced and trustworthy molecular ion plus isotope abundance analysis (IAA) for improved sample identification and fast fly-through ion source response time. The combination of flow modulation GC x GC with GC-MS with SMB (supersonic GC-MS) was explored with complex matrices such as diesel fuel analysis and pesticide analysis in agricultural products. PMID:16834991

Kochman, Maya; Gordin, Alexander; Alon, Tal; Amirav, Aviv

2006-09-29

298

Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determination of perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride upon derivatization with benzylamine.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF) is a main precursor of environmentally ubiquitous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and the quantity released to the environment is substantial. Determination of PFOSF, particularly at low concentrations, presents significant challenges for high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analyses due to the lack of chromophore and ionizable functional group, respectively. In this study, a new method was developed by derivatizing PFOSF with benzylamine to allow rapid quantitative analysis by using LC/MS. The method demonstrated good linearity in the range from 2 to 80 ng mL(-1) with r(2) > 0.994 for the derivatization product while the absolute detection limit was 2.5 pg. Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid extraction procedures were established for analysis of water and soil samples, and recoveries were in the range of 51-128%. In addition, the derivatization was selective for PFOSF, whereas PFOS did not nearly react. The developed simple analytical method with good reproducibility might not only be applied for analysis of PFOSF in the environment but also be applicable for supporting investigations on environmental fate of PFOSF, particularly its environmental and biotransformation to PFOS. PMID:21718074

Sun, Cuirong; Sun, Hezhi; Lai, Yongquan; Zhang, Jingjing; Cai, Zongwei

2011-08-01

299

Heart-cutting two-dimensional (size exclusion x reversed phase) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of flavonol glycosides from leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was employed to analyze flavonol glycosides present in leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia, frequently used in traditional Brazilian medicine. Since they contain many flavonol glycosides, including isomers, one-dimensional liquid chromatography did not give complete separation and identification, yielding overlapping of compounds with different molecular weights. Thus, employing size exclusion chromatography in the first and reversed phase in the second dimension, a great number of flavonol glycosides could be identified and its relative abundances determined. The majority of glycosides contained kaempferol or quercetin as aglycones, and glycosides with previously unreported structures were also present and characterized. PMID:19062030

de Souza, Lauro M; Cipriani, Thales R; Sant'ana, Carolina F; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J; Sassaki, Guilherme L

2009-01-01

300

Identification and differentiation of methcathinone analogs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To overcome a number of challenges involved in analyzing methcathinone (MC) analogues, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, including sample preparation, of nine MC analogues?-?4-methylmethcathinone, three positional isomers of fluoromethcathinones, 4-methoxymethcathinone, N-ethylcathinone, N,N-dimethylcathinone, buphedrone, and pentedrone. The MC analogues underwent dehydrogenation when the free bases were analyzed using splitless injection. Most of this thermal degradation was prevented using split injection. This indicated that a shorter residence time in the hot injector prevented decomposition. Uniquely, 2-fluoromethcathinone degraded to another product in a process that could not be prevented by the split injection. Replacing the liner with a new, clean one was also effective in preventing thermal degradation. Most of the analytes showed a substantial loss (>30%) when the free base solution in ethyl acetate was evaporated under a nitrogen stream. Adding a small amount of dimethylformamide as a solvent keeper had a noticeable effect, but it did not completely prevent the loss. Three positional isomers of fluoromethcathinones were separated with baseline resolution by heptafluorobutyrylation with a slow column heating rate (8?°C/min) using a non-polar DB-5?ms capillary column. These results will be useful for the forensic analysis of MC analogues in confiscated materials. PMID:23161815

Tsujikawa, Kenji; Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

2013-08-01

301

Quantitative determination of amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates in human hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Hair of young subjects (N = 36) suspected for drug abuse was analysed for morphine, codeine, heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). The analysis of morphine, codeine, heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, and methadone in hair included incubation in methanol, solid-phase extraction, derivatisation by the mixture of propionic acid anhydride and pyridine, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). For amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA analysis, hair samples were incubated in 1M sodium hydroxide, extracted with ethyl acetate, derivatised with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA), and assayed by GC/MS. The methods were reproducible (R.S.D. = 5.0-16.1%), accurate (85.1-100.6%), and sensitive (LoD = 0.05-0.30ng/mg). The applied methods confirmed consumption of heroin in 18 subjects based on positive 6-acetylmorphine. Among these 18 heroin consumers, methadone was found in four, MDMA in two, and cocaine in two subjects. Cocaine only was present in two, methadone only in two, methamphetamine only in two, and MDMA only in seven of the 36 subjects. In two out of nine coloured and bleached hair samples, no drug was found. Despite the small number of subjects, this study has been able to indicate the trend in drug abuse among young people in Croatia. PMID:11909652

Skender, L; Karaci?, V; Brci?, I; Bagari?, A

2002-02-18

302

Determination of oxadiazon residues by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of trace amounts of the herbicide oxadiazon was developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and selected ion monitoring. It was applied to determine oxadiazon in ground water, agricultural soil, must, wine and human urine samples. To determine oxadiazon in liquid samples, a response surface methodology generated with a Doehlert design was applied to optimize the HS-SPME conditions using a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre. For the analysis of soil samples, they were mixed with water and the SPME fibre suspended in the headspace above the slurry. Ground water, human urine and must show linear concentration range of application of 0.5-50 ng ml(-1)' with detection limits < or =0.02 ng ml(-1). HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis yielded good reproducibility (RSD values between 6.5 and 13.5%). The method validation was completed with spiked matrix samples. The developed analytical procedure is solvent free, cost effective and fast. PMID:11873973

Navalón, Alberto; Prieto, Avismelsi; Araujo, Lilia; Vílchez, José Luis

2002-02-01

303

Determination of Starch Lysophospholipids in Rice Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS).  

PubMed

Acquiring a complete understanding of rice starch lysophospholipids (LPLs), their biosynthetic pathways and genetic diversity, and the influence of genotype by environment interactions has been hampered by the lack of efficient high-throughput extraction and analysis methods. It was hypothesized a single-step aqueous n-propanol extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) could be employed to analyze starch LPLs in white rice. The investigation found different grinding methods showed little effect on the final LPL detected, and a simple single-step extraction with 75% n-propanol (8 mL/0.15 g) heated at 100 °C for 2 h was as effective as an onerous multistep extraction method. A LC-MS method was optimized to simultaneously quantify 10 major LPLs in rice starch within 15 min. This method enables total and individual starch LPL analysis of a large number of rice samples at little cost. This approach could be applied to starch LPLs in other cereals. PMID:24953871

Liu, Lei; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; King, Graham J

2014-07-16

304

[Determination of dicofol residue in eel by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method was developed and applied to determine the residual dicofol in eel by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The residue was extracted from homogenized tissue with acetonitrile-water assisted by n-hexane, separated with liquid-liquid partition. A part of the supernatant was purified using solid phase extraction (Florisil column) prior to the GC-MS analysis. The determination was performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with the external calibration for quantitative analysis. Under the optimized conditions, the quantification limit of the method (S/N = 10) was lower than 0.01 mg/kg. The recovery of the method for the spiked standard at the concentration of 0.01-0.1 mg/kg was 91%-105% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.3%-6.1%. The method is easy, fast, and more sensitive. The method can meet the requirement of the determination of dicofol in eel. PMID:20458927

Su, Jianfeng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jinxing; Zhong, Maosheng; Zhang, Guangjun; Liu, Jianjun

2010-01-01

305

Quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination of C-mannosylation of tryptophan residues in glycoproteins.  

PubMed

C-mannosylation of Trp residue is one of the most recently discovered types of glycosylation, but the identification of these mannosylated residues in proteins is rather tedious. In a previous paper, it was reported that the complete analysis of all constituents of glycoproteins (sialic acids, monosaccharides, and amino acids) could be determined on the same sample in three different steps of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of heptafluorobutyrate derivatives. It was observed that during the acid-catalyzed methanolysis step used for liberation of monosaccharide from classical O- and N-glycans, Trp and His were quantitatively transformed by the addition of a methanol molecule on their indole and imidazole groups, respectively. These derivatives were stable to acid hydrolysis used for the liberation of amino acids. Since monosaccharide derivatives were also stabilized as heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides, it was suggested that C-mannosides of Trp residues could quantitatively be recovered. Based on the analyses of standard compounds, peptides and RNase 2 from human urine, we report that C((2))-mannosylated Trp could be quantitatively recovered and identified during the step of amino acid analysis. Analyses of different samples indicated that this type of glycosylation is absent in bacteria and yeasts. PMID:15158478

Zanetta, Jean-Pierre; Pons, Alexandre; Richet, Colette; Huet, Guillemette; Timmerman, Philippe; Leroy, Yves; Bohin, Anne; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Trinel, Pierre-André; Poulain, Daniel; Hofsteenge, Jan

2004-06-15

306

Studies of organic residues from ancient Egyptian mummies using high temperature-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The techniques of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) have been utilised to characterise the constituents of tissue-derived or applied organic material from two Pharaonic Egyptian mummies with a view to identifying embalming practices/substances. The results obtained using TD-GC-MS revealed a series of monocarboxylic acids with the C16:0, C18:1 and C18:0 components dominating in both mummies. The thermal desorption products related to cholesterol, i.e., cholesta-3,5,7-triene and cholesta-3,5-diene (only in Khnum Nakht), were detected in both mummies. Khnum Nakht also contained a number of straight chain alkyl amides (C16-C18) and an alkyl nitrile (C18). Other products included the 2,5-diketopiperazine derivative (DKP) of proline-glycine (pro-gly) which was a major component (7.9%) in Khnum Nakht but only a very minor component in Horemkenesi. Py-GC-MS of samples of both specimens yielded a series of alkene/alkane doublets (Horemkenesi C6-C18, Khnum Nakht C6-C24) which dominated their chromatograms. Series of methyl ketones in the C9-C19 chain length range were also present, with C5-C7 cyclic ketones occurring in Horemkenesi only. These ketones are indicative of covalent bond cleavage, probably of polymerised acyl lipids. Nitrogenous products included nitriles (C9-C18) which were significant in both samples, and amides which were only detected in Khnum Nakht. Also present amongst the pyrolysis products were three steroidal hydrocarbons, cholest-(?)-ene, cholesta-3,5,7-triene and cholesta-3,5-diene. High temperature-GC-MS of trimethylsilylated lipid extracts yielded similar monocarboxylic acids to that obtained using TD-GC-MS, while a series of alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids and a number of mono- and di-hydroxy carboxylic acids not seen in the thermal desorption or pyrolysis GC-MS analyses were significant constituents in both mummy samples. Overall, the use of GC-MS and sequential TD-GC-MS and Py-GC-MS has demonstrated in both mummies the presence of a complex suite of lipids and proteinaceous components whose compositions indicates extensive alteration via oxidative and hydrolytic processes during long-term interment. None of the classical embalming resins was detected but an exogenous origin for at least a proportion of these components cannot be discounted since fats, oils and gelatin have been proposed as embalming agents in mummification. The combined approach of sequential TD- and Py-GC-MS has potential for application to the characterisation of embalming materials in mummies. Most importantly these techniques virtually eliminate any destruction of the mummified bodies thereby allowing the scope of investigations of ancient Egyptian funerary practices to be significantly extended. PMID:10605875

Buckley, S A; Stott, A W; Evershed, R P

1999-04-01

307

Analysis of exhaled breath from smokers, passive smokers and non-smokers by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, 38 samples of expired air were collected and analyzed from 20 non-smoking volunteers, four passive smokers and 14 smokers (21 women and 17 men). Measurements were carried out using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as an isolation and preconcentration technique. The determination and identification were accomplished by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our data showed that ca 32% of all identified compounds in the breath of healthy non-smokers were saturated hydrocarbons. In the breath of smoking and passive smoking volunteers hydrocarbons were predominant, but also present were more exogenous analytes such as furan, acetonitrile and benzene than in the breath of non-smokers. Acetonitrile, furan, 3-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-butanone, octane and decane were identified in breath of smoking and passive smoking persons. PMID:19039804

Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ulanowska, Agnieszka; Ligor, Tomasz; Denderz, Natalia; Amann, Anton

2009-05-01

308

Thermal degradation of ?-pyrrolidinopentiophenone during injection in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

?-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (?-PVP) is a popular recreational drug in Japan. This drug easily undergoes thermal decomposition during gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We evaluated three factors involved in the decomposition, namely the injection method (splitless or split, split ratio), injector temperature, and surface activity on the inlet liner. Splitless injection of ?-PVP using a used deactivated split/splitless liner at an injector temperature of 250 °C caused thermal decomposition. This decomposition was inhibited by split injection. A higher split ratio resulted in greater prevention. Based on the mass spectrum of deuterated ?-PVP, the decomposition product was presumed to be an enamine whose double bond was located in the alkyl chain. Lowering the injection temperature from 250 °C to 200 °C did not prevent decomposition. New glass liners, both deactivated and non-deactivated, were compared. The use of a new deactivated liner minimized thermal decomposition, even for splitless injection, while the non-deactivated liner generated an increase in the amount of the decomposition product. These results showed that the injection method and the surface activity on the inlet liner were involved in the thermal decomposition of ?-PVP. PMID:23890652

Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

2013-09-10

309

Evaluation of hydrolysis and alcoholysis reactions in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry inlets.  

PubMed

During gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses using water and methanol as injection solvents, hydrolysis reactions after injecting water control and alcoholysis reactions after injecting methanol control or ethanol into a GC-MS system were observed and studied. Two dominant hydrolysis/alcoholysis product series were detected, and were identified as being HO(CH3)2SiOR and HO(CH3)2SiO(CH3)2SiOR, where R=H, methyl, or ethyl, when pure water, methanol and ethanol were injected. The chemical structures of the reaction products were cross-checked by injecting H2O/D2O and H2O/MeOH/EtOH, and comparable EI mass fragmentation patterns were found. The water and alcohols injected reacted with silicones in septum particles which accumulated in the injection port liner after numerous injections, and both hydrolysis and alcoholysis reaction products gradually increased in concentration as the number of injections increased. Potential interferences from hydrolysis or alcoholysis reactions should be paid attention to, evaluated or eliminated when water or methanol was used as the GC or GC-MS solvent, and especially when underivatized methanol or ethanol was subject to GC and GC-MS analysis. PMID:24997112

Ai, Guomin; Sun, Tong; Dong, Xiuzhu

2014-08-22

310

[Simultaneous determination of nine preservatives in fruits using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine typical preservatives (pyrimethanil, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, triadimefon, thiabendazole, imazalil, myclobutanil, iprodione, prochloraz) in fruits. The fruit samples were subjected to ultrasonic extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate (1/1, v/v), and followed by purification using diatomite column chromatography with hexane/ethyl acetate (1/3, v/v) eluant. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nine preservatives were performed on the GC-MS at full-scan (SCAN) and selected ion monitoring (SIM) modes, in which triphenylphosphate was used as the internal standard. The detection limits obtained for the nine preservatives were ranged from 0.10 microg/kg to 2.16 microg/kg. The average recoveries were in the range of 75.3% to 128% at the spiked levels of 50, 100 and 200 microg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.57% to 11.6% (n = 5). The results showed that the developed method is sensitive and accurate for the determination of the nine preservatives in fruits. PMID:24783871

Peng, Shunü; Wang, Qiuquan; Fang, Lanlan; Guo, Shanyong; Zeng, Zhouhua; Lin, Zhuguang

2014-01-01

311

Determination of Morphine and Codeine in Human Urine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine. The GC-MS conditions were developed. The analysis was carried out on a HP-1MS column (30?m × 0.25?mm, 0.25??m) with temperature programming, and Helium was used as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0?mL/min. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to quantify morphine and codeine. The derivation solvent, temperature, and time were optimized. A mixed solvent of propionic anhydride and pyridine (5?:?2) was finally used for the derivation at 80°C for 3?min. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 25–2000.0?ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 25?ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD) values were below 13%, and the accuracy was in the range 87.2–108.5%. This developed method was successfully used for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine for forensic identification study.

Zhang, Xiaoqian; Cao, Gaozhong; Hu, Guoxin

2013-01-01

312

Multiplicative effects model with internal standard in mobile phase for quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays suffer from signal instability caused by the gradual fouling of the ion source, vacuum instability, aging of the ion multiplier, etc. To address this issue, in this contribution, an internal standard was added into the mobile phase. The internal standard was therefore ionized and detected together with the analytes of interest by the mass spectrometer to ensure that variations in measurement conditions and/or instrument have similar effects on the signal contributions of both the analytes of interest and the internal standard. Subsequently, based on the unique strategy of adding internal standard in mobile phase, a multiplicative effects model was developed for quantitative LC-MS assays and tested on a proof of concept model system: the determination of amino acids in water by LC-MS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently mitigate the detrimental effects of continuous signal variation, and achieved quantitative results with average relative predictive error values in the range of 8.0-15.0%, which were much more accurate than the corresponding results of conventional internal standard method based on the peak height ratio and partial least squares method (their average relative predictive error values were as high as 66.3% and 64.8%, respectively). Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can be developed and extended in quantitative LC-MS analysis of more complex systems. PMID:24840455

Song, Mi; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Jin, Jing-Wen

2014-07-01

313

Evaluation of the quality of sandalwood essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Trade and historic oils from 'sandalwoods', labelled as Amyris balsamifera, Eremophila mitchelli, Fusanus acuminatus (= Santalum acuminatum), Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, S. latifolium, S. spicatum and S. yasi, were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using GC-MS, none of the oils assessed complied with the internationally recognised standard of a 90% santalol content, and only about half of the trade sandalwood oils met with recent International Organisation for Standardisation standards. The majority of trade oils, reportedly from S. album, contained approximately 50-70% santalols (Z-alpha and Z-beta). Thus, the internationally recognised specification (90% santalols) for S. album requires re-evaluation by more efficient analysis methods. In view of the issues associated with the quality of sandalwood oils being traded, specifications of > or = 43% Z-alpha-santalol and > or = 18% Z-beta-santalol for S. album oil estimated by GC-MS are suggested. GC-MS are recommended as it assists with authentication and quality control issues associated with sandalwood oils. PMID:14989484

Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Simmonds, Monique S J; Kite, Geoffrey C

2004-03-01

314

Relative quantitation of transfer RNAs using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and signature digestion products.  

PubMed

Transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are challenging to identify and quantify from unseparated mixtures. Our lab previously developed the signature digestion approach for identifying tRNAs without specific separation. Here we describe the combination of relative quantification via enzyme-mediated isotope labeling with this signature digestion approach for the relative quantification of tRNAs. These quantitative signature digestion products were characterized using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and we find that up to 5-fold changes in tRNA abundance can be quantified from sub-microgram amounts of total tRNA. Quantitative tRNA signature digestion products must (i) incorporate an isotopic label during enzymatic digestion; (ii) have no m/z interferences from other signature digestion products in the sample and (iii) yield a linear response during LC-MS analysis. Under these experimental conditions, the RNase T1, A and U2 signature digestion products that potentially could be used for the relative quantification of Escherichia coli tRNAs were identified, and the linearity and sequence identify of RNase T1 signature digestion products were experimentally confirmed. These RNase T1 quantitative signature digestion products were then used in proof-of-principle experiments to quantify changes arising due to different culturing media to 17 tRNA families. This method enables new experiments where information regarding tRNA identity and changes in abundance are desired. PMID:20587503

Castleberry, Colette M; Limbach, Patrick A

2010-09-01

315

[Comparison of metabolite extraction from Boea hygrometrica by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

This study is aiming to establish an efficient metabolite extraction method for exploration of molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance of the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica using a metabolomics approach. The extracts of metabolite in B. hygrometrica using methanol solution (method A) and methanol-chloroform-water solution (method B) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total numbers of chromatographic peaks, extraction efficiency, retention time and the peak stability were compared. The results showed that for fresh materials, the total chromatographic peak number of method B is more than that of method A; the extraction efficiency of nine representative metabolites by method B is higher than that by method A; the comparison of 10 random chromatographic peaks revealed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the retention time are less than 1% for both methods, whereas the RSD values of the extraction efficiency is different. The percentage of peaks that owned RSD values of the extraction efficiency higher than 10% is 50% for method A and 100% for method B. In addition, method B was also efficient for dry materials from B. hygrometrica. The number of chromatographic peaks, RSD value of retention time and extraction efficiency of dry materials was similar to that of fresh materials using method B, but decreased sharply using method A. Putting together, our study provided evidence that method B is an efficient extraction method for further analysis of metabolites from this resurrection species. PMID:24941750

Zhang, Xiaofei; Duan, Lixin; Gong, Yuehua; Deng, Xin

2014-02-01

316

Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei). PMID:20349349

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick

2010-06-01

317

Computer Survey of GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) Data Acquired in EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Priority Pollutant Screening Analysis: System and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The screening analysis phase of the best available treatment (BAT) review of wastewater treatment techniques by EPA was initiated to assess 21 industrial categories for the 129 'priority pollutants.' Implicit in the purpose of the screening analysis for t...

W. M. Shackelford D. M. Cline F. O. Burchfield L. Faas G. Kurth

1983-01-01

318

Automated high-speed analysis of selected organic compounds in urban air by on-line isotopic dilution cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An automated environmental air monitor has been developed to measure selected organic compounds in urban air. The instrument is based on a cryofocusing-thermal desorption gas chromatographic mass spectrometry technique where the mass spectrometer is a slightly modified residual gas analyzer (RGA). The RGA was chosen as a detector because the whole system must be robust for long periods, with 24-h continuous air monitoring. RCA are extremely simple and seemed the most reliable mass spectrometers for this purpose. Moreover, because they have no physically limited ion source, contamination is considerably reduced, so maintenance intervals are longer.The gas chromatograph is equipped with a computer-controlled six-way sampling valve, with a 100-mL sampling loop and thermal desorption cold trap injector. Environmental air is enriched with an isotopically labeled internal standard in the sampling line. This internal standard is added with a validated, custom-made, permeation tube device. The "on-line" internal standard provides for high quality quantitative data because all variations in instrument sensitivity in cryofocusing or in thermal desorption efficiency are taken into account. High repetition rates (down to 5 min for a full analytical cycle) are obtained with the use of an isothermal gas chromatography program, microbore capillary column, and environmental air sampling during the gas chromatography run. PMID:24226389

Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Maggi, M; Fanelli, R

1994-11-01

319

COMPUTER SURVEY OF GC/MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY) DATA ACQUIRED IN EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PRIORITY POLLUTANT SCREENING ANALYSIS: SYSTEM AND RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The screening analysis phase of the best available treatment (BAT) review of wastewater treatment techniques by EPA was initiated to assess 21 industrial categories for the 129 'priority pollutants.' Implicit in the purpose of the screening analysis for these pollutants was the n...

320

The analysis of a group of acidic pharmaceuticals, carbamazepine, and potential endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewater irrigated soils by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disruptors in the environment has rightly concentrated on their presence in wastewaters and possible contamination of receiving bodies, such as groundwaters. However, wastewater is increasingly being reused for irrigation and in order to fully understand the environmental fate of these compounds, reliable methods for their analysis in soil are required, of which there

Juan C. Durán-Alvarez; Elías Becerril-Bravo; Vanessa Silva Castro; Blanca Jiménez; Richard Gibson

2009-01-01

321

Trace analysis of benzophenone-derived compounds in surface waters and sediments using solid-phase extraction and microwave-assisted extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study describes a procedure for determining eight benzophenone-derived compounds in surface waters and sediments. These include the pharmaceutical ketoprofen, its phototransformation products 3-ethylbenzophenone and 3-acetylbenzophenone, and five benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filters. The proposed analytical method involves the pre-concentration of water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of sediment samples followed by derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different parameters were investigated to achieve optimal method performance. Recoveries of 91 to 96 % from water samples were obtained using HLB Oasis SPE cartridges, whereas MAE of sediments (30 min at 150 °C) gave recoveries of 80 to 99 %. Limits of detection were between 0.1 and 1.9 ng L(-1) for water samples and from 0.1 to 1.4 ng g(-1) for sediment samples. The developed method was applied to environmental samples and revealed the presence of UV filters in the majority of the surface waters with up to 690 ng L(-1) of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. By contrast, ketoprofen (?2,900 ng L(-1)) and its degradation products (?320 ng L(-1)) were found in only two rivers, both receiving wastewater treatment plant effluents. Sediment analysis revealed benzophenone to be present in concentrations up to 650 ng g(-1), whereas concentrations of other compounds were considerably lower (?32 ng L(-1)). For the first time, quantifiable amounts of two ketoprofen transformation products in the aqueous environment are reported. PMID:24682231

Kotnik, Kristina; Kosjek, Tina; Krajnc, Uroš; Heath, Ester

2014-05-01

322

Fully automated solid-phase microextraction–fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method using a new ionic liquid column for high-throughput analysis of sarcosine and N-ethylglycine in human urine and urinary sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully automated, non invasive, rapid and high-throughput method for the direct determination of sarcosine and N-ethylglycine in urine and urinary sediments using hexyl chloroformate derivatization followed by direct immersion solid-phase micro extraction and fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometric analysis was developed and validated. The use of a new ionic liquid narrow bore column, as well as the automation and miniaturization

F. Bianchi; S. Dugheri; M. Musci; A. Bonacchi; E. Salvadori; G. Arcangeli; V. Cupelli; M. Lanciotti; L. Masieri; S. Serni; M. Carini; M. Careri; A. Mangia

2011-01-01

323

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN CONGENERS IN GREAT LAKES FISH EXTRACTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY AND IN VITRO ENZYME INDUCTION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The high-resolution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of 25 Great Lakes fish extracts confirmed the identities of several 2,3,7,8-tetrasubstituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). The dominant congener in extracts from Lake Michig...

324

On-line analysis of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in air by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Improvements in preconcentration and injection steps.  

PubMed

An analytical system composed of a cryofocusing trap injector device coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection (CTI-GC-MS) specific for the on-line analysis in air of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs) (dichloromethane; chloroform; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; tetrachloromethane; 1,1,2-trichloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene) was developed. The cryofocusing trap injector was the result of appropriate low cost modifications to an original purge-and-trap device to make it suitable for direct air analysis even in the case of only slightly contaminated air samples, such as those from remote zones. The CTI device can rapidly and easily be rearranged into the purge-and-trap allowing water and air analysis with the same apparatus. Air samples, collected in stainless steel canisters, were introduced directly into the CTI-GC-MS system to realize cryo-concentration (at -120 degrees C), thermal desorption (at 200 degrees C) and for the subsequent analysis of volatiles. The operating phases and conditions were customised and optimized. Recovery efficiency was optimized in terms of moisture removal, cold trap temperature and sampling mass flow. The injection of entrapped volatiles was realized through a direct transfer with high chromatographic reliability (capillary column-capillary column). These improvements allowed obtaining limits of detection (LODs) at least one order of magnitude lower than current LODs for the investigated substances. The method was successfully employed on real samples: air from urban and rural areas and air from remote zones such as Antarctica. PMID:20444461

Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Insogna, Susanna; Pastorini, Elisabetta

2010-06-11

325

Development of a technique for the analysis of inorganic mercury salts in soils by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry 1 1 Dedicated to the memory of Al Nier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique has been developed to analyze environmentally relevant samples for organic and inorganic mercury compounds. A solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was used as a sampling medium in both water and water\\/soil slurries. Quantification of inorganic mercury was accomplished through a chemical alkylation reaction designed to convert an inorganic mercury salt to an organomercury compound prior to GC\\/MS analysis;

Christopher M Barshick; Stacy-Ann Barshick; Phillip F Britt; Derek A Lake; Michael A Vance; Elisabeth B Walsh

1998-01-01

326

DNA Lesions in Medaka (O. latipes): Development of a Micro-Method for Tissue Analysis Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have reached a point where substantial reductions have been made in the amount of tissue required for GC-MS analysis. In the future, we will analyze the tissues from a number of normal and exposed organisms using the micro method to hopefully validate ...

D. C. Malins

1993-01-01

327

Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of volatile compounds in pineapple breads.  

PubMed

Sensorial analysis of pineapple breads (conventionally baked, Cpb; fully baked frozen, Fpb and partially baked, Ppb) showed no significant differences in terms of aroma and taste. On the contrary, the scores for the overall quality between the partially baked and conventionally baked breads showed significant (p < 0.05) differences. At the same time, headspace analysis using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method identified 59 volatile compounds. The results of the aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 19 most odour-active compounds with FD factors in the range of 32-128 as the key odourants of the pineapple breads. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between the pineapple breads in terms of the key odourants were carried out by the application of PLS-DA and PLS-regression coefficients. Results showed that Ppb exhibited strong positive correlations with most of the volatile- and non-volatile compounds, while the Cpb showed significant positive correlations with hexanal and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and the Fpb had strong positive correlations with lactic acid, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde and ethyl propanoate. PMID:23174897

Ying, Saw; Lasekan, Ola; Naidu, Kalla Reddi Mohan; Lasekan, Seye

2012-01-01

328

Detection of anticonvulsants and their metabolites in urine within a “general unknown” analysis procedure using computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, clonazepam, diazepam, ethosuximide, mephenytoin, mesuximide, methylphenobarbital, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, propylhexedrine, sultiame, trimethadion and their metabolites in urine is described. The method presented is integrated in a general screening procedure (general unknown analysis) for several groups of drugs, detecting several hundred drugs and over 1000 metabolites. It includes cleavage of conjugates by acid hydrolysis, isolation by

Hans H. Maurer

1990-01-01

329

Effect of process conditions on the analysis of free and conjugated estrogen hormones by solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPE-GC/MS).  

PubMed

Simultaneous analysis of 11 free estrogen hormones and five conjugated estrogens in water and municipal wastewater was studied. The analytical method was developed and tested for different types of solid-phase extraction adsorbents, eluents, sample containers and storage conditions, derivatization, and matrix effects. Varian Bond Elut C-18 solid-phase extraction adsorbent cartridge was selected based on its high recoveries for both free and conjugated estrogens. Sample storage conditions, as well as selection and pretreatment of sample container materials, can affect the trace level analysis of estrogens. Silanization of glassware is observed to provide low relative standard deviation (RSD) in the analysis and less percentage loss due to contacting with sample container materials. Light exposure during the test can significantly impact the results. The derivatized samples stored at -20°C for at least 6 days showed less than 10.5% average RSD in the analysis. The recovery efficiency in clean water varies from 72% to 101% for free estrogens and 78% to 82% for conjugated estrogens. The method detection limits (MDL) for most of the compounds range from 30 to 870 ng/L using a sample volume of 200 mL. With a sample volume of 3 L, the most sensitive compound produces a MDL of 0.03 ng/L. Dilute methanol is used to wash the loaded cartridge as a cleanup step in order to remove interfering species during analysis of wastewater samples. Using the optimized analytical methods, the concentration level of free estrogens in the influent and effluent municipal wastewaters is tested. PMID:21544501

Suri, Rominder P S; Singh, Tony Sarvinder; Chimchirian, Robert F

2012-03-01

330

[Analysis of ethers and related olefines in light gasoline from catalytic cracking after etherification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)].  

PubMed

A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis by GC/MS and GC of ethers and related olefines in light gasoline from catalytic cracking before and after etherification has been presented. By means of the analysis of the reactive olefines and the ethers produced it is concluded that six kinds of olefines had taken part in the etherification process, they were, 2-methyl propene-1,2-methyl butene-2,2-methyl butene-1,2-methyl pentene-1,2-ethyl butene-1, and 2-methyl pentene-2, and the four ethers produced were 2-methoxy-2-methyl propane, 2-methoxy-2-methyl butane, 2-methoxy-2-methyl pentane and 3-methoxy-3-methyl pentane. These ethers are all contributing to enhance the octane number. PMID:15739372

Li, Z; Zheng, J

1997-05-01

331

Foodomics platform for the assay of thiols in wines with fluorescence derivatization and ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using multivariate statistical analysis.  

PubMed

The presence of specific volatile and aminothiols in wine is associated with quality, worth, price, and taste. The identification of specific thiol-containing compounds in various wines has been reported in many valuable and interesting works. In this study, a novel foodomics assay of thiol-containing compounds, such as free aminothiols and related conjugates, was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence (FL) and electrospray (ESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) detections. FL specific derivatization was applied along with multivariate statistical analysis. First, the optimal experimental conditions were studied using representative thiols, such as l-cysteine, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, cysteamine, and l-glutathione, and then the UPLC-FL derivatization and separation steps were fixed for the subsequent screening of unknown thiol-containing compounds. The screening assay consisted of monitoring the UPLC-TOF/MS peaks of unknown thiols, which decreased due to the derivatization as compared to the nonderivatized thiols. The principal component analysis of the UPLC-TOF/MS data could be well-differentiated and categorized into two groups. The orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis, the so-called S-plot, showed that the quality differentiation is directly related to the decrease of native thiols and increase of derivatized thiols. With this strategy, the mass difference from the derivatization reagent (+m/z 198) could be utilized for the identification of these thiols using the FL peaks retention time and metabolomics-databases. The presence of l-glutathione in rice wine was for the first time reported on the basis of the available metabolomics-databases and standard matching. This novel concept based on foodomics could be applied in food analysis for the ready screening of specific functional compounds by exploiting the various derivatization modes available. PMID:23339461

Inoue, Koichi; Nishimura, Maiko; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

2013-02-13

332

Screening and analysis of polar pesticides in environmental monitoring programmes by coupled-column liquid chromatography and gas chromatography—mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening and analysis of polar pesticides based on coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC-LC) and GC- or LC-MS is a powerful tool in the execution of environmental monitoring programmes. This paper presents a unified approach utilising LC-LC screening followed by GC-MS confirmation. As polar pesticides are not generally amenable to GC a widely applicable derivation technique is used. The results demonstrate

E. A. Hogendoorn; R. Hoogerbrugge; R. A. Baumann; H. D. Meiring; A. P. J. M. de Jong; P. van Zoonen

1996-01-01

333

Headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the volatile components of longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headspace solid-phase microextraction has been applied to the analysis of volatile components in longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.). Silica fiber coated with divinylbenzene–carboxen–polydimethylsiloxane (DVB–CAR–PDMS) was found to be more efficient\\u000a for extracting volatile compounds than other fibers such as those coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, and carboxen–polydimethylsiloxane.\\u000a The SPME headspace volatiles were collected using a DVB–CAR–PDMS fiber. The extraction conditions were optimized

Yi Zhang; Bei Gao; Mingwei Zhang; John Shi; Yujuan Xu

2009-01-01

334

Increasing productivity for the analysis of trace contaminants in food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using automated liner exchange, backflushing and heart-cutting.  

PubMed

Laboratories focusing on residue analysis in food are continuously seeking to increase sample throughput by minimizing sample preparation. Generic sample extraction methods such as QuEChERS lack selectivity and consequently extracts are not free from non-volatile material that contaminates the analytical system. Co-extracted matrix constituents interfere with target analytes, even if highly sensitive and selective GC-MS/MS is used. A number of GC approaches are described that can be used to increase laboratory productivity. These techniques include automated inlet liner exchange and column backflushing for preservation of the performance of the analytical system and heart-cutting two-dimensional GC for increasing sensitivity and selectivity. The application of these tools is illustrated by the analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits, PCBs in milk powder and coplanar PCBs in fish. It is demonstrated that considerable increase in productivity can be achieved by decreasing instrument down-time, while analytical performance is equal or better compared to conventional trace contaminant analysis. PMID:23891373

David, Frank; Tienpont, Bart; Devos, Christophe; Lerch, Oliver; Sandra, Pat

2013-10-25

335

Analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in sewage sludges and urban soils by concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection (CSR-LVI) is a gas chromatography injection technique that is particularly suitable for determining volatile compounds. In the present work, we evaluated the applicability of this technique for the analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in sewage sludges and soils after solvent extraction to prevent losses of low-molecular-weight compounds. The CSR-LVI injection method was optimised to achieve maximum sensitivity and good chromatographic peak shapes. A liner packed with deactivated glass wool and a 5 m × 0.32 mm I.D. uncoated fused-silica precolumn was used. This made it possible to inject extract volumes of up to 30 ?l. Good linearity (r>0.9993) and precision (RSD <15%), with recoveries ranging from 80 to 100% and method limits of quantification from 0.03 to 0.4 ng g(-1) wet weight (0.04-1.5 ng g(-1) dry weight for sewage sludges and 0.01-0.5 ng g(-1) dry weight for soils) were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in sewage sludges collected from several wastewater treatment plants in Catalonia (NE Spain) and urban soils from the city of Barcelona. PMID:23141621

Companioni-Damas, E Y; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

2012-12-14

336

Migration analysis of epoxidized soybean oil and other plasticizers in commercial lids for food packaging by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A modification of the method of Castle et al. (J. Chromatogr. 1988: 437:274-280) for the analysis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is proposed to simplify the analysis and reduce the time and consumption of reagents. The proposed modifications, particularly the elimination of the internal standard, resulted in a simpler, faster and more economical method. A complete analytical validation, including evaluation of the main analytical parameters, such as detection and quantification limits, linearity, working range, precision, accuracy and selectivity, was carried out. The data demonstrated the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of ESBO in polymer matrices. A specific migration study for ESBO in different food simulants (fat and aqueous) was carried out by applying the method to poly(vinyl chloride) materials prepared with known amounts of ESBO, as well as some commercial lids. High levels of migration of ESBO into fat simulants were found. In the case of commercial lids, in addition to ESBO, some other plasticizers such as citrates, adipates and sebacates were found and quantified to establish their migration under different conditions of use. PMID:20635266

Bueno-Ferrer, C; Jimenez, A; Garrigos, M C

2010-10-01

337

Multiresidue analysis of plant growth regulators in grapes by triple quadrupole and quadrupole-time of flight-based liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method is presented for simultaneous determination of 12 plant growth regulators, viz., indol-3-acetic acid, indol-3-butyric acid, kinetin, zeatin, 6-benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, chlormequat chloride, forchlorfenuron, paclobutrazole, daminozide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, in bud sprouts and grape berries. The sample preparation method involved extraction of homogenized sample (5 g) with 40 mL methanol (80%), and final determination was by LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with time segmentation for quantification supported by complementary analysis by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) MS with targeted high-resolution MS/MS scanning for confirmatory identification based on accurate mass measurements. The recovery of the test compounds ranged within 90-107% with precision RSD less than 5% (n = 6). The method could be successfully applied in analyzing incurred residue samples, and the strength of accurate mass analysis could be utilized in identifying the compounds in cases where the qualifier MRM ions were absent or at an S/N less than 3:1 due to low concentrations. PMID:22320078

Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Kulkarni, Sunil

2011-01-01

338

Comparison of sample preparation methods combined with fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultratrace analysis of pesticide residues in baby food.  

PubMed

Four sample preparation techniques were compared for the ultratrace analysis of pesticide residues in baby food: (a) modified Schenck's method based on ACN extraction with SPE cleaning; (b) quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method based on ACN extraction and dispersive SPE; (c) modified QuEChERS method which utilizes column-based SPE instead of dispersive SPE; and (d) matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD). The methods were combined with fast gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The effectiveness of clean-up of the final extract was determined by comparison of the chromatograms obtained. Time consumption, laboriousness, demands on glassware and working place, and consumption of chemicals, especially solvents, increase in the following order QuEChERS < modified QuEChERS < MSPD < modified Schenck's method. All methods offer satisfactory analytical characteristics at the concentration levels of 5, 10, and 100 microg/kg in terms of recoveries and repeatability. Recoveries obtained for the modified QuEChERS method were lower than for the original QuEChERS. In general the best LOQs were obtained for the modified Schenck's method. Modified QuEChERS method provides 21-72% better LOQs than the original method. PMID:16830724

Hercegová, Andrea; Dömötörová, Milena; Kruzlicová, Dása; Matisová, Eva

2006-05-01

339

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Update and Additions to the Determination of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Degradation Compounds in Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1999 for the analysis of selected chloroacetanilide herbicide degradation compounds in water. These compounds were acetochlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. The HPLC/MS method was updated in 2000, and the method detection limits were modified accordingly. Four other degradation compounds also were added to the list of compounds that can be analyzed using HPLC/MS; these compounds were dimethenamid ESA, dimethenamid OXA, flufenacet ESA, and flufenacet OXA. Except for flufenacet OXA, good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for the updated HPLC/MS method in buffered reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the degradation compounds from water samples spiked at 0.20 and 1.0 ?g/L (microgram per liter) ranged from 75 to 114 percent, with relative standard deviations of 15.8 percent or less for all compounds except flufenacet OXA, which had relative standard deviations ranging from 11.3 to 48.9 percent. Method detection levels (MDL's) using the updated HPLC/MS method varied from 0.009 to 0.045 ?g/L, with the flufenacet OXA MDL at 0.072 ?g/L. The updated HPLC/MS method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

Lee, E. A.; Kish, J. L.; Zimmerman, L. R.; Thurman, E.

2001-01-01

340

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of selected herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the extraction and analysis of eight herbicides and five degradation products using solid-phase extraction from natural water samples followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. This method was developed for dimethenamid; flufenacet; fluometuron and its degradation products, demethylfluometuron (DMFM), 3-(trifluromethyl)phenylurea (TFMPU), 3-(trifluromethyl)-aniline (TFMA); molinate; norflurazon and its degradation product, demethylnorflurazon; pendamethalin; the degradation product of prometryn, deisopropylprometryn; propanil; and trifluralin. The eight herbicides are used primarily in the southern United States where cotton, rice, and soybeans are produced. The exceptions are dimethenamid and flufenacet, which are used on corn in the Midwest. Water samples received by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas, are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then passed through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica (C-18) to extract the compounds. The herbicides and their degradation products are removed from the column by ethyl acetate elution. The eluate is evaporated under nitrogen, and components then are separated, identified, and quantified by injecting an aliquot of the concentrated extract into a high-resolution, fused-silica capillary column of a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer under selected-ion mode. Method detection limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ?g/L for all compounds with the exception of TFMPU, which has a method detection limit of 0.32 ?g/L. The mean absolute recovery is 107 percent. This method for the determination of herbicides and their degradation products is valuable for acquiring information about water quality and compound fate and transport in water.

Kish, J. L.; Thurman, E. M.; Scribner, E. A.; Zimmerman, L. R.

2000-01-01

341

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Moderate-Use Pesticides and Selected Degradates in Water by C-18 Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the isolation and analysis of 21 parent pesticides and 20 pesticide degradates in natural-water samples is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase-extraction columns that contain octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the analytes. The columns are dried by using nitrogen gas, and adsorbed analytes are eluted with ethyl acetate. Extracted analytes are determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of three characteristic ions. The upper concentration limit is 2 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for most analytes. Single-operator method detection limits in reagent-water samples range from 0.00 1 to 0.057 ?g/L. Validation data also are presented for 14 parent pesticides and 20 degradates that were determined to have greater bias or variability, or shorter holding times than the other compounds. The estimated maximum holding time for analytes in pesticide-grade water before extraction was 4 days. The estimated maximum holding time for analytes after extraction on the dry solid-phase-extraction columns was 7 days. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time. The method complements existing U.S. Geological Survey Method O-1126-95 (NWQL Schedules 2001 and 2010) by using identical sample preparation and comparable instrument analytical conditions so that sample extracts can be analyzed by either method to expand the range of analytes determined from one water sample.

Sandstrom, Mark W.; Stroppel, Max E.; Foreman, William T.; Schroeder, Michael P.

2001-01-01

342

Characterization of oil shale waters by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Characterization work has begun on organic compounds and compound classes to establish a baseline for the evaluation and development of alternative instrumental characterization techniques. For this purpose raw water from two oil shale processes has been subjected to an extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Samples from the R-17 and Rio Blanco processes were chosen for comparison with previous characterization work reported by Poulson et al. (1984, 1985), who used low-cost gas and reverse-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques. In addition, various inorganic and physical parameters were re-evaluated. The preliminary comparison of GC/MS data with the GC and reverse phase LC data previously reported by Poulson et al., indicates a number of positive correlations for both the process waters. Aliphatic carboxylic acids, cresols, xylenols, methyl pyridines, dimethyl pyridines, and trimethyl pyridines were found both in present GC/MS analysis and in earlier GC and LC analyses of the samples. In addition, trimethylphenols were observed in both the present GC/MS analysis and in the previous GC and LC analyses of the Rio Blanco sample. A number of tentatively identified compounds and compound classes were observed in the GC/MS analysis but were unreported in either the GC or LC analyses for both samples. Similarly, several compounds and compound classes previously reported by GC and LC techniques were absent in the GC/MS analysis. These discrepancies may be attributed to either the original GC and LC research design or to a fundamental chemical change in the samples used for the GC/MS characterization. Additional research is necessary in the areas of extraction design, use of comparable GC and GC/MS marker compounds for identification, standardization of chromatographic columns and GC conditions, and the validity of computer library identifications. 3 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

Lane, D.C.; Baughman, K.J.; Jones, J.S.

1986-09-01

343

Development of a rapid method for the quantitative analysis of four methoxypyrazines in white and red wine using multi-dimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Alkyl-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are important odour-active constituents of many grape cultivars and their wines. Recently, a new MP - 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine (DMMP) - has been reported as a possible constituent of wine. This study sought to develop a rapid and reliable method for quantifying DMMP, isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in wine. The proposed method is able to rapidly and accurately resolve all 4 MPs in a range of wine styles, with limits of detection between 1 and 2 ng L(-1) for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP and 5 ng L(-1) for DMMP. Analysis of a set of 11 commercial wines agrees with previously published values for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, and shows for the first time that DMMP may be an important and somewhat common odorant in red wines. To our knowledge, this is the first analytical method developed for the quantification of DMMP in wine. PMID:24799220

Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J; Kotseridis, Yorgos

2014-10-01

344

Preparation of phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for fast extraction and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Acetaldehyde is regarded as a toxic mainstream cigarette smoke constituent, and measurement of acetaldehyde in complex real samples is difficult owing to its high volatility and reactivity. In this work, phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres were developed as the solid-phase extraction sorbents for enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke. The functional magnetic microspheres were first synthesized through a facile one-pot co-condensation approach. The prepared nanomaterials possessed abundant silanol groups in the exterior surface and numerous phenyl groups in the interior pore-walls, as well as a large surface area (273.5m(2)/g), strong superparamagnetism and uniform mesopores (3.3 nm). Acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke was collected in water and derivatizated with O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine. The formed acetaldehyde oximes were extracted and enriched by the prepared adsorbents via ?-? interactions and subsequently analyzed using GC-MS. Extraction conditions such as amounts of sorbents, eluting solvent, adsorption and desorption time were investigated and optimized to achieve the best efficiency. Method validations including linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detection were also studied. It was found that the suggested methodology provided low detection limit of 0.04 mg/mL, good recovery of 88-92%, intra-day and inter-day RSD values of 4.5% and 10.1%, and linear range of 0.25-4 mg/mL (R(2)=0.999). The results indicated that the proposed method based on phenyl-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres was rapid, efficient and convenient for the enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in tobacco. PMID:24054614

Huang, Danni; Sha, Yunfei; Zheng, Saijing; Liu, Baizhan; Deng, Chunhui

2013-10-15

345

The role of the acquisition methods in the analysis of natural and synthetic steroids and cholic acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An exhaustive GC-MS acquisition study was performed, for the simultaneous analysis of natural and synthetic steroids and cholic acids (in order to insert them into the last tierce of our multiresidue analysis system), such as androsterone, ?-estradiol, transdehydroandro-sterone, transdehyroandrosterone, mestranol, dihydrotestosterone, ethinylestradiol, testosterone, norethisterone, estriol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, gestodene, levonorgestrel, etonogestrel, coprostanol, progesterone, cholesterol, medroxyprogesterone-acetate, lithocholic acid, stigmasterol, cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, ?-sitosterol, ursodeoxycholic acid, 3-hydroxy-7-ketocholic acid and dehydrocholic acid, in total 26 compounds. As novelties to the field, for the trimethylsilyl (TMS) oxime ether/ester derivatives of steroids and cholic acids, at first, a tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS), multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) type acquisition method has been developed in a single run; also for the first time, the three acquisition techniques, the full scan (FS), the selective ion monitoring (SIM), in our case the multiple ion monitoring (MIM) and the currently optimized MRM methods, have been compared; all three, in parallel, under strictly the same derivatization/instrumental conditions, both in matrix free solutions and municipal wastewater from two Hungarian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Critical evaluation of the three acquisition protocols was collated on their analytical performances and validated under the same conditions. The data of six point calibration curves for FS, MIM and MRM methods, showed that both R² (0.9995, 0.9858, 0.9975) and RSD (5.3, 5.8, 5.0), for two parallel derivatizations, each injected three times, proved to be independent of the acquisition processes. Whereas, for the method limit of quantification (LOQ) and the instrument limit of quantification (ILQ) values showed considerable differences. LOQ data, were decreasing in the FS, MIM, MRM line (expressed in ng/L), for all steroids and cholic acids. The same trend was determined in terms of the ILQ values. The practical utility of the optimized acquisition techniques was confirmed by the quantitation of the steroids and cholic acids contents of wastewater samples. Results confirmed the importance of the MRM acquisition method, even in comparison to the MIM one: with particular interest in selected cases: avoiding the extreme overestimation of the ?-estradiol (156-1325%) and that of the ethinylestradiol (582-831%) concentrations in the wastewater samples. PMID:21981935

Andrási, N; Helenkár, A; Vasanits-Zsigrai, A; Záray, Gy; Molnár-Perl, I

2011-11-11

346

Determination of pharmaceuticals and antiseptics in water by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: analysis via pentafluorobenzylation and stable isotope dilution.  

PubMed

A sensitive yet robust analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of 12 human pharmaceuticals (valproic acid, phenytoin, ibuprofen, gabapentin, acetaminophen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ketoprofen, secobarbital, phenobarbital, 5-fluorouracil, and diclofenac) and 6 antiseptics (biosol, biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-xylenol, chlorophene, and triclosan). The method employs solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by a novel pentafluorobenzylation using a mixture of acetontrile/water (1/1, v/v). The method is simple to perform (derivatization can be completed in a single test tube) and eliminates the need for any solvent/SPE cartridge drying or blow-down. It affords excellent resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility, and freedom from interference even for matrices as complex as untreated sewage. The method was applied to the analysis of sewage samples using 15 isotopically labeled surrogates, which resulted in the detection of 10 of the 12 pharmaceuticals and all of the antiseptics sought. Ten of 15 surrogates were synthesized from pure analytes by a simple H-D exchange reaction employing D(2)O and D(2)SO(4). Measured recoveries were sensitive to matrix effects and varied substantially among analytes, indicative of the limitations associated with using a single surrogate standard. PMID:22367332

Yu, Jim T; Bisceglia, Kevin J; Bouwer, Edward J; Roberts, A Lynn; Coelhan, Mehmet

2012-04-01

347

Analysis of residues of 81 pesticides on ginkgo leaves using QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pesticide residues on Ginkgo leaves are a safety concern. A fast and reliable method was developed for the analysis of 81 pesticides on Ginkgo leaves, which are pharmaceutically valuable. The method consists of a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe sample preparation method and GC/MS detection. Five sorbents (graphitized carbon black, primary secondary amine, amino, alumina, and Florisil) and two solvents (toluene and hexane) were optimized for the cleanup procedure. The LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.05 to 17.6 and 0.16 to 58.8 microg/kg, respectively. A majority of the pesticides (86-94%) gave satisfactory recoveries (70-110%), and 1-6% of the substances gave recoveries higher than 110% of the spiked concentration (n = 5) at 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg. Less than 5% of the substances showed recoveries lower than 70%. The method was proven to be repeatable with RSDs lower than 20%. PMID:21391509

Zhou, Lin; Duan, Chunming; Wang, Minglin; Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Rong

2011-01-01

348

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of hexafluoroacetone derivatives: First time utilization of a gaseous phase derivatizing agent for analysis of extraterrestrial amino acids.  

PubMed

Within the perspective of the current and next space missions to Mars (MSL 2011 and Exomars 2016-2018), the detection and enantioselective separation of building blocks such as the amino acids are important subjects which are becoming fundamental for the search for traces of life on the surface and subsurface of Mars. In this work, we have developed and optimized a method adapted to space experimentation to derivatize and analyze amino acids, using hexafluoroacetone as the derivatizing agent. The temperature, duration of the derivative transfer to the analyser, and chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized to meet the instrument design constraints imposed on devices for extraterrestrial experiments. The work presented in this rationale has established that hexafluoroacetone, in addition to its intrinsic qualities, such as the production of light-weight derivatives (no racemization) and great resistance to the drastic operating conditions, has indeed facilitated simple and fast derivatization that appears to be suitable for in situ analysis in space. By using hexafluoroacetone as the derivatizing agent, we successfully identified, 21 amino acids including 12 of the 20 proteinic amino acids without stirring or extraction steps. Ten of these derivatized amino acids were enantioselectively separated. The precision and accuracy measurements for the D/L ratio showed that the proposed method was also suitable for the determination of both enantioselective forms of most of the tested amino acids. The limits of detection obtained were lower than the ppb level of organic molecules detected in Martian meteorites. PMID:22633064

Geffroy-Rodier, C; Buch, A; Sternberg, R; Papot, S

2012-07-01

349

Fast quantitative analysis of boric acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with a simple and selective derivatization reaction using triethanolamine.  

PubMed

A fast, selective, and sensitive GC-MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of boric acid in the drinking water by derivatization with triethanolamine. This analytic strategy successfully converts the inorganic, nonvolatile boric acid B(OH)(3) present in the drinking water to a volatile triethanolamine borate B(OCH(2)CH(2))(3)N in a quantitative manner, which facilitates the GC measurement. The SIM mode was applied in the analysis and showed high accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility, as well as reducing the matrix effect effectively. The calibration curve was obtained from 0.01 microg/mL to 10.0 microg/mL with a satisfactory correlation coefficient of 0.9988. The limit of detection for boric acid was 0.04 microg/L. Then the method was applied for detection of the amount of boric acid in bottled drinking water and the results are in accordance with the reported concentration value of boric acid. This study offers a perspective into the utility of GC-MS as an alternate quantitative tool for detection of B(OH)(3), even for detection of boron in various other samples by digesting the boron compounds to boric acid. PMID:20080047

Zeng, Li-Min; Wang, Hao-Yang; Guo, Yin-Long

2010-03-01

350

Mercury speciation and analysis in drinking water by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ propyl derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for mercury analysis and speciation in drinking water was developed, which involved stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ propyl derivatization and thermal desorption (TD)-GC-MS. Ten millilitre of tap water or bottled water was used. After a stir bar, pH adjustment agent and derivatization reagent were added, SBSE was performed. Then, the stir bar was subjected to TD-GC-MS. The detection limits were 0.01 ng mL(-1) (ethylmercury; EtHg), 0.02 ng mL(-1) (methylmercury; MeHg), and 0.2 ng mL(-1) (Hg(II) and diethylmercury (DiEtHg)). The method showed good linearity and correlation coefficients. The average recoveries of mercury species (n=5) in water samples spiked with 0.5, 2.0, and 6.0 ng mL(-1) mercury species were 93.1-131.1% (RSD<11.5%), 90.1-106.4% (RSD<7.8%), and 94.2-109.6% (RSD<8.8%), respectively. The method enables the precise determination of standards and can be applied to the determination of mercury species in water samples. PMID:18823893

Ito, Rie; Kawaguchi, Migaku; Sakui, Norihiro; Honda, Hidehiro; Okanouchi, Noriya; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

2008-10-31

351

Search for evidence of life in space: analysis of enantiomeric organic molecules by N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal derivative dependant Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Within the context of the future space missions to Mars (MSL 2011 and Exomars 2016), which aim at searching for traces of life at the surface, the detection and quantitation of enantiomeric organic molecules is of major importance. In this work, we have developed and optimized a method to derivatize and analyze chiral organic molecules suitable for space experiments, using N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as the derivatization agent. The temperature, duration of the derivatization reaction, and chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized to meet instrument design constraints imposed upon space experiment devices. This work demonstrates that, in addition to its intrinsic qualities, such as production of light-weight derivatives and a great resistance to drastic operating conditions, DMF-DMA facilitates simple and fast derivatization of organic compounds (three minutes at 140 degrees C in a single-step) that is suitable for an in situ analysis in space. By using DMF-DMA as the derivatization agent, we have successfully identified 19 of the 20 proteinic amino acids and been able to enantiomerically separate ten of the potential 19 (glycine being non-chiral). Additionally, we have minimized the percentage of racemized amino acid compounds produced by optimizing the conditions of the derivatization reaction itself. Quantitative linearity studies and the determination of the limit of detection show that the proposed method is also suitable for the quantitative determination of both enantiomeric forms of most of the tested amino acids, as limits of detection obtained are lower than the ppb level of organic molecules already detected in Martian meteorites. PMID:20036768

Freissinet, C; Buch, A; Sternberg, R; Szopa, C; Geffroy-Rodier, C; Jelinek, C; Stambouli, M

2010-01-29

352

Application of QuEChERS method for extraction of selected persistent organic pollutants in fish tissue and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The QuEChERS method developed for 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 7-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue involves a simple and efficient freezing technique for removal of lipids. The equipment developed consists of disposable syringes and a freezing block constructed from simple materials found in most laboratories. The freezing block keeps the temperature in the extract at -20.5°C up to 10 min after being exposed to room temperature. After the freezing step 69% of the lipids in tilapia and 61% in salmon are removed. Further reduction of co-extractives up to 96% in tilapia and 87% in salmon can be made by treatment with CaCl(2) and primary secondary amino sorbent (PSA) which removes the fatty acids. Spiking experiments in tilapia at 5 and 50 ng/g and extracted with acetonitrile show recovery range from 70 to 115% for all compounds. In salmon the recoveries are in the range 43-118% for the OCPs and 26-65% for the PCBs. Analysis of a standard reference material shows acceptable results for most of the pesticides but low results for the PCBs. The estimated LOQs were in the range 1-5 ng/g for tilapia and 2-10 ng/g for salmon. The method has been applied to analyse fish samples from Lake Koka in Ethiopia. It was investigated if addition of a less polar water miscible solvent than acetonitrile could increase the recovery of OCPs and PCBs. The results show that a mixture of 75% acetonitrile and 25% tetrahydrofurane (ACN/THF 75/25) clearly enhances the recoveries for most OCPs (47-101%) and PCBs (42-79%) from salmon. The recovery of aldrin increases significantly from 55% to over 80%. The method using ACN/THF 75/25 is applicable to the extraction of OCPs and PCBs from fish tissue having a lipid content of up to about 11% (salmon) with recoveries ?70% for most of the OCPs and ?42% for the PCBs. PMID:21899854

Norli, Hans Ragnar; Christiansen, Agnethe; Deribe, Ermias

2011-10-14

353

Fast solid-phase extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry procedure for oil fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple fractionation procedure using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges was developed for an accurate determination of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum residues and further application in chemical fingerprinting of oil spills by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Among the adsorbents evaluated, SiO2\\/C3?CN exhibited the best selectivity, providing, by elution with n-hexane (4ml) and n-hexane–CH2Cl2 (1:1) (5ml), two

Roberto Alzaga; Paolo Montuori; Laura Ortiz; Josep M Bayona; Joan Albaigés

2004-01-01

354

Identification and estimation of tocotrienols in the annatto lipid fraction by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid fraction of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seeds was extracted with a Soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane and isolated by thin-layer chromatography. The fatty-soluble antioxidant fraction contained only tocotrienols, mainly\\u000a ?-tocotrienol, but no tocopherols. The presence of tocotrienols was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The\\u000a quantities of ?-tocotrienol were 140–147 mg\\/100 g dry seeds and 5.2–5.5% wt\\/wt of lipid extract,

N. Frega; M. Mozzon; F. Bocci

1998-01-01

355

Investigating microwave hydrolysis for the traceable quantification of peptide standards using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, a number of endogenous peptides and endogenous peptide analogs have been employed in therapeutics and as diagnostic markers. The use of peptides as standards for the absolute quantification of proteins has become commonly accepted. Consequently, the requirement for standard peptides traceable to the International System of Units with low associated measurement uncertainty, and for accurate methods of peptide quantification, has increased. Here we describe a method of peptide quantification involving microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that enables traceable quantification of a peptide by exact matching isotope dilution mass spectrometry where the total hydrolysis time required is only 3h. A solution of angiotensin I was quantified using this method, and the results were in agreement with those obtained previously using an oven hydrolysis liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. PMID:21185255

Pritchard, Caroline; Torma, Frank A; Hopley, Chris; Quaglia, Milena; O'Connor, Gavin

2011-05-01

356

Extraction of pure components from overlapped signals in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a widely used analytical technique for the identification and quantification of trace chemicals in complex mixtures. When complex samples are analyzed by GC-MS it is common to observe co-elution of two or more components, resulting in an overlap of signal peaks observed in the total ion chromatogram. In such situations manual signal analysis is often the most reliable means for the extraction of pure component signals; however, a systematic manual analysis over a number of samples is both tedious and prone to error. In the past 30 years a number of computational approaches were proposed to assist in the process of the extraction of pure signals from co-eluting GC-MS components. This includes empirical methods, comparison with library spectra, eigenvalue analysis, regression and others. However, to date no approach has been recognized as best, nor accepted as standard. This situation hampers general GC-MS capabilities, and in particular has implications for the development of robust, high-throughput GC-MS analytical protocols required in metabolic profiling and biomarker discovery. Here we first discuss the nature of GC-MS data, and then review some of the approaches proposed for the extraction of pure signals from co-eluting components. We summarize and classify different approaches to this problem, and examine why so many approaches proposed in the past have failed to live up to their full promise. Finally, we give some thoughts on the future developments in this field, and suggest that the progress in general computing capabilities attained in the past two decades has opened new horizons for tackling this important problem.

Likic, Vladimir A

2009-01-01

357

Triple sorbent thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination of vapor phase organic contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A thermal desorption/ps chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vapor phase samples using Carbosieve S-III/Carbotrap/Carotrap C triple sorbent traps (TST) similar to those available from a commercial source. The analysis was carried out with a Hewlett-Packard 5985A or 5995 GC/MS system with a modified injector to adapt an inhouse manufactured short-path desorber for transferring desorbate directly onto a cryofocusing loop for subsequent GC/MS analysis. Vapor phase standards generated from twenty six compounds were used for method validation, including alkanes, alkyl alcohols, alkyl ketones, and alkyl nitrites, a group of representative compounds that have previously been identified in a target airborne matrix. The method was validated based on the satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility, recovery rate, stability, and linearity. A relative, standard deviation of 0.55 to 24.3 % was obtained for the entire TD process (generation of gas phase standards, spiking the standards on and desorbing from TST) over a concentration range of 20 to 500 ng/trap. Linear correlation coefficients for the calibration curves as determined ranged from 0.81 to 0.99 and limits of detection ranged from 3 to 76 ng. For a majority of standards, recoveries of greater than 90% were observed. For three selected standards spiked on TSTS, minimal loss (10 to 22%) was observed after storing the spiked in, a 4{degree}C refrigerator for 29 days. The only chromatographable artifact observed was a 5% conversion of isopropanol to acetone. The validated method been successfully applied, to the determination of VOCs collected from various emission sources in a diversified concentration range.

Ma, C.Y.; Skeen, J.T.; Dindal, A.B.; Higgins, C.E.; Jenkins, R.A.

1994-05-01

358

Liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of steroid hormone metabolites and its applications  

PubMed Central

Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be used to measure steroid hormone metabolites in vitro and in vivo. We find that LC-Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-MS using a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode can be used to monitor the product profile that results from 5?–dihydrotestosterone(DHT)-17?-glucuronide, DHT-17?-sulfate, and tibolone-17?-sulfate reduction catalyzed by human members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C subfamily and assign kinetic constants to these reactions. We also developed a stable-isotope dilution LC-electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the quantitative analysis of estrone (E1) and its metabolites as pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives in human plasma in the attomole range. The limit of detection for E1-PFB was 740 attomole on column. Separations can be performed using normal-phase LC because ionization takes place in the gas phase rather than in solution. This permits efficient separation of the regioisomeric 2- and 4-methoxy-E1. The method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of plasma E2 and its metabolites: 2-methoxy-E2, 4-methoxy-E2, 16?-hydroxy-E2, estrone (E1), 2-methoxy-E1, 4-methoxy-EI, and 16?-hydroxy-E1 from 5 pg/mL to 2,000 pg/mL. Our LC-MS methods have sufficient sensitivity to detect steroid hormone levels in prostate and breast tumors and should aid their molecular diagnosis and treatment.

Penning, Trevor M.; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jin, Yi; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Blair, Ian A.

2010-01-01

359

Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) developed and implemented a graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method to determine polar pesticide concentrations in surface- and ground-water samples. Subsequently, the NWQL developed a complementary analysis that uses high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect, identify, and quantify polar pesticides and pesticide metabolites in filtered water at concentrations as low as 10 nanograms per liter. This new method was designed to improve sensitivity and selectivity over the prior method, and to reduce known interferences from natural organic matter. In this new method, pesticides are extracted from filtered water samples by useing a 0.5-gram graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction cartridge, eluted from the cartridge, and concentrations determined by using high-perforance liquid chromatography with elecrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The upper concentratoin limit is 1.000 microgram per liter (ug/L) for most compounds. Single-operator method detection limits in organic-free water samples fortified with pesticdes at a concentration of 0.025 ug/L ranged from 0.0019 to 0.022 ug/L for all compunds in the method. The grand mean (mean of mean recoveries for individual compounds) recoveries in organic-free water samples ranged from 72 to 89 percent, fortified wit hpesticides at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Grand mean recoveries in ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 46 to 119 percent, also fortified with pesticies at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Long-term recoveries from reagent water spikes were used to demonstrate that 38 of 65 compounds can be reported without qualification of the quantitative result across the analytical range of the method. The remaining 27 are reported with qualified estimates of concentration because of greater variability of recovery.

Furlong, Edward T.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Soliven, Paul P.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

2001-01-01

360

Application of liquid chromatography-particle beam mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the identification of metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two liquid chromatography-particle beam mass spectrometry (LC-PBMS) systems have been used for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in water samples from a biological decomposition model experiment. The results were compared with those obtained by classical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Evaluation of spectral data indicated the presence of six main metabolites; 1H,3H-naphtho [1,8-cd]pyran-1,3-dione, 1-(hydroxymethyl)naphthalene, and 1,2-acenaphthenedione were identified by use of

T. J. Gremm; F. H. Frimmel

1994-01-01

361

Determination of ketamine and metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We have developed an analytical method by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine ketamine and its metabolites in urine. The ionization efficiency between two ionization modes (ESI and APCI) of LC-MS was compared to each other. An easy and simple sample preparation of urine samples was made by passing samples through a 0.22mum PVDF syringe filter. The results indicated that the ionization efficiency of positive APCI mode is better than positive ESI mode for determination of trace ketamines. A wide linearity range of the research is from 5 to 250ngmL(-1) and the detection limits for ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine were 0.95, 0.48 and 0.33ngmL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was tested by analyzing ketamine and metabolites in the urines of volunteers. The concentrations of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine are ranged of 5.4-131.0, 12.5-74.1 and 22.8-278.9ngmL(-1), respectively and the ketamines concentration profiles in human urine were also determined. The results demonstrate the suitability of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to analyze trace amount of ketamine and its metabolites in urine. PMID:19071747

Chen, Chung-Yu; Lee, Maw-Rong; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Wu, Gong-Jhe

2007-05-15

362

[Simultaneous determination of 19 phthalate esters in cosmetics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 phthalate esters (PAEs) at trace level in cosmetics by solid phase extraction (SPE) purification and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. The PAEs were extracted from cosmetic samples by dichloromethane with ultrasonic-assisted technique, purified by an SPE column packed with silica gel and neutral alumina (2: 3, m/m) with the elution of 20 mL of mixed solvent of ethyl acetate-hexane (8: 2, v/v). Qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out by GC-MS in full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The retention time of quantitative ions and the abundance ratio of characteristic ions were applied to rapidly and accurately identify each analyte so as to prevent the occurring of possible mistakes from complex matrix intervention. Under optimized conditions, the average recoveries for a shampoo sample spiked with the standards at 0.1, 0.5, 2.0 microg/g were in the range of 72.2% and 110.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the 19 PAEs were less than 10.3% (n = 6) at the spiked level of 0.1 microg/g. The limits of detection (LODs, as 3 times of standard deviation) were between 0.0065 microg/g (for diisopentyl phthalate) and 0.062 microg/g (for diisobutyl phthalate). The method was successfully applied to the determination of the PAEs in 6 types of cosmetics. It is expected to promote the determination of the PAEs in other cosmetics with different matrices. PMID:22715693

Liang, Jing; Zhuang, Wan'e; Wei, Danqi; Ou, Yan; Gong, Zhenbin

2012-03-01

363

Quantitation of opioids in whole blood by electron impact-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Opioids are frequently encountered in Forensic Toxicology casework. A PubMed literature search was conducted to find a method using electron impact-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine whole blood specimens. A previously published method was identified, and an updated version was provided by the State of North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. This procedure was used as a starting point for development and validation of a refined procedure to be used in the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office Forensic Toxicology laboratory for routine analysis of antemortem forensic toxicology case samples. Materials and instrumentation common to most forensic toxicology laboratories were utilized while obtaining detection limits from 1 to 10 ng/mL and quantitation limits of 2.5 to 10 ng/mL using 1 mL of whole blood. Target compounds were chosen based on applicability to the method as well as availability and common use in the United States and include dihydrocodeine, codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, 6-monoacetylmorphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone. Each analyte demonstrated two zero-order linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) over the concentrations evaluated (from 2.5 to 500 ng/mL). The coefficient of variation of replicate analyses was less than 12%. Quantitative accuracy was within ± 27% at 2.5 ng/mL, ± 11% at 10 ng/mL, and ± 8% at 50 ng/mL. The validated method provides a more sensitive procedure for the quantitation of common opioids in blood using standard laboratory equipment and a small amount of sample. PMID:21396229

Tiscione, Nicholas B; Shan, Xiaoqin; Alford, Ilene; Yeatman, Dustin Tate

2011-03-01

364

Comprehensive impurity profiling and quantification of Sudan III dyes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel analysis strategy was created for comprehensive qualitative and quantitative impurity profiling of the coloring agent Sudan III by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The identification of impurities in commercial Sudan III was performed by GC/MS combined with trimethylsilylation (TMS). A total of 24 impurities were identified or tentatively characterized in commercial Sudan III dyes by GC/MS and were mainly classified as phenylazo and naphtholazo analogs. Four new impurities with coplanar structures, suspected of being toxic compounds, were observed in commercial Sudan III dyes. For further identification and sensitive detection of polar impurities, an extract was trimethylsilyl-derivatized to improve the GC chromatographic properties and mass spectrometric detection sensitivity. On the basis of the impurities identified by GC/MS, pathways for the formation of the major impurities during the manufacture of Sudan III were suggested. Four impurities regulated by the EU commission and the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in Sudan III were quantified by GC/MS-scan mode. Method validation was conducted to determine linearity, precision, accuracy, and limit of quantification (LOQ). The linear dynamic range extended from 0.001 to 4.0%, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.997 for GC/MS. The LOQs of the impurities ranged from 2.73 to 4.39?g/g for GC/MS. Based on the established method, the levels of regulated impurities in five commercial Sudan III dyes manufactured by different chemical companies were successfully determined. This study provides very useful information for the quality control of Sudan III and evaluation of its manufacture. PMID:23726074

Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Na Hyun; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Hong, Jongki

2013-07-01

365

Assaying proline hydroxylation in recombinant collagen variants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background The fabrication of recombinant collagen and its prescribed variants has enormous potential in tissue regeneration, cell-matrix interaction investigations, and fundamental biochemical and biophysical studies of the extracellular matrix. Recombinant expression requires proline hydroxylation, a post-translational modification which is critical for imparting stability and structure. However, these modifications are not native to typical bacterial or yeast expression systems. Furthermore, detection of low levels of 4-hydroxyproline is challenging with respect to selectivity and sensitivity. Results We have developed a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to evaluate proline hydroxylation in recombinant collagen. This assay was tested in different Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression systems to evaluate the effect of gene ratio between prolyl-4-hydroxylase and collagen on the extent of hydroxylation. These systems used a human collagen III gene that was synthesized de novo from oligonucleotides. The LC-MS assay does not require derivatization, uses only picomoles of sample, and can measure proline hydroxylation levels in recombinant and native collagen ranging from approximately 0% to 40%. The hydroxylation values obtained by LC-MS are as accurate and as precise as those obtained with the conventional method of amino acid analysis. Conclusions A facile, derivatization-free LC-MS method was developed that accurately determines the percentage of proline hydroxylation in different yeast expression systems. Using this assay, we determined that systems with a higher collagen-to-hydroxylase gene copy ratio yielded a lower percentage of hydroxylation, suggesting that a specifically balanced gene ratio is required to obtain higher hydroxylation levels.

2012-01-01

366

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the isolation of 41 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in natural-water samples using C-18 solid-phase extraction and determination by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the pesticides. The columns are dried using carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas, and adsorbed pesticides are removed from the columns by elution with 3.0 milliliters of hexane-isopropanol (3:1). Extracted pesticides are determined by capillary- column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of three characteristic ions. The upper concentration limit is 4 micrograms per liter (g/L) for most pesticides, with the exception of widely used corn herbicides--atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor--which have upper concentration limits of 20 g/L. Single- operator method detection limits in reagent-water samples range from 0.001 to 0.018 g/L. Average short-term single-operator precision in reagent- water samples is 7 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 8 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. Mean recoveries in reagent-water samples are 73 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 83 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on the solid-phase extraction columns was 7 days. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time.

Zaugg, Steven D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Smith, Steven G.; Fehlberg, Kevin M.

1995-01-01

367

Identification of Unknown Contaminants in Water Samples from ISS Employing Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) is a powerful technique for identifying unknown organic compounds. For non-volatile or thermally unstable unknowns dissolved in liquids, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is often the variety of MS/MS used for the identification. One type of LC/MS/MS that is rapidly becoming popular is time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. This technique is now in use at the Johnson Space Center for identification of unknown nonvolatile organics in water samples from the space program. An example of the successful identification of one unknown is reviewed in detail in this paper. The advantages of time-of-flight instrumentation are demonstrated through this example as well as the strategy employed in using time-of-flight data to identify unknowns.

Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.

2008-01-01

368

Simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We devised a sensitive and simple method for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in human plasma, using extractive alkylation. These inorganic anions were alkylated with pentafluorobenzyl bromide, using tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride as the phase-transfer catalyst, with 1,3,5-tribromobenzene as an internal standard. The derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using the negative-ion chemical ionization mode with isobutane as the reagent gas. Calibration curves for nitrate and nitrite were linear over the concentration range of 0.01 to 1.0 micromol/mL in plasma, and the lower limit of detection for both compounds was 0.005 micromol/mL. The accuracy and precision of this method were evaluated and coefficients of variation were lower than 10.4%. Blood nitrate and nitrite concentrations of six victims who committed suicide by inhaling automobile exhaust gas could be determined using our method. PMID:12220012

Kage, Shigetoshi; Kudo, Keiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

2002-09-01

369

Determination of azide in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive and simple method for determining azide in blood and urine using an extractive alkylation technique was devised. This inorganic anion was alkylated with pentafluorobenzyl bromide using tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride as the phase-transfer catalyst. 1,3,5-Tribromobenzene was used as an internal standard. The obtained derivative was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the negative ion chemical ionization mode with isobutane as the reagent gas. The calibration curves for azide were linear over the concentration range from 1 to 200 nmol/mL in blood and urine, and the lower limit of detection was 0.5 nmol/mL for blood and urine. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated, and the coefficients of variation were found to be lower than 10%. PMID:10999348

Kage, S; Kudo, K; Ikeda, N

2000-09-01

370

Determination of amprolium in feed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the finding of veterinarian drugs in food European Community banned several compounds like coccidiostats as amprolium (APL). This antibiotic has been used as a preventive and clinical anticoccidial drug in chicken. The 2005/187/CE, 2005/925/EC Recommendations ban the use of amprolium as additive in chicken feed. For this reason a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to detect amprolium in chicken feed following the European community proposed technique (1999/27/EC) for sample preparation. Cause the validation is required for the analytical methods used in feed official control, this method was validated according to 2004/882/EC Regulation. PMID:18977627

Squadrone, S; Mauro, C; Ferro, G L; Amato, G; Abete, M C

2008-12-15

371

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of metoprolol in the patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

A sensitive and efficient method was developed for determination of metoprolol in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Metoprolol and atenolol (internal standard, IS) were extracted from human plasma with a mixture of ethylacetate and diethylether at basic pH with liquid-liquid extraction. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range 15-500 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-day precision values for metoprolol in human plasma were less than 6.4, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 8.8%. The analytical recovery of metoprolol from human plasma averaged 91.20%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of metoprolol were 5.0 and 15 ng/ml, respectively. Also the developed and validated GC-MS method was successfully applied to three patients with hypertension who had been given an oral tablet of 100mg metoprolol. PMID:19782235

Yilmaz, Bilal; Arslan, Sakir; Akba, Vedat

2009-11-15

372

Qualitative Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analyses Using Amines as Chemical Ionization Reagent Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia is a very useful chemical ionization (CI) reagent gas for the qualitative analyses of compounds by positive ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The gas is readily available, inexpensive, and leaves no carbon contamination in the MS source. Compounds of interest to our laboratory typically yield abundant protonated or ammoniated species, which are indicative of a compound's molecular weight. Nevertheless, some labile compounds fragment extensively by substitution and elimination reactions and yield no molecular weight information. In these cases, a CI reagent gas mixture of methylamine in methane prepared dynamically was found to be very useful in obtaining molecular weight data. Likewise, deuterated ammonia and deuterated methylamine are useful CI reagent gases for determining the exchangeable protons in organic compounds. Deuterated methylamine CI reagent gas is conveniently prepared by dynamically mixing small amounts of methylamine with excess deuterated ammonia.

Little, James L.; Howard, Adam S.

2013-12-01

373

Principles and Applications of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Biochemistry  

PubMed Central

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now a routine technique with the development of electrospray ionisation (ESI) providing a simple and robust interface. It can be applied to a wide range of biological molecules and the use of tandem MS and stable isotope internal standards allows highly sensitive and accurate assays to be developed although some method optimisation is required to minimise ion suppression effects. Fast scanning speeds allow a high degree of multiplexing and many compounds can be measured in a single analytical run. With the development of more affordable and reliable instruments, LC-MS is starting to play an important role in several areas of clinical biochemistry and compete with conventional liquid chromatography and other techniques such as immunoassay.

Pitt, James J

2009-01-01

374

Current Applications of Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in Pharmaceutical Discovery After a Decade of Innovation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current drug discovery involves a highly iterative process pertaining to three core disciplines: biology, chemistry, and drug disposition. For most pharmaceutical companies the path to a drug candidate comprises similar stages: target identification, biological screening, lead generation, lead optimization, and candidate selection. Over the past decade, the overall efficiency of drug discovery has been greatly improved by a single instrumental technique, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Transformed by the commercial introduction of the atmospheric pressure ionization interface in the mid-1990s, LC/MS has expanded into almost every area of drug discovery. In many cases, drug discovery workflow has been changed owing to vastly improved efficiency. This review examines recent trends for these three core disciplines and presents seminal examples where LC/MS has altered the current approach to drug discovery.

Ackermann, Bradley L.; Berna, Michael J.; Eckstein, James A.; Ott, Lee W.; Chaudhary, Ajai K.

2008-07-01

375

Authentication of Organically and Conventionally Grown Basils by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Chemical Profiles  

PubMed Central

Basil plants cultivated by organic and conventional farming practices were accurately classified by pattern recognition of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data. A novel extraction procedure was devised to extract characteristic compounds from ground basil powders. Two in-house fuzzy classifiers, i.e., the fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) and the fuzzy optimal associative memory (FOAM) for the first time, were used to build classification models. Two crisp classifiers, i.e., soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA) and the partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used as control methods. Prior to data processing, baseline correction and retention time alignment were performed. Classifiers were built with the two-way data sets, the total ion chromatogram representation of data sets, and the total mass spectrum representation of data sets, separately. Bootstrapped Latin partition (BLP) was used as an unbiased evaluation of the classifiers. By using two-way data sets, average classification rates with FuRES, FOAM, SIMCA, and PLS-DA were 100 ± 0%, 94.4 ± 0.4%, 93.3 ± 0.4%, and 100 ± 0%, respectively, for 100 independent evaluations. The established classifiers were used to classify a new validation set collected 2.5 months later with no parametric changes except that the training set and validation set were individually mean-centered. For the new two-way validation set, classification rates with FuRES, FOAM, SIMCA, and PLS-DA were 100%, 83%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Thereby, the GC/MS analysis was demonstrated as a viable approach for organic basil authentication. It is the first time that a FOAM has been applied to classification. A novel baseline correction method was used also for the first time. The FuRES and the FOAM are demonstrated as powerful tools for modeling and classifying GC/MS data of complex samples and the data pretreatments are demonstrated to be useful to improve the performance of classifiers.

Wang, Zhengfang; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli; Harrington, Peter de B.

2013-01-01

376

Metabolic effect of an exogenous gene on transgenic Beauveria bassiana using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics.  

PubMed

Genetic modification of Beauveria bassiana with the scorpion neurotoxin aaIT gene can distinctly increase its insecticidal activity, whereas the effect of this exogenous gene on the metabolism of B. bassiana is unknown until now. Thus, we investigate the global metabolic profiling of mycelia and conidia of transgenic and wild-type B. bassiana by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) reveal clear discrimination of wild-type mycelia and conidia from transgenic mycelia and conidia. The decrease of glycerophospholipids, carnitine, and fatty acids and the increase of oxylipins, glyoxylate, pyruvic acid, acetylcarnitine, fumarate, ergothioneine, and trehalose in transgenic mycelia indicate the enhanced oxidative reactions. In contrast, most metabolites related to oxidative stress are not altered significantly in conidia, which implies that there will be no significant oxidative stress reaction when the aaIT gene is quiescent in cells. PMID:23822565

Luo, Feifei; Lu, Ruili; Zhou, Hong; Hu, Fenglin; Bao, Guanhu; Huang, Bo; Li, Zengzhi

2013-07-17

377

Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the new designer drug N-benzylpiperazine in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are described on the metabolism and on the toxicological analysis of the piperazine-like designer drug N-benzylpiperazine (BZP, scene name “A2”) in rat and human urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The identified metabolites indicated that BZP was hydroxylated at the aromatic ring and that the piperazine moiety is metabolically degraded. Our systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS

Roland F. Staack; Giselher Fritschi; Hans H. Maurer

2002-01-01

378

New designer drug p-methoxymethamphetamine: studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the new designer drug rac-p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The identified metabolites indicated that PMMA was extensively metabolized mainly by O-demethylation to pholedrine and to a minor extent to p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), 1-hydroxypholedrine diastereomers (one being oxilofrine), 4?-hydroxy-3?-methoxymethamphetamine and 4?-hydroxy-3?-methoxyamphetamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis

Roland F. Staack; Josef Fehn; Hans H. Maurer

2003-01-01

379

Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of propolis volatile compounds.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel and efficient method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed for the analysis of propolis volatile compounds. The HS-SPME procedure, whose experimental parameters were properly optimized, was carried out using a 100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. The GC-MS analyses were performed on a HP-5 MS cross-linked 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm I.D., 1.00 ?m film thickness), under programmed-temperature elution. Ninety-nine constituents were identified using this technique in the samples of raw propolis collected from different Italian regions. The main compounds detected include benzoic acid (0.87-30.13%) and its esters, such as benzyl benzoate (0.16-13.05%), benzyl salicylate (0.34-1.90%) and benzyl cinnamate (0.34-3.20%). Vanillin was detected in most of the samples analyzed in this study (0.07-5.44%). Another relevant class of volatile constituents is represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, such as ?-cadinene (1.29-13.31%), ?-cadinene (1.36-8.85%) and ?-muurolene (0.78-6.59%), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, such as ?-eudesmol (2.33-12.83%), T-cadinol (2.73-9.95%) and ?-cadinol (4.84-9.74%). Regarding monoterpene hydrocarbons, they were found to be present at low level in the samples analyzed in this study, with the exception of one sample from Southern Italy, where ?-pinene was the most abundant constituent (13.19%). The results obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS were also compared with those of hydrodistillation (HD) coupled with GC-MS. The HS-SPME-GC-MS method developed in this study allowed us to determine the chemical fingerprint of propolis volatile constituents, thus providing a new and reliable tool for the complete characterization of this biologically active apiary product. PMID:23807002

Pellati, Federica; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Benvenuti, Stefania

2013-10-01

380

Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. Results A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver–operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and ?-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences between CK and SK. Conclusion Our study shows that some new biomarkers of ketosis from plasma may find new metabolic changes to have clinically new utility and significance in diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of ketosis in the future.

2013-01-01

381

Improved peak selection strategy for automatically determining minute compositional changes in fuels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

During the development of automated computational methods to detect minute compositional changes in fuels, it became apparent that peak selection through the spectral deconvolution of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data is limited by the complexity and noise levels inherent in the data. Specifically, current techniques are not capable of detecting minute, chemically relevant compositional differences with sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, an alternative peak selection strategy was developed based on spectral interpretation through interval-oriented parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). It will be shown that this strategy outperforms the deconvolution-based peak selection strategy as well as two control strategies. Successful application of the PARAFAC-based method to detect minute chemical changes produced during microbiological growth in four different inoculated diesel fuels will be discussed. PMID:21211800

Cramer, Jeffrey A; Begue, Nathan J; Morris, Robert E

2011-02-11

382

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of biological particulates collected during recent space shuttle missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological particulates collected on air filters during shuttle missions (STS-40 and STS-42) were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). A method was developed for identifying the atmospheric particles and their sources through the analysis of standard materials and the selection of "marker" compounds specific to the particle type. Pyrolysis spectra of biological standards were compared with those of airborne particles collected during two space shuttle missions; marker compounds present in the shuttle particle spectra were matched with those of the standards to identify the source of particles. Particles of 0,5--1-mm diameter and weighing as little as 40 micrograms could be identified using this technique. The Py-GC/MS method identified rat food and soilless plant-growth media as two sources of particles collected from the shuttle atmosphere during flight.

Matney, M. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1994-01-01

383

Investigation of the correlation between charge and glycosylation of IgG1 variants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) showed multiple charge variants in a cation exchange chromatography profile. To better understand the correlation between charge heterogeneity and glycosylation, a rapid reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method with integrated mass analysis has been developed for simultaneous determination of N-terminal pyroglutamate, C-terminal lysine truncation, and Fc glycosylation. The results show that various degrees and/or types of N-terminal pyroglutamate formation and C-terminal lysine (Lys) cleavage account for the majority of charge heterogeneity; and the charge variants showed Fc glycosylation patterns in relation to their terminal modifications. The amount of G1F decreased in the basic variants, whereas Man5 and G0F-GN increased. The complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) activity of purified charge variants also suggested the potential impact of the charge differences on the glycosylation profile. PMID:24287081

Yang, Jia-Ming; Ai, Junwen; Bao, Yuemei; Yuan, Zhijun; Qin, Yumin; Xie, Yi-Wu; Tao, Desheng; Fu, Daotian; Peng, Yucai

2014-03-01

384

Determination of midazolam in human plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method is described for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of midazolam, a short-acting 1,4-imidazole benzodiazepine, in human plasma. It involves a plasma deproteinization step, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of midazolam using an 85-microm polyacrylate fiber, and its detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, using pinazepam as internal standard. The assay is linear over a midazolam plasma range of 1.5-300 ng/mL, relative intra- and inter-assay standard deviations at 5 ng/mL are below 7%, and the limit of detection is 1 ng/mL. The method is simple, fast and sufficiently sensitive to be applied in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as for purposes of therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:11746922

Frison, G; Tedeschi, L; Maietti, S; Ferrara, S D

2001-01-01

385

[Study on chemical constituents of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

The essential oil in Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim was extracted by steam distillation and the distilled liquid was collected by passing through chloroform. The aqueous phase was extracted with chloroform sufficiently. The chloroform solution containing the constituents of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Seventeen peaks were separated by gas chromatography, and 16 of them were identified by MS with "Nist98.L" Mass Spectral Data Registry. The structures of the constituents were further verified by manual analysis. The identified constituents accounted for 97% of the peak areas of the essential oils on total ion chromatogram. The major chemical constituents of them are C9, C10 alcohols and alkenes. PMID:12545478

Guo, Z A; Zhao, J C; Xie, Z H

2001-11-01

386

Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs.

Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2012-01-01

387

Determination of essential oil components of Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss. using simultaneous hydrodistillation-static headspace liquid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel method for extraction and analysis of volatile compounds of Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss., using simultaneous hydro-distillation and static headspace liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHD-SHLPME-GCMS) is developed. SHLPME parameters including nature of extracting solvent, headspace volume and design, extraction time, sample weight and microdrop volume were optimized. Comparison of hydro-distillation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and HD-SHLPME-GCMS showed that the latter method is fast, simple, inexpensive and effective for the analysis of volatile compounds of aromatic plants. By using this method, 56 compounds were extracted and identified for Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss. The main constituents of its essential oil that were extracted by HD-SHLPME method, include camphor (41.01%), 1,8-cineole (32.35%), cis-davanone (3.68%), 4-terpineol (2.99%), linalool (2.84%), beta-fenchyl alcohol (2.72%), and borneol (2.58%). PMID:17612552

Jalali Heravi, M; Sereshti, H

2007-08-10

388

MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS BY PARTICLE-BEAM/HIGH-PERFORMANCE/LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An analytical method was developed for the measurement of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANs) in soils and sediments by particle beam liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. he method applies to PANs with a molecular weight greater than 220. Samples are prepared by S...

389

Column liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Selected techniques in environmental applications for polar pesticides and related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review covering the field of environmental applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is presented. Recent developments and advances are discussed with emphasis on the presently popular thermospray, particle beam and atmospheric pressure ionisation interfaces. Each interface is described separately covering the principle of operation, typical detection limits and characteristics of the mass spectra. All reviewed interfacing techniques provide useful

J. Slobodnik; B. L. M van Baar; U. A. Th Brinkman

1995-01-01

390

Derivatization procedures and determination of levoglucosan and related monosaccharide anhydrides in atmospheric aerosols by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the derivatization procedures for detecting the three most commonly monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) in atmospheric aerosols using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Various silylating agents, mainly trimethylsilylating agents (TMS), were compared and the effects of various contents of trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS, as a stimulator) were evaluated to optimize the conditions for detecting these compounds in aerosol

Ching-Lin Hsu; Chin-Yuan Cheng; Chung-Te Lee; Wang-Hsien Ding

2007-01-01

391

Identification of wild collected mosquito vectors of diseases using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Thirty-three species of mosquitoes have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several of these mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedimorphus vexans arabiensis (Patton) are known vectors of human and animal diseases. In this study, the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of eight mosquito species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were analyzed. Wild collected fourth-instar larvae were reared, and single, newly emerged, unfed adult females were used for the analysis. A total of 146-160 peaks were detected from the cuticular extracts by gas chromatography. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test was used to test for quantitative differences in relative hydrocarbon quantity. In addition, a linear regression model was applied using Enter method to determine the diagnostic peaks for the eight mosquito specimens. The ANOVA test indicated that relative peaks were significant (P < 0.05) when selected pairs of peaks were compared. Also, seven compounds showed qualitative differences among the five mosquito vectors tested. The classes of constituents present were n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, alkenes, branched aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and esters. These compounds have a carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 18 carbons. The most abundant compound in all adult mosquito specimens was n-hexylacrylate [retention time (RT) 6.73 min], which was not detected in Cx. pipiens. In Cx. pipiens, the most abundant peak was benzaldehyde (RT 2.98 min). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a suitable method to identify adult mosquitoes, especially from focal areas of public health concern such as Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. This method allows a wide range of adult collected material to be identified with high accuracy. PMID:24259205

Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine; Al Othman, Zeid A; Sallam, Mohamed F

2013-11-01

392

Comparison of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of fatty and resin acids in paper mill process waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the performance of liquid chromatography (LC)–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI)–mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry techniques for the determination of resin and fatty acids from paper mill process waters was carried out. These compounds are responsible for the high toxicity of paper mill effluents and little research has been carried out regarding their analysis

A Latorre; A Rigol; S Lacorte; D Barceló

2003-01-01

393

Simultaneous determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, triclosan and bisphenol A in wastewater and sewage sludge by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in wastewater (dissolved and particulate phase) and sewage sludge was developed based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Chromatographic analysis was achieved after derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Extraction from water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The optimization

Georgia Gatidou; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Athanasios S. Stasinakis; Themistokles D. Lekkas

2007-01-01

394

New approach to the direct detection of known and new diarrhoeic shellfish toxins in mussels and phytoplankton by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach using combined liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) with ionspray ionization is proposed for the direct detection of known and new toxins in mussels and phytoplankton. A first stage reversed-phase, negative ion mode, selected ion monitoring (SIM) LC–MS analysis was performed in order to detect DSP toxins in the same chromatographic run with a total run time of 20

R Draisci; L Palleschi; L Giannetti; L Lucentini; K. J James; A. G Bishop; M Satake; T Yasumoto

1999-01-01

395

Determination of the Volatile Composition of Rhodobryum giganteum (Schwaegr.) Par. (Bryaceae) Using Solidphase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry (GC\\/MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 38 volatile components were identified in Rhodobryum giganteum (Schwaegr.) Par. collected from two different geographic regions by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), combined with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The volatile components included some aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, monoterpene hydrocarbons and a sesquiterpene (?-farnesene), with 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and n-hexanal being found to be the most abundant volatile components. Analysis

Lin Li; Jiancheng Zhao

2009-01-01

396

Characterisation of compounds emitted during natural and artificial ageing of a book. Use of headspace-solid-phase microextraction\\/gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimised headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with a gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) method has been applied to the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a groundwood pulp book naturally and artificially aged. In order to assess the potentiality of HS-SPME for accessing the compounds produced during the degradation of paper, two different accelerated ageing treatments were applied on

Agnès Lattuati-Derieux; Sylvette Bonnassies-Termes; Bertrand Lavédrine

2006-01-01

397

Advantages and limitations of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry technologies versus biosensors for monitoring of emerging contaminants in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and biosensors are advanced technologies that have found increasing application in the analysis of environmental contaminants although their application to the determination of emerging contaminants (previously unknown or unrecognized pollutants) has been still limited. This review covers the most recent advances occurred in the areas of on-line SPE–LC–MS and

Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz; Maria J. Lopez de Alda; Damià Barceló

2007-01-01

398

Rapid identification and quantification of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry coupled with micropulverized extraction, aqueous acetylation and microextraction by packed sorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a rapid identification and quantification method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry coupled with a novel combination of micropulverized extraction, aqueous acetylation and microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) named MiAMi–GC\\/MS. A washed hair sample (1–5mg) was micropulverized for 5min in a 2mL plastic tube with 250?L of water. An

Hajime Miyaguchi; Yuko T. Iwata; Tatsuyuki Kanamori; Kenji Tsujikawa; Kenji Kuwayama; Hiroyuki Inoue

2009-01-01

399

Application of isotope dilution to the determination of methylmercury in fish tissue by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-specific isotope dilution (ID) calibration using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for separation and detection of methylmercury (MeHg) in fish tissue is described. Samples were digested with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Analytes were propylated and headspace sampled with a polydimethylsiloxane-coated SPME fused-silica fiber. ID analysis was performed using a laboratory-synthesized 198Hg-enriched methylmercury (Me198Hg) spike. Using selective

Lu Yang; Vanessa Colombini; Paulette Maxwell; Zoltán Mester; Ralph E. Sturgeon

2003-01-01

400

Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry assay for the determination of artemether and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin in human plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and selective method is described for the determination of artemether and its active dihydroartemisinin metabolite in human plasma using artemisinin as internal standard. The method consists of a liquid–liquid extraction with subsequent evaporation of the supernatant to dryness followed by the analysis of the reconstituted sample by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) in single ion monitoring mode using atmospheric

C Souppart; N Gauducheau; N Sandrenan; F Richard

2002-01-01

401

Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of geosmin and methylisoborneol in water using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of two common odor-causing compounds in water, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, was modified and verified by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. The optimized method involves the extraction of odor-causing compounds from filtered water samples using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane cross-link coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. Detection of the compounds is accomplished using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Precision and accuracy were demonstrated using reagent-water, surface-water, and ground-water samples. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 35 nanograms per liter ranged from 60 to 123 percent for geosmin and from 90 to 96 percent for 2-methylisoborneol. Method detection limits were 1.9 nanograms per liter for geosmin and 2.0 nanograms per liter for 2-methylisoborneol in 45-milliliter samples. Typically, concentrations of 30 and 10 nanograms per liter of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, respectively, can be detected by the general public. The calibration range for the method is equivalent to concentrations from 5 to 100 nanograms per liter without dilution. The method is valuable for acquiring information about the production and fate of these odor-causing compounds in water.

Zimmerman, L. R.; Ziegler, A. C.; Thurman, E. M.

2002-01-01

402

The analysis of estrone and 17beta-estradiol by stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: application to urine samples after oral administration of conjugated equine estrogens.  

PubMed

The development of a sensitive and solvent-free method for the measurement of estrone (E(1)) and 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)) in human urine samples is described. The deconjugated estrogens were derivatized in situ with acetic acid anhydride and the derivatives were extracted directly from the aqueous samples using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The compounds containing a secondary alcohol function are further derivatized by headspace acylation prior to thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A number of experimental parameters, including salt addition, temperature and time, were optimized to increase the recovery of E(1) and 17beta-E(2) by SBSE. The derivatization reactions were also optimized to obtain the highest yields of the acylated estrogens. Detection limits of 0.02 and 0.03 ng mL(-1) were obtained for E(1) and 17beta-E(2), respectively. The method was applied to determine the effect of conjugated equine estrogen intake on the excretion of E(1) and 17beta-E(2) in human urine samples. Increased levels of the endogenous estrogens were detected after administering a standard dose of Premarin to a female volunteer. Routine monitoring of estrogen levels is recommended to avoid a high urinary excretion of E(1) and 17beta-E(2), nowadays enlisted as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), during hormone replacement therapy. PMID:17581803

Stopforth, Adriana; Burger, Ben V; Crouch, Andrew M; Sandra, Pat

2007-09-01

403

Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and on natural ambient air samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionisation.  

PubMed

This study deals with the development of a routine analytical method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionisation (GC/NICI-MS) for the determination of 17 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) present at low concentrations in the atmosphere. This method includes a liquid chromatography purification procedure on solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Application of this analytical procedure has been performed on standard reference material (SRM 1649a: urban dust), giving results in good agreement with the few data available in the literature. The analytical method was also applied on ambient air samples (on both gas and particulate phases) from the French POVA program (POllution des Vallées Alpines). NPAHs concentrations observed for a rural site during the Winter period are about 0.2-100.0pgm(-3) in the particulate phase and about 0.0-20.0pgm(-3) in the gas phase. OPAHs present concentrations 10-100 times higher (0.1-2.0ngm(-3) and 0.0-1.4ngm(-3) for the particulate and the gas phases, respectively). These preliminary results show a good correlation between the characteristics of the sampling site and the compound origins (primary or secondary). PMID:16682050

Albinet, A; Leoz-Garziandia, E; Budzinski, H; Viilenave, E

2006-07-14