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1

Copper poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

2

[Chronic ethylene glycol poisoning].  

PubMed

Over a six-week period a 60-year-old patient had several unexplained intoxication-like episodes. He finally had severe abdominal cramps with changes in the level of consciousness and oligoanuric renal failure (creatinine 4.7 mg/dl). The history, marked metabolic acidosis (pH 7.15, HCO3- 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 6.6 mmHg) as well as raised anion residue (43 mmol/l) and the presence of oxalates in urine suggested poisoning by ethylene glycol contained in antifreeze liquid. Intensive haemodialysis adequately eliminated ethylene glycol and its toxic metabolites (glycol aldehyde, glycolic acid). Renal function returned within 10 days, although the concentrating power of the kidney remained impaired for several weeks because of interstitial nephritis. The intoxication had been caused by a defective heating-pipe system from which the antifreeze had leaked into the hot-water boiler (the patient had habitually prepared hot drinks by using water from the hot-water tap). Gas chromatography demonstrated an ethylene glycol concentration of 21 g per litre of water. PMID:8482240

Kaiser, W; Steinmauer, H G; Biesenbach, G; Janko, O; Zazgornik, J

1993-04-30

3

Severe acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

As copper sulphate pentahydrate (CSP) is a common compound used in agriculture and industry, chronic occupational exposures to CSP are well known, but acute poisoning is rare in the Western world. This case report describes acute poisoning of a 33-year-old woman who attempted suicide by ingesting an unknown amount of CSP. On admission to the hospital, she had symptoms and signs of severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, dehydration, renal dysfunction and methaemoglobinaemia with normal serum copper level. Therapy included early gastric lavage, fluid replacement, vasoactive drugs, furosemide, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, and antidotes methylene blue and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS). However, the patient developed severe intravascular haemolysis, acute severe hepatic and renal failure, as well as adrenal insufficiency. After prolonged, but successful hospital treatment, including haemodialysis and IV hydrocortisone, the patient was discharged with signs of mild renal and liver impairment. Our conclusion is that in severe cases of copper poisoning early supportive measures are essential. In addition, antidotes such as methylene blue for methaemoglobinaemia and chelating agent such as DMPS improve morbidity and survival of severely poisoned victims. PMID:18407869

Sinkovic, Andreja; Strdin, Alenka; Svensek, Franci

2008-03-01

4

Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This work was undertaken to determine whether there are any chronic neurological sequelae to acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. METHODS. California surveillance data were used in a study of neurological function among 128 men poisoned by organophosphate pesticides in California from 1982 to 1990 and 90 referents. Tests included a neurological physical examination, 5 nerve conduction tests, 2 vibrotactile sensitivity tests, 10 neurobehavioral tests, and 1 postural sway test. RESULTS. After correcting for confounding, the poisoned group performed significantly worse than the referent group on two neurobehavioral tests (sustained visual attention and mood scales). When the data were restricted to men with documented cholinesterase inhibition (n = 83) or to men who had been hospitalized (n = 36), the poisoned subjects also showed significantly worse vibrotactile sensitivity of finger and toe. Significant trends of increased impairment were found with increased days of disability on a wide spectrum of tests of both central and peripheral nerve function. CONCLUSIONS. While these findings are limited by low response rates and by small sample sizes for specific pesticides, this study was based on a large surveillance database and is the largest study to date of the chronic effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning. The evidence of some long-term effects of poisoning is consistent with two prior studies.

Steenland, K; Jenkins, B; Ames, R G; O'Malley, M; Chrislip, D; Russo, J

1994-01-01

5

Copper ions as poison in the sea and in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper in ionic form is found to be very poisonous for photosynthesis and growth of unicellular algae at concentrations of Cu usually found in natural waters. This indicates that Cu is ordinarily not present in ionic form but is complexed by organic matter such as polypeptides. The affinity of Cu to diethyl-dithiocarbaminate is very much higher than to the organic

E. Steemann Nielsen; S. Wium-Andersen

1970-01-01

6

Outbreak of copper poisoning in cattle fed poultry litter.  

PubMed

In a feedlot of about 1,000 head of cattle, 146 animals died within a period of a few months affected by a disease characterized by anorexia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, constipation, or diarrhea. The clinical course of the disease lasted a few days. Postmortem findings were generalized icterus and a yellow discolored liver. The kidneys were dark brown, and the urinary bladder was filled with urine of the same dark-brown color. The main histopathological findings were centrolobular coagulative necrosis, apoptosis, bilestasis, and proliferation of bile ducts in the portal space. Changes in the kidneys included nephrosis and the presence of bile and precipitates, and cylinders of albumin and of hemoglobin in the uriniferous tubules. Liver samples, collected from 3 animals on which postmortem examinations were performed, had 2,008, 2,783 and 4,906 ppm copper in their dry matter. Two samples of poultry litter fed to the cattle contained 362 and 323 ppm copper. The green forage that formed the rest of their feed only had 4.7 ppm copper. Copper poisoning was diagnosed, most probably caused by feeding litter from poultry that had been fed a ration treated with copper sulfate to avoid aspergillosis. PMID:10750174

Tokarnia, C H; Döbereiner, J; Peixoto, P V; Moraes, S S

2000-04-01

7

An outbreak of copper poisoning in Mute swans (Cygnus olor).  

PubMed

Eight of 9 Mute swans (Cygnus olor) untied in the river acrossing the central part of Tottori-city died within the period of 40 days of summer in 1989. Seven of 8 Mute swans were pathologically examined. In all swans many yellowish-brown to greenish-brown granules were found in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The granules were intensely stained with rhodanine copper stain, schmorl method, and Berlin blue stain. Ultrastructurally, many lysosomes increased in size and density in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Other three swans, that died at other places, were served as controls. In control swans, many brown granules intensely stained with schmorl method and Berlin blue stain were also found in hepatocytes, but the number of rhodanine-positive granules were fewer than those of the affected cases. X-ray qualitative analysis showed three peaks corresponding to copper, zinc and sodium in the liver of the affected and control swans. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that mean hepatic copper concentration of the affected group was significantly higher than that of control group (P less than 0.01). From these findings, we concluded that all of 7 Mute swans died of copper poisoning. PMID:1606252

Kobayashi, Y; Shimada, A; Umemura, T; Nagai, T

1992-04-01

8

Chronic Lead Poisoning From Industrial Exposure: A Review  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning from chronic industrial exposure is not uncommon. Early diagnosis is important in avoiding irreversible effects. A good occupational history is key to alerting the unsuspecting physician to the correct diagnosis. Blood lead levels are useful but ridden with shortcomings. Specific tests to assess functional impairment, such as urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrins should be included in the diagnostic work-up. Lead poisoning is a preventable disease well worth the consideration of the family practitioner. (Can Fam Physician 1980; 26:1056-1062).

Yassi, Annalee

1980-01-01

9

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

K OSullivan; M Taylor

1983-01-01

10

Aberrant miRNA profiles associated with chronic benzene poisoning.  

PubMed

Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, miRNA profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic benzene poisoning patients and health controls matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the Exiqon miRNA PCR ARRAY and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. Totally, 6 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-205, miR-10b, let-7d, miR-185 and miR-423-5p-2) and 7 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-543, hsa-miR-130a, miR-27b,miR-223, miR-142-5p and miR-320b) were found in chronic benzene poisoning group compared to health controls (P?0.05). By integrating miRNA and mRNA expression data, these differential miRNAs were mainly involved in regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, axon guidance, regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, nervous system development, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. Further, pathway analysis indicated that SMAD4, PLCB1, NFAT5, GNAI2, PTEN, VEGFA, BCL2, CTNNB1 and CCND1 were key target genes of differential miRNAs which were implicated in Adherens junction, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, tight junction and Pathways in cancer. In conclusion, the aberrant miRNAs might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning. PMID:24780745

Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Yang, Jing; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

2014-06-01

11

Copper poisoning in wild ruminants in the Kruger National Park: geobotanical and environmental investigation.  

PubMed

A geobotanical and environmental investigation was undertaken to investigate the potential for copper poisoning in wild ruminants within the Phalaborwa area in the Kruger National Park and to confirm that environmental copper pollution associated with smelting operations at a nearby mine was the source of copper responsible for the poisoning. The study area selected was divided into high, moderate and low-risk zones and a control area based on initial topsoil copper concentrations and impala (Aepyceros melampus) liver copper concentrations in relation to distance from the copper smelter. Samples collected revealed that topsoil copper concentrations were significantly higher than subsoil copper concentrations at the same sites. There was a significant linear decrease in topsoil to subsoil copper concentration relative to distance from the copper smelter and thus from the high-risk zone to the control area. Copper concentrations of unwashed plant material were significantly higher than washed plant material at the same sites, indicating the deposition of copper on the plant surfaces. Copper deposits in dust fall buckets were significantly higher downwind than upwind from the smelter stack and the presence of atmospheric copper was also confirmed with the aid of low-volume air sampling monitors. The investigation confirmed that the emissions from the copper smelter were sufficient in amount and appropriate in direction to have contributed significantly to the topsoil copper concentrations, unwashed plant copper concentrations and dust fall results. PMID:10486824

Grobler, D G

1999-06-01

12

Chronic lead poisoning (chronic plumbism) in a ewe  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a paucity of information concerning chronic plumbism in cattle and sheep. These animals seem to have a remarkable tolerance to continued intake of lead, possibly because the lead is poorly absorbed by their gastrointestinal tracts. However, since lead accumulates in the body, continued exposure to small amounts can lead to toxicosis. This case report concerns a 1-year-old ewe

Blackwell

1977-01-01

13

Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry  

PubMed Central

Emara, A. M., El-Ghawabi, S. H., Madkour, O. I., and El-Samra, G. H. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 78-82. Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry. A survey was carried out on 36 workers in the dry battery industry exposed to dust containing 65 to 70% manganese oxide. Eight (22·2%) were found to have neuropsychiatric manifestations, six (16·6%) had chronic manganese psychosis, one had left hemi-parkinsonism, and one had left choreoathetosis. An environmental study revealed a high concentration of manganese dust at the main working areas, far exceeding the accepted MAC. The manganese level in blood was almost within the normal range. Coproporphyrin in urine was normal. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in only two of the affected workers (25%) but there was no association between this and the clinical manifestations or duration of exposure. The concentration of manganese dust in air showed some association with the prevalence and rapidity of effect on workers according to their occupation. However, individual susceptibility was apparent. The shortest latent period was one year.

Emara, A. M.; El-Ghawabi, S. H.; Madkour, O. I.; El-Samra, G. H.

1971-01-01

14

Evaluation of epididymal sperm quality following experimentally induced copper poisoning in male rats.  

PubMed

The trace element copper has been identified as a highly toxic element for spermatozoa. Our goal in this study was to assess relationship between copper poisoning and semen quality parameters. In this study, sixty male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-240 g (3.5-4 months old) were divided into three different groups of twenty rats as follows: the first group (Group 100), which was treated by gavage with copper sulphate at a dose of 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 8 weeks; the second group (Group 200), which received 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1) copper sulphate by gavage during experimental period (56 days); and the control group (Group C), which received the same volume of distilled water by gavage during experimental period. The blood, semen and histopathological samples were obtained from five cases of 20 animals of each group every 2 weeks at 2, 4, 6 and 8th week. Results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group 100 and 200 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in comparison with group C. A significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and viability indicates the possibility of adverse effect of copper poisoning on male fertility. Copper might be mediator of the effect of oxidative damage and play an essential role in spermatogenesis and male infertility. PMID:21729134

Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Azari, O; Amiri, E

2012-05-01

15

Experimental copper poisoning in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

Copper sulphate was administered by the oral or intravenous route to five dromedary camels. Two camels (1 and 2) receiving copper sulphate at 200 mg per kg per day by drench died within 8 days and camel 3, receiving 100 mg per kg per day by the same route, was slaughtered on day 172. Intravenous injection of 2 mg per kg per day caused the death of camel 4 on day 95 and camel 5, treated similarly, was slaughtered on day 138. Anorexia, dullness, diarrhoea, dehydration and recumbency in camels 1 and 2 were probably clinical signs of copper toxicity. Camels 3, 4 and 5 lost weight. Jaundice was not a prominent clinical sign. The main lesions in camels 1 and 2 were fatty change and necrosis of the liver cells, dilatation and necrosis of kidney tubules, catarrhal abomasitis, enteritis and congestion of the blood vessels of the heart. In camels 3, 4 and 5 the hepatic lesions were mild, with leucocytic infiltration and gastrointestinal and heart lesions were either mild (camel 3) or absent (camels 4 and 5). Cytoplasmic copper granules in hepatic cells were generalized in distribution but more concentrated in the centrilobular zone. In the kidney these granules were confined to the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. Copper accumulated in the liver and kidneys of all the camels and zinc accumulated in the liver and kidneys of those receiving copper sulphate intravenously. Macrocytic hypochromic anaemia developed in camels 3, 4 and 5 and haemoconcentration in camels 1 and 2. The concentration of serum copper, zinc and iron increased in animals 1, 2 and 4, and unbound iron binding capacity decreased in four camels. There was a rise in the activity of gamma GT, GOT, LDH and CPK in the serum of all the animals. Serum ALP activity, however, increased in camels 1 and 2 and decreased in camels 3, 4 and 5. PMID:8097211

Abu Damir, H; Eldirdiri, N I; Adam, S E; Howarth, J A; Salih, Y M; Idris, O F

1993-02-01

16

Chronic allyl chloride poisoning. An epidemiology, clinical, toxicological and neuropathological study.  

PubMed

It was previously reported that chronic exposure to allyl chloride resulted in liver and kidney damage. No neurotoxic effect of allyl chloride had been noticed until two outbreaks of polyneuropathy without liver and kidney dysfunction due to exposure to allyl chloride in China in the early 1970's. Epidemiological and clinical studies done within 1973-1982 revealed that the main risk of industrial exposure to allyl chloride is damage to the peripheral nervous system. Polyneuropathy is thought to be the main clinical manifestation of chronic allyl chloride poisoning. Electroneuromyography is essential and valuable for early diagnosis and biological monitoring. Toxicological and neuropathological studies in rabbits and mice have given the evidence of a pattern of central-peripheral distal axonopathy in peripheral nervous system which has further confirmed the neurotoxicity of allyl chloride found in man. Based on the above results, the maximum allowable concentration of allyl chloride and diagnostic criteria for chronic allyl chloride poisoning are proposed. PMID:3000860

He, F S; Lu, B Q; Zhang, S L; Dong, S W; Yu, A; Wang, B Y

1985-01-01

17

Erectile dysfunction and depression in patients with chronic lead poisoning.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic lead intoxication (CLI) as well as the role of depression in this relationship. We compared the findings of 26 male patients with CLI and 24 male patients as the control group between November 2008 and January 2009. The blood lead levels and smoking index of patients were evaluated for both groups. The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-erectile function domain (EFD) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were obtained and reviewed in both groups. The mean blood lead levels of patients in the CLI and control groups were 42.1 and 3.2 ?g dl(-1) respectively (P < 0.01). The mean interval of lead exposure of patients in CLI group was 71.5 (6-360) months. EFD scores of patients in CLI group were significantly lower, and number of patients with ED in CLI group was statistically higher (P < 0.05). BDI scores of patients in CLI group were significantly higher (P < 0.05). We detected a mildly negative and statistically significant relationship between the EFD scores and blood lead levels (r = -0.453 and P < 0.05). Our results showed that the increased frequency of ED is an independent factor in CLI group. PMID:23113807

Gonulalan, U; Hay?rl?, A; Kosan, M; Ozkan, O; Y?lmaz, H

2013-12-01

18

Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.  

PubMed

There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources. PMID:24552958

Chen, Chien-Jen

2014-01-01

19

Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

Kachulis, C.J.

1981-07-01

20

Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

Kachulis

1981-01-01

21

Hepatic Microcirculatory Changes in Acute and Chronic Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning in Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the hepatic microvasculature was carried out in the course of prolonged carbon tetrachloride poisoning, utilizing a silicone rubber perfusion technique. Consistent and rather selective damage was confined to central veins and centrilobular sinu...

T. Hase

1966-01-01

22

Copper metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic inflammatory and cholestatic liver diseases in dogs.  

PubMed

Inherited defects of copper metabolism resulting in hepatic copper accumulation and oxidative-stress might cause breed-associated forms of hepatitis. Biliary excretion is the major elimination route of copper, therefore increased hepatic copper concentrations could also be caused by cholestasis. The aim of this study was to find criteria to determine whether copper-accumulation is primary or occurs secondary to hepatitis. Liver samples of Bedlington Terriers with copper toxicosis (CT), breeds with non-copper-associated chronic extrahepatic cholestasis (EC) or chronic hepatitis (CH), and healthy dogs were used. Copper metabolism was analyzed by means of histochemical staining (copper concentration) and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) on copper excretion/storage (ATOX1, COX17, ATP7A, ATP7B, CP, MT1A, MURR1, XIAP). Oxidative stress was measured by determining GSH/GSSG ratios and gene-expression (SOD1, CAT, GSHS, GPX1, CCS, p27KIP, Bcl-2). Results revealed 5+ copper in CT, but no or 1-2+ copper in EC and CH. Most gene products for copper metabolism remained at concentrations similar to healthy dogs. Three clear exceptions were observed in CT: 3-fold mRNA increase of ATP7A and XIAP and complete absence of MURRI. The only quantitative differences between the diseased and the control groups were in oxidative stress, evidenced by reductions in all GSH/GSSG ratios. We conclude that 3+ or higher histochemical detection of copper indicates a primary copper storage disease. The expression profile of copper-associated genes can be used as a reference for future studies on copper-associated diseases. All 3 diseases have reduced protection against oxidative stress, opening a rationale to use antioxidants as possible therapy. PMID:17063700

Spee, Bart; Arends, Brigitte; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Penning, Louis C; Rothuizen, Jan

2006-01-01

23

Human Pentachlorophenol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was, and still is, one of the most frequently used fungicides and pesticides, Its toxicity is due to interference with oxidative phosphorylation. Acute and chronic poisoning may occur by dermal absorption, inhalation or ingestion. Chronic poisoning occurs mainly in sawmill workers or people living in log homes treated with PCPcontaining wood protecting formulations. Quantitative determination of PCP in

Philippe G. Jorens; Paul J. C. Schepens

1993-01-01

24

CHRONIC EFFECT OF COPPER ON THE BLUNTNOSE MINNOW, 'PIMEPHALES NOTATUS' (RAFINESQUE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory chronic toxicity test in which bluntnose minnows were exposed to copper in laboratory dilution water with a hardness of 200 mg/L as CaCO3 indicated that copper adversely affected fry survival, fry growth, and reproduction. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

25

Pathomorphological Changes in the Brain of Experimental Animals Chronically Poisoned with Lysergic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rats were injected with 40 mg/kg of lysergic acid for a month. In the course of the poisoning an organic toxic process developed which resulted in the death of both individual nerve cells and entire cell groups. The changes were most pronounced in the neu...

V. F. Matveev

1971-01-01

26

Comparison of therapeutic effects of garlic and d-Penicillamine in patients with chronic occupational lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Previous studies on animals have revealed that garlic (Allium sativum) is effective in reducing blood and tissue lead concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic effects of garlic and compare it with d-penicillamine in patients with chronic lead poisoning. After coordination and obtaining informed consent, clinical examinations and blood lead concentration (BLC) of 117 workers at a car battery industry were investigated. BLC was determined by heated graphite atomization technique of an atomic absorption spectrometer. The workers were randomly assigned into two groups of garlic (1200 ?g allicin, three times daily) and d-penicillamine (250 mg, three times daily) and treated for 4 weeks. BLC was determined again 10days post-treatment. Clinical signs and symptoms of lead poisoning were also investigated and compared with the initial findings. Clinical improvement was significant in a number of clinical manifestations including irritability (p = 0.031), headache (p = 0.028), decreased deep tendon reflex (p=0.019) and mean systolic blood pressure (0.021) after treatment with garlic, but not d-penicillamine. BLCs were reduced significantly (p=0.002 and p=0.025) from 426.32±185.128 to 347.34±121.056??g/L and from 417.47±192.54 to 315.76±140.00?g/L in the garlic and d-penicillamine groups, respectively, with no significant difference (p=0.892) between the two groups. The frequency of side effects was significantly (p=0.023) higher in d-penicillamine than in the garlic group. Thus, garlic seems safer clinically and as effective as d-penicillamine. Therefore, garlic can be recommended for the treatment of mild-to-moderate lead poisoning. PMID:22151785

Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Dadpour, Bita; Rajabi, Omid; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

2012-05-01

27

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

28

Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria  

SciTech Connect

Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

1987-10-01

29

Outbreak of chronic arsenic poisoning among retired workers from an arsenic mine in Japan.  

PubMed Central

Retired former workers of Matsuo Arsenic Mine of Miyazaki prefecture in Japan were subjected to extensive medical examination. The number of retired workers subjected to examination were 61 of 208 workers who were engaged in the works of the mine and were tracked down by the work rolls. These workers left the mine more than 15 years prior to the time of the examination. The main works in the mine were classified as mining, dressing of ores, refining, and clerical work. Several findings such as arsenodermatitis, depigmentation, performation of nasal septum, hyposmia, anosmia, and peripheral nervous disturbance attributed to exposure to arsenic were observed in 9 of 21 roasters who often worked in the arsenic kitchen. No characteristic findings of arsenic poisoning, that is, gastrointestinal disturbance, disorder of the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic disorders, or liver disturbance were observed in the retired workers. Another notable finding was that 8 cases diagnosed as pneumoconiosis were found in 18 miners.

Ishinishi, N; Kodama, Y; Nobutomo, K; Inamasu, T; Kunitake, E; Suenaga, Y

1977-01-01

30

Chronic toxicity of copper on embryo development in Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of copper exposure on embryonic development of Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans. Firstly, the LC(50) values from 24 to 96 h of exposure were 3.61×10(-6) M, by means of a 4 d toxicity test with B. gargarizans embryos. Secondly, Chinese toad embryos were exposed to 10(-9)-10(-6) M copper from mid gastrula stage to operculum completion stage. Measurements included mortality, tadpole weight, tadpole total length, growth retardation, duration of different embryo stages and malformation. Embryonic survival was not affected by copper. Relative to control tadpoles, significantly decreased weight and total length were found at 10(-9)-10(-6) M reduced percentage of the embryos in right operculum stage after 10 d exposure to copper and reduced percentage of embryos in operculum completion stage after 12 d exposure to copper were also observed. Moreover, the duration of embryonic development increased at neural, circulation and operculum development stage in copper-treated groups. For the scanning microscope and histological observation, the abnormalities were malformation of wavy dorsal fin, flexural tail, curvature body axis, yolk sac oedema and reduced pigmentation in the yolk sac. Histopathological changes in olfactory, retinal epithelium and skin were also observed. DNA strand breaks exposed to the copper were analyzed by DNA ladder. In conclusion, copper induced toxic effects on B. gargarizans embryos. The present study indicated chronic toxicity tests may provide more accurate way in formulating the "safe levels" of heavy metals to amphibian. PMID:22436585

Xia, Kun; Zhao, Hongfeng; Wu, Minyao; Wang, Hongyuan

2012-06-01

31

Types of Leukemia in Chronic Benzene Poisoning. A Study in Thirty-Four Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various types of leukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene is described in a series comprising 34 cases. The incidence of leukemia among 31 shoe-workers was 13.5\\/100,000. Acute myeloblastic leukemia was the most frequent type, followed by preleukemia, acute erythroleukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The extreme rarity of chronic myeloid leukemia was a noteworthy finding. The differences

Muzaffer Aksoy; Sakir Erdem; Günçag Dinçol

1976-01-01

32

Responsiveness of prehaemolytic copper poisoning in sheep from a specific pathogen-free environment to a relatively high dose of tetrathiomolybdate.  

PubMed

Efficacy of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (3.4 mg/kg LW, TTM(3.4)) was monitored in nine, specific pathogen-free sheep with mild-to-severe, prehaemolytic copper poisoning (pre-HCP). Five sheep were given three subcutaneous injections over seven days and four began a shorter, five-day course four days later. Plasma bile acid (BA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) had fallen significantly after six days but BA briefly rose again between days 10 to 18. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were later to decline but presented little evidence of hepatotoxicity by day 45. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (ESOD) was rapidly inhibited, activities falling by 65 per cent within three days and taking 25 days to recover. Trichloroacetic (TCA)-insoluble copper increased by 6 to 8 ?mol/l after three days but had largely disappeared by day 18. Six lambs had become hypercupraemic by day 18 due to a rise in TCA-soluble Cu. ESOD activity fell again by 188 ± 29.5 U/gHb between days 25 and 45 but had largely recovered by day 62. TTM(3.4) gave better control of hepatotoxicity than TTM(1.7) had done in more severely affects cohorts but at the expense of greater inhibition of ESOD. Treatment of pre-HCuP should rely more on reducing copper absorption until more is known of the side effects of TTM on cuproenzymes. PMID:22798346

Suttle, N F

2012-09-01

33

Refrigerant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... Fluorinated hydrocarbons ... Wax PM, Beuhler MB. Hydrocarbons and volatile substances. In: ... Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study ...

34

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure.

Kasbekar, Shivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Jose Argelio

2011-01-01

35

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure. PMID:22689549

Kasbekar, Shivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Jose Argelio

2011-01-01

36

Intracellular Copper Accumulation Enhances the Growth of Kineococcus radiotolerans during Chronic Irradiation?  

PubMed Central

The actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress, though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of six different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased colony formation during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper, compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute-irradiation-induced DNA damage levels were similar in the copper-loaded culture and the age-synchronized no-copper control culture, though low-molecular-weight DNA was more persistent during postirradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 2 h between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a low-radioactivity environment, K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging effects of ionizing radiation.

Bagwell, C. E.; Milliken, C. E.; Ghoshroy, S.; Blom, D. A.

2008-01-01

37

Intracellular copper accumulation enhances the growth of Kineococcus radiotolerans during chronic irradiation.  

PubMed

The actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress, though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of six different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased colony formation during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper, compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute-irradiation-induced DNA damage levels were similar in the copper-loaded culture and the age-synchronized no-copper control culture, though low-molecular-weight DNA was more persistent during postirradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 2 h between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a low-radioactivity environment, K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:18192425

Bagwell, C E; Milliken, C E; Ghoshroy, S; Blom, D A

2008-03-01

38

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants ...

39

[Mercury poisoning].  

PubMed

Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication. PMID:20579784

Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

2011-07-01

40

Star fruit poisoning is potentially life-threatening in patients with moderate chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Star fruit intoxications have been reported mainly in uremic patients, leading to various degrees of neurological symptoms\\u000a and potentially fatal outcomes. Nephrotoxicity has been reported in few patients with normal renal function or moderate chronic\\u000a renal impairment (CRI). The present report describes clinical course, management, and outcome of six patients with moderate\\u000a CRI admitted to ICU for severe star fruit

Alexandre Herbland; Ibrahim El Zein; Ruddy Valentino; Christophe Cassinotto; Cécile Meunier; Denise Rieux; Hossein Mehdaoui

2009-01-01

41

[Neurological symptoms in poisoning].  

PubMed

Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

Neu, I

1980-10-01

42

Chronic pesticide poisoning from persistent low-dose exposures in Ecuadorean floriculture workers: toward validating a low-cost test battery.  

PubMed

Chronic pesticide poisoning is difficult to detect. We sought to develop a low-cost test battery for settings such as Ecuador's floriculture industry. First we had to develop a case definition; as with all occupational diseases a case had to have both sufficient effective dose and associated health effects. For the former, using canonical discriminant analysis, we found that adding measures of protection and overall environmental stressors to occupational category and duration of exposure was useful. For the latter, factor analysis suggested three distinct manifestations of pesticide poisoning. We then determined sensitivity and specificity of various combinations of symptoms and simple neurotoxicity tests from the Pentox questionnaire, and found that doing so increased sensitivity and specificity compared to use of acethylcholinesterase alone--the current screening standard. While sensitivity and specificity varied with different case definitions, our results support the development of a low-cost test battery for screening in such settings. PMID:22550693

Breilh, Jaime; Pagliccia, Nino; Yassi, Annalee

2012-01-01

43

[Effect of quercetin on the course of chronic poisoning with fluorine compounds in rats].  

PubMed

Biochemical examinations in serum, homogenates and microsomal fraction of the liver, as well as biochemical and morphological examinations of liver tissue were performed in rats of Wistar strain exposed chronically for 6 months to ammonium fluoride vapours. A part of animals was protected with a mixture of sodium salts of quercetin synthetized in Inorganic Chemistry Department of the Technical University at Rzeszów, and added to the standard feed in a dose of 5 and 20 mg/kg body weight. It has been disclosed that NH4F causes disturbances in the activities of enzymes (cholinesterases, transaminases, alkaline and acid phosphatase), a rise of bilirubin concentration in serum, as well as disturbances in lipid metabolism, an increase in the content of total lipids, and disorders of lipid metabolism--increase in the content of total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, with phospholipids being decreased. The biochemical changes are accompanied by the hepatic tissue lesion. The use of quercetin alleviates, to a considerable degree, the biochemical and morphological disturbances due to protracted exposure to ammonium fluoride vapours. PMID:7503452

Czerny, B

1994-01-01

44

Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... Ewing, Jr., (poison ivy) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (poison oak) NIOSH Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from ... in this section courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Identification The old saying " Leaves of three, ...

45

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get poison ivy by touching the plant's oils or something else that "urushiol" has touched. ... the sap oil that's made by poison ivy plants that's responsible for irritant reactions. It is the ...

46

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

47

Kerosene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Lamp oil poisoning; Coal oil poisoning ... The health care provider will measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated ...

48

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

49

Glaze poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

50

Insecticide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

51

Chlorine poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

52

Gasoline poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

53

Chronic copper exposure exacerbates both amyloid and tau pathology and selectively dysregulates cdk5 in a mouse model of AD  

PubMed Central

Excess copper exposure is thought to be linked to the development of Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology. However, the mechanism by which copper affects the central nervous system remains unclear. To investigate the effect of chronic copper exposure on both beta-amyloid and tau pathologies, we treated young triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice with 250 ppm copper-containing water for the period of 3 or 9 months. Copper exposure resulted in altered APP processing; increased accumulation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its proteolytic product, C99 fragment, along with increased generation of amyloid-beta peptides and oligomers. These changes were found to be mediated via upregulation of BACE1 as significant increases in BACE1 levels and deposits were detected around plaques in mice following copper exposure. Furthermore, tau pathology within hippocampal neurons was exacerbated in copper-exposed 3xTg-AD group. Increased tau phosphorylation was closely correlated with aberrant cdk5/p25 activation, suggesting a role for this kinase in the development of copper-induced tau pathology. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic copper exposure accelerates not only amyloid pathology but also tau pathology in a mouse model of AD.

Kitazawa, Masashi; Cheng, David; LaFerla, Frank M.

2014-01-01

54

[Chronic Beryllium disease after exposure to low-beryllium-content copper].  

PubMed

A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of exertional dyspnea and abnormal shadows on chest X-ray film. He worked in a factory, where he was exposed to 1.8% beryllium-copper alloys. His job was to draw out heated beryllium-copper wire to make it more fine. Chest X-ray film and chest CT scan showed left-sided pneumothorax, diffuse fine reticulonodular shadows, and several cysts. Pulmonary-function tests showed a restrictive disorder and a low diffusing capacity. A specimen obtained by open-lung biopsy showed epithelioid cell granuloma and alveolitis, which were compatible with chronic beryllium disease. The beryllium content of the lung tissue was 0.045 microgram/gram. Beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests on blood and on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. Based on these findings, chronic beryllium disease was diagnosed. After treatment with 1 mg/kg of prednisolone daily, dyspnea disappeared. Then the dose was tapered slowly. In Japan, chronic beryllium disease is extremely rare, and to our knowledge only 22 other cases have been reported. PMID:8544383

Hasejima, N; Kobayashi, H; Takezawa, S; Yamato, K; Kadoyama, C; Kawano, Y

1995-10-01

55

COPPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

56

Recurrent neonatal organophoshorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus poisoning in neonates is extremely rare and needs high index of suspicion to diagnose it. The clinical presentation is often confused with the features of sepsis like apnea, copious oral secretions, diarrhea, letharginess, seizures. There may be recurrence of manifestations due to chronic exposure. We report a classic case admitted in the intensive care unit of our hospital. PMID:23024082

Parvez, Yusuf; Mathew, Aji; Kutti, Satheesh Kalantra

2012-09-01

57

Electrolyte imbalances and nephrocalcinosis in acute phosphate poisoning on chronic type 1 renal tubular acidosis due to Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

Although renal calcium crystal deposits (nephrocalcinosis) may occur in acute phosphate poisoning as well as type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hyperphosphatemic hypocalcemia is common in the former while normocalcemic hypokalemia is typical in the latter. Here, as a unique coexistence of these two seperated clinical entities, we report a 30-yr-old woman presenting with carpal spasm related to hypocalcemia (ionized calcium of 1.90 mM/L) due to acute phosphate poisoning after oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, which resolved rapidly after calcium gluconate intravenously. Subsequently, type 1 RTA due to Sjögren's syndrome was unveiled by sustained hypokalemia (3.3 to 3.4 mEq/L), persistent alkaline urine pH (> 6.0) despite metabolic acidosis, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Through this case report, the differential points of nephrocalcinosis and electrolyte imbalances between them are discussed, and focused more on diagnostic tests and managements of type 1 RTA. PMID:23400265

Cho, Sung-Gun; Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

2013-02-01

58

Tetrahydrozoline poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center number . This hotline number will let you talk to ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

59

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment was received. The faster a patient gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. If symptoms are mild, the person will usually make a full recovery . If the poisoning is severe, death may occur up to a week after swallowing the poison.

60

Consumption of poisonous plants (Senecio jacobaea, Symphytum officinale, Pteridium aquilinum, Hypericum perforatum) by rats: chronic toxicity, mineral metabolism, and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Effect of dietary tancy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), comfrey (Symphytum officinale), bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats were measured. Tansy ragwort and bracken increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of glutathione transferase and epoxide hydrolase. Comfrey and alfalfa increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase. Feeding bracken or St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) in conjunction with tansy ragwort did not influence chronic toxicity of tansy ragwort as assessed by rat survival time. Dietary tansy ragwort resulted in increased (P less than 0.05) hepatic copper levels; the other plants did not affect copper levels. The results do not suggest any major interaction in the toxicity of tansy ragwort with bracken or St. John's wort. PMID:7080084

Garrett, B J; Cheeke, P R; Miranda, C L; Goeger, D E; Buhler, D R

1982-02-01

61

Cologne poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) Note: This list may not include all poisonous ingredients in cologne. ... problems, seizures, and coma. A product with more isopropyl alcohol may potentially cause a more serious illness.

62

Varnish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

63

Ink poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

64

Benzene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

65

Everyday Poisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading and writing activity (on pages 2-9) teaches what plant parts should be avoided, how a person can get rid of toxins, symptoms of plant poisoning, and how plants create poisons to repel predators. Excerpts from a video and biography of Fatima Johnson, an anthropologist who studies plants and people in Africa, are available online, and the full versions can be purchased on DVD. An interactive version of the activity, and tips for using this resource, are also online.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

66

Association of genetic polymorphisms in GADD45A, MDM2, and p14{sup ARF} with the risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population  

SciTech Connect

Benzene reactive metabolites can lead to DNA damage and trigger the p53-dependent defense responses to maintain genomic stability. We hypothesized that the p53-dependent genes may play a role in the development of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). In a case-control study of 303 patients with benzene poisoning and 295 workers occupationally exposed to benzene in south China, we investigated associations between the risk of CBP and polymorphisms in three p53-dependent genes. Potential interactions of these polymorphisms with lifestyle factors were also explored. We found p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 polymorphism was associated with risk of CBP (P = 0.014). Compared with those carrying the GG genotype, individuals carrying p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a reduced risk of CBP ([adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}) = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.36-0.89]. Further analysis showed p14{sup ARF} TGA/TAG diplotype was associated with an increased risk of CBP (P = 0.0006), whereas p14{sup ARF} TGG/TAA diplotype was associated with a decreased risk of CBP (P = 0.0000001). In addition, we found individuals carrying both MDM2 Del1518 WW genotype and p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a lower risk of CBP (OR{sub adj} = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.10-0.62; P = 0.003). Although these results require confirmation and extension, our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in p14{sup ARF} may have an impact on the risk of CBP in the study population.

Sun Pin; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety (Fudan University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China); Zhao Naiqing [Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jin Xipeng [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety (Fudan University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China); Xia Zhaolin [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety (Fudan University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zlxia@shmu.edu.cn

2009-10-01

67

Association of genetic polymorphisms, mRNA expression of p53 and p21 with chronic benzene poisoning in a chinese occupational population.  

PubMed

DNA damage induced by benzene reactive metabolites is thought of as an important mechanism underlying benzene hematotoxicity and genotoxicity, and genetic variation in cell-cycle control genes may contribute to susceptibility to chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Using a case-control study that included 307 benzene-poisoned patients and 299 workers occupationally exposed to benzene in south China, we aimed to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of p53 and p21 and the odds of CBP. To investigate whether benzene exposure may influence mRNA expression of p53 and p21 in benzene-exposed workers, we also chose 39 CBP workers, 38 occupationally benzene-exposure workers, and 37 nonexposure workers in the same region of China. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was applied to detect polymorphisms of p53 (rs17878362, rs1042522, and rs1625895) and p21 (rs1801270 and rs1059234), and real-time PCR was applied to detect the quantity of gene mRNA expression. We found that p21 C98A variant genotypes (CA+AA) or C70T variant genotypes (CT+TT) were associated with decreased odds of CBP [odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.32-0.83, and OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.95, respectively. Further analysis showed the decreased odds of CBP in the subjects with p21 CC/AT diplotype (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.85). In addition, p53 mRNA expression of CBP workers or benzene-exposure workers was significantly lower than that of nonexposure workers. Although these results require confirmation and extension, our results show that polymorphisms in p21 may be protective against the risk of CBP in the Chinese occupational population. PMID:19505915

Sun, Pin; Qiu, Yulan; Zhang, Zhongbin; Wan, Junxiang; Wang, Tong; Jin, Xipeng; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Xia, Zhao-lin

2009-06-01

68

Photographic fixative poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

69

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

70

Coenzyme Q10, Copper, Zinc, and Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Serum of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation is associated with increased level of copper (Cu), zinc\\u000a (Zn), and lipid peroxidation (malodialdehyde, MDA). The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of lipid peroxidation,\\u000a Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), Zn, and Cu in the COPD exacerbations. Forty-five patients with COPD acute exacerbation and 45 healthy\\u000a smokers as control group were

Abdullah Cetin Tanrikulu; Abdurrahman Abakay; Osman Evliyaoglu; Yilmaz Palanci

71

Neurological abnormalities in chronic benzene poisoning. A study of six patients with aplastic anemia and two with preleukemia  

SciTech Connect

Neurological, electromyographical and motor conduction velocity examinations were applied to 6 patients with aplastic anemia and two cases of preleukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene. In addition, sensory conduction velocities were measured in three patients. Neurological abnormalities were found in four out of six pancytopenic individuals. There was a certain relationship between the presence of neurological abnormalities and the period of cessation of the exposure. In the two patients with preleukemia similar neurologic abnormalities were found.

Baslo, A.; Aksoy, M.

1982-04-01

72

Comparison of the lethality of lead and copper bullets in deer control operations to reduce incidental lead poisoning; field trials in England and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Legislative controls on the use of lead gunshot ove r wetland areas have been introduced in many countries, including the UK, in order to reduce lea d poisoning in waterfowl following ingestion of spent shot. Effective alternatives to lead shot are widely available. However, there is evidence that the problem also affects wildlife in terrestrial ecosys tems and that

Jeff Knott; Jo Gilbert; Rhys E. Green; David G. Hoccom

73

Lead Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has been mined and worked by men for millenniums. Its ductility, high resistance to erosion and other properties make it one of the most useful of metals. The inappropriate use of lead has, however, resulted in outbreaks of lead poisoning in humans from time to time since antiquity. The disease, which is sometimes called plumbism (from the Latin word

J. Julian Chisolm; J. J. Jr

1971-01-01

74

Isopropanol poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Isopropanol is a clear, colorless liquid with a fruity odor and a mild bitter taste. Most commonly found domestically as rubbing alcohol, isopropanol is also found in numerous household and commercial products including cleaners, disinfectants, antifreezes, cosmetics, solvents, inks, and pharmaceuticals. Aim. The aim of this review is to critically review the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of isopropanol poisoning. Methods. OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched to November 2013 using the words "isopropanol", "isopropyl alcohol", "2-propanol", "propan-2-ol", and "rubbing alcohol" combined with the keywords "poisoning", "poison", "toxicity", "ingestion", "adverse effects", "overdose", or "intoxication". These searches identified 232 citations, which were then screened via their abstract to identify relevant articles referring specifically to the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of isopropanol poisoning; 102 were relevant. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports, and internet resources. These additional searches produced eight non-duplicate relevant citations. Epidemiology. The majority of isopropanol exposures are unintentional and occur in children less than 6 years of age. Although isopropanol poisoning appears to be a reasonably common occurrence, deaths are rare. Toxicokinetics. Isopropanol is rapidly absorbed following ingestion with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 30 min. It can also be absorbed following inhalation or dermal exposure. Isopropanol is widely distributed with a volume of distribution of 0.45-0.55 L/kg. Isopropanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone, acetol and methylglyoxal, propylene glycol, acetate, and formate with conversion of these metabolites to glucose and other products of intermediary metabolism. The elimination of isopropanol is predominantly renal, though some pulmonary excretion of isopropanol and acetone occurs. In one case 20% of the absorbed dose was eliminated unchanged in urine, with the remainder excreted as acetone and metabolites of acetone. The elimination half-life of isopropanol is between 2.5 and 8.0 h, whereas elimination of acetone is slower with a half-life following isopropanol ingestion of between 7.7 and 27 h. Mechanisms of toxicity. While the exact mechanism of action of isopropanol has not been fully elucidated, brain stem depression is thought to be the predominant mechanism. While the clinical effects are thought to be mostly due to isopropanol, acetone may also contribute. Clinical features. The major features of severe poisoning are due to CNS and respiratory depression, shock, and circulatory collapse. The most common metabolic effects are an increased osmol (osmolal) gap, ketonemia, and ketonuria. Diagnosis. Poisoning can be diagnosed using the measurement of isopropanol serum concentrations, though these may not be readily available. Diagnosis is therefore more typically made on the basis of the patient's history and clinical presentation. An osmol gap, ketonemia, and/or ketonuria without metabolic acidosis, along with a fruity or sweet odor on the breath and CNS depression support the diagnosis. Management. Supportive care is the mainstay of management with primary emphasis on respiratory and cardiovascular support. Hemodialysis enhances elimination of isopropanol and acetone and should be considered in very severe poisoning. Conclusions. Severe isopropanol poisoning results in CNS and respiratory depression and circulatory collapse. Treatment primarily consists of symptom-directed supportive care. Although hemodialysis increases the elimination of isopropanol and acetone substantially, it should only be considered in severe life-threatening poisonings. Patients usually make a full recovery provided they receive prom

Slaughter, R J; Mason, R W; Beasley, D M G; Vale, J A; Schep, L J

2014-06-01

75

The Dose Makes the Poison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

Ottoboni, Alice

1992-01-01

76

COMMD1-Deficient Dogs Accumulate Copper in Hepatocytes and Provide a Good Model for Chronic Hepatitis and Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

New therapeutic concepts developed in rodent models should ideally be evaluated in large animal models prior to human clinical application. COMMD1-deficiency in dogs leads to hepatic copper accumulation and chronic hepatitis representing a Wilson’s disease like phenotype. Detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and time course of this animal model is required to test its feasibility as a large animal model for chronic hepatitis. In addition to mouse models, true longitudinal studies are possible due to the size of these dogs permitting detailed analysis of the sequence of events from initial insult to final cirrhosis. Therefore, liver biopsies were taken each half year from five new born COMMD1-deficient dogs over a period of 42 months. Biopsies were used for H&E, reticulin, and rubeanic acid (copper) staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker (alpha-smooth muscle actin, ?-SMA), proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (caspase-3), and bile duct and liver progenitor cell (LPC) markers keratin (K) 19 and 7. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blots were performed on gene products involved in the regenerative and fibrotic pathways. Maximum copper accumulation was reached at 12 months of age, which coincided with the first signs of hepatitis. HSCs were activated (?-SMA) from 18 months onwards, with increasing reticulin deposition and hepatocytic proliferation in later stages. Hepatitis and caspase-3 activity (first noticed at 18 months) increased over time. Both HGF and TGF-?1 gene expression peaked at 24 months, and thereafter decreased gradually. Both STAT3 and c-MET showed an increased time-dependent activation. Smad2/3 phosphorylation, indicative for fibrogenesis, was present at all time-points. COMMD1-deficient dogs develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis comparable to human chronic hepatitis, although at much higher pace. Therefore they represent a genetically-defined large animal model to test clinical applicability of new therapeutics developed in rodent models.

Favier, Robert P.; Spee, Bart; Schotanus, Baukje A.; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Fieten, Hille; Brinkhof, Bas; Viebahn, Cornelia S.; Penning, Louis C.; Rothuizen, Jan

2012-01-01

77

Paraphenylenediamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Hair dye containing paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in India because of its free availability and low cost. PPD produces local as well as systemic toxic effects when applied topically and/or ingested. It is highly toxic when taken by mouth and the outcome depends mainly on the dose taken. Important clinical manifestations are angioedema leading to dysphasia and respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure and hepatic necrosis. Myocarditis or fatal arrhythmia may also occur in PPD poisoning. Mainstay of management is early recognition and supportive measures as there is no specific antidote. We hereby report a young female who presented to us with features of angioedema, cardiac manifestation and hepatic dysfunction after ingesting PPD, which was treated successfully. In the absence of laboratory facilities, clinical features like angioedema and chocolate brown-colored urine could be suggestive of PPD poisoning. PMID:23563473

Chaudhary, S C; Sawlani, K K; Singh, K

2013-01-01

78

Metabolism of selenium (Se) in rats chronically poisoned with D- or L-selenomethionine (SeMet), selenite or selenate  

SciTech Connect

L-SeMet is a potential cancer chemoprevention agent for humans. Little difference was seen in the acute toxicity of L vs. D-SeMet in rats. To study chronic toxicity, weanling male rats were fed purified diets containing 2.5, 5.0 or 10 ppm Se as L-SeMet, D-SeMet, Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ or Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 4/ for 6 weeks. Controls received 0.1 ppm Se as selenite. All rats fed 10 ppm Se died within 29 days. Se fed as D-SeMet was retained in the tissues as strongly as L-SeMet. Rats fed D or L-SeMet deposited large amounts of Se in muscle not reflected by proportionate increases in either plasma or RBC Se. Therefore, attempts to follow increases in Se body burden in individuals supplemented with large doses of L-SeMet by monitoring plasma or whole blood Se levels should be interpreted with caution.

McAdam, P.A.; Levander, O.A.

1986-03-01

79

Solder poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Antimony Bismuth Cadmium Copper Ethylene glycol Lead Mild acids Silver Tin Zinc ... failure of many organs) Kidney failure Symptoms for cadmium: Kidney damage Reduced brain function or intelligence Reduced ...

80

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... section: The Poison Help Line Partners Contact Us The Poison Help Line The toll-free Poison Help line, 1- ... is available in 161 languages. People usually get the help they need over the phone . Most people do ...

81

Ink remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...

82

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

83

Lead poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is found widely around the world's surface and is a material used in many products. Chronic exposure to lead is causing\\u000a significant health problems around the world. Many ocular manifestations of lead poisoning have been reported so far. In this\\u000a report, we present a case with ocular symptoms and signs of chronic exposure to lead.

Mehmet Citirik; Golge Acaroglu; Ayse H. Mutluay; Orhan Zilelioglu

2004-01-01

84

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

85

Monitoring of photo-resist poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resist poisoning is one of the key issues linked to low-k dielectric and copper integration. This phenomenon tends to be amplified in dual damascene architecture, where both processes and materials are incriminated, especially when porous low-k dielectrics are integrated. In this paper we present and implement the dose to clear compensation method, easily undertaken with standard lithography and metrology tools, to evaluate quantitatively 248 and 193nm photo-resist poisoning on both MSQ and porous MSQ substrates. We show the amplification of resist poisoning due to the reservoir effect in porous MSQ, and address the role of the porosity in the phenomenon. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in evaluating hard masks compatibility, wet and dry stripping processes, and its ability in screening photo-resist in term of poisoning sensitivity.

Simon, Julia; Weisbuch, Francois; Quere, Yves; Louveau, Olivier; Bourlot, Christine

2003-06-01

86

Early Histological and Functional Effects of Chronic Copper Exposure in Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu is an essential trace element capable of producing toxic effects in animals and man when ingested acutely or chronically\\u000a in excess. Although chronic Cu exposure is increasingly recognized as a public health issue, its early effects remain largely\\u000a unknown. We approached the significance of a moderate chronic Cu load in young rats to correlate early hepatic histopathological\\u000a changes with

Felipe A. Cisternas; Gladys Tapia; Miguel Arredondo; Denise Cartier-Ugarte; Pamela Romanque; Walter D. Sierralta; María T. Vial; Luis A. Videla; Magdalena Araya

2005-01-01

87

Pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

88

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-06-01

89

Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.  

PubMed

This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male mice were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulphate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five mice from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease compared to those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen in the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

2014-03-01

90

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Email not for emergency use. Virginia California Poison Control System Central Office Address University of California San Francisco ... Email not for emergency use. California California Poison Control System - Fresno/Madera Division Address Children's Hospital Central California ...

91

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

92

Developing Regional Poison Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The national Emergency Medical Services program has identified poisoning as a significant national emergency medical problem, for which a patient care system must be developed. Since the development of the first poison control center in Illinois in 1953, ...

S. Micik

1979-01-01

93

Mercuric oxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric oxide is a form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. This is for information only and not for ...

94

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

95

Chlorinated lime poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

96

Furniture polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

97

Acid soldering flux poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

98

Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic

Irma R.. Makalinao; Rahmat Awang

2005-01-01

99

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

100

Lead Poisoning: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is...

N. Gendel

1993-01-01

101

Hydrogen sulfide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning by hydrogen sulfide has been recognized as an occupational hazard for at least two centuries. The development of alternative sources of energy in North America may increase the incidence of this medical emergency in the future. Until recently, no specific antidote to sulfide was recognized. We have compared sulfide poisoning to cyanide poisoning and documented recent findings that indicate

Roger P. Smith; Robert E. Gosselin

1979-01-01

102

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

Drummond, A. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

103

Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

104

Distribution of Cu, Zn, and Fe in the soluble fraction of the kidney in normal, copper-poisoned, and thiomolybdate-treated sheep.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven sheep were used in two experiments to study the distribution of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in the kidney cytosol of control, Cu-loaded, and thiomolybdate (TM)-treated sheep. A comparison was made of the patterns of distribution on Sephadex G-75 of Cu, Zn, and Fe from the cytosol of fresh and frozen kidneys and after thawing of frozen cytosol. In both Cu-dosed and TM-treated sheep, the absolute level of Cu increased in the cytosol, but the percent of Cu decreased. The percent recovery of Cu from the frozen kidney was comparable to that from fresh kidney, but the extraction of Cu from the supernatant of frozen cytosol was approximately 10% less. This was due to a loss of Cu in a precipitate that formed when the frozen cytosol was thawed. Most of the Cu in the cytosol from the kidney of Cu-loaded sheep was in a metallothionein (MT)-like protein fraction and was trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble. In contrast, that from the cytosol of TM-treated sheep was mostly in a high molecular weight fraction that was TCA insoluble. The chromatograms obtained from cytosol derived from frozen kidneys, or cytosol that had itself been frozen, contained a similar distribution of Cu, Zn, and Fe, but the peak heights were lower in the latter samples. PMID:2709001

Gooneratne, S R; Gawthorne, J M; Howell, J M

1989-01-01

105

Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part II. Chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species.  

PubMed

Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at < or = 11 microg/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 microg/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. PMID:15772882

Besser, J M; Wang, N; Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Ingersoll, C G

2005-02-01

106

Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from this study were used to evaluate the sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon and rainbow trout relative to data published for other test organisms. Toxicity data generated from this study also were used to evaluate the level of protection of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WQC or Washington State water-quality standards (WQS) for copper, zinc, cadmium, or lead to white sturgeon inhabiting the upper Columbia River. Chapter A of this report summarizes the results of acute toxicity tests performed for 4 d with white sturgeon and rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, or zinc. Chapter B of this report summarizes the results of chronic toxicity tests performed for as many as 53 days with white sturgeon or rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, zinc, or lead. Appendixes to the report are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5204. Supporting documentation for chapter A toxicity testing is provided in appendix 1. Supporting documentation for chapter B toxicity testing is provided in Appendix 2. Supporting documentation on analysis of water chemistry for chapter A and chapter B is provided in appendix 3 and 4. The rationale for applying corrections to measured copper and zinc values in water samples from some of the toxicity tests performed in chapter A is provided in appendix 5. A summary of dissolved organic carbon measurement variability and implications for biotic ligand model normalization for toxicity data summarized in chapter A and chapter B are provided in appendix 6. An evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison of analyses for dissolved organic carbon in water from the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center and University of Saskatchewan is provided in appendix 7. Finally, appendix 8 provides a summary of retesting of white sturgeon in 2012 to determine if improved survival of sturgeon would affect copper effect concentrations in 24-d copper exposures started with newly hatched larvae, and to evaluate the effect of light intensity or temperature on the response of newly hatched larvae during a 25-d study.

Edited by Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

2014-01-01

107

Lighter fluid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocarbons, including: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

108

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

109

Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective copper and cadmium concentrations which limited the growth of two chlorophytes by 50%, EC(50)s, after 96 h of static exposure were determined. EC(50)s were 5.94 µgM copper and 4.55 µM cadmium for Dunaliella salina, and 0.78 µM copper and 0.025 µM cadmium for Chlamydomonas bullosa. The relationship of the two cations was synergistic towards the growth of both species.

I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

1994-01-01

110

Interpreting copper bioaccumulation dynamics in tilapia using systems-level explorations of pulsed acute/chronic exposures.  

PubMed

To understand how environmental variability could impose aquatic organisms in response to altered disturbance regimes and temporal patterns of waterborne toxicants is challenging. Few studies have reported in an organ/tissue specific basis, and most studies have been restricted to steady-state conditions. For interpreting systematically copper (Cu) bioaccumulation in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in a pulse scheme, we combined mechanistic and statistical as well as model-based data analyses of exposure data that cover short-term mortality to long-term organ/tissue growth bioassay. Our present pulsed Cu-tilapia physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was capable of elucidating the Cu accumulation dynamics in tissues of tilapia under different pulsed exposure scenarios. Under acute and chronic pulsed exposures, our study found that (i) stomach and kidney had the highest uptake and elimination capacities, (ii) liver was prone to a highest BCF and was more sensitive than the other tissues, and (iii) Cu accumulations in most of organs and other tissues were strongly dependent on the exposure pulse characteristics such as frequency and duration and not on concentration (i.e., amplitude). We showed that interactions across multiple pulsed or fluctuating Cu exposures were involved in accumulation changes that could also be achieved by controlling pulse timing and duration. The analytical approach we described provides an opportunity to examine and quantify metal accumulation dynamics for fish in response to environmental variability-induced non-uniform metal exposures on an organ/tissue-dependent scale and to integrate qualitative information with toxicokinetic and physiological data. We hope that our systems-level tools for mathematical analyses and modeling will facilitate future large-scale and dynamic systems biology studies in other model fish. PMID:24829116

Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

2014-08-01

111

Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG

T M McMillan; R R Jacobson; M Gross

1997-01-01

112

Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the develop­ ing countries, where organophosphates (OPs) are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecti­ cides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less

M. A. Cherian; Roshini C; J. V. Peter; A. M. Cherian

2005-01-01

113

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

114

Fatal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of fatal poisoning due to the presumed ingestion of leaves and/or fruit of the yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) is described. The diagnosis was confirmed by radioimmunoassay using antibodies of differential specificity towards cardiac glycosides. Attention is drawn to the potential usefulness of digoxin assay in suspected cases of oleander poisoning. PMID:7195456

Ansford, A J; Morris, H

1981-04-01

115

Aluminium phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997–2003 are discussed.

Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

2006-01-01

116

Mass carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

2000-01-01

117

Long-term Neurobehavioral Effects of Mild Poisonings with Organophosphate and n-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides among Banana Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphate poisoning has been associated with chronic neurobehavioral dysfunction, but no epidemio- logic data exist with regard to long-term consequences from carbamate poisoning. This cross-sectional study eval- uated the neurobehavioral performances of 81 banana workers who, on average 27 months earlier, had received medical attention not requiring hospitalization for mild occupational poisoning by either an organophosphate or a carbamate pesticide.

CATHARINA WESSELING; MATTHEW KEIFER; ANDERS AHLBOM; ROB MCCONNELL; JAI-DONG MOON; LINDA ROSENSTOCK; CHRISTER HOGSTEDT

118

Zinc deficiency in molybdenum poisoned cattle  

SciTech Connect

Clinical signs ascribable to zinc deficiency were noted in a group of Friesian cows industrially poisoned with molybdenum. Zinc, copper, and molybdenum were determined in blood serum and black hair, and in the contaminated alfalfa pasture the group grazed on. Hematological parameters, and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity, were also determined. Pooled samples of alfalfa from 2 uncontaminated pastures, and of blood, serum and black hair of clinically normal Friesian cattle grazing on these were used as controls. A mixed contamination of the polluted pasture with molybdenum and copper was found, both metals being inversely correlated with he distance to the polluting chimney. Zinc concentrations were normal and not significantly correlated with the distance to the chimney very high molybdenum was found in serum and hair of the poisoned animals; copper was normal in serum and hair. Low calcium and Alkaline phosphatase activity were found in serum, both variables being significantly correlated with serum zinc. Reduced red blood cell number, packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations were also found, but no significant correlation of these parameters with any of the trace metals in serum or hair was found. Signs ascribed to zinc deficiency were consistent with the reduction of zinc in serum and hair and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. A zinc deficiency conditioned by a simultaneous increased intake of molybdenum and copper is proposed.

Parada, R.

1981-02-01

119

Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural changes of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa taking place after short term exposure to established copper and\\/or cadmium EC(50) or exposure to low levels of these cations for 8 months were examined. Cadmium had a greater impact on the ultrastructure of these species than copper. Metal stress affected a variety of cellular parameters including total cell volume, pyrenoid,

I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

1994-01-01

120

[Poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L. Morocco poison control center data].  

PubMed

To assess the extent and severity of poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L. in Morocco, a descriptive retrospective study was conducted on all the poisoning cases listed between 1981 and 2004 to the Morocco Poison Control Center. During this period, 240 people were hospitalized for glue thistle poisoning, 72% of which are children under 16 years. The severity of the poisoning has been affirmed by significant intrahospital lethality. Indeed, among the 182 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 98 died (54%). PMID:21243460

Hami, H; Soulaymani, A; Skalli, S; Mokhtari, A; Sefiani, H; Soulaymani, R

2011-02-01

121

Anticholinergic poisoning due to Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Serious poisoning may occur following the consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) containing anticholinergics. The great majority of cases are probably related to the use of yangjinhua, the dried flower of Datura metel L, for treating bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pains and flu symptoms. In some cases the use of CHM contaminated by atropine-like substances or fake herbs were suspected. Some ginseng (Panax ginseng) preparations might have been adulterated with Mandragora officinarum (scopolamine) and other herbs. PMID:7631497

Chan, T Y

1995-04-01

122

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

123

Drain cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be harmful to your health if swallowed, breathed in ( ... article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in drain cleaner. This is for information only and not ...

124

Plant fertilizer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Seek immediate medical help. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water ...

125

Homicide by poisoning.  

PubMed

By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime.Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected.In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime. PMID:23361068

Finnberg, Amanda; Junuzovic, Mensura; Dragovic, Ljubisa; Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben; Hamel, Marianne; Davis, Joseph; Eriksson, Anders

2013-03-01

126

Potassium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

127

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

128

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

129

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Portable propane heaters Stoves (indoor and camp stoves) Water heater that use natural gas Note: This list may ... gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter ...

130

Wart remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...

131

Overview of Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... as iron and lead). Sometimes a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by ... ACETADOTE ), aspirin Some Trade Names BAYER (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone). Some poisonous bites ...

132

Rubber cement poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

133

Fuel oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocarbons (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics) ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

134

Stoddard solvent poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

135

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... ingredients found in metal polishes are ammonia and hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

136

Toluene and xylene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

137

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

138

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

139

Pyopneumothorax Following Kerosene Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B. E.; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

2014-01-01

140

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

141

Mercury Poisoning and Its Treatment with N-acetyl-D, L-Penicillamine  

PubMed Central

Two cases of chronic inorganic mercury poisoning of moderately rapid onset are described. Although exposure was the same in the two patients, the mercurial poisoning affected chiefly the kidneys in one and the gums in the other. Mercurialentis and corneal opacities were seen after short exposure to the metal. One case was treated successfully with N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine. No toxic effects were observed and this is suggested as the treatment of choice for mercury poisoning. Images

Parameshvara, V.

1967-01-01

142

Influence of dissolved organic carbon on toxicity of copper to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in acute and chronic water exposures.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were determined in water exposures at four concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; nominally 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L as carbon [C]). Test waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg?C/L were prepared by mixing a concentrate of natural organic matter (Suwannee River, GA, USA) in diluted well water (hardness 100 mg/L as CaCO(3) , pH 8.3, DOC 0.5 mg C/L). Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved Cu increased approximately fivefold (15-72 µg Cu/L) for mussel survival in 4-d exposures and increased about 11-fold (25-267 µg Cu/L) for cladoceran survival in 2-d exposures across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg?C/L. Similarly, chronic 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for the mussel in 28-d exposures increased about fivefold (13-61 µg Cu/L for survival; 8.8-38 µg Cu/L for biomass), and the EC20s for the cladoceran in 7-d exposures increased approximately 17-fold (13-215 µg Cu/L) for survival or approximately fourfold (12-42 µg Cu/L) for reproduction across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg?C/L. The acute and chronic values for the mussel were less than or approximately equal to the values for the cladoceran. Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for Cu explained more than 90% of the variation in the acute and chronic endpoints for the two species, with the exception of the EC20 for cladoceran reproduction (only 46% of variation explained). The BLM-normalized acute EC50s and chronic EC20s for the mussel and BLM-normalized chronic EC20s for the cladoceran in waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg?C/L were equal to or less than the final acute value and final chronic value in the BLM-based AWQC for Cu, respectively, indicating that the Cu AWQC might not adequately protect the mussel from acute and chronic exposure, and the cladoceran from chronic exposure. PMID:21681812

Wang, Ning; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Santore, Robert C; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Arnold, W Ray

2011-09-01

143

Prepare and Purify Urushiol from Poison Ivy and Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The active ingredients (urushiols) of poison ivy and poison oak were isolated in purified form by various chemical and physical procedures. Various properties were measured, including molecular weight, double bond value, refractive index and infrared spec...

M. D. Corbett

1973-01-01

144

Preparation of Urushiol from Poison Ivy or Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for the preparation of urushiol from poison ivy or poison oak is disclosed. The method includes extraction with alcohol at low temperature and a second extraction with benzene, followed by chromatographic separation on a solid adsorbent. The meth...

1972-01-01

145

Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThere are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In

Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

2012-01-01

146

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

147

Poisonous Snakes of North America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of North America; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the poisonou...

1969-01-01

148

Poisonous Snakes of Southeastern Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Southeastern Asia; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the pois...

1969-01-01

149

Anti-rust product poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

150

Nail polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Organic solvent syndrome; Psychoorganic syndrome; Chronic solvent encephalopathy ... memory loss. Painter syndrome may also be called organic solvent syndrome, psychoorganic syndrome, and chronic solvent encephalopathy ( ...

151

A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?  

PubMed

Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic or mildly pruritic discreet papular and papulovesicular eruption that correlated with high blood mercury levels. The mercury evidently came from increased seafood consumption. All of the patients improved when they were placed on either a seafood-free diet or chelation therapy. Physicians should suspect mercury poisoning in patients who eat a high-seafood diet who present with an asymptomatic or mildly pruritic papular or papulovesicular eruption. PMID:14639393

Dantzig, Paul I

2003-12-01

152

Evaluation of antioxidant circulatory lipid-soluble vitamins and sodium as non-invasive indicators of chronic copper exposure and toxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

PubMed

Measurement of circulatory indicators of copper (Cu) exposure and toxicity in rainbow trout revealed elevated Cu concurrent with reduced sodium (Na) concentrations in plasma of Cu-exposed fish. Using a new normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method developed and validated for simultaneous extraction of lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamins we found that, contrary to our original hypothesis, plasma antioxidant status was enhanced as evidenced by a linear increase in vitamin E concentration. This suggests that vitamin E was mobilized from other metabolic pools to enhance circulatory antioxidant status possibly for delivery to Cu-sensitive locales. On the other hand, plasma vitamin A was not affected by the Cu exposure although its level decreased with time concurrent with an increase in fish size suggesting increased demand for growth. Thus circulatory Cu, Na, and vitamin E, but not vitamin A, can be used as non-lethal biomarkers of chronic Cu exposure and toxicity in fish. PMID:18498009

Kamunde, Collins; MacPhail, Ruth; Mahar, Darlene; Grimmelt, Bryan

2008-06-01

153

Poisoning (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of reach. Discard (or recycle) used button cell batteries (like those in watches) safely and store unused ones far from children's reach. Never tell a child that medicine tastes like candy. Never put cleaning products in containers that were once used for food or drink. Never put rodent poison on the ...

154

Lead Poisoning in Children  

PubMed Central

In this study of the phenomenon of lead poisoning in children, the various approaches that several cities have employed to combat the problem are discussed. Several suggestions for dealing with the situation are proposed. These include educational programs, followup reports, legislation, and research.

Alli, Billiamin A.

1977-01-01

155

Treatment of snakebite poisoning.  

PubMed

The epidemiology, mechanics, prevention, pharmacology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of snakebites are reviewed. Poisonous snakes bite approximately 8000 persons annually in the United States, causing approximately 12-15 deaths per year. Pit vipers (rattlesnakes, copperheads, cottonmouths, and massasaugas) are responsible for 99% of all snakebite poisonings; coral snakes and other foreign exotic species are responsible for the additional 1%. Envenomation is characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymoses at or near the site of venom injection, followed by cardiac, hematologic, neurologic, renal, and pulmonary toxicity. The major clinical finding in most snakebite poisonings is local tissue necrosis. Immediate treatment for snakebite includes limiting movement and placing a constriction band proximal to the site of venom injection. If medical care is more than 30 minutes away, the wound may be incised and suctioned. Antivenin therapy is the mainstay of medical treatment of snakebite, along with administration of plasma expanders, pain medication, diazepam, tetanus toxoid, antiseptics, and antibiotics. Patients who have pain, swelling, ecchymoses, systemic symptoms, or abnormal laboratory findings within 30 minutes to one hour of a bite are probable candidates to receive antivenin therapy. Before receiving antivenin therapy, the patient must be tested for hypersensitivity to the antivenin. Antivenin therapy is most effective when given within four hours of the snakebite. Pharmacists--especially those serving rural areas--should be familiar with current snakebite treatments, both local and systemic, and should be prepared to provide important information and dispel any myths about snakebite poisoning. PMID:1781479

Smith, T A; Figge, H L

1991-10-01

156

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, a newly identified marine toxin disease associated with blooms of the diatom Pseudonitschia pungens. The page describes clinical presentation (symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of domoic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-03-22

157

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

158

Methyl Bromide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Seven cases of methyl bromide poisoning which occurred amongst workers engaged on a fumigation project are described. The methods adopted for investigation of the environmental situation are discussed and the measurement of blood bromide levels on random samples of workers is suggested as an index of the effectiveness of equipment and working methods.

Rathus, E. M.; Landy, P. J.

1961-01-01

159

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

160

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

161

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

162

Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the

M. V. Balzan; G. Agius; A. Galea Debono

1996-01-01

163

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

164

Bluish vomiting: a rare clinical presentation of poisoning.  

PubMed

Bluish vomiting is a symptom of poisoning that is rarely seen in Western emergency departments. Consequently, physicians are not aware of the diagnosis, complications, and treatment of this unusual form of intoxication. In this article, we report a case of bluish vomiting that occurred after an accidental ingestion of copper sulphate. In the discussion, we review three life-threatening causes of bluish vomiting (copper sulphate, boric acid, and paraquat ingestion), and we discuss their respective clinical manifestations, specificities, complications, and management therapies. PMID:24846181

Higny, J; Vanpee, D; Boulouffe, C

2014-08-01

165

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED).DesignA statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into

Christopher A Naun; Cody S Olsen; J Michael Dean; Lenora M Olson; Lawrence J Cook; Heather T Keenan

2011-01-01

166

Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.??

McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

1997-01-01

167

[Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].  

PubMed

An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

Xiao, J H

1990-05-01

168

Effects of sublethal chronic copper exposure on the growth and reproductive success of the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa).  

PubMed

Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) were exposed to three concentrations of copper (Cu), in water (8 microg/L, 16 microg/L, 24 microg/L), for one generation to examine uptake and the effects on survival, growth, and reproduction of the F(0) generation and survival, growth, and whole body Cu of the F(1) generation. During a 9-month Cu exposure, apple snails exposed to 8-16 microg/L Cu had high Cu accumulation (whole body, foot, viscera, and shell) and significantly reduced clutch production (8-16 microg/L) and egg hatching (16 microg/L). Apple snails exposed to the 24 microg/L Cu had low survival and the treatment was therefore terminated. Concentrations of minerals (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) in tissues were maintained regardless of Cu exposure, but the distribution of Cu in the body of snails differed, depending on exposure concentrations. Higher exposure concentrations resulted in a greater percentage of Cu accumulated in the viscera of the snail. Copper exposure to the F(0) generation did not affect the survival, growth, or whole body Cu concentrations in the F(1) generation. These finding are significant, given the importance of the Florida apple snail in the Everglades food chain. Changes in the abundance of apple snail populations, as a result of Cu exposure, could ultimately affect foraging success of predators. PMID:18846313

Rogevich, Emily C; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

2009-04-01

169

Poisonings in reptiles.  

PubMed

Reptiles are increasingly being kept as pets in American households. The basic principles of emergency medicine are the same for all species, but reptilian species present special diagnostic challenges to veterinary clinicians when they become ill. Reptiles in captivity can become accidentally poisoned in a variety of ways. Veterinarians treating small animal emergencies must make an effort to familiarize themselves with the large body of literature and resources that are developing regarding both nontraditional exotic companion species and advances in toxicology. PMID:18406391

Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Newquist, Kristin L

2008-05-01

170

Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

1976-01-01

171

Endrin-food-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end.

Weeks, D. E.

1967-01-01

172

[Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].  

PubMed

Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5?% was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39?% of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99?%); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26?% (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46?%); products of daily use in about 14?% (of these, cosmetics in 40?%); and plants in about 10?%. More than 90?% of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5?%, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44?% of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30?%, moderate ones in 6?%, and severe manifestations in 2?% of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (poisoning accidents, followed by suicidal action (20?%), with abuse and industrial poisoning (4?%) in third position; 1?% of the cases of poisoning were attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADR) and mistaking a medicinal product for another one. Infants aged 1-2 years have the highest risk of poisoning. A panel of the BfR Committee for the Assessment of Poisonings has already developed proposals for a national monitoring scheme of poisoning incidents. The aim is to prepare annual reports similar to the report of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) in the USA. PMID:24863706

Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

2014-06-01

173

Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons  

PubMed Central

Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient.

Lees, Ronald E. M.

1972-01-01

174

Prallethrin poisoning: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to their high effectiveness and low toxicity in humans. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are a few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. The poisoning has a varied presentation and its symptoms overlap with those of other compounds, which can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of poisoning with prallethrin, a pyrethroid compound, commonly available as All-Out.

Chandra, Alka; Dixit, Madhu B.; Banavaliker, Jayant N.

2013-01-01

175

Relative and Combined Effects of Chronic Alcohol Consumption and HCV Infection on Serum Zinc, Copper, and Selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In alcoholic hepatitis, Kupffer cells are activated by intestinal gram-bacteria, leading to cytokine production and free radicals\\u000a release, which, enhancing cytokine secretion, create a positive feedback loop which contributes to liver inflammation. Free\\u000a radicals also damage the liver in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a condition frequently associated to alcohol\\u000a consumption. In both situations, activity of antioxidant enzymes and

Emilio González-Reimers; M. Candelaria Martín-González; M. Remedios Alemán-Valls; María José de la Vega-Prieto; Luis Galindo-Martín; Pedro Abreu-González; Francisco Santolaria-Fernández

2009-01-01

176

Copper Test  

MedlinePLUS

... copper in my diet? 1. Should everyone's copper metabolism be evaluated? General screening for copper concentrations is ... in Man and Animals, Genetic Defects in Copper Metabolism. J. Nutr . 133: 1527S-1531S [On-line journal ...

177

[Hypericum poisoning in sheep].  

PubMed

A report about a case of St. John's wort poisoning in German Blackface sheep is given. After the ingestion of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) all slightly pigmented parts of the skin, that were rarely covered with hair, were photosensitized. In summer many sheep suffered from inflammatory skin alterations at the ears, the bridge of the nose and at the surroundings of the eyes. A literature review informs about etiology and treatment of photosensitivity disease and the St. John's wort is exactly described to facilitate recognition. PMID:2815063

Kümper, H

1989-01-01

178

Lead poisoning in wild waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular belief, lead shot in the flesh of waterfowl does not cause lead poisoning. Shot pellets in the flesh undergo slight, if any, change and are of little harm to waterfowl unless they have damaged vital tissues. Lead poisoning is likely to occur in waterfowl that have swallowed lead shot pellets while feeding on the bottoms of lakes

J. S. Jordan; F. C. Bellrose

1951-01-01

179

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

180

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

181

Nodularins in poisoning.  

PubMed

Nodularins are an important class of hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptides that are produced by the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena. These peptides have been found worldwide and have been implicated in the deaths of animals as well as a potent cyanotoxin in humans. To date, approximately 10 variants have been discovered, among which nodularin-R is the most abundant. Though the mechanisms of their potential hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity are not well understood, the most frequently proposed mechanisms are described here. Most importantly, a comprehensive review of nodularins in poisoning is presented, including their bioaccumulation in water, cyanobacterial blooms and aquatic animals, the IC50, LC50 and LD50 values determined in laboratories, and wild, domestic and laboratory animal cases. However, the hazard of these toxins to humans has not been fully elucidated, predominantly due to the lack of exposure data. One of reasons underlying is that most current methods are ill suited for clinical monitoring. Thus, the available assays for the detection and quantification of nodularins are described with an emphasis on the problems encountered with each assay. Our ultimate aim is to demonstrate the urgency of better understanding the toxicity of nodularins, especially in humans, and thus effectively protecting ourselves from their poisoning. PMID:23872223

Chen, Yun; Shen, Danfeng; Fang, Danjun

2013-10-21

182

Poisoning hospitalization correlates with poison center call frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have been shown to reduce health expenditures by reducing emergency department and clinic visits.\\u000a The effect or association of PCC call frequency on acute hospitalization rates for poisonings has not been studied extensively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All nonfederal hospital discharges for acute poisoning principal diagnosis codes (960–979, 980–989, 9956X, 3030, and 005)\\u000a in California between October 1999 and June

Timothy E. Albertson; R. Steven Tharratt; Kathy Marquardt; Judith Alsop; John K. Ninomiya; Garrett E. Foulke

2008-01-01

183

Emergency Department Poison Advice Telephone Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Requests for medical advice regarding treatment of poisonings are common in emergency departments. Although there are designated poison centers (PCs), most EDs are recognized by the community and medical staff as a poison information resource. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of poison information given by ED personnel.Design: A prospective, stratified-sample, telephone

Herbert N Wigder; Timothy Erickson; Thomas Morse; Victoria Saporta

1995-01-01

184

Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.  

PubMed

Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds. PMID:7923948

Epstein, W L

1994-07-01

185

Pathogenesis of phosgene poisoning.  

PubMed

Phosgene inhalation in concentrations greater than 1 ppm may produce a transient bioprotective vagus reflex with rapid shallow breathing in some individuals. Phosgene concentrations greater than 3 ppm are moderately irritating to eyes and upper airways. Toxic phosgene doses (greater than or equal to 30 ppm X min) inhaled into the terminal respiratory passages render the blood-air-barrier more permeable to blood plasma, which gradually collects in the lung. Some time passes, however, until the collection of fluid provokes signs and symptoms. This period in which the patient experiences relative well-being is known as the clinical latent phase. The clinical symptoms which follow and the pathological changes underlying them are discussed in detail; dose-effect relationships are demonstrated. The regression phase after poisoning has been overcome is briefly sketched. PMID:3842189

Diller, W F

1985-10-01

186

Poison Ivy Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Spectrum Disorders: What Every Parent Needs to Know Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Teaching Package Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Developmental Disabilities Ear ...

187

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

188

Protecting Children from Poison Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protecting Children From Poison Emergencies Safety, treatment advice for ... to RSS Follow us on Twitter Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library ...

189

Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.  

PubMed

A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

1977-01-01

190

Methemoglobinemia associated with metaflumizone poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Metaflumizone is a voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker insecticide, which is chemically similar to indoxacarb. Although indoxacarb poisoning is known as a cause of methemoglobinemia, the effect of metaflumizone poisoning in humans is still unknown. Case details. A 57-year-old man presented with a decreased mentality following ingestion of 100 ml of metaflumizone, 150 ml of glyphosate and alcohol. Although initial methemoglobin (MetHb) level was slightly higher than the normal limit, it gradually rose to reach a maximum level of 27.8%, on the 19 h after ingestion. After hemodialysis, MetHb level was reduced to 15.8%, which decreased further to the level of 6%, following methylene blue administration. Discussion. Metaflumizone shares a similar chemical structure to indoxacarb, which is known to be a cause of methemoglobinemia. Physicians should be alert for the development of methemoglobinemia in symptomatic patients when facing potential pesticide poisoning such as metaflumizone poisoning. PMID:24649894

Oh, J S; Choi, K H

2014-04-01

191

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... handlers become ill from working with organophosphate or carbamate insecticides in warm and hot environments, it is ... symptoms. Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Symptoms of Organophosphate/ Carbamate Poisoning Sweating Sweating Headache Headache Fatigue Fatigue Dry ...

192

Copper Peroxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action of hydrogen superoxide on copper salts in alcoholic solutions is studied. The action of hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide in alcoholic suspensions, and the action of ethereal hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide are discussed. It is conclu...

L. Moser

1988-01-01

193

Nonaccidental poisoning: the elusive diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

Although nonaccidental poisoning in childhood is now more often recognised, it is still difficult to establish a diagnosis despite correct investigative procedures. In 1978 we were unable, initially, to establish the cause of intermittent episodes of loss of consciousness in a boy admitted to Sheffield Children's Hospital. Subsequently it was conclusively shown that his mother systematically poisoned him with Tuinal (amylobarbitone and quinalbarbitone) both before admission and while he was being treated in the hospital.

Lorber, J; Reckless, J P; Watson, J B

1980-01-01

194

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

195

Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?  

PubMed

Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an ?2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment. PMID:24363695

Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

2011-01-01

196

Cholinergic crisis after rodenticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, "Tres Pasitos." The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

2010-12-01

197

Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires stronger enforcement of existing laws and regulations, as well as accountability of local authorities charged with upholding environmental regulations. In this context, restrictions on such rights as freedom of expression, assembly, and political participation have direct consequences on the realization of the right to health. PMID:23568949

Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

2012-01-01

198

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

199

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

200

Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides  

PubMed Central

Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice.

Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

1965-01-01

201

Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings. PMID:2403894

Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

1990-01-01

202

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning.

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

203

Fatal 'Bhang' poisoning.  

PubMed

A young adult male of about 25 years of age consumed a glass (about 300 ml) of Bhang on the holy occasion of ShivRatri. The deceased died within 24 hours of consuming the Bhang. The deceased had suffered from rheumatic heart disease with multiple valvular involvements. He had also undergone open-heart surgery in the past. Fatality due to Bhang is extremely rare and therefore the case is presented. An attempt is made to review the literature. Bhang is one of the Indian preparations of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa). It is prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant. The bolus is then consumed in various ways. Water is used as a vehicle. In the present case a bolus of about 1 to 2 gm was mixed in a glass of water. ShivRatri is a Hindu festival. On this day prayers are offered to Lord Shiva, who is the god of all evils and poisons. Bhang is a special article, which is offered to Lord Shiva on this auspicious day. Then, the devotees consume it as the God. Gujrat is a dry state (possession, consumption, sale, etc. of alcohol, Bhang, opium and other psychotropic substance, etc. is governed by particular laws), but on the holy occasion of ShivRati, for a day, the law is relaxed for the use of Bhang. In most other parts of the country, particularly, in northern India, it is a common practice to consume various preparations of Indian hemp like Bhang, Charas, Ganja, sweetmeat, etc. The bolus mentioned above is probably the minimum single dose. PMID:11693232

Gupta, B D; Jani, C B; Shah, P H

2001-10-01

204

Poisonous Snakes of Central and South America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Central and South America; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of ...

1970-01-01

205

Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Preventing Lead Poisoning English (Arabic) ?????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education ...

206

Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

207

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

208

Preserving the United States's poison control system.  

PubMed

The funding of United States's poison control centers is threatened. The following Commentary argues for support of the current outstanding poison control system by presenting the evidence for its cost-effectiveness. PMID:21563903

Woolf, Alan D; Karnes, David K; Kirrane, Barbara M

2011-04-01

209

A risk assessment based approach to the management of acute poisoning.  

PubMed

Early assessment and management of poisoning constitutes a core emergency medicine competency. Medical and psychiatric emergencies coexist; the acute poisoning is a dynamic medical illness that represents an acute exacerbation of a chronic underlying psychosocial disorder. The emergency physician must use an approach that ensures early decisions address potentially time critical interventions, while allowing management to be tailored to the individual patient's needs in that particular medical setting. This article outlines a rationale approach to the management of the poisoned patient that emphasises the importance of early risk assessment. Ideally, this approach should be used in the setting of a health system designed to optimise the medical and psychosocial care of the poisoned patient. PMID:16627846

Daly, F F S; Little, M; Murray, L

2006-05-01

210

Blister beetle poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Case records of 21 horses with acute illness following ingestion of hay containing dead striped blister beetles (Epicauta spp) were selected for review. Abdominal pain, fever, depression, frequent urination, shock, and, occasionally, synchronous diaphragmatic flutter characterized clinical illness. Hematologic findings included hemoconcentration, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and hypocalcemia. Hematuria and low urine specific gravity were abnormal urinalysis results. Sloughing of the epithelium of the esophageal part of the stomach, hemorrhagic and ulcerative cystitis, enterocolitis, and myocardial necrosis were important post-mortem findings. Signs and lesions in 5 horses experimentally poisoned were similar to those of the natural disease. The findings were regarded as sufficiently characteristic of blister beetle poisoning to be useful in differential diagnosis but were not constant in all cases. Therefore, when blister beetle poisoning is suspected, access of affected horses to hay containing striped blister beetles should be demonstrated. PMID:670055

Schoeb, T R; Panciera, R J

1978-07-01

211

Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  

PubMed

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A

2012-06-01

212

Parathion Poisoning from Flannelette Sheets  

PubMed Central

Two small boys were admitted to the Lions Gate Hospital in coma and acute respiratory distress. They improved and the first boy was sent home; after two nights he was back in hospital in a worsened state. Poisoning with organic phosphate was suspected, and after investigation some flannelette sheets were taken from his home for testing. They proved to have been contaminated with parathion (“nerve gas”) in the hold of a ship sailing from Antwerp to Vancouver; the parathion had been offloaded in California. The remainder of the sheets were traced. The symptomatology and treatment of organic phosphate ester poisoning and the chemical testing of parathion are discussed.

Anderson, L. S.; Warner, D. L.; Parker, J. E.; Bluman, N.; Page, B. D.

1965-01-01

213

Lead Poisoning in Blind Children  

PubMed Central

Many partially sighted children use the mouth, lips, and tongue as an aid in identifying objects—this has been termed discriminatory pica. Investigation of a case of lead poisoning in a pupil at a residential school for the blind led to the discovery of others with asymptomatic lead poisoning, all of whom had the same habit. All the children recovered without treatment when they abandoned their habit of discrimination by use of the mouth. Authorities responsible for schools for the blind should be aware of this risk.

Ames, A. C.; Swift, P. N.

1968-01-01

214

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management

Jennifer S Boyle; Laura K Bechtel; Christopher P Holstege

2009-01-01

215

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

216

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

217

[Dimenhydrinate poisoning in childhood (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Treatment of a Dimenhydrinate poisoning (Vertirosan B6) with Physostigmine salicylate (Antrilirium) is reported. The symptoms of this anticholinergic poisoning (hyperactivity, ataxia, tremor, rubeosis faciei, hallucinations) disappeared rapidly after a single intravenous injection of Physostigmine salicylate. A table of some of the most common drugs capable of producing anticholinergic poisoning is added. PMID:643296

Borkenstein, M; Haidvogl, M

1978-01-01

218

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters,

Raimon Guitart; Magda Sachana; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

219

Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

220

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The

1996-01-01

221

SEASONAL VARIATION OF CHILDHOOD ACUTE POISONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Acute poisoning is a common medical emergency in paediatric unit. This was a retrospective study to see the seasonal variation of acute poisoning in children in a tertiary hospital. Conclusion: Poisoning was common during the summer season and kerosene was found to be most common ingredient. It was possibly due to easy availability of kerosene and during the summer

AKM Mamunur Rashid; Razia Sultana; HAM Nazmul Ahasan; CH Rasul

222

Neutralization of Shellfish Poison by Chemical Disinfectants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of shellfish poison was evaluated in the presence of 7 chemical disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in neutralizing the toxicity of the poison at concentration of 3 parts NaOCl per million (ppm) per microgram of poison at room ...

C. D. Chin

1969-01-01

223

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

224

Pesticide poisoning surveillance through regional poison control centers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to describe pesticide exposure in the population of callers to Minnesota Regional Poison Centers. Case files from 1988 reporting pesticide exposure to humans were identified in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was conducted by computer using SAS statistical package. Of the 1,428 case files indicating pesticide as the primary substance of exposure to Minnesota residents, a mean age of 5 years (range, one month to 85 years) was identified; 50 percent of all cases were below age 3 years. Males accounted for 1.3 times as many cases as females. Insecticide was identified in the largest percentage of case files (74 percent) followed by herbicide (12 percent), rodenticide (11 percent) and fungicide-nonmedicinal (3 percent). Ingestion was the most common route of exposure; 85 percent of all calls originated from a residence. While insecticides are still the most common types of pesticide call, herbicide has surpassed insecticide in production and sales in the US. In this study, herbicide type exposure calls present a much different picture than other pesticide types. The usefulness of poison control centers for examination of pesticide poisoning is explored. Since reporting occurs coincidental with the exposure and its associated symptoms, each pesticide poisoning report could potentially serve as a true sentinel health event. PMID:2029045

Olson, D K; Sax, L; Gunderson, P; Sioris, L

1991-06-01

225

Lithium: poisonings and suicide prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns 81 cases of lithium poisoning and shows that deliberate intoxications are prevalent during the first 3 years of lithium treatment as well as in cases with a previous history of suicide attempt. Therapeutic intoxications could generally be avoided by education concerning hygiene and diet and careful monitoring in cases of intercurrent diseases.

F Montagnon; S Saïd; J. P Lepine

2002-01-01

226

[Poisonous animals registration in Poland].  

PubMed

The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

Mitrus, Ma?gorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

2005-01-01

227

Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented.

Gilbert, R. J.

1974-01-01

228

Unusual Manifestations after Malathion Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of organophosphate poisoning with a commercial preparation of malathion (deliberate ingestion of Malathane Garden Spray: malathion 15% in isopropyl alcohol) in which the initial cholinergic crisis was followed by cardiac, pulmonary, neurological and renal manifestations. They occurred when erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases were reactivating. A chemical analysis of the pesticide preparation revealed, apart from malathion itself,

A. Dive; P. Mahieu; R. Van Binst; A. Hassoun; D. Lison; H. De Bisschop; B. Nemery; R. Lauwerys

1994-01-01

229

Poisoning of Catalytic Methane Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methane sensors using the principle of catalytic oxidation of methane are employed for the determination of methane content in ambient air of coal mines. Certain foreign gases or vapors in the air poison the catalyst of the sensors affecting the sensor re...

M. Kawahata R. Lazzaro

1981-01-01

230

Lead poisoning combined with cadmium in sheep and horses in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal smelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of lead poisoning combined with cadmium in sheep and horses living on farmland in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal smelters in Baiyin of Gansu province in China was based on laboratory findings as well as clinical signs. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in soils, water, forages, feed and blood, hair and tissues of affected sheep

Z. P. Liu

2003-01-01

231

An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. METHODS: A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due to CO poisoning between January 1988 to December 1994. The main outcome measures were age and sex standardised incidence rates (SIRs) for non-intentional, suicidal, and undetermined poisonings for health authorities and the linear relation with socioeconomic deprivation. RESULTS: Overall rate of non-intentional poisonings over the 7 year period was 7.6/100,000, an annual rate of 1.1/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest in people > or = 85; men 24.0/100,000 and women 19.7/100,000. For suicides the 7 year rate was 19.6/100,000, an annual rate of 2.8/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest for men of 35-39, 64.1/100,000, and for women aged 45-49, 15.3/100,000. None of the causes of poisoning were related to deprivation. Non-intentional poisonings showed a strong seasonal variation with the highest rates being recorded in the months October to March. Increased rates of poisoning were found in the rural districts of the West Midlands. There seems to have been a decline in suicides coinciding with the introduction of three way catalytic converters on cars. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people and the very young are at the greatest risk from non- intentional CO poisoning and rates are highest in the winter months. Although deaths from non-intentional CO poisoning are declining nationally, in the West Midlands they have remained stable and hospital admissions are increasing. It is not solely an urban phenomenon with rates for non-intentional CO poisoning and suicides higher in the rural districts. Health authorities need to consider all populations in any prevention programme. Further work is needed to establish the extent of the burden of chronic CO poisoning and the impact of catalytic converters on suicides.  

Wilson, R. C.; Saunders, P. J.; Smith, G.

1998-01-01

232

Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part II. Chronic Toxicity of Copper and Pentachlorophenol to Two Endangered Species and Two Surrogate Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest–observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical

J. M. Besser; N. Wang; F. J. Dwyer; F. L. Mayer; C. G. Ingersoll

2005-01-01

233

Effects of clonidine and idazoxan on tetrathiomolybdate-induced copper and lysosomal enzyme excretion into sheep bile.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of intravenous (IV) administration of tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), and ?(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine (CLO) and ?(2)-antagonist idazoxan (IDA), alone or in combination with TTM, on sheep fed low (LCu) and high (HCu) copper diets. Effects on bile flow, biliary Cu concentration and excretion, plasma Cu concentration, and lysosomal enzyme ?-glucuronidase (?-GLU) activity in bile and plasma were determined. Tetrathiomolybdate alone or with CLO or IDA significantly enhanced biliary Cu excretion most likely by removing Cu from hepatocyte lysosomes as evidenced by a significant increase in ?-GLU enzyme activity in bile. A significant increase in plasma ?-GLU concentration occurred only in sheep treated with CLO in combination with TTM. Because of the lytic nature of the lysosomal enzymes, caution is advocated in use of drugs, especially ?(2)-adrenergic agonists, to further enhance TTM-induced biliary Cu excretion in the treatment of chronic Cu poisoning in sheep. PMID:21570700

Gooneratne, S R

2012-06-01

234

Poisonings at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.  

PubMed

Poisoning is an increasingly common social problem in Nepal. Studies on poisoning in semi urban areas of Nepal are minimal. Here we, present a prospective study of poisoning in semi urban area of capital, Kathmandu lasting for six years duration. Altogether there were 354 cases of various poisoning, admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from Baisakh 2062 (April 16, 2005) to Chaitra 2067 (April 15, 2011). Male: Female ratio was 135:219 (1:1.6) and Age +/- SD was age 29.3 +/- 13.8 years. Age group (20-29 years) comprised of 138 patients (38.9% followed by < 20 years age group (92, 25.9%). Brahman/ chhetri (150, 42.4%) and Mongolian (146, 41.2%) ethnic groups were the main sufferers of poisoning, followed by newars (41, 11.6%) patients. Deliberate self harm was the cause for poisoning in maximum number of patients (156, 44.1%), followed by depression (64, 18.1%) and accidental poisoning (42, 11.9%). Organophosphorus (152, 42.9%), medicines (71, 20.1%), and rodenticide poisoning (38, 10.7%) were common poisons. Metacid (Methyl parathion) (46, 15.5%) was the most popular brand of poisoning agent used in Nepal for suicidal purpose. The over all mortality rate of poisoning in general was 7.1% with organophosphorus poisoning topping the list (19, 12.5%). We also present mad honey poisonings in a small group of 9 (3.2%) patients with M:F 8:1, age 26.5 +/- 8.8 years. Due precaution should be undertaken during their management as some of them may go into cardiopulmonary arrest and should not be considered benign when more than 5 tablespoonful wild honey is consumed. PMID:22808816

Shrestha, B; Singh, P M; Bharati, U; Dhungel, S

2011-09-01

235

Datura stramonium poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

2013-01-01

236

Paraquat Poisoning—Lung Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year-old boy ingested a mouthful of paraquat and developed severe respiratory distress. Treatment included the transplantation of one lung, but subsequently changes developed in the graft which are thought to have been due to paraquat, and the patient died two weeks after the operationThe dangers of keeping poisonous substances in incorrectly labelled bottles has once again been demonstrated, while

Henry Matthew; Andrew Logan; M. F. A. Woodruff; Brian Heard

1968-01-01

237

The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley

1983-01-01

238

Diagnosis and treatment of zinc poisoning in a dog.  

PubMed

Acute zinc poisoning has been observed in dogs following the ingestion of metallic zinc objects. A 1 1/2-y-old female miniature bull terrier exhibiting anorexia, vomiting, depression, fever (39.9 C), icterus and intravascular hemolysis was diagnosed with acute zinc poisoning. Anemia, Heinz body production, azotemia and bilirubinemia were also evident. Abnormal pancreatic, hepatic and renal functions were also apparent. A radio opaque object was observed in the stomach. Based upon an elevated plasma zinc level of 28.6 ppm, a tentative diagnosis of zinc poisoning was made. Following surgical removal of the metallic zinc object, a blood transfusion and fluid therapy were given to restore the normal blood volume. Heparin, Cephazolin and Raniditine were also given, although chelation therapy was not provided. Zinc levels in the plasma declined in a steady fashion (half-life = 7.6 d). Complications, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, chronic pancreatitis, renal or hepatic failure, were not observed. By 20 d post surgery, only mild elevation of liver enzymes was evident. Measurements of the half-life of zinc may provide a useful indication of prognosis and the success of treatment. PMID:15487653

Hammond, Genevieve M; Loewen, Matthew E; Blakley, Barry R

2004-10-01

239

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

240

Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.  

PubMed

The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-11-01

241

Poisoning deaths in married women.  

PubMed

Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

Kumar, Virendra

2004-02-01

242

Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.  

PubMed

Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern. PMID:23122015

Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

2012-10-01

243

[Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning].  

PubMed

The most hazardous manganese exposures occur in mining and smelting of ore. Recently, the poisoning has been frequently reported to be associated with welding. In occupational exposure, manganese is absorbed mainly by inhalation. Manganese preferentially accumulates in tissues rich in mitochondria. It also penetrates the blood brain barrior and accumulate in the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, but also the striatum. Manganese poisoning is clinically characterized by the central nervous system involvement including psychiatric symptomes, extrapyramidal signs, and less frequently other neurological manifestations, Psychiatric symptomes are well described in the manganese miners and incrude sleep disturbance, disorientation, emotional lability, compulsive acts, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. The main characteristic manifestations usually begin shortly after the appearance of these psychiatric symptomes. The latter neurological signs are progressive bradykinesia, dystonia, and disturbance of gait. Bradykinesia is one of the most important findings. There is a remarkable slowing of both active and passive movements of the extremities. Micrographia is frequently observed and a characteristic finding. The patients may show some symmetrical tremor, which usually not so marked. The dystonic posture of the limbs is often accompanied by painfull cramps. This attitudal hypertonia has a tenndency to decrease or disappear in the supine position and to increase in orthostation. Cog-wheel rigidity is also elisited on the passive movement of all extremities. Gait disturbance is also characteristic in this poisoning. In the severe cases, cook gait has been reported. The patient uses small steps, but has a tendency to elevate the heels and to rotate them outward. He progress without pressing on the flat of his feet, but only upon the metatarsophalangeal articulations, mainly of the fourth and fifth toes. Increased signal in T1-weighted image in the basal ganglia has been reported in patients with the poisoning. Thus, increasd signal intensities as a target site dose can be a more useful biomakers of the manganese than other biological indicies such as ambient manganese concentration or blood manganese concentration on individual basis. Manganese poisoning ultimately becomes chronic. However, if the disease is diagnosed while still at the early stages and the patient is removed from exposure, the course may be reversed. Once well established, it becomes progressive and irreversible, even when exposure is terminated. Levodopa therapy is not effective for the management of manganese poisoning. Levodopa unresponsiveness may be usefull to distinguish manganese-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson disease. PMID:17585589

Inoue, Naohide

2007-06-01

244

Pulmonary aspiration following Dettol poisoning: the scope for prevention.  

PubMed

1. After ingestion, Dettol liquid (4.8% chloroxylenol, pine oil, isopropyl, alcohol), a common household disinfectant, can cause central nervous system depression and corrosion of the oral mucosa, larynx and the gastrointestinal tract. The main risk from Dettol poisoning is pulmonary aspiration, leading to pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or sudden cardiorespiratory arrest. 2. To determine to what extent pulmonary aspiration in Dettol poisoning could be prevented, 13 patients treated in a general teaching hospital in Hong Kong were studied. Their clinical details were compared with those of control Dettol poisoning cases without pulmonary aspiration in order to identify possible risk factors for this complication. 3. At presentation, evidence of pulmonary aspiration was present in eight of the 13 patients prior to gastric emptying, but the use of gastric lavage without adequate protection of the airways could have aggravated the problem in three. In two other patients, evidence of aspiration was only present after gastric lavage was performed. The consequences of pulmonary aspiration were pneumonia (n = 10), ARDS (n = 2), acute exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive airway disease (n = 2) and sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (n = 1). Three patients with aspiration pneumonia (n = 2), ARDS (n = 1) and/or sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (n = 1) died. 4. Compared with the controls, the median amount of Dettol ingested was considerably larger (400 vs 150 ml), vomiting (100% vs 72.6%) and drowsiness/ confusion (60.2% vs 19.4%) occurred more often. 5. Amongst the 13 patients with Dettol poisoning and pulmonary aspiration, gastric lavage using the nasogastric tube technique without adequate production of the airways had been responsible for the occurrence or worsening of aspiration in two and three patients, respectively. Thus, gastric lavage particularly when using a nasogastric tube appeared to carry more harm than benefits in patients with Dettol poisoning. If the procedure is considered necessary, say because of the concomitant ingestion of the other poisons, the airways must first be well protected and the oropharyngeal aspiration and lavage technique using a wide bore Jacques tube is recommended. 6. Comparison with a control group has identified other risk factors for pulmonary aspiration: the amount of Dettol ingested, the occurrence of vomiting, drowsiness or confusion. PMID:8906435

Chan, T Y; Critchley, J A

1996-10-01

245

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An opportunity to study the effects of methylmercury poisoning in humans was provided by the large outbreak in Iraq in 1971-2. In adults, poisoning resulted from the ingestion of home-made bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain and there was a highly significant correlation between the amount of bread ingested and blood mercury levels. Poisoning in infants resulted either from prior

F. Bakir; H. Rustam; S. Tikriti; S. F. Al-Damluji; H. Shihristani

1980-01-01

246

The toxic action and interactions of copper and cadmium to the marine Alga Dunaliella minuta , in both acute and chronic exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective concentrations of copper and cadmium which reduced the population growth ofDunaliella minuta by 50% after 96 h of static exposure, were determined to be 7.57 µM Cu and 0.34 µM Cd. Short-term static exposure to both metals indicated that their combined action is antagonistic with respect to growth of this chlorophyte. Additionally, long-term exposure to low levels of

Ioanna Visviki; Joseph W. Rachlin

1991-01-01

247

Anaemia and abdominal pain due to occupational lead poisoning.  

PubMed

We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominal pain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling. PMID:17405745

Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

2007-02-01

248

Poisoning severity score, Glasgow coma scale, corrected QT interval in acute organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness of the poisoning severity score (PSS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and corrected QT (QTc) interval in predicting outcomes in acute organophosphates (OP) poisoning. Over a period of 2 years, 62 patients with OP poisoning were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Erciyes University Medical School Hospital. The age, sex, cause of

Okhan Akdur; Polat Durukan; Seda Ozkan; Levent Avsarogullari; Alper Vardar; Cemil Kavalci; Ibrahim Ikizceli

2010-01-01

249

[Lead poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Lead poisoning may cause irreversible health defects, including anaemia, central nervous system problems and various organ defects. We describe a patient with lead poisoning. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with anaemia and unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspirate showed basophilic stippling of erythrocytes suggestive of lead poisoning, which was confirmed by high concentrations of lead in her blood. The lead source was the glazing of a ceramic wine jug. Chelating therapy was started. Haemoglobin was normalised; the patient returned to work after nine months. Correct diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious health problems caused by lead poisoning. PMID:12185736

Amundsen, Tore; Naess, Inger Anne; Hammerstrøm, Jens; Brudevold, Robert; Bjerve, Kristian S

2002-06-10

250

Is Nai Habarala (Alocasia cucullata) a poisonous plant?  

PubMed

Nai Habarala is not documented as a poisonous plant. However, we report two cases of fatal poisoning following ingestion of its fruit. The clinical manifestations have a similarity to cyanogenic glycoside poisoning. PMID:8342179

Goonasekera, C D; Vasanthathilake, V W; Ratnatunga, N; Seneviratne, C A

1993-06-01

251

Ricin poisoning and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Ricin is one of the most fascinating poisons due to its high toxicity: as little as 500 microg can kill an adult. It gained fame by its use in the so-called 'umbrella murder' to kill the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov in 1978. Ricin also became known as a potential bio-terror agent to which people could be exposed through the air, food, or water. The origin, biochemistry, toxicity, and analytical procedures for the determination of ricin are summarized. The homicide of Markov is described as well as recent cases of criminal ricin use. PMID:20355196

Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

2009-04-01

252

Unusual manifestations after malathion poisoning.  

PubMed

We report a case of organophosphate poisoning with a commercial preparation of malathion (deliberate ingestion of Malathane Garden Spray: malathion 15% in isopropyl alcohol) in which the initial cholinergic crisis was followed by cardiac, pulmonary, neurological and renal manifestations. They occurred when erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases were reactivating. A chemical analysis of the pesticide preparation revealed, apart from malathion itself, the presence of isopropylmalathion and O,O,S-trimethylphosphorothioate. Although pure malathion is regarded as one of the safest organophosphate insecticides, this observation underlines the possibility of severe complications after exposure to a preparation which has been stored for a long period of time. PMID:8204314

Dive, A; Mahieu, P; Van Binst, R; Hassoun, A; Lison, D; De Bisschop, H; Nemery, B; Lauwerys, R

1994-04-01

253

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

254

The Epidemiology and Prevention of Paraquat Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 In the UK there was an increase in the annual number of deaths associated with paraquat poisoning between 1966 and 1975. Since that time there has been little change in numbers.2 High mortality is associated commonly with suicidal intent. Serious accidental poisoning from paraquat has never been frequent in the UK and there have been no deaths reported in

Lesley J. Onyon; Glyn N. Volans

1987-01-01

255

Carbon monoxide poisoning from disposable charcoal barbeques.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a common cause of accidental death and suicide. This article reports 4 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning following the inhalation of fumes from disposable charcoal barbeques in a confined space. All of the cases occurred within a 2-year period in Northern Ireland. PMID:20139755

Lyness, James R; Crane, Jack

2011-09-01

256

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

257

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Seagrant, University O.

258

An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu

2010-01-01

259

The prevalence of pancreatitis in organophosphate poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pancreatitis in cases of organophosphate (OP) poisonings admitted to Yüzüncü Yõl University Teaching Hospital over an 18-month period. Materials and Methods: A total of 47 patients of acute poisoning with OP insecticides attended the Emergency Department of the Yüzüncü Yõl Medical School Hospital, from May 1999 to December

IÇ Sahin; K Onbasi; H Sahin; C Karakaya; Y Ustun; T Noyan

2002-01-01

260

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Güven

2001-01-01

261

Network security attacks. ARP Poisoning case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method

Lumini?a DEFTA

2010-01-01

262

Identification of pesticide poisoning in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme investigates incidents of suspected poisoning of wildlife (also honey bees and companion animals) by pesticides in the United Kingdom. The approach to these investigations has evolved over the past 30 years. Field investigations, post-mortem examinations, toxicological data and experience of previous poisoning incidents assist in the selection and interpretation of appropriate chemical analyses. Several ‘multi-residue’

Peter Brown; Andrew Charlton; Mary Cuthbert; Libby Barnett; Leigh Ross; Margaret Green; Liz Gillies; Kathryn Shaw; Mark Fletcher

1996-01-01

263

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

264

Pediatric poisonings: recognition, assessment, and management.  

PubMed

Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies encountered in young children in the United States, and accounts for a significant proportion of emergency room visits for the adolescent population. Poisoning is a significant and persistent cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents. The scope of toxic substances involved in poisoning is broad, and requires health care providers to have an extensive knowledge of signs and symptoms of poisoning and specific therapeutic interventions and antidotes. Most children who ingest poisons suffer no harm; however, health care providers must recognize, assess, and manage those exposures that are most likely to cause serious injury, illness, or death and initiate appropriate management to minimize the physical injury that may occur. PMID:16344209

Madden, Maureen A

2005-12-01

265

Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:23918513

Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

2013-08-01

266

Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education  

SciTech Connect

Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

Makalinao, Irma R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of the Philippines College of Medicine, 547 Pedro Gil Street, Ermita, Manila 1000 (Philippines) and National Poison Control Information Service, University of the Philippines, Manila (Philippines)]. E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat [National Poison Centre, Universiti Sains (Malaysia)

2005-09-01

267

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

268

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W. N.; Spann, J. W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J. C.

1988-01-01

269

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

270

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... that are too high Overdoses of illegal drugs Carbon monoxide from gas appliances Household products, such as laundry powder or furniture polish Pesticides Indoor or outdoor plants Metals such as lead ...

271

Paraquat poisoning: clinical features and immediate general management  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 In contrast to 10-15 years ago most cases of paraquat poisoning are now due to deliberate self-poisoning with parasuicidal or suicidal intent rather than to accidental ingestion. Less commonly, poisoning may follow careless handling of paraquat during occupational use. Although paraquat can be absorbed through the skin if improperly handled, poisoning usually follows ingestion and has rarely been reported

J. A. Vale; T. J. Meredith; B. M. Buckley

1987-01-01

272

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

273

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.??

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

274

The Amyloid Precursor Protein of Alzheimer's Disease in the Reduction of Copper(II) to Copper(I)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition metal ion copper(II) has a critical role in chronic neurologic diseases. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease or a synthetic peptide representing its copper-binding site reduced bound copper(II) to copper(I). This copper ion-mediated redox reaction led to disulfide bond formation in APP, which indicated that free sulfhydryl groups of APP were involved. Neither superoxide nor hydrogen peroxide had an effect on the kinetics of copper(II) reduction. The reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by APP involves an electron-transfer reaction and could enhance the production of hydroxyl radicals, which could then attack nearby sites. Thus, copper-mediated toxicity may contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

Multhaup, Gerd; Schlicksupp, Andrea; Hesse, Lars; Beher, Dirk; Ruppert, Thomas; Masters, Colin L.; Beyreuther, Konrad

1996-03-01

275

Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center  

PubMed Central

Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning.

Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

2013-01-01

276

Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.  

PubMed

We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale. PMID:22939664

Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

2012-08-01

277

Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

1980-07-01

278

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

279

Identification and localization of polyketide synthase genes from cultures of diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxin producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic toxins are responsible for a number of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Okadaic acid (OA) and other dinoflagellate derived polyketide toxins pose serious health risks on a global scale. Ingestion of OA contaminated shellfish causes diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Some evidence also suggests tumor promotion in the liver by OA. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is produced by cyanobacteria and is

Roberto Perez

2006-01-01

280

Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.  

PubMed

Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates. PMID:22983845

Suttle, Neville F

2012-01-01

281

49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials. 176.605...2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 176.605...2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials. A...

2013-10-01

282

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

283

Serious complications associated with Dettol poisoning.  

PubMed

Dettol is involved in 10% of self-poisoning-related hospital admissions in Hong Kong. Although serious poisonings and even deaths after ingesting this common household disinfectant have been reported, the frequency with which these complications may occur is not known. In a retrospective study of 67 cases of Dettol poisoning, we found that serious complications were relatively common (8%) and these included aspiration of Dettol with gastric contents resulting in pneumonia, cardiopulmonary arrest, bronchospasm, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and severe laryngeal oedema with upper airways obstruction. It is particularly important that the airways are adequately protected before the patient is lavaged following Dettol poisoning, and the immediate recognition of any upper airway obstruction requiring intubation will then be life-saving. PMID:8265774

Chan, T Y; Lau, M S; Critchley, J A

1993-11-01

284

Prophylactic and Treatment Drugs for Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of candidate treatment or prophylactic drugs as potential defense against organophosphorus poisoning. During the past year, 17 compounds were submitted: 7 organophosphates, 4 organophosphates, one carbam...

C. L. Stevens P. Blumbergs P. L. Knutson C. L. Parks

1987-01-01

285

Congenital lead poisoning: an unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning presents a common acquired as well as congenital environmental threat to children's health today. An unusual case of severe lead poisoning in breast fed male infant is presented here. The objective of the study is to describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication with an uncommon source of poisoning. A 6 months old male baby presented with gradual loss of weight, not feeding well and persistent vomiting. Laboratory investigation revealed that he was having anemia (Hb level 5.4 gm/dl), abnormal liver enzymes (including elevated transaminase activity) and high blood lead value (83 ?g/dl). RBC morphology showed basophilic stippling with cabot ring, suggestive of a case of lead poisoning. A course of chelation treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2) was prescribed following which a radical solution for mobilization of lead from his systems was observed. PMID:24757314

Mazumdar, Ipsita; Goswami, K

2014-04-01

286

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning.

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

287

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

288

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

289

Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

Barnes, Bart

1973-01-01

290

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

291

Prophylactic and Treatment Drugs for Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of candidate treatment of prophylactic drugs as potential defenses against organophosphorus poisoning. During the past year, nine compounds were submitted: four organophosphinates, one organophosphonate,...

C. C. Tseng C. L. Parks C. L. Stevens J. R. Donaubauer P. Blumbergs

1988-01-01

292

Poison control center - Emergency number (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

293

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

294

The Poisoning of Thoriated Tungsten Cathodes†  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made of the poisoning of the thermionic omission from thoriated tungsten cathodes by oxidizing gases. It is shown that rapid poisoning takes place when a critical partial pressure is exceeded. For a fully carburized cathode this critical pressure measured, using an omega-tron mass spectrometer, is as follows: O2 10torr, CO2 2·0 × 10 torr, and

R. O. JENKINS; W. G. TRODDEN

1962-01-01

295

Hair dye poisoning and the developing world  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

Sampathkumar, Krishnaswamy; Yesudas, Sooraj

2009-01-01

296

Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-10-01

297

In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

1993-01-23

298

Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.  

PubMed

Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

1986-07-01

299

Reliability of routine hospital data on poisoning as measures of deliberate self poisoning in adolescents.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the extent to which routinely collected data on poisoning in adolescents reflected deliberate self poisoning and, in doing, so to assess the accuracy of the diagnostic information on poisoning in the routine hospital abstracts which form the joint data base of Hospital Activity Analysis and the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS). DESIGN--A comparison was made (a) of all eligible ORLS records during the study period with an independent source of records; and (b) of a random sample of records from an independent source with ORLS. SETTING--Records of patients admitted to the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford were used. SUBJECTS--These were (a) patients aged 10-20 years between 1980 and 1985 with a diagnosis of poisoning by drugs and medicaments in ORLS; (b) a random sample of 500 patients selected from the self harm monitoring files at the hospital (12 patients were not eligible for inclusion in ORLS and were therefore excluded from the rest of the study). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The recorded diagnosis was compared on the records selected from the two files. Of the 1123 events of poisoning identified in ORLS, 1081 (96.3%) were correctly coded as poisoning and 1065 (95%) of these were deliberate self poisoning. Of the 488 cases from the monitoring files, 467 (95.7%) of all cases had a correct diagnosis of injury or poisoning on the ORLS file. Of the 453 poisoning cases 436 (96.2%) were correctly recorded in ORLS. CONCLUSIONS--Deliberate self poisoning in adolescents can be identified through routinely collected hospital statistics. A very high percentage of the diagnostic information on poisoning in ORLS files is correctly recorded.

Sellar, C; Goldacre, M J; Hawton, K

1990-01-01

300

Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./ Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997, Volume 4, Part 8 - Neutron Poison Plates in Assemblies Containing Homogeneous Mixtures of Polystyrene-Moderated Plutonium and Uranium Oxides  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a series of critical experiments using a remotely operated Split-Table Machine was performed with homogeneous mixtures of (Pu-U)O{sub 2}-polystyrene fuels in the form of square compacts having different heights. The experiments determined the critical geometric configurations of MOX fuel assemblies with and without neutron poison plates. With respect to PuO{sub 2} content and moderation [H/(Pu+U)atomic] ratio (MR), two different homogeneous (Pu-U) O{sub 2}-polystyrene mixtures were considered: Mixture (1) 14.62 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 30.6 MR, and Mixture (2) 30.3 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 2.8 MR. In all mixtures, the uranium was depleted to about O.151 wt% U{sup 235}. Assemblies contained copper, copper-cadmium or aluminum neutron poison plates having thicknesses up to {approximately}2.5 cm. This evaluation contains 22 experiments for Mixture 1, and 10 for Mixture 2 compacts. For Mixture 1, there are 10 configurations with copper plates, 6 with aluminum, and 5 with copper-cadmium. One experiment contained no poison plate. For Mixture 2 compacts, there are 3 configurations with copper, 3 with aluminum, and 3 with copper-cadmium poison plates. One experiment contained no poison plate.

Yavuz, M.

1999-05-01

301

Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of

M. Mutlu; A. Cansu; T. Karakas; M. Kalyoncu; E. Erduran

2010-01-01

302

Toxicology of Poison Oak (Rhus toxicodendron) and Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) Extracts in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine the toxicity of extracts of poison ivy, poison oak, and a polyethylene glycol vehicle (Carbowax R) when given orally to rats. Throughout a seven-month study four groups of rats (N=15) were administered the follo...

C. W. Waller I. W. Waters

1974-01-01

303

Copper Cleanup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on experiment, kids use chemistry to explore whether acids or bases are better at restoring a pennyâs shine. Kids follow the scientific process to test a common household cleaning products alongside ketchup, cola, and other kitchen staples, and may be surprised by the results! A downloadable data sheet is available on the Copper Cleanup activity resources page.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

304

Resistance mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against phagosomal copper overload  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen with an extremely slow growth rate, an unusual outer membrane of very low permeability and a cunning ability to survive inside the human host despite a potent immune response. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to acquire essential nutrients while still preserving its natural resistance to toxic compounds. In this regard, copper homeostasis mechanisms are particularly interesting, because copper is an important element for bacterial growth, but copper overload is toxic. In M. tuberculosis at least two enzymes require copper as a cofactor: the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase SodC and the cytochrome c oxidase which is essential for growth in vitro. Mutants of M. tuberculosis lacking the copper metallothionein MymT, the efflux pump CtpV and the membrane protein MctB are more susceptible to copper indicating that these proteins are part of a multipronged system to balance intracellular copper levels. Recent evidence showed that part of copper toxicity is a reversible damage of accessible Fe-S clusters of dehydratases and the displacement of other divalent cations such as zinc and manganese as cofactors in proteins. There is accumulating evidence that macrophages use copper to poison bacteria trapped inside phagosomes. Here, we review the rapidly increasing knowledge about copper homeostasis mechanisms in M. tuberculosis and contrast those with similar mechanisms in E. coli. These findings reveal an intricate interplay between the host which aims to overload the phagosome with copper and M. tuberculosis which utilizes several mechanisms to reduce the toxic effects of excess copper.

Rowland, Jennifer L.; Niederweis, Michael

2012-01-01

305

[Problems introducing a pediatric poisoning treatment set].  

PubMed

Between 1995 and 1998 the Berlin poison center conducted a case-control study supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Berlin Medical Association, a health insurance company, and the Berlin Pediatric Society to test the efficacy of a pediatric poisoning treatment set. The aim of the study was to induce parents of small children to call the poison center immediately in cases of unintentional poisonings at home and to administer activated charcoal if advised to do so by the poison center specialist. This was achieved by handling over a so-called "emergency kit" to 24,000 parents during the regular pediatric office check-up when the children were 10-12 months of age. When an accident occurred, parents with an emergency kit at hand were able to give activated charcoal within 14 min compared to 51 min without this aid. Problems arose when attempts were undertaken to introduce the emergency kit into the routine counseling sessions throughout the country: restrictions imposed by the pharmaceutical law, lack of interest shown by pharmaceutical companies, and diverging responsibilities at county and federal political levels and between different health insurance companies have hitherto prevented the realization of this evidence-based method. PMID:15205817

Brockstedt, M

2004-01-01

306

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

307

[Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].  

PubMed

Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied. PMID:23243949

Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jaros?aw; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzio?, Marek

2012-01-01

308

[Occupational medicine in aluminum and copper alloy production].  

PubMed

Workers engaged into aluminum alloys production demonstrated high prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases caused by dust--pneumoconiosis and dust bronchitis, workers of copper alloys production were diagnosed as having early stage of chronic lead intoxication. PMID:10826366

Rosly?, O F; Gerasimenko, T I; Tartakovskaia, L Ia; Zhovtiak, E P; Fedoruk, T I

2000-01-01

309

Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders from Finland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than in the livers of adults.

Hollmen, T. E.; Franson, J. C.; Poppenga, R. H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.

1998-01-01

310

Poisonous Snakes of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identific...

1969-01-01

311

Poisonous Snakes of Europe, Africa and Near East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Precautions against snakebites; First-aid measures for snakebite; Distribution of poisonous snakes in Europe, Africa, and the Near East; Identification and h...

1969-01-01

312

Massachusetts Strategic Plan to End Lead Poisoning by 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past year, the Massachusetts Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (MACLPPP) has been building a foundation for the creation of a strategic elimination plan to end lead poisoning by 2010. MACLPPP hired a consultant, gathered data, developed ...

2004-01-01

313

Snake venom poisoning in Greece. Experiences with 147 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSnake venom poisoning is a medical emergency requiring immediate attention. Bites from poisonous European snakes can lead to local tissue damage and systemic symptoms. Vipera ammodytes accounts for the most envenomation in Greece.

Christos Y. Frangides; Vasilios Koulouras; Sophia N. Kouni; Gerasimos V. Tzortzatos; Athanasios Nikolaou; John Pneumaticos; Christos Pierrakeas; Constantinos Niarchos; Nicholas G. Kounis; Constantinos M. Koutsojannis

2006-01-01

314

Poisonous Plants, Medical Toxicology of Plants of the Far East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents, in popular form basic information on poisonous plants and mushrooms distributed throughout the Far East. In addition to a botanical description of the examined plants, basic medical information is cited: the initial signs of poisoning, ...

N. K. Fruyentov T. N. Kadayev

1975-01-01

315

Lead poisoning: more than a medical problem.  

PubMed Central

Medical records of 236 Newark, New Jersey children hospitalized and chelated for lead poisoning in 1977 through 1980 were reviewed to determine whether or not any discernible progress had been made in eradicating the disease since 1972. Results show that the number of treated asymptomatic children, ages 1-6, began to rise after 1976 and was higher in 1980 than in 1972 when the Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program first began. Although mean and peak blood lead levels have decreased over the nine-year period since 1972, signaling a lessening of disease severity, the increase in numbers and rates indicates that childhood lead poisoning still exists as an environmental and social problem.

Schneider, D J; Lavenhar, M A

1986-01-01

316

Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The amplitude tended to be lower in those more severely affected. On repetitive stimulation there was usually no decrement with three stimuli per second and only occasional decrement at 10 per second. At 30 Hz several cases showed a decrement even in the absence of paralysis. This response to repetitive stimuli is thus quite distinct from that seen in either myasthenia or Eaton Lambert syndrome. On three occasions after poisoning with dichlorovos there was first anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning and later delayed neurotoxicity as seen with triorthocresylphosphate. These cases showed all the features of a severe pure motor axonal degeneration neuropathy.

Wadia, R S; Chitra, S; Amin, R B; Kiwalkar, R S; Sardesai, H V

1987-01-01

317

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

318

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.

1994-01-01

319

Arrow poisons in China. Part I.  

PubMed

Arrow poisons have been used for at least 2500 years in various parts of China by the Han and other peoples. The preparation and use of these poisons is discussed on the basis of accounts in Chinese and Western sources. Mostly, the principal ingredient has been an extract derived from the tubers of Aconitum species, especially A. carmichaelii Debx. (wu t'ou, fu tzu, ts'ao wu). Certain peoples of the south-west and south, besides using Aconitum, have also obtained an essential ingredient from the juice (latex) of Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. (tu mu, hu, chien hsüeh feng hou, nu chien tzu, ka tuk). The chemistry and pharmacology of the active principles found in certain of the plants incorporated into the poisons are dealt with briefly (but this does not include Aconitum, which will be treated in some detail in Part II). PMID:397373

Bisset, N G

1979-12-01

320

The evaluation and management of acute poisoning emergencies.  

PubMed

Emergency physicians will regularly be called upon to care for poisoned patients. The purpose of this article is to review the general approach to the poisoned patient. Specific signs and symptoms will be identified that may clue the clinician into a specific toxin class as a diagnosis. Necessary testing in poisonings will be highlighted. This article will also introduce the basics of gastrointestinal decontamination and antidotes against select poisons. PMID:18043563

Lawrence, D T; Bechtel, L; Walsh, J P; Holstege, C D

2007-10-01

321

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1990-01-09

322

Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test (?2). Results: A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning (n = 142; 35.5%). The most common poisoning agents were medicines (n = 124; 31.0%). The service provided was graded as “Excellent” for the majority of queries (n = 360; 86%; P < 0.001), followed by “Very Good” (n = 50; 12%) and “Good” (n = 9; 2%). Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.

2013-01-01

323

Copper peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of oxidizing agents, including chlorine, bromine, ozone and other peroxides, were allowed to act on copper solutions with the intention of forming copper peroxide. The only successful agent appears to be hydrogen peroxide. It must be used in a neutral 50 to 30 percent solution at a temperature near zero. Other methods described in the literature apparently do not work. The excess of hydrogen must be quickly sucked out of the brown precipitate, which it is best to wash with alcohol and ether. The product, crystalline under a microscope, can be analyzed only approximately. It approaches the formula CuO2H2O. In alkaline solution it appears to act catalytically in causing the decomposition of other peroxides, so that Na2O2 cannot be used to prepare it. On the addition of acids the H2O2 is regenerated. The dry substance decomposes much more slowly than the moist but is not very stable.

Moser, L.

1988-01-01

324

[The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].  

PubMed

The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote. PMID:21834338

Vuori, Arno

2011-01-01

325

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine.

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

326

Carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to hookah smoking.  

PubMed

Hookah smoking, at one time confined to North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean region, the Arabian peninsula, and Southeast Asia, has begun to spread throughout the world. As some practices of eastern and Arab cultures reach the United States, the number of people using hookah on an experimental or regular basis has increased. Carbon monoxide poisoning can be a common adverse effect, possibly undetected by physicians, in hookah smokers. The authors report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to smoking tobacco through a hookah. PMID:23055468

Ashurst, John V; Urquhart, Megan; Cook, Matthew D

2012-10-01

327

["Junk-food"-intervention in poisoning delusion].  

PubMed

Case report about a 29-year old US-American patient who suddenly flew to Germany due to a schizoaffektive disorder. During a stay in our psychiatric hospital she refused food, liquid and medication because of fear of being poisoned. After four days her general condition had worsened rapidly so that parenteral nutrition was discussed. Surprisingly her poisoning delusion could be overcome by offering American "Junk-Food". From this moment on compliance in taking of medication improved too, so that renormalisation of her condition was achieved. PMID:17160755

Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Bäuml, Josef

2007-11-01

328

Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these

C J Botha

329

Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every

Friend

1989-01-01

330

Warnings unheeded: A history of child lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child lead poisoning has been a major public health issue only for the last 20-25 years. However, awareness that lead-based paint is a source of lead poisoning in children dates back to the first few years of the twentieth century. Articles in medical journals and textbooks appeared in the United States and elsewhere, recounting cases of children poisoned by the

R Rabin

1989-01-01

331

Statistics and Epidemiology of Lead Poisoning (FY 72-L1).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first in a quarterly series which will contain statistics and epidemiologic notes on lead poisoning at both the national and local levels. This report contains (a) statistics on childhood lead poisoning; (b) a status report on the Community Lead Poisoning Data System, which was designed to assist local lead control programs and…

Morrison, John H., Jr.; And Others

332

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook describes in detail the program requirements for effective childhood lead poisoning prevention programs at the local level based on the…

Rochow, K. W. James

333

Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Disease for the History Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the mounting evidence for the neurological damage of childhood lead poisoning. Argues that ignoring lead poisoning is more expensive than preventing it. Reviews a recent plan to eradicate lead poisoning and the sociological factors that may impede its implementation. (CJS)

Needleman, Herbert L.

1991-01-01

334

Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

1997-01-01

335

Two instances of chinese herbal medicine poisoning in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Datura metel L. (Yangjinghua, ???) is a toxic herb that contains anticholinergic compounds. Inappropriate consumption of this herb could result in anticholinergic poisoning. Clinical features of such poisoning have not been previously described. We report two such cases. Both patients had taken brews of Datura metel L; and developed poisoning soon afterwards. Prominent clinical features included confusion, dilated pupils, absence

Phua D H; Seow E

2008-01-01

336

Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs), but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related

Hsin-Ling Lee; Hung-Jung Lin; Steve Ting-Yuan Yeh; Chih-Hsien Chi; How-Ran Guo

2008-01-01

337

Rapid increase in copper concentrations in a new marina, San Diego Bay.  

PubMed

Concentrations of copper in water rose rapidly following the introduction of boats to a new marina in San Diego Bay. Two months after the marina reached half its capacity, a majority of water samples exceeded chronic and acute criteria for dissolved copper, and copper concentrations in several samples exceeded the highest concentrations observed in another marina that has been listed as an impaired water body. A box model suggested that a small fraction of the leached copper was sequestered in sediment. Copper concentrations in water entering the marina from the bay was more than half the chronic concentration limit, so only 50% of marina boat capacity could be accommodated without exceeding the chronic criterion more than 50% of the time. Copper concentrations in water may increase rapidly following boat introduction in small marinas, but could return to pre-introduction levels by controlling boat numbers or reducing use of copper-based paints. PMID:22245437

Biggs, Trent W; D'Anna, Heather

2012-03-01

338

A krimpsiekte-like syndrome in small stock poisoned by Ornithogalum toxicarium Archer & Archer.  

PubMed

Krimpsiekte (the syndrome associated with chronic cardiac glycoside poisoning) was purportedly induced by Ornithlogalum toxicarium in the Karas mountains area of Keetmanshoop, Namibia. This chinkerinchee species was previously linked to a condition known as 'kwylbek' krimpsiekte in small stock in the Beaufort West district of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. In a dosing trial, respiratory distress, tachycardia and sternal recumbency were observed in 2 sheep drenched with fresh plant material. A fluorescence polarisation immunoassay (FPIA) detected the presence of a substance that cross-reacted with digoxin antibodies in some of the plant material collected at Keetmanshoop and Beaufort West. This is the first time that apparent cardiac glycoside poisoning was induced by a southern African chinkerinchee species. The presence of the cardiac glycoside-like substance in O. toxicarium requires further chemical verification. PMID:10949509

Botha, C J; Schultz, R A; van der Lugt, J J; Archer, C

2000-03-01

339

Bioavailable copper modulates oxidative phosphorylation and growth of tumors  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential trace element, the imbalances of which are associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, albeit via largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that levels of bioavailable copper modulate tumor growth. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of copper in drinking water, corresponding to the maximum allowed in public water supplies, stimulated proliferation of cancer cells and de novo pancreatic tumor growth in mice. Conversely, reducing systemic copper levels with a chelating drug, clinically used to treat copper disorders, impaired both. Under such copper limitation, tumors displayed decreased activity of the copper-binding mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase and reduced ATP levels, despite enhanced glycolysis, which was not accompanied by increased invasiveness of tumors. The antiproliferative effect of copper chelation was enhanced when combined with inhibitors of glycolysis. Interestingly, larger tumors contained less copper than smaller tumors and exhibited comparatively lower activity of cytochrome c oxidase and increased glucose uptake. These results establish copper as a tumor promoter and reveal that varying levels of copper serves to regulate oxidative phosphorylation in rapidly proliferating cancer cells inside solid tumors. Thus, activation of glycolysis in tumors may in part reflect insufficient copper bioavailability in the tumor microenvironment.

Ishida, Seiko; Andreux, Penelope; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Auwerx, Johan; Hanahan, Douglas

2013-01-01

340

Costs of Poisoning in the United States and Savings From Poison Control Centers: A Benefit-Cost Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

See related editorial, p 246.Data on incidence, medical spending, and payment sources for poisoning were taken from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, 1991 US Vital Statistics, the 1992 National Hospital Discharge Survey, and 1992 poison control center surveillance data. Benefits, measured as percentage reductions in medical spending attributable to use of poison control centers, were calculated from analyses of

Ted R Miller; Diane C Lestina

1997-01-01

341

Copper Extraction Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary This demonstration uses sulfuric acid and crushed copper ore (malachite) to produce a solution of copper sulfate and carbonic acid in a beaker. When a freshly sanded nail is dropped into the copper sulfate ...

342

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

343

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis.

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

344

Automatic dishwasher detergent poisoning: opportunities for prevention.  

PubMed

We investigated the antecedents of ingestion of dishwashing machine detergent to enable the development of effective countermeasures. Parents who had sought advice from the Victorian Poisons Information Centre about dishwasher detergent poisoning exposures of their children were interviewed by telephone. Almost all the children (94 per cent) were aged between 6 and 29 months. Of the 61 children included in the survey, 53 (87 per cent) gained access to the detergent from the dishwasher. Of these, 50 (94 per cent) took the detergent from the dispenser on the internal surface of the door of the machine, and 38 (76 per cent) of these ingested detergent remaining in the dispenser after operation of the machine. Parents were present in the room on 78 per cent of occasions at the time of ingestion. Most parents (72 per cent) were aware of the toxicity of the detergents. Relocation of the dispenser or redesigning it to prevent access both before and after operation would have prevented most of the exposures to detergent. Altering the detergent to prevent caking or sludging might prevent many of the exposures to detergent remaining in the dispenser after operation of the machine. The level of prior knowledge about toxicity suggests that education or additional warnings are unlikely to contribute substantially to prevention of poisoning. Telephone call-back to identified cases is a useful method of investigating complex poisoning problems and developing effective countermeasures. PMID:8768418

Cornish, L S; Parsons, B J; Dobbin, M D

1996-06-01

345

Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

Franson, J. C.

1994-01-01

346

Castor Seed Poisoning in Humans: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work reviews 314 cases of poisoning, including 15 deaths which occurred in humans as a result of castor seed ingestion between 1738 and 1988. Castor seed toxicity is due to ricin, a powerful phytotoxin present in the plant and concentrated in the see...

G. J. Klain J. J. Jaeger

1990-01-01

347

Where to now with carbon monoxide poisoning?  

PubMed

The controversy regarding the role of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been re-ignited following the publication of a further randomized controlled trial by Weaver et al., the results of which appear to conflict with our findings. Comparative analysis suggests that the apparent outcome differences may be secondary to the design, analysis and interpretation of the results of the two studies. Following careful analysis of these two papers and further results from a study by Raphael et al on 385 CO-poisoned patients, we can still find no convincing evidence favouring HBO therapy. Pending further research to determine optimal oxygen therapy for CO-poisoning, current therapy should involve stratifying patients for risk of a poor outcome. This stratification may be aided by the evolving availability of biochemical markers of brain injury and the finding that patients with transient loss of consciousness and poor performance on neuropsychological tests of the supervisory attention system are at higher risk of neuropsychological sequelae. We propose that those patients most at risk be admitted and receive more prolonged normobaric oxygen therapy whilst those with more minor CO-poisoning should be provided with normobaric oxygen of no less than 6 h duration and certainly until sign and symptom free. PMID:15239731

Scheinkestel, Carlos D; Jones, Kerry; Myles, Paul S; Cooper, D Jamie; Millar, Ian L; Tuxen, David V

2004-04-01

348

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

349

Experimental lead poisoning of Canada geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were experimentally exposed to known amounts of lead. The course of the lead and of the disease in geese was followed, utilizing established laboratory procedures. Gross signs of lead poisoning first appeared 5-7 days following ingestion. The length of time until signs of disease or death occurred was related to the amount of lead ingested. Twenty-five

R. S. Cook

1966-01-01

350

Optimization of Burnable Poison Application Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is designed to derive the optimum strategy of burnable poison application through a comparative evaluation of two types of burnable absorbers that have been used for Korean PWR plants; and integral type of variable enrichment Gd(sub 2)O(sub 3)/...

W. P. Choi S. H. Lee J. K. Kim W. S. Ko S. M. Bae

1993-01-01

351

Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

352

Management of poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute poisonings due to organophosphorus (OP) compounds often present as medical emergencies, which require management in intensive care. There is urgent need for resuscitation, support or correction of function of vital organs (correction of arrhythmias, provision of ventilatory care), decontamination and antidotes. The muscarinic effects of excess acetylcholine consequent to the inactivation of the acetylcholinesterase are countered by atropine and\\/or

P. T. Haywood; L. Karalliedde

2000-01-01

353

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

354

Lead poisoning in a bird of prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning has long been recognized as a serious disease of waterfowl. Birds feeding in areas of heavy waterfowl shooting ingest spent lead shot which is mistaken for seeds or grit. The shot is then ground up in the gizzard which makes the lead more absorbable from the intestinal tract. Although most of the lead is excreted in the feces,

W. W. Benson; Barry Pharaoh; Pamela Miller

1974-01-01

355

Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-01-01

356

Organophosphorous poisoning at a chemical packaging company  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Six men packaging demeton-S-methyl concentrate developed organophosphorous poisoning. An account of the circumstances of the occurrence is given, together with the results of an investigation into the incidents. The clinical cases are described in outline and individual response to absorption of the pesticide considered. Some relevant issues on the use of protective clothing when working with organophosphorous compounds are discussed.

Jones, R D

1982-01-01

357

Treatment of Burnable Poison Pins in LWRWIMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an investigation into the modelling approximations normally made when the LWR lattice code LWRWIMS is used for design calculations on assemblies containing burnable poison pins. An estimate is made of the effect of using pin-cell sme...

M. J. Halsall

1982-01-01

358

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

359

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient.

2011-01-01

360

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011.  

PubMed

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Lloyd, Jennifer K; Duchin, Jeffrey S; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-08-01

361

Amisulpride poisoning: a report on two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two observations of human poisoning involving the recently developed neuroleptic amisulpride are described. In both cases drug determination was per formed using reversed-phase HPLC coupled with diode- array detection. Case 1 was a nonfatal overdosage in which the ingestion of 3.0 g amisulpride induced an attack of seizures, then light coma with agitation, hyperthermia, mydriasis, minimal extrapyramidal features,

A. Tracqui; C. Mutter-Schmidt; P. Kintz; C. Berton; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

362

Severe chlorate poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe sodium chlorate poisoning was observed within 5 h after suicidal ingestion of 150–200 g of the herbicide. Methaemoglobinaemia was the early symptom of the intoxication. Treatment with methylene blue and ascorbic acid could not prevent a massive haemolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis could be treated successfully with exchange transfusions, heparin and fresh plasma.

Christian Steffen; Rainer Seitz

1981-01-01

363

Adverse haematological outcome and environmental lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South-eastern Area (SA) of the Municipality of La Spezia (Liguria Region, Italy) is characterised by a heavy environmental lead (Pb) contamination, chiefly due to the emissions of a Pb-processing plant in operation since 1930. In order to assess the risk of Pb poisoning of residents of SA, and to estimate the degree of association between the blood Pb level

Vincenzo Fontana; Roberta Baldi; Michela Franchini; Paola Gridelli; Roberto Neri; Franco Palmieri; Riccardo Puntoni; Umberto Ricco; Stefano Parodi

2004-01-01

364

Cyanide Poisoning and Cardiac Disorders: 161 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from smoke in structural fires is common, but cardiovascular function in these patients is poorly documented. Objective: The objective was to study the cardiac complications of cyanide poisoning in patients who received early administration of a cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit®; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany [in the United States, marketed by Meridian Medical Technologies, Bristol, TN]).

Jean-Luc Fortin; Thibault Desmettre; Cyril Manzon; Virginie Judic-Peureux; Caroline Peugeot-Mortier; Jean-Pascal Giocanti; Mohamed Hachelaf; Marie Grangeon; Ulrike Hostalek; Julien Crouzet; Gilles Capellier

2010-01-01

365

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J. H.; Cunningham, N. E.

1988-01-01

366

Utilizing diagnostic investigations in the poisoned patient.  

PubMed

Numerous diagnostic tests may be useful to clinicians caring for poisoned patients. Clinicians should not order a broad range of tests indiscriminately,but rather thoughtfully consider appropriate tests. The results'of the tests should be reviewed in the context of the clinical scenario. PMID:16227055

Eldridge, David L; Dobson, Trey; Brady, William; Holstege, Christopher P

2005-11-01

367

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect.

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

368

[A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].  

PubMed

Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls. PMID:17124355

Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

2006-01-01

369

Preparing Copper Powder from Cemented Copper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques were developed for preparing metallurgical-grade copper powder from industrially produced cement copper. Flotation was used for rejecting discrete gangue particles, acid leaching to remove residual iron and aluminum, hydrogen reduction to elimi...

J. K. Winter L. G. Evans R. D. Groves

1971-01-01

370

Role of copper transporters in copper homeostasis.  

PubMed

Copper is a redox active metal that is essential for biological function. Copper is potentially toxic; thus, its homeostasis is carefully regulated through a system of protein transporters. Copper is taken up across the lumen surface of the small intestinal microvilli as cuprous ion by Ctr1. Cupric ion may also be taken up, but those processes are less well understood. Within the cell, intestinal as well as others, copper is escorted to specific compartments by metallochaperones. One, CCS, donates copper to superoxide dismutase. Another, COX17, delivers copper to additional chaperones within the mitochondria for synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase. A third chaperone, Atox1, delivers copper to the secretory pathway by docking with 2 P-type ATPases. One, ATP7A, is the protein nonfunctional in Menkes disease. This protein is required for cuproenzyme biosynthesis, and in the enterocyte it is required for copper efflux to portal blood. The second, ATP7B, predominantly expressed in liver, is required for copper metallation of ceruloplasmin and biliary copper excretion. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease. Additional intracellular hepatic copper-binding proteins COMMD1 (copper metabolism MURR1 domain) and XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) may also be required for excretion. Other proteins involved in copper homeostasis may include metallothionein and amyloid precursor protein. Plasma protein transport of copper from the intestine to liver and in systemic circulation probably includes both albumin and alpha2-macroglobulin. Changes in the expression of copper "transporters" may be useful to monitor copper status of humans, provided a suitable cell type can be sampled. PMID:18779302

Prohaska, Joseph R

2008-09-01

371

Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?  

PubMed

A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears. PMID:12083714

Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

2002-05-01

372

COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

373

Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

2014-01-01

374

Plant copper chaperones.  

PubMed

Copper chaperones, soluble copper-binding proteins, are essential for ensuring proper distribution of copper to cellular compartments and to proteins requiring copper prosthetic groups. They are found in all eukaryotic organisms. Orthologues of the three copper chaperones characterized in yeast, ATX1, CCS and COX17, are present in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants are faced with unique challenges to maintain metal homoeostasis, and thus their copper chaperones have evolved by diversifying and gaining additional functions. In this paper we present our current knowledge of copper chaperones in A. thaliana based on the information available from the complete sequence of its genome. PMID:12196180

Wintz, H; Vulpe, C

2002-08-01

375

[Copper and copper alloys. Technology updates].  

PubMed

The correlations between copper and copper alloys and human health have been the subject of some recent and extensive scientific researches. The voluntary risks evaluation, which anticipated the EU REACH Directive application, has shown that copper is a "safe" product for human health and for environment. In addition, it could be of great help thanks to its antibacterial properties. Copper tube can contribute in a relevant way to the prevention of water systems pollution by Legionella. Also the spreading of nosocomial infections is significantly contrasted by the use of copper and copper alloys for the production of articles intended for being frequently touched by people. The Environmental Protection Agency of the United States has in fact "registered" as antibacterial over 350 of copper alloys. PMID:23213799

Loconsolo, V; Crespi, M

2012-01-01

376

[What is a "poison"? Proposal of definition].  

PubMed

We discuss different interpretations of the term poison as well as the need of bringing up to date the changes in this matter according to the science progress. A clear and exact definition is proposed after analysing the factors that affect the relativity of the concept and its boundaries. The proposal for a definition is presented taking into account the most broadly extended concepts concerning its significance. That is to say: "a poison is, for human beings and their non-pathogenic and non-harmful biological environment, an electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation, or a non-infectious chemical agent, structured no larger in size than a small particle or fibre that, after being generated internally or after contact, penetration and/or absorption by a live organism, in sufficiently high dose, can produce or produces a direct or indirect adverse effect unrelated to its temperature or measurable electrical potential difference". The scientific knowledge needs accurate definitions to avoid ambiguities. PMID:21453940

Guitart, Raimon; Giménez, Nuria

2012-02-18

377

Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

1974-01-01

378

Brain MRI Findings of Carbon Disulfide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Materials and Methods Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. Results T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). Conclusion In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results.

Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Heon; Kim, Rok Ho; Yim, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Mi Jung

2002-01-01

379

Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad

2012-07-01

380

The Value of Mobilization of Lead by Calcium Ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate in the Diagnosis of Lead Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Traditional laboratory tests for lead poisoning tend to fail in cases where a considerable interval has elapsed since exposure. We have used calcium ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (CaNa2EDTA) for the quantitative mobilization of lead for diagnostic purposes. In a control group of 50 individuals who had never worked with lead it was found that the average urinary excretion of lead in 24 hours amounted to 0·031 to 0·043 mg. The maximum value did not exceed 0·100 mg. After intravenous injection of CaNa2EDTA the amount of excreted lead rose considerably, but did not exceed 0·350 mg./24 hr. In a group of 47 individuals who had formerly worked with lead or who were still engaged in this work but did not show any symptoms of poisoning, the urinary lead levels before injection were higher than in the control group. After injection of CaNa2EDTA the lead excretion in 24 hours increased considerably. After injection of CaNa2EDTA, patients suffering from chronic lead poisoning showed a considerable increase of urinary lead excretion, which attained the order of milligrams in 24 hours. The fractionated examination of the urine of 10 unexposed individuals, undertaken at intervals of three hours, showed after injection of CaNa2EDTA no higher lead concentration than 0·500 mg./litre, the highest concentrations being observed six hours after injection. In the urine of individuals exposed to lead or suffering from lead poisoning a higher urinary lead concentration was found than in the control group, and the maximum was in these cases found at various time intervals. It is concluded that the mobilization of lead may be of considerable value in the diagnosis of atypical cases of chronic lead poisoning, but the results can be evaluated only in association with the general clinical picture.

Teisinger, J.; Srbova, J.

1959-01-01

381

Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Fifteen range cows died of oxalate poisoning caused by ingestion of Rumex venosus. Ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhages were prominent on the abdominal serosal surfaces. Approximately 2 L of thin, yellowish fluid was in the abdominal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous. Other findings included catarrhal abomasitis; enteritis; pale, edematous kidneys; congested lungs; fatty infiltration of the liver; and nephrosis. In the kidneys, birefringent crystals resembling oxalate crystals were demonstrable only when frozen sections were examined. PMID:670054

Dickie, C W; Hamann, M H; Carroll, W D; Chow, F H

1978-07-01

382

Neonatal paracetamol poisoning: treatment by exchange transfusion.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism and excretion of paracetamol was studied in an infant of 29 weeks' gestation who was exposed to the drug when his mother ingested 32.5 g 16 hours before delivery. We have confirmed that sulphation is the major pathway and that the mixed function oxidase system is sufficiently active at this gestational age to produce hepatotoxic metabolic products. As most of the recognised drug treatments for paracetamol poisoning seemed unsuitable in this case, the infant was treated with exchange transfusions.

Lederman, S; Fysh, W J; Tredger, M; Gamsu, H R

1983-01-01

383

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

384

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

385

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

386

White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.  

PubMed

Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

Pande, T K; Pandey, S

2004-03-01

387

Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

Pillion, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

388

Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented. PMID:22672162

Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

2012-06-01

389

Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant  

PubMed Central

A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue.

Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

2007-01-01

390

Food poisoning in hospitals in Scotland.  

PubMed

A review of 50 hospital-based outbreaks of food poisoning which were reported in Scotland during 1973--7, is described. At least 1530 persons consuming hospital-prepared food were involved. Thirty-one episodes were associated with Clostridium perfringens (C. welchii), 11 were due to food-borne salmonella infection, three to enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, and five incidents were of undetermined aetiology. This differs noticeably from the experience in England and Wales where salmonellas appear to predominate as the main cause of hospital outbreaks. Twenty-two incidents occurred in hospitals for psychiatric or mentally subnormal patients, and ten others were located in geriatric units. Only 33 hospitals were involved in the 50 outbreaks as nine hospitals experienced two or more episodes. The role of the hospital in the occurrence of food poisoning may be over-emphasized in comparison with other catering establishments, as outbreaks are more readily recognized and laboratory facilities are usually available for investigation, but it is also believed that many episodes may not be reported. The peculiar problems of the hospital-catering service and particularly those of the older long-stay hospitals, are discussed in relation to preventive measures which would minimize the hazards of food poisoning. PMID:489961

Sharp, J C; Collier, P W; Gilbert, R J

1979-10-01

391

Anticholinergic poisoning from a large dose of Scopolia extract.  

PubMed

Scopolia extract (SE) contains hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are both anticholinergic. It is usually used as a patent medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, to relieve spasmotic discomfort, or to decrease the secretion of gastric acid. Poisoning by SE presents similar symptoms and signs as other types of anticholinergic poisoning. We report a case of severe anticholinergic poisoning after accidentally drinking 8 ml of SE. The patient presented with acute delirium and was successfully treated with physostigmine. PMID:12136971

Cheng, Sheng-Wen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung; Hung, Dong-Zong; Yang, Dar-Yu

2002-08-01

392

Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor  

PubMed Central

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates.

Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.

2012-01-01

393

Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor.  

PubMed

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world's rarest birds-the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor's apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

Finkelstein, Myra E; Doak, Daniel F; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R

2012-07-10

394

Lead poisoning in cattle and its implications for food safety.  

PubMed

The lead poisoning incidents in cattle investigated by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency between 1990 and 2003 are reviewed. Lead poisoning was most commonly encountered in young calves, but cattle of all ages were affected. The lead was derived mainly from lead paint, lead accumulator batteries and lead in soil from old mine workings. Paint was responsible for the majority of cases of poisoning in young calves; yearling animals were most at risk from discarded batteries, and adult cows were most commonly poisoned by geochemical sources of lead. There was a marked seasonal incidence, with most cases occurring after turnout in the spring and early summer. PMID:16844817

Sharpe, R T; Livesey, C T

2006-07-15

395

49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD...

2013-10-01

396

49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD...

2013-10-01

397

Herbal poisoning caused by adulterants or erroneous substitutes.  

PubMed

Six cases of herbal poisoning involving six patients in Hong Kong, Taipei and Kuala Lumpur are reported. The sources of poisoning were identified as adulterants (Podophyllum emodi) or erroneous substitutes (Datura metel). In cases of suspected herbal poisoning, it is recommended that the prescriptions, herbal residues and herb samples should be collected for pharmacognostical and chemical analysis to substantiate the cause of poisoning. Insofar as it is possible, an estimate of the amount of herbs consumed should also be obtained, to establish whether the amount of toxin present is sufficient to account for the symptoms. PMID:7966541

But, P P

1994-12-01

398

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2013-04-01

399

46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...

2010-10-01

400

46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...

2009-10-01

401

Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, for the first time, presents a coordinated federal program to eliminate childhood lead poisoning in the United States. It describes how lead poisoning harms children, how pervasive lead poisoning is, and how lead paint hazards in housing can ...

2000-01-01

402

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2009-04-01

403

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

404

Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP) – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine

Yi Li; XueZhong Yu; Zhong Wang; HouLi Wang; XiangHuai Zhao; YuPing Cao; WeiZhan Wang; Michael Eddleston

2006-01-01

405

Azaspiracid poisoning (AZP) toxins in shellfish: toxicological and health considerations.  

PubMed

It has been almost a decade since a previously unknown human toxic syndrome, azaspiracid poisoning (AZP), emerged as the cause of severe gastrointestinal illness in humans after the consumption of mussels (Mytilus edulis). Structural studies indicated that these toxins, azaspiracids, were of a new unprecedented class containing novel structural features. It is now known that the prevalent azaspiracids in mussels are AZA1, AZA2 and AZA3, which differ from each other in their degree of methylation. Several hydroxylated and carboxylated analogues of the main azaspiracids have also been identified, presumed to be metabolites of the main toxins. Since its first discovery in Irish mussels, the development of facile sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS methods has resulted in the discovery of AZA in other countries and in other species. Mice studies indicate that this toxin class can cause serious tissue injury, especially to the small intestine, and chronic exposure may increase the likelihood of the development of lung tumours. Studies also show that tissue recovery is very slow following exposure. These observations suggest that AZA is more dangerous than the other known classes of shellfish toxins. Consequently, in order to protect human consumers, proper risk assessment and regulatory control of shellfish and other affected species is of the utmost importance. PMID:20026101

Furey, Ambrose; O'Doherty, Sinead; O'Callaghan, Keith; Lehane, Mary; James, Kevin J

2010-08-15

406

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

407

Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state.

1996-01-01

408

Immunologic Studies of Poisonous Anacardiaceae: Oral Desensitization to Poison Ivy and Oak urushiols in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poison ivy and oak urushiols or their components were compared with the respective esterified derivatives for efficacy in oral desensitization of Hartley guinea pigs sensitized to urushiols. The esterified derivatives produced a significantly greater degree of hyposensitization than did free urushiol counterparts. Suppression produced by esterified urushiols was of longer duration than that produced by free urushiols. Groups of sensitized

Edna S. Watson; James C. Murphy; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

1983-01-01

409

beta-Hexosaminidase activity in the acute phase of CCl4 poisoning in the rat.  

PubMed

beta-Hexosaminidase (Hex) activity has been shown to be increased in the sera of patients with chronic liver diseases as well as in rats with CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis. In this study, serum and liver Hex activity was determined in rats during the acute phase of CCl4 poisoning, a widely used animal model of acute necrotic liver damage. The results showed a statistically significant decrease of Hex activity in the sera of rats 36 h after CCl4 poisoning (5.84 +/- 2.90 U/l), as compared to controls (11.58 +/- 1.35 U/l; p less than 0.001). No significant change was observed in liver tissue of CCl4-treated animals and controls. A significant correlation between the decrease in Hex and the increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase in serum was found. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that this lysosomal enzyme could be released by non-parenchymal liver cells, such as activated macrophages; its increased activity could be the expression of macrophage activation, as demonstrated in patients with chronic liver diseases. PMID:2151317

Antoniello, S; Auletta, M; Cerini, R; Cacciatore, F; Magri, P

1990-01-01

410

Copper Doped Polycrystalline Silicon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was discovered, in accordance with the invention, that the presence of copper in polycrystalline silicon solar cells strongly enhances the performance of the cells. It was further discovered that the effect of copper in polycrystalline, silicon solar c...

K. M. Koliwad T. Daud

1979-01-01

411

Copper Crusher Gauge Holder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A copper crusher gauge holder for testing internal pressures of cartridges during test firing is provided. The copper crusher gauge holder has a circular aluminum upper plate and a circular aluminum lower plate having a layer of urethane rubber approximat...

E. W. Bowie R. E. Bowen

1997-01-01

412

Poisoning due to Savlon (cetrimide) liquid.  

PubMed

1. Seven adult cases of deliberate oral exposure to 'Savlon' liquid (chlorhexidine gluconate 0.3%, cetrimide 3%) are presented. 2. In six patients, the symptoms were relatively mild including nausea, vomiting, sore throat and abdominal pain. 3. One patient who had concomitantly taken 'Dettol' liquid was comatose and hypotensive at presentation and was complicated by aspiration pneumonia and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). She was ventilated for a total of 10 days and was hospitalised for 5 weeks. 4. The data from this study suggest that symptoms associated with Savlon poisoning are usually mild. When aspirated, Savlon together with 'Dettol' liquid can cause ARDS. PMID:7826685

Chan, T Y

1994-10-01

413

Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.  

PubMed

Confusion between acetone fingernail polish removers and artificial fingernail products containing acetonitrile and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine has resulted in pediatric morbidity and mortality. In the present case, a 20-month-old boy drank less than one ounce of Remove Artificial Nail Remover containing 100% nitroethane. In the emergency department he displayed cyanosis and 39% methemoglobinemia. Following intravenous methylene blue, the child's methemoglobin level dropped to 5.7% and he recovered uneventfully. Toxicity from nitroethane has not previously been reported in humans. Poison centers and emergency department personnel should be alert to another nail product which may be easily confused with acetone-containing nail polish removers. PMID:8007041

Hornfeldt, C S; Rabe, W H

1994-01-01

414

A nonfatal case of intentional scopolamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Scopolamine, a drug not usually found in poisoning, was found to be the cause of toxicity in three persons. This paper stresses the need to confirm any unusual iodoplatinate spots that may occur in emergency drug screening. Gastric lavages appear to be the most useful source for recovering belladonna compounds as no scopolamine was found in the urine, either at admission or the day after. Atropine and scopolamine are easily separated from each other by TLC and GLC but homatropine separates poorly from atropine. PMID:4442247

Kaplan, M; Register, D C; Bierman, A H; Risacher, R L

1974-01-01

415

Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

Ciftci, Ozgur; Gunday, Murat; Cal?skan, Mustafa; Gullu, Hakan; Dogan, Rafi; Guven, Aytekin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

2013-01-01

416

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the

Raimon Guitart; Siska Croubels; Francesca Caloni; Magda Sachana; Franca Davanzo; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

417

LEAD POISONING IN CAPTIVE ANDEAN CONDORS (VULTUR GRYPHUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated lead in the tissues of raptors, especially those that scavenge, is a common occurrence, and lead poisoning appears to be a significant problem in the ongoing recovery effort for California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Elevated blood lead levels have been found in released birds, and a number of birds have died of lead poisoning. In earlier work, we dosed turkey

Oliver H. Pattee; James W. Carpenter; Steven H. Fritts; Barnett A. Rattner; Stanley N. Wiemeyer; J. Andrew Royle; Milton R. Smith

418

Place makes the poison: Wesolowski Award Lecture — 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paracelsus, the Renaissance figure often called the father of toxicology, is given that credit partly for being the first to note that “the dose makes the poison.” Modern understanding of the importance of personal exposure in determining dose, however, indicates that to a large extent as well, “place makes the poison.” The relative proximity of a pollution source to people

KIRK R SMITH

2002-01-01

419

Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical applications practiced in 31 tropical African and Asian countries was drawn. A considerable convergence

A. Maroyi; Maesen van der L. J. G

2011-01-01

420

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

421

ACCIDENTAL POISONING : SELECTED ASPECTS OF ITS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unintentional or accidental poisoning continues to be an important health threat throughout the world including Malaysia. It is particularly a problem among children under the age of 5 years, primarily due to developmental incompetencies and their dependence on adults for their care and well being. In the United States for every poisoning death among children under the age of 5,

John T Arokiasamy

1994-01-01

422

Poisoning and toxicological emergencies - current trends and practice.  

PubMed

Poisoning is a common presentation to hospital acute medical units, and can produce a variety of clinical scenarios. This review discusses the epidemiology of poisoning, a framework for managing patients with drug toxicity and considerations in the diagnosis of toxicity with unknown substances. The commonest substances seen in toxicity in the UK - paracetamol, antidepressants, sedatives and opioids are discussed in more detail. PMID:21607204

Banham-Hall, Edward; Mallinson, Robert; Trepte, Nicola

2009-01-01

423

Ethylene Glycol Poisoning: Quintessential clinical toxicology; analytical conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene glycol poisoning is a medical emergency that presents challenges both for clinicians and clinical laboratories. Untreated, it may cause morbidly or death, but effective therapy is available, if administered timely. However, the diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is not always straightforward. Thus, measurement of serum ethylene glycol, and ideally glycolic acid, its major toxic metabolite in serum, is definitive.

William H. Porter

424

Clinical Investigation of Hyposensitization in Poison Oak Sensitive Individuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to determine whether individuals in California who were sensitive to poison oak could be desensitized by the use of the purified active principle of poison oak, urushiol. Many adult males were skin-tested to determine sens...

W. L. Epstein

1972-01-01

425

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

426

Occurrence of lead poisoning in a wild pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors believe this is the first report of lead poisoning of a wild pheasant in America, although two cases of lead poisoning on English game preserves have been reported (Calvert, 1876; Holland, 1882). These two reports gave no record of lead levels in tissue from the affected birds. A dead male pheasant, found at the Grizzly Island Waterfowl Management

B. F. Hunter; M. N. Rosen

1965-01-01

427

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems, this report examines lead poisoning as a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible and as a housing problem directly related to a shortage of safe, affordable housing. The report details screening rates in Rhode…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

428

Compatibility of Refractory Materials for Nuclear Reactor Poison Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison material...

J. H. Sinclair

1974-01-01

429

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

430

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

431

Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

432

Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

433

An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

Rajaram, Shireen S.

2007-01-01

434

Recent developments in the field of arrow and dart poisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrow and dart poisons, considered as conventional natural sources for future drug discovery, have already provided numerous biologically active molecules used as drugs in therapeutic applications or in pharmacological research. Plants containing alkaloids or cardiotonic glycosides have generally been the main ingredients responsible for the efficacy of these poisons, although some animals, such as frogs, have also been employed. This

Geneviève Philippe; Luc Angenot

2005-01-01

435

Separation of Copper-64 from Copper Phthalocyanine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its...

R. I. M. Battaglin

1979-01-01

436

Laser induced copper plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argon laser induced plating of copper spots and lines from copper sulfate solutions on glass and phenolic resin paper has been investigated. The substrates had to be precoated with an evaporated copper film. The highest plating rates have been obtained with a small film thickness of 25 nm. Spots with a thickness up to 30 ?m were plated.

A. K. Al-Sufi; H. J. Eichler; J. Salk; H. J. Riedel

1983-01-01

437

On copper peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The action of hydrogen superoxide on copper salts in alcoholic solutions is studied. The action of hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide in alcoholic suspensions, and the action of ethereal hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide are discussed. It is concluded that using the procedure proposed excludes almost entirely the harmful effect of hydrolysis.

Moser, L.

1988-01-01

438

Copper: Technology & Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains modern copper mining, ore extraction, and casting processes and details innovative copper products, major markets, service activities, and the future of copper in industry and everyday life. It was published in the November 1998 issue of the online magazine Innovations.

Cohen, Art; Association, Copper D.

439

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

440

The spectrum of poisonings in Hong Kong: an overview.  

PubMed

Poisoning is an important health problem in Hong Kong. In 1990 alone, 6500 patients were treated in Hong Kong hospitals and there were 245 deaths. Two hospital-based studies indicated that exposures to poisons were intentional in the majority (96%) of adult cases, with hypnotics/sedatives (34%), household products (16%) and analgesics (14%) being most often used. Apart from drugs and chemicals, accidental poisoning may occur after the ingestion of Chinese medicines or vegetables contaminated with methamidophos. The former may contain highly toxic aconitine or podophyllin, declared and undeclared western drugs such as phenylbutazone and aminopyrine, and heavy metals. It is important that there be a continuing effort to collect information on the factors leading to and the pattern of poisonings in Hong Kong and other Southeast Asian countries. This is particularly valuable for childhood poisoning so that appropriate preventive measures can be taken. PMID:8197714

Chan, T Y; Critchley, J A

1994-04-01

441

Clinical and toxicological data in fenthion and omethoate acute poisoning.  

PubMed

This study paper reports on two cases of poisoning with the organophosphorus insecticides, fenthion and omethoate. The two victims were admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) a few hours after ingestion of the two insecticides. They received appropriate treatment for organophosphorous poisoning (gastric lavage, activated charcoal, atropine and pralidoxime) and supportive care. Both patients survived. Organophosphate blood levels were determined on admission (fenthion 2.9 micrograms/ml, omethoate 1.6 micrograms/ml) and during the hospitalisation and proved to be considerably high. Slow elimination rate of the poison already distributed in the body was indicated for both pesticides. The patient with omethoate poisoning remained clinically well (Glasgow Coma Scale: 15) and was discharged three days later. The patient with fenthion poisoning, who had also ingested 30 mg of bromazepam and 720 mg of oxetoron, developed cholinergic crisis six hours after admission and was intubated for 24 days, with concomitant complications. PMID:9830131

Tsatsakis, A M; Manousakis, A; Anastasaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M; Katsanoulas, K; Delaki, C; Agouridakis, P

1998-11-01

442

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized.

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

443

Two instances of Chinese herbal medicine poisoning in Singapore.  

PubMed

Datura metel L. (Yangjinghua) is a toxic herb that contains anticholinergic compounds. Inappropriate consumption of this herb could result in anticholinergic poisoning. Clinical features of such poisoning have not been previously described. We report two such cases. Both patients had taken brews of Datura metel L., and developed poisoning soon afterwards. Prominent clinical features included confusion, dilated pupils, absence of sweating, and the absence of sluggish bowel sounds. No flushing of the face or skin was detected in either case. Both patients recovered fully within 12 hours with supportive measures, and no gastric elimination or antidote was used. The different names ascribed to Datura metel L. in chinese medicine can be confusing; this confusion resulted in the poisoning of one of our patients. The clinical features of Datura metel L. poisoning and concerns over inappropriate uses of herbal medicine are discussed. PMID:18465037

Phua, D H; Cham, G; Seow, E

2008-05-01

444

Lead poisoning and brain cell function  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-11-01

445

Subacute poisoning with phosalone, an organophosphate insecticide.  

PubMed Central

An illness characterized by weakness, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symtoms was identified among a crew of 30 migrant field-workers employed by a grape grower in Madera County, California, during August 1987. The onset of symptoms occurred between August 24 and August 30 and a median of 9 days from the date of first employment. The first crew member sought medical treatment on August 26, and 10 crew members were admitted to hospital between August 27 and August 30. For most workers, gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms resolved shortly after admission, but 4 patients had episodes of severe sinus bradycardia persisting for several days. On the day of admission, transient atrioventricular dissociation developed in 2 persons. Interviews with 16 crew members not admitted to the hospital identified only 1 additional worker ill with gastrointestinal symptoms, but all 16 had moderate to severe inhibition of both plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase. Four other workers who were tested but not interviewed also had cholinesterase depression. The crew had had exposure since August 19 to the organophosphate insecticide phosalone, which was last applied to the vineyard on July 21, or 29 days earlier. Although this is the first report unequivocally linking phosalone to field-worker poisoning, the delayed onset and nonspecific nature of the symptoms associated with subacute poisoning may have hindered the recognition of previous similar episodes. Images

O'Malley, M. A.; McCurdy, S. A.

1990-01-01

446

Gallium poisoning: a rare case report.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea, vertigo, and unexpected black-outs. Had there been effective emergency medical care protocols, diagnostic testing, treatment and antidotes, the latent manifestations of irreversible cardiomyopathy may have been prevented. Given how quickly exposure led to morbidity, this article aims to raise an awareness of the toxic potential of gallium. This has particular relevance for workers involved in the production of semiconductors where there is a potential for accidental exposure to gallium by-products during device processing. It may also have implications for dentists who use gallium alloys to replace mercury containing amalgam. In the absence of threshold limit values and exposure limits for humans, as well as emergency medical guidelines for treatment of poisoning, the case calls on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to establish guidelines and medical management protocols specific for gallium. PMID:22024274

Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Hottel, Timothy L

2012-02-01

447

Estrogen Intake and Copper Depositions: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease?  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with chronic postmenopausal estrogen intake with presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring in the cornea and Alzheimer's disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of estrogen intake and copper accumulation in various tissues, including the central nervous system. Sonography was compatible with copper accumulation in the basal ganglia, but the patient showed no clinical signs of Wilson's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography revealed a typical pattern for Alzheimer's disease. We propose increased copper levels as a direct effect of estrogen intake due to an augmented ATP7A-mRNA in the intestine. Moreover, we discuss the impact of elevated free serum copper on accompanying Alzheimer's disease, knowing that copper plays a crucial role in the formation of amyloid plaques and tau aggregation. This might offer a partial explanation for the observation that postmenopausal estrogen therapy is associated with a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Amtage, Florian; Birnbaum, Dzelila; Reinhard, Thomas; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Weiller, Cornelius; Mader, Irina; Meyer, Philipp T.; Rijntjes, Michel

2014-01-01

448

Risk factors for mortality in Asian Taiwanese patients with methanol poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction Methanol poisoning continues to be a serious public health issue in Taiwan, but very little work has been done to study the outcomes of methanol toxicity in the Asian population. In this study, we examined the value of multiple clinical variables in predicting mortality after methanol exposure. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study on patients with acute poisoning who were admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital over a period of 9 years (2000–2008). Out of the 6,347 patients, only 32 suffered methanol intoxication. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. Results Most patients were middle aged (46.1±13.8 years), male (87.5%), and habitual alcohol consumers (75.0%). All the poisonings were from an oral exposure (96.9%), except for one case of intentionally injected methanol (3.1%). After a latent period of 9.3±10.1 hours, many patients began to experience hypothermia (50.0%), hypotension (15.6%), renal failure (59.4%), respiratory failure (50.0%), and consciousness disturbance (Glasgow coma scale [GCS] score 10.5±5.4). Notably, the majority of patients were treated with ethanol antidote (59.4%) and hemodialysis (58.1%). The remaining 41.6% of patients did not meet the indications for ethanol therapy. At the end of analysis, there were six (18.8%), 15 (46.9%), and eleven (34.4%) patients alive, alive with chronic complications, and dead, respectively. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was revealed that the GCS score (odds ratio [OR] 0.816, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.682–0.976) (P=0.026), hypothermia (OR 168.686, 95% CI 2.685–10,595.977) (P=0.015), and serum creatinine level (OR 4.799, 95% CI 1.321–17.440) (P=0.017) were significant risk factors associated with mortality. Conclusion The outcomes (mortality rate 34.4%) of the Taiwanese patients subjected to intensive detoxification protocols were comparable with published data from other international poison centers. Furthermore, the analytical results indicate that GCS score, hypothermia, and serum creatinine level help predict mortality after methanol poisoning.

Lee, Chen-Yen; Chang, Eileen Kevyn; Lin, Ja-Liang; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Shen-Yang; Juan, Kuo-Chang; Yang, Huang-Yu; Lin, Chemin; Lee, Shwu-Hua; Wang, I-Kwan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

2014-01-01

449

Assessing Parental Utilization of the Poison Center: An Emergency Center-Based Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize caretakers who fail to utilize the poison center for unintentional poisonings involving children. We interviewed 210 caretakers of children evaluated for unintentional poisoning in the emergency center of an urban, universitybased teaching hospital to determine (1) whether demographic differences exist between those caretakers who contacted a poison center prior to

Nancy R. Kelly; Rebecca T. Kirkland; Susan E. Holmes; Michael D. Ellis; George Delclos; Claudia A. Kozinetz

1997-01-01

450

[Dermal and inhalation poisoning. Rare guests in our intensive care units?].  

PubMed

Patients with dermal and inhalation poisoning are uncommon in intensive care treatment. We describe the diagnostics and specific toxicological treatment of patients with hydrofluoric acid burns. For inhalation poisoning, we focus on smoke inhalation, especially the management of cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning. Special attention is given to the use of hyperbaric oxygenation for the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23925447

Sagoschen, I

2013-09-01

451

Guidelines for the Detection and Management of Lead Poisoning for Physicians and Health Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Illinois guidelines provide information on the medical management and treatment of children with lead poisoning, based on Federal guidelines (revised in 1991) for determining lead poisoning at lower levels. The guidelines outline the effects of lead poisoning, sources of lead, estimated incidence of lead poisoning in Illinois, screening…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

452

Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that lead poisoning is a preventable disease, this report details a coordinated federal program to eliminate childhood lead poisoning in the United States. The report describes how lead poisoning harms children, how pervasive lead poisoning is, and how lead paint hazards in housing could be eliminated in 10 years. Following information on…

2000

453

A Role for Low Hepatic Copper Concentrations in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Copper has a role in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial function, and copper deficiency has been linked to atherogenic dyslipidemia. We aimed to investigate the potential role of copper availability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS:Patients with NAFLD (n=124) were compared to patients with chronic hepatitis C (n=50), hemochromatosis (n=35), alcoholic liver disease (n=13), autoimmune hepatitis

Elmar Aigner; Michael Strasser; Heike Haufe; Thomas Sonnweber; Florian Hohla; Andreas Stadlmayr; Marc Solioz; Herbert Tilg; Wolfgang Patsch; Guenter Weiss; Felix Stickel; Christian Datz

2010-01-01

454

Emergency department visits for carbon monoxide poisoning in LA.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is preventable, yet it remains one of the most common causes of poisoning in the United States. This analysis was performed to estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits in 2010 in Louisiana for all-cause (fire-related, non-fire, and unknown) unintentional CO poisoning. Results demonstrate approximately 1,696,746 total ED visits occurred in 2010. Among these, an estimated 116 individuals were diagnosed with CO poisoning (68 CO cases per million ED visits; 26.2 CO cases per million population). Emergency Department visits for CO poisoning occurred most frequently in the winter months. Caddo, Jefferson, and Orleans parishes had the highest numbers of CO poisonings in 2010. The most common symptoms included headache, hypertension, nausea, and dizziness. The ED database presented more cases of the most common CO poisoning cases (non-fatal) than previously used surveillance databases. This study demonstrated the utility and importance of ED data as a surveillance tool. PMID:23431671

Katner, Adrienne; Peak, Kate; Sun, Mei-Hung; Badakhsh, Roshan; Woods, Adrienne; Soileau, Shannon; Dugas, Dianne

2012-01-01

455

Effects of packaging and appearance on childhood poisoning. Vacor rat poison  

SciTech Connect

Over a 13-month period, 14 patients were hospitalized at Milwaukee Children's Hospital for rodenticide ingestions. Ten of the 14 patients ingested Vacor Rat Poison (N-3-pyridylmethyl N'-p-nitrophenyl urea). Small children could easily mistake Vacor, which resembles corn meal, for breakfast cereal. To intervene for safer packaging of toxic substances, pediatricians need to be aware of the health hazard posed to children by attractive packaging.

Schum, T.R.; Lachman, B.S.

1982-05-01

456

Acquired Copper Deficiency: A Potentially Serious and Preventable Complication Following Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an essential cofactor in many enzymatic reactions vital to the normal function of the hematologic, vascular, skeletal, antioxidant, and neurologic systems. Copper deficiency in the United States is believed to be relatively rare but has been described in the setting of zinc supplementation, myelodysplastic syndrome, use of parenteral nutrition and chronic tube feeding, and in various malabsorptive syndromes,

Daniel P. Griffith; David A. Liff; Thomas R. Ziegler; Gregory J. Esper; Elliott F. Winton

2009-01-01

457

Emergency management and treatment of the poisoned small animal patient.  

PubMed

This article reviews management of the acutely poisoned veterinary patient, including initial telephone triage, appropriate communication and history gathering from the pet owner, decontamination methods (including the use of appropriate emetic agents and dosing of activated charcoal), and general treatment of the poisoned patient. Symptomatic and supportive care of the poisoned patient includes the use of fluid therapy, gastrointestinal support (eg, antacids), central nervous system support (eg, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants), sedatives/reversal agents (eg, phenothiazines, naloxone, flumazenil), hepatoprotectants, and miscellaneous antidotal therapy. PMID:23747259

Lee, Justine A

2013-07-01

458

Poison control centers decrease emergency healthcare utilization costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Patient home management by a regional poison control center has potential to save public healthcare dollars by preventing\\u000a unnecessary utilization of emergency department services. We wished to conservatively quantify such savings at a large regional\\u000a poison center and compare savings to funds received in state support.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Banner Poison Control Center (BPCC) serves a population of about four million in central

Frank LoVecchio; Steven C. Curry; Kathleen Waszolek; Jane Klemens; Kimberly Hovseth; Diane Glogan

2008-01-01

459

Standardized treatment of severe methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Seven patients with methanol poisoning were treated with ethanol, hemodialysis and supportive measures. The interval between ingestion and initiation of ethanol therapy varied from 3 to 67 hours and from ingestion to dialysis from 9 to 93 hours. All patients survived, but one had permanent visual impairment. A 10% ethanol solution administered intravenously is a safe and effective antidote for severe methanol poisoning. Ethanol therapy is recommended when plasma methanol concentrations are higher than 20 mg per dl, when ingested doses are greater than 30 ml and when there is evidence of acidosis or visual abnormalities in cases of suspected methanol poisoning. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

Ekins, B.R.; Rollins, D.E.; Duffy, D.P.; Gregory, M.C.

1985-03-01

460

A case of non-fatal oleander poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present a case of non-fatal poisoning with oleander blooms in a 42-year-old woman. After repeated vomiting and gastrointestinal distress, the patient was admitted to the hospital with cardiac symptoms 4 h after the ingestion. Urine and blood samples were assayed for drugs of abuse and for general toxicological screen. Blood was analysed for alcohol and volatiles. Oleandrin was detected in the blood sample at a concentration of 14.7 ng/ml. Following a review of the literature, this is the first case of oleander poisoning in which the patient recovered with only conservative treatment. Oleander poisonings occur rarely, and generally result in death.

Al, Behcet; Yarbil, P?nar; Dogan, Mehmet; Kabul, Sinem; Y?ld?r?m, Cuma

2010-01-01

461

Experimental selenium poisoning in Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The toxicity of sodium selenite was studied in 28 Nubian goats, 20 of which died or were killed in extremis 2 h to 21 d after dosing. Single or repeated daily oral doses of 160, 80, 40, 20 and 5 mg sodium selenite/kg were toxic to goats while daily doses of selenite ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/kg/d for 225 d were not toxic to this species of animals. The main signs of poisoning were uneasiness, inappetence, dyspnea, salivation, diarhea, paresis of the hind limbs, arching of the back, and recumbency. The main lesions were hemorrhages in the rumen, reticulum, osmasum and abomasum, hemorrhagic or catarrhal abomasitis and enteritis, fatty change and necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes and of the cells of the renal convoluted tubules, splenic hemosiderosis, pulmonary congestion, haemorrhage, edema and emphysema, accumulation of lymphocytes in the vital organs, and straw-colored fluid in the serous cavities. PMID:2353437

Ahmed, K E; Adam, S E; Idrill, O F; Wahbi, A A

1990-06-01

462

Collective poisoning with hallucinogenous herbal tea.  

PubMed

An incident wherein more than 30 people were poisoned with a herbal infusion during a meditation session is described. The clinical features observed were hallucinations, aggression, agitation, amnesia, mydriasis, dry skin, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypotension, collapse, coma and respiratory depression. All patients recovered, although mechanical ventilation was required in some instances. A portion of the herbal infusion was found to contain atropine (hyoscyamine), scopolamine (hyoscine), harmine, and other alkaloids. The estimated ingested doses (free bases) were atropine 4 mg, harmine 27 mg, and scopolamine 78 mg. The mean concentrations in 21 serum samples obtained approximately 6h after ingestion of the infusion were atropine 5 ng/ml, harmine 8 ng/ml, and scopolamine 13 ng/ml. PMID:12208022

Balíková, Marie

2002-08-14

463

Late treatment of paracetamol poisoning with mercaptamine.  

PubMed Central

Forty patients who had taken overdoses of paracetamol were treated with mercaptamine. Twenty-three patients given mercaptamine within 10 hours of poisoning had normal liver function tests at follow-up, and one could not be traced. In 16 patients mecraptamine was begun more than 10 hours after ingestion of paracetamol ("late" mercaptamine). Eight of these patients developed severe liver damage, which in six was moderate or severe before mercaptamine administration. Acute renal failure occurred in two patients; in one other renal function was temporarily severely impaired. At follow-up two patients were not available, and one admitted moribund had died soon after admission. The remaining 13 all had normal liver function tests. It is concluded that late mercaptamine is not dangerous and may prevent further liver damage.

Smith, J M; Roberts, W O; Hall, S M; White, T A; Gilbertson, A A

1978-01-01

464

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

2014-05-01

465

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome.

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

466

Monensin poisoning in horses -- an international incident  

PubMed Central

Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized.

Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

1989-01-01

467

Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... most common cause of acute kidney failure in children. Chronic arthritis A small number of persons with Shigella or Salmonella infection develop pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and ...

468

Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt"), and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years) treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009) were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. Results There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62%) were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%), opioids (22%) and CO or fire smoke (10%). The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other) and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91%) patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. Conclusions More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of the annual number of poisoned patients treated at the EMA since 2003, there was no mortality or sequelae, indicating that the current practice is safe. Thus, most low- to intermediate-acuity poisonings can be treated safely without the need to access hospital resources. Although the short-term mortality was low, more follow-up of patients with substance abuse should be encouraged.

2012-01-01

469

Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper  

SciTech Connect

Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal whose transport into the cell is tightly regulated. Kineococcus radiotolerans was previously shown to specifically accumulate soluble copper in the cytoplasm and cell growth was significantly enhanced by copper during chronic irradiation. This study provides a systematic investigation of copper accumulation, toxicity, and homeostasis in K. radiotolerans through combined physiological experimentation and quantitative shot-gun proteomics. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations, though intracellular metal accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2 = 0.7). Global proteomics analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the total number of response proteins and their abundance with copper concentration and culture age. Approximately 40% of the K. radiotolerans genome was differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Concomitant production of antioxidants and protective osmolytes signifies an important adaptation for maintenance of cellular redox; few known metal binding proteins were detected. This study offers a first glimpse into the complexity of coordinated biochemical response pathways in K. radiotolerans invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations that may be pertinent for new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration.

Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.

2010-08-26

470

Chronic wounds.  

PubMed

Chronic wounds are a challenge to treat for the clinician. We present a current overview of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development chronic nonhealing wounds. Solutions to some of these difficult problems are presented. PMID:15814118

Izadi, Kouros; Ganchi, Parham

2005-04-01

471

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PARATHION POISONING FOLLOWING MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased Susceptibility to Parathion Poisoning Following Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection. Fifty to 100 percent mortality occurred in mice treated with ordinarily sublethal doses of parathion 2 to 5 days post infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). These mortalities appear...

472

Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

1981-06-01

473

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Kurdish (?????) Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Swahili (Kiswahili) Tagalog ( ... Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Portuguese (português) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English Envenenamento por monóxido de ...

474

Survival after severe self poisoning with sodium valproate.  

PubMed Central

A 48 year old patient deliberately poisoned herself with 25 g of sodium valproate and survived with supportive measures only. This case contradicts the experience of those who advocate aggressive management of such severe overdoses.

Lakhani, M.; McMurdo, M. E.

1986-01-01

475

Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study.

Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

2013-01-01

476

Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... diseases. With the recent high-profile outbreaks of Salmonella in raw ground tuna and Listeria in cantaloupes , ... Symptoms The most common foodborne illnesses are norovirus , Salmonella , Clostridium perfringens , and Campylobacter . Symptoms of food poisoning ...

477

Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three striking conclusions about childhood lead poisoning have emerged in the past several years: (1) the effects of exposure to even moderate amounts of lead are more pervasive and long-lasting than previously thought, (2) significant impairment of intel...

1991-01-01

478

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Fourth Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fourth edition of Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings is an update and expansion of the 1982 third edition. The purpose of the fourth edition is to provide health professionals with recently available information on the health hazards o...

D. P. Morgan

1989-01-01

479

Curative potencies of penicillin in experimental amanita phalloides poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some lethal factors of the toadstool, once absorbed, may still be antagonized. Penicillin displayed such antidotal potencies in rats and mice. Its effect was the more pronounced the greater the dose and the sooner its application after onset of poisoning.

G. L. Floersheim; J. Schneeberger; K. Bucher

1971-01-01

480

Apparent suicidal carbon monoxide poisonings with concomitant prescription drug overdoses.  

PubMed

We report four separate suicides by apparent motor vehicle-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in which complete toxicological analysis showed the absence of, or lower than expected, percent carboxyhemoglobin saturation and high concentrations of concomitant prescription drugs. These cases, within a population of 71 apparent CO suicides from the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office over 1998-2004, represent cases where additional factors are in play. Multiple modalities (CO poisoning and drug overdose) and/or undetectable carbon dioxide poisoning from the vehicle exhaust of cars manufactured after laws regulating vehicle emissions were enacted are examples of additional factors that require consideration in these selected cases. All four cases demonstrated some degree of decomposition, so the possible loss of CO could not be ruled out. The need for full toxicological analysis in apparent suicidal CO poisoning is emphasized. PMID:16419412

Gupta, Avneesh; Pasquale-Styles, Melissa A; Hepler, Bradford R; Isenschmid, Daniel S; Schmidt, Carl J

2005-10-01

481

Toxic Bradycardias in the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular drugs are a common cause of poisoning, and toxic bradycardias can be refractory to standard ACLS protocols. It is important to consider appropriate antidotes and adjunctive therapies in the care of the poisoned patient in order to maximize outcomes. While rigorous studies are lacking in regards to treatment of toxic bradycardias, there are small studies and case reports to help guide clinicians' choices in caring for the poisoned patient. Antidotes, pressor support, and extracorporeal therapy are some of the treatment options for the care of these patients. It is important to make informed therapeutic decisions with an understanding of the available evidence, and consultation with a toxicologist and/or regional Poison Control Center should be considered early in the course of treatment.

Givens, Melissa L.

2012-01-01

482

Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide).  

PubMed

The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal veterinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine). Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal) should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed. PMID:22616438

Arnot, L F; Veale, D J H; Steyl, J C A; Myburgh, J G

2011-12-01

483

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Death on Mount McKinley,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common problem encountered in a wide variety of settings, including both suicide attempts and accidental exposures. Fatal CO exposure occurred in two wound, healthy mountain climbers who succumbed to fumes generated by ...

R. G. Foutch

1987-01-01

484

Treating Poison Ivy: Ease the Itch with Tips from Dermatologists  

MedlinePLUS

... news News releases Treating poison ivy: Ease the itch with tips from dermatologists SCHAUMBURG, Ill. (Apr. 8, ... tips for treating the rash and easing the itch: Immediately rinse your skin with lukewarm, soapy water. ...

485

49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

2013-10-01

486

Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.  

PubMed

Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed. PMID:23690046

Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

2013-09-01

487

Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28?mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21?mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79?mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22?mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed.

Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Monica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

2014-01-01

488

Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ?16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ?16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were highest for methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines, most deaths were caused by opiates or opioids.

2010-01-01

489

Age–sex differences in medicinal self-poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is related to suicide and DSH repetition is common. DSH hospital presentations are often self-poisonings\\u000a with medicinal agents. While older age and male sex are known risk factors for suicide, it is unclear how these factors are\\u000a related to the nature and severity of medicinal self-poisoning (SP). Such knowledge can guide prevention strategies emphasizing\\u000a detecting and treating

Anne E. Rhodes; Jennifer Bethell; Julie Spence; Paul S. Links; David L. Streiner; R. Liisa Jaakkimainen

2008-01-01

490

Six clinical cases of Mandragora autumnalis poisoning: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

A multiple case of Mandragora autumnalis poisoning is described. Mandragora autumnalis, a solanaceous plant that is common in the Sicilian countryside, contains a variable concentration of solanum alkaloids, which cause gastrointestinal irritation, and tropane alkaloids, which have anticholinergic properties and produce typical and sometimes severe atropine-like symptoms. Vital function support, decontamination, symptomatic treatment and, in severe cases, antidote therapy with physostigmine are useful to control acute poisoning. PMID:12501035

Piccillo, Giovita A; Mondati, Enrico G M; Moro, Paola A

2002-12-01

491