Sample records for chronic copper poisoning

  1. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

  2. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    POISONING IN SHEEP A trouble occurring among sheep on numerous ranches in the Edwards plateau region of Texas characterized clinically by generalized icterus, hemoglobinuria and hematuria, inappetence, and extreme weakness, was found to be chronic copper... liver; enlarged, very dark brown to black kidneys; a swollen, "blackberry jam" spleen; generalized icterus; poorly- collapsed, doughy lungs, and a pale flaccid heart. As a matter of fact the condition is really a cumulative poisoning since...

  3. Chronic copper poisoning in sheep grazing pastures fertilized with swine manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Kerr; H. D. McGavin

    1991-01-01

    Several pregnant ewes developed an acute hemolytic crisis and died. Liver and kidney copper concentrations were high, confirming chronic copper poisoning as the cause of death. Feed and water samples that the affected ewes had been consuming did not contain excess copper. Because swine manure slurry had been applied to the pasture where the sheep had grazed, a copper analysis

  4. Chronic copper poisoning in sheep grazing pastures fertilized with swine manure

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, L.A.; McGavin, H.D. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Several pregnant ewes developed an acute hemolytic crisis and died. Liver and kidney copper concentrations were high, confirming chronic copper poisoning as the cause of death. Feed and water samples that the affected ewes had been consuming did not contain excess copper. Because swine manure slurry had been applied to the pasture where the sheep had grazed, a copper analysis was conducted on soil and forage samples from this field. High copper concentrations were detected in the soil and forage samples from the slurry pasture. Most sheep producers are aware of the catastrophic consequences that result when feeds containing copper and insufficient amounts of molybdenum are fed to sheep. However, producers and veterinarians often are unaware of some of the subtle sources of copper. Most of the copper that is added to swine and poultry feeds as growth promotants passes through the gastrointestinal tract unabsorbed and remains in the waste material. Pastures that have copper-containing waste material, but no molybdenum applied, can produce the same fatal results as giving sheep feed supplemented with copper but containing no molybdenum.

  5. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, O?uz; Ata?, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood. PMID:20808663

  6. Acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Gandia-Mailly, Peggy; Georges, Bernard; Galinier, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Ducassé, Jean Louis; Rougé, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Voluntary copper poisoning is a rare mode of suicide. We report a case of copper sulphate poisoning in a patient presenting delusions with mystic demands for purification. The initial gastrointestinal symptoms were followed by intravascular haemolysis and renal failure. The course was favourable after symptomatic treatment and specific copper chelation therapy. However, the pathogenesis is not fully understood and with the present state of knowledge, no one treatment can be said to be superior to another. The authors discuss the various treatments of this rare poisoning through a review of the available literature. PMID:18482790

  7. Copper ions as poison in the sea and in freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Steemann Nielsen; S. Wium-Andersen

    1970-01-01

    Copper in ionic form is found to be very poisonous for photosynthesis and growth of unicellular algae at concentrations of Cu usually found in natural waters. This indicates that Cu is ordinarily not present in ionic form but is complexed by organic matter such as polypeptides. The affinity of Cu to diethyl-dithiocarbaminate is very much higher than to the organic

  8. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning in the North of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariano E. Cebrian; Arnulfo Albores; Manuel Aguilar; Enrique Blakely

    1983-01-01

    1 We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations.2 The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg\\/l, and 0.007 mg\\/l in the control population.3 The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form.4 The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic

  9. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K OSullivan; M Taylor

    1983-01-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  10. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning and Respiratory Effects in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abul Hasnat MILTON; Ziul HASAN; Atiqur RAHMAN; Mahfuzar RAHMAN

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Chronic ,Arsenic Poisoning ,and Respiratory Effects in Bangladesh: Abul Hasnat MILTON, et al.Arsenic Cell, NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply & Sanitation, Bangladesh—A large population in Bangladesh ,have ,been ,exposed ,to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic through their drinking water. A prevalence comparison,study of respiratory disorders among,subjects with and without arsenic,exposure ,through ,drinking ,water ,was conducted in Bangladesh. Characteristic skin

  11. Role of pentose-phosphate pathway in haemolytic crisis of chronic copper toxicity of sheep.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R H; Todd, J R

    1976-05-01

    Although the rise in blood copper is associated with onset of the acute haemolytic crisis of chronic copper poisoning in sheep, the sudden fall in erythrocyte glutathione is apparently not due to a direct action of the copper. Moreover the reduced glutathione of the red cells is converted to some form that is not capable of regeneration by the pentose-phosphate mechanism. Only negligible inhibition of the pentose-phosphate enzymes occurs. As the haemolysis proceeds, there is a rapid recovery of erythrocyte glutathione levels, and a marked increase in pentose-phosphate enzyme activity, consistent with influx of young red cells. It seems that the release of copper into blood from liver at the haemolytic crisis is associated with an increase of the oxidative state of the blood, possibly by simultaneous release of other components from the liver. PMID:935660

  12. Acute and chronic poisoning from residential exposures to elemental mercury--Michigan, 1989-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-14

    From May 1989 through November 1990, eight episodes of elemental mercury exposure in private residences or schools in the United States were reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The case studies in this report document two of these episodes (both in Michigan) of residential mercury poisoning--one involving acute mercury exposure, and the other, chronic exposure to elemental mercury. These episodes illustrate the differing clinical and toxicologic manifestations of acute and chronic mercury poisoning.

  13. The effect of dietary supplements on chronic bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) poisoning in sheep 

    E-print Network

    Post, Lynn Omer

    1982-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS ON CHRONIC BITTERWEED (HYMENOXYS ODORATA) POISONING IN SHEEP A Thesis by LYNN OMER POST Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Veterinary Toxicology THE EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS ON CHRONIC BITTERWEED (HYMENOXYS ODORATA) POISONING IN SHEEP A Thesis by LYNN OMER POST Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi tee...

  14. Human health effects from chronic arsenic poisoning--a review.

    PubMed

    Kapaj, Simon; Peterson, Hans; Liber, Karsten; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2006-01-01

    The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 microg/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 microg/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5 microg/L. The reason for these regulatory changes is the realization that As can cause deleterious effects at lower concentrations than was previously thought. There is a strong relationship between chronic ingestion of As and deleterious human health effects and here we provide an overview of some of the major effects documented in the scientific literature. As regulatory levels of As have been decreased, an increasing number of water supplies will now require removal of As before the water can be used for human consumption. While As exposure can occur from food, air and water, all major chronic As poisonings have stemmed from water and this is usually the predominant exposure route. Exposure to As leads to an accumulation of As in tissues such as skin, hair and nails, resulting in various clinical symptoms such as hyperpigmentation and keratosis. There is also an increased risk of skin, internal organ, and lung cancers. Cardiovascular disease and neuropathy have also been linked to As consumption. Verbal IQ and long term memory can also be affected, and As can suppress hormone regulation and hormone mediated gene transcription. Increases in fetal loss and premature delivery, and decreased birth weights of infants, can occur even at low (<10 microg/L) exposure levels. Malnourished people have been shown to be more predisposed to As-related skin lesions. A large percentage of the population (30-40%) that is using As-contaminated drinking water can have elevated As levels in urine, hair and nails, while showing no noticeable clinical symptoms, such as skin lesions. It is therefore important to carry out clinical tests of As exposure. Factors combining to increase/decrease the ill effects of As include duration and magnitude of As exposure, source of As exposure, nutrition, age and general health status. Analytical determinations of As poisoning can be made by examining As levels in urine, hair and toenails. Communities and individuals relying on groundwater sources for drinking water need to measure As levels to ensure that their supplies are safe. Communities with water As levels greater than 5 microg/L should consider a program to document As levels in the population. PMID:17018421

  15. [Chronic CO poisoning. Use of generator gas during the second world war and recent research].

    PubMed

    Tvedt, B; Kjuus, H

    1997-06-30

    The consequences of long-lasting and low-grade exposure to carbon monoxide are a matter of debate. During the second world war, lack of petrol led to widespread use of wood as fuel (generator gas vehicles), especially in the Nordic countries. This caused many cases of "acute" or "chronic" carbon monoxide poisoning. Typical symptoms of "chronic poisoning" were headache, dizziness and tiredness. Usually the symptoms disappeared after some weeks or month, but in some patients probably became permanent. The experiences from the generator gas era are now almost forgotten, and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is easily overlooked. The authors describe two cases of such poisoning. A crane driver at a smelting works developed permanent symptoms after twenty years of exposure. A faulty oil-fired central heating system caused long-lasting symptoms in four members of a family. PMID:9265304

  16. Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-09-01

    EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

  17. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

  18. Ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of mice ovaries following experimentally induced copper poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, H; Roshangar, L; Sakhaee, E; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Dehghani, R

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element involved in normal reproduction but its overexposure may produce some detrimental effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of copper sulfate poisoning on morphometery of mice ovarian structures and probable intracellular changes. Methods Thirty mature female mice were randomly allocated to control and two treatment groups. In treatment groups, two different doses of copper sulfate including 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in 0.2 cc were applied once a day for 35 consecutive days by gavage. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar method. Animals from each experimental group were sacrificed 14 and 35 days after the beginning of drug administration and the left ovaries were removed for stereological evaluations by light microscopy and right ovaries were obtained for preparing electron microscopic sections. Results The morphometrical results showed that only the number of antral follicles was decreased by 100 mg/kg copper sulfate on day 14 compared to the control group (P=0.043). Hence, higher copper dose or longer consumption period significantly reduced different classes of follicles and corpora lutea. With 100 mg/kg copper sulfate some mild ultrastructural cell damages such as decrease of zona pellucida thickness, limited vacuolated areas and nuclear envelop dilation were seen on day 14. Higher or longer Cu administration produced more detrimental effects including more vacuolated areas, presence of secondary lysosomes, irregularity in cell shape and segmented nuclei with condensed and marginated chromatin and more enlarged and damaged mitochondria. Conclusion New evidences of early as well as late intracellular damages of copper has been presented by accurate stereological and ultrastructural methods. Antral follicles was the most susceptible cells with the lower and shorter copper consumption and long term or higher dose of copper affected the whole of ovarian structures. PMID:23115718

  19. Beryllium copper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, R C; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    We describe two newly confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease who presented to our clinic from a facility that only used 2% beryllium copper alloy. These cases illustrate that the 2% beryllium copper alloy continues to cause chronic beryllium disease and that appropriate preventive measures must be taken to control exposures and educate industries and their workers about the hazards of beryllium alloys. PMID:10224597

  20. Chronic manganese poisoning: A neuropathological study with determination of manganese distribution in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yamada; S. Ohno; I. Okayasu; R. Okeda; S. Hatakeyama; H. Watanabe; K. Ushio; H. Tsukagoshi

    1986-01-01

    An autopsy case of a 52-year-old man suffering from chronic manganese poisoning (CMP) is reported with determination of the manganese distribution in the brain. The patient had been working in a manganese ore crushing plant since 1965. In 1967 he began to complain of difficulties in walking and diminished libido. Later, he developed various neuro-psychiatric symptoms including euphoria, emotional incontinence,

  1. An overview of various mammalian models to study chronic copper intoxication associated Alzheimer's disease like pathology.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-02-01

    Chronic copper toxicity has been long known to cause hepatotoxicity and liver cirrhosis as observed in Wilson's disease; however, substantial evidence accrued over the time have shown considerable increase in animal studies demonstrating Alzheimer's disease like pathology due to chronic copper-intoxication under certain conditions. This review integrates the contemporary mammalian studies in which the effect of chronic copper intoxication was assessed on the central nervous system and cognition of animals. PMID:25307560

  2. Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    poisoning Summary (176 words): Key words : cadmium - poisoning - pneumonia - nephropathy - osteomalacia of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by IARC

  3. Decreased serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites among Chinese in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in inner Mongolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingbo Pi; Yoshito Kumagai; Guifan Sun; Hiroshi Yamauchi; Takahiko Yoshida; Hiroyasu Iso; Akiko Endo; Luyang Yu; Koichi Yuki; Takashi Miyauchi; Nobuhiro Shimojo

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to arsenic results in peripheral and cardiovascular manifestations, as does impaired production of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). In vitro studies have indicated that endothelial cells undergo damage by arsenic. However, no information has been available on the relationship between NO synthesis and chronic arsenic poisoning in humans. The present study was designed to reveal this question. The subjects

  4. The effect of dietary supplements on chronic bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) poisoning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Post, L O; Bailey, E M

    1992-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to establish a chronic bitterweed dose in sheep and to study the prevention of chronic bitterweed poisoning with dietary supplements of high protein (20% crude protein) and sodium sulfate. The first experiment consisted of 5 lambs in each of 3 groups. The low dose received up to 5.0 g bitterweed/kg/day which was equivalent to 10 mg hymenoxon/kg bw. The high dose group received a maximum bitterweed dose of 1 g/kg/day or 20 mg hymenoxon/kg. The final average weights of the low (29 kg) and the high (30 kg) dose groups were significantly different from the control (40 kg) group. The prophylactic experiment consisted of 5 groups of 4 sheep each. Each group received a different combination of bitterweed, a basal ration, soybean meal, urea, or sodium sulfate. The soybean meal and urea were used to adjust the ration to 20% crude protein, and each animal received 1.2 g bitterweed/kg/day. The high protein-sodium sulfate diet did not prevent chronic bitterweed toxicity, but soybean meal-sodium sulfate combination had the greatest effect on the reduction of bitterweed toxicity. Urea potentiated the toxic effects of bitterweed. PMID:1609486

  5. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based study on serum metabolomics in rats chronically poisoned with hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingjie; Zhang, Meiling; Huang, Xueli; Ma, Jianshe; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide poisoning is a common occupational hazard, whose mortality and incidence rates are first and second, respectively, among occupational poisoning incidents in China. The main target organs of its toxicity are in the central nervous system and respiratory system. However, there are currently no specific direct tests that can be used to diagnose poisoned patients. In this study, we developed a serum metabonomic method using orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to evaluate the effect of chronic poisoning by hydrogen sulfide in rats. The OPLS-DA data demonstrated that the model group (n = 60) differed significantly from the control group (n = 30), suggesting that the metabolic profiles of the two groups are markedly different. Alterations in the levels of some metabolites such as citrate, galactose, lactate, mannose, inositol, urea, phosphate, alanine and valine were detected by OPLS-DA analysis. We observed changes in metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and amino metabolism in the model group. Our results indicate that GC/MS-based metabonomic methods may provide novel detection means for chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning. PMID:25882152

  6. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, S Q; Wang, Q; Zheng, Y; Xiao, B; Sun, H W; Gu, X L; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C H; Dong, P X; Wang, X M

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05) by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01), and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01) in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05), and Glu/GABA, TNF-?, and IL-1? increased (P<0.01) with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA. PMID:25831201

  7. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Cui, S.Q.; Wang, Q.; Zheng, Y.; Xiao, B.; Sun, H.W.; Gu, X.L.; Zhang, Y.C.; Fu, C.H.; Dong, P.X.; Wang, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05) by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01), and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01) in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05), and Glu/GABA, TNF-?, and IL-1? increased (P<0.01) with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA. PMID:25831201

  8. Acute and chronic methyl mercury poisoning impairs rat adrenal and testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.V.; Meikle, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    Animals poisoned with methyl mercury (CH/sub 3/Hg) exhibit stress intolerance and decreased sexual activity, which suggest both adrenal and testicular dysfunction. Adrenal and testicular function was studied in male rats after treatment with CH/sub 3/Hg. In animals treated chronically, the adrenal glands were markedly hyperplastic with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. The mean basal serum levels of corticosterone were similar in experimental (17.8 ..mu..g/dl) and control (16.8 ..mu..g/dl) groups. However, with ether stress, experimental animals had a subnormal response, and the mean serum levels of corticosterone increased to only 23.9 ..mu../dl compared to 40.6 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. Exogenous ACTH stimulation produced a mean level of 19.0 ..mu..g/dl in the CH/sub 3/Hg-treated animals and 49.7 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. In vitro studies demonstrated a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. A profound impairment in swimming was partially reversed with glucocorticoid therapy. In animals treated with CH/sub 3/Hg, serum testosterone was lower than normal in the basal state. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased the mean serum concentration of testosterone to 23.4 ng/ml in controls, but it was only 4.50 ng/ml in experimental animals. The data indicate that CH/sub 3/Hg poisoning impairs adrenal and testicular steroid hormone secretion, which accounts in part for the diminished stress tolerance and decreased sexual activity observed in CH/sub 3/Hg-intoxicated animals.

  9. Copper metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic inflammatory and cholestatic liver diseases in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spee, Bart; Arends, Brigitte; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Penning, Louis C; Rothuizen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Inherited defects of copper metabolism resulting in hepatic copper accumulation and oxidative-stress might cause breed-associated forms of hepatitis. Biliary excretion is the major elimination route of copper, therefore increased hepatic copper concentrations could also be caused by cholestasis. The aim of this study was to find criteria to determine whether copper-accumulation is primary or occurs secondary to hepatitis. Liver samples of Bedlington Terriers with copper toxicosis (CT), breeds with non-copper-associated chronic extrahepatic cholestasis (EC) or chronic hepatitis (CH), and healthy dogs were used. Copper metabolism was analyzed by means of histochemical staining (copper concentration) and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) on copper excretion/storage (ATOX1, COX17, ATP7A, ATP7B, CP, MT1A, MURR1, XIAP). Oxidative stress was measured by determining GSH/GSSG ratios and gene-expression (SOD1, CAT, GSHS, GPX1, CCS, p27KIP, Bcl-2). Results revealed 5+ copper in CT, but no or 1-2+ copper in EC and CH. Most gene products for copper metabolism remained at concentrations similar to healthy dogs. Three clear exceptions were observed in CT: 3-fold mRNA increase of ATP7A and XIAP and complete absence of MURRI. The only quantitative differences between the diseased and the control groups were in oxidative stress, evidenced by reductions in all GSH/GSSG ratios. We conclude that 3+ or higher histochemical detection of copper indicates a primary copper storage disease. The expression profile of copper-associated genes can be used as a reference for future studies on copper-associated diseases. All 3 diseases have reduced protection against oxidative stress, opening a rationale to use antioxidants as possible therapy. PMID:17063700

  10. Chronic arsenic poisoning in drinking water in Inner Mongolia and its associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan X; Hu, Lin; Yand, Peng Z; Tanabe, Kimiko; Miyatalre, Munetoshi; Chen, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Since 1990, a large number of people have been experiencing various health problems from drinking arsenic contaminated water (50-1860 microg/L) in 13 counties of Inner Mongolia, China, most of which are located in the Hetao Plain area. It is calculated that 411,243 people are currently at risk from arsenic poisoning. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were carried out on 13,021 people to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. In all of the studied patients, 22% had typical hyperkeratosis on the palms or soles and some had raindrop-like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation on the trunk. Other data recorded included subjective and objective symptoms, such as chronic cough (35.0%) and insomnia (37.5%). During physical checkups of 680 villagers in arsenic affected areas, liver function tests showed elevated globulin levels in 6.8% (P value=0.006) of the subjects. Neurotoxicity manifesting as loss of hearing 5.88 (P value=0.005), loss of taste 5.44% (P value=0.001), blurred vision 17.35% (P value=0.000), tingling and numbness of the limbs 33.53% (P value=0.000) and hypertension 8.09% (P value=0.000) were significantly higher in the arsenic affected villages and arsenic pollution also seemed to affect patients' social life and mental health. To solve the problem of arsenic exposure, the quality of drinking water needs to be improved by reducing the arsenic content. We also plan to carry out a survey to detect the incidence and types of cancer among this population. PMID:17952786

  11. Chronic manganese poisoning: a neuropathological study with determination of manganese distribution in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Ohno, S; Okayasu, I; Okeda, R; Hatakeyama, S; Watanabe, H; Ushio, K; Tsukagoshi, H

    1986-01-01

    An autopsy case of a 52-year-old man suffering from chronic manganese poisoning (CMP) is reported with determination of the manganese distribution in the brain. The patient had been working in a manganese ore crushing plant since 1965. In 1967 he began to complain of difficulties in walking and diminished libido. Later, he developed various neuropsychiatric symptoms including euphoria, emotional incontinence, masked face, monotonous speech, "cock-walk", increased muscle tone, weakness of upper and lower extremities, tremor of the eye lids, and exaggeration of knee jerks. The major neuropathological change was degeneration of the basal ganglia, in which the pallidum was severely affected. The pallidum disclosed a loss and degeneration of nerve cells, which was especially marked in the medial segment, a prominent decrease of myelinated fibers, and moderate astrocytic proliferation. The substantia nigra was intact. Distribution of manganese in the brain of the present case of CMP was determined using flameless atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with control cases and also a case of Parkinson's disease (PD). There was no significant difference between the control cases and the case of PD in average concentration of manganese and its distribution in the brain. The present case of CMP showed no elevation in average concentration of manganese in the brain. However, there were some changes in its distribution. Thus, the continuance of neurological disorders in CMP is not linked to an elevated manganese concentration itself in the brain. CMP appears to be different from PD in neuropathology and manganese behavior in brain. PMID:3766127

  12. CHRONIC EFFECT OF COPPER ON THE BLUNTNOSE MINNOW, 'PIMEPHALES NOTATUS' (RAFINESQUE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory chronic toxicity test in which bluntnose minnows were exposed to copper in laboratory dilution water with a hardness of 200 mg/L as CaCO3 indicated that copper adversely affected fry survival, fry growth, and reproduction. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

  13. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  14. Changes in serum copper level during detoxification of acutely poisoned drug addicts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Piekoszewski; Janusz Pach; Krystyna Sadlik; Lidia Winnik

    2000-01-01

    Although it is known that drug addicts are a high-risk group for disruption of many homeostatic processes, little is know\\u000a about changes in serum trace elements concentrations after taking the psychoactive substances. The aim of the study was to\\u000a check the influence of the taking homemade heroin on serum level of copper. Blood samples were taken from 30 opiate addicts,

  15. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW IN A SURFACE WATER OF VARIABLE QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted with the fathead minnow and copper used as the source of dilution water a natural stream to which a sewage treatment plant upstream contributed a variety of materials known to affect acute copper toxicity. Nominal total copper 96-h media...

  16. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC COPPER EXPOSURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL IN THE SOUTHERN LEOPARD FROG (LITHOBATES [RANA] SPHENOCEPHALUS)

    E-print Network

    Georgia, University of

    EFFECTS OF CHRONIC COPPER EXPOSURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL IN THE SOUTHERN LEOPARD FROG, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu;31:1587­1594. # 2012 SETAC Keywords--Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus Copper Amphibian Ecotoxicology Metal toxicity

  17. An ultrastructural study of the kidney of normal, copper poisoned and thiomolybdate-treated sheep.

    PubMed

    Gooneratne, S R; Howell, J M; Aughey, E

    1986-11-01

    Histological, ultrastructural and kidney function techniques were used to assess changes in the kidney of sheep given either copper (Cu) or Cu and the Cu complexing agent thiomolybdate (TM), or TM alone. Kidney function was normal in sheep given Cu and TM together or TM alone. In these animals the cells lining cortical tubules accumulated Cu within numerous, large, electron-dense lysosomes. Sheep given Cu alone developed haemolysis, impaired kidney function and a variety of morphological defects including an increase in number of large lysosomes in cells of the cortical tubules. There was a breakdown of the glomerular endothelial lining and fusion of foot processes. Cells of the cortical tubules showed degeneration and necrosis and an increase in microbodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cortical and medullary blood vessels were dilated, with evidence of breakdown of the endothelial lining. Copper appeared to injure kidney tissue at three sites, tubular epithelium, glomerular basal lamina and capillary blood vessels. Changes reported here are similar to the renal lesions in cadmium toxicity. PMID:3819041

  18. Mortality, bioaccumulation and physiological responses in juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) chronically exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Marianna B; Loro, Vania L; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M; Gillis, Patricia L

    2013-01-15

    Several studies have indicated that the early life stages of freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to inorganic chemicals, including copper. However, little is known about the toxic mode of action and sub-lethal effects of copper exposure in this group of imperiled animals. In this study, the physiological effects of long-term copper exposure (survival, growth, copper bioaccumulation, whole-body ion content, oxygen consumption, filtration rate, ATPase activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) were evaluated in juvenile (6 month old) mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The mussels' recovery capacity and their ability to withstand further acute copper challenge were also evaluated in secondary experiments following the 28 day exposure by assessing survival, copper bioaccumulation and whole-body ion content. Mussels chronically exposed to 2 and 12 ?g Cu/L showed significantly higher mortality than those held under control conditions (mortality 20.9, 69.9 and 12.5%, respectively), indicating that juvenile L. siliquoidea is underprotected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) biotic ligand model (BLM)-derived chronic water quality criteria (WQC) (2.18 ?g Cu/L) and the hardness-derived USEPA WQC (12.16 ?g Cu/L). Soft tissue copper burden increased equally for both copper exposures, suggesting that chronic toxicity is not associated with copper bioaccumulation. Several physiological disturbances were also observed during chronic copper exposure. Most relevant was a decrease in whole-body sodium content paralleled by an inhibition of Na(+) K(+)-ATPase activity, indicating a metal-induced ionoregulatory disturbance. Filtration and oxygen consumption rates were also affected. Redox parameters (reactive oxygen production, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and glutathione (GSH) concentration) did not show clear responses, but membrane damage as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in both copper exposures. Mussels previously held in control conditions or pre-exposed to 2 ?g dissolved Cu/L were able to maintain their ionic homeostasis and did not experience mortality after the 4-d recovery period. In contrast, those previously exposed to 12 ?g dissolved Cu/L exhibited 50% mortality indicating that they had already reached a 'point of no return'. Pre-exposure to copper did not influence mussel response to the copper challenge test. As observed for the chronic exposure, mortality of mussels held in the absence of copper and submitted to the challenge test was also associated with an ionoregulatory disturbance. These results indicate that ionoregulatory disruption in freshwater mussels chronically exposed to copper is the main mechanism of toxicity and that redox parameters do not appear to be useful as indicators of sub-lethal copper toxicity in these animals. PMID:23183413

  19. Contaminant Sensitivity of Freshwater Mussels CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER AND AMMONIA TO JUVENILE FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NING WANG; CHRISTOPHER G. INGERSOLL; I. EUGENE GREER; DOUGLAS K. HARDESTY; CHRISTOPHER D. IVEY; JAMES L. KUNZ; WILLIAM G. BRUMBAUGH; F. JAMES DWYER; ANDY D. ROBERTS; TOM AUGSPURGER; CYNTHIA M. KANE; RICHARD J. NEVES; M. CHRIS BARNHART

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for

  20. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER AND AMMONIA TO JUVENILE FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Wang; Christopher G. Ingersoll; I. Eugene Greer; Douglas K. Hardesty; Christopher D. Ivey; James L. Kunz; William G. Brumbaugh; F. James Dwyer; Andy D. Roberts; Tom Augspurger; Cynthia M. Kane; Richard J. Neves; M. Chris Barnhart

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—The objectives of the present study were to develop,methods,for conducting,chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine,the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia,to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea, were fed various live algae or nonviable,algal mixture,for 28 d. The algal mixture,was,the best food resulting in high survival (90%)

  1. Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

    1987-10-01

    Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

  2. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-07-24

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

  3. Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (???90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 ??g Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 ??g Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 ??g/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20??C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  4. Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Greer, I Eugene; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; Brumbaugh, William G; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (>or=90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 microg Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 microg Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 microg/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20 degrees C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. PMID:17867874

  5. Poisonous Plant Management. 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    inflammation, swelling and sloughing of the skin. In contrast, chronic poisoning from perennial broomweed is less obvious with the only symptom often being abortion. It is difficult to differentiate this symptom from problems arising from improper... :nay .b.e benefici~1. For example, Senecio poisoning is Identified many times by observing a hard, yellow liver in affected animals. Nitrate poisoning is often identified by chocolate-brown colored blood present for 2 to 4 hours after death_ After...

  6. Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper exposure 1 This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper exposure 1 2 3 4 5 This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after trajectories of coppercontaminated biofilms after reducing copper stress and with or without the possibility

  7. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area. PMID:11836136

  8. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

  9. Subchronic and chronic developmental effects of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nations, Shawna; Long, Monique; Wages, Mike; Maul, Jonathan D; Theodorakis, Christopher W; Cobb, George P

    2015-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles, such as copper oxide (CuO), are mass produced for use in a variety of products like coatings and ceramics. Acute exposure to CuO nanoparticles has caused toxicity to many aquatic organisms, yet there is no information on the effect of prolonged CuO nanomaterial exposures. This study examined effects of chronic exposure to CuO nanoparticles on Xenopus laevis growth and development. Experiments included a 14d subchronic exposure and a 47d chronic exposure throughout metamorphosis. The subchronic exposure caused mortality in all tested CuO concentrations, and significant growth effects occurred after exposure to 2.5mgL(-1) CuO. Chronic exposure to 0.3mgL(-1) CuO elicited significant mortality and affected the rate of metamorphosis. Exposure to lower concentrations of CuO stimulated metamorphosis and growth, indicating that low dose exposure can have hormetic effects. PMID:25950410

  10. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Poison Ivy Overview What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a very common plant found in most parts of the United States. ... This is because most people are allergic to poison ivy. Symptoms What does a poison ivy rash ...

  11. [Chronic Beryllium disease after exposure to low-beryllium-content copper].

    PubMed

    Hasejima, N; Kobayashi, H; Takezawa, S; Yamato, K; Kadoyama, C; Kawano, Y

    1995-10-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of exertional dyspnea and abnormal shadows on chest X-ray film. He worked in a factory, where he was exposed to 1.8% beryllium-copper alloys. His job was to draw out heated beryllium-copper wire to make it more fine. Chest X-ray film and chest CT scan showed left-sided pneumothorax, diffuse fine reticulonodular shadows, and several cysts. Pulmonary-function tests showed a restrictive disorder and a low diffusing capacity. A specimen obtained by open-lung biopsy showed epithelioid cell granuloma and alveolitis, which were compatible with chronic beryllium disease. The beryllium content of the lung tissue was 0.045 microgram/gram. Beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests on blood and on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. Based on these findings, chronic beryllium disease was diagnosed. After treatment with 1 mg/kg of prednisolone daily, dyspnea disappeared. Then the dose was tapered slowly. In Japan, chronic beryllium disease is extremely rare, and to our knowledge only 22 other cases have been reported. PMID:8544383

  12. Chronic pesticide poisoning from persistent low-dose exposures in Ecuadorean floriculture workers: toward validating a low-cost test battery.

    PubMed

    Breilh, Jaime; Pagliccia, Nino; Yassi, Annalee

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pesticide poisoning is difficult to detect. We sought to develop a low-cost test battery for settings such as Ecuador's floriculture industry. First we had to develop a case definition; as with all occupational diseases a case had to have both sufficient effective dose and associated health effects. For the former, using canonical discriminant analysis, we found that adding measures of protection and overall environmental stressors to occupational category and duration of exposure was useful. For the latter, factor analysis suggested three distinct manifestations of pesticide poisoning. We then determined sensitivity and specificity of various combinations of symptoms and simple neurotoxicity tests from the Pentox questionnaire, and found that doing so increased sensitivity and specificity compared to use of acethylcholinesterase alone--the current screening standard. While sensitivity and specificity varied with different case definitions, our results support the development of a low-cost test battery for screening in such settings. PMID:22550693

  13. [Neurological symptoms in poisoning].

    PubMed

    Neu, I

    1980-10-01

    Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

  14. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  15. Lethal and sublethal measures of chronic copper toxicity in the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E; Kuhne, Wendy; Soteropoulos, Diana; Lance, Stacey L

    2015-03-01

    Many metals are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms at high concentrations and for some metals, such as copper (Cu), even low-level chronic contamination may be cause for conservation concern. Amphibian susceptibility to Cu has been examined in only a few species, and susceptibility is highly variable. The lethal and sublethal effects were examined of chronic aqueous Cu exposure on embryonic and larval eastern narrowmouth toads, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Copper levels as low as 10??g Cu/L reduced embryonic and larval survival. Embryonic survivorship varied within- and between-source populations, with embryos derived from uncontaminated-wetland parents having greater survival at lower Cu levels than embryos from parents from a metal-contaminated constructed wetland. At 30??g/L, embryos from the contaminated site had greater survival. Overall survival from oviposition to metamorphosis was 68.9% at 0??g/L and 5.4% at 10??g/L. Similarly, embryos exposed to ?50??g/L demonstrated developmental delays in transition from embryo to free-swimming larva. These results demonstrate a negative population-specific response to environmentally relevant levels of Cu. PMID:25475581

  16. Mushroom Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Food Poisoning | Mushroom Poisoning Is it possible to tell if a wild mushroom is poisonous? You can't tell for sure if a ... watch the person for any symptoms of mushroom poisoning for the next 24 hours. Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff ... Reviewed/Updated: 04/14 Created: 09/00

  17. Marked tachypnea in siblings with chronic beryllium disease due to copper-beryllium alloy.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M; Rhee, K; Powell, E; Amer, E; Newman, L; Liss, G; Jones, N

    2001-02-01

    Two biological sisters working at the same factory for > 9 years developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD) from a copper-beryllium alloy. Both had marked tachypnea (36 breaths/min and 45 breaths/min at rest, respectively), persisting over 8 years. Ventilation during exercise (assessed in one sibling) was grossly excessive (57 L/min, expected 23 L/min) with a respiratory rate of 64 breaths/min even with normal baseline routine pulmonary function tests. Blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation test and lung biopsies confirmed the diagnosis. No other cases of CBD have been reported from this plant among about 120 workers. These cases support the genetic basis for berylliosis and illustrate the marked tachypnea that may accompany this disease. PMID:11171753

  18. Insecticide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should ... emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222. See ...

  19. Chronic phase lipids in sera of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP), hepatitis B, and cancer with antigenic epitope resembling ciguatoxin, as assessed with MAb-CTX.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Y; Uto, G A; Palafox, N A; Enlander, D; Jordan, E; Cocchetto, A

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports and descriptions of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP) show great similarities in clinical symptomology. These similarities in the literature suggested the exploration of lipids in sera of CFS, CCFP, and other diseases with the membrane immunobead assay (MIA), which is typically used for screening ciguateric ocean fish. Sera from patients with other diseases, including hepatitis B, cancer, and diabetes, were included to assess the degree of specificity involved. Sera were treated with acetone in a ratio of 1 part serum to 4 parts acetone. The suspension was centrifuged, and the acetone layer was evaporated. The residue was weighed and redissolved in 1.0 mL methanol and tested by the MIA, undiluted and titered to 1:160. The undiluted acetone fraction of the 37 normal showed +/- activity to +activity with 16 no titer, 15 with 1:5 titer and two with 1:10 titer, and four with > or =1:40 titers. One hundred fifteen CFS sera showed 1 with 1+ and 114 with 2+ activity in the undiluted samples, 1 with 1:10 titer, 3 with 1:20 titer, 31 with 1:40 titer, 50 with 1:80 titer, and 30 with 160 titer. Thus 95.6% of the samples had > or =1:40 titer. Eight hepatitis B sera samples had > or =1:40 titers. Four CCFP samples had > or =1:40 titers. Three of 16 cancer samples had 1:40 titer. These data are summarized in Fig. 1. As shown in Table 1, a significant increase (P<0.001) in the chronic phase lipids (CPLs) was shown relative to the normal group. A preliminary chemical study in C18 octadecylsilyl columns showed all fractions (100% chloroform, 9:1 chloroform : methanol, 1:1 chloroform : methanol, and 100% methanol) to contain lipids reactive to MAb-CTX with different intensities. Prostaglandins were shown in 100% methanol fraction. Competitive MIA with crude fish ciguatoxin and CFS with synthetic JKLM ciguatoxin epitope suggested similarities in structure with ciguatoxin. This was compatible with the neuroblastoma assay demonstrated in the C(18) column fractions 9:1 and 1:1, chloroform : methanol solvents. PMID:12784262

  20. Molecular Structure of Copper

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-04-10

    Man has known of copper since antiquity. Copper is known for its unique reddish hue, its good electrical and thermal conductivity, and widespread abundance. It is malleable and extremely ductile. Copper melts at 1357 degrees kelvin and boils at 2840 degrees kelvin. Copper crystals are commonly found in cubic and dodecahedral forms. Copper is widely used in wiring and electronics. Two important alloys of copper are brass and bronze. Also, all American coins are now made of copper alloys. Humans require trace amounts of copper; larger doses result in poisoning.

  1. Variations in the intralobular distribution of copper in the livers of copper-loaded rats in relation to the pathogenesis of copper storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, I; Haywood, S; Trafford, J

    1989-01-01

    There are differences in the hepatic intralobular distribution of copper in copper storage related diseases which may be of pathogenetic significance. Male rats fed a high copper diet (1500 ppm) for 16 weeks were killed at intervals in an attempt to compare copper distribution in their livers with those in human, canine and ovine copper toxicosis. Copper was found to accumulate almost exclusively in the periportal and mid-zones of the rat liver lobules and was associated with progressive pathological changes which included focal and periportal degeneration and necrosis. This pattern of copper distribution contrasts markedly with the centrilobular retention reported in familial canine copper toxicosis and chronic copper poisoning in sheep which suggests that, in these conditions, a secretory deficiency may be less important than a metabolic zonal defect of intracellular copper metabolism. The pathological changes observed in copper-loaded rats have a different micro-anatomical localization from those in dogs and sheep, but show similarities to the early changes reported in the latter species and indicate the possibility of a similar cellular lesion. PMID:2918104

  2. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

  3. COMMD1-Deficient Dogs Accumulate Copper in Hepatocytes and Provide a Good Model for Chronic Hepatitis and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Robert P.; Spee, Bart; Schotanus, Baukje A.; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Fieten, Hille; Brinkhof, Bas; Viebahn, Cornelia S.; Penning, Louis C.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    New therapeutic concepts developed in rodent models should ideally be evaluated in large animal models prior to human clinical application. COMMD1-deficiency in dogs leads to hepatic copper accumulation and chronic hepatitis representing a Wilson’s disease like phenotype. Detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and time course of this animal model is required to test its feasibility as a large animal model for chronic hepatitis. In addition to mouse models, true longitudinal studies are possible due to the size of these dogs permitting detailed analysis of the sequence of events from initial insult to final cirrhosis. Therefore, liver biopsies were taken each half year from five new born COMMD1-deficient dogs over a period of 42 months. Biopsies were used for H&E, reticulin, and rubeanic acid (copper) staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker (alpha-smooth muscle actin, ?-SMA), proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (caspase-3), and bile duct and liver progenitor cell (LPC) markers keratin (K) 19 and 7. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blots were performed on gene products involved in the regenerative and fibrotic pathways. Maximum copper accumulation was reached at 12 months of age, which coincided with the first signs of hepatitis. HSCs were activated (?-SMA) from 18 months onwards, with increasing reticulin deposition and hepatocytic proliferation in later stages. Hepatitis and caspase-3 activity (first noticed at 18 months) increased over time. Both HGF and TGF-?1 gene expression peaked at 24 months, and thereafter decreased gradually. Both STAT3 and c-MET showed an increased time-dependent activation. Smad2/3 phosphorylation, indicative for fibrogenesis, was present at all time-points. COMMD1-deficient dogs develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis comparable to human chronic hepatitis, although at much higher pace. Therefore they represent a genetically-defined large animal model to test clinical applicability of new therapeutics developed in rodent models. PMID:22879914

  4. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (?68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  5. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

  6. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

  7. Neurological abnormalities in chronic benzene poisoning. A study of six patients with aplastic anemia and two with preleukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Baslo, A.; Aksoy, M.

    1982-04-01

    Neurological, electromyographical and motor conduction velocity examinations were applied to 6 patients with aplastic anemia and two cases of preleukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene. In addition, sensory conduction velocities were measured in three patients. Neurological abnormalities were found in four out of six pancytopenic individuals. There was a certain relationship between the presence of neurological abnormalities and the period of cessation of the exposure. In the two patients with preleukemia similar neurologic abnormalities were found.

  8. Plant-derived human acetylcholinesterase-R provides protection from lethal organophosphate poisoning and its chronic aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Evron, Tama; Geyer, Brian C.; Cherni, Irene; Muralidharan, Mrinalini; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Fletcher, Samuel P.; Soreq, Hermona; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutically valuable proteins are often rare and/or unstable in their natural context, calling for production solutions in heterologous systems. A relevant example is that of the stress-induced, normally rare, and naturally unstable “read-through” human acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R. AChE-R shares its active site with the synaptic AChE-S variant, which is the target of poisonous organophosphate anticholinesterase insecticides such as the parathion metabolite paraoxon. Inherent AChE-R overproduction under organophosphate intoxication confers both short-term protection (as a bioscavenger) and long-term neuromuscular damages (as a regulator). Here we report the purification, characterization, and testing of human, endoplasmic reticulum-retained AChE-RER produced from plant-optimized cDNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. AChE-RER purified to homogeneity showed indistinguishable biochemical properties, with IC50 = 10?7 M for the organophosphate paraoxon, similar to mammalian cell culture-derived AChE. In vivo titration showed dose-dependent protection by intravenously injected AChE-RER of FVB/N male mice challenged with a lethal dose of paraoxon, with complete elimination of short-term clinical symptoms at near molar equivalence. By 10 days postexposure, AChE-R prophylaxis markedly limited postexposure increases in plasma murine AChE-R levels while minimizing the organophosphate-induced neuromuscular junction dismorphology. Our findings present plant-produced AChE-RER as a bi-modal agent, conferring both short- and long-term protection from organophosphate intoxication. PMID:17475919

  9. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... insecticide, a product used to kill or control bugs. Poisoning may occur if you swallow malathion, handle ... tearing Small or dilated pupils (not reactive to light) Heart and blood Low or high blood pressure ...

  10. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... insecticide, a product used to kill or control bugs. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this product. ... ears, nose, and throat Small pupils (unreactive to light) Tearing, increased Heart and blood circulation Low or ...

  11. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used on the inside and outside of ... surface. In 1977, federal regulations banned lead from paint for general use. But homes built before 1977 ...

  12. Genetic polymorphisms in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH and risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Fen; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Gu Shouyong [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Weiwei [Guangzhou Hospital for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jin Xipeng [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xia Zhaolin [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zlxia@shmu.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    Oxidative damage to DNA induced by benzene is an important mechanism of its genotoxicity, which leads to chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Therefore, genetic variation in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to CBP in the exposed population. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH genes are associated with risk of CBP. We genotyped SNPs at codon 83 of hMTH1, codon 326 of hOGG1, and codon 324 of hMYH in 152 CBP patients and 152 healthy workers occupationally exposed to benzene without poisoning manifestations. The genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restrained fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. There were 2.51-fold [adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}), 2.51; 95% CI, 1.14-5.49; P = 0.02] and 2.49-fold (OR{sub adj}, 2.49; 95% CI: 1.52-4.07; P < 0.01) increased risk of CBP for individuals carrying genotypes of hMTH1 83Val/Met + Met/Met and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys, respectively. Compared with individuals carrying genotypes of hOGG1 326Cys/Cys and hMYH 324His/His at the same time, there was a 0.33-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15-0.72; P < 0.05) decreased risk of CBP for those with genotypes of hOGG1 326Ser/Cys + Ser/Ser and hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln. In the smoking group, there was a 0.15-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.68; P = 0.01) decreased risk of CBP for subjects carrying genotypes of hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln compared with those of genotype of hMYH 324His/His. Therefore, our results suggested that polymorphisms at codons 83 of hMTH1 and codon 326 of hOGG1 might contribute to CBP in a Chinese occupational population.

  13. Chronic toxicity of copper to a partial life cycle of the midge, Chironomus decorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prapimpan Kosalwat; Allen W. Knight

    1987-01-01

    The development and hatchability ofChironomus decorus eggs were not affected by 0.1 to 5 mg\\/L of copper in water. The embryos developed normally and hatched at about the same time (after 55 hr of incubation). All larvae survived the duration of the test (72 hr) except those subjected to 5 mg\\/L of copper in water, which died after only partial

  14. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur ...

  15. Comparison of the lethality of lead and copper bullets in deer control operations to reduce incidental lead poisoning; field trials in England and Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Knott; Jo Gilbert; Rhys E. Green; David G. Hoccom

    SUMMARY Legislative controls on the use of lead gunshot ove r wetland areas have been introduced in many countries, including the UK, in order to reduce lea d poisoning in waterfowl following ingestion of spent shot. Effective alternatives to lead shot are widely available. However, there is evidence that the problem also affects wildlife in terrestrial ecosys tems and that

  16. Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

  17. The nation's first poison control center: taking a stand against accidental childhood poisoning in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Burda, A M; Burda, N M

    1997-04-01

    Prior to the 1950's, there existed no formal system for poison prevention or treatment in the US. Estimates place the number of pediatric poisoning fatalities at over 400/y at that time. After World War II, urbanization and modern technological methods brought forth over 250,000 different brand name products on the market. Health care professionals presented with cases of acute poisoning usually had little knowledge of what ingredients were contained in these new products, making it difficult to treat these patients. In the 1930's, pharmacist Louis Gdalman established a poison information service at St Luke's hospital. Because of Gdalman's training in pharmacy and chemistry, physicians throughout Chicago and the US called on him in search of assistance. In the late 1940's, Gdalman began recording information on small cards, and developed a standard data collection from. By the 1950's he had established an extensive library on the management of acute and chronic poisonings. In 1948, a national effort to reduce the number of accidents in children was started by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and a committee was formed in Chicago to address this public safety need. In November, 1953, the poison center at Presbyterian-St Luke's Hospital was formally recognized, and the poison program model spread nationwide. As the number of poison centers grew, coordination was achieved through the National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, founded in 1957, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers, created in 1958. By 1970, the number of poison centers in the US was reported to be 597. The need for large and better centers led to regional poison control centers. Other outgrowths were the formation of the National Poison Prevention Week Council, the enactment of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, development of "Mr. Yuk" and other symbols, and formation of the National Animal Poison Control Center. As a result, the number of children dying from accidental poisoning has dropped to under 50/y. PMID:9080638

  18. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments M - P Poison ivy Poison ivy, oak, and sumac Rash from poison ivy. ... to an emergency room immediately. Learn more about poison ivy: Poison ivy: Signs and symptoms Poison ivy: ...

  19. Poisonous Contacts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center; )

    2010-04-09

    In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

  20. Scientific Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chemist

    1876-01-01

    FOR giving instruction to one person in the art of poisoning without detection, the medical student, Vance, is undergoing the very lenient punishment of eighteen months' imprisonment. What would be the appropriate penalty to inflict upon the responsible editors of newspapers who initiate the public generally into Vance's secret?

  1. Selenium Poisoning in Livestock: A Review and Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. James; K. E. Panter; H. F. Mayland; M. R. Miller; Dale C. Baker

    Selenium in certain soils may be taken up by plants in amounts to render them toxic. Seleniferous forage can be found in most of the western states. Intoxication of livestock by seleniferous plants has been classified as acute and chronic. Acute poisoning results from consumption of plants having high levels of Se; chronic Se poisoning has been described in two

  2. Comparison of the capacity of two biotic ligand models to predict chronic copper toxicity to two Daphnia magna clones and formulation of a generalized bioavailability model.

    PubMed

    Van Regenmortel, Tina; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-07-01

    Although it is increasingly recognized that biotic ligand models (BLMs) are valuable in the risk assessment of metals in aquatic systems, the use of 2 differently structured and parameterized BLMs (1 in the United States and another in the European Union) to obtain bioavailability-based chronic water quality criteria for copper is worthy of further investigation. In the present study, the authors evaluated the predictive capacity of these 2 BLMs for a large dataset of chronic copper toxicity data with 2 Daphnia magna clones, termed K6 and ARO. One BLM performed best with clone K6 data, whereas the other performed best with clone ARO data. In addition, there was an important difference between the 2 BLMs in how they predicted the bioavailability of copper as a function of pH. These modeling results suggested that the effect of pH on chronic copper toxicity is different between the 2 clones considered, which was confirmed with additional chronic toxicity experiments. Finally, because fundamental differences in model structure between the 2 BLMs made it impossible to create an average BLM, a generalized bioavailability model (gBAM) was developed. Of the 3 gBAMs developed, the authors recommend the use of model gBAM-Cuni , which combines a log-linear relation between the 21-d median effective concentration (expressed as free Cu(2+) ion activity) and pH, with more conventional BLM-type competition constants for sodium, calcium, and magnesium. This model can be considered a first step in further improving the accuracy of chronic toxicity predictions of copper as a function of water chemistry (for a variety of Daphnia magna clones), even beyond the robustness of the current BLMs used in regulatory applications. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1597-1608. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25771778

  3. Overview of Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on information gleaned from the poisoned person and bystanders, and sometimes on blood and urine tests. Drugs ... priority in helping a poisoned person is for bystanders not to become poisoned themselves. People exposed to ...

  4. CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING

    E-print Network

    CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING Marine Biological I · ·' iw« L I B R >*· ** Y JUL 3 -1350 WOODS POISONING By William Arcisz, Bacteriologist, Formerly with the Fishery Research Laboratory Branch in which Fish Poisoning is Prevalento........... 3 Symptoms of Ciguatera ...... 00

  5. Influence of Copper, Iron, Zinc and Fe 3 + Haemoglobin Levels on the Etiopathogenesis of Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis—A Study in Patients with Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetha Arumugam; Monika Padmanaban; Dhanya Krishnan; Saranya Panneerselvam; Surendran Rajagopal

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a serious condition associated with severe abdominal pain, and a significant percentage of patients\\u000a progresses to irreversible calcification in pancreas. The present study evaluates the degree to which the levels of trace\\u000a elements, copper, iron, selenium, zinc and haemoglobin-Fe3+, in blood, serum and pancreas have any role to play in the calcification process associated with fibrosis in

  6. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  7. Chronic treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide protects against cardiovascular defects of copper deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, J.T. (Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Published reports indicate that Cu deficiency reduces antioxidant defenses and may result in tissue peroxidation. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a highly penetrant antiinflammatory agent and purported hydroxyl radical scavenger, was chronically fed to male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats which were either supplemented with or deficient in Cu. DMSO was found to inhibit the cardiac hypertrophy, anemia and depression of heart Cu concentration which occurs with Cu deficiency. This suggests that the hydroxyl free radical may contribute to the cardiovascular defects caused by dietary Cu deficiency.

  8. Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youchun; Reynolds, Corey; Xiao, Chang; Feng, Wenke; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Rodriguez, Walter; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Eaton, John W.; Saari, Jack T.; Kang, Y. James

    2007-01-01

    Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses preestablished hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by pressure overload induced by ascending aortic constriction in a mouse model. The reversal occurs in the continued presence of pressure overload. Sustained pressure overload leads to decreases in cardiac Cu and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels along with suppression of myocardial angiogenesis. Cu supplementation replenishes cardiac Cu, increases VEGF, and promotes angiogenesis. Systemic administration of anti-VEGF antibody blunts Cu regression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In cultured human cardiomyocytes, Cu chelation blocks insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1– or Cu-stimulated VEGF expression, which is relieved by addition of excess Cu. Both IGF-1 and Cu activate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and HIF-1? gene silencing blocks IGF-1– or Cu-stimulated VEGF expression. HIF-1? coimmunoprecipitates with a Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1 (CCS), and gene silencing of CCS, but not superoxide dismutase-1, prevents IGF-1– or Cu-induced HIF-1? activation and VEGF expression. Therefore, dietary Cu supplementation improves the condition of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at least in part through CCS-mediated HIF-1? activation of VEGF expression and angiogenesis. PMID:17339407

  9. Poison Help Line

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This Web site tells you about poisons, poison safety and prevention, and when to contact your poison center. ... Fund poison centers serving all states, Puerto Rico, District of Columbia, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, and American Samoa. Establish and maintain a single, national ...

  10. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:25540555

  11. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  12. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  13. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-06-01

    Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed. PMID:26069169

  14. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from this study were used to evaluate the sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon and rainbow trout relative to data published for other test organisms. Toxicity data generated from this study also were used to evaluate the level of protection of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WQC or Washington State water-quality standards (WQS) for copper, zinc, cadmium, or lead to white sturgeon inhabiting the upper Columbia River. Chapter A of this report summarizes the results of acute toxicity tests performed for 4 d with white sturgeon and rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, or zinc. Chapter B of this report summarizes the results of chronic toxicity tests performed for as many as 53 days with white sturgeon or rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, zinc, or lead. Appendixes to the report are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5204. Supporting documentation for chapter A toxicity testing is provided in appendix 1. Supporting documentation for chapter B toxicity testing is provided in Appendix 2. Supporting documentation on analysis of water chemistry for chapter A and chapter B is provided in appendix 3 and 4. The rationale for applying corrections to measured copper and zinc values in water samples from some of the toxicity tests performed in chapter A is provided in appendix 5. A summary of dissolved organic carbon measurement variability and implications for biotic ligand model normalization for toxicity data summarized in chapter A and chapter B are provided in appendix 6. An evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison of analyses for dissolved organic carbon in water from the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center and University of Saskatchewan is provided in appendix 7. Finally, appendix 8 provides a summary of retesting of white sturgeon in 2012 to determine if improved survival of sturgeon would affect copper effect concentrations in 24-d copper exposures started with newly hatched larvae, and to evaluate the effect of light intensity or temperature on the response of newly hatched larvae during a 25-d study.

  15. Oak Poisoning in Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

    1966-01-01

    April 1966 r Oak Poisoning *. . TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Texas Agricultural Experiment Station R. E. Patterson, Director, College Station, Texas Summary Oak poisoning is a major problem in the production of livestock in areas where oak occurs.... The blossoms, buds, young leaves and acorns are poisonous. Cattle, sheep, goats, swine, rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to oak poisoning. A gallotannin isolated from oak has been demonstrated to be poisonous. Calcium hydroxide is an antidote...

  16. Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

    1994-01-01

    Effective copper and cadmium concentrations which limited the growth of two chlorophytes by 50%, EC(50)s, after 96 h of static exposure were determined. EC(50)s were 5.94 µgM copper and 4.55 µM cadmium for Dunaliella salina, and 0.78 µM copper and 0.025 µM cadmium for Chlamydomonas bullosa. The relationship of the two cations was synergistic towards the growth of both species.

  17. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. Chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L., Jr.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  18. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Causative organism: Karenia brevis Toxins produced: Brevetoxins Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) produces an intoxication ... and neurological symptoms predominate. In addition, formation of toxic aerosols by wave action can produce respiratory asthma- ...

  19. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use. Arizona BC Drug & Poison Information Centre Address 655 West 12th Avenue Vancouver, BC V5Z 4r4 Online ... Florida Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville Address 655 West Eighth Street, Box C-23 Jacksonville, FL ...

  20. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  1. [Occupational phosphine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kurzbauer, H; Kiesler, A

    1987-01-01

    The authors report their observations on late sequelae of phosphine poisoning. For 18 months after acute poisoning signs of nervous system damage persisted (objective changes, EEG abnormalities). PMID:3444514

  2. Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on ultrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa taking place after short term exposure to established copper and\\/or cadmium EC(50) or exposure to low levels of these cations for 8 months were examined. Cadmium had a greater impact on the ultrastructure of these species than copper. Metal stress affected a variety of cellular parameters including total cell volume, pyrenoid,

  3. The poison warrant: A powerful poison pill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Van Hulle; Koen Geens

    1993-01-01

    Following the hostile bid for Société Générale in Belgium, companies have adopted 'poison' warrants as a means of deterring raiders. They appear to circumvent many important rules of Belgian takeover legislation. Cynthia Van Hulle and Koen Geens demonstrate that poison warrants would mainly benefit larger shareholders in companies subject to attack.

  4. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  5. LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Families AreForever LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION FOR PARENTS & PROSPECTIVE-lead levels There is no safe level of lead in the body. Often, symptoms are not obvious, so lead poisoning's medical examination in the U.S. or contact your state or local Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program

  6. [Metabolism of B group vitamins in rats, receiving rations with various amounts of protein and amino acids under conditions of chronic aniline poisoning].

    PubMed

    Perevalov, A Ia; Tsareva, O A

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the isocalorific rations with decreased (10%) or increased (32%) protein content, and addition of cystine, methionine and glutamic acid (100 mg/kg) on metabolism of vitamins B2, B6 and PP was studied in rats under conditions of experimental chronic aniline intoxication. Increased protein amount in the diet and addition of amino acids sharply raise vitamin B6 requirement; vitamin B2 requirement grows with the increase of protein fraction and methionine and glutamic acid addition. Providing with vitamin PP under these conditions rises. Chronic aniline intoxication negatively influences the vitamin status of the test animals. Providing with vitamin B6 is most sharply decreased. Glutamic acid shows "saving" influence with respect to vitamin B2. The effect of chronic aniline intoxication on providing with vitamin PP is most manifested in the redistribution of oxidized and reduced nicotine amide coenzymes in the liver in the direction of a relative growth of reduced NAD and NADP concentrations. PMID:2530696

  7. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence, tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  8. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

  9. Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem in the United States before 1978 still contain some lead- ScreeningfYoungfChildrenf orfLeadfPoisoning 13 #12

  10. Acute poisonings with drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pach, J; Pach, K; Targosz, D; Winnik, L; Obara, M

    1995-01-01

    The drug overdose resulting in acute intoxication diagnosed in the 106 drug abusers in period form June to December 1994. The screening drugs identification was performed using immunoassays Triage and Vitalab Eclair manufactured by MERCK. Benzodiazepines followed by barbiturates and opiods were most often the cause of acute poisonings among the adult Kraków inhabitants. The results presented indicate that only adequate clinical observation, laboratory tests performance and establishing of intoxication state (acute poisoning, chronic intoxication or withdrawal) allows a complete patient evaluation. PMID:7644695

  11. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

  12. Copper-induced hepatitis: the COMMD1 deficient dog as a translational animal model for human chronic hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Favier; B. Spee; L. C. Penning; J. Rothuizen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory liver disease regardless of aetiology leads to failing regeneration and fibrosis, ending in cirrhosis. Both in man and in animals this worldwide health problem has no definitive cure. Chronic liver injury causes hepatic stellate cells to proliferate and differentiate into matrix-producing cells. New therapeutic options will be developed upon detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving liver fibrosis.

  13. Wheat Pasture Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01

    Tech Field Laboratory near Panhandle by personnel of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Technological College and the U. S. Department of Agriculture on wheat pasture poisoning. The condition known as wheat pasture poisoning occurs primarily... serum of normal cows was compared with the serum of cows affected with wheat pasture poisoning, a decrease in inarganic phos- phate, total and diffusible calcium, magnesium and the albumin-globulin ratio was found in the cases. The total serum protein...

  14. Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maneveldt, Gavin W.

    This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

  15. Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Collister, John P.; Bellrichard, Mitch; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII) via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s) involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2·?) scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·? in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD) or control vector (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7) in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9). These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·? in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension. PMID:25474089

  16. Over-expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in the median preoptic nucleus attenuates chronic angiotensin II-induced hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Collister, John P; Bellrichard, Mitch; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII) via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s) involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2·-) scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·- in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD) or control vector (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7) in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9). These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·- in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension. PMID:25474089

  17. Aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

    2006-01-01

    We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997-2003 are discussed. PMID:16373788

  18. Recording acute poisoning deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Flanagan; C. Rooney

    2002-01-01

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording the underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England and Wales.

  19. RECORDING ACUTE POISONING DEATHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RJ Flanagan; C Rooney

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England & Wales. There

  20. Histamine fish poisoning revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh Lehane; June Olley

    2000-01-01

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (?50 mg\\/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the

  1. Poisonous Plants Web Pages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

  2. Effects of Sublethal Chronic Copper Exposure on the Growth and Reproductive Success of the Florida Apple Snail ( Pomacea paludosa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily C. Rogevich; Tham C. Hoang; Gary M. Rand

    2009-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) were exposed to three concentrations of copper (Cu), in water (8 ?g\\/L, 16 ?g\\/L, 24 ?g\\/L), for one generation to examine\\u000a uptake and the effects on survival, growth, and reproduction of the F0 generation and survival, growth, and whole body Cu of the F1 generation. During a 9-month Cu exposure, apple snails exposed to 8–16 ?g\\/L Cu had high Cu

  3. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  4. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

  5. Study on Worm Poisoning Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Wu; Xiao-chun Yun; Xiang Cui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, concepts of worm poisoning and PoisonWorm are presented and the feasibility of worm poisoning is testified. A propagation model named SIRP Model and PoisonWorm's side-effect on network traffic are given and compared with the classical epidemic Kermack-Mckendrick model. The feasibility and necessity of PoisonWorm and its application are highlighted in an active defense system against Internet worms.

  6. Worm Poisoning Technology and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Cui; Zhou Yonglin; Zou Xin; Wu Bing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of Worm Poisoning and PoisonWorm are presented and the feasibility of Worm Poisoning is emphatically testified. A propagation model called SIRP model and the side-effect to network traffic of PoisonWorm are given and compared to the classical epidemic Kermack-Mckendrick model. We highlight the feasibility and necessity of PoisonWorm and its application in active defense system

  7. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

  8. Ink remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  9. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from breathing in the poison) Skin Irritation Burns Necrosis (tissue death) in the skin or tissues underneath ... severe blood loss has occurred Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a vein ( ...

  10. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... describes poisoning caused by eating parts of the Caladium plant and other plants belonging to the Araceae ... Caladium and related plants may be purchased as houseplants or used in landscapes. Types include Caladium esculentum ...

  11. Nail polish poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  12. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  13. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... commonly, kids get lead poisoning from lead-based paint , which was used in many U.S. homes until ... 1970s, when the government banned the manufacture of paint containing lead. That's why kids who live in ...

  14. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  15. Household glue poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

  16. Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1931-01-01

    A & f~l COLLEGE, 'PYAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, I COLLEGE STATION. BRAZO )IRECTC IS COUNT' ETIN NO. 433 C.. . .-, )R Y, TEXAS AUGUST, 1931 Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. - *-. " AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... cooperation with U. S. Department nf Agriculture. Bitterweed, Actinea odorata (DC.) Kuntze, has been shown to be poisonous to sheep. This plant grows from Kansas south to Mexico and from central Texas west to California. In Texas it occurs in greatest...

  17. Is It Poison Ivy?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With this Web site from Florida Plants Online, you don't need to be a botanist to tell poison ivy apart from its benign look-alike, Virginia creeper. Photos and detailed identification tips, as well as numerous links to additional information, help readers learn how to avoid "one of nature's most dreaded plants." The site also includes information on how to diagnose a poison ivy reaction (including a link to images of contact dermatitis).

  18. Lung function among employees of a copper mine smelter: lack of effect of chronic sulfur dioxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, C.F.; Layne, J.T.; Auer, C.; Bruce, J.

    1980-07-01

    Lung function among 599 white male employees of a southeastern Tennessee copper mine/smelter operation was compared according to smoking history and occupational experience. The job categories compared included employees with work histories in low sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) environments (both underground mining and non-mining), in high SO/sub 2/ exposure work areas, and in those with transient exposure to SO/sub 2/. Miners with low SO/sub 2/ exposure were found to have lower lung function indices (both FVC and FEV/sub 1/) than did employees in other job categories. Smoking history was strongly associated with low FEV/sub 1/. After adjusting for smoking history, cumulative long-term exposure to SO/sub 2/ was not demonstrated to contribute to decreased lung function.

  19. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThere are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In

  20. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePLUS

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  1. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  2. Dieldrin poisoning of dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Harrison; B. W. Manktelow

    1960-01-01

    ExtractDieldrin poisoning in sheepdogs was suspected early in 1958, and during the next two years specimens from 40 similar cases were submitted to Wallaceville for examination. The symptoms described by field veterinarians were all of the same general pattern and similar to the syndrome producedin other species by the chlorinated hydrocarbon group of insecticides (Garner, 1957). Dieldrin was recovered from

  3. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  4. Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  5. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

  6. Surface area of respirable beryllium metal, oxide, and copper alloy aerosols and implications for assessment of exposure risk of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Dickerson, Robert M; Peterson, Eric J; Day, Gregory A; Breysse, Patrick N; Kent, Michael S; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2003-01-01

    The continued occurrence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) suggests the current occupational exposure limit of 2 microg beryllium per cubic meter of air does not adequately protect workers. This study examined the morphology and measured the particle surface area of aerodynamically size-separated powders and process-sampled particles of beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, and copper-beryllium alloy. The beryllium metal powder consisted of compact particles, whereas the beryllium oxide powder and particles were clusters of smaller primary particles. Specific surface area (SSA) results for all samples (N=30) varied by a factor of 37, from 0.56 +/- 0.07 m(2)/g (for the 0.4-0.7 microm size fraction of the process-sampled reduction furnace particles) to 20.8 +/- 0.4 m(2)/g (for the 6 microm) to 20.8 +/- 0.44 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction

  7. Bluish vomiting: a rare clinical presentation of poisoning.

    PubMed

    Higny, J; Vanpee, D; Boulouffe, C

    2014-08-01

    Bluish vomiting is a symptom of poisoning that is rarely seen in Western emergency departments. Consequently, physicians are not aware of the diagnosis, complications, and treatment of this unusual form of intoxication. In this article, we report a case of bluish vomiting that occurred after an accidental ingestion of copper sulphate. In the discussion, we review three life-threatening causes of bluish vomiting (copper sulphate, boric acid, and paraquat ingestion), and we discuss their respective clinical manifestations, specificities, complications, and management therapies. PMID:24846181

  8. Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A Naun; Cody S Olsen; J Michael Dean; Lenora M Olson; Lawrence J Cook; Heather T Keenan

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED).DesignA statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into

  9. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  10. Copper sulfate. Not a harmless chemical.

    PubMed

    Lamont, D L; Duflou, J A

    1988-09-01

    We report a case of fatal copper sulfate poisoning of a 30-year-old woman following treatment by an iNyanga ("witch-doctor"). The patient died 2 days later, having lapsed into a coma. Postmortem examination revealed that the patient had died of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:3177352

  11. [Puffer fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

    2000-03-01

    We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

  12. Poisonous Plant Management.

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    milkweed Asclepias Horsetail subverticiLlata milkweed Asclepias verticiLLata Whorled milkweed AstragaLus Peavine, emoryanus emory loco AstragaLus spp. Locoweed Avena fatua vaL sativa Baileya Desert muLtiradiata baileya Baptisia spp. False indigo..., prostration, coma Calcium . rich feeds may reduce oxalate poisoning Oxytropis Lambert loco, Unknown See Astragalus spp. Rare in Texas lambert;; crazyweed, point loco Panicum Blue panic urn Unknown Labored respiration Blue panic urn is a valuable...

  13. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:25344454

  14. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  15. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  16. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    E-print Network

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  17. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22634487

  18. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Alcohol Poisoning Deaths Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Details Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol poisoning deaths: ...

  20. Copper metabolic defects and liver disease: environmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Pankit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A

    2002-12-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for many biological processes. Cu homeostasis is generally well maintained by inbuilt controls in intestinal absorption, biliary excretion and intrahepatic storage. Copper deficiency disorders are rare. Acute Cu toxicity occurs occasionally in accidental poisoning with Cu sulfate. Chronic Cu toxicity in the form of liver cirrhosis and damage to other organs is seen classically in Wilson's Disease (genetic abnormality of Cu metabolism) and in the presumed environmental disorder Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (ICC). The clinical, epidemiological and treatment aspects of ICC are described. The evidence linking ICC to environmental Cu is (i) greatly increased hepatic Cu; (ii) early introduction of Cu contaminated milk boiled or stored in brass vessels; (iii) dramatic decline in ICC throughout the country coincident with change in feeding vessels; and (iv) continued long-term remission in d-penicillamine-treated patients after withdrawal of the drug. The nature and role of a second factor in the causation of ICC remains unclear, although a genetic predisposition is strongly suspected. Scattered reports of an ICC-like illness from the West (Idiopathic Cu Toxicosis, Endemic Tyrolean Infantile Cirrhosis), suggest that different mechanisms (environmental, genetic or both) can lead to the same end stage liver disease-'ecogenetic' disorders. PMID:12472971

  1. A comparison of acute and chronic toxicity tests used to examine the temporal stability of a gradient in copper tolerance of Hediste diversicolor from the Fal estuary, Cornwall, UK.

    PubMed

    Burlinson, F C; Lawrence, A J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use two different toxicity tests to verify the existence of a gradient in tolerance along Rostronguet Creek. Hediste diversicolor was collected from five populations in the Fal estuary previously shown to vary in copper tolerance. Exposure to 4 mgL(-1) of copper in an acute assay demonstrated that Mylor Creek worms were sensitive (LT(50) 86 h) and the tolerance of Rostronguet Creek worms increased moving upstream from the mouth of the creek (LT(50)s 100-258 h). There was no significant difference in tolerance between Mylor worms and worms from the mouth of Rostronguet Creek. This is in agreement with a previous study [Grant, A., Hateley, J.G., Jones, N.V., 1989. Mapping the ecological impact of heavy metals on the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor using inherited metal tolerance. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20, 235-238] and demonstrates temporal stability of the gradient. Copper tolerance was also measured using a chronic toxicity test run for 90 d using step-wise increases in challenge concentration. A significant difference in tolerance was shown between populations from Mylor Creek and those at the mouth of Rostronguet Creek, which has not been reported previously. Experimental protocol was therefore an important factor in detecting population variation in tolerance. PMID:17113608

  2. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Vale, J. A.; Widdop, B.; Bluett, N. H.

    1976-01-01

    Although an uncommon cause of death in Great Britain, ethylene glycol poisoning is potentially serious in that renal and cardiopulmonary failure and central nervous system dysfunction can occur when doses of the order of 100 ml or more are ingested. A case is described in which a child who swallowed approximately 100 ml of ethylene glycol was treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis. In addition, measures were taken to correct a marked acidosis. Substantial amounts of ethylene glycol were removed by the dialysis fluid and the child made a complete physical and mental recovery. PMID:981106

  3. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  4. Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, S D; Black, B

    1980-04-15

    Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

  5. Tips for Identifying Poison Ivy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Biodiversity Counts, is a tip sheet to help students learn how to spot and avoid poison ivy. It has an overview of the different varieties of the plant that grow in the Americas and Asia, an illustration of the compound leaf with three leaflets (trifoliate) and details about poison ivy's leaf type, leaf arrangement, growth form, flowers, fruits, and relatives.

  6. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Morse, E V

    1977-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in man results from the consumption of mussels, clams, and oysters that have fed on toxic dinoflagellates. Motile, marine protozoa of the dinoflagellate group often produce "blooms," i.e., red tides, which color the sea. Not all genera or species are toxic to fish and mammals, nor are the toxic principles the same in all poisonous protozoa. At least 5 of the group are known to cause poisonings in man. Shellfish poisonings other than PSP are also recognized. The PSP toxin, saxitoxin, is concentrated in the viscera and occasionally in the mantle and syphon of marine bivalves. Cooking does not completely destroy the low molecular weight poisonous factor. Reported mortality ranges from 8.5 to 23.2%. The disease is of significant public health concern in some localities of the world from May to November. PMID:924835

  7. Oxygen Poisoning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Wallace O.; Henning, Marcia; Philpott, Mary

    1967-01-01

    Fruit flies live longer at the partial pressure of oxygen found in air than at either larger or smaller partial pressures. Flies exposed to 1 atm of oxygen for 8 hr every day do not recover completely in the remaining 16 hr. In general, intermittent exposures to 1 atm of oxygen are better tolerated than continuous exposure to the same average oxygen concentration per day, but exposures to higher pressures of 2–5 atm of oxygen for as little as a half hour every two days markedly shorten the life-span. Older flies consume more oxygen per minute and are more sensitive to oxygen poisoning than young flies, and the rate of dying in 6 atm of O2, or the reciprocal of the survival time, is a linear function of the age. The oxygen pressure-time curve can be well expressed by the general empirical equation (POO2)2 x time = 120 where P is in atmosphere and survival time in hours. The progress of oxygen poisoning appears to be linear with time rather than exponential. PMID:6034764

  8. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  9. Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem?

    E-print Network

    CS239775 Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem? Approximately 500,000 U.S. children aged 1. Lead poisoning can affect nearly every system in the body. Because lead poisoning often occurs with no obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. Lead poisoning can cause learning disabilities

  10. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the distribution system, or in restaurants or homes. The key to keeping bacterial numbers and histamine levels low is the rapid cooling of fish after catching and the maintenance of adequate refrigeration during handling and storage. Despite the huge expansion in trade in recent years, great progress has been made in ensuring the quality and safety of fish products. This is largely the result of the introduction of international standards of food hygiene and the application of risk analysis and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:10898459

  11. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. PMID:25001048

  12. Near fatal percutaneous paraquat poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Okonek; R. Wronski; W. Niedermayer; M. Okonek; A. Lamer

    1983-01-01

    Summary A fatal paraquat poisoning can occur when relatively large areas of skin are contaminated with a concentrated solution of paraquat (Gramoxone). A paraquat absorption takes place of the same magnitude as that with an equal dose per os.

  13. FTIR analysis of food poisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Sritana C.

    1992-03-01

    Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

  14. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning 

    E-print Network

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  15. RPV housed ATWS poison tank

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core and an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV. The improvement comprises: a pressurized vessel disposed in the steam dome containing a neutron poison effective for inactivating the core and a first line for assaying the poison which first line runs to the outside of the RPV, the vessel being vented to the steam dome to pressurize the poison contained therein, the vessel being connected by a second line terminating beneath the core, the second line containing a valve which is actuable to release the poison through the line upon its actuation.

  16. Global approach to reducing lead exposure and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brown, Mary Jean; Falk, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an important environmental disease that can have life-long adverse health effects. Most susceptible are children, and most commonly exposed are those who are poor and live in developing countries. Studies of children's blood-lead levels (BLLs) are showing cognitive impairment at increasingly lower BLLs. Lead is dangerous at all levels in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among and within countries depending on past and current uses. Sources of lead may be from historic contamination, recycling old lead products, or from manufacturing new products. In all countries that have banned leaded gasoline, average population BLLs have declined rapidly. In many developing countries where leaded gasoline is no longer used, many children and workers are exposed to fugitive emissions and mining wastes. Unexpected lead threats, such as improper disposal of electronics and children's toys contaminated with lead, continue to emerge. The only medical treatment available is chelation, which can save lives of persons with very high BLLs. However, chelating drugs are not always available in developing countries and have limited value in reducing the sequelae of chronic low dose lead exposure. Therefore, the best approach is to prevent exposure to lead. Because a key strategy for preventing lead poisoning is to identify and control or eliminate lead sources, this article highlights several major sources of lead poisoning worldwide. In addition, we recommend three primary prevention strategies for lead poisoning: identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards. PMID:18436472

  17. The recovery of gold from ammoniacal thiosulfate solutions containing copper using ion exchange resin columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongguang Zhang; David B Dreisinger

    2004-01-01

    The loading of gold and copper, both individually and simultaneously, from thiosulfate solutions onto ion exchange resin columns and the subsequent elution of these species have been investigated. In the presence of copper, effective loading with good selectivity for gold can be achieved at pH 11, which balances the stability of the solution and minimizes the formation of poisoning polythionates.

  18. The toxic action and interactions of copper and cadmium to the marine Alga Dunaliella minuta , in both acute and chronic exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Visviki; Joseph W. Rachlin

    1991-01-01

    The effective concentrations of copper and cadmium which reduced the population growth ofDunaliella minuta by 50% after 96 h of static exposure, were determined to be 7.57 µM Cu and 0.34 µM Cd. Short-term static exposure to both metals indicated that their combined action is antagonistic with respect to growth of this chlorophyte. Additionally, long-term exposure to low levels of

  19. Severe oral and intravenous insecticide mixture poisoning with diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The widespread use of pesticides in public health protection and agricultural pest control has caused severe environmental pollution and health hazards, especially in developing countries, including cases of severe acute and chronic human poisoning. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an uncommon manifestation of acute pesticide poisoning. Suicidal pesticide poisoning by injection is also an unusual way to take poison. We report a severe pesticide mixture poisoning case with diabetic ketoacidosis in an adult with improved outcome after supportive treatment and large doses of atropine. Case presentation A 30-year-old unmarried Moroccan Arab male with a previous history of active polysubstance abuse and behavior disorders had ingested and self injected intravenously into his forearm an unknown amount of a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. He developed muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms with hypothermia, inflammation in the site of the pesticide injection without necrosis. Red blood cell cholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase were very low (<10%). By day 3, the patient developed stroke with hypotension (80/50 mmHg) and tachycardia (143 pulses /min). Laboratory tests showed severe hyperglycemia (4.49 g/dL), hypokaliemia (2.4 mEq/L), glycosuria, ketonuria and low bicarbonate levels (12 mEq/L) with improvement after intensive medical treatment and treatment by atropine. Conclusion Suicidal poisonings with self-injection of insecticide were rarely reported but could be associated with severe local and systemic complications. The oxidative stress caused by pyrethroids and organophosphates poisoning could explain the occurrence of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. PMID:25078103

  20. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  1. Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

    1965-01-01

    Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice. PMID:5831217

  2. Hepatotoxicity induced by acute and chronic paracetamol overdose in adults. Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Tong, Hoi Y; Medrano, Nicolás; Borobia, Alberto M; Martínez, Ana M; Martín, Julia; Ruiz, José A; García, Santos; Quintana, Manuel; Carcas, Antonio J; Frías, Jesús; Ramírez, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) poisoning data can reveal the potential deficiencies of paracetamol poisoning management guidelines. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients >18years who were attended in the emergency department (ED) of a Spanish tertiary hospital, from 2005 to 2010 for suspected paracetamol overdose and who had measurable paracetamol concentrations. 208 patients suspected of paracetamol poisoning were identified. The annual incidence in the ED increased from 2.0 (95%-CI: 0.2-7.2) cases per 10,000 patients in 2005 to 3.4 (95%-CI: 1.1-8.8) in 2010. Only 7 of 98 patients (7.14%) with acute poisoning at toxic doses showed hepatotoxicity signs, 4 (57.1%) of whom presented acute liver failure (ALF) criteria, while 8 of 10 patients (80%) with chronic paracetamol poisoning at toxic doses presented hepatotoxicity and 3 (37.5%) with ALF criteria. The time required to find medical care was 9.0h for acute poisoning and 49.6h for chronic poisoning (p<0.001). We conclude that the incidence of suspected cases of paracetamol poisoning at our hospital is increasing. The majority of toxicity cases, including ALF, associated with the ingestion of paracetamol were due to chronic poisoning. This finding constitutes an important warning regarding paracetamol chronic poisoning, and clinicians should have a higher index of clinical suspicion for this entity. PMID:25985715

  3. Silent latency periods in methylmercury poisoning and in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bernard; Clarkson, Thomas W; Simon, William

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three examples of delay (latency) in the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning after exposure to methylmercury. First, a case is presented of a 150-day delay period before the clinical manifestations of brain damage after a single brief (<1 day) exposure to dimethylmercury. The second example is taken from the Iraq outbreak of methylmercury poisoning in which the victims consumed contaminated bread for several weeks without any ill effects. Indeed, signs of poisoning did not appear until weeks or months after exposure stopped. The last example is drawn from observations on nonhuman primates and from the sequelae of the Minamata, Japan, outbreak in which low chronic doses of methylmercury may not have produced observable behavioral effects for periods of time measured in years. The mechanisms of these latency periods are discussed for both acute and chronic exposures. Parallels are drawn with other diseases that affect the central nervous system, such as Parkinson disease and post-polio syndrome, that also reflect the delayed appearance of central nervous system damage. PMID:12426145

  4. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  5. Alsike clover poisoning: A review.

    PubMed

    Nation, P N

    1989-05-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  6. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alerts Prevention National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison ... effects like psychotic episodes and seizures. View all alerts right left Safe Kids Worldwide 2015 Annual Medication ...

  7. Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

    1933-01-01

    , Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results...

  8. Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

    This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

  9. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. PMID:25839151

  10. [Dimenhydrinate poisoning in childhood (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Borkenstein, M; Haidvogl, M

    1978-01-01

    Treatment of a Dimenhydrinate poisoning (Vertirosan B6) with Physostigmine salicylate (Antrilirium) is reported. The symptoms of this anticholinergic poisoning (hyperactivity, ataxia, tremor, rubeosis faciei, hallucinations) disappeared rapidly after a single intravenous injection of Physostigmine salicylate. A table of some of the most common drugs capable of producing anticholinergic poisoning is added. PMID:643296

  11. A "Poisoning" Attack Against Online Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Freytag, Johann-Christoph

    A "Poisoning" Attack Against Online Anomaly Detection Marius Kloft Department of Computer Science it is robust against targeted "poisoning" attacks. The latter have been first investigated by Nelson et al. [1 of all data points observed so far. The key idea of a poisoning attack is to insert specially crafted

  12. Countering Poisonous Inputs with Memetic Neuroevolution

    E-print Network

    Togelius, Julian

    Countering Poisonous Inputs with Memetic Neuroevolution Julian Togelius1 , Tom Schaul1 , J-dimensional and/or ill-chosen state description. Evidently, some controller inputs are "poisonous also ex- plore which types of inputs are poisonous for two different reinforcement learning problems. 1

  13. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  14. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health Resources...SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer...Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison Control Center. These transfers are...

  15. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  16. Chapter 6: Research Priorities Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 6: Research Priorities 6 Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Research Priorities If we are to improve lead poisoning prevention strategies, we need additional research in the following areas: 1 to control lead hazards in housing. · The effectiveness of family education about lead poisoning prevention

  17. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  18. Pesticide poisoning surveillance through regional poison control centers.

    PubMed

    Olson, D K; Sax, L; Gunderson, P; Sioris, L

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe pesticide exposure in the population of callers to Minnesota Regional Poison Centers. Case files from 1988 reporting pesticide exposure to humans were identified in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was conducted by computer using SAS statistical package. Of the 1,428 case files indicating pesticide as the primary substance of exposure to Minnesota residents, a mean age of 5 years (range, one month to 85 years) was identified; 50 percent of all cases were below age 3 years. Males accounted for 1.3 times as many cases as females. Insecticide was identified in the largest percentage of case files (74 percent) followed by herbicide (12 percent), rodenticide (11 percent) and fungicide-nonmedicinal (3 percent). Ingestion was the most common route of exposure; 85 percent of all calls originated from a residence. While insecticides are still the most common types of pesticide call, herbicide has surpassed insecticide in production and sales in the US. In this study, herbicide type exposure calls present a much different picture than other pesticide types. The usefulness of poison control centers for examination of pesticide poisoning is explored. Since reporting occurs coincidental with the exposure and its associated symptoms, each pesticide poisoning report could potentially serve as a true sentinel health event. PMID:2029045

  19. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  20. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  1. Prolonged toxicity of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Merrill, D G; Mihm, F G

    1982-08-01

    A case of poisoning with a new organophosphate (fenthion) is reported in which the initial cholinergic crisis was delayed 5 days and recurred 24 days after ingestion. Psychosis was a persistent and sometimes singular manifestation. Because of the high lipid solubility of this pesticide, toxin analysis of repeated fat biopsies was an essential component of the management of this patient. PMID:7094603

  2. Approach to the poisoned patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold B. Leikin

    1996-01-01

    Routine poison management involves the following: (1) stabilization, (2) toxidrome recognition, (3) decontamination, (4) antidote administration, (5) enhanced elimination of toxin, and (6) supportive care. Stabilization involves airway, ventilation, and circulation support. In the patient with altered mental status, oxygen, naloxone, glucose, and thiamine should be administered. Symptom complexes that relate to specific classifications of toxins are referred to as

  3. The Solanaceae: foods and poisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric

  4. Catalytic Poisons and Magnetic Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Dilke; D. D. Eley; E. B. Maxted

    1948-01-01

    THE alkyl sulphides are powerful catalytic poisons for palladium, and the nature of the adsorption link is therefore of great interest. On chemical grounds., Maxted1 has suggested a co-ordinate link from the sulphur atom to the metal. Here We record some preliminary measurements on the change in magnetic susceptibility of palladium due to adsorption of dimethyl sulphide. We conclude that

  5. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew M; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2015-02-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals. In the setting of toxicity from either agent class, clinical syndromes result from excessive nicotinic and muscarinic neurostimulation. The toxic effects from OPs and carbamates differ with respect to reversibility, subacute, and chronic effects. Decontamination, meticulous supportive care, aggressive antimuscarinic therapy, seizure control, and administration of oximes are cornerstones of management. PMID:25455666

  6. The amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease in the reduction of copper(II) to copper(I)

    PubMed

    Multhaup, G; Schlicksupp, A; Hesse, L; Beher, D; Ruppert, T; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1996-03-01

    The transition metal ion copper(II) has a critical role in chronic neurologic diseases. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease or a synthetic peptide representing its copper-binding site reduced bound copper(II) to copper(I). This copper ion-mediated redox reaction led to disulfide bond formation in APP, which indicated that free sulfhydryl groups of APP were involved. Neither superoxide nor hydrogen peroxide had an effect on the kinetics of copper(II) reduction. The reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by APP involves an electron-transfer reaction and could enhance the production of hydroxyl radicals, which could then attack nearby sites. Thus, copper-mediated toxicity may contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:8596911

  7. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  8. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    PubMed

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40?years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  9. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  10. Dialysis in the poisoned patient.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, George

    2010-04-01

    Patients who ingest toxic substances may require extracorporeal removal of the poisons or their toxic metabolites if native renal clearance is not sufficient because of acute kidney injury, acuity of symptoms, or burden of toxin. Here, a case is presented, and the literature on renal replacement therapy in the event of acute intoxication is reviewed. Extracorporeal therapy efficacy is examined in terms of the characteristics of the toxin (molecular size, charge, protein, or lipid binding); the patient (body habitus and volume of distribution); and the process (membrane effects on extraction ratios and sieving, role of blood, and dialysate flow rates). The choice of extracorporeal therapy and hemodialysis prescriptions for specific poisonings are discussed. PMID:20337746

  11. Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

    1977-11-01

    Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

  12. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

  13. Texas Plants Poisonous to Livestock.

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1964-01-01

    , MANAGEMENT AND TREAT- MENT. The signs antl lesions of this poisoning are similar to those of horsetail milkweed, and the same prevention and treatment me.thocls are recommended. Astragalus emoryanus-Peavine, Red-stemmed Peavine, Emory Loco DESCRIPTION... of Astragalus na\\e wen reduced to variety status of A. mollissimzls (GouIt1 1962). Although these three locos are similar in toxicity and management, the descriptions and clistributions differ and are presented for each variety concerned. Other information...

  14. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

  15. Poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vetter

    2004-01-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, ?-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. ?-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock

  16. Phencyclidine. Nine cases of poisoning.

    PubMed

    Liden, C B; Lovejoy, F H; Costello, C E

    1975-11-01

    In nine cases of phencyclidine hydrochloride poisoning, early signs of overdose included drowsiness, nystagmus, miotic pupils, blood pressure elevation, increased deep tendon reflexes, ataxia, anxiety, and agitation. In more severe cases, seizures, spasticity, and opisthotonos were seen in addition to deep coma and respiratory depression. Treatment included removal by emetics or lavage, hydration, and a quiet, reassuring environment. Spasticity, agitation, and ocular manifestions responded to diazepam. Psychiatric intervention was instituted after the patients were stable and no longer agitated. PMID:1242171

  17. Biomarkers of Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Abraham; Steven M. Plakas; Leanne J. Flewelling; Kathleen R. El Said; Edward L. E. Jester; Hudson R. Granade; Kevin D. White; Robert W. Dickey

    2008-01-01

    Urine specimens from patients diagnosed with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) were examined for biomarkers of brevetoxin intoxication. Brevetoxins were concentrated from urine by using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS). Urine extracts were fractionated by LC, and fractions analyzed for brevetoxins by ELISA. In subsequent LC-MS\\/MS analyses, several brevetoxin metabolites

  18. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  19. Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-11-01

    The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

  20. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

  1. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-06-26

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper.

  2. Copper Imbalances in Ruminants and Humans: Unexpected Common Ground1

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Neville F.

    2012-01-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen–free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson’s disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre–hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen–free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the “copper cost” of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question “can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?” A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates. PMID:22983845

  3. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

  4. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

  5. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

  6. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  7. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  8. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  9. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  10. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  11. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  12. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  13. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  14. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  15. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  16. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  17. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  18. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  19. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  20. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  1. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  2. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  3. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  4. PYRIDINE-2-ALDOXIME METHIODIDE—A Valuable Agent for Phosphate Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Payne, John R.; Robinson, Benjamin R.

    1962-01-01

    Phosphate insecticide use is increasing as is concomitant human poisoning. Home insecticide bomb as well as agricultural, crop contamination and suicidal exposure are noted. Clinical poisoning may be chronic and severe. It may follow long exposure or short exposure with heavy dosages. Manifestations are those of excessive cholinergic activity. Adequate laboratory means for early, rapid diagnosis and screen testings are available. PAM is a valuable agent for this type of poisoning and is a much more adequate and complete antidote than atropine. It is available (under certain restrictive conditions presently). It is being widely used elsewhere in the world but with limited education and use in this country. Morbidity and mortality continue at a rate that could probably be corrected. Case reports, describing the use of this antidote in our hands, are included. Government and industry responsibility as well as physician education must be more clearly defined in prevention, recognition and treatment in what is often a life threatening situation. PMID:14484685

  5. Inherited copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, H M; Studdert, V P; Reuter, R E

    1983-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis and increased hepatic copper concentrations, from 1,600 to 6,361 micrograms/g dry tissue were found in 4 related, Australian-bred Bedlington terriers. Two dogs were asymptomatic and 2 were clinically ill with signs referable to liver dysfunction. Two dogs were treated with d-penicillamine. After one year there was no improvement in the histopathological liver changes in either dog or significant lowering of hepatic copper level in one dog. PMID:6639527

  6. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

    PubMed

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome. PMID:24592666

  7. Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, M; Cansu, A; Karakas, T; Kalyoncu, M; Erduran, E

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of referral to the hospital, hospitalization period, and prognosis. The age group of most poisoning cases was <5 years of age and constituted 51% (n = 197) of all cases. The main toxic agent was drugs (70.2%), followed by foods (8.8%), rodenticides (7%), insecticides/pesticides (4.9%), and carbon monoxide (4.7%). In childhood poisonings, accidental drug poisoning was frequent in toddlers, whereas suicidal poisoning was frequent in adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rate was 23.8% among all poisoning patients, and 98.9% of these patients were adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rates for males and females were 30% and 70%, respectively. An increase in suicidal and inhalation poisonings was observed when compared with previous studies that have been conducted in the same region. The results of the present study suggest that poisonings still represents an important health problem that could be prevented by safe drug storage at home, as well as parental education on adolescence issues, particularly those regarding females. PMID:20019095

  8. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  9. Preventing ways of acute poisoning in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Ganieva; A I Iskandarov; M O Abdurahmanova

    2010-01-01

    Among evils, bringing children by civilisation and technical progress for the last decades, especially significant are traumas and poisoning. The aim of study is carry out of quantitative diagnostics criteria and evaluation severity degree of chemical traumas in children and recommendations on their prevention. Material for study were 62 cases of acute poisoning among children at the age from 5

  10. Summer Spurs Calls to Poison Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hot foods hot and cold foods cold. By programming 1-800-222-1222 into your phone, you can reach a poison center from anywhere in the United States. SOURCE: Nebraska Regional Poison Center, news release HealthDay Copyright (c) 2015 HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News ...

  11. Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  12. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  13. Effects of rodent poisoning on Powelliphanta traversi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun J. Bennett; Rachel J. Standish; Ian A. N. Stringer

    Rat predation is a threat to lowland Powelliphanta traversi (giant predatory land snail), and we have shown that 'press' poisoning of rodents (rats and mice) using brodifacoum baits significantly reduces rat abundance relative to non- poisoned areas. The effect on P. t. traversi was evident by the increase in population size, mainly due to adult migration, and a decrease in

  14. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  15. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  16. Xenon poisoning calculations based on tube power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkman

    1953-01-01

    A method of calculating the steady state xenon poisoning was developed using parameters derived from the power production of individual tubes in the pile. The power of individual tubes was recorded automatically at some of the production piles. The necessary parameter is derived from these data by the use of IBM computers. This method of calculating xenon poisoning eliminates the

  17. Copper Cleanup

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-12-05

    In this hands-on experiment, kids use chemistry to explore whether acids or bases are better at restoring a penny’s shine. Kids follow the scientific process to test a common household cleaning products alongside ketchup, cola, and other kitchen staples, and may be surprised by the results! A downloadable data sheet is available on the Copper Cleanup activity resources page.

  18. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  19. Emergency management of poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lau, F L

    2000-09-01

    The emergency management of poisoning is important in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity in poisoned patients. This article reviews the Hong Kong system of prehospital and emergency care of poisoning, with reference to recent advances in this field. Administering activated charcoal is recommended for the gastro-intestinal decontamination of most poisons, unless doing so is contra-indicated. Gastric lavage should be considered only in life-threatening cases of poisoning that present within the first hour. Newer antidotes that are available in Hong Kong accident and emergency departments include hydroxocobalamin, stonefish and snake antevenenes, digoxin-specific antibodies, esmolol hydrochloride, and octreotide. The 'golden hour' concept of gastro-intestinal decontamination is advocated and ways to ensure that decontamination is performed within the 'golden hour' are suggested. PMID:11025848

  20. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

  1. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

  2. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  3. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  4. Human Health Effects From Chronic Arsenic Poisoning–A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIMON KAPAJ; HANS PETERSON; KARSTEN LIBER; PROSUN BHATTACHARYA

    2006-01-01

    The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 ?g\\/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 ?g\\/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5

  5. An unusual case of reversible acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bathina, Gangadhar; Yadla, Manjusha; Burri, Srikanth; Enganti, Rama; Prasad Ch, Rajendra; Deshpande, Pradeep; Ch, Ramesh; Prayaga, Aruna; Uppin, Megha

    2013-09-01

    Chlorine dioxide is a commonly used water disinfectant. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites is rare. In experimental studies, it was shown that acute and chronic toxicity were associated with insignificant hematological changes. Acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide was not reported. Two cases of renal toxicity due to its metabolites, chlorate and chlorite were reported. Herein, we report a case of chlorine dioxide poisoning presenting with acute kidney injury. PMID:23902291

  6. Acute Severe Poisoning in Spain: Clinical Outcome Related to the Implicated Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Frati; L. Marruecos; M. Porta; M. L. Martín; J.-R. Laporte

    1983-01-01

    1 The 91 patients over the age of 10 (57 women and 32 men) with severe self-poisoning admitted to the ICU of a general hospital in Barcelona during the period 1974-1980 have been retrospectively studied.2 Previous suicidal attempts have been identified among 32 patients; 26 patients presented a history of personality disorders, and 19 had a neurological disease, a chronic

  7. Resistance mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against phagosomal copper overload

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Jennifer L.; Niederweis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen with an extremely slow growth rate, an unusual outer membrane of very low permeability and a cunning ability to survive inside the human host despite a potent immune response. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to acquire essential nutrients while still preserving its natural resistance to toxic compounds. In this regard, copper homeostasis mechanisms are particularly interesting, because copper is an important element for bacterial growth, but copper overload is toxic. In M. tuberculosis at least two enzymes require copper as a cofactor: the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase SodC and the cytochrome c oxidase which is essential for growth in vitro. Mutants of M. tuberculosis lacking the copper metallothionein MymT, the efflux pump CtpV and the membrane protein MctB are more susceptible to copper indicating that these proteins are part of a multipronged system to balance intracellular copper levels. Recent evidence showed that part of copper toxicity is a reversible damage of accessible Fe-S clusters of dehydratases and the displacement of other divalent cations such as zinc and manganese as cofactors in proteins. There is accumulating evidence that macrophages use copper to poison bacteria trapped inside phagosomes. Here, we review the rapidly increasing knowledge about copper homeostasis mechanisms in M. tuberculosis and contrast those with similar mechanisms in E. coli. These findings reveal an intricate interplay between the host which aims to overload the phagosome with copper and M. tuberculosis which utilizes several mechanisms to reduce the toxic effects of excess copper. PMID:22361385

  8. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nail polish remover and other personal care products Paint thinner Pesticides used in the house or in ... when using cleaners and chemicals. Avoid using pesticides, paint thinner or other chemicals inside the house or ...

  9. An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

    1998-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

  10. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot

    E-print Network

    Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot #12;1 THE GOOD NEWS- Exposure to Lead is Preventable Lead Poisoning Is a REAL Problem; Did You Know? Lead is a highly toxic substance the effects of lead poisoning, but lead poisoning is much more frequent in children than in adults. For many

  11. International Symposium Women as Visionaries, Healers and Poisoners

    E-print Network

    Peters, Achim

    International Symposium Women as Visionaries, Healers and Poisoners ­ Autonomous Female Religious:45 Dinner SUNDAY 05.05.2013 CONTESTED GENDER AND SOCIAL ROLES: FEMALE HEALERS AND POISONERS 09:30 Anna) -- The gender of the poisoner: containership, analogic kinship and female poisoning lineages (dug rgyud) among

  12. SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing

    E-print Network

    SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning Long Lu College of Computing Georgia Inst, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison-hungry web- sites for malicious purposes. To accurately detect search poisoning cases, we designed a novel

  13. Stealthy Poisoning Attacks on PCA-based Anomaly Detectors

    E-print Network

    Tygar, Doug

    Stealthy Poisoning Attacks on PCA-based Anomaly Detectors Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein1 Blaine Nelson1 detection, we present and evaluate short-term and long-term data poison- ing schemes that trade-off between poisoning duration and the volume of traffic injected for poisoning. Stealthy Boil- ing Frog attacks

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

  15. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  16. Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning. PMID:24991620

  17. Bioavailable copper modulates oxidative phosphorylation and growth of tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Seiko; Andreux, Pénélope; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Auwerx, Johan; Hanahan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element, the imbalances of which are associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, albeit via largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that levels of bioavailable copper modulate tumor growth. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of copper in drinking water, corresponding to the maximum allowed in public water supplies, stimulated proliferation of cancer cells and de novo pancreatic tumor growth in mice. Conversely, reducing systemic copper levels with a chelating drug, clinically used to treat copper disorders, impaired both. Under such copper limitation, tumors displayed decreased activity of the copper-binding mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase and reduced ATP levels, despite enhanced glycolysis, which was not accompanied by increased invasiveness of tumors. The antiproliferative effect of copper chelation was enhanced when combined with inhibitors of glycolysis. Interestingly, larger tumors contained less copper than smaller tumors and exhibited comparatively lower activity of cytochrome c oxidase and increased glucose uptake. These results establish copper as a tumor promoter and reveal that varying levels of copper serves to regulate oxidative phosphorylation in rapidly proliferating cancer cells inside solid tumors. Thus, activation of glycolysis in tumors may in part reflect insufficient copper bioavailability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24218578

  18. [Advancement of methanol poisoning mechanism research].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-min; Wang, Li-xin; Xia, Wen-tao

    2010-08-01

    The methanol poisoning by oral intake or skin contact occurs occasionally, which may have serious consequences including blindness and/or death. Methanol and its metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid, are associated with metabolic acidosis, visual dysfunction and neurological symptoms. At present, the mechanism of methanol poisoning primarily focuses on the cell hypoxia, the alteration of structure and biological activity induced by free radical and lactic acid. Meanwhile, methanol poisoning causes changes in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant capacity and in the proteases-protease inhibitors system, which lead to a series of disturbances. PMID:20967961

  19. Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-14

    Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

  20. Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Slaughter; D. M. Beasley; B. S. Lambie; G. T. Wilkins; L. J. Schep

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. AIM: The purpose of this

  1. Poisoning of resin supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.L.; Moore, S.E.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of enhancing performance of a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction of an olefin liquid feed in the presence of a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst. The method comprises: (a) preparing a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst for use in a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction substantially free of halides and halide salts in the metal complex catalyst; and (b) introducing an olefin liquid feed to the resin-supported catalyst for conducting a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction, in the presence of CO and H/sub 2/. The olefin feed has a specified maximum limit of halide concentration sufficiently low to enable continued indefinite operation of the combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction process without halide poisoning.

  2. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./ Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997, Volume 4, Part 8 - Neutron Poison Plates in Assemblies Containing Homogeneous Mixtures of Polystyrene-Moderated Plutonium and Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the 1970s at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a series of critical experiments using a remotely operated Split-Table Machine was performed with homogeneous mixtures of (Pu-U)O{sub 2}-polystyrene fuels in the form of square compacts having different heights. The experiments determined the critical geometric configurations of MOX fuel assemblies with and without neutron poison plates. With respect to PuO{sub 2} content and moderation [H/(Pu+U)atomic] ratio (MR), two different homogeneous (Pu-U) O{sub 2}-polystyrene mixtures were considered: Mixture (1) 14.62 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 30.6 MR, and Mixture (2) 30.3 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 2.8 MR. In all mixtures, the uranium was depleted to about O.151 wt% U{sup 235}. Assemblies contained copper, copper-cadmium or aluminum neutron poison plates having thicknesses up to {approximately}2.5 cm. This evaluation contains 22 experiments for Mixture 1, and 10 for Mixture 2 compacts. For Mixture 1, there are 10 configurations with copper plates, 6 with aluminum, and 5 with copper-cadmium. One experiment contained no poison plate. For Mixture 2 compacts, there are 3 configurations with copper, 3 with aluminum, and 3 with copper-cadmium poison plates. One experiment contained no poison plate.

  3. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  4. Adsorption of sulfur on bimetallic surfaces: Formation of copper sulfides on Pt(111) and Ru(001)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kuhn; J. A. Rodriguez

    1994-01-01

    It has been found that by making specific bimetallic systems (in this case a noble metal deposited on a transition metal surface) one can change the catalytic activity and selectivity of the metals for reactions that lead to the conversion of hydrocarbons. A major problem associated with these catalysts is sulfur poisoning. The interaction of sulfur and copper on Pt(111)

  5. Copper in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - copper ... Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the ... organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, ...

  6. Copper Extraction Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Summary This demonstration uses sulfuric acid and crushed copper ore (malachite) to produce a solution of copper sulfate and carbonic acid in a beaker. When a freshly sanded nail is dropped into the copper sulfate ...

  7. Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

  8. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or breathing in (sniffing) products to remove paint, lacquer , or varnish . This is for information only and ... Paint, lacquer, and varnish removers may contain the following poisonous ingredients: Benzyl alcohol Ethanol Formic acid Methyl alcohol Methylene ...

  9. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  10. Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Dan L. Brown

    This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

  11. FACTS AND FALLACIES ON INDUSTRIAL POISONING

    PubMed Central

    Thienes, Clinton H.

    1957-01-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and “compensation neuroses.” It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  12. Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1935-01-01

    R6-103 5-6m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 519 DECEMBER', 1935 -- DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE MESCALBEAN (SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA) POISONOUS FOR LIVESTOCK... AGRJCULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President poisoning among range sheep resulting from eating green leaves of Sophora seczcndiflora (commonly known as mescalbean, mountain laurel, or coralbean) sometimes occurs' during the late...

  13. Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil. 

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

    1933-01-01

    during the dusting operation. The activities of both sexes of weevils, observed under natural conditions and on cotton plants which had been dusted with calcium arsenate or talc, are influenced to a considerable degree by the presence of these dusts.... The effectiveness of calcium arsenate in controlling weevils when applied to plants in the absence of dew did not appear attributable to poison ingested with food alone. Furthermore, tests conducted on weevil control by the use of sweetened liquid poison mopped...

  14. Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

    2002-01-01

    Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

  15. Rhabdomyolysis in 114 patients with acute poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Mahdizadeh, Adeleh; Vafaee, Mansooreh; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Afshari, Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and biochemical syndrome, which is observed in some patients with acute chemical and/or pharmaceutical poisonings. We aimed to investigate rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute poisonings due to different chemicals, natural toxins or drug overdose. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the University medical research committee and obtaining informed consents from the patients or their relatives, all patients with acute poisonings who were treated between March 2009 and February 2010 in the Toxicologic Ward of Imam Reza Hospital and had serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) above 975 IU/L (as a definition for rhabdomyolysis) were studied. Results: Of 3555 hospitalized poisoned patients, 114 patients had rhabdomyolysis with CPK of 5996 ± 892 IU/L (mean ± standard error). The most common intoxication to induce the rhabdomyolysis was opioid overdose (28%). Acute renal failure (ARF) was diagnosed in 11 (8.7%) patients. There was a linear correlation between CPK and creatinine (P < 0.001), which in turn had a significant correlation with death (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with acute poisoning were at risk of rhabdomyolysis. Acute opioid poisoning was the most common cause of toxic rhabdomyolysis in the intoxicated patients, and ARF was the main complication.

  16. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The inflamed bronchi produce a lot of mucus. This leads to cough and difficulty getting air in and out of the ... cause chronic bronchitis. Treatment will help your symptoms, but chronic ...

  17. SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

    2004-01-01

    Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

  18. Myonecrosis in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Herman, G D; Shapiro, A B; Leikin, J

    1988-02-01

    Myonecrosis is an unusual sequelae to carbon monoxide poisoning with only 16 cases having been reported in the English-language literature. At the University of Illinois Hospital, we encountered a 25-year-old fire academy student who presented to our Emergency Department with a carboxyhemoglobin level of 16% following a training exercise in a smoke-filled room. The patient was not wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and his duration of exposure was 7-8 min, by which time he had blacked out for about 1 min. Upon arrival, the patient was lethargic, with a moderate inhalation burn. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen at 2 1/2 ATA. Following 90 min of hyperbaric oxygen, slight flexor compartment weakness, along with tenderness of the proximal lower extremities was noted. CPK was elevated to 65,998 (100% mm) with urine dipstick being positive for blood and only occasional rbc's seen in the urine sediment. The patient did well with forced diuresis and alkalinization of the urine. No oliguria was noted and the CPK fell to 893 five days later. This is the only case in the English-language literature who developed myonecrosis from carbon monoxide, despite hyperbaric oxygen treatment. We believe that this case demonstrates that hyperbaric oxygen cannot prevent the development of myonecrosis induced by carbon monoxide. PMID:3354179

  19. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

  20. Yellow discoloration in veal calves: the role of hepatic copper.

    PubMed

    Groot, M J; Gruys, E

    1993-02-13

    Liver samples from four groups of calves were analysed chemically and histologically for copper and iron levels. Milk replacer-fed 'yellow' calves were compared with milk replacer-fed 'white' calves, concentrate and silage-fed 'pink' calves and concentrate and silage-fed young 'red' fattening bulls. In the milk replacer-fed calves high copper and low iron levels were measured in the liver, whereas in the concentrate and silage fed pink calves and fattening bulls lower copper and higher iron levels were found. The yellow calves appeared to be icteric and had chronic hepatitis. Their hepatic histopathology was characterised by fibrosis, cirrhosis, fatty change, increased amounts of stainable copper, necrobiosis and prominent cholestasis; some animals had intranuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes. They had similar or lower hepatic copper levels than the white calves and varying iron levels, indicating that copper toxicity was not the primary cause of the hepatic damage. PMID:8456546

  1. Copper inhibition of the thiobarbituric acid reaction in Bedlington terriers.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, B D; Menken, B Z; Csallany, A S

    1986-04-01

    The effect of copper on thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction values, an index of lipid peroxidation, was examined in Bedlington Terriers, healthy dogs, and rats. High hepatic concentrations of copper appeared to lower TBA values in the inherited, chronic, progressive hepatic degeneration of Bedlington Terriers, a disease associated with copper toxicosis. The suspected TBA inhibition was confirmed when Cu2+ was added to homogenates of healthy dog or rat liver or a malondialdehyde standard. The amount of copper added approximated that in diseased Bedlington Terriers. Because of the interference by copper, the TBA test was judged to be an inappropriate test for the evaluation of lipid peroxidation in samples containing high copper concentrations such as those in diseased Bedlington Terriers. PMID:3963583

  2. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  3. Copper Data Center Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Copper Development Association

    The Copper Data Center Database is provided free of charge by the Copper Development Association "to increase knowledge and awareness of copper, related technologies, and the role of copper in the environment." The database is an online bibliographic search engine of literature on copper, copper alloys and copper technology dating back to 1965 and is described as covering copper technology from smelting and hydrometallurgy through the performance of copper and copper alloys in their end-use applications and service environments. Users can search by standard methods including using keywords and titles or an impressive advanced search feature is also available. Although full text listings are not available, anyone interested in related subjects will appreciate this well designed and unique tool.

  4. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  5. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  6. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  7. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  8. Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

  9. "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones"

    E-print Network

    Stein, Oliver

    "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones" European Cultural Days 2014 Opening Address on Friday, 16 decided on the title of our symposium, "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones", one thing was clear

  10. Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Rashes Can Be Serious

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152188.html Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Rashes Can Be Serious ... 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Itchy, blistering rashes from poison ivy, oak and sumac are common and are ...

  11. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

  12. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  13. Secondary phorate poisoning of large carnivores in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nallusamy Kalaivanan; Ragothaman Venkataramanan; Chirukandoth Sreekumar; Alagarsamy Saravanan; Rajeev K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    India, with its huge human population and fragmented wildlife habitat, is plagued with human–animal conflicts. In conflict\\u000a areas, large carnivores are often primary targets for malicious poisoning. The effects of certain poisons do not stop with\\u000a the target animal but also affects other species of wildlife in the form of secondary poisoning. This paper describes incidences\\u000a of secondary poisoning of

  14. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides. PMID:21763089

  15. [Scombroid poisoning at an Icelandic restaurant].

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdóttir, Gudrún; Magnússon, Sigmundur; Ingólfsson, Rögnvaldur; Thorvaldsdóttir, Ingibjörg Rósa; Haraldsdóttir, Vilhelmína; Gíslason, Davíd

    2005-03-01

    We report four cases of scombroid poisoning. During a lunch meeting three males had the same dish: a club sandwich with raw tuna. All developed erythema over the face and neck within two hours of eating the tuna. The severity of symptoms varied. Other symptoms were profuse sweating, a feeling of intense thirst and palpitations. The symptoms disappeared after few hours. Samples obtained from the tuna revealed histamine levels above the recommended FDA levels. We also report a case with similar symptoms after eating canned tuna in a mixed salad. Scombroid poisoning has been associated with the consumption of dark-flesh fish with high levels of histidine, which can be converted to histamine by decarboxylase from Gram-negative bacteria in the fish. The fish most often implicated is tuna. It is of great importance to increase the awareness of this type of poisoning for correct diagnosis and to prevent other cases by improving storage. PMID:16155322

  16. Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K; Zgoda, J C; Stahlbaum, C C

    1984-08-01

    Twelve taste repellents and 3 oral emetics were tested. The taste repellents were capsaicin, capsicum, oleoresin, sucrose octaacetate, quinine tonic, quassia wood extract, vanillamide, horseradish extract, caffeine, pepperoni enhancer, acorn extract, and commercially available bitter and hot flavors. The emetics tested were: antimony potassium tartrate, apomorphine, and copper sulfate. Intake of a 20% sucrose solution by Beagles was significantly depressed by addition of vanillamide at concentrations greater than 0.001%, by capsicum and capsaicin at concentrations greater than 0.01%, and by horseradish extract, pepperoni enhancer, and a commercially available hot flavor at concentrations greater than 0.1%. Antimony potassium tartrate, when added to the 20% sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.1%, produced emesis as did apomorphine at a concentration of 0.005% and copper sulfate at 1%. When the emetic antimony potassium tartrate was combined with vanillamide in a 20% sucrose solution, intake was reduced to less than 20 ml, and vomiting occurred within 15 minutes. Capsaicin (0.02%) inhibited intake of ethylene glycol to less than the lethal dose in 5 dogs tested. Incorporation of such taste repellents and/or emetics into potentially poisonous substances would reduce accidental poisoning of animals and children. PMID:6476561

  17. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

  18. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Presenting as an Isolated Seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Y Herman

    1998-01-01

    Seizures are generally regarded as a manifestation of extreme, generally near-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. A case is described in which a seizure attributable to carbon monoxide poisoning occurred in a small child at a level not thought to be associated with serious neurologic toxicity. A literature review of the occurrence of seizures in carbon monoxide poisoning found that no particular

  19. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

  20. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  1. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  2. Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Dolev, Danny

    Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning Shimrit Tzur-David Kiril Lashchiver, or any other network resource. This paper presents a solution for the cache poisoning attack in which the attacker inserts incorrect data into the DNS cache. In order to successfully poison the cache, the attacker

  3. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  4. CDC Lead Poisoning Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Refugee Children

    E-print Network

    CDC Lead Poisoning Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Refugee Children 1. Background: · Lead poisoning remains one of the most common and preventable pediatric environmental conditions in the United States. · Lead is a poison that affects virtually every system in the human body. · Lead

  5. THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE:or illustrations are in millimeters. In preparation for chemical analysis, poison sacs were dissected rom workers compounds present in the poison gland secretion were re- solved by applying the .contents of fifty glands

  6. ANTIDOTE: Understanding and Defending against Poisoning of Anomaly Detectors

    E-print Network

    Rubinstein, Benjamin

    ANTIDOTE: Understanding and Defending against Poisoning of Anomaly Detectors Benjamin I. P poisoning techniques and develop a defense, in the context of a particular anomaly detector--namely the PCA-subspace method for detecting anomalies in backbone networks. For three poisoning schemes, we show how at- tackers

  7. Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Molly E.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog: a coalescent University, Durham, NC 27705, USA. ABSTRACT Aim The strawberry poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, has undergone in the strawberry poison frog. Keywords Aposematism, Bocas del Toro, coalescence, coloration, Dendrobates, Dendro

  8. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  9. Preventing CO poisoning: Tracking the impact of legislative and

    E-print Network

    Preventing CO poisoning: Tracking the impact of legislative and regulatory changes in New York City data partners ­ NYCDOHMH - Office of Vital Statistics, Injury Epidemiology, and the NYC Poison Control Poisoning Surveillance: Unintentional deaths 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Frequency

  10. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  11. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  12. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman

    E-print Network

    Lewenstein, Moshe

    Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman Department of Computer Science--We present effective off-path DNS cache poisoning attacks, circumventing all widely-used defenses against poison- ing, based on echoing of random challenges from request to response, e.g., port randomisation

  13. 111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources

    E-print Network

    111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources 5 CDC Resources and Information poisoning prevention activities. Grant program. CDC provides funding to states and localities through the State and Community-Based Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program grants for screening, for ensuring

  14. A POWER CALIBRATION METHOD USING THE XENON POISONING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Damy de Souza Santos; P. Saraiva de Toledo

    1959-01-01

    A method of power calibration using the reactivity variation due to ; xenon poisoning is developed. Two cases are considered: reactivity variation ; after reacting the xenon equillbrium poisoning; time variation of reactiviyy due ; to the non-equilibrium xenon poisoning. Both methods are applicable in the high ; flux region. In the second method some care must be taken in

  15. [Hemolysis in mushroom poisoning: facts and hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Flammer, R; Gallen, S

    1983-10-22

    Primary hemolysis induced by antigens and toxins of mushrooms must be distinguished from hemolysis secondary to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation with disruption of erythrocytes caused by severe poisoning with many mushroom species. Primary hemolysis is well documented as immunohemolysis after repeated ingestion of involute paxillus (Paxillus involutus). Direct hemolysis is reported after eating raw mushrooms with a high content of hemolysins. Hemolysis is only speculative in monomethylhydrazine poisoning by false morels (Gyromitra esculenta). Secondary hemolysis due to shock is not uncommon. Hemolysis in connection with enzymopenia of erythrocytes has not been documented as yet. In the present study the various hemolytic syndromes are described and discussed. PMID:6359399

  16. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  17. The many faces of methylmercury poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassani, S.B.

    1982-10-01

    Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

  18. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  19. Scombroid poisoning. Report of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lerke, P A; Werner, S B; Taylor, S L; Guthertz, L S

    1978-11-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  20. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of monitoring herd copper status regularly. Also the poor correlation between liver and serum copper concentrations in the three herds sampled demonstrates the importance of using liver copper concentration to assess herd copper status. PMID:25279139

  1. Clinical predictors of completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning in 8895 self-poisoning patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Allgulander; L. D. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Summary The diagnoses of 8895 patients who were admitted for intentional self-poisoning with psychoactive drugs were studied in order to find predictors for subsequent completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning. Automated record linkage by means of the Swedish personal identification numbers was performed between the Stockholm County inpatient registry and the cause-of-death registry. With Cox regression models, several diagnostic predictors were

  2. Texas Range Plants Poisonous to Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1955-01-01

    tobacco Phytolaccn ctmericana, Pokeweed Psoralea te?z,uiflora, Scurf pea ---------..--..-. Ricinzts conzmunis, Castor bean -.------....--. .. REFERENCES INDEX ---------. .----------------------------------------- Tws Range Plants Poisonous... mo; of the time and eventually, in the more seriou cases, is unable to rise. Most cases of poisoninr result in constipation, vomiting, quickened an1 labored respiration and almost continuous drib bling of urine. The abnormal respiration in sick...

  3. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  4. A Case report: Ammonium dichromate poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asif Hasan

    We have presented a case report on ammonium dichromate poisoning to highlight the awareness of medical professionals about the toxicity of chromates and to minimize the fatalities. Its diagnosis depends mainly on history, clinical examination and post mortem findings. Chemical analysis is usually not helpful in this case, as it is a highly dissociable compound. In this case report, we

  5. Mercury poisoning in a wild mink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. WOBESER; M. SWIFT

    1976-01-01

    Mercury poisoning was diagnosed in a clinically-ill wild mink (Mustela vision) on the basis of clinical signs, histopathologic lesions and tissue mercury concentrations. The probable source of mercury was through ingestion of fish from the nearby South Saskatchewan River which is known to be contaminated with mercury. This is believed to be the first documented case of mercury intoxication of

  6. Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew Kane

    This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

  7. Anticholinergic poisoning with adulterated intranasal cocaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L Weiner; Marc J Bayer; Charles A McKay; Margaret DeMeo; Elizabeth Starr

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, emergency physicians have encountered a growing number of patients who present with anticholinergic toxicity after using adulterated heroin. Anticholinergic poisoning caused by adulterated cocaine is far less common. This report describes the case of a 39-year-old man who arrived in the emergency department several hours after the nasal insufflation of cocaine. Classic symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity were

  8. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  9. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-02-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  10. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  11. Coturnism: Human Poisoning By European Migratory Quail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Lewis; Elizabeth Metallinos-Katzaras; Louis E. Grivetti

    1987-01-01

    Coturnism is human poisoning from European migratory quail (Coturnix commix coturnix L.). While the name is recent, coturnism has been documented since antiquity. Most cases exhibit generalized weakness, progressing to severe muscle pain and lower limb paralysis, vomiting and discolored urine (myoglobinuria). Patients may experience severe gastroenteritis-diarrhea, fever, voice loss and death from cardiac or kidney failure. Toxic quail cannot

  12. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and ?-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the

  13. PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA

    E-print Network

    NOTES PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA: A POSSIBLE CAUSE PSP and Hilliard 1955; Sparks 1966; Neal 1967), it has often been assumed that this species is the cause of PSP by the University of Alaska failed to find a significant correlation between the occurrence of PSP and G. catenella

  14. Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

  15. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  16. Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

    This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

  17. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Zook; R. M. Sauer; F. M. GARNERL

    1972-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots

  18. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  19. Poisoning with delayed-release tablets

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, S. R.; Leeson, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    Accidental poisoning with delayed-release tablets causes symptoms at a time when the tablets can no longer be retrieved from the stomach. A child died from eating 23 tablets of Debendox, which is a delayed-release tablet containing dicyclomine and doxylamine. A second child survived a similar overdose, having been subjected to vigorous purgation and peritoneal dialysis. PMID:4830120

  20. Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas YK Chan; Kenneth KC Lee; Albert YW Chan; Julian AJH Critchley

    1995-01-01

    1 To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese pro prietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admit ted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied.2 There were 54 women and 17 men with their

  1. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  2. BURNABLE POISONS IN SMALL POWER REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Smith; J. Jeffrey

    1959-01-01

    In the design of small reactors suitable for propulsion purposes the ; need for a large amount of excess reactivity to compensate for the effects of ; depletion and fission product poisoning leads to a difficult engineering problem ; in the accommodation of an adequate amount of control rods to shut the reactor ; down. Moreover, unless a complex control

  3. Soluble poison flux quenching in nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ravetto; B. D. Ganapol

    1990-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant developments in the area of inherently safe nuclear reactor conceptual designs. Among these there is much interest in the so-called PIUS reactor, where safety is to be guaranteed by the timely introduction of borated water into the core. In the event of an accidental reactivity insertion followed by a power excursion, the poison introduction would

  4. Poison control centers: can their value be measured?

    PubMed

    King, W D; Palmisano, P A

    1991-06-01

    Most regions of the United States are served by poison control centers that provide 24-hour toxicologic guidance resulting in the home management of most poison exposures. It has been suggested that without public access to a poison control hotline the majority of poison-exposed patients would seek medical care in emergency departments or other outpatient visits. This study compares the patterns of community response to poison exposure in Louisiana before and after the discontinuance of the state poison control service, and also compares these patterns to the situation in Alabama, which maintained poison center services throughout the study period. After discontinuance of the poison control service in Louisiana, poison exposure cases had up to four times the rate of "self-referral" to health care facilities and less than half the rate of home management when compared to Alabama cases. Before the closing of the Louisiana center, Alabama and Louisiana triage patterns for poison exposures were nearly identical. The maximum annual cost attributable to unnecessary outpatient service utilization in Louisiana was estimated to be $1.4 million, an amount more than three times the annual poison control center state appropriation. PMID:2052960

  5. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  6. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  7. Copper associated childhood cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S P Horslen; M S Tanner; T D Lyon; G S Fell; M F Lowry

    1994-01-01

    Several papers have reported severe liver disease in association with massive hepatic copper accumulation, which do not seem to be either of the recognised copper associated liver diseases, namely Wilson's disease and Indian childhood cirrhosis. A further case is reported in which novel copper kinetic studies were carried out using the stable isotope 65Cu, showing that this patient did not

  8. Laser induced copper plating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Al-Sufi; H. J. Eichler; J. Salk; H. J. Riedel

    1983-01-01

    Argon laser induced plating of copper spots and lines from copper sulfate solutions on glass and phenolic resin paper has been investigated. The substrates had to be precoated with an evaporated copper film. The highest plating rates have been obtained with a small film thickness of 25 nm. Spots with a thickness up to 30 ?m were plated.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that does not heal or improve, gets worse over time, and leads ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. Estrogen Intake and Copper Depositions: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Amtage, Florian; Birnbaum, Dzelila; Reinhard, Thomas; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Weiller, Cornelius; Mader, Irina; Meyer, Philipp T.; Rijntjes, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with chronic postmenopausal estrogen intake with presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring in the cornea and Alzheimer's disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of estrogen intake and copper accumulation in various tissues, including the central nervous system. Sonography was compatible with copper accumulation in the basal ganglia, but the patient showed no clinical signs of Wilson's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography revealed a typical pattern for Alzheimer's disease. We propose increased copper levels as a direct effect of estrogen intake due to an augmented ATP7A-mRNA in the intestine. Moreover, we discuss the impact of elevated free serum copper on accompanying Alzheimer's disease, knowing that copper plays a crucial role in the formation of amyloid plaques and tau aggregation. This might offer a partial explanation for the observation that postmenopausal estrogen therapy is associated with a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25076894

  11. A Role for Low Hepatic Copper Concentrations in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elmar Aigner; Michael Strasser; Heike Haufe; Thomas Sonnweber; Florian Hohla; Andreas Stadlmayr; Marc Solioz; Herbert Tilg; Wolfgang Patsch; Guenter Weiss; Felix Stickel; Christian Datz

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Copper has a role in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial function, and copper deficiency has been linked to atherogenic dyslipidemia. We aimed to investigate the potential role of copper availability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS:Patients with NAFLD (n=124) were compared to patients with chronic hepatitis C (n=50), hemochromatosis (n=35), alcoholic liver disease (n=13), autoimmune hepatitis

  12. Circulation of copper in the biotic compartments of a freshwater dammed reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Vinot; J. C. Pihan

    2005-01-01

    This study concerns a chronic copper release in an aquatic ecosystem: Mirgenbach reservoir; which is characterized by high salinity, conductivity and hardness, a eutrophic state and a high temperature. To study the bioavailability of copper in the biotic compartments, the sampling covered the entire food chain (phyto- and zooplankton, macroalgae, aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks, and fish). Of the organisms present,

  13. COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

  14. Detoxification of Organophosphate Poisoning Using Nanoparticle Bioscavengers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Chuluun, Erdembileg; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Lu, Weiyue; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-06-23

    Organophosphate poisoning is highly lethal as organophosphates, which are commonly found in insecticides and nerve agents, cause irreversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to neuromuscular disorders via accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Direct interception of organophosphates in the systemic circulation thus provides a desirable strategy in treatment of the condition. Inspired by the presence of AChE on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we explored a biomimetic nanoparticle consisting of a polymeric core surrounded by RBC membranes to serve as an anti-organophosphate agent. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoparticles retain the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound AChE and are able to bind to a model organophosphate, dichlorvos, precluding its inhibitory effect on other enzymatic substrates. In a mouse model of organophosphate poisoning, the nanoparticles were shown to improve the AChE activity in the blood and markedly improved the survival of dichlorvos-challenged mice. PMID:26053868

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  16. Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

    1974-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

  17. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

  18. Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).

    PubMed

    Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

    1982-01-01

    Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

  19. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

  20. Case study: fatal poisoning by malathion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S Thompson; R. G Treble; A Magliocco; J. R Roettger; J. C Eichhorst

    1998-01-01

    A case involving a fatal poisoning (suicide) by the insecticide malathion is described. The intact insecticide was found in the post-mortem blood and gastric contents at concentrations of 1.8 and 978 ?g\\/ml, respectively. None of the insecticide was found in the autopsied liver tissue. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques were used for the identification and quantification of malathion in the

  1. Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q. [Westinghouse Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist; the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper. In an earlier study, the authors demonstrated safe ratios for iron, manganese, and chromium oxides to {sup 235}U. In these studies, the Hansen-Roach 16-group cross sections were used with the Savannah River site code HRXN. Multiplication factors were computed, and safe ratios were defined such that the adjusted neutron multiplication factors (k values) were <0.95. These safe weight ratios were Fe:{sup 235}U - 77:1; Mn:{sup 235}U - 30:1; and Cr:{sup 235}U - 52:1. Palmer has shown that for certain mixtures of aluminum, iron, and zirconium with {sup 235}U, the computed infinite multiplication factors may differ by as much as 20% with different cross sections and processing systems. Parks et al. have further studied these mixtures and state, {open_quotes}...these metal/uranium mixtures are very sensitive to the metal cross-section data in the intermediate-energy range and the processing methods that are used.{close_quotes} They conclude with a call for more experimental data. The purpose of this study is to reexamine earlier work with cross sections and processing codes used at Westinghouse Savannah River Company today. This study will focus on {sup 235}U mixtures with iron, manganese and chromium. Sodium will be included in the list of poisons because it is abundant in many of the waste materials.

  2. Organophosphate poisonings with parathion and dimethoate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Hoffmann; Thomas Papendorf

    2006-01-01

    Objective  Organophosphate toxicity is the leading cause of morbidity and death in poisoning by insecticides. The clinical symptoms of\\u000a pesticide toxicity range from the classic cholinergic syndrome to flaccid paralysis and intractable seizures. The mainstays\\u000a of therapy are atropine, oximes, benzodiazepines and supportive care. The toxicokinetics vary not only with the extent of\\u000a exposure, but also with the chemical structure of

  3. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

    1981-12-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

  4. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  5. INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

    Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

  6. Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

  7. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-01-01

    A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

  8. White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.

    PubMed

    Pande, T K; Pandey, S

    2004-03-01

    Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

  9. Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

    The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

  10. Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

  11. A Fatal Case of Pentedrone and ?-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sykutera, Marzena; Cychowska, Magdalena; Bloch-Boguslawska, El?bieta

    2015-05-01

    We report a fatal case of combined ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) poisoning. A 28-year-old man was taken to hospital in asystole. Despite resuscitation efforts over 30 min, he died. The forensic autopsy showed pulmonary edema and moderately advanced atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries. Microscopic observation revealed chronic changes in the heart. Confirmation of the presence of pentedrone, ?-PVP, and its metabolite 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-ol (OH-?-PVP) in tissues and fluids were achieved using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis after liquid-liquid extraction. A quantitative validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of the above designer drugs in postmortem samples. Pentedrone, ?-PVP, and OH-?-PVP concentrations were 8,794, 901 and 185 ng/mL in whole blood, respectively; 100,044, 2,610 and 2,264 ng/g in the liver, respectively; 22,102, 462 and 294 ng/g in the kidney, respectively; 13,248, 120 and 91 ng/g in the brain, respectively and 500,534, 4,190 and 47 ng/g in the stomach contents, respectively. This is the first known reported death attributed to the combined use of ?-PVP and pentedrone. Additionally, this article is the first to report the distribution of pentedrone in postmortem human samples. PMID:25737339

  12. Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SONG, CHENGZHEN; KAN, BAOTIAN; YU, GUANGCAI; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WANG, JIERU; SUN, JING

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the ‘Qilu scheme’, which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

  13. Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28?mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21?mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79?mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22?mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

  14. Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.

    2010-08-26

    Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal whose transport into the cell is tightly regulated. Kineococcus radiotolerans was previously shown to specifically accumulate soluble copper in the cytoplasm and cell growth was significantly enhanced by copper during chronic irradiation. This study provides a systematic investigation of copper accumulation, toxicity, and homeostasis in K. radiotolerans through combined physiological experimentation and quantitative shot-gun proteomics. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations, though intracellular metal accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2 = 0.7). Global proteomics analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the total number of response proteins and their abundance with copper concentration and culture age. Approximately 40% of the K. radiotolerans genome was differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Concomitant production of antioxidants and protective osmolytes signifies an important adaptation for maintenance of cellular redox; few known metal binding proteins were detected. This study offers a first glimpse into the complexity of coordinated biochemical response pathways in K. radiotolerans invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations that may be pertinent for new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration.

  15. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovi?, Radmila; Stevanovi?, Jasmina; Avramovi?, Ljiljana; Nedeljkovi?, Dragutin; Jugovi?, Branimir; Staji?-Troši?, Jasna; Gvozdenovi?, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  16. Self-poisoning and Moon Phases in Oslo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jacobsen; P. S. Frederichsen; K. M. Knutsen; Y. Sørum; T. Talseth; O. R. Ødegaard

    1986-01-01

    1 During 1980 the relation between the moon phases and 1187 cases of self-poisonings in Oslo was studied.2 In contrast to a previous report from India no significant correlation was found between the full moon and self-poisoning.3 The aetiology of self-poisonings in western countries is rather more complex than to be explained by speculative 'human tidal waves'.

  17. Comparison of chlorine-poisoned experiments to calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Wilson, R.E.

    2000-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has fissile materials in salt, which could be processed for disposal more efficiently if the nuclear poison effect of the chlorine were validated. The authors conclude that chlorine can be credited as poison when present in thermal systems. The 27-, 44-, and 238-group libraries in SCALE and the ENDFB-B libraries with MCNP underpredict the poisonous effect of chlorine in thermal systems.

  18. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Suspected Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex F. Manini; Lewis S. Nelson; Adam H. Skolnick; William Slater; Robert S. Hoffman

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning is the second leading cause of injury-related fatality in the USA and the leading cause of cardiac arrest in victims\\u000a under 40 years of age. The study objective was to define the electrocardiographic (ECG) predictors of adverse cardiovascular\\u000a events (ACVE) complicating suspected acute poisoning (SAP). This was a case-control study in adults at three tertiary-care\\u000a hospitals and one regional Poison

  19. Animal models of copper-associated liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, I Carmen; Aburto, Enrique M

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have made possible the identification of genetic defects responsible for Wilson's disease, Indian childhood cirrhosis and copper toxicosis in Long Evans Cinnamon rats, toxic milk mice, and Bedlington terriers. The Wilson's disease gene is localized on human chromosome 13 and codes for ATP7B, a copper transporting P-type ATPase. A genetic defect similar to that of Wilson's disease occurs in Long Evans Cinnamon rats and toxic milk mice. Familial copper storage disorders in Bedlington and West Highland white terriers are associated with early subclinical disease, and copper accumulation with subsequent liver injury culminating in cirrhosis. The canine copper toxicosis locus in Bedlington terriers has been mapped to canine chromosome region CFA 10q26. Recently, a mutated MURR1 gene was discovered in Bedlington terriers affected with the disease. Idiopathic childhood cirrhosis is biochemically similar to copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers, but clinically much more severe. Both conditions are characterized by the absence of neurologic damage and Kayser-Fleisher rings, and normal ceruloplasmin levels. A recent study added North Ronaldsay sheep to the list of promising animal models to study Indian childhood cirrhosis. Morphologic similarities between the two conditions include periportal to panlobular copper retention and liver changes varying from active hepatitis to panlobular pericellular fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Certain copper-associated disorders, such as chronic active hepatitis in Doberman pinschers and Skye terrier hepatitis are characterized by copper retention secondary to the underlying disease, thus resembling primary biliary cirrhosis in humans. Copper-associated liver disease has increasingly being recognized in Dalmatians. Copper-associated liver diseases in Dalmatians and Long Evans Cinnamom rats share many morphologic features. Fulminant hepatic failure in Dalmatians is characterized by high serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and severe necrosis of centrilobular areas (periacinar, zone 3) hepatocytes. Macrophages and surviving hepatocytes contain copper-positive material. Liver disease associated with periacinar copper accumulation has also been described in Siamese cats. Many questions regarding copper metabolism in mammals, genetic background, pathogenesis and treatment of copper-associated liver diseases remain to be answered. This review describes the similarities between the clinico-pathological features of spontaneous copper-associated diseases in humans and domestic animals. PMID:12769823

  20. An urgent need to reassess the safe levels of copper in the drinking water: lessons from studies on healthy animals harboring no genetic deficits.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Jayamani, Jayagandan; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    Recent seminal studies have established neurodegeneration, cognitive waning and/or ?-amyloid deposition due to chronic copper intoxication via drinking water in healthy animals; henceforth, fuelling the debate all again over the safe levels of copper in the drinking water. This review encompasses the contemporary imperative animal studies in which the effect of chronic copper toxicity (especially via drinking water) was evaluated on the central nervous system and memory of uncompromised animals along with discussing the future perspectives. PMID:24880014

  1. Delay among the general public in telephoning a poison center.

    PubMed

    McKnight, R H; Dawson, S K; Westneat, S C; Rodgers, G C; Ross, M P

    1996-04-01

    Delay in seeking treatment for poisonings can hinder patient recovery. Our study examined delay in notifying a poison center about green tobacco sickness (GTS), a form of nicotine poisoning resulting from dermal contact with tobacco leaves. We conducted a follow-up survey of 55 cases of GTS reported by telephone to the kentucky Regional Poison Center in 1993. The "delay" group (38.2% of the cases) was defined as those callers who stated in the follow-up report that they should have phoned the poison center sooner than they did. Characteristics of the callers who delayed and the GTS patients they reported were compared with characteristics of the "non-delay" group. Delay was associated with callers' awareness of the poison center's expertise in agricultural poisonings and with age and sex of the patient. Our findings point to the need to target groups such as farmers with an educational campaign to make them more aware of the extent of the poison center's services and to encourage timely reporting of occupational poisonings. PMID:8693693

  2. An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2011-12-01

    Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

  3. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  4. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  5. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  6. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  7. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

  8. CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children

    E-print Network

    CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children Lead poisoning remains one of the most common and preventable pediatric environmental conditions even though Poisoning Prevention Branch and Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, in collaboration

  9. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP) – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Li; XueZhong Yu; Zhong Wang; HouLi Wang; XiangHuai Zhao; YuPing Cao; WeiZhan Wang; Michael Eddleston

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine

  10. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... usually affects both sides of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused ...

  11. Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

    2013-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed. PMID:23690046

  12. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  13. Using poison center data for national public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposure and associated illness.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. PMID:21937144

  14. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  15. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  16. Chronic Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence P. Riso; Michael E. Thase

    While once of limited interest to the field, chronic depression is now recognized as a major public health problem (Howland, 1993). Not only is chronic depression common, representing 19% of all depressed patients (Keller & Hanks, 1995) and 6% in the community (Kessler et al., 1994), but it is also associated with considerable psychosocial impairment (Howland, 1993), and is extremely

  17. [Chronic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Shibata, A; Narita, M

    1989-05-01

    As compared with advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, we have made little progress in chronic leukemia. Recently we have attempted some new treatments for chronic phase of CML, and confirmed those effectiveness. But for blastic crisis, we still grope in the dark. In this paper, we review the chemotherapy of CML and CLL including new treatments except bone marrow transplantation. PMID:2658837

  18. Copper Delivery by Metallochaperone Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, A.C. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    Copper is an essential element in all living organisms, serving as a cofactor for many important proteins and enzymes. Metallochaperone proteins deliver copper ions to specific physiological partners by direct protein-protein interactions. The Atx1-like chaperones transfer copper to intracellular copper transporters, and the CCS chaperones shuttle copper to copper,zinc superoxide dismutase. Crystallographic studies of these two copper chaperone families have provided insights into metal binding and target recognition by metallochaperones and have led to detailed molecular models for the copper transfer mechanism.

  19. Pulsed copper halide vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Petrash, G. G.; Trofimov, A. N.

    The theory and the performance characteristics of copper halide lasers are examined with reference to recent theoretical and experimental research in the field of metal vapor lasers. The discussion covers gas discharge tubes, comparative characteristics of copper halide lasers, determination of the metastable level decomposition rates in copper chloride and copper bromide lasers, and spectroscopic measurements of the discharge plasma in copper halide lasers. Attention is also given to the kinetics of copper atoms formation in copper halide lasers and calculation of the kinetic characteristics of copper halide lasers.

  20. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

  1. Electron probe X-ray analysis on human hepatocellular lysosomes with copper deposits: copper binding to a thiol-protein in lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanaichi, T.; Kidokoro, R.; Hayashi, H.; Sakamoto, N.

    1984-11-01

    Livers of eight patients with chronic liver diseases were investigated by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. First, three kinds of preparations (osmium-Epon sections, glutaraldehyde-frozen sections, and unfixed-frozen sections) were compared for element detectability at a subcellular level. The glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were satisfactory as far as copper, sulfur, and phosphorus were concerned. Five patients (one patient with Wilson's disease, one chronic cholestasis, one chronic hepatitis, and two asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis) yielded x-ray images of copper and sulfur consistent with hepatocellular lysosomes. Second, the glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were utilized for a study of copper deposits in the patients' livers. There was a significant correlation between copper and sulfur contents in the lysosomes of all patients studied but no correlation in the remainder of the cytoplasm. Zinc was not detected in the lysosomes. Whatever the content of copper in the lysosomes, the ratio of delta copper to phosphorus (weight/weight) to delta sulfur to phosphorus was 0.60. These data indicate that most lysosomal copper binds to a thiol protein, probably metallothionein, in the liver.

  2. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  3. [Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Berg, E; Fischer, R

    1976-09-10

    Three cases of acute CCI4 poisoning are reported which came for admission in the stage of hepatorenal insufficiency. All three intoxications occurred in the home by inhalation as a result of disregarding the safety precautions. The patients remembered using the noxa only after renewed questioning by the doctors. All three patients were able to be discharged cured after appropriate therapy, including peritoneal or hemodialysis. A disturbance of the capacity for urine concentration could be demonstrated up to 3 years after the exposure, as a last limitation of function. PMID:822322

  4. Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

  5. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2013-01-01

    Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

  6. DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.

    PubMed

    Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

    1997-04-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

  7. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  8. Majorana qubit decoherence by quasiparticle poisoning

    E-print Network

    Rainis, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of quasiparticle poisoning in a nanowire-based realization of a Majorana qubit, where a spin-orbit-coupled semiconducting wire is placed on top of a (bulk) superconductor. By making use of recent experimental data exhibiting evidence of a low-temperature residual non-equilibrium quasiparticle population in superconductors, we show by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the dephasing time due to the tunneling of quasiparticles into the nanowire may be problematically short to allow for qubit manipulation.

  9. Majorana qubit decoherence by quasiparticle poisoning

    E-print Network

    Diego Rainis; Daniel Loss

    2012-05-30

    We consider the problem of quasiparticle poisoning in a nanowire-based realization of a Majorana qubit, where a spin-orbit-coupled semiconducting wire is placed on top of a (bulk) superconductor. By making use of recent experimental data exhibiting evidence of a low-temperature residual non-equilibrium quasiparticle population in superconductors, we show by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the dephasing time due to the tunneling of quasiparticles into the nanowire may be problematically short to allow for qubit manipulation.

  10. Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F

    2007-04-20

    The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

  11. Refractories for Copper Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK E. SCHLESINGER

    1996-01-01

    The furnaces used for producing molten copper from concentrates and scrap - flash: smelters, converters, and anode and fire-refining furnaces - present a unique combination of challenges to refractory life. Highly aggressive slags, mechanical stresses, batch operation, and increasingly higher operating temperatures all combine to destroy most refractory materials. Over the past generation, copper producers have adopted refractory materials biased

  12. Ions Sputtered from Copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Bradley; E. Ruedl

    1962-01-01

    Positive ions sputtered from copper under a variety of different bombardment and surface conditions have been mass analyzed and found to include species characteristic of the incident ions (``reflected'' ions), of copper and some of its compounds, and of alkali metal impurities. A model is described which accounts for most of the properties of the ``reflected'' ions, not in terms

  13. [The differential diagnosis of severe poisoning using electroencephalographic findings].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovski?, V N

    1976-01-01

    The author conducted a clinical and EEG study of 308 patients with severe acute poisoning (by barbiturates, phosphororganic compounds, ethyl alcohol, noxiron, elenium, narcotics, carbon monoxide, tubazide, ethylenglycole and dichlorethan). It is shown that EEG changes in combination with clinical and toxicological data permit to qualify more precisely the form of poisoning and conduct specific therapy. PMID:1266493

  14. A prospective study of acute poisonings in Finnish hospital patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Outi Lapatto-Reiniluoto; Kari T Kivistö; Sinikka Pohjola-Sintonen; Kimmo Luomanmäki; Pertti J Neuvonen

    1998-01-01

    1 We have carried out a prospective study of all adult patients presenting with acute poisoning during one month to the Helsinki University Central Hospital (Meilahti Hospital).2 Two hundred and twenty-six cases of acute poisoning (113 males and 113 females) presented to the emergency department. Most cases in both men (66%) and women (67%) involved alcohol. As to drugs, psychotropic

  15. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  17. Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Ferguson

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

  18. Intentional Self-Poisoning with Glyphosate-Containing Herbicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Menkes; W. A. Temple; I. R. Edwards

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of self-poisoning with 'Roundup' herbicide are described, one of them fatal. One of the survivors had a protracted hospital stay and considerable clinical and laboratory detail is presented. Serious self-poisoning is associated with massive gastrointestinal fluid loss and renal failure. The management of such cases and the role of surfactant toxicity are discussed.

  19. 790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --

    E-print Network

    790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

  20. The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

    2000-01-01

    Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

  1. Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

    SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

  2. Acute Poisoning in Children; Data of a Pediatric Emergency Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Sabiha; Bora Carman, Kursat; Dinleyici, Ener Cagr?

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute Poisoning in children is still an important public health problem and represents a frequent cause of admission in emergency units. The epidemiological surveillance specific for each country is necessary to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken. Methods The present retrospective study describes the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in a pediatric population admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department of Eskisehir Osmangazi University Hospital during the year 2009. Findings Two hundred eighteen children were reffered to the emergency department due to acute poisoning. 48.4% of patients were boys and 51.6% were girls. The majority of cases were due to accidental poisoning (73.3% of all patients). Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning (48.3%), followed by ingestion of corrosive substance (23.1%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (12.5%). Tricyclic antidepressant was the most common drug (11.7%). Methylphenidate poisoning, the second common drug. 262 patients were discharged from hospital within 48 hours. Conclusion Preventable accidental poisonings are still a significant cause of morbidity among children in developing countries. Drugs and corrosive agents are the most frequent agents causing poisoning. PMID:23056835

  3. Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

    1993-01-01

    The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

  4. Coupled IVPs to Investigate a Nuclear Reactor Poison Burn Up

    SciTech Connect

    Faghihi, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University 71348-51154, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-09

    A set of coupled IVPs that describe the change rate of an important poison, in a nuclear reactor, has been written herein. Specifically, in this article, we have focused on the samarium-149 (as a poison) burnup in a desired pressurized water nuclear reactor and its concentration are given using our MATLAB-linked 'solver'.

  5. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Grossbeck; J. P. A. Renier; Tim Bigelow

    2003-01-01

    Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers

  6. Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

  7. The iron-sulfur clusters of dehydratases are primary intracellular targets of copper toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Lee; Imlay, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Excess copper is poisonous to all forms of life, and copper overloading is responsible for several human pathologic processes. The primary mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. In this study, mutants of Escherichia coli that lack copper homeostatic systems (copA cueO cus) were used to identify intracellular targets and to test the hypothesis that toxicity involves the action of reactive oxygen species. Low micromolar levels of copper were sufficient to inhibit the growth of both WT and mutant strains. The addition of branched-chain amino acids restored growth, indicating that copper blocks their biosynthesis. Indeed, copper treatment rapidly inactivated isopropylmalate dehydratase, an iron-sulfur cluster enzyme in this pathway. Other enzymes in this iron-sulfur dehydratase family were similarly affected. Inactivation did not require oxygen, in vivo or with purified enzyme. Damage occurred concomitant with the displacement of iron atoms from the solvent-exposed cluster, suggesting that Cu(I) damages these proteins by liganding to the coordinating sulfur atoms. Copper efflux by dedicated export systems, chelation by glutathione, and cluster repair by assembly systems all enhance the resistance of cells to this metal. PMID:19416816

  8. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  9. Acute suicidal self-poisonings during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Ciechanowicz, Robert; Klimaszyk, Dorota; Lukasik-G?ebocka, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Selected clinical aspects of suicidal attempts during pregnancy were presented. Nineteen pregnant females, in the age range 17-27 (mean 22 +/- 2.58), were admitted to the Clinic of Acute Poisonings in Gda?sk and Toxicological Ward in Pozna? between 2001 and 2004 because of acute suicidal intoxication. The main attention was put on reasons of self-intoxication, the timing of attempted suicide as well as the influence of intoxication on the mother and the child. For most admitted women it was their first pregnancy (12 cases, 63.2%). The week of pregnancy varied from 4 to 37 (mean 19 +/- 9.3) weeks. The most popular drugs for attempting suicide among pregnant females were benzodiazepines (7 cases, 36.8%). The most often reason of suicidal attempts was unplanned pregnancy (9 cases, 47.4%). There were two miscarriages and one premature birth observed in our cases. Acute self-poisonings during pregnancy appeared to be a relatively marginal problem in the analyzed toxicology clinics and occurred in merely 0.38% of all women hospitalized between 2001 and 2004 in both clinics. The main reason of suicidal attempts in pregnant women was unplanned pregnancy (9 cases, 47.4%). None of the studied females admitted that the main reason of suicidal attempt was an abortion induction. PMID:16225088

  10. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More About Us Newsroom Departments & Divisions Locations & Directions Who We Are Connect With Us Contact Us More Chronic Bronchitis ... Information Pediatric Conditions Healthy Lifestyle More About Us Who We Are Newsroom Network of Locations More eNewsletters and More © ...

  11. Chronic Meningitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include sarcoidosis and certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

  12. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meimei Li; Steven J Zinkle

    2012-01-01

    High strength, high conductivity copper alloys are prime candidates for high heat flux applications in fusion energy systems. This chapter reviews the physical and mechanical properties of pure copper and copper alloys with the focus on precipitation-hardened CuCrZr and dispersion-strengthened CuAl25 alloys. The effect of neutron irradiation on copper and copper alloys is reviewed in terms of radiation effects on

  13. Copper sensitivity of Gonyaulax tamarensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Anderson; F. M. M. Morel

    1978-01-01

    The copper sensitivity of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax tamarensis was examined in artificial seawater medium. Two short term responses of the organism to copper toxicity are rapid loss of motility and reduced photosynthetic carbon fixation. The chelators tris(hydroxymethylamino)methane (Tris) and ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used to demonstrate that copper toxicity is a unique function of cupric ion activity. Copper additions to

  14. Copper and zinc body levels in inflammation: An overview of the data obtained from animal and human studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Milanino; Mauro Marrella; Roberta Gasperini; Mara Pasqualicchio; Giampaolo Velo

    1993-01-01

    The development of acute and chronic inflammatory processes induces, in the laboratory animal, a net accumulation of both copper and zinc in many body compartments, the inflammed area included. In rheumatoid arthritis, as well as in animal models, only plasma zinc concentration seems to be significantly correlated with disease severity, while the increase in total plasma copper could be described

  15. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  16. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  17. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hawai‘i and the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai‘i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai‘i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

  18. Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

    E-print Network

    Nam, Seung Yeob

    1 Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks Seung Yeob Nam, Member- tion Protocol (ARP) is proposed to prevent ARP poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks deployable. Index Terms--ARP cache poisoning, Man-in-the-Middle attack, ARP poisoning prevention, voting. I

  19. Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    ACUTE POISONING jUNE 2012, Issue 6 Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization worldwide. The prevalence of acute poisoning in Southern Africa varies between 1 and 17%1 and available evidence from Botswana suggests that acute poisoning ranks third among

  20. Differential expression of copper-associated and oxidative stress related proteins in a new variant of copper toxicosis in Doberman pinschers

    PubMed Central

    Spee, Bart; Mandigers, Paul JJ; Arends, Brigitte; Bode, Peter; van den Ingh, Ted SGAM; Hoffmann, Gaby; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C

    2005-01-01

    Background The role of copper accumulation in the onset of hepatitis is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated a spontaneous disease model of primary copper-toxicosis in Doberman pinschers so to gain insights into the pathophysiology of copper toxicosis, namely on genes involved in copper metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) defences. Results We used quantitative real-time PCR to determine differentially expressed genes within a target panel, investigating different groups ranging from copper-associated subclinical hepatitis (CASH) to a clinical chronic hepatitis with high hepatic copper concentrations (Doberman hepatitis, DH). Furthermore, a non-copper associated subclinical hepatitis group (N-CASH) with normal hepatic copper concentrations was added as a control. Most mRNA levels of proteins involved in copper binding, transport, and excretion were around control values in the N-CASH and CASH group. In contrast, many of these (including ATP7A, ATP7B, ceruloplasmin, and metallothionein) were significantly reduced in the DH group. Measurements on defences against oxidative stress showed a decrease in gene-expression of superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase in both groups with high copper. Moreover, the anti-oxidative glutathione molecule was clearly reduced in the DH group. Conclusion In the DH group the expression of gene products involved in copper efflux was significantly reduced, which might explain the high hepatic copper levels in this disease. ROS defences were most likely impaired in the CASH and DH group. Overall, this study describes a new variant of primary copper toxicosis and could provide a molecular basis for equating future treatments in dog and in man. PMID:15790412

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of obidoxime in sarin-poisoned rats.

    PubMed

    Alioth-Streichenberg, C M; Bodmer, D M; Waser, P G

    1991-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oxime obidoxime (Toxogonin, 50 mg/kg iv) were investigated in anesthetized normal rats and in sarin-poisoned (50 micrograms/kg iv) rats. The kinetics were described by a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life ranged from 35 min in normal rats to 86 min in sarin-poisoned rats. Obidoxime excretion occurred predominantly by the renal route, amounting to 4.6% of the administered dose in normal rats and to 0.9% in sarin-poisoned rats within the first hour of administration. The significantly diminished glomerular filtration rate confirmed the retardation of obidoxime excretion in sarin poisoning. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) response to obidoxime, measured in normal rats, was a transient hypotension, but to sarin an immediate hypertension. In sarin-poisoned rats the therapeutic sequence of administration of obidoxime and atropine (5 mg/kg iv) seemed to be important: the administration of atropine 10 min after and of obidoxime 20 min after sarin poisoning exerted a stabilizing effect on MAP. No serum albumin binding was found for obidoxime. Competition experiments at the isolated nicotinic receptor demonstrated the anticholinergic activity of obidoxime. The affinity of obidoxime was 1000 times smaller than that of acetylcholine. It is concluded that obidoxime, due to its prolonged residence time in the organism in sarin poisoning, exerts a "curare-like" inhibition and protection of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, combined with atropine, a synergistic effect on blood pressure normalization. PMID:2020972

  2. Volatility of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Joyce, D.B.

    1996-08-01

    The relevant aqueous thermodynamics of copper and its oxides are evaluated and summarized with emphasis on solubility, hydrolysis, and complexation. The solubilities of metallic copper, solid cuprous and cupric oxides in steam measured by Pocock and Stewart in 1963 are discussed and the latter data are fitted in the form of established empirical equations and compared to other existing results. No other sources of data were found for the solubility of copper and cupric oxide in steam and even these data are very limited. Discussion of corresponding available solubility data on both oxide phases in liquid water is given. The possible effects of complexing agents are considered. A brief discussion is provided of the role of surface adsorption in determining the fate of dissolved copper in the boiler. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Intermediate syndrome with delayed distal polyneuropathy from ethyl parathion poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nisse, P; Forceville, X; Cezard, C; Ameri, A; Mathieu-Nolf, M

    1998-12-01

    An acute poisoning in a 44-y-old female who ingested 50 ml of ethyl parathion concentrate (25 g) is described. She was treated by gastric lavage, administration of pralidoxime and atropine, and mechanical ventilation. As signs of intoxication disappeared at day 3, treatment was discontinued. The patient had a relapse of acute cholinergic crisis at day 4, and the same treatment was applied again. The acute poisoning phase was followed by an intermediate syndrome and delayed distal polyneuropathy. The clinical course of this severe ethyl parathion poisoning was favorable after 40 d. PMID:9830697

  4. The selected information sources on poisoning and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Sato, C

    1998-03-01

    The third leading cause of unintentional injury death in 1993 was poisoning by solids and liquids, just behind motor vehicle accidents and falls. Poisoning and toxicology impacts all health care professionals. Physicians and emergency medicine professionals manage acute care, health educators address prevention and public education, and researchers focus on advancements. This article is an introduction to selected basic through advanced print and electronic information sources for anyone interested in poisoning and toxicology. All sources are available through the Hawaii Medical Library. PMID:9581051

  5. Canine models of copper toxicosis for understanding mammalian copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Hille; Leegwater, Peter A J; Watson, Adrian L; Rothuizen, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Hereditary forms of copper toxicosis exist in man and dogs. In man, Wilson's disease is the best studied disorder of copper overload, resulting from mutations in the gene coding for the copper transporter ATP7B. Forms of copper toxicosis for which no causal gene is known yet are recognized as well, often in young children. Although advances have been made in unraveling the genetic background of disorders of copper metabolism in man, many questions regarding disease mechanisms and copper homeostasis remain unanswered. Genetic studies in the Bedlington terrier, a dog breed affected with copper toxicosis, identified COMMD1, a gene that was previously unknown to be involved in copper metabolism. Besides the Bedlington terrier, a number of other dog breeds suffer from hereditary copper toxicosis and show similar phenotypes to humans with copper storage disorders. Unlike the heterogeneity of most human populations, the genetic structure within a purebred dog population is homogeneous, which is advantageous for unraveling the molecular genetics of complex diseases. This article reviews the work that has been done on the Bedlington terrier, summarizes what was learned from studies into COMMD1 function, describes hereditary copper toxicosis phenotypes in other dog breeds, and discusses the opportunities for genome-wide association studies on copper toxicosis in the dog to contribute to the understanding of mammalian copper metabolism and copper metabolism disorders in man. PMID:22147205

  6. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  7. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.

    PubMed

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

  8. Prolonged cardiotoxicity from poison lilly (Veratrum viride).

    PubMed

    Prince, L A; Stork, C M

    2000-10-01

    A 51-y-o otherwise healthy male presented to the emergency department 45 min after ingesting a soup made with boiled "leeks". Physical examination was significant for severe vomiting depressed mental status, and sluggishly reactive 2-3 mm pupils. Heart rate was 30 bpm and bp was 40/p mmHg requiring atropine and fluid resuscitation. After 60 min substernal chest pressure was noted and an ECG showed new V2-V6 ST segment depression. Recurrent hypotension required the use ofa dopamine infusion. At this time, the regional poison control center botanist identified a sample of the ingested material as Veratrum viride. The patient improved slowly over the next 24 hours, although bradycardia and heart block persisted for approximately 48 hours. PMID:11003119

  9. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    PubMed

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

  10. Curare: the South American arrow poison.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R

    2005-02-01

    The history of curare is both curious and convoluted. A product of South American culture it emerged in the sixteenth century from the mists of antiquity at the same time as quinine, coca, and chocolate. Like quinine, at first came the extract but no plant, and later the plant but no chemical compound. It took more than 300 years and the efforts of many explorers and scientists to resolve the problem. These included Condamine, Humboldt, Brodie, Waterton, Bernard, Dale, Walker, and King. Finally, the pure compound d-tubocurarine was isolated from the liana Chondrodendron and synthesised. Its specific physiological action was blockade of the effect of acetylcholine at the neuro-muscular junction. Such a paralytic poison could be used to kill oneself or others. The bizarre plot to kill the Prime Minister, Lloyd George, during the First World War is described. Fortunately this nefarious plan was thwarted by the Secret Service! PMID:15825249

  11. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  12. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient’s symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  13. Community partnerships in preventing childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Dugbatey, K. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States); Evans, R.G.; Lienhop, M.T.; Stelzer, M.

    1995-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is an environmental health problem that has no socio-economic, racial/ethnic, or regional boundaries. Because the key element in the exposure pathway is lead-based paint, it is more likely to impact inner city urban populations than those living in suburban areas. Suburban development primarily occurred after lead was removed from lead-based paint. It is maximally effective to adopt strategies that promote grassroots community development in designing preventive interventions. This paper reviews such a strategy for building community partnerships that have been instrumental in the development and implementation of an innovative lead education program. Saint Louis University School of Public Health reaches out to private and public nonprofit community organizations in this community-based lead education program.

  14. Grayanotoxin poisoning: 'mad honey disease' and beyond.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Suze A; Kleerekooper, Iris; Hofman, Zonne L M; Kappen, Isabelle F P M; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2012-09-01

    Many plants of the Ericaceae family, Rhododendron, Pieris, Agarista and Kalmia, contain diterpene grayanotoxins. Consumption of grayanotoxin containing leaves, flowers or secondary products as honey may result in intoxication specifically characterized by dizziness, hypotension and atrial-ventricular block. Symptoms are caused by an inability to inactivate neural sodium ion channels resulting in continuous increased vagal tone. Grayanotoxin containing products are currently sold online, which may pose an increasing risk. In humans, intoxication is rarely lethal, in contrast to cattle and pet poisoning cases. Scientific evidence for the medicinal properties of grayanotoxin containing preparations, such as honey or herbal preparation in use in folk medicine, is scarce, and such use may even be harmful. PMID:22528814

  15. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management

    PubMed Central

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

  16. Clinical management of field worker organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Midtling, J E; Barnett, P G; Coye, M J; Velasco, A R; Romero, P; Clements, C L; O'Malley, M A; Tobin, M W; Rose, T G; Monosson, I H

    1985-04-01

    A group of 16 cauliflower workers poisoned by residues of the organophosphate insecticides mevinphos and phosphamidon was followed in weekly clinics with interviews and determinations of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase levels. None had preexposure baseline values. Although six had initial erythrocyte cholinesterase values within the laboratory normal range, subsequent testing showed their erythrocyte activity had been significantly inhibited. While the most severe symptoms of the 16 subjects resolved after 28 days, their erythrocyte cholinesterase levels did not reach a plateau until an average of 66 days after exposure, after which most patients continued to report blurred vision, headache, weakness or anorexia. These findings support the view that the diagnostic utility of single cholinesterase levels is limited in the absence of baseline values. PMID:4013266

  17. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajasree J; Lawler, Lanika; Miller, Mark R

    2007-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is the progressive and permanent destruction of the pancreas resulting in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and, often, chronic disabling pain. The etiology is multifactorial. Alcoholism plays a significant role in adults, whereas genetic and structural defects predominate in children. The average age at diagnosis is 35 to 55 years. Morbidity and mortality are secondary to chronic pain and complications (e.g., diabetes, pancreatic cancer). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the radiographic test of choice for diagnosis, with ductal calcifications being pathognomonic. Newer modalities, such as endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, provide diagnostic results similar to those of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Management begins with lifestyle modifications (e.g., cessation of alcohol and tobacco use) and dietary changes followed by analgesics and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Before proceeding with endoscopic or surgical interventions, physicians and patients should weigh the risks and benefits of each procedure. Therapeutic endoscopy is indicated for symptomatic or complicated pseudocyst, biliary obstruction, and decompression of pancreatic duct. Surgical procedures include decompression for large duct disease (pancreatic duct dilatation of 7 mm or more) and resection for small duct disease. Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is the most commonly performed surgery in patients with large duct disease. Pancreatoduodenectomy is indicated for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic head enlargement. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk of pancreatic neoplasm; regular surveillance is sometimes advocated, but formal guidelines and evidence of clinical benefit are lacking. PMID:18092710

  18. [Chronic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results. PMID:8520023

  19. Chronic urticaria.

    PubMed Central

    Leznoff, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the pathophysiology of chronic urticaria in light of recent evidence for it being an autoimmune disease, and to recommend appropriate management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An extensive literature review was supplemented with a MEDLINE search. Articles from easily available journals were preferred. These consisted of the most recent basic articles on autoimmunity in relation to chronic urticaria and a selection of previous articles on pathophysiology, which illustrate consistencies with recent evidence. The investigation and management protocol is supported by original and relevant literature. MAIN FINDINGS: The histopathology and immunohistology of chronic urticaria and certain clinical studies were a prelude to definitive evidence that most instances of chronic urticaria are autoimmune. Although allergic and other causes are uncommon, these must be sought because identification can lead to cure or specific treatment. Management of the much more common autoimmune urticaria is based on principles derived from the demonstrated pathogenesis and on results of published clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: In most instances, chronic urticaria is an autoimmune disease, but uncommon allergic or other causes must be considered. PMID:9805172

  20. TIME-DEPENDENT FISSION-PRODUCT POISONS IN U-235 AND NATURAL URANIUM FUELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Stuart; T. R. England

    1962-01-01

    Fission-product poison in the core of the PWR seedblanket reactor was ; calculated. The fission-product poison in U²³⁵ is compared with that of ; natural uranium and Pu²³⁹ The effects of a power-dependent poison are ; described. The aggregate poison stability is discussed. The values of ; calculated and experimental poisons are compared. The results are based on ; explicit

  1. Fatal tolperisone poisoning: autopsy and toxicology findings in three suicide cases.

    PubMed

    Sporkert, Frank; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc P; Mangin, Patrice

    2012-02-10

    Tolperisone (Mydocalm) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant with few sedative side effects that is used for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. We describe three cases of suicidal tolperisone poisoning in three healthy young subjects in the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. In all cases, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings did not reveal the cause of death. Systematic toxicological analysis (STA) including immunological tests, screening for volatile substances and blood, urine and gastric content screening by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD demonstrated the presence of tolperisone in all cases. In addition to tolperisone, only the analgesics paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen and naproxen could be detected. The blood ethanol concentrations were all lower than 0.10 g/kg. Tolperisone was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using n-chlorobutane as the extraction solvent. The quantification was performed by GC-NPD analysis of blood, urine and gastric content. Tolperisone concentrations of 7.0 mg/l, 14 mg/l and 19 mg/l were found in the blood of the deceased. In the absence of other autopsy findings, the deaths in these three cases were finally explained as a result of lethal tolperisone ingestion. To the best of our knowledge, these three cases are the first reported cases of suicidal tolperisone poisonings. PMID:21683537

  2. Lead-poisoned wildfowl in Spain: a significant threat for human consumers.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Raimon; Serratosa, Jordi; Thomas, Vernon G

    2002-12-01

    Each year, 1.2 million Spanish hunters and shooters discharge 6,000 t of lead shot, of which 30-50 t are deposited in wetlands of this European country. Waterfowl may accidentally ingest lead pellets in these aquatic habitats and become fatally lead poisoned. It has been estimated that 50,000 birds die from this cause in Spain each year, but many more are chronically affected. Most of them are species that can be hunted legally, and the lead toxicosis enhances their susceptibility to being killed by hunting. Consequently, about 30,000 waterfowl hunters and their families, especially children, are at risk from secondary lead ingestion from these poisoned birds. The consumption of a single liver (often eaten in Spain) from any waterfowl shot in this country may result in the direct uptake of 0.01-2.3 mg of lead in 40.4% of cases. This is based on the percentage of 411 analyzed waterfowl having liver lead contents over 0.5 mg kg(-1) wet weight, the maximum lead level in poultry offal that current EU regulations permit. Therefore, health management authorities should draw urgent attention to this environmental problem that presents such an established risk to human health. PMID:12590779

  3. [Gout in the age of Justinian - a consequence of lead poisoning?].

    PubMed

    Trier, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other chronic conditions, gout has a remarkable position in medical, historical and other texts from the Byzantine Empire in the sixth century AD - the age of emperor Justinian. The disease and its treatment is thoroughly described in the medical literature, and an effective and still applied drug for treatment of acute attacks - colchicine - was invented already in the fourth century by Byzantine physicians. The disease was apparently accumulated among Byzantine emperors, and according to one source, Justinian was a patient himself. Also, gout may have been common among the citizens of Constantinople. As gout can be due to lead poisoning, a contributing cause for this accumulation may have been exposure to high levels of lead, originating from water pipes, wine containers and cooking pots used for producing the sweetening grape syrup sapa. Although gout seems to have been a significant, widespread and invalidating disease, its influence on the Byzantine society is uncertain. The position of the disease can be interpreted as an indication that lead poisoning was a common condition, thus contributing to other and possibly more important effects on the population and the society. PMID:25639068

  4. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    MedlinePLUS

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  6. Copper deficiency alters the neurochemical profile of developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Gybina, Anna A.; Tkac, Ivan; Prohaska, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Copper deficiency is associated with impaired brain development and mitochondrial dysfunction. Perinatal copper deficiency was produced in Holtzman rats. In vivo proton NMR spectroscopy was used to quantify 18 cerebellar and hippocampal metabolites on postnatal day 21 (P21). Copper status was evaluated in male copper-adequate (CuA) and copper-deficient (CuD) brothers at P19 and at P23, 2 days following NMR experiments, by metal and in vitro metabolite data. Compared to CuA pups, CuD pups had lower ascorbate concentration in both brain regions, confirming prior HPLC data. Both regions of CuD rats also had lower N-acetylaspartate levels consistent with delayed development or impaired mitochondrial function similar to prior work demonstrating elevated lactate and citrate. For other metabolites, the P21 neurochemical profile of CuD rats was remarkably similar to CuA rats but uniquely different from iron-deficient or chronic hypoxia models. Further research is needed to determine the neurochemical consequences of copper deficiency. PMID:19356314

  7. Chronic hepatitis in Doberman pinschers. A review.

    PubMed

    Mandigers, P J J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Spee, B; Penning, L C; Bode, P; Rothuizen, J

    2004-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis in Doberman pinschers is predominantly seen in female dogs, usually between 4 and 7 years of age and was first recognized in the early eighties. The histopathological characteristics of Doberman hepatitis are those of micronodular cirrhosis with histological features of fibrosis, piece meal necrosis and progressive lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration of the portal triads. Currently there are two hypotheses on the pathogenesis although neither of them has been elucidated. The first hypothesis is that of a copper toxicosis. The second is that of autoimmunity. Similarities and differences with other breeds and studies on both hypotheses are reviewed, as well as results of recent research of our group. Based on recent findings chronic hepatitis in Doberman pinschers is most likely to be a form of copper toxicosis. Although there are several indications that suggest autoimmunity as well, this still remains unclear. PMID:15559390

  8. Poisoning of sheep by seeds of Crotalaria retusa: acquired resistance by continuous administration of low doses.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Bruno Leite; Nobre, Verônica M T; Dantas, Antônio F M; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Oliveira Neto, Temístocles S; Molyneux, Russell J; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Crotalaria retusa containing 6.84% (dry weight) of monocrotaline (MCT) were administered experimentally to sheep. Three sheep that received 136.8mg MCT/kg bw daily for 70 days had no clinical signs. Five out of six sheep ingesting single doses of 205.2 and 273.6mg MCT/kg bw died with acute (three sheep) or chronic intoxication (two sheep). Acute intoxicated sheep had periacinar liver necrosis and chronic intoxicated sheep liver fibrosis and megalocytosis. Another three sheep had no clinical signs after the ingestion of 20 daily doses of 136.8mg MCT/kg, followed by seven doses of 273.6mg MCT/kg, and one single dose of 342mg MCT/kg. These experiments demonstrated that sheep are susceptible to acute intoxication by MCT being intoxicated by a single oral dose of approximately 205.2mg/kg. In contrast, they develop strong resistance to MCT after the daily ingestion of non lethal doses (136.8mg/kg). It is suggested that chronic poisoning does not occur by the repeated ingestion of non acutely toxic doses, but probably by the ingestion of single toxic doses. It is also suggested that sheep do not become intoxicated with the ingestion of C. retusa in the vegetative non-seeding stage. PMID:19576921

  9. Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or

    E-print Network

    and speech · Make it hard to pay attention and learn FACT Most children get lead poisoning from paint. Sometimes lead comes from things other than paint in your home, such as: · Candy, toys, glazed pottery

  10. [Poisons and men: historical, legal and toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Frati, P; Pasquali, A; Zampi, M; Froldi, R

    2001-01-01

    Humanity has always practised the poisoning. At first, magic and mistery characterized this ritual. Then, thanks to a more careful legislation and to empirical research it became subject of toxicology. PMID:12362937

  11. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  12. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  13. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  14. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  15. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most ... had diarrhea for more than 3 days. Be Food-Safe Savvy: Know the Risks and Rules Everyone ...

  16. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious...

  17. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or...

  18. Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

    1981-06-01

    Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

  19. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning...Assistant Secretary for Health; and the Director...and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead...

  20. DepenDNS: Dependable Mechanism against DNS Cache Poisoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hung-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Yue-Hsun

    DNS cache poisoning attacks have been proposed for a long time. In 2008, Kaminsky enhanced the attacks to be powerful based on nonce query method. By leveraging Kaminsky's attack, phishing becomes large-scale since victims are hard to detect attacks. Hence, DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat in the current DNS infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure, DepenDNS, to prevent from cache poisoning attacks. DepenDNS queries multiple resolvers concurrently to verify an trustworthy answer while users perform payment transactions, e.g., auction, banking. Without modifying any resolver or authority server, DepenDNS is conveniently deployed on client side. In the end of paper, we conduct several experiments on DepenDNS to show its efficiency. We believe DepenDNS is a comprehensive solution against cache poisoning attacks.