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1

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

2

Chronic poisoning by copper in tap water: I. Copper intoxications with predominantly gastointestinal symptoms.  

PubMed

Copper can induce acute and chronic intoxications in humans. Copper in tap water has caused a series of severe systemic diseases in Germany in recent years (copper induced liver cirrhosis). Besides cirrhosis, another type of disease with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms has occurred which likewise appeared to be induced by copper in tap water. - In a retrospective investigation we looked for additional indications and proof that chronic copper poisoning has been the cause of the observed gastrointestinal diseases. All patients suffering from this type of disease had copper plumbing in their houses. - The patients (children and adults) suffered from nausea, vomiting, colic, and diarrhoea. In the group of infants, one refused formula milk (prepared with tap water) and the others suffered from persistent restlessness, unexplainable screaming (especially at night) and/or long lasting diaper rash. - We accept the diagnosis of chronic copper intoxication as the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms when at least one of the following criteria were fulfilled: 1. first manifestation, remission and relapse of the disease depend on intake and a non-intake of water containing copper, respectively. 2. hypercupric state of the patients (i.e. pathological high concentrations of the non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper in serum and/or elevated copper levels in urine) 3. signs of systemic copper intoxication in the same patient 4. signs of systemic copper intoxication or hypercupric states in members of the patient s family or in his neighbourhood (non-relatives) - We found that the disease can even be caused by copper concentrations below the allowed concentration given by the German Guidelines for Drinking Water (Trinkwasserverordnung). - The data prove that copper in drinking water can cause gastrointestinal diseases and not only the better known systemic diseases (i.e. copper induced liver cirrhosis). Copper poisoning must be considered as a possible cause of chronic gastrointestinal diseases in those countries in which copper plumbing is common. PMID:10383875

Eife, R; Weiss, M; Barros, V; Sigmund, B; Goriup, U; Komb, D; Wolf, W; Kittel, J; Schramel, P; Reiter, K

1999-06-28

3

Copper poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Jones AL, Dargan PI. Hepatic toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: ...

4

Chronic copper poisoning in sheep grazing pastures fertilized with swine manure  

SciTech Connect

Several pregnant ewes developed an acute hemolytic crisis and died. Liver and kidney copper concentrations were high, confirming chronic copper poisoning as the cause of death. Feed and water samples that the affected ewes had been consuming did not contain excess copper. Because swine manure slurry had been applied to the pasture where the sheep had grazed, a copper analysis was conducted on soil and forage samples from this field. High copper concentrations were detected in the soil and forage samples from the slurry pasture. Most sheep producers are aware of the catastrophic consequences that result when feeds containing copper and insufficient amounts of molybdenum are fed to sheep. However, producers and veterinarians often are unaware of some of the subtle sources of copper. Most of the copper that is added to swine and poultry feeds as growth promotants passes through the gastrointestinal tract unabsorbed and remains in the waste material. Pastures that have copper-containing waste material, but no molybdenum applied, can produce the same fatal results as giving sheep feed supplemented with copper but containing no molybdenum.

Kerr, L.A.; McGavin, H.D. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1991-01-01

5

Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a study of renal function in 102 patients with lead poisoning admitted to the Occupational Diseases Clinic in Bucharest during the past 10 years; nearly half the patients had no history of lead colic. Every possible cause of renal damage, other than lead, was excluded by a careful differential diagnosis. Renal function was investigated by repeated determinations of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid, urea clearance, and endogenous creatinine clearance tests. Significant decreases of the clearance values (less than 50 ml./min. urea clearance and less than 80 ml./min. creatinine clearance), persistent high blood urea (more than 50 mg./100 ml.), and high blood creatinine (more than 1·2 mg./100 ml.) were found in a significant number of cases. These signs of impaired renal function were more frequent in the group of patients with chronic lead poisoning who had had several episodes of colic and an occupational exposure of more than 10 years. A high blood pressure was also found more frequently in this group of patients. Undercompensated and decompensated renal failure was found in 17 patients, most of whom had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years and had a history of several attacks of colic. Arterial hypertension accompanied the chronic renal failure in 13 patients, the renal impairment generally preceding the rise in blood pressure by several years. The duration of occupational lead exposure, the high absorption in the past, and the long period of observation of these patients, most of whom were repeatedly hospitalized, may explain the relatively high incidence (17 cases) of nephropathy with chronic renal failure in the present group. Impairment of urea clearance seems to be the earliest sign, at a time when the creatinine clearance is still normal. As the duration of exposure lengthens and the patient is subjected to active episodes of poisoning the creatinine clearance also deteriorates. Persistent urea retention and high creatininaemia may follow in time, accompanied rather frequently by arterial hypertension. A study of some of the cases followed for several years demonstrated this progressive evolution of lead nephropathy. A functional and transitory impairment of renal function is very probably caused by an impairment of intrarenal circulation, resulting from marked vasoconstriction of the renal vessels, forming part of the generalized vasoconstriction of lead poisoning. Prolonged exposure and frequently recurring episodes of acute poisoning may lead to progressive impairment of renal function and to the development of organic lesions. Special attention should be paid to renal function tests in all cases with prolonged exposure to lead in order to prevent the development of severe lead nephropathy. PMID:5663423

Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

1968-01-01

6

[Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning].  

PubMed

Cadmium is a metallic impurity in various minerals. The two main cadmium exposure sources in general population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century. Cadmium is used in accumulators or alkaline batteries (80%) and in pigments for paints or plastics (10%), in electrolytic process by deposit or by cadmium plating on metals or to reduce melting points (welding rods...). Cadmium is a cumulative toxic substance whose half-time for elimination is about 20 to 40 years and it is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. Inhalation of cadmium oxide fumes may cause inhalation fevers or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most relevant biological index exposure is the urinary cadmium. According to literature, no chelating agent can be still used in human cadmium poisonings. In France, some diseases caused by occupational exposure to cadmium may be compensated. PMID:19709784

Andujar, P; Bensefa-Colas, L; Descatha, A

2010-02-01

7

Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings  

PubMed Central

Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood. PMID:20808663

Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, O?uz; Ata?, Bülent

2010-01-01

8

Apallic syndrome in chronic mercury poisoning.  

PubMed

This report includes five cases afflicted by chronic mercury poisoning which was observed in Iraq in 1972. All five cases showed the symptomatology of a severe cerebral damage combined with peripheral nerve lesion. The clinical picture reveals an apallic syndrome or a prestage ensuring in the full-blown picture. The combination of CNS lesions with polyneuropathy is typical of mercury poisoning with failure of all brain functions and the appearance of brain stem automatism, combined with severe muscular atrophy. When such conditions are established the remission seems to be impossible. The historical as well as the clinical and morphological facts of the Minamata disease is reviewed. The different stages of chronic mercury poisoning in Iraq are described. PMID:199444

Gerstenbrand, F; Hamdi, T; Kothbauer, P; Rustam, H; Al Badri, M

1977-01-01

9

Copper ions as poison in the sea and in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper in ionic form is found to be very poisonous for photosynthesis and growth of unicellular algae at concentrations of Cu usually found in natural waters. This indicates that Cu is ordinarily not present in ionic form but is complexed by organic matter such as polypeptides. The affinity of Cu to diethyl-dithiocarbaminate is very much higher than to the organic

E. Steemann Nielsen; S. Wium-Andersen

1970-01-01

10

Chronic Arsenic Poisoning in the North of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations.2 The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg\\/l, and 0.007 mg\\/l in the control population.3 The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form.4 The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic

Mariano E. Cebrian; Arnulfo Albores; Manuel Aguilar; Enrique Blakely

1983-01-01

11

Acute sheep poisoning from a copper sulfate footbath.  

PubMed

An outbreak of footrot occurred in a flock of Corriedale sheep; 27 animals were treated with antibiotic and footbathed in a 5% copper sulfate solution. Being deprived of water for > 17 h, many sheep drank the footbath solution. After 6 h 16 sheep became ill with acute copper poisoning, 10 animals died within 10 h; 6 were severely ill and were sent to Veterinary Hospital, and 4 had mild signs and recovered without treatment. The sick sheep had anorexia, dullness, grinding teeth, moaning, rumen atony, dehydration, dark blue-green diarrheic feces and congested membranes. They were treated with 3.4 mg tetrathiomolybdate/kg body weight and lactated Ringer's solution iv, oral molybdate, sulfate, kaolin and pectin, and drenched with antacids. Two of the 6 sheep died during hospitalization. The ingestion of copper solution caused an intense gastrointestinal injury that resulted in ulcers, petechial and echymotic hemorrhages in the mucosa, mild hemolysis detected by microscopic hemoglobinuria and a lowered packed cell volume, severe hepatic injury that raised the AST and gammaGT blood values, and moderate kidney lesions with increasing serum blood urea and nitrogen creatinine levels. PMID:15587248

Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Antonelli, Alexandre Coutinho; de Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo

2004-12-01

12

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.  

PubMed Central

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld. PMID:6625636

O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

1983-01-01

13

Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning  

E-print Network

1 Intoxication aiguë et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning Pascal ANDUJAR1 poisoning Summary (176 words): Key words : cadmium - poisoning - pneumonia - nephropathy - osteomalacia population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

The effect of dietary supplements on chronic bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) poisoning in sheep  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS ON CHRONIC BITTERWEED (HYMENOXYS ODORATA) POISONING IN SHEEP A Thesis by LYNN OMER POST Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Veterinary Toxicology THE EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS ON CHRONIC BITTERWEED (HYMENOXYS ODORATA) POISONING IN SHEEP A Thesis by LYNN OMER POST Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi tee...

Post, Lynn Omer

1982-01-01

15

Evaluation of epididymal sperm quality following experimentally induced copper poisoning in male rats.  

PubMed

The trace element copper has been identified as a highly toxic element for spermatozoa. Our goal in this study was to assess relationship between copper poisoning and semen quality parameters. In this study, sixty male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-240 g (3.5-4 months old) were divided into three different groups of twenty rats as follows: the first group (Group 100), which was treated by gavage with copper sulphate at a dose of 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 8 weeks; the second group (Group 200), which received 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1) copper sulphate by gavage during experimental period (56 days); and the control group (Group C), which received the same volume of distilled water by gavage during experimental period. The blood, semen and histopathological samples were obtained from five cases of 20 animals of each group every 2 weeks at 2, 4, 6 and 8th week. Results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group 100 and 200 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in comparison with group C. A significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and viability indicates the possibility of adverse effect of copper poisoning on male fertility. Copper might be mediator of the effect of oxidative damage and play an essential role in spermatogenesis and male infertility. PMID:21729134

Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Azari, O; Amiri, E

2012-05-01

16

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

17

Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

1984-09-01

18

Chronic manganese poisoning: A neuropathological study with determination of manganese distribution in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autopsy case of a 52-year-old man suffering from chronic manganese poisoning (CMP) is reported with determination of the manganese distribution in the brain. The patient had been working in a manganese ore crushing plant since 1965. In 1967 he began to complain of difficulties in walking and diminished libido. Later, he developed various neuro-psychiatric symptoms including euphoria, emotional incontinence,

M. Yamada; S. Ohno; I. Okayasu; R. Okeda; S. Hatakeyama; H. Watanabe; K. Ushio; H. Tsukagoshi

1986-01-01

19

Urinary porphyrins in patients with endemic chronic arsenic poisoning caused by burning coal in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the effect of arsenic (As) on the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, urine samples from patients with endemic chronic\\u000a arsenic poisoning were examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and Methods  The subjects were 16 patients, who had been exposed to As from burning coal for 8 to 25 years, and 16 controls living in the\\u000a same region in Guizhou Province in southwest China. Concentrations of

Yaxiong Xie; Masao Kondo; Hidenori Koga; Hiroshi Miyamoto; Momoko Chiba

2001-01-01

20

Evaluation of Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Due to Consumption of Contaminated Ground Water in West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ?50 ?g/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 ?g/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%), followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%)] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%)]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%)]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%)], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%)], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%)], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%)], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%)], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%)], alopecia [8 (10.95%)], neuropathy [5 (6.84%)], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%)] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant. PMID:24049627

Ghosh, Asutosh

2013-01-01

21

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based study on serum metabolomics in rats chronically poisoned with hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide poisoning is a common occupational hazard, whose mortality and incidence rates are first and second, respectively, among occupational poisoning incidents in China. The main target organs of its toxicity are in the central nervous system and respiratory system. However, there are currently no specific direct tests that can be used to diagnose poisoned patients. In this study, we developed a serum metabonomic method using orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to evaluate the effect of chronic poisoning by hydrogen sulfide in rats. The OPLS-DA data demonstrated that the model group (n = 60) differed significantly from the control group (n = 30), suggesting that the metabolic profiles of the two groups are markedly different. Alterations in the levels of some metabolites such as citrate, galactose, lactate, mannose, inositol, urea, phosphate, alanine and valine were detected by OPLS-DA analysis. We observed changes in metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and amino metabolism in the model group. Our results indicate that GC/MS-based metabonomic methods may provide novel detection means for chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning. PMID:25882152

Deng, Mingjie; Zhang, Meiling; Huang, Xueli; Ma, Jianshe; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

2015-05-01

22

Effect of Alpha-Ketoglutarate on Neurobehavioral, Neurochemical and Oxidative Changes Caused by SubChronic Cyanide Poisoning in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies revealed that alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) alone or with sodium thiosulfate (STS) provide significant protection\\u000a against acute and sub-acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. This study addresses the protective effect of A-KG and\\/or STS in\\u000a sub-chronic (90 days) cyanide poisoning. Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10): Control animals, potassium cyanide\\u000a (KCN) A-KG, STS, KCN + A-KG, KCN + STS and KCN + A-KG + STS. Spontaneous motor activity

D. C. Mathangi; R. Shyamala; R. Vijayashree; K. R. Rao; A. Ruckmani; R. Vijayaraghavan; R. Bhattacharya

2011-01-01

23

Acute and chronic methyl mercury poisoning impairs rat adrenal and testicular function  

SciTech Connect

Animals poisoned with methyl mercury (CH/sub 3/Hg) exhibit stress intolerance and decreased sexual activity, which suggest both adrenal and testicular dysfunction. Adrenal and testicular function was studied in male rats after treatment with CH/sub 3/Hg. In animals treated chronically, the adrenal glands were markedly hyperplastic with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. The mean basal serum levels of corticosterone were similar in experimental (17.8 ..mu..g/dl) and control (16.8 ..mu..g/dl) groups. However, with ether stress, experimental animals had a subnormal response, and the mean serum levels of corticosterone increased to only 23.9 ..mu../dl compared to 40.6 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. Exogenous ACTH stimulation produced a mean level of 19.0 ..mu..g/dl in the CH/sub 3/Hg-treated animals and 49.7 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. In vitro studies demonstrated a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. A profound impairment in swimming was partially reversed with glucocorticoid therapy. In animals treated with CH/sub 3/Hg, serum testosterone was lower than normal in the basal state. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased the mean serum concentration of testosterone to 23.4 ng/ml in controls, but it was only 4.50 ng/ml in experimental animals. The data indicate that CH/sub 3/Hg poisoning impairs adrenal and testicular steroid hormone secretion, which accounts in part for the diminished stress tolerance and decreased sexual activity observed in CH/sub 3/Hg-intoxicated animals.

Burton, G.V.; Meikle, A.W.

1980-05-01

24

Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata  

SciTech Connect

The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan)] [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others] [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan); and others

1995-07-01

25

CHRONIC EFFECT OF COPPER ON THE BLUNTNOSE MINNOW, 'PIMEPHALES NOTATUS' (RAFINESQUE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory chronic toxicity test in which bluntnose minnows were exposed to copper in laboratory dilution water with a hardness of 200 mg/L as CaCO3 indicated that copper adversely affected fry survival, fry growth, and reproduction. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

26

Impact of chronic lead poisoning on the hematological and biochemical profiles of a fish, Barbus conchonius (Ham)  

SciTech Connect

The contamination of natural waters by lead is mostly caused by a variety of anthropogenic activities related to increased mining operations and industrial uses of this metal. Adverse effects of lead poisoning in the fishes have been reported with references to both hematological and biochemical variables. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of chronically administered sublethal levels of inorganic lead on the hematological and biochemical profiles of widely distributed freshwater fish, Barbus conchonius. The variables such as erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, blood glucose, glycogen in liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, and cholesterol in blood, liver, ovary, and testes were evaluated.

Tewari, H.; Gill, S.T.; Pant, J.

1987-05-01

27

An ultrastructural and morphometric study of the liver of normal and copper-poisoned sheep.  

PubMed Central

In sheep given copper (Cu) at the level of 10 ml of a 0.2% solution of CuSO4.5H2O/kg body weight, the volume density of nuclei and cytoplasm of hepatocytes increased and the volume density of the sinusoids and the space of Disse decreased. These changes were interpreted as an indication of cellular swelling. There was a significant increase in volume density, number, and absolute volume of lysosomes when Cu was given. The greatest increase in number occurred during the pre-hemolytic period (mean = 48 days), and the highest increase in volume occurred thereafter. Thus, the most extensive proliferation of lysosomes occurred in livers of the pre-hemolytic sheep, and the hemolytic sheep had the largest and heaviest lysosomes. The liver necrosis in sheep undergoing hemolysis was possible caused by hydrolytic enzymes released by the rupture of the enclosing lysosomal membranes. The significant increase in volume density of mitochondria observed in livers of sheep given Cu was due to an increase in volume (swelling) rather than an increase in number. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7377289

Gooneratne, S. R.; Howell, J. M.; Cook, R. D.

1980-01-01

28

Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria  

SciTech Connect

Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

1987-10-01

29

[Risk of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning in automobile garages. Results of a study in the Lausanne region].  

PubMed

Clinical and physiologic data on chronic carbon monoxide poisoning are reviewed and the results of an investigation involving 7 garages in the Lausanne (Switzerland) area are reported. The aim was a practical approach to the relationships between carbon monoxide level in the air, COHb and clinical picture. The study covered working conditions (especially ventilation) but did not take into account of other factors (stresses) which may effect the parameters investigated. CO was measured by continuous recording with an MSA Carbon Monoxide Alarm and the hourly and daily averages were determined. The garage personnel replied to a questionnaire and underwent a brief clinical examination including taking of digital blood samples for measurement of hematocrit and carboxyhemoglobin level by the method of COMMINS and LAWTHER as modified by BUCHWALD. One of the garages did not meet present health requirements. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. The incidence of complaints was highest in poorly ventilated garages. On the basis of COHb level in the total group of employees, together with data from individual histories, it is possible to evaluate the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning in a given garage. PMID:47645

Köhl, U; Lob, M

1975-01-11

30

Effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on neurobehavioral, neurochemical and oxidative changes caused by sub-chronic cyanide poisoning in rats.  

PubMed

Recent studies revealed that alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) alone or with sodium thiosulfate (STS) provide significant protection against acute and sub-acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. This study addresses the protective effect of A-KG and/or STS in sub-chronic (90 days) cyanide poisoning. Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10): Control animals, potassium cyanide (KCN) A-KG, STS, KCN + A-KG, KCN + STS and KCN + A-KG + STS. Spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination were recorded every 15th day. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in blood, brain, liver and kidney, and glutamate, aspartate and dopamine in discrete regions of brain were measured following 90 days exposure. Cyanide significantly decreased motor coordination, accompanied by increase in LPO (blood, brain and liver) and dopamine (corpus striatum and cerebral cortex) levels, and depletion in GSH (blood, brain and liver), GPx (brain and liver), SOD (brain and liver), and CAT (blood and brain) levels. Although treatment of A-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both afforded the maximum protection. This study shows a promising role of A-KG and STS as treatment regime for long term cyanide exposure. PMID:21184277

Mathangi, D C; Shyamala, R; Vijayashree, R; Rao, K R; Ruckmani, A; Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhattacharya, R

2011-03-01

31

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW IN A SURFACE WATER OF VARIABLE QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted with the fathead minnow and copper used as the source of dilution water a natural stream to which a sewage treatment plant upstream contributed a variety of materials known to affect acute copper toxicity. Nominal total copper 96-h media...

32

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

33

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have an ...

34

Types of Leukemia in Chronic Benzene Poisoning. A Study in Thirty-Four Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various types of leukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene is described in a series comprising 34 cases. The incidence of leukemia among 31 shoe-workers was 13.5\\/100,000. Acute myeloblastic leukemia was the most frequent type, followed by preleukemia, acute erythroleukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The extreme rarity of chronic myeloid leukemia was a noteworthy finding. The differences

Muzaffer Aksoy; Sakir Erdem; Günçag Dinçol

1976-01-01

35

Intracellular Copper Accumulation Enhances the Growth of Kineococcus radiotolerans during Chronic Irradiation?  

PubMed Central

The actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress, though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of six different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased colony formation during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper, compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute-irradiation-induced DNA damage levels were similar in the copper-loaded culture and the age-synchronized no-copper control culture, though low-molecular-weight DNA was more persistent during postirradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 2 h between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a low-radioactivity environment, K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:18192425

Bagwell, C. E.; Milliken, C. E.; Ghoshroy, S.; Blom, D. A.

2008-01-01

36

INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

2007-07-24

37

Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (???90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 ??g Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 ??g Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 ??g/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20??C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

2007-01-01

38

Genetic polymorphisms in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH and risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative damage to DNA induced by benzene is an important mechanism of its genotoxicity, which leads to chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Therefore, genetic variation in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to CBP in the exposed population. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH genes are associated with risk of CBP. We genotyped SNPs

Fen Wu; Zhongbin Zhang; Junxiang Wan; Shouyong Gu; Weiwei Liu; Xipeng Jin; Zhaolin Xia

2008-01-01

39

Response of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and metal imbalance to combined administration of DMSA and monoisoamyl-DMSA during chronic arsenic poisoning in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic and its compounds cause adverse health effects in humans. Current treatment employs administration of thiol chelators,\\u000a such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), which facilitate its excretion from\\u000a the body. However, these chelating agents are compromised by number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature, particularly\\u000a in case of chronic poisoning. Combination therapy is a new

S. Bhadauria; S. J. S. Flora

2007-01-01

40

Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper exposure 1 This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper  

E-print Network

Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper exposure 1 2 3 4 5 This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after trajectories of coppercontaminated biofilms after reducing copper stress and with or without the possibility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Experimental Induction of Morphological Deformities in Chironomus riparius Larvae by Chronic Exposure to Copper and Lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Five consecutive generations of Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae were chronically exposed from egg to fourth instar to four sublethal concentrations of copper (0, 1, 10, 100\\u000a ?g L?1) and lead (0, 5, 50, 500 ?g L?1) in artificially spiked water (static with renewal), with diatomaceous earth as substrate and tetraphyl? as food, in order\\u000a to test the induction of

L. Janssens de Bisthoven; A. Vermeulen; F. Ollevier

1998-01-01

42

The chronic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles and copper salt to Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of CuO nanoparticles and CuCl2·2H2O were tested on Daphnia magna under chronic exposure scenarios. During a 21-day exposure to the nanoparticles and salt, the reproduction was followed by a daily count of the number of offspring. After the exposure, the adult Daphnia length and uptake of copper was measured. The dissolved, nanoparticle and aggregated fractions were distinguished in the exposure medium. The results showed that only a small fraction of the nanoparticles dissolved, while the majority of the particles formed large aggregates (>450 nm). The dissolved fraction of the nanoparticles corresponded with the dissolved fraction of the copper salt. The effects of the nanoparticles (reproduction EC10: 0.546 mg Cu/l, EC20: 0.693 mg Cu/l, EC50: 1.041 mg Cu/l) on reproduction and length were much lower than the effects of the copper salts (reproduction EC10: 0.017 mg Cu/l, EC20: 0.019 mg Cu/l, EC50: 0.022 mg Cu/l). Based upon total body analysis, the Daphnia copper concentration appeared much higher when exposed to the nanoparticles than when exposed to the salt. These combined results indicate that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to D. magna is caused by copper ions formed during dissolution of the nanoparticles in the exposure medium. PMID:25464278

Adam, Nathalie; Vakurov, Alexander; Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny

2015-02-11

43

[Mercury poisoning].  

PubMed

Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication. PMID:20579784

Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

2011-07-01

44

Decreased serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites among Chinese in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in inner Mongolia.  

PubMed

Prolonged exposure to arsenic results in peripheral and cardiovascular manifestations, as does impaired production of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). In vitro studies have indicated that endothelial cells undergo damage by arsenic. However, no information has been available on the relationship between NO synthesis and chronic arsenic poisoning in humans. The present study was designed to reveal this question. The subjects were 33 habitants who continued to drink well water containing high concentrations of inorganic arsenic (mean value = 0.41 microg/ml) for about 18 years in Inner Mongolia, China, and 10 other people who lived in this area but exposed to minimal concentrations of arsenic (mean value = 0.02 microg/ml) were employed as controls. Mean blood concentration of total arsenic was six times higher in exposed subjects than controls; 42.1 vs. 7.3 ng/ml, p <.001. Mean serum concentration of nitrite/nitrate, stable metabolites of endogenous NO, was lower in arsenic-exposed subjects than in controls: 24.7 vs. 51.6 microM, p<.001. In total samples, an inverse correlation with serum nitrite/nitrate levels was strong for blood inorganic arsenic (r = -0.52, p <.001) and less strong for its metabolites, monomethyl arsenic (r = -0.45, p<.005) and dimethyl arsenic (r = -0.37, p<.05). Furthermore, serum nitrite/nitrate concentration was significantly correlated with nonprotein sulfhydryl level in whole blood (r = 0.58, p<.001). In an in vitro study, we demonstrated that inorganic arsenite or arsenate suppresses the activity of endothelial NO synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results suggest that long-term exposure to arsenic by drinking well water possibly reduces NO production in endothelial cells, resulting in a decrease in reduced nitrite/nitrate concentrations. Peripheral vascular disorders caused by arsenic may be attributable in part to impairment of NO production in vivo. PMID:10832076

Pi, J; Kumagai, Y; Sun, G; Yamauchi, H; Yoshida, T; Iso, H; Endo, A; Yu, L; Yuki, K; Miyauchi, T; Shimojo, N

2000-04-01

45

COPPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

46

Lethal and sublethal measures of chronic copper toxicity in the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis.  

PubMed

Many metals are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms at high concentrations and for some metals, such as copper (Cu), even low-level chronic contamination may be cause for conservation concern. Amphibian susceptibility to Cu has been examined in only a few species, and susceptibility is highly variable. The lethal and sublethal effects were examined of chronic aqueous Cu exposure on embryonic and larval eastern narrowmouth toads, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Copper levels as low as 10??g Cu/L reduced embryonic and larval survival. Embryonic survivorship varied within- and between-source populations, with embryos derived from uncontaminated-wetland parents having greater survival at lower Cu levels than embryos from parents from a metal-contaminated constructed wetland. At 30??g/L, embryos from the contaminated site had greater survival. Overall survival from oviposition to metamorphosis was 68.9% at 0??g/L and 5.4% at 10??g/L. Similarly, embryos exposed to ?50??g/L demonstrated developmental delays in transition from embryo to free-swimming larva. These results demonstrate a negative population-specific response to environmentally relevant levels of Cu. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:575-582. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25475581

Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E; Kuhne, Wendy; Soteropoulos, Diana; Lance, Stacey L

2015-03-01

47

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or the toxins made ... Food poisoning can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It ...

48

Acetone poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based products. Poisoning may also occur from breathing in fumes or absorption through the skin. This ...

49

Effects of diet, water hardness, and population source on acute and chronic copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diet, water hardness, and population source on acute toxicity, and diet and water hardness on chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) toCeriodaphnia dubia were evaluated. A diet of three algae (Chlamydomonas rheinhardti, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and Chlorella vulgaris, hereafter referred to as CAC) cultured in vitaminenriched media was superior to synthetic diets consisting of yeast, Cerophyll, and trout chow

Scott E. Belanger; Jerry L. Farris; Donald S. Cherry

1989-01-01

50

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

Dolan, Michael C.

1985-01-01

51

Copper  

MedlinePLUS

... at whether a copper-lowering drug, tetrathiomolybdate (or TM), could help patients with advanced kidney cancer. Some ... more people with advanced cancer. More study of TM and a related drug (ATN-224) is taking ...

52

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

53

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... say: yoo-ROO-shee-ol), a colorless, odorless oil (called resin) contained in the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can ... you're in areas that could contain poison plants. If you come into contact with urushiol oil, try to wash it off your skin right ...

54

Sachet poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

55

Merthiolate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or 1-800-222-1222 for a local poison control center.

56

Aftershave poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

57

Deodorant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

58

Ammonia poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

59

Propane poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or 1-800-222-1222 for a local poison control center.

60

Ethanol poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or 1-800-222-1222 for a local poison control center.

61

Molecular Structure of Copper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Man has known of copper since antiquity. Copper is known for its unique reddish hue, its good electrical and thermal conductivity, and widespread abundance. It is malleable and extremely ductile. Copper melts at 1357 degrees kelvin and boils at 2840 degrees kelvin. Copper crystals are commonly found in cubic and dodecahedral forms. Copper is widely used in wiring and electronics. Two important alloys of copper are brass and bronze. Also, all American coins are now made of copper alloys. Humans require trace amounts of copper; larger doses result in poisoning.

2003-04-10

62

Electron microscopic studies concerning the structural mechanism of the development of mental disturbance in experimental chronic methamphetamine poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 8 male albino strain guinea pigs, 1 mg\\/kg of methamphetamine HCl was injected daily for 7 months to 1 year to produce chronic methamphetamine intoxication and to study the fine structure of the brain electron microscopically. The following results were obtained:1.Coalescence of membranes, between axons at the nerve endings and between axons and dendrites, was found in the cortex

Taihei Miyakawa; SHIRO SUMIYOSI-II; Motonori Deshimaru; Eiichi Murayama; Seijun Tatetsu

1969-01-01

63

Benzene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... be found in: Additives to gasoline and diesel fuel Many industrial solvents Various paint, lacquer , and varnish ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

64

Methanol poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The patient may receive: Dialysis Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol) Medicines to treat symptoms Tube through the nose ...

65

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

66

Insecticide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Aaron CK. Organophosphates and carbamates. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

67

Everyday Poisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading and writing activity (on pages 2-9) teaches what plant parts should be avoided, how a person can get rid of toxins, symptoms of plant poisoning, and how plants create poisons to repel predators. Excerpts from a video and biography of Fatima Johnson, an anthropologist who studies plants and people in Africa, are available online, and the full versions can be purchased on DVD. An interactive version of the activity, and tips for using this resource, are also online.

University of Nebraska State Museum

2001-01-01

68

Neurological abnormalities in chronic benzene poisoning. A study of six patients with aplastic anemia and two with preleukemia  

SciTech Connect

Neurological, electromyographical and motor conduction velocity examinations were applied to 6 patients with aplastic anemia and two cases of preleukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene. In addition, sensory conduction velocities were measured in three patients. Neurological abnormalities were found in four out of six pancytopenic individuals. There was a certain relationship between the presence of neurological abnormalities and the period of cessation of the exposure. In the two patients with preleukemia similar neurologic abnormalities were found.

Baslo, A.; Aksoy, M.

1982-04-01

69

Anti-endothelial cell IgG from patients with chronic arsenic poisoning induces endothelial proliferation and VEGF-dependent angiogenesis.  

PubMed

An endemic peripheral vascular disorder due to chronic arsenic poisoning, named Blackfoot disease (BFD), occurs in Taiwan. BFD causes destruction of vascular endothelial cells, and an anti-endothelial cell IgG antibody was found in the sera of BFD patients. We studied the role of this IgG antibody (BFD-IgG) in modulating proliferation and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and found that a low concentration of BFD-IgG (200 microg/mL) stimulated endothelial cell growth and increased expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The apoptosis events appeared not altered by addition of BFD-IgG. An in vitro neoangiogenesis assay demonstrated that BFD-IgG promoted the formation of tube-like structures, which was completely abrogated by anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody and partially by NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. We conclude that BFD-IgG at 200 microg/mL results in cell proliferation and enhanced VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in vitro. Those results suggested that a low concentration of BFD-IgG plays a protective role in the pathogenesis or the progression of BFD. PMID:18671988

Hong, Chien-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chang, Louis W; Chiou, Min-Hsi; Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Hsin-Su

2008-11-01

70

Genetic polymorphisms in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH and risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative damage to DNA induced by benzene is an important mechanism of its genotoxicity, which leads to chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Therefore, genetic variation in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to CBP in the exposed population. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH genes are associated with risk of CBP. We genotyped SNPs at codon 83 of hMTH1, codon 326 of hOGG1, and codon 324 of hMYH in 152 CBP patients and 152 healthy workers occupationally exposed to benzene without poisoning manifestations. The genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restrained fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. There were 2.51-fold [adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}), 2.51; 95% CI, 1.14-5.49; P = 0.02] and 2.49-fold (OR{sub adj}, 2.49; 95% CI: 1.52-4.07; P < 0.01) increased risk of CBP for individuals carrying genotypes of hMTH1 83Val/Met + Met/Met and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys, respectively. Compared with individuals carrying genotypes of hOGG1 326Cys/Cys and hMYH 324His/His at the same time, there was a 0.33-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15-0.72; P < 0.05) decreased risk of CBP for those with genotypes of hOGG1 326Ser/Cys + Ser/Ser and hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln. In the smoking group, there was a 0.15-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.68; P = 0.01) decreased risk of CBP for subjects carrying genotypes of hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln compared with those of genotype of hMYH 324His/His. Therefore, our results suggested that polymorphisms at codons 83 of hMTH1 and codon 326 of hOGG1 might contribute to CBP in a Chinese occupational population.

Wu Fen; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Gu Shouyong [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Weiwei [Guangzhou Hospital for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jin Xipeng [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xia Zhaolin [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zlxia@shmu.edu.cn

2008-12-15

71

Comparison of the lethality of lead and copper bullets in deer control operations to reduce incidental lead poisoning; field trials in England and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Legislative controls on the use of lead gunshot ove r wetland areas have been introduced in many countries, including the UK, in order to reduce lea d poisoning in waterfowl following ingestion of spent shot. Effective alternatives to lead shot are widely available. However, there is evidence that the problem also affects wildlife in terrestrial ecosys tems and that

Jeff Knott; Jo Gilbert; Rhys E. Green; David G. Hoccom

72

Scombroid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

1978-01-01

73

Acute and chronic toxicities of Irgarol alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Irgarol 1051 has been widely used as a booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints. The combined toxicity of Irgarol with Cu on marine organisms, however, has not been fully investigated. This study investigated the acute and chronic toxicities of binary mixtures of Irgarol and CuSO(4) to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The acute combined toxicity of Irgarol and Cu was simple additive as revealed by two response surface models and their contours. However, based on chronic full life-cycle tests, when Irgarol was combined with Cu at an environmentally realistic concentration (10 ?g L(-1)), a slightly synergistic effect was observed at a high Irgarol concentration (940 ?g L(-1)), as shown by a significant increase in larval mortality. As Cu contamination is widespread in coastal environments, our results entail the importance of considering the combined toxic effect of the booster biocide and Cu for setting ecologically realistic water quality criteria. PMID:23069205

Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert C S; Lam, Michael H W

2013-01-01

74

[Mushroom poisoning].  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is a regular complaint for consultation in emergency facilities. These situations are usually benign and symptomatic treatment is sufficient. However, severe damage can occur, potentially life-threatening. We review the various syndromes associated with the toxins involved, their management and the major signs that are suggestive of serious injury and requiring hospitalization. PMID:24024391

Trueb, L; Carron, P-N; Saviuc, P

2013-08-14

75

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center; )

2010-04-09

76

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... their hair. Burning the poison ivy plant. The oil from the plant is carried in the smoke. Treatment How is ... skin. Products that contain solvents such as mineral oil (brand names: ... touched the plant (like camping, sporting, fishing or hunting gear). If ...

77

Reliable femoral chronic total occlusion model using a thin biodegradable polymer coated copper stent in a porcine model.  

PubMed

Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are common in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study aimed to examine the feasibility and reliability of a CTO induced by a thin biodegradable polymer (polyglycolic acid) coated copper stent in a porcine femoral artery. Novel thin biodegradable polymer coated copper stents (9 mm long) were crimped on an angioplasty balloon (4.5 mm diameter × 12 mm length) and inserted into the femoral artery. Histopathologic analysis was performed 35 days after stenting. In five of six stented femoral arteries, severe in-stent restenosis and total occlusion with collateral circulation were observed without adverse effects such as acute stent thrombosis, leg necrosis, or death at 5 weeks. Fibrous tissue deposition, small vascular channels, calcification, and inflammatory cells were observed in hematoxylin-eosin, Carstair's, and von Kossa tissue stains; these characteristics were similar to pathological findings associated with CTOs in humans. The neointima volume measured by micro-computed tomography was 93.9 ± 4.04 % in the stented femoral arteries. CTOs were reliably induced by novel thin biodegradable polymer coated copper stents in porcine femoral arteries. Successful induction of CTOs may provide a practical understanding of their formation and application of an interventional device for CTO treatment. PMID:25804307

Kim, Nan Yeol; Lim, Kyung Seob; Jeong, Myung Ho; Bae, In Ho; Park, Jun-Kyu; Nah, Jae-Woon; Park, Dae Sung; Lee, So Youn; Jang, Eun Jae; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Jung Ha; Kee, Hae Jin; Cho, Soo-Na; Sim, Doo Sun; Park, Keun-Ho; Hong, Young Joon; Oh, Sang-Gi; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee

2015-04-01

78

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-06-01

79

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... Poison Help Line The toll-free Poison Help line, 1-800-222-1222 , which connects you to your ... and Services Administration (HRSA) , funds the Poison Help line ( 1-800-222-1222 ), which connects you to your ...

80

Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses pre-established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the presence of pressure overload induced by ascending aor...

81

Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.

Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

82

Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is a widespread contaminant that can be toxic at concentrations just above the normal physiological range. In the present study we examined the effects of chronic Cu aqueous exposure on embryos and larvae of southern toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae, with tissue concentrations up to 27.5 ?g Cu/g dry mass. Aqueous concentrations of Cu as low as 10 ?g/L significantly reduced survival to the free-swimming stage and no larvae reached metamorphosis at concentrations above 15 ?g/L. Clutches from populations with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. Among several populations there was significant variation in survivorship at different levels of Cu. More data are needed to understand the underlying causes of within- and among-population resilience to anthropogenic stressors. PMID:23500050

Lance, Stacey L; Flynn, R Wesley; Erickson, Matthew R; Scott, David E

2013-06-01

83

Staphylococcal Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 8747 Contact CDC-INFO Home > Disease Listing > Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Disease Listing | General Information | Technical Information | Additional Information ...

84

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Causative organism: Karenia brevis Toxins produced: Brevetoxins Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) produces an intoxication syndrome nearly identical to that of ciguatera in which gastrointestinal and ...

85

Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.  

PubMed

This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male mice were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulphate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five mice from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease compared to those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen in the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

2014-03-01

86

Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

2007-01-01

87

Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 ?g/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and CuPT) and Cu on the copepod. To better protect precious marine resources, it is necessary to revise and tighten existing water quality criteria for biocides, such as ZnPT and CuPT, to account for their synergistic effects with Cu at environmentally realistic levels. PMID:25456222

Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

2014-12-01

88

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

89

Mania following organophosphate poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:25540555

Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

2014-01-01

90

Chronic ecotoxicity of copper and cadmium to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate ecological consequences of the long-term presence of metals in aquatic ecosystems, we investigated the filtration rate and survival of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during chronic exposure to Cu and Cd. The filtration rate was measured once a week in laboratory experiments lasting 9–11 weeks. The lowest Cu concentration tested (13 µg\\/L) did not affect the filtration

Michiel H. S. Kraak; Daphna Lavy; Wilma H. M. Peeters; C. Davids

1992-01-01

91

Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells. PMID:3825110

Kirkpatrick, John N.

1987-01-01

92

Chronic treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide protects against cardiovascular defects of copper deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Published reports indicate that Cu deficiency reduces antioxidant defenses and may result in tissue peroxidation. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a highly penetrant antiinflammatory agent and purported hydroxyl radical scavenger, was chronically fed to male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats which were either supplemented with or deficient in Cu. DMSO was found to inhibit the cardiac hypertrophy, anemia and depression of heart Cu concentration which occurs with Cu deficiency. This suggests that the hydroxyl free radical may contribute to the cardiovascular defects caused by dietary Cu deficiency.

Saari, J.T. (Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

1989-01-01

93

Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. PMID:22511547

Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

2012-07-01

94

Chronic contamination decreases disease spread: a Daphnia–fungus–copper case study  

PubMed Central

Chemical contamination and disease outbreaks have increased in many ecosystems. However, connecting pollution to disease spread remains difficult, in part, because contaminants can simultaneously exert direct and multi-generational effects on several host and parasite traits. To address these challenges, we parametrized a model using a zooplankton–fungus–copper system. In individual-level assays, we considered three sublethal contamination scenarios: no contamination, single-generation contamination (hosts and parasites exposed only during the assays) and multi-generational contamination (hosts and parasites exposed for several generations prior to and during the assays). Contamination boosted transmission by increasing contact of hosts with parasites. However, it diminished parasite reproduction by reducing the size and lifespan of infected hosts. Multi-generational contamination further reduced parasite reproduction. The parametrized model predicted that a single generation of contamination would enhance disease spread (via enhanced transmission), whereas multi-generational contamination would inhibit epidemics relative to unpolluted conditions (through greatly depressed parasite reproduction). In a population-level experiment, multi-generational contamination reduced the size of experimental epidemics but did not affect Daphnia populations without disease. This result highlights the importance of multi-generational effects for disease dynamics. Such integration of models with experiments can provide predictive power for disease problems in contaminated environments. PMID:22593104

Civitello, David J.; Forys, Philip; Johnson, Adam P.; Hall, Spencer R.

2012-01-01

95

Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)  

SciTech Connect

Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

Bechmann, R.K. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

1994-09-01

96

Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation  

PubMed Central

This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2009-01-01

97

Food poisoning prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... ways to prepare and store food to prevent food poisoning . It includes tips about what foods to avoid, ... will not be eating. MORE TIPS FOR PREVENTING FOOD POISONING: All milk, yogurt, cheese and other dairy products ...

98

Bracken fern poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

99

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Email not for emergency use. Virginia California Poison Control System Central Office Address University of California San Francisco ... Email not for emergency use. California California Poison Control System - Fresno/Madera Division Address Children's Hospital Central California ...

100

Lip moisturizer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

This poisoning results from eating or swallowing lip moisturizers containing para-aminobenzoic acid. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison ...

101

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

102

Overview of Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... prescription and over-the-counter drugs, illicit drugs, gases, chemicals, vitamins, food, mushrooms, plants, and animal venom. ... and poisoning-related deaths. Other common poisons include gases, household products, agricultural products, plants, industrial chemicals, vitamins, ...

103

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

104

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

... blooming in the ocean, such as during “"red tide." A red tide occurs when there is a rapid increase in ... poisonings also increases when there is a "red tide." Shellfish poisoning occurs in seafood with two shells ...

105

The Power of Poison  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This striking new exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History explores the cultural, historical, and biological powers of poison. Designed to complement an in situ exhibit, visitors can learn about poison in nature, myth, and legend. A video introduction to the exhibit is a great place to start and visitors can also meet the curator, Dr. Mark Siddall. In the Poison in Nature area, users can learn how poison is used by tree frogs and other species to defend their territory. The Villains and Victims area includes profiles of notable people in history who have used poison in a nefarious fashion. Additionally, this area contains a free app that features three poison "mysteries" for interested parties to solve. Finally, visitors should be sure to check out the Poison for Good area, which contains information about how treatments from the yew tree (which is quite poisonous) can be used as an anti-cancer medicine.

Siddall, Mark Edward, 1966-

2013-11-16

106

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

107

Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

108

Chronic toxicity bioassay and effect of endosulfan, HCH, copper and zinc on the survival and intermoult duration of larvae of mangrove crab Macrophthalmus erato De Man.  

PubMed

The effects of insecticides (endosulfan, HCH) and heavy metals (copper and zinc) were studied on survival and duration of the moult cycle of larvae and megalopa of a common mangrove crab, Macrophthalmus erato, that inhabits Pitchavaram mangroves, southeast coast of India. In chronic toxicity test, percentage of survival from hatchling to megalopa stage at different concentrations of endosulfan (0.048 to 0.36 microg/L), HCH (0.32 to 2.4 microg/L), copper (9.0 to 67.5 microg/L) and zinc (15.2 to 139.0 microg/L) were 6, 12, 8 and 12 respectively. Endosulfan, HCH, copper and zinc considerably increased the total period in development from first zoea to megalopa stage from 18 days in the control to 23, 21, 20 and 22 days in the treated specimens. It is concluded that concentrations well below the observed chronic concentrations, may prove to be more deleterious to larva of this species in natural environment leading to reduction in the success of recruitment to the adult population. PMID:12018587

Kannupandi, T; Pasupathi, K; Soundarapandian, P

2001-08-01

109

Marijuana poisoning.  

PubMed

The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence, tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

2013-02-01

110

Interpreting copper bioaccumulation dynamics in tilapia using systems-level explorations of pulsed acute/chronic exposures.  

PubMed

To understand how environmental variability could impose aquatic organisms in response to altered disturbance regimes and temporal patterns of waterborne toxicants is challenging. Few studies have reported in an organ/tissue specific basis, and most studies have been restricted to steady-state conditions. For interpreting systematically copper (Cu) bioaccumulation in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in a pulse scheme, we combined mechanistic and statistical as well as model-based data analyses of exposure data that cover short-term mortality to long-term organ/tissue growth bioassay. Our present pulsed Cu-tilapia physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was capable of elucidating the Cu accumulation dynamics in tissues of tilapia under different pulsed exposure scenarios. Under acute and chronic pulsed exposures, our study found that (i) stomach and kidney had the highest uptake and elimination capacities, (ii) liver was prone to a highest BCF and was more sensitive than the other tissues, and (iii) Cu accumulations in most of organs and other tissues were strongly dependent on the exposure pulse characteristics such as frequency and duration and not on concentration (i.e., amplitude). We showed that interactions across multiple pulsed or fluctuating Cu exposures were involved in accumulation changes that could also be achieved by controlling pulse timing and duration. The analytical approach we described provides an opportunity to examine and quantify metal accumulation dynamics for fish in response to environmental variability-induced non-uniform metal exposures on an organ/tissue-dependent scale and to integrate qualitative information with toxicokinetic and physiological data. We hope that our systems-level tools for mathematical analyses and modeling will facilitate future large-scale and dynamic systems biology studies in other model fish. PMID:24829116

Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

2014-08-01

111

Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural changes of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa taking place after short term exposure to established copper and\\/or cadmium EC(50) or exposure to low levels of these cations for 8 months were examined. Cadmium had a greater impact on the ultrastructure of these species than copper. Metal stress affected a variety of cellular parameters including total cell volume, pyrenoid,

I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

1994-01-01

112

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... or red in fall. May have greenish-white flowers and whitish-yellow berries. Poison Oak: Grows as ... or red in fall. May have yellow-greenish flowers and and whitish green fruits hang in loose ...

113

[Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].  

PubMed

Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

2012-01-01

114

Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. Chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L., Jr.; Ingersoll, C.G.

2005-01-01

115

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.

116

Perturbations in ROS-related processes of the fish Gambusia holbrooki after acute and chronic exposures to the metals copper and cadmium.  

PubMed

Metallic contamination is a widespread phenomena, particularly in areas impacted by human activities, and has become a relevant environmental concern. However, the toxicity of metals on fish requires full characterization in terms of short- and long-term effects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute and chronic oxidative stress response in liver and gills of Gambusia holbrooki exposed to copper and cadmium. To assess the effects of these two metals, we adopted a strategy of analyzing the pollution effects caused by salts of the two metallic elements, and we quantified the oxidative stress biomarkers catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferases, and lipid peroxidation after exposure (4 and 28 days) to ecologically relevant concentrations, thus simulating actual conditions of exposure in the wild. Our results showed that copper elicited strong effects in all tested biomarkers for both acute and chronic challenges. Cadmium caused a similar response and was shown to cause significant changes particularly in catalase and glutathione-S-transferases activities. These findings evidence that ecologically relevant concentrations of common anthropogenic contaminants are causative agents of serious imbalances (namely oxidative stress) that are likely to trigger life-threatening events. PMID:25263413

Nunes, Bruno; Caldeira, Carina; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

2015-03-01

117

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

118

Preventing Accidental Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... six, and close to half of poisonings in children of this age group involve a misuse of medicines. Below are safety tips that every parent, caregiver, and grandparent should use to prevent accidental poisonings: Avoid taking medications in the presence of children, as they often ...

119

Eliminating Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards President Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards February 2000 President`s Task Force was that the lead paint, dust and soil in and around our treasured home was the culprit. Worse yet, a month later

120

Mass carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised. PMID:10658990

McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

2000-01-01

121

Oxalic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

122

Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

123

Drain cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

124

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

125

Cuticle remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

126

Nitric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

127

Hair spray poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

128

Pine oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

129

Hand lotion poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

130

Fuel oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

131

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

132

Potassium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

133

Lighter fluid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

134

Plastic casting resin poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

135

Plastic resin hardener poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

136

Face powder poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

137

Aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997-2003 are discussed. PMID:16373788

Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

2006-01-01

138

Poisonous Plants Web Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

1997-01-01

139

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem environmental sources of lead exposure, especially from gasoline and food. But 83% of all homes built

140

Copper-induced hepatitis: the COMMD1 deficient dog as a translational animal model for human chronic hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic inflammatory liver disease regardless of aetiology leads to failing regeneration and fibrosis, ending in cirrhosis. Both in man and in animals this worldwide health problem has no definitive cure. Chronic liver injury causes hepatic stellate cells to proliferate and differentiate into matrix-producing cells. New therapeutic options will be developed upon detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving liver fibrosis.

R. P. Favier; B. Spee; L. C. Penning; J. Rothuizen

2011-01-01

141

Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

1986-01-01

142

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

143

Copper: Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although copper is a widespread and useful metal, the process of mining and refining copper can have severe detrimental impacts on humans, plants, and animals. The most serious impacts from copper production are the release of sulphur dioxide and other air pollutants and the poisoning of water supplies. These impacts occur in both the mining and…

Boutis, Elizabeth; Jantzen, Jonathan Landis, Ed.

144

Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat  

PubMed Central

The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII) via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s) involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2·?) scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·? in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD) or control vector (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7) in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9). These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·? in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension. PMID:25474089

Collister, John P.; Bellrichard, Mitch; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

2014-01-01

145

Over-expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in the median preoptic nucleus attenuates chronic angiotensin II-induced hypertension in the rat.  

PubMed

The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII) via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s) involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2·-) scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·- in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD) or control vector (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7) in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9). These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·- in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension. PMID:25474089

Collister, John P; Bellrichard, Mitch; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

2014-01-01

146

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

147

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

148

Sodium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not for ...

149

Calcium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium hydroxide is a white powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. Calcium hydroxide poisoning ... Blood in the stool Burns in the esophagus (food pipe) Severe abdominal pain Vomiting Vomiting blood Heart ...

150

Caulking compound poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Caulking compounds are substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not ...

151

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

152

Tips to Prevent Poisonings  

MedlinePLUS

... local take back programs in your community. Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Information about drug overdoses and ... using a product that may be poisonous. Keep chemical products in their original bottles or containers. Do ...

153

Poisonous Plant Management.  

E-print Network

parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System...

McGinty, Allan

1985-01-01

154

Metal cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2 butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

155

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

156

Hydrogen peroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

White SR, Hedge MW. Gastrointestinal toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: ...

157

Ammonium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Belson M. Ammonia and Nitrogen Oxides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: ...

158

Is It Poison Ivy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this Web site from Florida Plants Online, you don't need to be a botanist to tell poison ivy apart from its benign look-alike, Virginia creeper. Photos and detailed identification tips, as well as numerous links to additional information, help readers learn how to avoid "one of nature's most dreaded plants." The site also includes information on how to diagnose a poison ivy reaction (including a link to images of contact dermatitis).

159

Wheat Pasture Poisoning.  

E-print Network

the time the first symptoms develop until the animal passes into the comatose condi- ;ion. If treatment is not begun before coma, there ir little chance of recovery. While wheat pasture poisoning has been re- yrted in dry cows, heifers and sheep, we... used gave definite positive tests. It is felt, however, that further work of this nature might be of value. TREATMENT OF CASES During the period covered by these studies, the basic treatment for wheat pasture poisoning has been the intravenous...

Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

1956-01-01

160

Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems. PMID:17992970

Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

2007-11-01

161

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

162

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... from a local hospital, physician, or the nearest poison control center. If you believe you have been ... handle a pesticide poisoning, call the National Pesticide Information Center at 1-800-858-7378 (toll-free to ...

163

Boric Acid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

1964-01-01

164

Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Case Report.

Shahin Shadnia; Kambiz Soltaninejad; Hossein Hassan ian-Moghadam; Anahaita Sadeghi; Hormat Rahimzadeh; Nasim Zamani; Alireza Ghasemi-Toussi; Mohammad Abdollahi

2011-01-01

165

Effect of Chronic Fenvalerate Intoxication on Tissue Concentration of Copper in Goats and Further Exploration of Its Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was designed to assess the effect of chronic fenvalerate toxicity on tissue Cu concentration in goats and\\u000a to explore the pathways responsible for it. A significant decrease in tissue Cu concentration of kidney, heart, and brain\\u000a while an increase in the liver were recorded in fenvalerate intoxicated goats at 15 mg\\/kg b.w. orally daily for 270 days.\\u000a Concentration of total

Kaushal Kumar Singh; M. K. Gupta; Mahendra Ram; Vishakha Singh; B. K. Roy

2010-01-01

166

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

167

Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

If you spend time outdoors, chances are you have been bothered by poison ivy, poison oak or poison sumac at some point. Most people are sensitive to the plants' oily sap. The sap is in the root, stems, ... skin and how sensitive you are to it. Problems can also happen if the ...

168

Bupropion poisoning: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the toxicity of bupropion hydrochloride in deliberate self- poisoning in adults and accidental ingestion by children. Design and setting: Prospective study of cases identified from calls to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSW PIC), with follow-up through hospital medical records. Participants: Patients with bupropion poisoning managed in hospital, about whom the NSW PIC was contacted

Corrine R Balit; Christa N Lynch; Geoffrey K Isbister

169

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... A "black dot variant" has been described. (The oil from the plant leaves a black dot on the skin.) Extreme ... to wash all potentially exposed areas since the oil of the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has ...

170

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

171

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

172

Tainted Water, Poison Paint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

Natale, Jo Anna

1991-01-01

173

Oven cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

174

Sodium bisulfate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... that make it hard to swallow. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

175

Mildew remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

176

Potassium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

177

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

178

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... sea otters + , sea birds. Squid, zooplankton, and other benthic invertebrates. *Found to contain algal toxins, or to be adversely affected by toxic or harmful marine algae. + Causative algae implicated, not confirmed. Medical Community Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Additional Information on PSP including: ...

179

Puffer fish poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

Field, J

1998-01-01

180

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... eating parts of the Caladium plant and other plants belonging to the Araceae family. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ...

181

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... How can I avoid CO poisoning from my car or truck? Have a mechanic check the exhaust system of your car or truck every year. A small leak in ... to a build up of CO inside the car. Never run your car or truck inside a ...

182

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

183

Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae. PMID:19918480

Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

2009-01-01

184

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

185

Copper Test  

MedlinePLUS

... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Cu; 24-hour urine copper; Total copper; Non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper; Free copper; Hepatic copper Formal name: Copper (24-hour urine, total and free blood, and hepatic) Related tests: Ceruloplasmin ; Heavy Metals At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common ...

186

Management of thallium poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage. PMID:11025853

Pau, P W

2000-09-01

187

[Puffer fish poisoning].  

PubMed

We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

2000-03-01

188

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-07-01

189

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:19445736

2008-01-01

190

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:21418677

2010-01-01

191

[Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].  

PubMed

Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5?% was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39?% of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99?%); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26?% (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46?%); products of daily use in about 14?% (of these, cosmetics in 40?%); and plants in about 10?%. More than 90?% of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5?%, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44?% of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30?%, moderate ones in 6?%, and severe manifestations in 2?% of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (poisoning accidents, followed by suicidal action (20?%), with abuse and industrial poisoning (4?%) in third position; 1?% of the cases of poisoning were attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADR) and mistaking a medicinal product for another one. Infants aged 1-2 years have the highest risk of poisoning. A panel of the BfR Committee for the Assessment of Poisonings has already developed proposals for a national monitoring scheme of poisoning incidents. The aim is to prepare annual reports similar to the report of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) in the USA. PMID:24863706

Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

2014-06-01

192

Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons  

PubMed Central

Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

Lees, Ronald E. M.

1972-01-01

193

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

194

Pesticide poisoning of farm workers-implications of blood test results from Vietnam.  

PubMed

Information on the health impacts of pesticides is quite limited in many developing countries, with many surveys relying solely on farmer self-assessments of their health status. To test the reliability of self-reported data, an acetyl cholinesterase enzyme (AChE) blood test was conducted for 190 rice farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Results reveal a high prevalence of pesticide poisoning by organophosphate and carbamate exposure, where over 35% of test subjects experienced acute pesticide poisoning (a reduction of AChE >25%), and 21% chronically poisoned (>66% AChE reduction). Using the medical test results as benchmarks, we find that farmers' self-reported symptoms have very weak associations with actual poisoning. To investigate the possible determinants of pesticide poisoning, a probit model was constructed with pesticide amount, toxicity, training, and the use of protective measures as explanatory variables. The results indicate that although the absolute amount of pesticides used does not increase the probability of poisoning, a 1% increase in the use of highly hazardous pesticides (WHO Ia or Ib) increases the probability of poisoning by 3.9% and an increased use of protective measures decreases the probability of poisoning by 44.3%. We also find significant provincial differences in poisoning incidence after we control for individual factors. The provincial effects highlight the potential importance of negative externalities, and suggest that future research on pesticide-related damage should include information on local water, air and soil contamination. PMID:17008128

Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig; Wheeler, David; Xuyen, Khuc; Thi Lam, Nhan

2007-03-01

195

The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.  

PubMed

Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

Ogada, Darcy L

2014-08-01

196

Poisonous snakebite in Utah.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

1995-01-01

197

[Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].  

PubMed

Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population. PMID:11141371

Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

2000-11-01

198

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

199

Tips for Identifying Poison Ivy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Biodiversity Counts, is a tip sheet to help students learn how to spot and avoid poison ivy. It has an overview of the different varieties of the plant that grow in the Americas and Asia, an illustration of the compound leaf with three leaflets (trifoliate) and details about poison ivy's leaf type, leaf arrangement, growth form, flowers, fruits, and relatives.

200

Population Cycles of Poisonous Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poisonous plant is harmless until it is consumed. Once eaten the degree of damage depends on the amount of the plant consumed or more specifically the amount of toxin entering and absorbed by the body. Poisoning therefore, depends on two principal variables; the toxin level in the plant and the ...

201

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

202

[Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].  

PubMed

The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin, was an important setting for diagnosis and prognosis. TGO increases early, always within 48 hours, having an essential role in the diagnosis of hepatotoxicity. Despite the late elevation of bilirubin, the cases of death revealed that there was an earlier increase, reaching higher values, which seems to have a prognostic value, to be evaluated with further studies. Finally, we propose a diagram of diagnostic performance, considerating the generalized lack of mycological diagnosis in Portugal, which emphasizes the need for a careful history, focused on quantifying the latency period. PMID:22849912

Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

2011-12-01

203

Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a PMID:9633866

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S

1998-01-01

204

Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

2012-01-01

205

[Veratrum album poisoning (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Ingestion of plant material rarely gives rise to manifest clinical intoxication. This is due to the relatively low toxicity of most of the poisonous plants of Central Europe. Veratrum album is an important exception on account of its highly toxic alkaloids. Seven cases of overt intoxication from veratrum album have been reported to the Austrian Poison Information Centre during the past 5 years. On the basis of these case reports toxicological and clinical aspects of this rare form of poisoning are discussed. PMID:7303696

Hruby, K; Lenz, K; Krausler, J

1981-09-01

206

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED). Design A statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into substance categories. Using a reproducible algorithm facilitated by probabilistic linkage, codes from the PCC classification system were mapped into the same categories. A readily identifiable subset of PCC calls was selected for comparison. Measurements Correlations between frequencies of quarterly exposures by substance categories were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients with adjustment for seasonality. Results PCC reported exposures correlated with ED poisonings in nine of 10 categories. Partial correlation coefficients (rp) indicated strong associations (rp>0.8) for three substance categories that underwent large changes in their incidences (opiates, benzodiazepines, and muscle relaxants). Six substance categories were moderately correlated (rp>0.6). One category, salicylates, showed no association. Limitations Imperfect overlap between ICD-9 and PCC codes may have led to miscategorization. Substances without changes in exposure frequency have inadequate variability to detect association using this method. Conclusion PCC data are able to effectively identify trends in poisonings seen in EDs and may be useful as part of a pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance system. The authors developed an algorithm-driven technique for mapping American Association of Poison Control Centers codes to ICD-9 codes and identified a useful subset of poison control exposures for analysis. PMID:21422101

Olsen, Cody S; Dean, J Michael; Olson, Lenora M; Cook, Lawrence J; Keenan, Heather T

2011-01-01

207

FTIR analysis of food poisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

Yasui, Sritana C.

1992-03-01

208

Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the drugs. When a medication damages the inner ear — the part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance — it's called ototoxicity or "ear poisoning." The degree of damage to the ear ...

209

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... vents and flues free of debris, especially if winds are high. Flying debris can block ventilation lines. ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. ...

210

Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash  

MedlinePLUS

... spend time outdoors. The plant has three shiny green leaves and a red stem. Poison ivy typically ... B. Dermatologic presentations. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts ...

211

Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... causes Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome Tips for managing Hives Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips ... Rash from poison ivy: Redness, small, itchy bumps (hives), and itchy skin are common. If this is ...

212

Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires stronger enforcement of existing laws and regulations, as well as accountability of local authorities charged with upholding environmental regulations. In this context, restrictions on such rights as freedom of expression, assembly, and political participation have direct consequences on the realization of the right to health. PMID:23568949

Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

2012-01-01

213

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

214

[A case of Veratrum poisoning].  

PubMed

A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice. PMID:9045097

Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

1996-05-01

215

Cholinergic Crisis after Rodenticide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, “Tres Pasitos.” The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

2010-01-01

216

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

217

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

218

Global approach to reducing lead exposure and poisoning.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning is an important environmental disease that can have life-long adverse health effects. Most susceptible are children, and most commonly exposed are those who are poor and live in developing countries. Studies of children's blood-lead levels (BLLs) are showing cognitive impairment at increasingly lower BLLs. Lead is dangerous at all levels in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among and within countries depending on past and current uses. Sources of lead may be from historic contamination, recycling old lead products, or from manufacturing new products. In all countries that have banned leaded gasoline, average population BLLs have declined rapidly. In many developing countries where leaded gasoline is no longer used, many children and workers are exposed to fugitive emissions and mining wastes. Unexpected lead threats, such as improper disposal of electronics and children's toys contaminated with lead, continue to emerge. The only medical treatment available is chelation, which can save lives of persons with very high BLLs. However, chelating drugs are not always available in developing countries and have limited value in reducing the sequelae of chronic low dose lead exposure. Therefore, the best approach is to prevent exposure to lead. Because a key strategy for preventing lead poisoning is to identify and control or eliminate lead sources, this article highlights several major sources of lead poisoning worldwide. In addition, we recommend three primary prevention strategies for lead poisoning: identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards. PMID:18436472

Meyer, Pamela A; Brown, Mary Jean; Falk, Henry

2008-01-01

219

Delusions of persecution and poisoning in patients with schizophrenia: sociocultural and religious background.  

PubMed

This article presents data on the phenomenology of delusions of persecution and poisoning in patients with schizophrenia and determines parallels between sociodemographic status and personal religiosity and this type of delusions. We have studied the content of delusions in patients with schizophrenia looking for persecution and poisoning themes using Fragebogen fuer psychotische Symptome (FPS). A total of 295 patients suffering from schizophrenia participated in this study; 74.7% reported delusions of persecution. The proportion of female patients (81.9%) who felt persecuted was almost one-third higher than the proportion of male patients (66.9%). The prevalence of delusions of persecution was lower in the group of persons for whom their faith was personally important (73.4%) than in the atheistic group (86.7%). Delusions of persecution and poisoning were strongly intercorrelated. Delusions of poisoning were reported by 57.8% of respondents: 54.8% by male and 60.6% by female patients. In multivariate analysis, delusions of persecution were more prevalent in women compared to men; in those with a chronic course of illness compared to those with periodic course; in those with small size of family compared to those with large family. The presence of delusions of being poisoned was related to older age of the patient, higher than secondary education, chronic course of schizophrenia, and younger parental age. Personal importance of the faith was not associated with prevalence of delusions of persecution and poisoning in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20516758

Rudaleviciene, Palmira; Adomaitiene, Virginija; Stompe, Thomas; Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras; Raskauskiene, Nijole; Rudalevicius, Jurgis; Bunevicius, Robertas

2010-01-01

220

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

221

Alsike clover poisoning: A review.  

PubMed

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P N

1989-05-01

222

Fatal 'Bhang' poisoning.  

PubMed

A young adult male of about 25 years of age consumed a glass (about 300 ml) of Bhang on the holy occasion of ShivRatri. The deceased died within 24 hours of consuming the Bhang. The deceased had suffered from rheumatic heart disease with multiple valvular involvements. He had also undergone open-heart surgery in the past. Fatality due to Bhang is extremely rare and therefore the case is presented. An attempt is made to review the literature. Bhang is one of the Indian preparations of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa). It is prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant. The bolus is then consumed in various ways. Water is used as a vehicle. In the present case a bolus of about 1 to 2 gm was mixed in a glass of water. ShivRatri is a Hindu festival. On this day prayers are offered to Lord Shiva, who is the god of all evils and poisons. Bhang is a special article, which is offered to Lord Shiva on this auspicious day. Then, the devotees consume it as the God. Gujrat is a dry state (possession, consumption, sale, etc. of alcohol, Bhang, opium and other psychotropic substance, etc. is governed by particular laws), but on the holy occasion of ShivRati, for a day, the law is relaxed for the use of Bhang. In most other parts of the country, particularly, in northern India, it is a common practice to consume various preparations of Indian hemp like Bhang, Charas, Ganja, sweetmeat, etc. The bolus mentioned above is probably the minimum single dose. PMID:11693232

Gupta, B D; Jani, C B; Shah, P H

2001-10-01

223

A risk assessment based approach to the management of acute poisoning  

PubMed Central

Early assessment and management of poisoning constitutes a core emergency medicine competency. Medical and psychiatric emergencies coexist; the acute poisoning is a dynamic medical illness that represents an acute exacerbation of a chronic underlying psychosocial disorder. The emergency physician must use an approach that ensures early decisions address potentially time critical interventions, while allowing management to be tailored to the individual patient's needs in that particular medical setting. This article outlines a rationale approach to the management of the poisoned patient that emphasises the importance of early risk assessment. Ideally, this approach should be used in the setting of a health system designed to optimise the medical and psychosocial care of the poisoned patient. PMID:16627846

Daly, F F S; Little, M; Murray, L

2006-01-01

224

Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... One in six Americans will get sick from food poisoning this year. That’s about 48 million people. Most ... serious effects associated with several common types of food poisoning. Kidney failure Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a ...

225

Poison oak rash on the arm (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Poison oak rash on the arm. Several plants produce toxins that cause skin reaction. This is the appearance of poison oak dermatitis. Note the typical linear streaks produced either by scratching or brushing ...

226

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

227

American Association of Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Alerts Prevention National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison ... cause serious harm to young children. View all alerts right left Safe Kids Worldwide 2015 Annual Medication ...

228

Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

229

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... mail this page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Search the Consumer ... these products on Flickr. Signs and Symptoms of Mercury Poisoning irritability shyness tremors changes in vision or ...

230

Accidental poisoning with "Chinese chalk".  

PubMed

We present a 1.5-year old, 11 kg, female infant with a history of bronchial hyper-responsiveness who accidentally ingested half of a "Chinese chalk". A day later, the infant showed vomiting, cough, fever, drowsiness, and irritability and her clinical conditions progressively worsened. She was admitted to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress, and hepatomegaly. It has been reported that the chalk may contain deltamethrin and cypermethrin. The patient was successfully treated with supportive therapy. This report identifies "Chinese chalk" as a potential source of accidental poisoning in children and should be considered as part of the differential diagnoses in the emergency rooms since poisoning with these compounds may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning due to the presentation of similar symptoms. PMID:18551820

Martínez-Navarrete, Juan; Loria-Castellanos, Jorge; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

2008-04-01

231

The poisonous rocks of Kärkevagge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The black schist in Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland has been reported to weather easily and produce a poisonous effect on vegetation. This research was an investigation of that phenomenon as part of a larger study of weathering in Kärkevagge. In July 1999, soil and plant samples were collected downslope of a "poisonous" boulder. Samples from the adjacent unaffected slope served as references. Biomass, plant elemental composition, and soil fertility were determined. Most plants within 1.4 m downslope of the poison boulder were dead, and effects on plant growth could be seen to about 6 m. Plants near the boulder had elevated levels of K, B, Al, Cd, Se, and Fe, and lower levels of Ca, Mn, and Ba compared to reference plants. In the soil near the poison boulder, extractable S, Cd, and Fe and salt contents were greater, while pH and extractable Cl, P, Ca, Mg, K, Ba, Ni, and Cr were lower than in the reference soil. At 10 m downslope of the boulder, soil and plant chemistry was more similar to the reference materials, but some effects were still noted. Elemental analyses of the poison boulder and soil revealed no particular plant toxins, although contents of Fe and S were higher and Ca lower than in reference materials. We believe the poison is sulfuric acid, which forms as a consequence of pyrite oxidation. The dark color of the boulder is consistent with a pyrite-bearing lithology and other field observations and laboratory analyses support the hypothesis. Coatings on local rocks include jarosite, gypsum, and copiapite, secondary minerals associated with pyrite oxidation and weathering accelerated by sulfuric acid. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the rock fell off the cliff some time before 245 14C years BP.

Darmody, R. G.; Allen, C. E.; Thorn, C. E.; Dixon, J. C.

2001-11-01

232

Strong Poison Revisited  

SciTech Connect

Selenium in the form of selenocysteine plays an essential role in a number of proteins, but its role in non-enzymatic biochemistry is also important. In this short review we discuss the interactions between inorganic selenium, arsenic and mercury under physiological conditions, especially in the presence of glutathione. This chemistry is obviously important in making the arsenic and mercury unavailable for more toxic interactions, but in the process it suggests that a side-effect of chronic arsenic and/or mercury exposure is likely to be functional selenium deficiency.

Prince, R.C.; Gailer, J.; Gunson, D.E.; Turner, R.J.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

2009-06-04

233

The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among\\u000a children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia,\\u000a Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children\\u000a were

Maria Koliou; Chrystalla Ioannou; Kyriaki Andreou; Alexandra Petridou; Elpidoforos Soterakis Soteriades

2010-01-01

234

Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  

PubMed

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A

2012-06-01

235

[Phosphine poisoning in healthcare workers].  

PubMed

Phosphine gas constitutes a potential and serious little-known cause of poisoning of professional nature of the medical staff and nursing care of patients who voluntarily swallow phosphides rodenticides purposes suicide. The objective of this paper is to inform to healthcare workers from urgencies, forensic and occupational health services on this occupational hazard. We present the case of a nurse who suffered from poisoning by gas phosphine confirmed through an environmental monitoring of gases in an emergency department carried out by the government service of civil protection of the State of Jalisco. PMID:21894233

Arredondo Trujillo, Francisco; Hurtado Pérez, Martha Patricia; Castañeda Borrayo, Yaocihuatl

2011-01-01

236

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

237

[Pulmonary fibrosis following nitrous gas poisoning].  

PubMed

Authors in the autopsy material of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Semmelweis Medical University analysed nitrous-gas-poisoning cases. In the period of 1971--1975 out of 22 223 autopsy cases one case of nitrous gas-poisoning occurred. Data of the literature are summarized. Possible pathomechanism of the nitrous gas poisoning is also discussed. PMID:876260

Balogh, I; Héjj, G; Sótonyi, P

1977-04-01

238

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

239

Mercury poisoning as a mining hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of the occurrence of mercury poisoning in personnel engaged in mercury mining and allied industries. Methods for diagnosis and protection against mercury poisoning are discussed. It is pointed out that in industrial mercury poisoning the portals of entry to the body may include skin absorption from dust on the body or clothing, inhalation of mercury dust

S. J. Davenport; D. Harrington

1941-01-01

240

Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

241

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

2012-10-01

242

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

243

Modern strategies in therapy of organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the various microscopic reactions as well as toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic principles in therapy of organophosphate poisoning, the administration of obidoxime by an initial bolus dose followed by continuous infusion appears rational. Using this protocol, six patients each with parathion or oxydemeton methyl poisoning were treated. In parathion poisoning, reactivation was possible up to 7 days. At paraoxon concentrations >0.1

H. Thiermann; L. Szinicz; F. Eyer; F. Worek; P. Eyer; N. Felgenhauer; T. Zilker

1999-01-01

244

Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals. In the setting of toxicity from either agent class, clinical syndromes result from excessive nicotinic and muscarinic neurostimulation. The toxic effects from OPs and carbamates differ with respect to reversibility, subacute, and chronic effects. Decontamination, meticulous supportive care, aggressive antimuscarinic therapy, seizure control, and administration of oximes are cornerstones of management. PMID:25455666

King, Andrew M; Aaron, Cynthia K

2015-02-01

245

Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera pascuori was recently reported in horses in the state of Roraima. It causes chronic signs of sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, and progressive weight loss. Some animals are blind. Young horses are more affected than adults. After the end of plant consumption the anima...

246

Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.  

PubMed

Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use. PMID:2485923

Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

1989-01-01

247

[Therapy of acute salicylate poisoning].  

PubMed

Poisoning with salicylic acid and its derivatives is a quite common event, leading to possibly life-threatening complications. A case of fatal intoxication of a sixty-year old patient with acetylsalicylic acid is described and the therapeutic options are discussed. In acute poisoning it is mandatory to initiate simple and effective measures first. This gives time for discussing and planning the more laborious procedures. The initial treatment of salicylate poisoning is based on the prevention of further absorption by a sufficiently large quantity of orally administered activated charcoal (approximately 1 g/kg b.w.). Given repeatedly, activated charcoal may enhance non-renal clearance of salicylates. Intravenously administered sodium bicarbonate counteracts the metabolic acidosis. Moreover, bicarbonate therapy limits tissue distribution of the drug and enhances its renal excretion. The availability of glycine for salicylic acid metabolism may be limited in poisoning because glycine has been used for forming the conjugation product salicyluric acid. Glycine may be administered orally to overcome this bottleneck. Gastric lavage has been proven to be of limited efficacy. This efficacy is further diminished if gastric lavage is performed late after drug ingestion. When it is performed, however, activated charcoal should be administered before and after gastric lavage. Whenever the more simple treatment options fail, hemodialysis or hemoperfusion should be additionally considered since these procedures are effective in removing salicylates from the body. PMID:8211029

Herren, T; Como, F; Krähenbühl, S; Wyss, P A

1993-09-25

248

The Solanaceae: foods and poisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric

249

Ceruloplasmin as a marker of occupational copper exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of serum copper to indicate copper status in the human system in the context of moderate chronic occupational copper exposure requires a sophisticated and expensive method. Hence, a search for a suitable marker has been made and few studies have found potential in serum ceruloplasmin. In this context, the present study was initiated to explore whether ceruloplasmin could serve

Asim Saha; Anil Karnik; Natubhai Sathawara; Pradip Kulkarni; Vedprakash Singh

2008-01-01

250

An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. METHODS: A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due to CO poisoning between January 1988 to December 1994. The main outcome measures were age and sex standardised incidence rates (SIRs) for non-intentional, suicidal, and undetermined poisonings for health authorities and the linear relation with socioeconomic deprivation. RESULTS: Overall rate of non-intentional poisonings over the 7 year period was 7.6/100,000, an annual rate of 1.1/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest in people > or = 85; men 24.0/100,000 and women 19.7/100,000. For suicides the 7 year rate was 19.6/100,000, an annual rate of 2.8/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest for men of 35-39, 64.1/100,000, and for women aged 45-49, 15.3/100,000. None of the causes of poisoning were related to deprivation. Non-intentional poisonings showed a strong seasonal variation with the highest rates being recorded in the months October to March. Increased rates of poisoning were found in the rural districts of the West Midlands. There seems to have been a decline in suicides coinciding with the introduction of three way catalytic converters on cars. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people and the very young are at the greatest risk from non- intentional CO poisoning and rates are highest in the winter months. Although deaths from non-intentional CO poisoning are declining nationally, in the West Midlands they have remained stable and hospital admissions are increasing. It is not solely an urban phenomenon with rates for non-intentional CO poisoning and suicides higher in the rural districts. Health authorities need to consider all populations in any prevention programme. Further work is needed to establish the extent of the burden of chronic CO poisoning and the impact of catalytic converters on suicides.   PMID:9924447

Wilson, R. C.; Saunders, P. J.; Smith, G.

1998-01-01

251

Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes

John O. Bogden; Shamshad H. Gilani

1984-01-01

252

Copper hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions. PMID:25098945

Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

2014-10-01

253

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1989-01-01

254

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01

255

Dispersion strengthened copper  

SciTech Connect

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1988-12-05

256

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

257

Datura stramonium poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

2013-01-01

258

Zolpidem poisoning in a cat.  

PubMed

Zolpidem (Stilnox) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug of the imidazopyridine class intended for treatment of insomnia in humans. A 16-year-old neutered cat, weighing 3.8 kg, was presented with sudden onset of stupor, disorientation, severe ataxia, vomiting and hypersalivation. Symptomatic treatment was given when ingestion of 1.25 mg/kg zolpidem (half of a 10-mg tablet) was confirmed, because no information on the efficacy and safety of the use of flumazenil in the treatment of zolpidem poisoning in cats has been published to date. As zolpidem is prescribed with increasing frequency in humans, the occurrence of accidental poisonings of pets is likely to increase. PMID:20633172

Czopowicz, M; Szalus-Jordanow, O; Frymus, T

2010-08-01

259

Psychiatric aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

PubMed Central

Forty-three patients with methylmercury poisoning were studied; 74·4% showed some degree of depression. Their blood levels of mercury were higher than the average values for the whole group, and considerably higher than the blood levels of the non-depressed patients. Irritability was observed in 44·2% of the patients, all except one of the 19 being under 30 years of age. There was general improvement in the mental states of the patients who were hospitalized. Mercury binding compounds did not seem to have a significant effect in enhancing recovery from the depressive state. The possibility of there being two distinct syndromes, due to organic and inorganic mercury poisoning, is discussed. PMID:4420813

Maghazaji, H. I.

1974-01-01

260

Poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, ?-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. ?-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock

J. Vetter

2004-01-01

261

Lead shot poisons bald eagles  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the controversy between the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Wildlife Federation and the increased mortality of bald eagles. The eagles are being poisoned by preying on waterfowl which have ingested lead shot or have been wounded by shot and not recovered. The controversy has resulted in the establishment of new criteria for so-called non-toxic shot waterfowl hunting.

Cohn, J.P.

1985-09-01

262

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

fertilized can accumu- late toxic levels. Turning cattle into holding pens or corrals full of manure with carelessweeds or grasses can result in immediate poisoning. Nitrates do not accumulate when there is nor- mal rainfall or irrigation. Under those.... Nitrate accumulates and is stored in lower leaves and stems, ready for the plant to mobilize and use when rapid growth resumes. Nitrate levels can change from day to day and even from morning until evening. Small grains can accumulate toxic levels...

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

263

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

264

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

265

The Solanaceae: foods and poisons.  

PubMed

The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric times. Then it was translocated to Europe by the Spanish invaders. Originally reviled as'peasant food', it was regarded with great suspicion as an evil plant and a potential cause of leprosy. Over several centuries it gradually became established throughout Britain, France and the continent, and in particular in Ireland, where its growth allowed the population to expand very rapidly between 1750 and 1850. In the late 1840s, nemesis arrived in the form of the potato blight and the Irish famine. The 'tatties' went black, a great hunger ensued and thousands died. Later, the causative fungus was isolated and steps were taken to avoid further similar disasters. It is not generally appreciated that potatoes can be poisonous if they are turning green or sprouting (chitting). The tuber is then producing toxic quantities of the alkaloid alpha-solanine. The clinical syndrome of potato poisoning is described briefly. PMID:17153152

Lee, M R

2006-06-01

266

Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. Methods A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. Results A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22–16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Conclusion Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato–bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. PMID:24600149

Kunwar, R.; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R.

2013-01-01

267

Aluminium phosphide poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. PMID:22455303

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz

2010-01-01

268

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

269

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

270

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

271

Mercury poisoning as a cause of intracranial hypertension.  

PubMed

Mercury poisoning is a rare but fatal toxicologic emergency. Neurologic manifestations involving the central nervous system are seen usually with chronic mercury intoxication. The most commonly seen complaints are headache, tremor, impaired cognitive skills, weakness, muscle atrophy, and paresthesia. Here, we present a male patient who was chronically exposed to elemental mercury and had papilledema and intracranial hypertension without parenchymal lesion in the central nervous system. A 12-year-old male patient was referred to our emergency room because of severe fatigue, generalized muscle pain and weakness, which was present for a month. Physical examination revealed painful extremities, decreased motor strength and the lack of deep tendon reflexes in lower extremities. He had mixed type polyneuropathy in his electromyography. Whole blood and 24-hour urinary mercury concentrations were high. A chelation therapy with succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid) was started on the fourth day of his admission. On the seventh day of his admission, he developed headache and nausea, and bilateral papilledema and intracranial hypertension were detected on physical examination. Acetazolamide was started and after 1 month of treatment, the fundi examination was normal. The patient stayed in the hospital for 35 days and was then discharged with acetazolamide, vitamin B6, gabapentin, and followed as an outpatient. His clinical findings were relieving day by day. Although headache is the most common symptom in mercury poisoning, the clinician should evaluate the fundus in terms of intracranial hypertension. PMID:25122110

Gençp?nar, P?nar; Büyüktahtak?n, Ba?ak; ?bi?o?lu, Zeynep; Genç, ?akir; Y?lmaz, Aygen; M?hç?, Ercan

2015-05-01

272

Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

Passlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

2015-03-01

273

Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

2015-01-01

274

Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the national poison data system.  

PubMed

Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. PMID:25523411

Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

2015-04-01

275

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

276

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

277

Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

2001-01-01

278

Current management of the poisoned patient.  

PubMed

Management of the poisoned patient is a common and difficult problem for many practitioners. I present a clinical approach to the management of these patients, with emphasis on recent advances and controversies. Efficacy of gastric emptying, activated charcoal, manipulation of urinary pH, and indications for dialysis are discussed. Poisonings for which specific antidotes are available are reviewed. PMID:3393948

Yarbrough, B E

1988-07-01

279

Pesticide poisoning of animals of wild fauna.  

PubMed

Poisoning of rare birds of prey (7 Aegipius monachus and 1 Aquila chrysaetus) and 11 foxes by carbofuran is reported. The poisoning is an ecological disaster because of the death of A monachus, which is a rare species. Identification, confirmation and distribution of the toxic substance was performed by TLC and HPLC techniques. PMID:8727224

Antoniou, V; Zantopoulos, N; Skartsi, D; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H

1996-06-01

280

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

281

An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu

2010-01-01

282

Poison Ivy: Tips for Treating and Preventing  

MedlinePLUS

... oak or poison sumac is caused by an oil found in these plants called urushiol (you-ROO-shee-all). When this ... when you came into contact with the poisonous plant. The oil can stick to clothing, and if it touches ...

283

Acute pulmonary edema following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a patient who presented with coma and acute pulmonary edema after severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Hemodynamic evaluation revealed elevated systemic and pulmonary arterial, pulmonary wedge and right atrial pressures, together with an increased cardiac output. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that a neurogenic mechanism plays a role in the pulmonary edema of carbon monoxide poisoning.

R. Naeije; A. Peretz; A. Cornil

1980-01-01

284

Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

285

76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Research Foundation of SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison...Winthrop University d.b.a. the Long Island Regional...Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison...citizens of New York, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These...

2011-02-18

286

Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

287

A survey of poison control centers worldwide  

PubMed Central

To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide. PMID:23351559

2012-01-01

288

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Andrew Kane

289

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Güven

2001-01-01

290

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

291

Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education  

SciTech Connect

Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

Makalinao, Irma R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of the Philippines College of Medicine, 547 Pedro Gil Street, Ermita, Manila 1000 (Philippines) and National Poison Control Information Service, University of the Philippines, Manila (Philippines)]. E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat [National Poison Centre, Universiti Sains (Malaysia)

2005-09-01

292

Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.  

PubMed

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome. PMID:24592666

Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

2013-01-01

293

Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:23918513

Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

2013-08-01

294

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

2009-01-01

295

[Poisoning with sleep supporting drugs].  

PubMed

Emergencies caused by acute poisoning amount to 3-5% of the actions carried out by the emergency medical service. Sleep supporting drugs have a 35% part in the acute drug-induced poisoning, primarily within the framework of suicidal or parasuicidal actions. In this case, benzodiazepines occupy a top position, followed by H1-antihistaminic agents with strong sedative effects, and the so-called anxiolytic agents of the "second generation". In general, intoxication with sleep supporting drugs lead to disturbances of consciousness with different degrees of seriousness. Careful (external) anamnesis, inspection of the environment and clinical investigations could be helpful to evaluate the diagnosis. Hypoglycemia and neurological illnesses are to be excluded differential diagnostically. Preclinical therapy follows the "five finger rule" (stabilization of the vital functions, detoxification, antidote therapy, asservation, transportation). Specific procedures (preclinical stomach lavage, antidote therapy) are indicated in rare cases, only (mainly mixed intoxication with ethanol). Subsequent therapeutic procedures under clinical conditions are demonstrated using selected examples. PMID:11233496

Kretzschmar, M

2001-01-01

296

Acute poisoning with bromofosmethyl (bromophos).  

PubMed

One hour after suicidal ingestion of about 20 mL of a 38% solution of bromofosmethyl, CAS: 2104-96-3 (bromophos), a 52 year-old female was admitted to the hospital with extreme miosis, hypersalivation, hyperperistalsis and muscular fibrillation. Gastric lavage was performed and activated charcoal administered. Cholinergic symptoms were antagonized by repeated doses of 0.5 mg atropine. Because of the high dose of bromophos, hemoperfusion was performed with amberlite XAD4. The bromophos clearance during hemoperfusion was 95 mL/min (flow 200 mL/min). The patient received two doses of 500 mg obidoxime for recurrent muscular fibrillation. The further clinical course was uneventful. On day 4, the patient was transferred to a psychiatric ward because of persistent suicidality. In contrast to poisoning by most organophosphates, red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase was only minimally depressed but the plasma butyryl cholinesterase was initially decreased and normalized within a few days. The records of 25 patients reported to our Poison Control Center with ingestion of more than 1 g bromophos were also evaluated. The most frequent symptoms were miosis, hyperperistalsis, hypersalivation, agitation, nausea/vomiting and convulsions. Nine of the patients had no symptoms. Bromophos is relatively less toxic than its phosphate derivative, parathion. PMID:2051507

Köppel, C; Thomsen, T; Heinemeyer, G; Roots, I

1991-01-01

297

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

298

Copper Imbalances in Ruminants and Humans: Unexpected Common Ground1  

PubMed Central

Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen–free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson’s disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre–hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen–free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the “copper cost” of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question “can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?” A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates. PMID:22983845

Suttle, Neville F.

2012-01-01

299

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... nail polish remover and other personal care products Paint thinner Pesticides used in the house or in ... when using cleaners and chemicals. Avoid using pesticides, paint thinner or other chemicals inside the house or ...

300

Differential responses to copper-induced oxidative stress in the marine macroalgae Lessonia nigrescens and Scytosiphon lomentaria (Phaeophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to help explain the absence of the brown kelp Lessonia nigrescens from a coastal environment chronically enriched with copper, we characterized the biochemical responses induced by copper stress in this kelp and compared them with those displayed by the copper tolerant brown alga Scytosiphon lomentaria. These algae were cultivated with increasing concentrations of copper (20, 40 and 100?gL?1)

Loretto Contreras; Daniella Mella; Alejandra Moenne; Juan A. Correa

2009-01-01

301

Monocrotophos poisoning through contaminated millet flour.  

PubMed

Several episodes of mass poisoning by organophosphates (OPs) have been reported from the developing countries. The diagnosis of OP-poisoning is mainly based on the characteristic clinical features and history of exposure to a known OP compound. Estimation of serum and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activities are helpful in confirming the diagnosis. However, there is controversy regarding a definite relationship between serum cholinesterase activity and the severity of clinical manifestations and prognosis. This report describes an episode of mass monocrotophos poisoning that occurred due to accidental ingestion of monocrotophos-contaminated millet (so-called bavta) flour involving eight severely poisoned persons. Clinical presentation included severe abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, pupil narrowing, and difficulty breathing. On hospital admission, plasma cholinesterase (PChE) and especially RBC acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities correlated well with clinical symptoms presented by the patients. This case study highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of OP-pesticide poisoning from food sources and the need to look for depressed PChE and AChE activities that may point to OP exposure, so that OP-poisoning can be identified immediately and patients can receive specific treatment, rather than general treatment for food poisoning. PMID:23152387

Patel, Ashwin B; Dewan, Aruna; Kaji, Bharat C

2012-09-01

302

Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.  

PubMed

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2003-01-01

303

An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

1998-01-01

304

Human Health Effects From Chronic Arsenic Poisoning–A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 ?g\\/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 ?g\\/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5

SIMON KAPAJ; HANS PETERSON; KARSTEN LIBER; PROSUN BHATTACHARYA

2006-01-01

305

Lead Poisoning Mimicking Acute Porphyria!  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth

2014-01-01

306

Lead poisoning mimicking acute porphyria!  

PubMed

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; M S, Rukmini; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth

2014-12-01

307

Chelation therapy in nickel poisoning.  

PubMed

For the treatment of acute poisoning from the inhalation of nickel carbonyl, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Dithiocarb) has proved to be a specific antidote; tetraethylthiuram (Antabuse) is effective to a lesser degree; d-penicillamine and dimercaprol (BAL) have limited therapeutic value. For the treatment of nickel eczema and dermatitis, favorable response has been obtained by placing patients on a diet of low nickel content together with the oral administration of Dithiocarb or Antabuse. No specific therapy has been advanced for the treatment of nickel cancer in humans. In experimental animals, Dithiocarb has an inhibitory effect on the production of rat rhabdomyosarcomas induced by the intramuscular implantation of nickel subsulfide, and N-methyl formamide inhibits the growth of transplantable nickel fibromas in rats. It is suggested that for the treatment of tumors arising from the implantations of nickel-containing prostheses in humans, chelation therapy be considered. PMID:6260008

Sunderman, F W

1981-01-01

308

Enhanced poison elimination in critical care.  

PubMed

Nephrologists and critical care physicians are commonly involved in the treatment of severely poisoned patients. Various techniques exist presently to enhance the elimination of poisons. Corporeal treatments occur inside of the body and include multiple-dose activated charcoal, resin binding, forced diuresis, and urinary pH alteration. Extracorporeal treatments include hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, peritoneal dialysis, continuous renal replacement therapy, exchange transfusion, and plasmapheresis. This review illustrates the potential indications and limitations in the application of these modalities as well as the pharmacological characteristics of poisons amenable to enhanced elimination. PMID:23265601

Ghannoum, Marc; Gosselin, Sophie

2013-01-01

309

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

310

Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.  

PubMed

Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning. PMID:17052991

Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

2006-12-01

311

Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. AIM: The purpose of this

R. J. Slaughter; D. M. Beasley; B. S. Lambie; G. T. Wilkins; L. J. Schep

2012-01-01

312

Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. METHODS: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings

Mari A Bjornaas; Brita Teige; Knut E Hovda; Oivind Ekeberg; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Dag Jacobsen

2010-01-01

313

Copper Cleanup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on experiment, kids use chemistry to explore whether acids or bases are better at restoring a penny’s shine. Kids follow the scientific process to test a common household cleaning products alongside ketchup, cola, and other kitchen staples, and may be surprised by the results! A downloadable data sheet is available on the Copper Cleanup activity resources page.

2013-12-05

314

Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors  

SciTech Connect

Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration.

Kodah, Z.H.

1982-01-01

315

Paraquat poisoning. An overview of the current status.  

PubMed

Paraquat is a bipyridyl compound with no known chronic toxicity or teratogenicity. It is poorly absorbed when inhaled, but causes severe illness when ingested orally, death usually occurring within 2 days of ingestion of 50 mg/kg. At lower doses death may be delayed for several weeks. The toxic compound accumulates in lung tissue where free radicals are formed, lipid peroxidation is induced and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is depleted. This produces diffuse alveolitis followed by extensive pulmonary fibrosis. The most important prognostic indicator is the quantity of paraquat absorbed, as shown by the plasma paraquat concentration. While renal failure will develop in the majority of those patients who eventually die, it may not, if present alone, indicate a fatal outcome. The absence of caustic burns in the upper digestive tract indicates a good prognosis. Treatment of paraquat poisoning remains ineffective, but Fuller's earth, activated charcoal and resins may prevent some absorption of the toxin. When tubular necrosis occurs, renal excretion of the compound decreases rapidly. A 3-compartment pharmacokinetic model has been described following ingestion of tracer doses including a 'deep' compartment for active pulmonary accumulation. Haemodialysis, haemoperfusion and forced dialysis have been attempted, with no clear improvement in survival rates. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, N-acetylcysteine and other 'free radical scavengers' have failed to alter the outcome in poisoned patients. Other theoretical treatments, such as deferoxamine, immunotherapy, NADPH repletion and lung transplantation still require clinical validation. PMID:2198050

Bismuth, C; Garnier, R; Baud, F J; Muszynski, J; Keyes, C

1990-01-01

316

Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals.

Clemente, Miguel; Reig-Botella, Adela; Prados, Juan Carlos

2015-01-01

317

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Dr. Dan L. Brown

318

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

319

Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

1994-01-01

320

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

321

An Electrophysiological Study of Acute Tetrodotoxin Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the electrophysiological changes in patients with acute tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning from ingestion of globefish\\u000a (Tetraodontidae) patients exposed to TTX were compared with age-matched controls. The cohort of TTX-poisoning cases was clinically\\u000a subdivided into mild, moderate, or severe cases. The motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity\\u000a (SCV), F-wave, H-reflex, and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) of the median,

Dinghua Liu; Jianyu Zhang; Bojun Han; Lang Pen; Dongbai Liu

2011-01-01

322

Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock.  

E-print Network

R6-103 5-6m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 519 DECEMBER', 1935 -- DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE MESCALBEAN (SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA) POISONOUS FOR LIVESTOCK... AGRJCULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President poisoning among range sheep resulting from eating green leaves of Sophora seczcndiflora (commonly known as mescalbean, mountain laurel, or coralbean) sometimes occurs' during the late...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1935-01-01

323

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

324

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

325

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

326

Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. PMID:21607993

Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

2011-08-01

327

Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.  

PubMed

Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

1986-07-01

328

Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2007-01-01

329

[An unusual mechanism of lead poisoning. Presentation of a case].  

PubMed

A case is described, that came to our attention for suspected acute intermittent porphyria, with abdominal pain and ascending tetraplegia. The patient (HIV positive and with a HBsAg positive chronic aggressive hepatitis) was a heroin addict. In urine: high porphyrins with extremely increased delta amino-levulinic acid (ALA) and normal porphobilinogen. High protoporphyrin was present in blood red cells. The lead poisoning was confirmed by a very low ALA-dehydratase activity in erythrocytes and a high content of lead in urine and plasma. With Ca-versenate and penicillamine the abdominal and neurological symptoms rapidly disappeared. The possibility of contact with lead, professional or environmental, was ruled out. It was found however, that shortly before the appearance of symptoms, the patient had used a batch of unrefined brown sugar heroin, which was probably mixed with lead salts. It is noteworthy that during the same period, other young heroin addicts died with similar symptoms. PMID:2740602

D'Alessandro Gandolfo, L; Macrì, A; Biolcati, G; Rossi, F; Cirelli, A; Barlattani, A; Topi, G C

1989-03-01

330

[Cobalt poisoning due to metal-on-metal hip implants].  

PubMed

Since 2011, cobalt and chromium blood levels are measured in patients with a metal-on-metal hip implant (MoM prosthesis). In this article we discuss the health risks that are related to chronically elevated blood cobalt concentrations induced by abnormal wear and corrosion of the MoM prosthesis. Only a few patients who have systemic symptoms of poisoning, besides local symptoms around the failing MoM prosthesis, have been described in the literature. Toxic blood cobalt concentrations may be accompanied by hypothyroidism, polyneuropathy, impairment of cranial nerves II and VIII and cardiomyopathy. Treatment consists of removal of the prosthesis. In patients with a normal kidney function, the cobalt blood levels rapidly decrease and symptoms of cobalt intoxication subside. Chelation therapy should be restricted to those patients who are unable to undergo removal of the prosthesis immediately due to their medical condition. This can for example be because of a severe cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:23075776

Dijkman, Marieke A; de Vries, Irma; Mulder-Spijkerboer, Henneke; Meulenbelt, Jan

2012-01-01

331

Resistance mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against phagosomal copper overload  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen with an extremely slow growth rate, an unusual outer membrane of very low permeability and a cunning ability to survive inside the human host despite a potent immune response. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to acquire essential nutrients while still preserving its natural resistance to toxic compounds. In this regard, copper homeostasis mechanisms are particularly interesting, because copper is an important element for bacterial growth, but copper overload is toxic. In M. tuberculosis at least two enzymes require copper as a cofactor: the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase SodC and the cytochrome c oxidase which is essential for growth in vitro. Mutants of M. tuberculosis lacking the copper metallothionein MymT, the efflux pump CtpV and the membrane protein MctB are more susceptible to copper indicating that these proteins are part of a multipronged system to balance intracellular copper levels. Recent evidence showed that part of copper toxicity is a reversible damage of accessible Fe-S clusters of dehydratases and the displacement of other divalent cations such as zinc and manganese as cofactors in proteins. There is accumulating evidence that macrophages use copper to poison bacteria trapped inside phagosomes. Here, we review the rapidly increasing knowledge about copper homeostasis mechanisms in M. tuberculosis and contrast those with similar mechanisms in E. coli. These findings reveal an intricate interplay between the host which aims to overload the phagosome with copper and M. tuberculosis which utilizes several mechanisms to reduce the toxic effects of excess copper. PMID:22361385

Rowland, Jennifer L.; Niederweis, Michael

2012-01-01

332

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1990-01-09

333

Childhood and adolescence poisoning in NSW, Australia: an analysis of age, sex, geographic, and poison types  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate whether there is any association between the types of poison substances and geographic locations for different age groups and sex. Design: This is a population based epidemiological study utilising routinely collected inpatient statistics. Setting: Data are collected as part of the routine vital health information system via all hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Patients: All patients aged between 0–19 years who were admitted to a hospital because of poisoning by the four major types of substances that were defined in the study in NSW in 2000. Main results: The standardised incidence ratios of poisoning related hospitalisation between metropolitan and rural areas varied across different poison types when compared with the NSW average. While there are few differences between metropolitan and rural areas for analgesic and chemical related poisoning admissions across different age groups and sex, differences in the standardised incidence ratios between geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning admissions were found. No significant difference in standardised mortality ratios were found between metropolitan and rural areas except for females in the 10–14 years age group (standardised mortality ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.69 to 6.21). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study, on the whole, provide some evidence for an association between poison types and geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning. PMID:14693896

Lam, L

2003-01-01

334

Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline. PMID:22953225

Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

2012-01-01

335

Bioavailable copper modulates oxidative phosphorylation and growth of tumors  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential trace element, the imbalances of which are associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, albeit via largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that levels of bioavailable copper modulate tumor growth. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of copper in drinking water, corresponding to the maximum allowed in public water supplies, stimulated proliferation of cancer cells and de novo pancreatic tumor growth in mice. Conversely, reducing systemic copper levels with a chelating drug, clinically used to treat copper disorders, impaired both. Under such copper limitation, tumors displayed decreased activity of the copper-binding mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase and reduced ATP levels, despite enhanced glycolysis, which was not accompanied by increased invasiveness of tumors. The antiproliferative effect of copper chelation was enhanced when combined with inhibitors of glycolysis. Interestingly, larger tumors contained less copper than smaller tumors and exhibited comparatively lower activity of cytochrome c oxidase and increased glucose uptake. These results establish copper as a tumor promoter and reveal that varying levels of copper serves to regulate oxidative phosphorylation in rapidly proliferating cancer cells inside solid tumors. Thus, activation of glycolysis in tumors may in part reflect insufficient copper bioavailability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24218578

Ishida, Seiko; Andreux, Pénélope; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Auwerx, Johan; Hanahan, Douglas

2013-01-01

336

Copper in diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - copper ... Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the ... organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, ...

337

Copper Extraction Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary This demonstration uses sulfuric acid and crushed copper ore (malachite) to produce a solution of copper sulfate and carbonic acid in a beaker. When a freshly sanded nail is dropped into the copper sulfate ...

338

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

339

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

340

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl.  

PubMed

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn. PMID:14676018

Sileo, Louis; Nelson Beyer, W; Mateo, Rafael

2003-12-01

341

Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

1993-01-09

342

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

343

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2014-04-01

344

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2013-04-01

345

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2011-04-01

346

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2010-04-01

347

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2012-04-01

348

77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. Matters...include the following: Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Update--Status...HUD Guidelines (Second Edition); Lead-based paint/hazards standard review;...

2012-10-24

349

Mad honey poisoning?related asystole  

PubMed Central

Mad honey poisoning is well known in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The cause of the poisoning is the toxin grayanotoxin, found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species on the mountains in the region. A 60?year?old man was brought to the emergency department with dizziness and syncope after eating a few spoonfuls of honey. While the patient was being treated, bradycardia and asystole developed. The patient was given 0.5 mg of atropine, and asystole began and ended. The patient was transferred to the catheter laboratory and a temporary pacemaker was implanted. Mad honey poisoning related asystole has not been previously reported, and the rapid response to atropine is significant. PMID:17652692

Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Durmus, Ismet; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Ozturk, Serkan

2007-01-01

350

Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.  

PubMed

Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides. PMID:21763089

Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

2012-01-10

351

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L.J.

1994-01-01

352

Methyl iodide poisoning: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two workers were poisoned following exposure to methyl iodide with inadequate protective devices. Their cases are presented together with a review of literature. Both patients developed symptoms and signs of cerebellar lesions and damage of the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve pathways. Spinal cord lesions producing motor and sensory disturbances were present in one. Late psychiatric disorders were observed in both patients. Although these symptoms were very similar to those reported in the nine published cases of methyl iodide poisoning, the toxicological diagnosis was delayed in one case: as repeated overexposure produced recurrent attacks of multifocal neurological dysfunction, multiple sclerosis was initially diagnosed, although several of the features observed are unusual in this disease. The manifestations of methyl iodide poisoning are similar to those of intoxication with other monohalomethanes. All these compounds probably share the same mechanisms of action. This mechanism and its therapeutic consequences are discussed. PMID:8914723

Hermouet, C; Garnier, R; Efthymiou, M; Fournier, P

1996-12-01

353

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.  

PubMed Central

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

Kim, Y S

1985-01-01

354

Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test (?2). Results: A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning (n = 142; 35.5%). The most common poisoning agents were medicines (n = 124; 31.0%). The service provided was graded as “Excellent” for the majority of queries (n = 360; 86%; P < 0.001), followed by “Very Good” (n = 50; 12%) and “Good” (n = 9; 2%). Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner. PMID:24130386

Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.

2013-01-01

355

The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.

1982-10-01

356

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

357

Resuscitative challenges in nerve agent poisoning.  

PubMed

The threat of weapons of mass destruction such as nerve agents has become real since last year. The medical community has established protocols for the rapid evacuation and decontamination of affected civilians. However, protocols for resuscitative measures or acute perioperative care in cases of life-saving surgical interventions in toxic-traumatized casualties are still lacking. The database concerning the effects of nerve agent poisoning in humans is limited, and is largely based on reports of unintentional exposures to pesticide organophosphate poisoning and similar chemical substances. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on the possible pharmacological interactions between nerve agents and acute care. PMID:12972890

Ben Abraham, Ron; Weinbroum, Avi A

2003-09-01

358

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

in this manner. Additional data show that the weevil may pick up a letha1 dose of poison on any portion of the dusted cotton plant, indicating that the most effective control of the insect map be expected when the maximum plant surface is covered with poison... during the dusting operation. The activities of both sexes of weevils, observed under natural conditions and on cotton plants which had been dusted with calcium arsenate or talc, are influenced to a considerable degree by the presence of these dusts...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

359

Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.  

PubMed

Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

2015-01-01

360

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

361

Deaths from poisoning in New Zealand: 2001-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To describe the epidemiology and toxicology of poisoning deaths in New Zealand for 2001 and 2002. Methods Poisoning mortality data for 2001 and 2002 were collected from the Coronial Service Office (CSO) as part of the New Zealand chemical injury surveillance system. Results There was 235 and 234 poisoning deaths in 2001 and 2002 respectively, an annual rate of

Rebecca McDowell; Jeff Fowles; David Phillips

362

Warnings unheeded: A history of child lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child lead poisoning has been a major public health issue only for the last 20-25 years. However, awareness that lead-based paint is a source of lead poisoning in children dates back to the first few years of the twentieth century. Articles in medical journals and textbooks appeared in the United States and elsewhere, recounting cases of children poisoned by the

R Rabin

1989-01-01

363

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

364

Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:21264171

Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

2011-01-01

365

Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

1997-01-01

366

Searching for specific responses to copper exposure: an in vitro copper challenge in peripheral mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic cellular responses to changes in copper availability are not clear when these changes are mild to moderate, as what often occur in human daily life. The aims of the study were to develop an in vitro copper challenge in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNCs) obtained from healthy individuals with different preconditioning copper treatments, and measure copper and iron content, and MT2A and TfR mRNA abundance after the copper challenge. (1) Screening using clinical and biochemical indicators defined healthy participants, who received 8 mg Cu/day (copper sulfate) or placebo for 2 months. (2) Mononuclear cells were obtained on days 0, 2 (acute changes), and 60 (chronic changes). (3) Cells were challenged with a 1, 5, and 20 ?M Cu-histidine for 20 h, at T0, T2, and T60. Cells from both supplemented and placebo individuals showed a clear trend to increase copper content when there was more copper in the media. Increases were greater in the supplemented group, larger with 20 ?M Cu (p?copper concentration, but TfR transcripts did not change. An in vitro challenge of PMNC showed specific changes of cellular copper and MT2A, while changes of iron content and TfR mRNA abundance were not consistent. PMNCs appear as good candidates to assess changes of cellular copper availability. That results differed after acute (T2) and chronic (T60) supplementation suggests that acute and chronic changes are handled differently by these cells. PMID:20737243

Arredondo, Miguel; Espinoza, Alejandra; Pizarro, Fernando; Araya, Magdalena

2011-09-01

367

Chronic Migraine  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Chronic Migraine Chronic Migraine Submitted by Admin on Thu, 2007-10-25 18:01 Chronic migraine (CM) best characterizes those patients with a history of migraine who experience headache more than half the time. ...

368

Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.  

PubMed

Twelve taste repellents and 3 oral emetics were tested. The taste repellents were capsaicin, capsicum, oleoresin, sucrose octaacetate, quinine tonic, quassia wood extract, vanillamide, horseradish extract, caffeine, pepperoni enhancer, acorn extract, and commercially available bitter and hot flavors. The emetics tested were: antimony potassium tartrate, apomorphine, and copper sulfate. Intake of a 20% sucrose solution by Beagles was significantly depressed by addition of vanillamide at concentrations greater than 0.001%, by capsicum and capsaicin at concentrations greater than 0.01%, and by horseradish extract, pepperoni enhancer, and a commercially available hot flavor at concentrations greater than 0.1%. Antimony potassium tartrate, when added to the 20% sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.1%, produced emesis as did apomorphine at a concentration of 0.005% and copper sulfate at 1%. When the emetic antimony potassium tartrate was combined with vanillamide in a 20% sucrose solution, intake was reduced to less than 20 ml, and vomiting occurred within 15 minutes. Capsaicin (0.02%) inhibited intake of ethylene glycol to less than the lethal dose in 5 dogs tested. Incorporation of such taste repellents and/or emetics into potentially poisonous substances would reduce accidental poisoning of animals and children. PMID:6476561

Houpt, K; Zgoda, J C; Stahlbaum, C C

1984-08-01

369

COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

370

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

371

Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

2014-01-01

372

Copper Data Center Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Copper Data Center Database is provided free of charge by the Copper Development Association "to increase knowledge and awareness of copper, related technologies, and the role of copper in the environment." The database is an online bibliographic search engine of literature on copper, copper alloys and copper technology dating back to 1965 and is described as covering copper technology from smelting and hydrometallurgy through the performance of copper and copper alloys in their end-use applications and service environments. Users can search by standard methods including using keywords and titles or an impressive advanced search feature is also available. Although full text listings are not available, anyone interested in related subjects will appreciate this well designed and unique tool.

Copper Development Association

373

Poisonous Plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

374

Lead poisoning in captive wild animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots

B. C. Zook; R. M. Sauer; F. M. GARNERL

1972-01-01

375

[Paraquat poisoning at the beginning of pregnancy].  

PubMed

Case report of a paraquat poisoning at the beginning of pregnancy (10 weeks) with mother and child survey. The baby was exempt of abnormalities and of normal weight. He was followed up to the age of 4 and did well clinically. These data are associated with a review of the literature. PMID:14567124

Raynal, P; Bossard, A E; Carles, G

2003-05-01

376

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-01-01

377

Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

Carter, Constance, Comp.

378

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

379

INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING  

E-print Network

as encephalopathy. Fanconi syndrome, etc.). II. Background While lead from lead-based paint is only one of sever cause of lead poisoning in children. 1 ,2 Lead-based paint was commonly used on interior surfaces in paint peeling from indoor surfaces is well Jppreciated, lead-based paint on exterior surfaces Jccessible

380

Bat Mortality: Pesticide Poisoning and Migratory Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in

Kenneth N. Geluso; J. Scott Altenbach; Don E. Wilson

1976-01-01

381

Gallium poisoning: A rare case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea,

Chris S. Ivanoff; Athena E. Ivanoff; Timothy L. Hottel

382

Coturnism: Human Poisoning By European Migratory Quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coturnism is human poisoning from European migratory quail (Coturnix commix coturnix L.). While the name is recent, coturnism has been documented since antiquity. Most cases exhibit generalized weakness, progressing to severe muscle pain and lower limb paralysis, vomiting and discolored urine (myoglobinuria). Patients may experience severe gastroenteritis-diarrhea, fever, voice loss and death from cardiac or kidney failure. Toxic quail cannot

David C. Lewis; Elizabeth Metallinos-Katzaras; Louis E. Grivetti

1987-01-01

383

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and ?-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the

Tom Reynolds

2005-01-01

384

A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-03-01

385

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

386

Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of “ALL-OUT” a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish

2013-01-01

387

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Andrew Kane

388

Important poisonous plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

389

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

390

Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

1991-01-01

391

Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The

R S Wadia; S Chitra; R B Amin; R S Kiwalkar; H V Sardesai

1987-01-01

392

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Andrew Kane

393

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis. PMID:24826348

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

394

Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell  

PubMed Central

The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

2005-01-01

395

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect. PMID:24783168

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

396

Age and paracetamol self-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background: Whereas paracetamol poisoning is predominantly seen in adolescents and young adults, the majority of paracetamol associated deaths occur in an older population. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate age as a risk factor for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and death in a large population of patients with paracetamol poisoning. Patients: A total of 746 patients transferred to a specialised unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 273 unselected patients admitted from the local region over a 10 year period. Methods: A partly retrospective study based on hospital charts. The risk associated with age was evaluated by multivariate analysis. Results: Paracetamol poisoning most frequently occurred in the age group 15–24 years. Transferred patients were significantly older than local patients (median age 37 years v 29 years; p?=?0.0006). In contrast, FHF and death from paracetamol poisoning most frequently occurred in patients aged 40 years or above. In a logistic regression analysis, “age ?40 years” was associated with an excess risk of FHF (odds ratio (OR) 2.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–3.64)) and death or liver transplantation (OR 4.18 (95% CI 2.17–8.05)). In addition, older age was associated with other risk factors for paracetamol hepatotoxicity such as regular alcohol abuse and late presentation. Conclusions: Age 40 years or above was identified as a significant independent risk factor for FHF and mortality following paracetamol overdose. Patients aged 40 years or above should be considered as high risk patients, in particular when older age appears in combination with regular alcohol abuse or late presentation. PMID:15831917

Schmidt, L E

2005-01-01

397

Plasma biomarkers in carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Objectives The severity of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is often based on non-specific clinical criteria because there are no reliable laboratory markers. We hypothesized that a pattern of plasma protein values might objectively discern CO poisoning severity. This was a pilot study to evaluate protein profiles in plasma samples collected from patients at the time of initial hospital evaluation. The goal was to assess whether any values differed from age- and sex-matched controls using a commercially available plasma screening package. Methods Frozen samples from 63 suspected CO poisoning patients categorized based on clinical signs, symptoms, and blood carboxyhemoglobin level were analyzed along with 42 age- and sex-matched controls using Luminex-based technology to determine the concentration of 180 proteins. Results Significant differences from control values were found for 99 proteins in at least one of five CO poisoning groups. A complex pattern of elevations in acute phase reactants and proteins associated with inflammatory responses including chemokines/cytokines and interleukins, growth factors, hormones, and an array of auto-antibodies was found. Fourteen protein values were significantly different from control in all CO groups, including patients with nominal carboxyhemoglobin elevations and relatively brief intervals of exposure. Conclusions The data demonstrate the complexity of CO pathophysiology and support a view that exposure causes acute inflammatory events in humans. This pilot study has insufficient power to discern reliable differences among patients who develop neurological sequelae but future trials are warranted to determine whether plasma profiles predict mortality and morbidity risks of CO poisoning. PMID:20095814

THOM, STEPHEN R.; BHOPALE, VEENA M.; MILOVANOVA, TATYANA M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.; LOGUE, CHRISTOPHER J.; LAMBERT, DAVID S.; TROXEL, ANDREA B.; BALLARD, KERRI; EISINGER, DOMINIC

2012-01-01

398

Thallium poisoning. Diagnosis may be elusive but alopecia is the clue.  

PubMed Central

Thallium is a heavy metal whose salts are used in some rodent poisons and in the manufacture of optical lenses, semiconductors, scintillation counters, low temperature thermometers, and switching devices, green coloured fireworks, and imitation jewelery, and as chemical catalysts. In clinical practice thallium isotopes are used in cardiac scanning, but the use of thallium salts to treat scalp ringworm was abandoned earlier this century because of their toxicity. The sale of thallium in Britain is strictly licensed because of its toxicity and potential for use in murder, which is helped by the fact that thallous salts are colourless, tasteless, and odorless. The more water soluble salts (such as thallium sulphate, acetate, or carbonate) have higher toxicity, and although the toxic dose is variable most deaths occur after the ingestion of 10-15 mg/kg of soluble salt. Most cases of thallium toxicity occur after oral ingestion but severe toxicity has been reported after inhalation of contaminated dust from pyrite burners, in zinc and lead smelting, and in the manufacture of cadmium, after dermal absorption through protective rubber gloves, and after snorting what was thought to be cocaine. The elimination half time of thallium is between 1.7 and 30 days depending on the time since, and chronicity of, ingestion. The elimination time phases are apparent and because of the long terminal elimination half time thallium may act as a cumulative poison. We present two cases of thallium poisoning with intent to kill. Images FIG 3 PMID:8518684

Moore, D; House, I; Dixon, A

1993-01-01

399

Animal poisoning in Italy: 10 years of epidemiological data from the Poison Control Centre of Milan.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2010, the Poison Control Centre of Milan (CAV), in collaboration with the University of Milan, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety, Toxicology Section, collected epidemiological information related to animal poisoning and classified it in an organised and computerised data bank. Data recorded were predominantly related to small animals and to some extent to horses, ruminants and other food-production animals. Few calls were registered involving exotics and no information was recorded on wildlife. The dog was reported to be the most common species involved in animal poisoning, and pesticides constituted the primary group of toxicants. In the case of pets, 'drugs' including veterinary parasiticide and drugs for human use constituted the second class of toxicants responsible for poisoning followed by household products, plants, zootoxins and metals. With regard to horses and farm animals, the second group consisted of phytotoxins, even if only episodically. In Italy, published data on this subject are scarce but this information is crucial for better management of the poisoning of domestic animals in an effort to reduce mortality. PMID:22271801

Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Davanzo, F

2012-04-21

400

[Paraquat poisoning and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a common herbicide in Spain. In our country there are a few cases of this intoxication and it presents a high mortality even if the patients ingest a minimal amount. We present two cases of accidental poisoning with paraquat. These patients were admitted three hours after ingestion of toxin. They were treated with with orogastric lavage, activated charcoal, N-acetylcysteine, Fuller's earth, cathartics, support measures and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal. With these treatments both patients had a undetectable levels of paraquat 48 hours after and improvement of their symptoms, gastric and intestinal predominantly . We present the graphics of evolution of the plasma and urine levels of paraquat in both patients. We review the different aspects of treatment and update of this poisoning. PMID:12152392

López Lago, A M; Rivero Velasco, C; Galban Rodríguez, C; Mariño Rozados, A; Piñeiro Sande, N; Ferrer Vizoso, E

2002-06-01

401

Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).  

PubMed

Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

1982-01-01

402

New sources add to lead poisoning concerns  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning again is edging to the forefront of medical concerns, spurred by the addition of unusual sources and a growing amount of information about the severity of its consequences. Ingesting or breathing in the lead from paint is till a major cause. Still, the source of lead is not always from paint. Lead can be inhaled from the dust that comes from the clothes, skin, shoes, and cars of people who work in lead-related industries. There also is the relatively new occupation of deleading homes that contain the older lead-based paint as part of building rehabilitation. Effects of lead poisoning are most pronounced in children and fetuses because it can damage the immature central nervous system.

Benevich, T. (North Park College, Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-02-09

403

Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad

2012-07-01

404

Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. PMID:25098904

Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

2015-01-01

405

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

406

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

407

Intra-aural Route of Insecticide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate (OP) compounds are commonly ingested with the intention of deliberate self-harm. Parenteral route of OP compound exposure is an uncommon yet significant source of toxicity. Deliberate injections via intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes and accidental dermal absorption due to occupational exposure have been described earlier. We report an unusual case of intentional insecticide poisoning by pouring the OP compound into both ears. This was successfully treated with aural irrigation using normal saline and prompt administration of the antidote. PMID:24082515

Kundavaram, Paul Prabhakar Abhilash; Majumdar, Swaratika; Das, Sohini

2013-01-01

408

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

409

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

410

[Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].  

PubMed

In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

1987-09-15

411

Bat mortality: pesticide poisoning and migratory stress.  

PubMed

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in populations of this bat. PMID:959845

Geluso, K N; Altenbach, J S; Wilson, D E

1976-10-01

412

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

413

An autopsy case of carbamazepine poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of fatal carbamazepine poisoning. Quantitative analysis of carbamazepine using high performance liquid chromatography, revealed that the concentrations of carbamazepine were 50.2 microg/ml in the femoral venous blood and 60.3 microg/ml in the heart blood, respectively, and many unabsorbed tablets were also observed in the stomach contents. We concluded that the cause of death was due to carbamazepine overdose. PMID:21275226

Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Kimiko; Kuze, Azumi; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Motonori; Nishiguchi, Minori; Nishio, Hajime; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Jamal, Mostofa; Kubo, Yusuke; Tanaka, Naoko; Ameno, Kiyoshi

2010-04-01

414

Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

415

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

416

The Successful Prevention of Lead Poisoning in the Glazing of Earthenware in the North Staffordshire Potteries*  

PubMed Central

In 1572 an extensive epidemic of disease characterized by severe abdominal colic, later identified as lead poisoning, occurred in France in the province of Poitou. Citois named the disease colica Pictonum, that is the colic of the Pictones, the ancient Celtic tribe who inhabited the area. There-after the term was used generically for lead poisoning, otherwise plumbism or saturnism. The origin of the poisoning was traced to the practice of vintners who sophisticated sour acid wines with lead oxide. This adulteration restored the sweetness of the wine by the formation of sugar of lead, lead acetate. Similar outbreaks of poisoning were traced to the same fraudulent practice in the wine-growing districts of Germany and Spain. The preparation and storage of food and drink in containers of pewter and lead glazed earthenware resulted in accidental contamination of the substances, the consumption of which caused acute and chronic plumbism. Among the most frequently lead-contaminated liquors was Devonshire cyder, hence Devonshire colic. Occupational lead poisoning was described among lead miners and smelters in the mid-sixteenth century. Thereafter the disease was observed in a wide variety of trades and processes. The subject was comprehensively reviewed by Tanquerel des Planches in 1839. Among the workmen frequently affected were dippers in the pottery industry where lead oxide and lead carbonate were constituents of the glaze. The disease appeared as a serious problem among dippers and their assistants in North Staffordshire, the centre of the manufacture of earthenware and china in Great Britain. The manifestations of the disease included colic, convulsions, paralysis of limbs, blindness, and general emaciation. Female lead workers suffered excessively from abortions and miscarriages and many of their infants died of fits. The situation became so serious that the Government were compelled to enquire into the problem through a succession of Commissions. Meantime the manufacturers experimented to discover methods of glazing their products without lead or with lead in the relatively harmless fritted state of low solubility lead glazes. The progress of the investigations and remedial measures are followed in detail leading to the final conquest of lead poisoning among dippers and their assistants. PMID:14046153

Meiklejohn, A.

1963-01-01

417

Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning  

PubMed Central

Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure. PMID:21143497

Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

2011-01-01

418

[Poisoning and drug emergency in practice].  

PubMed

Intoxicated patients make up 5-10% of all patients seen at emergency departments. The management of these patients is not always simple. Many of them are seen after ingestions of relatively non-toxic substances that require minimal medical care, intentional poisoning however often requires the highest standards of medical and nursing care and therefore the admission to an emergency department is mandatory. At admission, the involved substances are often not known since some of the patients are comatose. In such cases, the information from relatives and friends can be very crucial but to get hold of these sometimes essential "hints" is not always easy. Knowledge of the specific toxic agent allows the physician to plan a rational approach to the definitive management of the intoxicated patient after the vital functions have been stabilised. In some cases, very rare intoxications but with typical clinical signs do occur (e.g scromboid fish poisoning, coprinus-syndrome), which needs special diagnostic and therapeutic steps and a great deal of clinical experience. In most cases it is preferable to contact the Poison Control Center for additional advice. PMID:15999939

Kohler, H P; Nohl, E

2005-06-01

419

Diethylene glycol poisoning from transcutaneous absorption.  

PubMed

A case of transcutaneous diethylene glycol poisoning with severe acute kidney injury, but a positive outcome, is described. A man without significant medical history was admitted to our hospital due to anuria, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hypertension. Ultrasonography excluded vascular damage and postrenal obstruction. Laboratory tests showed acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap; hemodialysis therapy was started. The brother of the patient reported that the patient had been smearing his skin with brake fluid containing diethylene glycol to treat a "dermatitis." Only supportive therapy was given due to the lack of a specific antidote. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration was performed. The kidney biopsy showed acute toxic proximal tubulonecrosis, without deposition of oxalate crystals. His neurologic condition worsened dramatically; supportive care was continued. Over time, acute kidney injury and neurologic damage gradually improved; 33 days after admission, he went to a rehabilitation unit for 5 months, with complete clinical recovery. Historically, diethylene glycol has been the cause of large-scale poisonings from ingestion of contaminated drugs. The clinical evolution is unpredictable. Treatment is not well defined; early hemodialysis treatment reduces levels of toxic metabolites, and fomepizole could be useful in cases with an early diagnosis. A comparison of the characteristics of diethylene glycol versus ethylene glycol poisoning is given. PMID:25445099

Devoti, Elisabetta; Marta, Elisabetta; Belotti, Elena; Bregoli, Laura; Liut, Francesca; Maiorca, Paolo; Mazzucotelli, Valentina; Cancarini, Giovanni

2015-04-01

420

Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.  

PubMed

Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure. PMID:21143497

Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

2011-01-01

421

Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent. PMID:6338083

Burchell, H B

1983-02-01

422

HEALTH MATTERS Copper T IUD  

E-print Network

HEALTH MATTERS Copper T IUD What is the Copper T IUD? The Copper T IUD is one of two types of intrauterine devices available in the United States. The Copper T IUD is a small, flexible device made of soft pregnancy. How effective is the Copper T IUD? The Copper T IUD is extremely effective and can last up to 12

Yener, Aylin

423

Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every major species of waterfowl in North America and has also been reported in a wide variety of other birds. The annual magnitude of lead poisoning losses for individual species cannot be precisely determined. However, reasonable estimates of lead-poisoning losses in different species can be made on the basis of waterfowl mortality reports and gizzard analyses. Within the United States, annual losses from lead poisoning have been estimated at between 1.6 and 2.4 million waterfowl, based on a fall flight of 100 million birds.

Friend, M.

1989-01-01

424

Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor  

PubMed Central

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.

2012-01-01

425

Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor.  

PubMed

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world's rarest birds-the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor's apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

Finkelstein, Myra E; Doak, Daniel F; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R

2012-07-10

426

A Fatal Case of Pentedrone and ?-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone Poisoning.  

PubMed

We report a fatal case of combined ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) poisoning. A 28-year-old man was taken to hospital in asystole. Despite resuscitation efforts over 30 min, he died. The forensic autopsy showed pulmonary edema and moderately advanced atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries. Microscopic observation revealed chronic changes in the heart. Confirmation of the presence of pentedrone, ?-PVP, and its metabolite 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-ol (OH-?-PVP) in tissues and fluids were achieved using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis after liquid-liquid extraction. A quantitative validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of the above designer drugs in postmortem samples. Pentedrone, ?-PVP, and OH-?-PVP concentrations were 8,794, 901 and 185 ng/mL in whole blood, respectively; 100,044, 2,610 and 2,264 ng/g in the liver, respectively; 22,102, 462 and 294 ng/g in the kidney, respectively; 13,248, 120 and 91 ng/g in the brain, respectively and 500,534, 4,190 and 47 ng/g in the stomach contents, respectively. This is the first known reported death attributed to the combined use of ?-PVP and pentedrone. Additionally, this article is the first to report the distribution of pentedrone in postmortem human samples. PMID:25737339

Sykutera, Marzena; Cychowska, Magdalena; Bloch-Boguslawska, El?bieta

2015-05-01

427

Azaspiracid poisoning (AZP) toxins in shellfish: toxicological and health considerations.  

PubMed

It has been almost a decade since a previously unknown human toxic syndrome, azaspiracid poisoning (AZP), emerged as the cause of severe gastrointestinal illness in humans after the consumption of mussels (Mytilus edulis). Structural studies indicated that these toxins, azaspiracids, were of a new unprecedented class containing novel structural features. It is now known that the prevalent azaspiracids in mussels are AZA1, AZA2 and AZA3, which differ from each other in their degree of methylation. Several hydroxylated and carboxylated analogues of the main azaspiracids have also been identified, presumed to be metabolites of the main toxins. Since its first discovery in Irish mussels, the development of facile sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS methods has resulted in the discovery of AZA in other countries and in other species. Mice studies indicate that this toxin class can cause serious tissue injury, especially to the small intestine, and chronic exposure may increase the likelihood of the development of lung tumours. Studies also show that tissue recovery is very slow following exposure. These observations suggest that AZA is more dangerous than the other known classes of shellfish toxins. Consequently, in order to protect human consumers, proper risk assessment and regulatory control of shellfish and other affected species is of the utmost importance. PMID:20026101

Furey, Ambrose; O'Doherty, Sinead; O'Callaghan, Keith; Lehane, Mary; James, Kevin J

2010-08-15

428

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

429

Copper: Technology & Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains modern copper mining, ore extraction, and casting processes and details innovative copper products, major markets, service activities, and the future of copper in industry and everyday life. It was published in the November 1998 issue of the online magazine Innovations.

Art Cohen

430

Copper-tantalum alloy  

DOEpatents

A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

1986-07-15

431

Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion  

EPA Science Inventory

The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

432

Estrogen Intake and Copper Depositions: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease?  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with chronic postmenopausal estrogen intake with presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring in the cornea and Alzheimer's disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of estrogen intake and copper accumulation in various tissues, including the central nervous system. Sonography was compatible with copper accumulation in the basal ganglia, but the patient showed no clinical signs of Wilson's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography revealed a typical pattern for Alzheimer's disease. We propose increased copper levels as a direct effect of estrogen intake due to an augmented ATP7A-mRNA in the intestine. Moreover, we discuss the impact of elevated free serum copper on accompanying Alzheimer's disease, knowing that copper plays a crucial role in the formation of amyloid plaques and tau aggregation. This might offer a partial explanation for the observation that postmenopausal estrogen therapy is associated with a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25076894

Amtage, Florian; Birnbaum, Dzelila; Reinhard, Thomas; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Weiller, Cornelius; Mader, Irina; Meyer, Philipp T.; Rijntjes, Michel

2014-01-01

433

Supervasmol33 Keshkala Poisoning: Role of ENT Surgoen.  

PubMed

Poisoning is the one of the common mode of suicide in India. Certain types of poisoning are common in particular region. Similarly, super vasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. Hence, we took this matter with special interest and wants to emphasize the role of ENT Surgeon in such poisoning. This study informs the importance of amount of ingestion and early hospitalization. This study also deals with systemic complications, and its remedial measures to overcome the complications. PMID:24533399

Prabhakar, Mayabrahma

2014-01-01

434

Erythrocytic and leukocytic responses to cadmium poisoning in freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius Ham  

SciTech Connect

Chronically sublethal concentrations of cadmium caused conspicuous hematological anomalies in the cyprinid fish, Puntius conchonius. Exposure to 0.63 and 0.84 mg/liter cadmium chloride (1/20 and 1/15 of 96-hr LC/sub 50/) induced morphological aberrations in mature erythrocytes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, hypochromia, deterioration of cellular membrane, basophilic stippling of cytoplasm, clumping of chromatin material and extrusion of nuclei, and schistocytosis. Anomalous basophils and monocytes were also encountered though less frequently. Decreased erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were also associated with chronic cadmium poisoning. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume increased (30 days) but mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration showed no obvious change. A significant thrombocytopenia (90 days), elevated small lymphocyte and basophil populations, and a mild neutropenia were manifested in the cadmium-exposed fish. Large lymphocytes were not significantly affected.

Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.

1985-04-01

435

Chronic sorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of chronic sorrow has been used to describe the reaction of parents to the ongoing losses associated with caring for a child with chronic illness or disability. A middle-range theory of chronic sorrow provides a framework for further understanding of this phenomenon. This theory is applied to a case of a family burdened with the unrelenting stress of

Jean M. Scornaienchi

2003-01-01

436

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2013-04-01

437

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2014-04-01

438

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2010-04-01

439

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2011-04-01

440

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2012-04-01

441

75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention...recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...1) The New York State Childhood Lead Poisoning Program...the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...

2010-10-29

442

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2012-04-01

443

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2011-04-01

444

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2014-04-01

445

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

446

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2013-04-01

447

Cognitive deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adult monozygotic twins with lead poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Seventy-one-year-old identical twin brothers with chronic lead poisoning were identified from an occupational medicine clinic roster. Both were retired painters, but one brother (J.G.) primarily removed paint and had a history of higher chronic lead exposure. Patella and tibia bone lead concentrations measured by K-X-ray fluorescence in each brother were 5-10 times those of the general population and about 2.5 times higher in J.G. than in his brother (E.G.). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies examined N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratios, a marker of neuronal density. Ratios were lower in J.G. than in his brother. Scores on neurocognitive tests that assess working memory/executive function were below expectation in both twins. Short-term memory function was dramatically worse in J.G. than in his brother. These results demonstrate some of the more subtle long-term neurologic effects of chronic lead poisoning in adults. In particular, they suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in both twins, but more dramatic hippocampal dysfunction in the brother with higher lead exposure. The MRS findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure caused neuronal loss, which may contribute to the impairment in cognitive function. Although a causal relation cannot be inferred, the brothers were genetically identical, with similar life experiences. Although these results are promising, further study is necessary to determine whether MRS findings correlate both with markers of lead exposure and tests of cognitive function. Nevertheless, the results point to the potential utility of MRS in determining mechanisms of neurotoxicity not only for lead but also for other neurotoxicants as well. PMID:15064171

Weisskopf, Marc G; Hu, Howard; Mulkern, Robert V; White, Roberta; Aro, Antonio; Oliveira, Steve; Wright, Robert O

2004-01-01

448

Global perspectives on poisonous plants: The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held from 15th-21st July, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The Symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilin...

449

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

450

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION  

E-print Network

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

Boyer, Edmond

451

Self-poisoning of the mind  

PubMed Central

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-01

452

DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

1997-01-01

453

Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

1990-01-01

454

Continuous arteriovenous hemoperfusion in meprobamate poisoning.  

PubMed

A patient with severe meprobamate poisoning presented within 4 h after suicidal ingestion of an unknown amount of the drug. The patient was unconscious, unresponsive, and hypotensive. Continuous arteriovenous hemoperfusion with coated activated charcoal resulted in a clearance of 198.8 +/- 15.6 mL/min with an extraction ratio of 0.66 +/- 0.05 (n = 3). There was almost complete elimination of the drug from the blood by 16 h. Continuous arteriovenous hemoperfusion, which can be performed in areas where dialysis facilities are not available, may be an effective adjunct to the treatment of acute meprobamate intoxication, particularly in patients with profound hypotension. PMID:8254705

Lin, J L; Lim, P S; Lai, B C; Lin, W L

1993-01-01

455

Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.  

PubMed

Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

Forrester, Mathias B

2013-01-01

456

The significance of variations in the distribution of copper in liver disease.  

PubMed Central

Biopsy and autopsy specimens of liver from patients with Wilson's disease in various stages, chronic cholestatic conditions (including primary biliary cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, sclerosing cholangitis, and biliary atresia), chronic active hepatitis, and Indian childhood cirrhosis, as well as normal neonates, were examined by means of histochemical techniques for copper and copper-associated protein. The intracellular localization of copper and the lobular distribution of the metal and its associated protein differed in these conditions. Periportal hepatocytes containing granules (lysosomes) that were reactive for copper and for copper-associated protein were characteristic of cholestasis and neonatal liver. However, in cholestasis extralysosomal copper was often present in the hepatocellular cytoplasm. In contrast, in Wilson's disease, despite very high concentrations of copper in the early stages, the metal was diffuse in the cytoplasm, and the histochemical reactions for granular copper and its associated protein were usually negative. Therefore, a failure to stain for copper does not exclude the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. In the late stages of Wilson's disease staining varied in different nodules. In Indian childhood cirrhosis copper was present throughout the parenchyma, with periportal predominance. Differences in the distribution of copper and the cellular changes associated with its deposition suggest that different pathogenetic mechanisms and possibly different intracellular targets are susceptible to the toxic effects of the metal. For diagnosis, staining for copper and for copper-associated protein may assist in the differentiation of primary biliary cirrhosis from chronic active hepatitis. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7386600

Goldfischer, S.; Popper, H.; Sternlieb, I.

1980-01-01

457

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems, this report examines lead poisoning as a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible and as a housing problem directly related to a shortage of safe, affordable housing. The report details screening rates in Rhode…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

458

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --  

E-print Network

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

459

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

460

SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing  

E-print Network

to promote a website's ranking only under a limited set of search keywords relevant to the website's content, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL]: Infor- mation Search and Retrieval--Relevance feedback General Terms Security

461

Clinical and toxicological data in Fenthion and omethoate acute poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study paper reports on two cases of poisoning with the organophosphorus insecticides, fenthion and omethoate. The two victims were admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) a few hours after ingestion of the two insecticides. They received appropriate treatment for organophosphorous poisoning (gastric lavage, activated charcoal, atropine and pralidoxime) and supportive care. Both patients survived. Organophosphate blood levels were

A. M. Tsatsakis; A. Manousakis; M. Anastasaki; M. Tzatzarakis; K. Katsanoulas; C. Delaki; P. Agouridakis

1998-01-01

462

Amatoxin-Containing Mushroom (Lepiota brunneoincarnata) Familial Poisoning.  

PubMed

Serious to fatal toxicity may occur with amanitin-containing mushrooms ingestions. A Lepiota brunneoincarnata familial poisoning with hepatic toxicity is reported. In such poisonings, acute gastroenteritis may be firstly misdiagnosed leading to delay in preventing liver dysfunction by silibinin or penicillin G. Mushroom picking finally requires experience and caution. PMID:25831030

Varvenne, David; Retornaz, Karine; Metge, Prune; De Haro, Luc; Minodier, Philippe

2015-04-01

463

Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

464

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

465

[Suspected azodicarbonamide poisoning in a patient with acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The report describes the case of death of a 22-year old man due to acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis. Azodicarbonamide poisoning was suspected in this patient. Autopsy results, data from the literature and the knowledge about mechanisms of azodicarbonamide toxicity allowed for excluding poisoning with this substance as the cause of death. PMID:18432145

Zawadzki, Marcin; Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

2007-01-01

466

Fatal poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009.  

PubMed

Fatal alcohol and drug poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009 were studied. Cases were divided into those that occurred outside the hospitals (the majority of cases) and those that occurred within the hospitals (the minority of cases). Differences and similarities between the two groups were analysed. The postmortem toxicological investigation of all sudden and unexpected deaths in Finland is centralised at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki. We examined each fatal poisoning separately and verified the cause and place of death as well as the age and sex of the deceased. Fatal poisonings, including suicides, have remained unchanged for many years from the same high level, that is, about 1200 cases annually (22/100,000 inhabitants). The number of patients dying in hospitals due to poisoning has also remained stable (55-70 patients/year). However, the toxic agents involved in such poisonings have changed and deaths due to opioids are now being more numerous. The number of fatal unintentional drug poisonings rose significantly from 191 to 341 (3-6/100,000 inhabitants, p < 0.001) during the study years, and the difference between poisonings caused by drugs or alcohol also changed significantly (p < 0.001). Diminishing substantially, the number of all fatal poisonings will be challenging because of the high percentage of suicides. However, a reduction in unintentional drug overdoses, which are presently on the rise, should be possible. PMID:23696556

Lapatto-Reiniluoto, O; Vuori, E; Hoppu, K; Ojanperä, I

2013-06-01

467

LEAD POISONING IN CAPTIVE ANDEAN CONDORS (VULTUR GRYPHUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated lead in the tissues of raptors, especially those that scavenge, is a common occurrence, and lead poisoning appears to be a significant problem in the ongoing recovery effort for California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Elevated blood lead levels have been found in released birds, and a number of birds have died of lead poisoning. In earlier work, we dosed turkey

Oliver H. Pattee; James W. Carpenter; Steven H. Fritts; Barnett A. Rattner; Stanley N. Wiemeyer; J. Andrew Royle; Milton R. Smith

468

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

469

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

470

Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

471

Lechuguilla (Agave lecheguilla) Poisoning in Sheep, Goats, and Laboratory Animals.  

E-print Network

.............................................. Review of literature 7 Fagopyrism ................................................. 7 Hypericism .................................................. 8 Trifoliosis .................................................. 10 Sudan grass... OF LITERATURE" Fagopyrism. (Buckwheat poisoning.) According to Merian (24), who reviewed the literature contributed prior to 1915, the first published report of buckwheat poisoning in farm animals was that by Hertwig in 1833. Hertwig observed...

Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

1937-01-01

472

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources  

E-print Network

the State and Community-Based Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program grants for screening, for ensuring- tional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey #12;113Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter levels in the U.S. population: phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

473

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

474

The epidemiology of self-poisoning in the UK  

PubMed Central

Self-poisoning by ingestion or inhalation is common, and it is important to study its various epidemiological manifestations with clear definitions. Data on fatal self-poisonings are recorded nationally within the UK and are codified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) revision relevant at the time. Most fatal self-poisonings are codified as suicides, accidental deaths or undetermined deaths (‘open verdicts’). Non-fatal self-poisoning data, whether accidental or as a manifestation of deliberate self-harm, are recorded through hospital discharge information nationally but are not routinely published in the same way as mortality data. The bulk of the UK's published epidemiological information on nonfatal self-poisoning episodes is largely based on individual hospitals' admission or discharge records (‘special studies’). After establishing definitions for different self-poisoning categories we discuss the published data on self-poisoning as they relate to suicide, accidental self-poisoning and deliberate self-harm in the UK. PMID:14616420

Camidge, D R; Wood, R J; Bateman, D N

2003-01-01

475

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

476

Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause large economic losses throughout the rangelands of the world. In the 17 western states of the United States alone, it has been estimated that losses related to the ingestion of poisonous plants exceed $340 million annually. There are many plants that contribute to these large...

477

Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

Markovi?, Radmila; Stevanovi?, Jasmina; Avramovi?, Ljiljana; Nedeljkovi?, Dragutin; Jugovi?, Branimir; Staji?-Troši?, Jasna; Gvozdenovi?, Milica

2012-12-01

478

Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28?mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21?mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79?mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22?mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

2014-01-01

479

Enhanced analgesic properties and reduced ulcerogenic effect of a mononuclear copper(II) complex with fenoprofen in comparison to the parent drug: promising insights in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28 mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21 mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79 mm(2) while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22 mm(2). The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

Agotegaray, Mariela; Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

2014-01-01

480

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

481

Changes in rumen contents associated with lantana poisoning of sheep.  

PubMed

The effects of lantana poisoning on the microbial populations of the rumen and on fermentation within the rumen were compared to the effects of starvation in sheep. The protozoal and bacterial populations of the rumen were decreased to the same extent by lantana poisoning and starvation. Fermentation appeared to continue for several days in the rumen of lantana-poisoned animals, as shown by the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia, and the pH and rH of rumen fluid. It is suggested that this was due to retention of plant material in the static rumen of lantana-poisoned animals. It is concluded that lantana toxins do not affect rumen microorganisms directly and that the changes observed in lantana-poisoned animals are probably due to anorexia and rumen stasis. PMID:6138205

McSweeney, C S; Pass, M A; Henry, P

1983-01-01

482

A Case Report of Puffer Fish Poisoning in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008). We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases. PMID:24368916

Yong, Y. S.; Quek, L. S.; Lim, E. K.; Ngo, A.

2013-01-01

483

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

484

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment.  

PubMed

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described. PMID:22181211

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

485

The epidemiology of poisonings in infants <6 months of age.  

PubMed

Contrary to popular belief, children that are less than six months of age are the common victims of unintentional poisoning. The purpose of this study was to examine the profile of poisoning exposures of children as they matriculate through their first six months of life by examining actual exposure data from a certified regional poison information center. Data analysis revealed that adult caregivers were responsible for the majority of exposures in children 0-3 months of age as a consequence of medication administration errors. Due to enhanced motor skills, children from 4-6 months of age frequently exposed themselves to potential poisons that were within their grasp. Parents and caregivers need to be educated proactively by health care professionals to prevent unintentional poisoning exposures in children less than six months of age. PMID:17724865

Kuspis, Denise A; Mrvos, Rita; Krenzelok, Edward P

2007-01-01

486

Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper  

SciTech Connect

Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal whose transport into the cell is tightly regulated. Kineococcus radiotolerans was previously shown to specifically accumulate soluble copper in the cytoplasm and cell growth was significantly enhanced by copper during chronic irradiation. This study provides a systematic investigation of copper accumulation, toxicity, and homeostasis in K. radiotolerans through combined physiological experimentation and quantitative shot-gun proteomics. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations, though intracellular metal accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2 = 0.7). Global proteomics analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the total number of response proteins and their abundance with copper concentration and culture age. Approximately 40% of the K. radiotolerans genome was differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Concomitant production of antioxidants and protective osmolytes signifies an important adaptation for maintenance of cellular redox; few known metal binding proteins were detected. This study offers a first glimpse into the complexity of coordinated biochemical response pathways in K. radiotolerans invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations that may be pertinent for new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration.

Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.

2010-08-26

487

Lead poisoning and brain cell function  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-11-01

488

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

489

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

490

TOXBASE: Poisons information on the internet  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the uptake, usage and acceptability of TOXBASE, the National Poisons Information Service internet toxicology information service. Methods: An observational study of database usage, and a questionnaire of users were undertaken involving users of TOXBASE within the UK between August 1999, when the internet site was launched, and May 2000. The main outcome measures were numbers of registered users, usage patterns on the database, responses to user satisfaction questionnaire. Results: The number of registered users increased from 567 to 1500. There was a 68% increase in accident and emergency departments registered, a 159% increase in general practitioners, but a 324% increase in other hospital departments. Between January 2000 and the end of May there had been 60 281 accesses to the product database, the most frequent to the paracetamol entry (7291 accesses). Ecstasy was the seventh most frequent entry accessed. Altogether 165 of 330 questionnaires were returned. The majority came from accident and emergency departments, the major users of the system. Users were generally well (>95%) satisfied with ease and speed of access. A number of suggestions for improvements were put forward. Conclusions: TOXBASE has been extensively accessed since being placed on the internet (http://www.spib.axl.co.uk). The pattern of enquiries mirrors clinical presentation with poisoning. The system seems to be easily used. It is a model for future delivery of treatment guidelines at the point of patient care. PMID:11777868

Bateman, D; Good, A; Laing, W; Kelly, C

2002-01-01

491

Chronic kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. you may not notice any symptoms for some ...

492

Animal models of copper-associated liver disease  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in molecular biology have made possible the identification of genetic defects responsible for Wilson's disease, Indian childhood cirrhosis and copper toxicosis in Long Evans Cinnamon rats, toxic milk mice, and Bedlington terriers. The Wilson's disease gene is localized on human chromosome 13 and codes for ATP7B, a copper transporting P-type ATPase. A genetic defect similar to that of Wilson's disease occurs in Long Evans Cinnamon rats and toxic milk mice. Familial copper storage disorders in Bedlington and West Highland white terriers are associated with early subclinical disease, and copper accumulation with subsequent liver injury culminating in cirrhosis. The canine copper toxicosis locus in Bedlington terriers has been mapped to canine chromosome region CFA 10q26. Recently, a mutated MURR1 gene was discovered in Bedlington terriers affected with the disease. Idiopathic childhood cirrhosis is biochemically similar to copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers, but clinically much more severe. Both conditions are characterized by the absence of neurologic damage and Kayser-Fleisher rings, and normal ceruloplasmin levels. A recent study added North Ronaldsay sheep to the list of promising animal models to study Indian childhood cirrhosis. Morphologic similarities between the two conditions include periportal to panlobular copper retention and liver changes varying from active hepatitis to panlobular pericellular fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Certain copper-associated disorders, such as chronic active hepatitis in Doberman pinschers and Skye terrier hepatitis are characterized by copper retention secondary to the underlying disease, thus resembling primary biliary cirrhosis in humans. Copper-associated liver disease has increasingly being recognized in Dalmatians. Copper-associated liver diseases in Dalmatians and Long Evans Cinnamom rats share many morphologic features. Fulminant hepatic failure in Dalmatians is characterized by high serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and severe necrosis of centrilobular areas (periacinar, zone 3) hepatocytes. Macrophages and surviving hepatocytes contain copper-positive material. Liver disease associated with periacinar copper accumulation has also been described in Siamese cats. Many questions regarding copper metabolism in mammals, genetic background, pathogenesis and treatment of copper-associated liver diseases remain to be answered. This review describes the similarities between the clinico-pathological features of spontaneous copper-associated diseases in humans and domestic animals. PMID:12769823

Fuentealba, I Carmen; Aburto, Enrique M

2003-01-01

493

Renal replacement therapy in acute poisonings--one center experience.  

PubMed

The authors described three groups of patients after acute poisonings. In the first group were 60 patients after carbon tetrachioride poisoning, the second group consisted of 81 patients after mushroom poisoning and 20 patients after ethylene glycol poisoning were in the third group. Besides two patients with rare poisonings after potassium dichromate and after paraquat poisoning were analysed. All groups of patients with the kidney damage were presented from the diagnostic, differential diagnostic, conservative, ntra- and extracorporeal elimination treatment point of view. In the group of patients suffering from acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning and with acute renal failure following therapy was used: conservative treatment, exchange blood transfusion--in 4 patients in hepatic coma, renal replacement therapy (peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, plasmapheresis). From the total number of 60 patients 58 survived and 2 patients died in liver coma. Survival of patients after mushroom poisoning depended on amount of oral use of mushroom (Amanita phalloides), on early admission in dialysis centre and on early beginning of renal replacement therapy within 24 hr after acute poisoning. Twenty four patients from 81 patients of this group died. Main clinical signs of ethylene glycol poisoning were various neurological symptoms (cramps, hemiparesis, coma), severe metabolic acidosis (pH = 7.06 +/- 0.14), leucocytosis (26.4 +/- 5.5x 10(9)/L) and the signs of acute toxic hepatitis and of acute renal failure. Calcium oxalic crystals in urine were present in 17 patients and leucocytosis was observed in every patient. In the first 4 patients we administered intravenously ethylalcohol as an antidotum and later in other patients we used ethylalcohol in dialysis solution. The concentration of ethylalcohol in dialysis solution was 100 mg%. Severe metabolic acidosis improved in 17 patients using bicarbonate haemodialysis and 3 patients died before the possibility to use bicarbonate haemodialysis. Eighty-four hours after acute potassium dichromate poisoning and 24 hours after exchange blood transfusion during haemodialysis a 41-year old man died in haemorhagic shock, which developed after the extensive chemical burns of mucous membrane of gastrointestinal tract caused by this poison. Our patient after paraquat poisoning was treated by repeated charcoal haemoperfusion and haemodialysis. Despite of that therapy the patient died in severe respiratory insufficiency. PMID:24052974

Mydlík, Miroslav; Derzsiová, Katarina; Frank, Katarina

2013-01-01

494

High adherence copper plating process  

DOEpatents

A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

1993-01-01

495

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

1996-12-10

496

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

1996-01-01

497

Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawai'i and the Pacific.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai'i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai'i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

Copeland, Nathanial K; Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

2014-11-01

498

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hawai‘i and the Pacific  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai‘i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai‘i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

2014-01-01

499

Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?  

PubMed

In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths. PMID:14677794

Horowitz, B Zane

2003-01-01

500

Organophosphorus poisoning: victim specific analysis of mortality and morbidity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of acute organophosphorous (OP) poisoning cases including death, duration of hospitalization and time lapse before arrival at hospital. All OP poisoning cases admitted to the Emergency Department of MKCG Medical College Hospital and other fatal cases received at the mortuary between September 1999 and August 2001 were prospectively studied. Males outnumbered females and most OP poisoning occurred in the 21-30 year age group. In 68 (97.1%) cases the motive was suicide and more than 80% were from rural areas. Nearly one-third of cases occurred during the summer and in the later part of the day. Married females and unmarried males were most frequently affected. Most of the married females were housewives and the males were students or farmers. Fifty-four per cent of cases were admitted for treatment within three hours with a mean time lapse of 6.2 hours. The mean hospital stay for all OP poisoning cases was 5.1 days. Twenty-nine out of 66 admitted OP poisoning cases were fatal. There is a high incidence of OP poisoning with mortality in the region. OP compounds are readily available at low cost in the market. A time of stress and frustration can lead to their use as a common poison with which to commit suicide. PMID:18754212

Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sachidananda; Patnaik, Kiran Kumar

2008-07-01