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1

Chronic copper poisoning and changes in the central nervous system of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty nine out of 42 sheep were given copper sulphate daily by mouth and the remaining 13 were undosed controls. Nine of the dosed animals were killed before the haemolytic crisis of chronic copper poisoning developed, 11 sheep died during haemolysis and 9 died subsequent to haemolysis. The central nervous system was fixed either by perfusion or immersion. Light microscopical

J. M. Howell; W. F. Blakemore; C. Gopinath; G. A. Hall; J. H. Parker

1974-01-01

2

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

that the condition appeared only after the sheep had been grazing in the orchards for several months. Symptoms and lesions similar to those described by previous investigators were noted. In addition, Beijers counted 3,190,000 red blood cells and 26,100 white... either by contact or through injections of spleen tissue emulsions or blood from typical cases. No blood parasites were found. Schmidt (5) noted the extreme red-cell destruction and remarked upon the difficulty of satisfactory examination of blood...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

3

Copper ions as poison in the sea and in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper in ionic form is found to be very poisonous for photosynthesis and growth of unicellular algae at concentrations of Cu usually found in natural waters. This indicates that Cu is ordinarily not present in ionic form but is complexed by organic matter such as polypeptides. The affinity of Cu to diethyl-dithiocarbaminate is very much higher than to the organic

E. Steemann Nielsen; S. Wium-Andersen

1970-01-01

4

An outbreak of copper poisoning in Mute swans (Cygnus olor).  

PubMed

Eight of 9 Mute swans (Cygnus olor) untied in the river acrossing the central part of Tottori-city died within the period of 40 days of summer in 1989. Seven of 8 Mute swans were pathologically examined. In all swans many yellowish-brown to greenish-brown granules were found in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The granules were intensely stained with rhodanine copper stain, schmorl method, and Berlin blue stain. Ultrastructurally, many lysosomes increased in size and density in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Other three swans, that died at other places, were served as controls. In control swans, many brown granules intensely stained with schmorl method and Berlin blue stain were also found in hepatocytes, but the number of rhodanine-positive granules were fewer than those of the affected cases. X-ray qualitative analysis showed three peaks corresponding to copper, zinc and sodium in the liver of the affected and control swans. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that mean hepatic copper concentration of the affected group was significantly higher than that of control group (P less than 0.01). From these findings, we concluded that all of 7 Mute swans died of copper poisoning. PMID:1606252

Kobayashi, Y; Shimada, A; Umemura, T; Nagai, T

1992-04-01

5

MRI of the brain in chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 13 patients with chronic carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); all of them had been in an explosion in a coal mine 25 years previously. Symmetrical globus pallidus lesions were observed in 12, as was degeneration of the white matter, with focal cortical atrophy. The temporal parietal and occipital lobes were usually affected, the parietooccipital

A. Uchino; K. Hasuo; K. Shida; S. Matsumoto; K. Yasumori; K. Masuda

1994-01-01

6

Chronic Arsenic Poisoning in the North of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations.2 The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg\\/l, and 0.007 mg\\/l in the control population.3 The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form.4 The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic

Mariano E. Cebrian; Arnulfo Albores; Manuel Aguilar; Enrique Blakely

1983-01-01

7

Chronic Neurobehavioral Effects of Tokyo Subway Sarin Poisoning in Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neurobehavioral effects of acute sarin poisoning were evaluated in 9 male and 9 female patients who were exposed to sarin poisoning in the Tokyo subway incident in Japan. The investigators used nine neurobehavioral tests, as well as a posttraumatic stress disorder checklist, 6–8 mo after the poisoning occurred. Serum cholinesterase activity in patients on the day of poisoning (i.e.,

Kazuhito Yokoyama; Shunichi Araki; Katsuyuki Murata; Mariko Nishikitani; Tetsu Okumura; Shinichi Ishimatsu; Nobukatsu Takasu; Roberta F. White

1998-01-01

8

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

K OSullivan; M Taylor

1983-01-01

9

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.  

PubMed Central

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld. PMID:6625636

O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

1983-01-01

10

[Chronic gastritis in patients with methylmethacrylate poisoning].  

PubMed

70 patients with chronic gastritis induced by occupational intoxication by methylmetacrylate (MMA) were examined in the clinic, their stomach activity was studied 3-5 and more years following the removal from MMA exposure. Characteristics of the development of the stomach disease were specified by the duration of occupational exposure to MMA, the time following the cessation of work under the conditions of MMA exposure, and marked neurologic changes. Chronic gastritis was accompanied by an allied condition, gradual decrease of acidity under secure enzyme-producing capacity of gastric glands. Morphologic changes in the stomach caused severe disorders, such as atrophic and erosive gastritis, pretumor stomach diseases. Medical supervision of the groups at risk of antacid gastritis and oncologic diseases was recommended. PMID:2526059

Sharova, T G

1989-01-01

11

A pilot study of the cognitive and psychological correlates of chronic ciguatera poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, caused by the consumption of coral reef fishes contaminated with a group of natural toxins produced by minute phytoplankton (dinoflagellates). These toxins are potent and cause both acute and chronic neurologic disease in humans.Although ciguatera fish poisoning is associated with established neurotoxins in animal models, and with

P Arena; B Levin; L. E Fleming; M. A Friedman; D Blythe

2004-01-01

12

Computerized tomographies of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brains of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning) were examined using computerized tomography (CT). Ventricular and sulcal dilatations were measured quantitatively, with picture analysis of CT for the measurement of ventricular dilatation. Significant ventricular and sulcal dilatations were found in all cases of the CO group compared with age-matched controls, and bilateral

Eisuke Kono; Ryosuke Kono; Kenshiro Shida

1983-01-01

13

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

14

Ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of mice ovaries following experimentally induced copper poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element involved in normal reproduction but its overexposure may produce some detrimental effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of copper sulfate poisoning on morphometery of mice ovarian structures and probable intracellular changes. Methods Thirty mature female mice were randomly allocated to control and two treatment groups. In treatment groups, two different doses of copper sulfate including 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in 0.2 cc were applied once a day for 35 consecutive days by gavage. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar method. Animals from each experimental group were sacrificed 14 and 35 days after the beginning of drug administration and the left ovaries were removed for stereological evaluations by light microscopy and right ovaries were obtained for preparing electron microscopic sections. Results The morphometrical results showed that only the number of antral follicles was decreased by 100 mg/kg copper sulfate on day 14 compared to the control group (P=0.043). Hence, higher copper dose or longer consumption period significantly reduced different classes of follicles and corpora lutea. With 100 mg/kg copper sulfate some mild ultrastructural cell damages such as decrease of zona pellucida thickness, limited vacuolated areas and nuclear envelop dilation were seen on day 14. Higher or longer Cu administration produced more detrimental effects including more vacuolated areas, presence of secondary lysosomes, irregularity in cell shape and segmented nuclei with condensed and marginated chromatin and more enlarged and damaged mitochondria. Conclusion New evidences of early as well as late intracellular damages of copper has been presented by accurate stereological and ultrastructural methods. Antral follicles was the most susceptible cells with the lower and shorter copper consumption and long term or higher dose of copper affected the whole of ovarian structures. PMID:23115718

Babaei, H; Roshangar, L; Sakhaee, E; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Dehghani, R

2012-01-01

15

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... in doses that are too high Overdoses of illegal drugs Carbon monoxide from gas appliances Household products, such as laundry powder or furniture polish Pesticides Indoor or outdoor plants Metals such as lead and mercury The effects of poisoning range from short-term illness to ...

16

Neurophysiologic and Neurocognitive Case Profiles of Andean Patients with Chronic Environmental Lead Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents case profiles of three siblings in a family of lead (Pb) glazing workers living in a Pb-contaminated Andean village who presented with extreme plumbism (blood Pb levels: 47 to 128 ?g\\/dl) from childhood to adolescence. These cases are examples of persons who have chronic Pb poisoning as a result of prolonged occupational and environmental exposure in a

S. Allen Counter; Leo H. Buchanan; Fernando Ortega

2009-01-01

17

Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning  

E-print Network

1 Intoxication aiguë et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning Pascal ANDUJAR1.1016/j.revmed.2009.02.029 #12;2 Résumé (203 mots) : Mots-clés : cadmium ­ intoxication ­ pneumopathie - néphropathie ­ ostéomalacie Le cadmium est un métal présent à l'état d'impuretés dans divers minerais. Les deux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Chronic manganese poisoning: A neuropathological study with determination of manganese distribution in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autopsy case of a 52-year-old man suffering from chronic manganese poisoning (CMP) is reported with determination of the manganese distribution in the brain. The patient had been working in a manganese ore crushing plant since 1965. In 1967 he began to complain of difficulties in walking and diminished libido. Later, he developed various neuro-psychiatric symptoms including euphoria, emotional incontinence,

M. Yamada; S. Ohno; I. Okayasu; R. Okeda; S. Hatakeyama; H. Watanabe; K. Ushio; H. Tsukagoshi

1986-01-01

19

Chronic lead poisoning: a "forgotten" cause of renal disease.  

PubMed

Chronic lead nephropathy occurs as a result of years of lead exposure. Nowadays, with the induction of high standards for industrial hygiene, symptomatic lead intoxication has become extremely rare. We report a case of chronic lead nephropathy in a 59-year-old man who worked in a battery-recycling unit and was diagnosed with plumbism during a regular health screening few years ago. The diagnosis was suggested by the following findings: serum creatinine 160 microg/L, creatinine clearance 46 ml/min, daily urine protein excretion 0.1 g, uric acid 9.7 mg/dl, blood lead 9.2 microg/dl, and a urinary excretion of 850 microg lead/72 h after a mobilisation test by a Na2-Ca-EDTA chelating agent. Renal ultrasound showed bilateral borderline small kidneys. The kidney biopsy revealed moderate focal atrophy, loss of proximal tubules, and prominent interstitial fibrosis. The patient was prescribed angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors to slow the progression of renal insufficiency and control the blood pressure. Hyperuricemia was also treated and controlled. During the regular follow-up, renal function remained stable with no proteinuria. A high index of suspicion for lead intoxication in chronic kidney disease patients should be practiced, especially in patients with hyperuricemia. Chelation of lead urinary excretion is helpful in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:17237897

Benjelloun, Meryem; Tarrass, Faissal; Hachim, Khadija; Medkouri, Ghislaine; Benghanem, Mohamed Gharbi; Ramdani, Benyounes

2007-03-01

20

Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners  

PubMed Central

The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants. PMID:20386621

Dhatrak, Sarang V.; Nandi, Subroto S.

2009-01-01

21

Extreme gastric dilation caused by chronic lead poisoning: A case report  

PubMed Central

Lead is a toxic metal that affects many organ systems and functions in humans. In the majority of adults, chronic lead poisoning comes from exposures to work places and can occur in numerous work settings, such as manufacturing, lead smelting and refinement, or due to use of batteries, pigments, solder, ammunitions, paint, car radiators, cable and wires, certain cosmetics. In some countries, lead is added to petrol. We present a rare case of gastric dilation caused by long-term petrol ingestion. A 16-year-old young man was admitted to our hospital due to a 6-mo history of exhaustion, dizziness, nausea, abdominal cramps and constipation. X-ray examination revealed dilated stomach descending into the pelvis and small bowel distension. After a long clinical observation, we found that the reason for the chronic lead poisoning of the patient was due to a 3-year history of petrol ingestion. The patient spontaneously recovered and stomach returned to its normal position and size. Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration in all unexplained cases of gastric dilation. PMID:18442215

Begovic, Vesna; Nozic, Darko; Kupresanin, Srdjan; Tarabar, Dino

2008-01-01

22

[Ultrastructural changes in the adenohypophysis-thyroid system in chronic poisoning by the herbicide linuron].  

PubMed

Ultrastructural adenohypophysis-thyroid system investigation of Wistar male rats under conditions of chronic poisoning by Linuron herbicide and administration of thymohemin immunomodulator was performed. The release of thyrocyte fragments into the vascular lumen, electron-dense deposits in the area of vascular basal membrane, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae as well as inhibition of Golgi complex in thyrocytes are observed in the thyroid exposed to Linuron; in the adenohypophysis under the same conditions swelling and splitting of microvessel basal membrane as well as the increase of biosynthetic and secretory thyrotrophic function can be seen. Thymohemin reduces the degree of degenerative processes in the thyroid gland. PMID:1859277

Iakubovski?, M M; Zurnadzhi, Iu N; Khmel'nitski?, O K; Pushkar', M S; Ben'iaminov, V O

1991-01-01

23

Evaluation of Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Due to Consumption of Contaminated Ground Water in West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ?50 ?g/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 ?g/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%), followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%)] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%)]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%)]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%)], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%)], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%)], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%)], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%)], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%)], alopecia [8 (10.95%)], neuropathy [5 (6.84%)], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%)] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant. PMID:24049627

Ghosh, Asutosh

2013-01-01

24

Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.  

PubMed

There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources. PMID:24552958

Chen, Chien-Jen

2014-01-01

25

Tissue Swainsonine Clearance in Sheep Chronically Poisoned with Locoweed1 (Oxytropis sericea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweed poisoning is seen through- out the world and annually costs the livestock industry millions of dollars. Swainsonine inhibits lysosomal a-mannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II. Poisoned animals are lethargic, anorexic, emaciated, and have neurologic signs that range from subtle apprehension to seizures. Swainsonine is water-solu- ble, rapidly absorbed, and likely to be widely dis- tributed in the tissues of poisoned

Bryan L. Stegelmeier; Lynn F. James; Kip E. Panter; Dale R. Gardner; Michael H. Ralphs; James A. Pfister

2010-01-01

26

Copper Test  

MedlinePLUS

... 3. What happens if I am exposed to toxic amounts of copper? Copper poisoning can cause vomiting ... Asked Questions American Cancer Society: Copper Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Public Health Statement for ...

27

A Potentiometric Cu Assay in Normal and Copper-Poisoned Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new method of copper analysis is presented which is more reliable, when used by students, than the IUPAC recommended spectral method, and the electrode is suitable for the copper assay of mains tap water, soft drinks, urine, and blood. (DF)

Matheson, Ian A.; Williams, David R.

1973-01-01

28

Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata  

SciTech Connect

The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan)] [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others] [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan); and others

1995-07-01

29

CHRONIC EFFECT OF COPPER ON THE BLUNTNOSE MINNOW, 'PIMEPHALES NOTATUS' (RAFINESQUE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory chronic toxicity test in which bluntnose minnows were exposed to copper in laboratory dilution water with a hardness of 200 mg/L as CaCO3 indicated that copper adversely affected fry survival, fry growth, and reproduction. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

30

Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot–Diagnostic criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle (Clarke et al. 1981). Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries,

D. A. Rice; M. F. McLoughlin; W. J. Blanchflower; T. R. Thompson

1987-01-01

31

Tissue swainsonine clearance in sheep chronically poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).  

PubMed

Locoweed poisoning is seen throughout the world and annually costs the livestock industry millions of dollars. Swainsonine inhibits lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II. Poisoned animals are lethargic, anorexic, emaciated, and have neurologic signs that range from subtle apprehension to seizures. Swainsonine is water-soluble, rapidly absorbed, and likely to be widely distributed in the tissues of poisoned animals. The purpose of this study was to quantify swainsonine in tissues of locoweed-poisoned sheep and determine the rate of swainsonine clearance from animal tissues. Twenty-four crossbred wethers were gavaged with ground Oxytropis sericea to obtain swainsonine doses of 1 mg swainsonine x kg(-1) BW x d(-1) for 30 d. After dosing, the sheep were killed on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 14, 30, 60, and 160. Animal weights and feed consumption were monitored. Serum was collected during dosing and withdrawal periods, and tissues were collected at necropsy. Serum swainsonine concentrations were determined using an alpha-mannosidase inhibition assay. Swainsonine concentrations in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and serum were similar at approximately 250 ng/g. Clearance from these tissues was also similar, with half-lives (T(1/2)) of less than 20 h. Swainsonine at more than 2,000 ng/g, was detected in the liver, spleen, kidney, and pancreas. Clearance from liver, kidney, and pancreas was about T(1/2) 60 h. These findings imply that poisoned sheep have significant tissue swainsonine concentrations and animals exposed to locoweed should be withheld from slaughter for at least 25 d (10 T(1/2)) to ensure that the locoweed toxin has cleared from animal tissues and products. PMID:9581938

Stegelmeier, B L; James, L F; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Ralphs, M H; Pfister, J A

1998-04-01

32

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW IN A SURFACE WATER OF VARIABLE QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted with the fathead minnow and copper used as the source of dilution water a natural stream to which a sewage treatment plant upstream contributed a variety of materials known to affect acute copper toxicity. Nominal total copper 96-h media...

33

Mortality, bioaccumulation and physiological responses in juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) chronically exposed to copper.  

PubMed

Several studies have indicated that the early life stages of freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to inorganic chemicals, including copper. However, little is known about the toxic mode of action and sub-lethal effects of copper exposure in this group of imperiled animals. In this study, the physiological effects of long-term copper exposure (survival, growth, copper bioaccumulation, whole-body ion content, oxygen consumption, filtration rate, ATPase activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) were evaluated in juvenile (6 month old) mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The mussels' recovery capacity and their ability to withstand further acute copper challenge were also evaluated in secondary experiments following the 28 day exposure by assessing survival, copper bioaccumulation and whole-body ion content. Mussels chronically exposed to 2 and 12 ?g Cu/L showed significantly higher mortality than those held under control conditions (mortality 20.9, 69.9 and 12.5%, respectively), indicating that juvenile L. siliquoidea is underprotected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) biotic ligand model (BLM)-derived chronic water quality criteria (WQC) (2.18 ?g Cu/L) and the hardness-derived USEPA WQC (12.16 ?g Cu/L). Soft tissue copper burden increased equally for both copper exposures, suggesting that chronic toxicity is not associated with copper bioaccumulation. Several physiological disturbances were also observed during chronic copper exposure. Most relevant was a decrease in whole-body sodium content paralleled by an inhibition of Na(+) K(+)-ATPase activity, indicating a metal-induced ionoregulatory disturbance. Filtration and oxygen consumption rates were also affected. Redox parameters (reactive oxygen production, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and glutathione (GSH) concentration) did not show clear responses, but membrane damage as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in both copper exposures. Mussels previously held in control conditions or pre-exposed to 2 ?g dissolved Cu/L were able to maintain their ionic homeostasis and did not experience mortality after the 4-d recovery period. In contrast, those previously exposed to 12 ?g dissolved Cu/L exhibited 50% mortality indicating that they had already reached a 'point of no return'. Pre-exposure to copper did not influence mussel response to the copper challenge test. As observed for the chronic exposure, mortality of mussels held in the absence of copper and submitted to the challenge test was also associated with an ionoregulatory disturbance. These results indicate that ionoregulatory disruption in freshwater mussels chronically exposed to copper is the main mechanism of toxicity and that redox parameters do not appear to be useful as indicators of sub-lethal copper toxicity in these animals. PMID:23183413

Jorge, Marianna B; Loro, Vania L; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M; Gillis, Patricia L

2013-01-15

34

CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER AND AMMONIA TO JUVENILE FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The objectives of the present study were to develop,methods,for conducting,chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine,the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia,to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea, were fed various live algae or nonviable,algal mixture,for 28 d. The algal mixture,was,the best food resulting in high survival (90%)

Ning Wang; Christopher G. Ingersoll; I. Eugene Greer; Douglas K. Hardesty; Christopher D. Ivey; James L. Kunz; William G. Brumbaugh; F. James Dwyer; Andy D. Roberts; Tom Augspurger; Cynthia M. Kane; Richard J. Neves; M. Chris Barnhart

2007-01-01

35

Contaminant Sensitivity of Freshwater Mussels CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER AND AMMONIA TO JUVENILE FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for

NING WANG; CHRISTOPHER G. INGERSOLL; I. EUGENE GREER; DOUGLAS K. HARDESTY; CHRISTOPHER D. IVEY; JAMES L. KUNZ; WILLIAM G. BRUMBAUGH; F. JAMES DWYER; ANDY D. ROBERTS; TOM AUGSPURGER; CYNTHIA M. KANE; RICHARD J. NEVES; M. CHRIS BARNHART

36

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

37

INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

2007-07-24

38

Intracellular Copper Accumulation Enhances the Growth of Kineococcus radiotolerans during Chronic Irradiation?  

PubMed Central

The actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress, though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of six different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased colony formation during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper, compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute-irradiation-induced DNA damage levels were similar in the copper-loaded culture and the age-synchronized no-copper control culture, though low-molecular-weight DNA was more persistent during postirradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 2 h between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a low-radioactivity environment, K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:18192425

Bagwell, C. E.; Milliken, C. E.; Ghoshroy, S.; Blom, D. A.

2008-01-01

39

Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae).  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (>or=90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 microg Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 microg Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 microg/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20 degrees C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. PMID:17867874

Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Greer, I Eugene; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; Brumbaugh, William G; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

2007-10-01

40

Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (???90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 ??g Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 ??g Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 ??g/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20??C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

2007-01-01

41

Types of Leukemia in Chronic Benzene Poisoning. A Study in Thirty-Four Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various types of leukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene is described in a series comprising 34 cases. The incidence of leukemia among 31 shoe-workers was 13.5\\/100,000. Acute myeloblastic leukemia was the most frequent type, followed by preleukemia, acute erythroleukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The extreme rarity of chronic myeloid leukemia was a noteworthy finding. The differences

Muzaffer Aksoy; Sakir Erdem; Günçag Dinçol

1976-01-01

42

Responsiveness of prehaemolytic copper poisoning in sheep from a specific pathogen-free environment to a relatively high dose of tetrathiomolybdate.  

PubMed

Efficacy of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (3.4 mg/kg LW, TTM(3.4)) was monitored in nine, specific pathogen-free sheep with mild-to-severe, prehaemolytic copper poisoning (pre-HCP). Five sheep were given three subcutaneous injections over seven days and four began a shorter, five-day course four days later. Plasma bile acid (BA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) had fallen significantly after six days but BA briefly rose again between days 10 to 18. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were later to decline but presented little evidence of hepatotoxicity by day 45. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (ESOD) was rapidly inhibited, activities falling by 65 per cent within three days and taking 25 days to recover. Trichloroacetic (TCA)-insoluble copper increased by 6 to 8 ?mol/l after three days but had largely disappeared by day 18. Six lambs had become hypercupraemic by day 18 due to a rise in TCA-soluble Cu. ESOD activity fell again by 188 ± 29.5 U/gHb between days 25 and 45 but had largely recovered by day 62. TTM(3.4) gave better control of hepatotoxicity than TTM(1.7) had done in more severely affects cohorts but at the expense of greater inhibition of ESOD. Treatment of pre-HCuP should rely more on reducing copper absorption until more is known of the side effects of TTM on cuproenzymes. PMID:22798346

Suttle, N F

2012-09-01

43

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure. PMID:22689549

Kasbekar, Shivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Jose Argelio

2011-01-01

44

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Poison Ivy Overview What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a very common plant found in most parts of the United States. ... This is because most people are allergic to poison ivy. Symptoms What does a poison ivy rash ...

45

Chronic pesticide poisoning from persistent low-dose exposures in Ecuadorean floriculture workers: toward validating a low-cost test battery.  

PubMed

Chronic pesticide poisoning is difficult to detect. We sought to develop a low-cost test battery for settings such as Ecuador's floriculture industry. First we had to develop a case definition; as with all occupational diseases a case had to have both sufficient effective dose and associated health effects. For the former, using canonical discriminant analysis, we found that adding measures of protection and overall environmental stressors to occupational category and duration of exposure was useful. For the latter, factor analysis suggested three distinct manifestations of pesticide poisoning. We then determined sensitivity and specificity of various combinations of symptoms and simple neurotoxicity tests from the Pentox questionnaire, and found that doing so increased sensitivity and specificity compared to use of acethylcholinesterase alone--the current screening standard. While sensitivity and specificity varied with different case definitions, our results support the development of a low-cost test battery for screening in such settings. PMID:22550693

Breilh, Jaime; Pagliccia, Nino; Yassi, Annalee

2012-01-01

46

Chronic Neuropsychological Sequelae of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in the Absence of Structural Brain Damage: Two Cases of Acute Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Here we describe two cases of carbamate poisoning. Patients AMF and PVM were accidentally poisoned by cholinesterase inhibitors. The medical diagnosis in both cases was overcholinergic syndrome, as demonstrated by exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors. The widespread use of cholinesterase inhibitors, especially as pesticides, produces a great number of human poisoning events annually. The main known neurotoxic effect of these substances is cholinesterase inhibition, which causes cholinergic overstimulation. Once AMF and PVM had recovered from acute intoxication, they were subjected to extensive neuropsychological evaluation 3 and 12 months after the poisoning event. These assessments point to a cognitive deficit in attention, memory, perceptual, and motor domains 3 months after intoxication. One year later these sequelae remained, even though the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans were interpreted as being within normal limits. We present these cases as examples of neuropsychological profiles of long-term sequelae related to acute poisoning by cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides and show the usefulness of neuropsychological assessment in detecting central nervous system dysfunction in the absence of biochemical or structural markers. PMID:15929901

Roldan-Tapia, Lola; Leyva, Antonia; Laynez, Francisco; Santed, Fernando Sanchez

2005-01-01

47

Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper exposure 1 This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper  

E-print Network

Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after chronic copper exposure 1 2 3 4 5 This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Diatom immigration drives biofilm recovery after, 69336 Lyon, France Summary 1. The impact of immigration on the recovery of diatom assemblages after

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

49

Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.  

PubMed

Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy. PMID:25371526

Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

2014-10-01

50

Copper  

MedlinePLUS

... copper status and certain CVD risk markers in young healthy women. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:231-236. Cassileth B. The Alternative Medicine Handbook: The Complete Reference Guide to Alternative and Complementary Therapies. New York, NY: W.W. Norton; 1998. Castillo-Durán C, Fisberg M, ...

51

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get poison ivy by touching the plant’s oils or something else that “urushiol” has touched. ... the sap oil that’s made by poison ivy plants that’s responsible for irritant reactions. It’s the same ...

52

Protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage and oxidative stress related gene expression in rat liver under chronic poisoning of arsenic.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and chronic exposure to it through contaminated drinking water has become a global problem of public health. The present study focused on the protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage of chronic arsenic poisoning in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups at random and given designed treatments for 20 weeks. The oxidative damage of liver tissue was evaluated by lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress related genes were detected to reflect the liver stress state at the molecular level. Compared to the control and Na2SeO3 groups, the MDA content in liver tissue was decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the Na2SeO3 intervention group. The mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx and Txnrd1 were increased significantly (P<0.05) in the combined Na2SeO3+NaAsO2 treatment group. The expressions of HSP70 and HO-1 were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the NaAsO2 group and reduced in the combined treatment group. The results indicate that long-term intake of NaAsO2 causes oxidative damage in the rat liver, and Na2SeO3 protects liver cells by adjusting the expression of oxidative stress related genes to improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23603382

Xu, Zhao; Wang, Zhou; Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ping-chuan; Dong, Lu; Chen, Jing-hong; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiao-tian; Wang, Zhi-lun

2013-08-01

53

Simplified acute physiology score II/acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and prediction of the mortality and later development of complications in poisoned patients admitted to intensive care unit.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II in poisoned patients admitted to the poisoning ICU and compare them to see which is a more sensitive and specific system for prognostication of the mortality and complications in these patients. Between February 2013 and July 2013, all patients referring to our centre with any poisoning mandating ICU admission were prospectively included. On ICU arrival, a questionnaire containing the demographic data, parameters of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores, the sum of the scores, complications during the stay and the patients' final outcome (compete recovery versus death) was filled for every single patient. A total of 195 patients were evaluated. Forty-two patients (21.5%) died. Mean SAPS and APACHE scores were 41 ± 16 and 15 ± 6, respectively. Mean SAPS and APACHE scores were significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors. Both scores could successfully prognosticate the development of the complications (p = 0.07 and 0.013, respectively). APACHE II was a better score in prediction of both mortality and later complications in the setting of poisoning ICU. APACHE >22 has a good specificity in determining the mortality and development of further complications in poisoned patients admitted to the medical toxicology ICUs. SAPS II score >59 and >43 can predict the risk of mortality and later complications in these patients, as well. PMID:24517530

Alizadeh, Afshin Mohammad; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shadnia, Shahin; Zamani, Nasim; Mehrpour, Omid

2014-09-01

54

[Nitrofuran poisoning in veal calves].  

PubMed

Prolonged administration of furazolidone to calves may give rise to chronic furazolidone poisoning: retardation of growth, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, occasionally changing into haemorrhagic diathesis. In acute nitrofuran poisoning neurological signs are observed as a consequence of monoamine oxidase inhibition. Five incidents of acute nitrofuran poisoning on veal calf farms are reported in the present paper, each with a mortality rate varying frm 46.7 per cent ot 70 per cent. Ten times the recommended dose of furazolidone or furadoltone was administered in each case. PMID:6845339

Postema, H J

1983-03-15

55

Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994–2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci

2007-01-01

56

COMMD1-Deficient Dogs Accumulate Copper in Hepatocytes and Provide a Good Model for Chronic Hepatitis and Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

New therapeutic concepts developed in rodent models should ideally be evaluated in large animal models prior to human clinical application. COMMD1-deficiency in dogs leads to hepatic copper accumulation and chronic hepatitis representing a Wilson’s disease like phenotype. Detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and time course of this animal model is required to test its feasibility as a large animal model for chronic hepatitis. In addition to mouse models, true longitudinal studies are possible due to the size of these dogs permitting detailed analysis of the sequence of events from initial insult to final cirrhosis. Therefore, liver biopsies were taken each half year from five new born COMMD1-deficient dogs over a period of 42 months. Biopsies were used for H&E, reticulin, and rubeanic acid (copper) staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker (alpha-smooth muscle actin, ?-SMA), proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (caspase-3), and bile duct and liver progenitor cell (LPC) markers keratin (K) 19 and 7. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blots were performed on gene products involved in the regenerative and fibrotic pathways. Maximum copper accumulation was reached at 12 months of age, which coincided with the first signs of hepatitis. HSCs were activated (?-SMA) from 18 months onwards, with increasing reticulin deposition and hepatocytic proliferation in later stages. Hepatitis and caspase-3 activity (first noticed at 18 months) increased over time. Both HGF and TGF-?1 gene expression peaked at 24 months, and thereafter decreased gradually. Both STAT3 and c-MET showed an increased time-dependent activation. Smad2/3 phosphorylation, indicative for fibrogenesis, was present at all time-points. COMMD1-deficient dogs develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis comparable to human chronic hepatitis, although at much higher pace. Therefore they represent a genetically-defined large animal model to test clinical applicability of new therapeutics developed in rodent models. PMID:22879914

Favier, Robert P.; Spee, Bart; Schotanus, Baukje A.; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Fieten, Hille; Brinkhof, Bas; Viebahn, Cornelia S.; Penning, Louis C.; Rothuizen, Jan

2012-01-01

57

Kerosene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... by a health care provider. Do NOT give water or milk if the person is unconscious (has a decreased level of alertness). If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

58

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

59

Ink poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Writing ink is a blend of: Dyes Pigments Solvents Water It is generally considered nonpoisonous. ... will give you further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers ...

60

Antifreeze poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Center at 1-800-222-1222. See also: Ethylene glycol poisoning ... Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or ...

61

Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (?68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

2014-01-01

62

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

63

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... wings plant poisoning; Colocasia plant poisoning; Heart of Jesus plant poisoning; Texas Wonder plant poisoning ... For those who do not have severe oral contact with the plant, symptoms usually resolve within a few days. For those ...

64

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... RSS Feed Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Search the Consumer Updates Section Consumer Updates by ... hours to several days after exposure to the plant oil found in the sap of these poisonous ...

65

Comparison of the lethality of lead and copper bullets in deer control operations to reduce incidental lead poisoning; field trials in England and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Legislative controls on the use of lead gunshot ove r wetland areas have been introduced in many countries, including the UK, in order to reduce lea d poisoning in waterfowl following ingestion of spent shot. Effective alternatives to lead shot are widely available. However, there is evidence that the problem also affects wildlife in terrestrial ecosys tems and that

Jeff Knott; Jo Gilbert; Rhys E. Green; David G. Hoccom

66

Genetic polymorphisms in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH and risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative damage to DNA induced by benzene is an important mechanism of its genotoxicity, which leads to chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Therefore, genetic variation in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to CBP in the exposed population. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH genes are associated with risk of CBP. We genotyped SNPs at codon 83 of hMTH1, codon 326 of hOGG1, and codon 324 of hMYH in 152 CBP patients and 152 healthy workers occupationally exposed to benzene without poisoning manifestations. The genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restrained fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. There were 2.51-fold [adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}), 2.51; 95% CI, 1.14-5.49; P = 0.02] and 2.49-fold (OR{sub adj}, 2.49; 95% CI: 1.52-4.07; P < 0.01) increased risk of CBP for individuals carrying genotypes of hMTH1 83Val/Met + Met/Met and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys, respectively. Compared with individuals carrying genotypes of hOGG1 326Cys/Cys and hMYH 324His/His at the same time, there was a 0.33-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15-0.72; P < 0.05) decreased risk of CBP for those with genotypes of hOGG1 326Ser/Cys + Ser/Ser and hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln. In the smoking group, there was a 0.15-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.68; P = 0.01) decreased risk of CBP for subjects carrying genotypes of hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln compared with those of genotype of hMYH 324His/His. Therefore, our results suggested that polymorphisms at codons 83 of hMTH1 and codon 326 of hOGG1 might contribute to CBP in a Chinese occupational population.

Wu Fen; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Gu Shouyong [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Weiwei [Guangzhou Hospital for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jin Xipeng [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xia Zhaolin [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zlxia@shmu.edu.cn

2008-12-15

67

[Influence of acute and chronic poisoning with dichloroethylene on the kinetics of antibody-forming cells and the plasmocytic reaction in the spleen of rats in immunization with the O-antigen of Sal. typhi].  

PubMed

Local hemolysis in gel demonstrated in tests on rats that with its acute action in a concentration of 25 mg/l (1/2 CL50) dichlorethylene stimulates, while with subacute action in a concentration of 5 mg/l--inhibits the formation of cells producing antibodies to the typhoid antigen, as well as the plasmocytic reaction of the spleen following immunization of the O-antigen from Sal. typhi and also without it. In poisoning subject to a dynamic changed is also the number of the antibody forming cells (ABFC) after immunization, viz. their doubling time decreased, with stimulation the antibody formation becames less intensive, whereas with chronic action of the poison the doubling time increases and the dropoff in the number of ABFC gains in speed. It may be presumed that the effect of the poison under study on the immunogenesis is conditioned by the action of the poison on the number of immunologically competent cells-precursors, released for differentiation irrespective of the antigen's action, simultaneously and immediately upon its introduction, as well as on the extent of recruitment, multiple, non-changed passage from the precursors compartment into that of the ABFC, occurring at the level of the integral organism, possibly through the intermidiary of the endocrine and vegetative nervous systems. PMID:943310

Shmuter, L M

1976-01-01

68

Plant poisoning.  

PubMed

Each year over 100,000 exposures to toxic plants are reported to poison centers throughout the United States. Most of these exposures are of minimal toxicity largely because of the fact that they involve pediatric ingestions, which are of low quantity. The more serious poisonings usually involve adults who have either mistaken a plant as edible or have deliberately ingested the plant to derive perceived medicinal or toxic properties. The plants within this manuscript have been chosen because they have been documented to cause fatalities or account for emergency medicine visits. In this discussion, plants are grouped by their toxins rather than on the basis of their taxonomy. PMID:17482026

Froberg, Blake; Ibrahim, Danyal; Furbee, R Brent

2007-05-01

69

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments M - P Poison ivy Poison ivy, oak, and sumac Rash from poison ivy. ... to an emergency room immediately. Learn more about poison ivy: Poison ivy: Signs and symptoms Poison ivy: ...

70

Chronic toxicity of copper to five benthic invertebrates in laboratory-formulated sediment: sensitivity comparison and preliminary risk assessment.  

PubMed

Five benthic organisms commonly used for sediment toxicity testing were chronically (28 to 35 days) exposed to copper in standard laboratory-formulated sediment (following Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines) and lethal and sub-lethal toxicities were evaluated. Sub-lethal endpoints considered were reproduction and biomass production for Lumbriculus variegatus, growth and reproduction for Tubifex tubifex, growth and emergence for Chironomus riparius, and growth for Gammarus pulex and Hyalella azteca. Expressed on whole-sediment basis the observed lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive) was: G. pulex>L. variegatus>H. azteca=C. riparius=T. tubifex, with median chronic lethal concentrations (LC50) between 151 and 327 mg/kg dry wt. The sub-lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive, with the most sensitive endpoint between parentheses): C. riparius (emergence)>T. tubifex (reproduction)=L. variegatus (reproduction)>G. pulex (growth)>H. azteca (growth), with median effective concentrations (EC50) between 59.2 and 194 mg/kg dry wt. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) or 10% effective concentrations (EC10) for the five benthic invertebrates were used to perform a preliminary risk assessment for copper in freshwater sediment by means of (a) the "assessment factor approach" or (b) the statistical extrapolation approach (species sensitivity distribution). Depending on the data (NOEC or EC10) and the methodology used, we calculated a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for sediment between 3.3 and 47.1 mg Cu/dry wt. This range is similar to the range of natural (geochemical) background concentrations of copper in sediments in Europe, i.e. 90% of sediments have a concentration between 5 and 49 mg Cu/kg dry wt. A detailed analysis of the outcome of this preliminary exercise highlighted that multiple issues need to be explored for achieving a scientifically more sound risk assessment and for the development of robust sediment quality criteria for copper, including (i) the use of the assessment factor approach vs. the statistical extrapolation approach, (ii) the importance of bioavailability modifying factors (e.g., organic carbon, acid volatile sulfide), and (iii) the influence of prevailing geochemical (bioavailable) background concentrations on the copper sensitivity of local benthic biota. PMID:17631947

Roman, Yblin E; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Nguyen, Lien T H; Janssen, Colin R

2007-11-15

71

Zigadenus Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of

Katherine L Heilpern

1995-01-01

72

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center;)

2010-04-09

73

Zigadenus poisoning.  

PubMed

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of the morbidity caused by ingestion of some Zigadenus species. PMID:7832360

Heilpern, K L

1995-02-01

74

Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.

Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

75

Solder poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Antimony Bismuth Cadmium Copper Ethylene glycol Lead Mild acids Silver Tin Zinc ... and kidney failure (itai-itai disease) Symptoms for bismuth: Diarrhea Eye irritation Gingivitis Kidney damage Metallic taste ...

76

Lead poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

1994-01-01

77

Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  

PubMed

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

1981-01-01

78

Electron microscopic studies on the cerebral lesions of rats in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental carbon monoxide poisoning, more marked and widespread pathological changes in the brain were seen in the white matter as compared with the gray matter. No essential difference, in the appearance of cerebral alterations, was detected between acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning. It was confirmed that the changes resulting from chronic poisoning showed a higher degree of severity

TSUTOMU MIYAGISHI; Nozomi Suwa

1969-01-01

79

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are ... mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

80

Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Besser, J. M.; Mebane, C. A.; Mount, D. R.; Ivey, C. D.; Kunz, J. L.; Greer, I. E.; May, T. W.; Ingersoll, C. G.

2007-01-01

81

Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Information for Older Adults and Their Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... CO poisoning due to their high frequency of pre-existing medical conditions. 1 While CO alarms can ... poisoned by carbon monoxide exposure. Older adults with pre-existing conditions, such as chronic heart disease, anemia, ...

82

Effects of chronic light/dark cycle on iron zinc and copper levels in different brain regions of rats.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic shift in light/dark cycle alters brain trace element concentrations. For this purpose, 20 male Wistar albino adult rats were weighed and randomly divided into three groups. The first group (n?=?6) was the control and had been subjected to 12/12-h light/dark cycle for 30 days. The second group (n?=?7) was subjected to 6/18-h light/dark cycle for 15 days, and the third group (n?=?7) was also subjected to 6/18-h light/dark cycle for 15 days and then returned to normal 12/12-h light/dark cycle for 15 days. When light/dark cycle protocols were completed, tissue specimens of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and brain stem were collected. Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) concentrations of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and brain stem were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. When compared with controls, Fe levels of the temporal lobe significantly increased in 6/18-h light/dark cycle group (p?chronic shift in light/dark cycle affects trace element concentrations of the brain, especially Fe level in the temporal lobe, and these changes are reversible. PMID:21607704

Karakoc, Yunus; Buruk, Mehmet Seyfi; Aktan, Burak; Kirvar, Ramazan; Erdogan, Songul; Sahbaz, Mehmet Akif; Aksoy, Sevket; Gulyasar, Tevfik

2011-12-01

83

House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

Keller, Rosanne

84

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

85

Pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

86

Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. PMID:22511547

Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

2012-07-01

87

Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)  

SciTech Connect

Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

Bechmann, R.K. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

1994-09-01

88

Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention  

PubMed Central

Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

Turner, T. J.

1982-01-01

89

Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from this study were used to evaluate the sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon and rainbow trout relative to data published for other test organisms. Toxicity data generated from this study also were used to evaluate the level of protection of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WQC or Washington State water-quality standards (WQS) for copper, zinc, cadmium, or lead to white sturgeon inhabiting the upper Columbia River. Chapter A of this report summarizes the results of acute toxicity tests performed for 4 d with white sturgeon and rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, or zinc. Chapter B of this report summarizes the results of chronic toxicity tests performed for as many as 53 days with white sturgeon or rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, zinc, or lead. Appendixes to the report are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5204. Supporting documentation for chapter A toxicity testing is provided in appendix 1. Supporting documentation for chapter B toxicity testing is provided in Appendix 2. Supporting documentation on analysis of water chemistry for chapter A and chapter B is provided in appendix 3 and 4. The rationale for applying corrections to measured copper and zinc values in water samples from some of the toxicity tests performed in chapter A is provided in appendix 5. A summary of dissolved organic carbon measurement variability and implications for biotic ligand model normalization for toxicity data summarized in chapter A and chapter B are provided in appendix 6. An evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison of analyses for dissolved organic carbon in water from the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center and University of Saskatchewan is provided in appendix 7. Finally, appendix 8 provides a summary of retesting of white sturgeon in 2012 to determine if improved survival of sturgeon would affect copper effect concentrations in 24-d copper exposures started with newly hatched larvae, and to evaluate the effect of light intensity or temperature on the response of newly hatched larvae during a 25-d study.

Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

2014-01-01

90

Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation  

PubMed Central

This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

Modra, Helena; Svobodova, Zdenka

2009-01-01

91

Poison Ivy Dermatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

92

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

93

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

94

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

95

Influence of dissolved organic carbon on toxicity of copper to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in acute and chronic water exposures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acute and chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were determined in water exposures at four concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; nominally 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L as carbon [C]). Test waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg C/L were prepared by mixing a concentrate of natural organic matter (Suwannee River, GA, USA) in diluted well water (hardness 100 mg/L as CaCO3, pH 8.3, DOC 0.5 mg C/L). Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved Cu increased approximately fivefold (15–72 ?g Cu/L) for mussel survival in 4-d exposures and increased about 11-fold (25–267 ?g Cu/L) for cladoceran survival in 2-d exposures across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg C/L. Similarly, chronic 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for the mussel in 28-d exposures increased about fivefold (13–61 ?g Cu/L for survival; 8.8–38 ?g Cu/L for biomass), and the EC20s for the cladoceran in 7-d exposures increased approximately 17-fold (13–215 ?g Cu/L) for survival or approximately fourfold (12–42 ?g Cu/L) for reproduction across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg C/L. The acute and chronic values for the mussel were less than or approximately equal to the values for the cladoceran. Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for Cu explained more than 90% of the variation in the acute and chronic endpoints for the two species, with the exception of the EC20 for cladoceran reproduction (only 46% of variation explained). The BLM-normalized acute EC50s and chronic EC20s for the mussel and BLM-normalized chronic EC20s for the cladoceran in waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg C/L were equal to or less than the final acute value and final chronic value in the BLM-based AWQC for Cu, respectively, indicating that the Cu AWQC might not adequately protect the mussel from acute and chronic exposure, and the cladoceran from chronic exposure.

Wang, Ning; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Santore, Robert C.; Gorsuch, Joseph W.; Arnold, W. Ray

2011-01-01

96

Influence of dissolved organic carbon on toxicity of copper to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in acute and chronic water exposures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acute and chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were determined in water exposures at four concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; nominally 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10mg/L as carbon [C]). Test waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10mgC/L were prepared by mixing a concentrate of natural organic matter (Suwannee River, GA, USA) in diluted well water (hardness 100mg/L as CaCO3, pH 8.3, DOC 0.5mgC/L). Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved Cu increased approximately fivefold (15-72??gCu/L) for mussel survival in 4-d exposures and increased about 11-fold (25-267??gCu/L) for cladoceran survival in 2-d exposures across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10mgC/L. Similarly, chronic 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for the mussel in 28-d exposures increased about fivefold (13-61??gCu/L for survival; 8.8-38??gCu/L for biomass), and the EC20s for the cladoceran in 7-d exposures increased approximately 17-fold (13-215??gCu/L) for survival or approximately fourfold (12-42??gCu/L) for reproduction across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10mgC/L. The acute and chronic values for the mussel were less than or approximately equal to the values for the cladoceran. Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for Cu explained more than 90% of the variation in the acute and chronic endpoints for the two species, with the exception of the EC20 for cladoceran reproduction (only 46% of variation explained). The BLM-normalized acute EC50s and chronic EC20s for the mussel and BLM-normalized chronic EC20s for the cladoceran in waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10mgC/L were equal to or less than the final acute value and final chronic value in the BLM-based AWQC for Cu, respectively, indicating that the Cu AWQC might not adequately protect the mussel from acute and chronic exposure, and the cladoceran from chronic exposure. ?? 2011 SETAC.

Wang, N.; Mebane, C. A.; Kunz, J. L.; Ingersoll, C. G.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Santore, R. C.; Gorsuch, J. W.; Arnold, W. R.

2011-01-01

97

[Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].  

PubMed

Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice. PMID:9411893

Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

1997-09-30

98

Caulking compound poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If ...

99

Histamine fish poisoning revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (?50 mg\\/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the

Leigh Lehane; June Olley

2000-01-01

100

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

101

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

102

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem lead-based paint and industrial sites and smelters that use or produce lead-contain- ing materials

103

Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridium dichloride), a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon. PMID:24672279

Raghu, Kondle; Mahesh, Vidavalur; Sasidhar, Parri; Reddy, Polam R.; Venkataramaniah, Vajja; Agrawal, Amit

2013-01-01

104

Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

1986-01-01

105

Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes in the metabolism of the essential metals copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium using an animal model of AC. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; an ad libitum control group (AL), a pair-fed control group (PF), and an ethanol-dosed group (ETOH). The latter group received gradually increasing concentrations (5-25%) of ethanol in the drinking water for 15 wk. Food intake was monitored and urine and feces collected for a 4-d period during the study to determine ethanol effects on trace-element balance. Growth of both the PF and ETOH animals was inhibited. Ethanol produced substantial increases in liver manganese and decreases in liver copper and zinc. Metal concentrations in heart and concentrations in other tissues studied (spleen, testes, brain, bone, kidney, and muscle) did not differ significantly among the groups, except for testes selenium and kidney zinc. Reduced food intake and ethanol ingestion were associated with a reduced percentage of ingested selenium excreted in the urine. Deficiencies of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in myocardial tissue are not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of AC in the rat. 38 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Bogden, J.D.; Al-Rabiai, S.; Gilani, S.H.

1984-01-01

106

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

107

Homicide by poisoning.  

PubMed

By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime.Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected.In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime. PMID:23361068

Finnberg, Amanda; Junuzovic, Mensura; Dragovic, Ljubisa; Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben; Hamel, Marianne; Davis, Joseph; Eriksson, Anders

2013-03-01

108

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

109

Oven cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

110

Potassium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

111

The Poisons Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

Crawford, Barbara A.

1998-01-01

112

Dye remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... remover is a chemical used to remove dye stains. Dye remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... by IV Medicines to treat pain Oxygen Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the ...

113

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

114

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

115

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

116

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances, touches the chemicals and acids in them, ... breathes in their fumes. Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more likely than the acids ...

117

Gloriosa superba poisoning.  

PubMed

Suicidal attempts by consuming poisonous extracts of a creeper plant Gloriosa superba are frequent in this region. An instance of such poisoning is reported here, wherein a family engaged in business dealing with this plant consumed the crude liquid extract of its root. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal. The children had more severe symptoms which included sweating, hypotension, jaundice, bradycardia and convulsions. The features were reversible with symptomatic treatment alone. PMID:1308494

Aleem, H M

1992-08-01

118

Poisonous Plant Management.  

E-print Network

parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System... parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System...

McGinty, Allan

1985-01-01

119

Acute Oral Poisoning Due to Chloracetanilide Herbicides  

PubMed Central

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO3 ¯ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-01-01

120

Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems. PMID:17992970

Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

2007-11-01

121

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional poisoning if swallowed in large amounts.

122

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

123

Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... a poisonous plant: Immediately rinse skin with rubbing alcohol, poison plant wash, or degreasing soap (such as ... some protection. After use, clean tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and lots of water. Urushiol can ...

124

[Electronic poison information management system].  

PubMed

We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

2013-01-01

125

Acute blasticidin S poisoning.  

PubMed

Blasticidin S is an effective fungicidal aminocylonucleoside antibiotic against a rice blast disease. We presented the first 4 reported cases of acute poisoning from ingesting blasticidin S for suicidal attempts. Three of the patients were fatal. The symptoms observed in the patients included vomiting immediately after ingestion and severe, persistent, watery diarrhea. The toxic effects of blasticidin S were noted in ectodermal tissues including the skin, conjunctiva, cornea, and intestine. Massive loss of intestinal fluid resulted in progressively pronounced hypotension associated with tachycardia. The treatment of choice for the poisoning consists of intravenous fluid administration and the management of body water and electrolyte balance. PMID:3824882

Yamashita, M; Nakamura, K; Naito, H; Suzuki, H; Tsuchiya, T; Hattori, T; Iwasaki, M; Eguchi, J

1987-02-01

126

Mushroom Poisoning in Canada  

PubMed Central

At least 150 cases of mushroom poisoning occur in Canada each year, 75% in the Province of Ontario. Eighty per cent of the total are in children under the age of 9, and most do not require hospitalization. Amanita virosa poisoning is a potentially fatal medical emergency which presents as an acute gastroenteritis, progressing to hepatorenal failure. Treatment consists of elimination of undigested mushrooms, rapid rehydration, management of acute liver and renal failure, and prevention of infection during the recovery phase. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5445050

Lough, John; Kinnear, D. G.

1970-01-01

127

Poisoning and epidemiology: 'toxicoepidemiology'.  

PubMed

1. There is little hypothesis-testing clinical research performed in toxicology. Randomized clinical trials are rare and most observational studies are performed on highly selected patients and are subject to marked bias. Thus, for many poisonings, our approach has been based almost entirely on deduction from known pharmacological/toxicological effects, generalizations from drugs within the same therapeutic class, animal data and case reports. This is also far from satisfactory, as many toxicological mechanisms are poorly understood and not related to the therapeutic class. 2. Although we need much better data to address the clinical and public health aspects of poisoning, there are many practical and ethical reasons why randomized clinical trials are difficult in this field. However, the scope for observational research, in particular population-based clinical epidemiology, is almost unlimited. The collection of data on human poisoning is facilitated because most non-fatal overdoses are admitted to hospital and by legal requirements to report to the coroner deaths that are due to poisoning. In the present article I argue that 'toxicoepidemiology', meaning the application of epidemiological methods to the problem of acute poisoning, is the best means we have of addressing deficiencies in our knowledge of poisoning. 3. Examples are given of a variety of observational research strategies, ranging from audit to meta-analysis, that may be applied to clinical toxicology. From coronial and clinical data obtained from reasonably well-defined populations, it has been possible to identify a number of previously unrecognized differences in the severity and spectrum of toxicity between and within drug classes. Also, the demographic risk factors for poisoning and the reproducibility, validity and optimal use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can be assessed. 4. The major limitations to the range of associations and interventions that may be studied are the need to achieve adequate power to study uncommon outcomes or poisonings and the ability to replicate findings at other centres using similar methodology. The expansion of data collection to other centres has the potential largely to overcome these obstacles. PMID:9590568

Buckley, N A

1998-01-01

128

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

129

LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION  

E-print Network

issues (4,5). In very extreme cases, it can cause seizures or death. A blood lead concentration for Environmental Health, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch Search engine keywords: CDC lead and Quarantine Search engine keywords: CDC international adoption immigrant health Child Welfare Information

130

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

131

Acute Paracetamol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 41 cases of acute paracetamol poisoning one died of gastrointestinal haemorrhage and acute massive necrosis of the liver, three became jaundiced, and 13 others had biochemical evidence of hepatocellular damage. Liver damage is a toxic effect which is present in most patients who ingest more than 15 g. of paracetamol. One patient with liver damage survived renal failure due

A. T. Proudfoot; N. Wright

1970-01-01

132

Animals and Poisonous Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH reference to Mr. Bennett's inquiry as to the consumption of poisonous berries by birds, I remember a young blackbird, some years back, who used to frequent the garden of the house in which I was staying, and who eagerly swallowed the berries of the Daphne mezereum. He was rather tame and would take them when I threw them to

Edward M. Langley

1898-01-01

133

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

134

Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the

M. V. Balzan; G. Agius; A. Galea Debono

1996-01-01

135

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

136

Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae. PMID:19918480

Carvalho, Catarina; Frioes, Fernando; Araujo, Jose P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

2009-01-01

137

Bluish vomiting: a rare clinical presentation of poisoning.  

PubMed

Bluish vomiting is a symptom of poisoning that is rarely seen in Western emergency departments. Consequently, physicians are not aware of the diagnosis, complications, and treatment of this unusual form of intoxication. In this article, we report a case of bluish vomiting that occurred after an accidental ingestion of copper sulphate. In the discussion, we review three life-threatening causes of bluish vomiting (copper sulphate, boric acid, and paraquat ingestion), and we discuss their respective clinical manifestations, specificities, complications, and management therapies. PMID:24846181

Higny, J; Vanpee, D; Boulouffe, C

2014-08-01

138

Influence of copper status on antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation following chronic ethanol feeding in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The effects of chronic ethanol (Et) consumption on liver antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation were assessed in Cu sufficient (+Cu) and deficient ({minus}Cu) rats fed liquid diets with Et or dextrose (C) at 36% of kcals for 2 mo. Rats in the Et groups consumed less calories than those in the non-Et groups, thus a restricted intake group (RI) was included to account for any effects due to caloric restriction. Et feeding resulted in lower Cu and Zn and higher Mn concentrations in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats relative to C rats. Both Cu intake and Et resulted in lower CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuSOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities relative to C rats. CuZnSOD and GPx activities were lowest in {minus}CuEt rats; values were 50% of C values. In contrast, Et feeding resulted in higher MnSOD activity in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats. Despite a limited antioxidant defense system in the {minus}Cu rats, Et had no effect on mitochondrial lipid peroxidation as assessed by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). In contrast, microsomal TBRS production was lower in the Et fed groups; the lowest values occurring in the {minus}CuEt rats. These results suggest that in the Cu deficient animal, despite reductions in some components of the antioxidant defense system, compensatory mechanisms can arise which result in a reduction in peroxidation targets and/or an increase in alternate free radical quenching factors.

Greco, D.J.; Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Han, B.; Rosenbaum, J.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

1991-03-11

139

[Poisoning by bee sting].  

PubMed

Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

2005-01-01

140

Oak Poisoning in Livestock.  

E-print Network

(19). "Tannin" is a generic name for a group of complex ~tructures widely distributed in the higher plants. The )tanninsu yield gallic acid when subjected to acid Ilysis. Commercial "tannic acid" is an example of a snnin and is obtained from... of o:k poisoning were observed. - Purified shin oak tannin and commercial tannic acid \\we fed to rabbits in parallel studies. The serium tan- nin levels (1 8) (expressed as "tannic acid" equivalent) \\yere determined periodically. The times of death...

Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

1966-01-01

141

Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

1976-01-01

142

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

143

[Puffer fish poisoning].  

PubMed

We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

2000-03-01

144

[Familial lead poisoning].  

PubMed

A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

1989-06-01

145

OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS  

PubMed Central

1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

Binger, Carl A. L.; Faulkner, James M.; Moore, Richmond L.

1927-01-01

146

Endrin-food-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end. PMID:5301732

Weeks, D. E.

1967-01-01

147

Texas Plants Poisonous to Livestock.  

E-print Network

to death. Plants that interfere with growth in weight or milk produc- tion are included. Loss from poisonous plants is one of the major economic problems in livestock production. A compilation of numer- ous reports indicates that the .annual loss from... nursing. Prevention of poisoning should be practiced when possible. Since certain plants are more poisonous to one type of animal than to another, a change in kind of livestock may be in order. Reduction of weed population and improvement of desirable...

Sperry, Omer Edison

1964-01-01

148

Pesticide poisoning of farm workers-implications of blood test results from Vietnam.  

PubMed

Information on the health impacts of pesticides is quite limited in many developing countries, with many surveys relying solely on farmer self-assessments of their health status. To test the reliability of self-reported data, an acetyl cholinesterase enzyme (AChE) blood test was conducted for 190 rice farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Results reveal a high prevalence of pesticide poisoning by organophosphate and carbamate exposure, where over 35% of test subjects experienced acute pesticide poisoning (a reduction of AChE >25%), and 21% chronically poisoned (>66% AChE reduction). Using the medical test results as benchmarks, we find that farmers' self-reported symptoms have very weak associations with actual poisoning. To investigate the possible determinants of pesticide poisoning, a probit model was constructed with pesticide amount, toxicity, training, and the use of protective measures as explanatory variables. The results indicate that although the absolute amount of pesticides used does not increase the probability of poisoning, a 1% increase in the use of highly hazardous pesticides (WHO Ia or Ib) increases the probability of poisoning by 3.9% and an increased use of protective measures decreases the probability of poisoning by 44.3%. We also find significant provincial differences in poisoning incidence after we control for individual factors. The provincial effects highlight the potential importance of negative externalities, and suggest that future research on pesticide-related damage should include information on local water, air and soil contamination. PMID:17008128

Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig; Wheeler, David; Xuyen, Khuc; Thi Lam, Nhan

2007-03-01

149

Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs. PMID:11348810

Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

2001-06-01

150

Cap mushroom poisonings.  

PubMed

This paper presents species of fungi of high toxicity. Their consumption might have serious consequences for health and in many cases it might lead to death. Toxic compounds present in fungi have also been characterised, mechanisms of their toxic activity have been presented and clinical symptoms of poisoning have been described. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have also been mentioned as they have recently become a serious problem: many people use them to intoxicate themselves. There are also species of mushrooms that can be consumed under certain conditions since they can occasionally trigger off serious disturbances for the functioning of organisms. PMID:16145968

Gromysz-Ka?kowska, Kazimiera; Szubartowska, Ewa; Wójcik, Kazimiera

2004-01-01

151

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

152

Ethylene glycol poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although an uncommon cause of death in Great Britain, ethylene glycol poisoning is potentially serious in that renal and cardiopulmonary failure and central nervous system dysfunction can occur when doses of the order of 100 ml or more are ingested. A case is described in which a child who swallowed approximately 100 ml of ethylene glycol was treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis. In addition, measures were taken to correct a marked acidosis. Substantial amounts of ethylene glycol were removed by the dialysis fluid and the child made a complete physical and mental recovery. PMID:981106

Vale, J. A.; Widdop, B.; Bluett, N. H.

1976-01-01

153

Mushroom Poisoning-an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many thousands of mushroom species in the world, some are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. The edible mushroom is a common food item with tempting flavour, taste and nutritive value; nowadays quite often grown at home and cultured with commercial marketing. Mushroom poisoning usually results from ingestion of wild mushrooms due to misidentification

B. S. Patowary

2010-01-01

154

Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate. PMID:21575287

2011-01-01

155

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

156

Oxygen Poisoning in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Fruit flies live longer at the partial pressure of oxygen found in air than at either larger or smaller partial pressures. Flies exposed to 1 atm of oxygen for 8 hr every day do not recover completely in the remaining 16 hr. In general, intermittent exposures to 1 atm of oxygen are better tolerated than continuous exposure to the same average oxygen concentration per day, but exposures to higher pressures of 2–5 atm of oxygen for as little as a half hour every two days markedly shorten the life-span. Older flies consume more oxygen per minute and are more sensitive to oxygen poisoning than young flies, and the rate of dying in 6 atm of O2, or the reciprocal of the survival time, is a linear function of the age. The oxygen pressure-time curve can be well expressed by the general empirical equation (POO2)2 x time = 120 where P is in atmosphere and survival time in hours. The progress of oxygen poisoning appears to be linear with time rather than exponential. PMID:6034764

Fenn, Wallace O.; Henning, Marcia; Philpott, Mary

1967-01-01

157

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning.  

PubMed

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-04-01

158

[Pneumonitis with fatal pulmonary fibrosis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) due to parathion-(E-605-) poisoning].  

PubMed

A patient with chronic Parathione (E 605) poisoning was observed over a period of 55 days. During that time he developed progressive changes, which were identical to those of progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The rapid development of an alveolitis, followed by a lethal pulmonary fibrosis, differed in no way, macroscopically nor microscopically, from the lung changes in paraquat poisoning (paraquat lung). The radiological course has been correlated with the clinical and post mortem findings. PMID:3012677

Lotz, W; Fasske, E

1986-05-01

159

A comparison of acute and chronic toxicity tests used to examine the temporal stability of a gradient in copper tolerance of Hediste diversicolor from the Fal estuary, Cornwall, UK.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use two different toxicity tests to verify the existence of a gradient in tolerance along Rostronguet Creek. Hediste diversicolor was collected from five populations in the Fal estuary previously shown to vary in copper tolerance. Exposure to 4 mgL(-1) of copper in an acute assay demonstrated that Mylor Creek worms were sensitive (LT(50) 86 h) and the tolerance of Rostronguet Creek worms increased moving upstream from the mouth of the creek (LT(50)s 100-258 h). There was no significant difference in tolerance between Mylor worms and worms from the mouth of Rostronguet Creek. This is in agreement with a previous study [Grant, A., Hateley, J.G., Jones, N.V., 1989. Mapping the ecological impact of heavy metals on the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor using inherited metal tolerance. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20, 235-238] and demonstrates temporal stability of the gradient. Copper tolerance was also measured using a chronic toxicity test run for 90 d using step-wise increases in challenge concentration. A significant difference in tolerance was shown between populations from Mylor Creek and those at the mouth of Rostronguet Creek, which has not been reported previously. Experimental protocol was therefore an important factor in detecting population variation in tolerance. PMID:17113608

Burlinson, F C; Lawrence, A J

2007-01-01

160

Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a PMID:9633866

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S

1998-01-01

161

Metformin poisoning: A complex presentation.  

PubMed

The objective of this case report is to highlight presentation, complications and treatment of metformin poisoning. Patient after ingestion of 45gms of metformin developed colicky abdominal pain, severe tachypnea and vomiting. He developed severe lactic acidosis, cardiac arrest, pancreatitis and hemolytic anemia which was treated with charcoal, sodium bicarbonate, early initiation of high volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and supportive therapy. Metformin poisoning is a rare presentation and we discuss course of events in the management of metformin poisoning and its associated complications. PMID:21712882

Jagia, Manish; Taqi, Salah; Hanafi, Mahmud

2011-03-01

162

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED). Design A statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into substance categories. Using a reproducible algorithm facilitated by probabilistic linkage, codes from the PCC classification system were mapped into the same categories. A readily identifiable subset of PCC calls was selected for comparison. Measurements Correlations between frequencies of quarterly exposures by substance categories were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients with adjustment for seasonality. Results PCC reported exposures correlated with ED poisonings in nine of 10 categories. Partial correlation coefficients (rp) indicated strong associations (rp>0.8) for three substance categories that underwent large changes in their incidences (opiates, benzodiazepines, and muscle relaxants). Six substance categories were moderately correlated (rp>0.6). One category, salicylates, showed no association. Limitations Imperfect overlap between ICD-9 and PCC codes may have led to miscategorization. Substances without changes in exposure frequency have inadequate variability to detect association using this method. Conclusion PCC data are able to effectively identify trends in poisonings seen in EDs and may be useful as part of a pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance system. The authors developed an algorithm-driven technique for mapping American Association of Poison Control Centers codes to ICD-9 codes and identified a useful subset of poison control exposures for analysis. PMID:21422101

Olsen, Cody S; Dean, J Michael; Olson, Lenora M; Cook, Lawrence J; Keenan, Heather T

2011-01-01

163

[Accidental poisoning and test for it].  

PubMed

There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems. PMID:20821840

Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

2008-11-30

164

10 "Poison Pills" for Pets  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed for someone ... medications used in both animals and people, the effects, doses needed, and other ...

165

Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.  

PubMed

A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing. PMID:23799386

Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

2013-05-10

166

Poison Prevention Tips for Babysitters  

MedlinePLUS

... drops laundry products nail polish products and other cosmetics batteries bug and weed killers cigarettes alcohol mouthwash ... can be poisonous, such as a medicine or cosmetics in a purse, make sure to put your ...

167

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands). For health care professionals: To search EPA's Pesticide ... to tell whether the person is suffering from heat exhaustion or pesticide poisoning. The table below compares ...

168

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

169

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

170

Accidental poisoning in young children.  

PubMed Central

Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

1982-01-01

171

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

172

Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity. PMID:24260828

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

2013-08-01

173

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

174

Assessing the impact of copper on nematode communities from a chronically metal-enriched estuary using pollution-induced community tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity tests on the whole nematode community from Restronguet Creek, a severely contaminated estuary, show that nematodes are more resistant to copper than those from an adjacent, less contaminated estuary. This is a result of an increase in the abundance of Curesistant species, the evolution of enhanced Cu tolerance in some species and the probable exclusion of more sensitive species.

Rod N. Millward; Alastair Grant

1995-01-01

175

The epidemiology and prevention of paraquat poisoning.  

PubMed

In the UK there was an increase in the annual number of deaths associated with paraquat poisoning between 1966 and 1975. Since that time there has been little change in numbers. High mortality is associated commonly with suicidal intent. Serious accidental poisoning from paraquat has never been frequent in the UK and there have been no deaths reported in children since 1977. The National Poisons Information Service has monitored in detail all reports of paraquat poisoning since 1980. Of the 1074 cases recorded there were 209 deaths. In recent years serious poisoning has been more commonly associated with ingestion of concentrated products by males. Local exposure to paraquat has not resulted in systemic poisoning. International data for paraquat poisoning is incomplete and difficult to compare. There is a scarcity of morbidity data at both international and national levels. Information obtained from Poison Control Centres indicates that paraquat poisoning occurs in many countries but detailed comparisons are hindered by lack of standardised methods of recording. Various measures to prevent paraquat poisoning have been introduced. Their effectiveness has not been studied in detail. Some support is provided by the low incidence of serious accidental paraquat poisoning in the UK, but because of the suicidal nature of paraquat poisoning it is unlikely that current preventative measures will influence the number of deaths occurring each year. Preventative measures against paraquat poisoning should be tailored to national needs, based on and assessed by epidemiological studies. PMID:3546083

Onyon, L J; Volans, G N

1987-01-01

176

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

177

Alsike clover poisoning: A review.  

PubMed

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P N

1989-05-01

178

The recovery of gold from ammoniacal thiosulfate solutions containing copper using ion exchange resin columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loading of gold and copper, both individually and simultaneously, from thiosulfate solutions onto ion exchange resin columns and the subsequent elution of these species have been investigated. In the presence of copper, effective loading with good selectivity for gold can be achieved at pH 11, which balances the stability of the solution and minimizes the formation of poisoning polythionates.

Hongguang Zhang; David B Dreisinger

2004-01-01

179

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

180

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Search the Consumer ... these products on Flickr. Signs and Symptoms of Mercury Poisoning irritability shyness tremors changes in vision or ...

181

[Acute poisoning with industrial products].  

PubMed

Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens. PMID:10748668

Garnier, R

2000-02-15

182

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

, Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results..., Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

183

Strong Poison Revisited  

SciTech Connect

Selenium in the form of selenocysteine plays an essential role in a number of proteins, but its role in non-enzymatic biochemistry is also important. In this short review we discuss the interactions between inorganic selenium, arsenic and mercury under physiological conditions, especially in the presence of glutathione. This chemistry is obviously important in making the arsenic and mercury unavailable for more toxic interactions, but in the process it suggests that a side-effect of chronic arsenic and/or mercury exposure is likely to be functional selenium deficiency.

Prince, R.C.; Gailer, J.; Gunson, D.E.; Turner, R.J.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

2009-06-04

184

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

185

National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

186

76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health Resources...SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer...Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison Control Center. These transfers are...

2011-02-18

187

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

188

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

189

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

190

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters,

Raimon Guitart; Magda Sachana; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

191

Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura

1995-01-01

192

Drugs prescribed for self poisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs

L F Prescott; M S Highley

1985-01-01

193

Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes

John O. Bogden; Shamshad H. Gilani

1984-01-01

194

Application of an acute biotic ligand model to predict chronic copper toxicity to Daphnia magna in natural waters of Chile and reconstituted synthetic waters.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to assess the predictive capacity of the acute Cu biotic ligand model (BLM) as applied to chronic Cu toxicity to Daphnia magna in freshwaters from Chile and synthetic laboratory-prepared waters. Samples from 20 freshwater bodies were taken, chemically characterized, and used in the acute Cu BLM to predict the 21-d chronic Cu toxicity for D. magna. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values, determined using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 21-d reproduction test (OECD Method 211), were compared with the BLM simulated EC50 values. The same EC50 comparison was performed with the results of 19 chronic tests in synthetic media, with a wide range of hardness and alkalinity and a fixed 2 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. The acute BLM was modified only by adjustment of the accumulation associated with 50% of an effect value (EA50). The modified BLM model was able to predict, within a factor of two, 95% of the 21-d EC50 and 89% of the 21-d half-maximal lethal concentrations (LC50) in natural waters, and 100% of the 21-d EC50 and 21-d LC50 in synthetic waters. The regulatory implications of using a slightly modified version of an acute BLM to predict chronic effects are discussed. PMID:21796669

Villavicencio, German; Urrestarazu, Paola; Arbildua, Jose; Rodriguez, Patricio H

2011-10-01

195

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01

196

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1989-01-01

197

An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. METHODS: A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due to CO poisoning between January 1988 to December 1994. The main outcome measures were age and sex standardised incidence rates (SIRs) for non-intentional, suicidal, and undetermined poisonings for health authorities and the linear relation with socioeconomic deprivation. RESULTS: Overall rate of non-intentional poisonings over the 7 year period was 7.6/100,000, an annual rate of 1.1/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest in people > or = 85; men 24.0/100,000 and women 19.7/100,000. For suicides the 7 year rate was 19.6/100,000, an annual rate of 2.8/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest for men of 35-39, 64.1/100,000, and for women aged 45-49, 15.3/100,000. None of the causes of poisoning were related to deprivation. Non-intentional poisonings showed a strong seasonal variation with the highest rates being recorded in the months October to March. Increased rates of poisoning were found in the rural districts of the West Midlands. There seems to have been a decline in suicides coinciding with the introduction of three way catalytic converters on cars. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people and the very young are at the greatest risk from non- intentional CO poisoning and rates are highest in the winter months. Although deaths from non-intentional CO poisoning are declining nationally, in the West Midlands they have remained stable and hospital admissions are increasing. It is not solely an urban phenomenon with rates for non-intentional CO poisoning and suicides higher in the rural districts. Health authorities need to consider all populations in any prevention programme. Further work is needed to establish the extent of the burden of chronic CO poisoning and the impact of catalytic converters on suicides.   PMID:9924447

Wilson, R. C.; Saunders, P. J.; Smith, G.

1998-01-01

198

Evidence for metal poisoning in acute deaths of large red drum (Scianeops ocellata)  

SciTech Connect

Two of the approximately 100 large, mature, red drum found dead or dying in Florida's Indian River and Mosquito Lagoon were examined. Determinations were made of serum electrolyte concentrations, total proteins, albumins, globulins, creatinine values, and enzyme activity. Concentrations of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium were determined by atomic aborption. The outstanding histological lesions were found in the gills of a moribund specimen. Results indicate that the acute episode was triggered by ingestion of copper, zinc, and arsenic. However, cadmium, mercury and chromium may have been contributory by binding with metallothionein and thus lowering tolerance to metal poisoning. (JMT)

Cardeihac, P.T.; Simpson, C.F.; White, F.H.; Thompson, N.P.; Carr, W.E.

1981-12-01

199

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

200

Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.  

PubMed

We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam

2012-01-01

201

Strychnine poisoning of aquatic birds.  

PubMed

Strychnine poisoning was diagnosed in free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) found dead on a pond in a zoo. The probable source of toxin was improperly applied strychnine-treated grain used for control of rodents on adjacent farm land. Ingesta of the birds contained 19.7-85.1 mg/kg of strychnine. PMID:3586216

Wobeser, G; Blakley, B R

1987-04-01

202

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

203

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

204

Poisoning deaths in married women.  

PubMed

Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

Kumar, Virendra

2004-02-01

205

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-01-01

206

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-05-01

207

[Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning].  

PubMed

The most hazardous manganese exposures occur in mining and smelting of ore. Recently, the poisoning has been frequently reported to be associated with welding. In occupational exposure, manganese is absorbed mainly by inhalation. Manganese preferentially accumulates in tissues rich in mitochondria. It also penetrates the blood brain barrior and accumulate in the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, but also the striatum. Manganese poisoning is clinically characterized by the central nervous system involvement including psychiatric symptomes, extrapyramidal signs, and less frequently other neurological manifestations, Psychiatric symptomes are well described in the manganese miners and incrude sleep disturbance, disorientation, emotional lability, compulsive acts, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. The main characteristic manifestations usually begin shortly after the appearance of these psychiatric symptomes. The latter neurological signs are progressive bradykinesia, dystonia, and disturbance of gait. Bradykinesia is one of the most important findings. There is a remarkable slowing of both active and passive movements of the extremities. Micrographia is frequently observed and a characteristic finding. The patients may show some symmetrical tremor, which usually not so marked. The dystonic posture of the limbs is often accompanied by painfull cramps. This attitudal hypertonia has a tenndency to decrease or disappear in the supine position and to increase in orthostation. Cog-wheel rigidity is also elisited on the passive movement of all extremities. Gait disturbance is also characteristic in this poisoning. In the severe cases, cook gait has been reported. The patient uses small steps, but has a tendency to elevate the heels and to rotate them outward. He progress without pressing on the flat of his feet, but only upon the metatarsophalangeal articulations, mainly of the fourth and fifth toes. Increased signal in T1-weighted image in the basal ganglia has been reported in patients with the poisoning. Thus, increasd signal intensities as a target site dose can be a more useful biomakers of the manganese than other biological indicies such as ambient manganese concentration or blood manganese concentration on individual basis. Manganese poisoning ultimately becomes chronic. However, if the disease is diagnosed while still at the early stages and the patient is removed from exposure, the course may be reversed. Once well established, it becomes progressive and irreversible, even when exposure is terminated. Levodopa therapy is not effective for the management of manganese poisoning. Levodopa unresponsiveness may be usefull to distinguish manganese-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson disease. PMID:17585589

Inoue, Naohide

2007-06-01

208

Uncommon Sources and Some Unsual Manifestations of Lead Poisoning in a Tropical Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Lead-containing cooking utensils, sometimes used in South Indian homes, and indigenous medications, widely used in India and increasingly in developed countries, may be responsible for lead intoxication in adults. We report chronic lead poisoning in five adult patients. Not all patients had abdominal colic, while dramatic weight loss, depression and encephalopathy were seen. Once recognized, lead poisoning is treatable and sometimes preventable. Response to chelation therapy with agents such as calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) is impressive, although several courses of therapy may be necessary. PMID:22438702

Rolston, David D.K.

2011-01-01

209

Anaemia and abdominal pain due to occupational lead poisoning.  

PubMed

We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominal pain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling. PMID:17405745

Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

2007-02-01

210

[Lead poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Lead poisoning may cause irreversible health defects, including anaemia, central nervous system problems and various organ defects. We describe a patient with lead poisoning. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with anaemia and unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspirate showed basophilic stippling of erythrocytes suggestive of lead poisoning, which was confirmed by high concentrations of lead in her blood. The lead source was the glazing of a ceramic wine jug. Chelating therapy was started. Haemoglobin was normalised; the patient returned to work after nine months. Correct diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious health problems caused by lead poisoning. PMID:12185736

Amundsen, Tore; Naess, Inger Anne; Hammerstrøm, Jens; Brudevold, Robert; Bjerve, Kristian S

2002-06-10

211

Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

Barbato, M P

1993-06-21

212

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

2010-04-01

213

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6 Section 509.6 Food...6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide...

2014-04-01

214

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6 Section 109.6 Food...6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide...

2014-04-01

215

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

216

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

217

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

218

Carbon monoxide poisoning from Sterno.  

PubMed Central

A high school student became ill and later unconscious while working over a heating table set over three cans of burning Sterno. Measurements of 1000 to 3000 parts per million of carbon monoxide were obtained around and above the apparatus. Although the room was well ventilated there was incomplete combustion of the canned heating fuel because the apparatus was surrounded by aluminum foil, which resulted in poor oxygenation of the flame area. This case demonstrates the hazards of carbon monoxide poisoning from incompletely burned Sterno. PMID:638911

Murray, T. J.

1978-01-01

219

Poisoning trends and the importance of educating patients about poison prevention.  

PubMed

Medical professionals are recognized as a vital link in communities for education and treatment of poisoning exposures. The Oklahoma Poison Control Center (OPCC) is a resource for medical professionals as well as the public. Nationally and in Oklahoma, among all age groups, analgesics are responsible for the most fatalities. Trends in common exposures in the age 5 and younger age group and the 13 through 19 age group, an acetaminophen protocol, information about the poison center and HIPPA privacy regulations, poison prevention tips and where to obtain educational materials are outlined. National Poison Prevention Week, March 21-27, 2004, is an excellent time to educate all age groups about poison prevention techniques and what to do when there is a poisoning emergency. Board certified toxicologists, pharmacists and registered nurses are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by calling 1-800-222-1222. PMID:15088817

McGoodwin, Lee; McKeown, Tracy

2004-03-01

220

Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

221

Poison control center - Emergency number (image)  

MedlinePLUS

For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

222

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

223

Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem?  

E-print Network

and treating children who have been poisoned by lead. · Lead hazards in a child's environment mustCS239775 Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem? Approximately 500,000 U.S. children aged 1­5 years have blood lead levels above 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, the reference level

224

INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING  

E-print Network

of lead are eliminated from their environment. Terms used in the document are defined as follows: LINCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued

225

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

226

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

227

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Güven

2001-01-01

228

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

229

HYDRODYNAMICS OF A LIQUID POISON SCRAM SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is nnade of the transient motion of a suddenly released column ; of liquid poison, such as mercury or borated water, as it moves through the ; control tubes of a reactor. Two basic systems are described. The first system ; consists of a tank of liquid poison, situated above the reactor, connecting ; directly to control tubes

Burgreen

1958-01-01

230

Pediatric poisonings: recognition, assessment, and management.  

PubMed

Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies encountered in young children in the United States, and accounts for a significant proportion of emergency room visits for the adolescent population. Poisoning is a significant and persistent cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents. The scope of toxic substances involved in poisoning is broad, and requires health care providers to have an extensive knowledge of signs and symptoms of poisoning and specific therapeutic interventions and antidotes. Most children who ingest poisons suffer no harm; however, health care providers must recognize, assess, and manage those exposures that are most likely to cause serious injury, illness, or death and initiate appropriate management to minimize the physical injury that may occur. PMID:16344209

Madden, Maureen A

2005-12-01

231

Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.  

PubMed Central

Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

1997-01-01

232

Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands. PMID:1340336

Oreihaka, E

1992-01-01

233

Management of oil of citronella poisoning.  

PubMed

The management for ingestion of oil of citronella, an essential oil, has traditionally been rigorous, including dilution with milk or oil, and gastric lavage or emesis, taking care to prevent aspiration. Recently our Centre handled five oil of citronella poisonings and their outcomes led us to review our management protocol which had been based on information from standard poisoning texts. The source data used to determine the human toxicity of oil of citronella and the appropriate management of poisoning included a case report of a fatal ingestion of oil of citronella in a child. On scrutiny, however, the management of this poisoning included now out-moded techniques, giving rise to uncertainties in establishing the true cause of the child's death. Our own experiences indicate that advice given in standard texts based on poisoning cases managed with out-moded techniques should be carefully evaluated. PMID:1675696

Temple, W A; Smith, N A; Beasley, M

1991-01-01

234

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

235

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

236

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

237

Copper Cleanup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on experiment, kids use chemistry to explore whether acids or bases are better at restoring a pennyâs shine. Kids follow the scientific process to test a common household cleaning products alongside ketchup, cola, and other kitchen staples, and may be surprised by the results! A downloadable data sheet is available on the Copper Cleanup activity resources page.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

238

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

239

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

240

Human Health Effects From Chronic Arsenic Poisoning–A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 ?g\\/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 ?g\\/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5

SIMON KAPAJ; HANS PETERSON; KARSTEN LIBER; PROSUN BHATTACHARYA

2006-01-01

241

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

242

Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

1980-07-01

243

Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.  

PubMed

We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale. PMID:22939664

Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

2012-08-01

244

Prognostic Aspects of Benzene Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In 1955, a benzene mass-poisoning was detected in a shoe factory in Finland. One hundred and forty-seven persons were heavily exposed, and more than 100 had abnormal blood counts. One died and 10 required hospital treatment. This paper deals with a re-examination of the involved workers nine years later. One hundred and twenty-five persons attended for re-examination. Eight had died, two refused, and 11 could not be located. The possibility of death due to benzene poisoning having occurred among these persons was ruled out by checking the national death register. Each of the subjects underwent a haematological examination which included the haemoglobin value and the erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leucocyte, and thrombocyte counts. A differential count of the leucocytes was also made. A randomly chosen group of 86 persons served as a control group. The thrombocytes of the whole patient group and the erythrocytes of the men were significantly lower than those of the controls, whereas the leucocytes of the whole group and the erythrocytes of the women failed to show any statistical difference. In a multiple discriminant function analysis, considering all three counts at the same time, only the men differed slightly from the controls at the re-examination. The analysis also showed that the prognosis of the severe cases did not differ from that of the mild ones, provided the acute stage had been passed. Some illustrative case reports are added. One patient developed leukaemia after a latency of seven years, whereas most of the others—chosen because of grave symptoms in the initial stage—have recovered. The results are discussed from the point of view of prognosis. PMID:5946130

Hernberg, S.; Savilahti, M.; Ahlman, K.; Asp, S.

1966-01-01

245

Copper peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of oxidizing agents, including chlorine, bromine, ozone and other peroxides, were allowed to act on copper solutions with the intention of forming copper peroxide. The only successful agent appears to be hydrogen peroxide. It must be used in a neutral 50 to 30 percent solution at a temperature near zero. Other methods described in the literature apparently do not work. The excess of hydrogen must be quickly sucked out of the brown precipitate, which it is best to wash with alcohol and ether. The product, crystalline under a microscope, can be analyzed only approximately. It approaches the formula CuO2H2O. In alkaline solution it appears to act catalytically in causing the decomposition of other peroxides, so that Na2O2 cannot be used to prepare it. On the addition of acids the H2O2 is regenerated. The dry substance decomposes much more slowly than the moist but is not very stable.

Moser, L.

1988-01-01

246

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

1996-08-01

247

Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems.  

PubMed

Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and bacteraemia. Clinical aspects of ciguatera toxicity, its pathophysiology, diagnostic difficulties and epidemiology are discussed. PMID:11785597

Ting, J Y; Brown, A F

2001-12-01

248

Poisoned food, poisoned uniforms, and anthrax: or, how guerillas die in war.  

PubMed

Many people believe that Rhodesia, struggling to maintain minority rule in Africa, used chemical and biological weapons against African guerilla armies in the liberation war. Clothes and food were routinely poisoned, and Rhodesian agents, perhaps in concert with global forces of reaction, caused the largest single outbreak of anthrax in modern times. Oral interviews with traditional healers and Rhodesians' confessional memoirs of the war suggest that deaths by poisoning or disease were not so straightforward, that guerillas and healers and doctors struggled to understand not only what caused death but also what kind of death a poisoned uniform or poisoned boot was. PMID:15484386

White, Luise

2004-01-01

249

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

250

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

251

Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

2013-01-01

252

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

253

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

254

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

255

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

256

Minamata disease: methylmercury poisoning in Japan caused by environmental pollution.  

PubMed

Minamata disease (M. d.) is methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning that occurred in humans who ingested fish and shellfish contaminated by MeHg discharged in waste water from a chemical plant (Chisso Co. Ltd.). It was in May 1956, that M. d. was first officially "discovered" in Minamata City, south-west region of Japan's Kyushu Island. The marine products in Minamata Bay displayed high levels of Hg contamination (5.61 to 35.7 ppm). The Hg content in hair of patients, their family and inhabitants of the Shiranui Sea coastline were also detected at high levels of Hg (max. 705 ppm). Typical symptoms of M. d. are as follows: sensory disturbances (glove and stocking type), ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of the visual field, auditory disturbances and tremor were also seen. Further, the fetus was poisoned by MeHg when their mothers ingested contaminated marine life (named congenital M. d.). The symptom of patients were serious, and extensive lesions of the brain were observed. While the number of grave cases with acute M. d. in the initial stage was decreasing, the numbers of chronic M. d. patients who manifested symptoms gradually over an extended period of time was on the increase. For the past 36 years, of the 2252 patients who have been officially recognized as having M. d., 1043 have died. This paper also discusses the recent remaining problems. PMID:7734058

Harada, M

1995-01-01

257

Pesticide poisoning in Mexican seasonal farm workers.  

PubMed

The authors investigated pesticide poisoning in 200 seasonal farm workers employed in a small area in northwest Mexico. Of these workers, 45% were migrants from southern Mexico, and 70% were men. Most were about 20 years old; 59% could read at the third-grade level. Few had received information about pesticides; 30% did not wear personal protective gear; and 20% had experienced acute pesticide poisoning at least once during the season investigated. PMID:10026483

Chain-Castro, T J; Barrón-Aragón, R; Haro-García, L

1998-01-01

258

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

259

[Mushroom poisoning by brunneoincarnata: about two cases].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisoning constitutes the main cause of death due to mushroom intoxication in Europe. This one was initially reported for the ingestion of Amanita phalloides with frequently fatal outcome. Prognosis of amatoxin poisoning initialy depends on the acute deshydratation and secondarily of the liver failure. Emergency liver transplantation is sometimes necessary. With the knowledge of mushroom, most of them involved other species which can often be linked to edible mushroom. We report a collective intoxication by Lepiota brunneoincarnata. PMID:18440193

Roux, X; Labadie, P; Morand, C; Fontaine, B; Coutant, G

2008-05-01

260

Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2007-01-01

261

Poisoning by Jatropha ribifolia in goats.  

PubMed

Human poisoning by Jatropha species and poisoning when livestock have been fed processed plant material has been described. Additionally, poisoning has been experimentally reproduced in various animal models. But, no cases of poisoning in livestock grazing standing and unprocessed Jatropha spp. has been reported. This study reports the poisoning of goats with Jatropha ribifolia in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil during the dry season. The mortality of the goats ranged from 6% to 40%. The main clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, soft feces, weight loss, and severe dehydration. The skin, lips, horns, and teeth of the affected goats were stained with a reddish pigment that is present in the J. ribifolia plant. Emaciation was the main lesion observed in one necropsied goat. In 2 out of 3 goats that ingested a single dose of J. ribifolia, 10 g or 20 g of leaves of the plant per kg body weight (g/kg), mild dehydration and soft feces were observed. The plant was also administered daily to two goats for 8 days. One animal received 10 g/kg per day, and the other received 20 g/kg per day and the goats showed clinical signs after 4 and 3 days, respectively. The goat that received 10 g/kg daily recovered, and the other was euthanized. The clinical signs and lesions that were observed were similar to those observed in the spontaneous cases. This is the first case of Jatropha spp. poisoning in grazing animals that ingested the plant spontaneously. PMID:22306581

Pimentel, Luciano A; Riet-Correa, Beatriz; Dantas, Antônio F; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2012-04-01

262

CO hydrogenation on nickel-based catalysts: Effects of copper addition  

SciTech Connect

The effect of copper addition on the catalytic properties of silica-supported nickel catalysts for the reaction of CO hydrogenation in the temperature range of 200--500 C has been investigated. Different effects, positive or negative, depending on the temperature and the copper content, are described and explained. At low temperature (230 C), the addition of low copper content prevents the loss of the active surface by sintering without inhibiting the rate of CO hydrogenation too much. At high temperatures (450 C), high copper content is necessary to limit the accumulation of poisonous carbon products, but at the expense of CO conversion. On the basis of the various kinetic and morphologic effects of copper addition, an advanced description of the CO hydrogenation mechanism is also provided, assuming an active site formed by 2--3 adjacent Ni atoms, whatever the temperature or the copper content may be.

Agnelli, M.; Mirodatos, C.

2000-05-15

263

Botulinum Neurotoxin: Unique Folding of Enzyme Domain of the Most Poisonous Poison  

E-print Network

phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4), containing 50 mM NaCl, 1 mM DTT, and urea at the required concentration in a 1Botulinum Neurotoxin: Unique Folding of Enzyme Domain of the Most Poisonous Poison Supporting simulations, Urea Denaturation #12;Figure S1. Secondary structure dynamics of the BoNT/A in urea solution from

Barsegov, Valeri

264

SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

2004-01-01

265

Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

2009-01-01

266

Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.  

PubMed

The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

2014-10-01

267

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs  

E-print Network

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

Cummings, Molly E.

268

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

269

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl.  

PubMed

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn. PMID:14676018

Sileo, Louis; Nelson Beyer, W; Mateo, Rafael

2003-12-01

270

Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

2008-01-01

271

Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

2014-05-01

272

Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders from Finland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than in the livers of adults.

Hollmen, T. E.; Franson, J. C.; Poppenga, R. H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.

1998-01-01

273

Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

1993-01-09

274

COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

275

Searching for specific responses to copper exposure: an in vitro copper challenge in peripheral mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic cellular responses to changes in copper availability are not clear when these changes are mild to moderate, as what often occur in human daily life. The aims of the study were to develop an in vitro copper challenge in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNCs) obtained from healthy individuals with different preconditioning copper treatments, and measure copper and iron content, and MT2A and TfR mRNA abundance after the copper challenge. (1) Screening using clinical and biochemical indicators defined healthy participants, who received 8 mg Cu/day (copper sulfate) or placebo for 2 months. (2) Mononuclear cells were obtained on days 0, 2 (acute changes), and 60 (chronic changes). (3) Cells were challenged with a 1, 5, and 20 ?M Cu-histidine for 20 h, at T0, T2, and T60. Cells from both supplemented and placebo individuals showed a clear trend to increase copper content when there was more copper in the media. Increases were greater in the supplemented group, larger with 20 ?M Cu (p?copper concentration, but TfR transcripts did not change. An in vitro challenge of PMNC showed specific changes of cellular copper and MT2A, while changes of iron content and TfR mRNA abundance were not consistent. PMNCs appear as good candidates to assess changes of cellular copper availability. That results differed after acute (T2) and chronic (T60) supplementation suggests that acute and chronic changes are handled differently by these cells. PMID:20737243

Arredondo, Miguel; Espinoza, Alejandra; Pizarro, Fernando; Araya, Magdalena

2011-09-01

276

[Copper and copper alloys. Technology updates].  

PubMed

The correlations between copper and copper alloys and human health have been the subject of some recent and extensive scientific researches. The voluntary risks evaluation, which anticipated the EU REACH Directive application, has shown that copper is a "safe" product for human health and for environment. In addition, it could be of great help thanks to its antibacterial properties. Copper tube can contribute in a relevant way to the prevention of water systems pollution by Legionella. Also the spreading of nosocomial infections is significantly contrasted by the use of copper and copper alloys for the production of articles intended for being frequently touched by people. The Environmental Protection Agency of the United States has in fact "registered" as antibacterial over 350 of copper alloys. PMID:23213799

Loconsolo, V; Crespi, M

2012-01-01

277

Copper Data Center Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Copper Data Center Database is provided free of charge by the Copper Development Association "to increase knowledge and awareness of copper, related technologies, and the role of copper in the environment." The database is an online bibliographic search engine of literature on copper, copper alloys and copper technology dating back to 1965 and is described as covering copper technology from smelting and hydrometallurgy through the performance of copper and copper alloys in their end-use applications and service environments. Users can search by standard methods including using keywords and titles or an impressive advanced search feature is also available. Although full text listings are not available, anyone interested in related subjects will appreciate this well designed and unique tool.

Association, Copper D.

278

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

279

Diagnosis and management of the poisoned child.  

PubMed

Pediatric toxic ingestions are treated commonly by pediatricians and emergency physicians. Significant injury after these ingestions is infrequent, but identifying the dangerous ingestion is sometimes a difficult task. By performing a detailed history, focused physical examination, and directed laboratory evaluation, an estimation of risk can be developed. This article introduced the term "toxic triage" to describe this process. The toxic triage estimation allows the clinician to make thoughtful decontamination and treatment decisions. Familiarity with the literature supporting or refuting each decontamination method allows educated decisions to be made. Supportive care is an integral part of treatment for all poisonings, from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Most antidotes are used rarely in clinical practice, but familiarity with common antidotes benefits those patients with specific hazardous ingestions. Prevention efforts have the potential to decrease the incidence of pediatric poisonings. The universal poison control center number provided should be distributed and posted in homes, clinics, and emergency departments. PMID:16419731

Barry, J Dave

2005-12-01

280

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L.J.

1994-01-01

281

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

282

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments--atropine, oximes, and diazepam--should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-02-16

283

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-01-01

284

Observation unit experience for pediatric poison exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Short-Stay Emergency Department Observation Units (OU) are an alternative to hospitalization, but data on OU care of pediatric\\u000a poisoning exposures is limited. We report the experience of a pediatric OU with this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children with poison exposure admitted to a pediatric OU during a 30-month period.\\u000a Data was collected pertaining to demographics, type of

Diane P. Calello; Elizabeth R. Alpern; Maureen McDaniel-Yakscoe; Brianna L. Garrett; Kathy N. Shaw; Kevin C. Osterhoudt

2009-01-01

285

The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.

1982-10-01

286

Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters. PMID:3245127

Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

1988-12-01

287

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

288

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

289

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

290

[Poisoning with deadly agaric (Amanita virosa). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisonings are uncommon in Norway. We describe a case where a young couple was poisoned after accidental ingestion of Amanita virosa (deadly agaric). After hospital treatment they recovered without serious damage to the liver. We briefly review the biological actions of amatoxins, discuss the symptoms and signs of amatoxin poisoning in detail, and outline current recommendations on therapy. PMID:2363148

Madsen, S; Jenssen, K M

1990-05-30

291

Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: A Growing Concern in Pediatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium phosphide (ALP), a cheap and freely available pesticide, has emerged a common agent responsible for poisoning in children with a resultant high mortali- ty(1). The poisoning is usually accidental in children but may be suicidal in adoles- cents(2). Twenty cases of ALP poisoning aged between 7-12 years who were admitted in the Pediatric Emergency Services between July 1995 to

INDIAN PEDIATRICS

1997-01-01

292

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

293

Ice hockey lung – a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Ing, Miroslav Stanek

2013-01-01

294

Long-term cognitive deficits accompanied by reduced neurogenesis after soman poisoning.  

PubMed

To date, treatment of organophosphate (OP) poisoning shows several shortcomings, and OP-victims might suffer from lasting cognitive deficits and sleep-wake disturbances. In the present study, long-term effects of soman poisoning on learning ability, memory and neurogenesis were investigated in rats, treated with the anticholinergic atropine and the oxime HI-6 for reactivation of soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. We also investigated whether sub-chronic treatment with the reported neurogenesis enhancer olanzapine would stimulate neurogenesis and possibly normalize the anticipated long-term deleterious effects of soman intoxication. Animals were treated with HI-6 (125 mg/kg i.p.), followed after 30 min by soman (200 microg/kg s.c.) and atropine sulphate (16 mg/kg i.m.) 1 min thereafter. Soman poisoning led to an elevation of extracellular acetylcholine levels to 1500% over baseline values as assessed by striatal microdialysis. Brain acetylcholinesterase was inhibited over 95%. This was accompanied by short recurrent seizures lasting for 40 min. Osmotic minipumps releasing olanzapine (7.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle were subcutaneously implanted 24 h post-intoxication. After drug delivery for 4 weeks, newborn cells were BrdU labeled. Learning and memory performance were assessed 8 weeks after soman poisoning, followed by analysis of surviving newborn cells (BrdU) and neurogenesis (doublecortin, DCX). Eight weeks after soman-intoxication a significantly impaired learning ability was found that was paralleled by significantly lower numbers of DCX-positive cells but no changes in the number of BrdU-labeled cells. Apparently, the present Olanzapine regime was ineffective. We conclude that soman poisoning has long lasting effects on learning ability, a finding that was accompanied by impaired neurogenesis. Although we confirm a correlation between impaired neurogenesis and cognitive deficits, establishing the true causal relationship between these processes in OP exposed animals awaits future research. PMID:19100287

Joosen, Marloes J A; Jousma, Edwin; van den Boom, Tom M; Kuijpers, Willem C; Smit, August B; Lucassen, Paul J; van Helden, Herman P M

2009-01-01

295

Chronic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Chronic Pain Overview What is chronic pain? There are 2 types of pain: acute and chronic. Acute pain lets you know that your ... It should go away as your body heals. Chronic pain lasts much longer. Chronic pain may last months ...

296

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

297

Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  

PubMed

This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E

2011-01-01

298

"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan

2007-01-01

299

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

300

Food poisoning by clenbuterol in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the occurrence of four cases of acute food poisoning, involving a total of 50 people, due to the ingestion of lamb and bovine meat containing residues of clenbuterol. Symptoms shown by the intoxicated people may be generally described as gross tremors of the extremities, tachycardia, nausea, headaches and dizziness. Analytical methodology developed for the determination of clenbuterol

Jorge Barbosa; Clara Cruz; José Martins; José Manuel Silva; Celeste Neves; Carlos Alves; Fernando Ramos; Maria Irene Noronha Da Silveira

2005-01-01

301

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

302

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

303

Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog.  

PubMed

We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

Buchweitz, John P; Raverty, Stephen A; Johnson, Margaret B; Lehner, Andreas F

2014-11-01

304

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

305

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

306

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

307

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

308

Suicide by sodium tetraoxoselenate(VI) poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is one of the most toxic elements necessary for the life of mammals. Only a narrow range separates therapeutic (connected with a protective effect) and toxic doses. Selenium incorporated into animal or human tissues in larger amounts can exceed normal human levels and may be toxic (only elemental selenium and selenium sulphide are poorly absorbed). Acute poisonings with selenium

Teresa Lech

2002-01-01

309

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

310

?Health Education Policy and Accidental Child Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN THE last few months the topic of accidental child poisoning has been frequently discussed in the media. This has been primarily due to the Safety Packaging for Medi cines Bill which at time of writing is about to receive its second reading in the Commons. The Bill proposes to make it compulsory for all prescribed and non-prescribed medicines which

M. W. Calnan

1975-01-01

311

Lead Paint Poisoning - A Man - Made Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research paper defining the environmental problem of lead paint poisoning is presented by the Ohio Department of Health. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare estimates that in the United States 2.5 million children under the age of five live...

C. Pagnotto, G. Zelizer

1973-01-01

312

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

313

Management of poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute poisonings due to organophosphorus (OP) compounds often present as medical emergencies, which require management in intensive care. There is urgent need for resuscitation, support or correction of function of vital organs (correction of arrhythmias, provision of ventilatory care), decontamination and antidotes. The muscarinic effects of excess acetylcholine consequent to the inactivation of the acetylcholinesterase are countered by atropine and\\/or

P. T. Haywood; L. Karalliedde

2000-01-01

314

Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

315

[Fatal E 605 poisoning following intravenous administration].  

PubMed

Lethal toxification by organophosphate insecticides like E-605 are mostly the result of oral ingestion for the purpose of suicide or accidental ingestion by inhalation. An unusual case is reported of E-605 poisoning by injection into the basilic vein. Referring to this case, our findings on distribution of the noxa are presented and discussed. PMID:6720107

Lemke, R; Erkens, M

1984-01-01

316

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis. PMID:24826348

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

317

Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell  

PubMed Central

The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

2005-01-01

318

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect. PMID:24783168

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

319

Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state.

1996-01-01

320

Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd  

PubMed Central

Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of monitoring herd copper status regularly. Also the poor correlation between liver and serum copper concentrations in the three herds sampled demonstrates the importance of using liver copper concentration to assess herd copper status. PMID:25279139

2014-01-01

321

On copper peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The action of hydrogen superoxide on copper salts in alcoholic solutions is studied. The action of hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide in alcoholic suspensions, and the action of ethereal hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide are discussed. It is concluded that using the procedure proposed excludes almost entirely the harmful effect of hydrolysis.

Moser, L.

1988-01-01

322

Copper: Technology & Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains modern copper mining, ore extraction, and casting processes and details innovative copper products, major markets, service activities, and the future of copper in industry and everyday life. It was published in the November 1998 issue of the online magazine Innovations.

Cohen, Art; Association, Copper D.

323

Thallium poisoning. Diagnosis may be elusive but alopecia is the clue.  

PubMed

Thallium is a heavy metal whose salts are used in some rodent poisons and in the manufacture of optical lenses, semiconductors, scintillation counters, low temperature thermometers, and switching devices, green coloured fireworks, and imitation jewelery, and as chemical catalysts. In clinical practice thallium isotopes are used in cardiac scanning, but the use of thallium salts to treat scalp ringworm was abandoned earlier this century because of their toxicity. The sale of thallium in Britain is strictly licensed because of its toxicity and potential for use in murder, which is helped by the fact that thallous salts are colourless, tasteless, and odorless. The more water soluble salts (such as thallium sulphate, acetate, or carbonate) have higher toxicity, and although the toxic dose is variable most deaths occur after the ingestion of 10-15 mg/kg of soluble salt. Most cases of thallium toxicity occur after oral ingestion but severe toxicity has been reported after inhalation of contaminated dust from pyrite burners, in zinc and lead smelting, and in the manufacture of cadmium, after dermal absorption through protective rubber gloves, and after snorting what was thought to be cocaine. The elimination half time of thallium is between 1.7 and 30 days depending on the time since, and chronicity of, ingestion. The elimination time phases are apparent and because of the long terminal elimination half time thallium may act as a cumulative poison. We present two cases of thallium poisoning with intent to kill. PMID:8518684

Moore, D; House, I; Dixon, A

1993-06-01

324

Agreement between questionnaire and medical records on some health and socioeconomic problems among poisoning cases  

PubMed Central

Background The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between questionnaire and medical records on some health and socioeconomic problems among poisoning cases. Methods Cross-sectional sample of 100 poisoning cases consecutively admitted to the Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia during the period from September 2003 to February 2004 were studied. Data on health and socioeconomic problems were collected both by self-administered questionnaire and from medical records. Agreement between the two sets of data was assessed by calculating the concordance rate, Kappa (k) and PABAK. McNemar statistic was used to test differences between categories. Results Data collected by questionnaire and medical records showed excellent agreement on the "marital status"; good agreements on "chronic illness", "psychiatric illness", and "previous history of poisoning"; and fair agreements on "at least one health problem", and "boy-girl friends problem". PABAK values suggest better agreements' measures. Conclusion There were excellent to good agreements between questionnaire and medical records on the marital status and most of the health problems and fair to poor agreements on the majority of socioeconomic problems. The implications of those findings were discussed. PMID:19751526

Fathelrahman, Ahmed I

2009-01-01

325

[Hyperbaric oxygen for hydrogen sulfide poisoning].  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas produced in decaying substances containing organic sulfur. Exposure to the gas causes severe disturbances in the central nervous and respiratory systems. The mechanism of toxicity is disruption of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, resulting in intracellular hypoxia. Treatment of H2S poisoning includes mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen and immediate administration of sodium nitrate. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been studied in animal models, and has also been used in a number of patients. However, the clinical effectiveness of this mode of therapy has not been clearly proven. Having recently treated a case of H2S poisoning, we suggest HBO to reduce mortality. PMID:7843654

Goldenberg, I; Shoshani, O; Mushkat, Y; Bentur, Y; Melamed, Y; Shupak, A

1994-11-01

326

Evaluation and management of common childhood poisonings.  

PubMed

Family physicians often manage substance ingestions in children, most of which are nontoxic in nature. Physicians should know the phone number of the poison control center, understand the appropriate initial assessment of suspected toxin ingestion, and recognize important toxidromes. Rapid triage is crucial, including airway, respiration, and circulation stabilization. Appropriate supportive or toxin-specific treatment should be initiated. Gastric decontamination, such as activated charcoal and gastric lavage, are no longer routinely recommended. These methods should be reserved for the most severe cases, with poison control center support. The use of ipecac is no longer recommended. A child with few symptoms or a witnessed toxin exposure may be monitored at home. However, some long-acting medications have delayed toxin effects and require additional surveillance. PMID:19275069

McGregor, Tamara; Parkar, Mehjabin; Rao, Shobha

2009-03-01

327

Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).  

PubMed

Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

1982-01-01

328

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

329

Intra-aural Route of Insecticide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphate (OP) compounds are commonly ingested with the intention of deliberate self-harm. Parenteral route of OP compound exposure is an uncommon yet significant source of toxicity. Deliberate injections via intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes and accidental dermal absorption due to occupational exposure have been described earlier. We report an unusual case of intentional insecticide poisoning by pouring the OP compound into both ears. This was successfully treated with aural irrigation using normal saline and prompt administration of the antidote. PMID:24082515

Kundavaram, Paul Prabhakar Abhilash; Majumdar, Swaratika; Das, Sohini

2013-05-01

330

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

331

Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

332

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

333

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

334

Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Fifteen range cows died of oxalate poisoning caused by ingestion of Rumex venosus. Ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhages were prominent on the abdominal serosal surfaces. Approximately 2 L of thin, yellowish fluid was in the abdominal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous. Other findings included catarrhal abomasitis; enteritis; pale, edematous kidneys; congested lungs; fatty infiltration of the liver; and nephrosis. In the kidneys, birefringent crystals resembling oxalate crystals were demonstrable only when frozen sections were examined. PMID:670054

Dickie, C W; Hamann, M H; Carroll, W D; Chow, F H

1978-07-01

335

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

336

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been studied extensively, including detailed adsorption studies at various temperatures and pressures. Predictive models have been developed that effectively predict anode tolerance to carbon monoxide. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H/sub 2/S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a graphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700/sup 0/C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e. higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the eletrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss. In addition, support corrosion may also cause loss of Pt into the separator. Support corrosion appears to be the life limiting factor for phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1985-06-01

337

Storage stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in C toxins (C1- 2), GTX (gonyautoxin) 1-4, STX (saxitoxin) and NEO (neosaxitoxin) in scallop digestive glands and a mixture of purified paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were studied during storage at ?35, 5 and 25°C and at different pH levels. Heated and unheated samples of homogenates and purified toxin mixtures were stored for 1 year and 4 months,

W. M Indrasena; T. A Gill

2000-01-01

338

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

339

Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant  

PubMed Central

A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue. PMID:22400095

Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

2007-01-01

340

The Successful Prevention of Lead Poisoning in the Glazing of Earthenware in the North Staffordshire Potteries*  

PubMed Central

In 1572 an extensive epidemic of disease characterized by severe abdominal colic, later identified as lead poisoning, occurred in France in the province of Poitou. Citois named the disease colica Pictonum, that is the colic of the Pictones, the ancient Celtic tribe who inhabited the area. There-after the term was used generically for lead poisoning, otherwise plumbism or saturnism. The origin of the poisoning was traced to the practice of vintners who sophisticated sour acid wines with lead oxide. This adulteration restored the sweetness of the wine by the formation of sugar of lead, lead acetate. Similar outbreaks of poisoning were traced to the same fraudulent practice in the wine-growing districts of Germany and Spain. The preparation and storage of food and drink in containers of pewter and lead glazed earthenware resulted in accidental contamination of the substances, the consumption of which caused acute and chronic plumbism. Among the most frequently lead-contaminated liquors was Devonshire cyder, hence Devonshire colic. Occupational lead poisoning was described among lead miners and smelters in the mid-sixteenth century. Thereafter the disease was observed in a wide variety of trades and processes. The subject was comprehensively reviewed by Tanquerel des Planches in 1839. Among the workmen frequently affected were dippers in the pottery industry where lead oxide and lead carbonate were constituents of the glaze. The disease appeared as a serious problem among dippers and their assistants in North Staffordshire, the centre of the manufacture of earthenware and china in Great Britain. The manifestations of the disease included colic, convulsions, paralysis of limbs, blindness, and general emaciation. Female lead workers suffered excessively from abortions and miscarriages and many of their infants died of fits. The situation became so serious that the Government were compelled to enquire into the problem through a succession of Commissions. Meantime the manufacturers experimented to discover methods of glazing their products without lead or with lead in the relatively harmless fritted state of low solubility lead glazes. The progress of the investigations and remedial measures are followed in detail leading to the final conquest of lead poisoning among dippers and their assistants. PMID:14046153

Meiklejohn, A.

1963-01-01

341

Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the ‘Qilu scheme’, which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

SONG, CHENGZHEN; KAN, BAOTIAN; YU, GUANGCAI; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WANG, JIERU; SUN, JING

2014-01-01

342

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides.  

PubMed

An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings. PMID:22668944

Rother, Hanna-Andrea

2012-06-01

343

Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor  

PubMed Central

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.

2012-01-01

344

Self-poisoning and Moon Phases in Oslo  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 During 1980 the relation between the moon phases and 1187 cases of self-poisonings in Oslo was studied.2 In contrast to a previous report from India no significant correlation was found between the full moon and self-poisoning.3 The aetiology of self-poisonings in western countries is rather more complex than to be explained by speculative 'human tidal waves'.

D. Jacobsen; P. S. Frederichsen; K. M. Knutsen; Y. Sørum; T. Talseth; O. R. Ødegaard

1986-01-01

345

Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.  

PubMed

Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

Ratnaike, R N

2003-07-01

346

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

347

An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.  

PubMed

Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

2011-12-01

348

A Role for Low Hepatic Copper Concentrations in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Copper has a role in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial function, and copper deficiency has been linked to atherogenic dyslipidemia. We aimed to investigate the potential role of copper availability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS:Patients with NAFLD (n=124) were compared to patients with chronic hepatitis C (n=50), hemochromatosis (n=35), alcoholic liver disease (n=13), autoimmune hepatitis

Elmar Aigner; Michael Strasser; Heike Haufe; Thomas Sonnweber; Florian Hohla; Andreas Stadlmayr; Marc Solioz; Herbert Tilg; Wolfgang Patsch; Guenter Weiss; Felix Stickel; Christian Datz

2010-01-01

349

76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...

2011-12-16

350

78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...

2013-07-08

351

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2011-04-01

352

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2012-04-01

353

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2014-04-01

354

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2013-04-01

355

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2010-04-01

356

Acquired Copper Deficiency: A Potentially Serious and Preventable Complication Following Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an essential cofactor in many enzymatic reactions vital to the normal function of the hematologic, vascular, skeletal, antioxidant, and neurologic systems. Copper deficiency in the United States is believed to be relatively rare but has been described in the setting of zinc supplementation, myelodysplastic syndrome, use of parenteral nutrition and chronic tube feeding, and in various malabsorptive syndromes,

Daniel P. Griffith; David A. Liff; Thomas R. Ziegler; Gregory J. Esper; Elliott F. Winton

2009-01-01

357

The FASEB Journal Research Communication A copper sulfate and hydroxylysine treatment regimen  

E-print Network

The FASEB Journal · Research Communication A copper sulfate and hydroxylysine treatment regimen., Res- ponte, D. J., Hu, J. C., Athanasiou, K. A. A copper sulfate and hydroxylysine treatment regimen- lar bonds scaffoldless self-assembly Arthritis is the second most frequent chronic dis- ease

Athanasiou, Kyriacos

358

Circulation of copper in the biotic compartments of a freshwater dammed reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns a chronic copper release in an aquatic ecosystem: Mirgenbach reservoir; which is characterized by high salinity, conductivity and hardness, a eutrophic state and a high temperature. To study the bioavailability of copper in the biotic compartments, the sampling covered the entire food chain (phyto- and zooplankton, macroalgae, aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks, and fish). Of the organisms present,

I. Vinot; J. C. Pihan

2005-01-01

359

Erythrocytic and leukocytic responses to cadmium poisoning in freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius Ham  

SciTech Connect

Chronically sublethal concentrations of cadmium caused conspicuous hematological anomalies in the cyprinid fish, Puntius conchonius. Exposure to 0.63 and 0.84 mg/liter cadmium chloride (1/20 and 1/15 of 96-hr LC/sub 50/) induced morphological aberrations in mature erythrocytes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, hypochromia, deterioration of cellular membrane, basophilic stippling of cytoplasm, clumping of chromatin material and extrusion of nuclei, and schistocytosis. Anomalous basophils and monocytes were also encountered though less frequently. Decreased erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were also associated with chronic cadmium poisoning. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume increased (30 days) but mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration showed no obvious change. A significant thrombocytopenia (90 days), elevated small lymphocyte and basophil populations, and a mild neutropenia were manifested in the cadmium-exposed fish. Large lymphocytes were not significantly affected.

Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.

1985-04-01

360

Chronic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on for ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis Pain ...

361

Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

Markovi?, Radmila; Stevanovi?, Jasmina; Avramovi?, Ljiljana; Nedeljkovi?, Dragutin; Jugovi?, Branimir; Staji?-Troši?, Jasna; Gvozdenovi?, Milica

2012-12-01

362

Chronic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Chronic Pain Information Page Synonym(s): Pain - Chronic Condensed from Pain: Hope Through Research Table of Contents (click to jump ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Chronic Pain? While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered ...

363

Poisoned Painters: Organized Painters' Responses to Lead Poisoning in Early 20th-Century America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers often have a complex relationship with the technologies they use in the workoplace, and many influences can affect that relationship. This is well demonstrated in the story of unionized painters who, at the turn of this century, were sufferingfrom occupational lead poisoning because the paints of the day used lead as their primary pigment. At the beginning of the

Christopher A. Eldridge

1998-01-01

364

Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.  

PubMed

Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed. PMID:23690046

Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

2013-09-01

365

Animal models of copper-associated liver disease  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in molecular biology have made possible the identification of genetic defects responsible for Wilson's disease, Indian childhood cirrhosis and copper toxicosis in Long Evans Cinnamon rats, toxic milk mice, and Bedlington terriers. The Wilson's disease gene is localized on human chromosome 13 and codes for ATP7B, a copper transporting P-type ATPase. A genetic defect similar to that of Wilson's disease occurs in Long Evans Cinnamon rats and toxic milk mice. Familial copper storage disorders in Bedlington and West Highland white terriers are associated with early subclinical disease, and copper accumulation with subsequent liver injury culminating in cirrhosis. The canine copper toxicosis locus in Bedlington terriers has been mapped to canine chromosome region CFA 10q26. Recently, a mutated MURR1 gene was discovered in Bedlington terriers affected with the disease. Idiopathic childhood cirrhosis is biochemically similar to copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers, but clinically much more severe. Both conditions are characterized by the absence of neurologic damage and Kayser-Fleisher rings, and normal ceruloplasmin levels. A recent study added North Ronaldsay sheep to the list of promising animal models to study Indian childhood cirrhosis. Morphologic similarities between the two conditions include periportal to panlobular copper retention and liver changes varying from active hepatitis to panlobular pericellular fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Certain copper-associated disorders, such as chronic active hepatitis in Doberman pinschers and Skye terrier hepatitis are characterized by copper retention secondary to the underlying disease, thus resembling primary biliary cirrhosis in humans. Copper-associated liver disease has increasingly being recognized in Dalmatians. Copper-associated liver diseases in Dalmatians and Long Evans Cinnamom rats share many morphologic features. Fulminant hepatic failure in Dalmatians is characterized by high serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and severe necrosis of centrilobular areas (periacinar, zone 3) hepatocytes. Macrophages and surviving hepatocytes contain copper-positive material. Liver disease associated with periacinar copper accumulation has also been described in Siamese cats. Many questions regarding copper metabolism in mammals, genetic background, pathogenesis and treatment of copper-associated liver diseases remain to be answered. This review describes the similarities between the clinico-pathological features of spontaneous copper-associated diseases in humans and domestic animals. PMID:12769823

Fuentealba, I Carmen; Aburto, Enrique M

2003-01-01

366

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

367

Ethylene glycol poisoning: a rare but life-threatening cause of metabolic acidosis—a single-centre experience  

PubMed Central

Background. Intoxication with ethylene glycol happen all around the world and without rapid recognition and early treatment, mortality from this is high. Methods. In our study, we retrospectively analysed six cases of ethylene glycol intoxication in our department. We measured ethylene glycol or glycolate levels, lactate levels and calculated the osmolal and anion gap. Results. Data from six patients admitted to the nephrology department between 1999 and 2011 with ethylene glycol poisoning are reported. All patients were men. The mean pH on admission was 7.15 ± 0.20 and the anion and osmolal gap were elevated in five of six patients. Four patients had an acute kidney injury and one patient had an acute-on-chronic kidney injury. All patients survived and after being discharged, two patients required chronic intermittent haemodialysis. Interestingly, at the time of admission, all patients had elevated lactate levels but there was no linear regression between toxic levels and lactate levels and no linear correlation was found between initial lactate levels and anion gap and osmolal gap. Conclusions. The initial diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is difficult and poisoning with ethylene glycol is rare but life threatening and needs rapid recognition and early treatment. Therefore, intoxication with ethylene glycol should not be misdiagnosed as lactic acidosis in patients with metabolic acidosis and elevated lactate levels.

Kimmel, Martin; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Braun, Niko

2012-01-01

368

High adherence copper plating process  

DOEpatents

A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

1993-01-01

369

Self-poisoning of the mind  

PubMed Central

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-01

370

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyte, Gabija; Plenta, Juris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaisa, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

371

Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

1990-01-01

372

Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  

PubMed

An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R

2012-02-15

373

Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.  

PubMed

Confusion between acetone fingernail polish removers and artificial fingernail products containing acetonitrile and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine has resulted in pediatric morbidity and mortality. In the present case, a 20-month-old boy drank less than one ounce of Remove Artificial Nail Remover containing 100% nitroethane. In the emergency department he displayed cyanosis and 39% methemoglobinemia. Following intravenous methylene blue, the child's methemoglobin level dropped to 5.7% and he recovered uneventfully. Toxicity from nitroethane has not previously been reported in humans. Poison centers and emergency department personnel should be alert to another nail product which may be easily confused with acetone-containing nail polish removers. PMID:8007041

Hornfeldt, C S; Rabe, W H

1994-01-01

374

DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

1997-04-01

375

Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide  

PubMed Central

Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

2014-01-01

376

Biochemical Indicators and Cardiac Function Tests in Chronic Alcohol Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on cardiac function, antioxidant system, trace ele- ments, and liver function tests. Methods Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as zinc, magnesium, and copper were assayed in 25 chronic alcoholic patients and their

Tamer C. Inal; Mesut Demir; Gülen Attila; Yunus Emre Evlice; Levent Kayrin

377

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

1996-01-01

378

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

1996-12-10

379

POISON MIXTURES WHICH IMPROVE THERMAL REACTOR OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical investigation was made regarding the effect of binary ; poison mixtures on the temperature defect and temperature coefficient in a simple ; reactor model. The poison mixtures investigated were gadolinium - erbium, ; gadolinium- europium, europium -- erbium, and europium -cadmium. It was found ; that, in this model, the magnitude of the negative temperature coefficient could ;

Bick

1963-01-01

380

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

381

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

382

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

383

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or  

E-print Network

on their hands and toys. FACT A lead test is the only way to know if your child has lead poisoning. Most. Sometimes lead comes from things other than paint in your home, such as: · Candy, toys, glazed potteryKnow the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or breathing lead. Children under 6 years old

384

Panther cap Amanita pantherina poisoning case report and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of patients with mushroom poisoning hospitalized in the Clinic of Toxicology in Cracow revealed that only a small percentage of cases had been caused by the death cap Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Secr. The most important factors contributing to intoxication are confusion of toxic mushrooms with edible species, and non-specific mushroom poisoning. The genus Amanita has a

Leszek Satora; Dorota Pach; Krzysztof Ciszowski; Lidia Winnik

2006-01-01

385

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

386

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

387

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

388

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

389

Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

390

Significance of operating experience with poison splines at KE Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstrated operating efficiency performance which has resulted from poison spline usage forces an economic decision concerning the self-supported and bumper fuel element programs. As originally conceived the projection fuel elements would preclude the insertion of a spline under the fuel charge; thus it is very important that means be devised either to make poison spline usage compatible with future

1960-01-01

391

Serious paracetamol poisoning and the results of liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paracetamol poisoning is the most common cause of fulminant liver failure in the United Kingdom. An accurate assessment of prognosis at the time of referral will allow the appropriate application of liver transplantation in this setting. The outcome of 92 patients consecutively admitted to a specialist liver unit with severe poisoning has been examined. In patients who did not have

D J Mutimer; R C Ayres; J M Neuberger; M H Davies; J Holguin; J A Buckels; A D Mayer; P McMaster; E Elias

1994-01-01

392

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

393

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

394

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources  

E-print Network

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources 5 CDC Resources and Information;112 Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources Blood lead surveillance data. CDC assists includes background information and space for additional state and local materials such as state policies

395

Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

396

Artifactual elevation of lactate in ethylene glycol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is based on nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs and indirect and direct laboratory measurement. Few institutions have timely access to direct measurement of ethylene glycol. As a result, diagnosis sometimes can be delayed and therapy initiated late. We present two cases of ethylene glycol poisoning. These cases demonstrate the need to recognize the false

Michael Y Woo; Donald C Greenway; Steven P Nadler; Pierre Cardinal

2003-01-01

397

"Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones"  

E-print Network

was born after the end of the Cold War. This standpoint allows for three observations to be made: 1"Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones" European Cultural Days 2014 Opening Address on Friday, 16 decided on the title of our symposium, "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones", one thing was clear

Stein, Oliver

398

SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing  

E-print Network

, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL]: Infor- mation Search and Retrieval--Relevance feedback General Terms Security of a website to the search crawlers, highlight its relevance under certain search terms, and promote its raking

399

Amanita poisoning during the second trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amanita phalloides-type mushroom poisoning is well recognized as causing acute liver injury and often death. Less is known, however, of whether maternal Amanita poisoning is associated with fetal damage or not. In August 1991 four members of a family were hospitalized with food intoxication caused by Amanita phalloides and Amanita verna. One of them died from hepatic and renal failure.

I. Nagy; G. Pogátsa-Murray; S. Zalányi; P. Komlósi; F. László; I. Ungi

1994-01-01

400

A case report of puffer fish poisoning in singapore.  

PubMed

Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008). We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases. PMID:24368916

Yong, Y S; Quek, L S; Lim, E K; Ngo, A

2013-01-01

401

Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity. PMID:24364054

Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

2013-01-01

402

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

403

Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia (Canada); Langelier, K.M. [Island Veterinary Hospital, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada); Scheuhammer, A.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bowes, V. [Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

404

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

405

Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality. PMID:20535367

Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Guven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul

2010-01-01

406

The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin.  

PubMed Central

Poisons are common in nature, where they often serve the organism in chemical defense. Such poisons either are produced de novo or are sequestered from dietary sources or symbiotic organisms. Among vertebrates, amphibians are notable for the wide range of noxious agents that are contained in granular skin glands. These compounds include amines, peptides, proteins, steroids, and both water-soluble and lipid-soluble alkaloids. With the exception of the alkaloids, most seem to be produced de novo by the amphibian. The skin of amphibians contains many structural classes of alkaloids previously unknown in nature. These include the batrachotoxins, which have recently been discovered to also occur in skin and feathers of a bird, the histrionicotoxins, the gephyrotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, epibatidine, and the samandarines. Some amphibian skin alkaloids are clearly sequestered from the diet, which consists mainly of small arthropods. These include pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids from ants, tricyclic coccinellines from beetles, and pyrrolizidine oximes, presumably from millipedes. The sources of other alkaloids in amphibian skin, including the batrachotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the histrionicotoxins, the pumiliotoxins, and epibatidine, are unknown. While it is possible that these are produced de novo or by symbiotic microorganisms, it appears more likely that they are sequestered by the amphibians from as yet unknown dietary sources. PMID:7816854

Daly, J W

1995-01-01

407

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

408

COPPER RESEARCH UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an update and overview of new research results and remaining research needs with respect to copper corrosion control issues. The topics to be covered include: occurrence of elevated copper release in systems that meet the Action Level; impact of water c...

409

Risk factors for mortality in Asian Taiwanese patients with methanol poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction Methanol poisoning continues to be a serious public health issue in Taiwan, but very little work has been done to study the outcomes of methanol toxicity in the Asian population. In this study, we examined the value of multiple clinical variables in predicting mortality after methanol exposure. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study on patients with acute poisoning who were admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital over a period of 9 years (2000–2008). Out of the 6,347 patients, only 32 suffered methanol intoxication. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. Results Most patients were middle aged (46.1±13.8 years), male (87.5%), and habitual alcohol consumers (75.0%). All the poisonings were from an oral exposure (96.9%), except for one case of intentionally injected methanol (3.1%). After a latent period of 9.3±10.1 hours, many patients began to experience hypothermia (50.0%), hypotension (15.6%), renal failure (59.4%), respiratory failure (50.0%), and consciousness disturbance (Glasgow coma scale [GCS] score 10.5±5.4). Notably, the majority of patients were treated with ethanol antidote (59.4%) and hemodialysis (58.1%). The remaining 41.6% of patients did not meet the indications for ethanol therapy. At the end of analysis, there were six (18.8%), 15 (46.9%), and eleven (34.4%) patients alive, alive with chronic complications, and dead, respectively. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was revealed that the GCS score (odds ratio [OR] 0.816, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.682–0.976) (P=0.026), hypothermia (OR 168.686, 95% CI 2.685–10,595.977) (P=0.015), and serum creatinine level (OR 4.799, 95% CI 1.321–17.440) (P=0.017) were significant risk factors associated with mortality. Conclusion The outcomes (mortality rate 34.4%) of the Taiwanese patients subjected to intensive detoxification protocols were comparable with published data from other international poison centers. Furthermore, the analytical results indicate that GCS score, hypothermia, and serum creatinine level help predict mortality after methanol poisoning. PMID:24465131

Lee, Chen-Yen; Chang, Eileen Kevyn; Lin, Ja-Liang; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Shen-Yang; Juan, Kuo-Chang; Yang, Huang-Yu; Lin, Chemin; Lee, Shwu-Hua; Wang, I-Kwan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

2014-01-01

410

A comparison of lead hazards in the housing environment of lead poisoned children versus non poisoned controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study was undertaken to compare the lead hazards in the housing environment of lead poisoned children (aged 1–7) and matched non?poisoned control children. The results indicated a greater frequency and higher levels of lead in paint on both interior and exterior surfaces of the houses of the cases compared to the controls and suggested that intact painted surfaces

Charles Gilbert; Robert W. Tuthill; Edward J. Calabrese; Howard A. Peters

1979-01-01

411

Copper corrosion issue and analysis on copper damascene process  

Microsoft Academic Search

As semiconductor device features shrink into deep-submicron regime, copper metallization is taking the place of aluminum (Al)-tungsten (W) metallization because of the higher electrical conductivity and electromigration resistance of copper. However, it is very difficult for copper to be etched by dry etching method, thus copper metallization is created with damascene process. In this process, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is

Zhigang Song; Soh Ping Neo; Chong Khiam Oh; Shailesh Redkar; Yuan-Ping Lee

2005-01-01

412

Chronic leukemia.  

PubMed

The chronic leukemias include chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CML is a clonal myeloproliferative hematopoietic stem-cell disorder, and CLL is a monoclonal B-cell disorder. CML is Philadelphia chromosome positive. There are 3 phases of CML: the chronic phase, the accelerated phase, and the blast phase. The primary treatment of CML consists of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. CLL can present as indolent or fulminant disease. Early disease is managed with observation. Fulminant disease is currently treated with alkylating agents, purine analogues, and monoclonal antibodies, but new biotarged therapies are being developed. PMID:24267282

Greenberg, Edythe M Lyn; Probst, Alexandra

2013-12-01

413

Case reports of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning: historical trends.  

PubMed

There are currently limited data on the trends in case reporting of poisoned patients undergoing enhanced elimination with an extracorporeal treatment (ECTR). The present manuscript specifically reviews the longitudinal trends of reports according to technique, poison, and country of publication. To identify case reports of ECTR use in the management of poisoning, multiple databases were searched. There were no limitations on language and year of publication. All case reports describing individual patients undergoing ECTR with the intent of enhancing the elimination of a poison were included in the analysis. Since 1913, 2908 reports were identified. There were an increasing number of published reports with time except for a slight decrease during the 1990s. Hemodialysis was by far the most commonly used ECTR in poisoning, followed by hemoperfusion. The number of reported peritoneal dialyses decreased steadily since 1980s. Methanol, ethylene glycol, lithium, and salicylates remained among the most commonly reported poisons in every decade. The large majority of publications originated from either Europe or North America, and more specifically from the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and China. Despite the emerging apparition of new techniques, hemodialysis remains to this day the favoured ECTR in the treatment of poisoned patients. PMID:24823834

Mardini, Joelle; Lavergne, Valery; Roberts, Darren; Ghannoum, Marc

2014-01-01

414

Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non-  

E-print Network

Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non- poisonous poison frogs" in the family Aromobatidae and the "true poison frogs" in the family Dendrobatidae and Comeault, 2009). Allobates femoralis is a semi-cryptic pan-Amazonian aromobatid frog (Amézquita et al

Ringler, Eva

415

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

416

Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?  

PubMed

In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths. PMID:14677794

Horowitz, B Zane

2003-01-01

417

Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

2009-01-01

418

Community partnerships in preventing childhood lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Childhood lead poisoning is an environmental health problem that has no socio-economic, racial/ethnic, or regional boundaries. Because the key element in the exposure pathway is lead-based paint, it is more likely to impact inner city urban populations than those living in suburban areas. Suburban development primarily occurred after lead was removed from lead-based paint. It is maximally effective to adopt strategies that promote grassroots community development in designing preventive interventions. This paper reviews such a strategy for building community partnerships that have been instrumental in the development and implementation of an innovative lead education program. Saint Louis University School of Public Health reaches out to private and public nonprofit community organizations in this community-based lead education program.

Dugbatey, K. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States); Evans, R.G.; Lienhop, M.T.; Stelzer, M.

1995-11-01

419

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

420

Clinical and radiological findings in chlorfenapyr poisoning  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of suicidal ingestion of chlorfenapyr, presenting with neurological complications after a latent period of more than a week, and rapidly progressing to death within days of symptoms. Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous pesticide according to World Health Organization toxicity classification, and kills target organism by depriving it of energy through interference with oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial level. A pro-pesticide, chlorfenapyr takes time to convert to its active form and either this active form or a toxic metabolite causes delayed neurological symptoms. It causes significant neurotoxicity in rat models. This case report provides for the first time from India (second worldwide), clinical and “radiological evidence” (magnetic resonance imaging showing demyelinating/oedematous changes) of “chlorfenapyr neurotoxicity in humans.” It also highlights the “latent period” between ingestion and onset of fatal manifestations. Earlier, similar case reports of human deaths with delayed onset neurological symptoms, due to chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported, from Japan, Columbia, and Korea. PMID:23956576

Tharaknath, Vemuri Rama; Prabhakar, Y. V. S.; Kumar, K. Suseel; Babu, Noorthi Kalyan

2013-01-01

421

[Salinomycin poisoning in a Polish stud horse].  

PubMed

24 cases of salinomycin poisoning in horses occurring recently in Silesia are discussed. All of these horses, used for riding-purposes, were fed with concentrate containing 61 mg/kg salinomycin as faulty prepared by the manufacturer. Each horse received approximately two to three kilograms of this forage. All horses developed severe clinical signs of intoxication. Despite therapy eight horses died within three to six days. Ten others became recumbent and had to be euthanased. Only six horses survived. Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed and are discussed. Laboratory examination of blood included red blood cell count, haematocrit, concentration of haemoglobin, enzyme activities of ASAT, ALAT and AP, also levels of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and inorganic phosphor. Blood gas was also analysed. The dominating laboratory results were very high enzyme levels and alkalosis. The most characteristic clinical change appeared as paralysis of the hindlimbs. PMID:9441047

Nicpon, J; Czerw, P; Harps, O; Deegen, E

1997-08-01

422

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

423

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

424

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

Gunturu, Krishna S; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; McPhedran, Peter; Goodman, Thomas R; Hodsdon, Michael E; Strout, Matthew P

2011-01-01

425

Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide, a byproduct of incomplete hydrocarbon combustion, has been responsible for many accidental poisonings worldwide. The signs and symptoms of poisoning are diverse, ranging from headache, dizziness, and confusion to cardiac and neurological disturbances. Oxygen is the cornerstone of treatment, because it accelerates the dissociation of carbon monoxide from heme proteins. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of CO poisoning is still questionable. Only a few randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, and their results are inconsistent. In the present review, we discuss the conclusions of four randomized controlled studies and propose a hyperbaric oxygen treatment protocol based on these conclusions. PMID:15902792

Domachevsky, Liran; Adir, Yochai; Grupper, Motti; Keynan, Yoav; Bentur, Yedidia

2005-01-01

426

Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

2004-01-01

427

Pediatric toxicology: specialized approach to the poisoned child.  

PubMed

The poisoned child presents unique considerations in circumstances of exposure, clinical effects, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic interventions. The emergency provider must be aware of the pathophysiologic vulnerabilities of infants and children and substances that are especially toxic. Awareness is essential for situations in which the risk of morbidity and mortality is increased, such as child abuse by poisoning. Considerations in treatment include the need for attentive supportive care, pediatric implications for antidotal therapy, and extracorporeal removal methods such as hemodialysis in children. In this article, each of these issues and emerging poison hazards are discussed. PMID:24275168

Calello, Diane P; Henretig, Fred M

2014-02-01

428

Emergency management and treatment of the poisoned small animal patient.  

PubMed

This article reviews management of the acutely poisoned veterinary patient, including initial telephone triage, appropriate communication and history gathering from the pet owner, decontamination methods (including the use of appropriate emetic agents and dosing of activated charcoal), and general treatment of the poisoned patient. Symptomatic and supportive care of the poisoned patient includes the use of fluid therapy, gastrointestinal support (eg, antacids), central nervous system support (eg, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants), sedatives/reversal agents (eg, phenothiazines, naloxone, flumazenil), hepatoprotectants, and miscellaneous antidotal therapy. PMID:23747259

Lee, Justine A

2013-07-01

429

Cell Biology of Copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The transition metal, copper (Cu), is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development. Copper is a cofactor\\u000a of proteins involved in photosynthesis, respiration, ethylene perception, removal of superoxide radicals, and cell wall modification.\\u000a The biochemical reactions catalyzed by most Cu enzymes in plants are known. However, in many cases we are not yet sure about\\u000a the biological function

Christopher M. Cohu; Marinus Pilon

430

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-print Network

management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse... management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25

431

Copper deficiency myelopathy.  

PubMed

Acquired copper deficiency has been recognised as a rare cause of anaemia and neutropenia for over half a century. Copper deficiency myelopathy (CDM) was only described within the last decade, and represents a treatable cause of non-compressive myelopathy which closely mimics subacute combined degeneration due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Here, 55 case reports from the literature are reviewed regarding their demographics, aetiology, haematological and biochemical parameters, spinal imaging, treatment and outcome. The pathophysiology of disorders of copper metabolism is discussed. CDM most frequently presented in the fifth and sixth decades and was more common in women (F:M = 3.6:1). Risk factors included previous upper gastrointestinal surgery, zinc overload and malabsorption syndromes, all of which impair copper absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. No aetiology was established in 20% of cases. High zinc levels were detected in some cases not considered to have primary zinc overload, and in this situation the contribution of zinc to the copper deficiency state remained unclear. Cytopenias were found in 78%, particularly anaemia, and a myelodysplastic syndrome may have been falsely diagnosed in the past. Spinal MRI was abnormal in 47% and usually showed high T2 signal in the posterior cervical and thoracic cord. In a clinically compatible case, CDM may be suggested by the presence of one or more risk factors and/or cytopenias. Low serum copper and caeruloplasmin levels confirmed the diagnosis and, in contrast to Wilson's disease, urinary copper levels were typically low. Treatment comprised copper supplementation and modification of any risk factors, and led to haematological normalisation and neurological improvement or stabilisation. Since any neurological recovery was partial and case numbers of CDM will continue to rise with the growing use of bariatric gastrointestinal surgery, clinical vigilance will remain the key to minimising neurological sequelae. Recommendations for treatment and prevention are made. PMID:20232210

Jaiser, Stephan R; Winston, Gavin P

2010-06-01

432

Effects of zinc, copper, and lead toxicity on. cap alpha. -aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of lead, zinc and copper in the human environment has been recognized as a major toxicological factor. Lead ions have been shown to inhibit the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD), which is involved in the biosynthesis of heme. Copper also has its inhibitory effect on delta-ALAD activity. A study has shown that the delta-ALAD was activated by zinc ions at physiological concentrations. In view of these reports, it was considered worthwhile to study the poisoning effects of lead, zinc and copper on delta-ALAD activity along with the concentrations of these metal ions in the blood. A possible role of Zn/sup + +/, Cu/sup + +/, and Pb/sup + +/ interaction and their influence on delta-ALAD has been explored in the present paper.

Shafiq-ur-Rehman

1984-07-01

433

Toxic Bradycardias in the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular drugs are a common cause of poisoning, and toxic bradycardias can be refractory to standard ACLS protocols. It is important to consider appropriate antidotes and adjunctive therapies in the care of the poisoned patient in order to maximize outcomes. While rigorous studies are lacking in regards to treatment of toxic bradycardias, there are small studies and case reports to help guide clinicians' choices in caring for the poisoned patient. Antidotes, pressor support, and extracorporeal therapy are some of the treatment options for the care of these patients. It is important to make informed therapeutic decisions with an understanding of the available evidence, and consultation with a toxicologist and/or regional Poison Control Center should be considered early in the course of treatment. PMID:22545217

Givens, Melissa L.

2012-01-01

434

Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide).  

PubMed

The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal veterinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine). Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal) should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed. PMID:22616438

Arnot, L F; Veale, D J H; Steyl, J C A; Myburgh, J G

2011-12-01

435

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or...

2010-04-01

436

DepenDNS: Dependable Mechanism against DNS Cache Poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNS cache poisoning attacks have been proposed for a long time. In 2008, Kaminsky enhanced the attacks to be powerful based on nonce query method. By leveraging Kaminsky's attack, phishing becomes large-scale since victims are hard to detect attacks. Hence, DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat in the current DNS infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure, DepenDNS, to prevent from cache poisoning attacks. DepenDNS queries multiple resolvers concurrently to verify an trustworthy answer while users perform payment transactions, e.g., auction, banking. Without modifying any resolver or authority server, DepenDNS is conveniently deployed on client side. In the end of paper, we conduct several experiments on DepenDNS to show its efficiency. We believe DepenDNS is a comprehensive solution against cache poisoning attacks.

Sun, Hung-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Yue-Hsun

437

Pattern of poisoning in a developing agricultural country  

PubMed Central

Four hundred and seventy-two cases of poisoning were seen over a two-year period in Kandy, Ceylon. The overall mortality was 23·7%. The pattern of poisoning was different from that in western countries in that 49·8% of the cases were due to insecticide poisoning and only 10·7% were due to drugs, including barbiturates. Insecticides accounted for 73·2% and drugs for only 4·5% of the 112 fatal cases. Of the fatal cases 51·7% were between the ages of 20 and 40 years and only 6·2% were over 50 years. The wastage of economically useful lives indicates the need for a poison centre. PMID:4816585

Senewiratne, B.; Thambipillai, Shanthi

1974-01-01

438

Nek4 Status Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Microtubule Poisons  

E-print Network

Microtubule poisons are widely used in cancer treatment, but the factors determining the relative efficacy of different drugs in this class remain obscure. In this study, we identified the NIMA kinase Nek4 in a genetic ...

Doles, Jason D.

439

Enzymes and bioscavengers for prophylaxis and treatment of organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world, with upwards of 3 million people poisoned each year. Although OP poisoning is not common in developed countries, recently greater attention has been given to these chemicals because of their similarity to chemical warfare agents. Despite the agricultural use of OP pesticides for roughly 60 years, no new therapies have been developed since the 1960s. A promising field of novel antidotes for OP poisoning, OP hydrolases, has recently garnered increased support. These bacterial enzymes have demonstrated tremendous prophylactic and antidotal efficacy against a few different OP classes in animal models. These studies, as well as the limitations and challenges of therapeutic development of these enzymes, are discussed. PMID:20036941

Bird, Steven B; Dawson, Andrew; Ollis, David

2010-01-01

440

Fatal tolperisone poisoning: autopsy and toxicology findings in three suicide cases.  

PubMed

Tolperisone (Mydocalm) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant with few sedative side effects that is used for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. We describe three cases of suicidal tolperisone poisoning in three healthy young subjects in the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. In all cases, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings did not reveal the cause of death. Systematic toxicological analysis (STA) including immunological tests, screening for volatile substances and blood, urine and gastric content screening by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD demonstrated the presence of tolperisone in all cases. In addition to tolperisone, only the analgesics paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen and naproxen could be detected. The blood ethanol concentrations were all lower than 0.10 g/kg. Tolperisone was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using n-chlorobutane as the extraction solvent. The quantification was performed by GC-NPD analysis of blood, urine and gastric content. Tolperisone concentrations of 7.0 mg/l, 14 mg/l and 19 mg/l were found in the blood of the deceased. In the absence of other autopsy findings, the deaths in these three cases were finally explained as a result of lethal tolperisone ingestion. To the best of our knowledge, these three cases are the first reported cases of suicidal tolperisone poisonings. PMID:21683537

Sporkert, Frank; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc P; Mangin, Patrice

2012-02-10

441

Renal and hepatic injury with elevated cardiac enzymes in Amanita phalloides poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

Amatoxins are one of the most potent toxins that cause hepatic and renal failure. However, this is the first report demonstrating an elevation of cardiac enzymes in a patient with Amanita phalloides poisoning. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department (ED) 42 h after an unknown type of mushroom ingestion. Hepatic, renal function tests, amylase and cardiac enzymes (troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme and myoglobin) were found elevated in his blood chemistry. The electrocardiogram disclosed sinus tachycardia. Aggressive treatment with fluids, activated charcoal, penicillin G and silibinin were started. The patient was sent to hemodialysis because of anuria. During follow-up, biochemical parameters and clinical findings improved. The patient was discharged from the hospital following the arrangement of hemodialysis schedule because of the chronic renal failure. False elevations of cardiac markers may confuse the clinicians in differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction in ED. In our patient, amatoxins that have bound the actin filaments within myocardiocytes or renal cells and/or its effects as circulating anti-troponin antibodies might result in elevation of cardiac markers. Elevated cardiac enzyme levels without any acute coronary syndrome are probable in mushroom poisoning cases involving amatoxin ingestion. PMID:17984148

Unverir, Pinar; Soner, Burak Cem; Dedeoglu, Erhan; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Boztok, Kaya; Tuncok, Yesim

2007-09-01

442

Coating a nuclear fuel with a burnable poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for coating a nuclear fuel with a burnable poison, comprising: (a) cleaning at least a section of the surface of the nuclear fuel; (b) choosing a burnable poison sputtering deposition rate that will heat the surface of the nuclear fuel to a generally steady-state temperature less than about 200°C; (c) sputtering, at the chosen deposition rate,

1986-01-01

443

Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.  

PubMed

Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

1993-01-01

444

Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous compounds have been employed as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Toxicity of organophosphorous compounds is a result of excessive cholinergic stimulation through inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous system and cardiovascular disorders. Organophosphorous pesticide poisonings are common in developing worlds including Iran and Sri Lanka. Nerve agents were used during the Iraq-Iran war in 1983-1988 and in a terrorist attack in Japan in 1994-1995. Following decontamination, depending on the severity of intoxication the administration of atropine to counteract muscarinic over-stimulation, and an oxime to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase are indicated. Supportive and intensive care therapy including diazepam to control convulsions and mechanical respiration may be required. Recent investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective. Gacyclidine; an antiglutamatergic compound, was also proved to be beneficial in conjunction with atropine, pralidoxime, and diazepam in nerve agent poisoning. Intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning. Bio-scavengers including fresh frozen plasma or albumin have recently been suggested as a useful therapy through clearing of free organophosphates. Hemofiltration and antioxidants are also suggested for organophosphorous poisoning. Recombinant bacterial phosphotriesterases and hydrolases that are able to transfer organophosphorous-degrading enzymes are very promising in delayed treatment of organophosphorous poisoning. Recently, encapsulation of drugs or enzymes in nanocarriers has also been proposed. Given the signs and symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning, health professionals should remain updated about the recent advances in treatment of organophosphorous poisoning poisonings. PMID:23115436

Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Saber, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

445

Long-term consequences of soman poisoning in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organophosphorus compound soman produces long-lasting epileptic seizure activity which is associated to brain damage, more particularly in the hippocampus and the amygdala. The companion paper (see part 1 in the same journal issue) describes the neuropathology in the amygdala of soman-poisoned mice. The present paper examines the long-term effects of soman poisoning on emotional reactivity in mice, 30 or

Stéphanie Coubard; Daniel Béracochéa; Jean-Marc Collombet; Jean-Nicolas Philippin; Ali Krazem; Pierrette Liscia; Guy Lallement; Christophe Piérard

2008-01-01

446

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) poisoning and congestive heart failure in cattle.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea), when fed to calves at high elevations, increased the prevalence and severity of congestive heart failure. Forced exercise did not increase the prevalence of congestive heart failure, but it did increase severity. Calves consuming locoweed at high elevations developed signs and gross lesions of congestive heart failure and microscopic lesions of congestive heart failure and locoweed poisoning. Calves fed locoweed at low elevations developed only signs and lesions of locoweed poisoning. PMID:3793593

James, L F; Hartley, W J; Nielsen, D; Allen, S; Panter, K E

1986-12-15

447

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

448

Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores  

SciTech Connect

The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these “spread” the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

A. M. Ougouag; R. M. Ferrer

2010-10-01

449

Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.  

PubMed

The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury. PMID:24125049

Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

2013-01-01

450

Rhabdomyolysis following Acute Extended-Release Quetiapine Poisoning: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background. During the past few years, there have been a number of case reports concerning rhabdomyolysis following quetiapine poisoning; however, there has been none concerning the medication in its extended-release form. Methods. We present the case report of a 48-year-old man presenting a major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder, who after voluntary intoxication with 12000?mg of quetiapine extended-release developed signs of acute rhabdomyolysis. Results. The rhabdomyolysis was confirmed by the laboratory and the clinical findings, with elevated levels of creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and CRP. Discussion. We would like to pinpoint the importance of this complication and our concern of prescribing it for psychiatric patients with chronic somatic comorbidities. PMID:23304601

Liolios, Antonios; Sentissi, Othman

2012-01-01

451

Mercury poisoning in a free-living northern river otter (Lontra canadensis).  

PubMed

A moribund 5-year-old female northern river otter (Lontra canadensis) was found on the bank of a river known to be extensively contaminated with mercury. It exhibited severe ataxia and scleral injection, made no attempt to flee, and died shortly thereafter of drowning. Tissue mercury levels were among the highest ever reported for a free-living terrestrial mammal: kidney, 353 microg/g; liver, 221 microg/g; muscle, 121 microg/g; brain (three replicates from cerebellum), 142, 151, 151 microg/g (all dry weights); and fur, 183 ug/g (fresh weight). Histopathologic findings including severe, diffuse, chronic glomerulosclerosis and moderate interstitial fibrosis were the presumptive cause of clinical signs and death. This is one of a few reports to document the death of a free-living mammal from presumed mercury poisoning. PMID:20688719

Sleeman, Jonathan M; Cristol, Daniel A; White, Ariel E; Evers, David C; Gerhold, R W; Keel, Michael K

2010-07-01

452

Chronic Diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

453

Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Non-cancer-related pain that lasts longer than 3 months is considered chronic pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a According to the National Institutes of Health, chronic pain is the third largest health problem in the world.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Approximately 25 million Americans are affected by chronic pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Chronic pain is one of the most common problems seen in primary care clinics. Pain-related problems account

Jim Nuovo

454

[Chronic migraine].  

PubMed

The classification of the International Headache Society (IHS) generally differentiates episodic from chronic headache. Chronic migraine is defined as headache on 15 and more days a month over more than 3 months and headache on 8 days or more fulfils the criteria for migraine or were triptan/ergot-responsive when thought to be migrainous in early stages of the attack. The prevalence of chronic migraine is estimated at 2-4?%. The quality of life is highly compromised in this condition and comorbidities are much more frequent compared to episodic migraine. Data from prospective randomized studies are scarce as most patients with chronic migraine were excluded from previous trials and only few studies were conducted for this condition. The efficacy for prophylactic treatment compared with placebo is proven for topiramate and onabotulinum toxin A. PMID:24337617

Diener, H C; Holle, D; Müller, D; Nägel, S; Rabe, K

2013-12-01

455

Lipid rescue 911: Are poison centers recommending intravenous fat emulsion therapy for severe poisoning?  

PubMed

Intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) therapy is a novel treatment that has been used to reverse the acute toxicity of some xenobiotics with varied success. We sought to determine how US Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have incorporated IFE as a treatment strategy for poisoning. A closed-format multiple-choice survey instrument was developed, piloted, revised, and then sent electronically to every medical director of an accredited US PCC in March 2011. Addresses were obtained from the American Association of Poison Control Centers listserv, and participation was voluntary and remained anonymous. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of PCC medical directors completed the survey (45 out of 57; 79 %). Of the 45 respondents, all felt that IFE therapy played a role in the acute overdose setting. Most PCCs (30 out of 45; 67 %) have a protocol for IFE therapy. In a scenario with "cardiac arrest" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their center would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (43 out of 45; 96 %), verapamil (36 out of 45; 80 %), amitriptyline (31 out of 45; 69 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (12 out of 45; 27 %). In a scenario with "shock" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their PCC would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (40 out of 45; 89 %), verapamil (28 out of 45; 62 %), amitriptyline (25 out of 45; 56 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (8 out of 45; 18 %). IFE therapy is being recommended by US PCCs; protocols and dosing regimens are nearly uniform. Most directors feel that IFE is safe but are more likely to recommend IFE in patients with cardiac arrest than in patients with severe hemodynamic compromise. PMID:23661336

Christian, Michael R; Pallasch, Erin M; Wahl, Michael; Mycyk, Mark B

2013-09-01

456

Clinical findings and follow-up evaluation of an outbreak of mushroom poisoning — survey of amanita phalloides poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One hundred and sixty cases of mushroom poisoning during the period July–November 1981 are reported. The survey details 116 observations of short incubation syndromes and 44 cases of delayed syndrome, identified asAmanita Phalloides poisoning. Of the latter, 40 patients were adult (mean age 46 years, range 20–77; 18 females and 22 males) and 4 were children (= 12 years

R. Fantozzi; F. Ledda; L. Caramelli; F. Moroni; P. Blandina; E. Masini; P. Botti; S. Peruzzi; M. Zorn; P. F. Mannaioni

1986-01-01

457

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

MedlinePLUS

COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic ... Disease (COPD). Updated March 2013. Available at: https://www. ...

458

Low back pain - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... your waist, leads to pain. Many people with chronic back pain have arthritis. Or they may have extra wear ...

459

Pattern of poisoning cases in a hospital in a Terai district of central Nepal.  

PubMed

Poisoning is a major global health problem and is one of the major causes of hospitalization through emergency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of poisoning cases admitted to emergency department over a one year period. A hospital based study was carried out in the emergency department, Mahendra Adarsha Chikitsalaya, Chitwan analyzing the data of the poisoning cases attended for one year duration by searching all the medical records. A total of 921 poisoning cases presented to emergency department in the year 2007. The female to male ratio was 1.17:1. Most of poisoning occurred in the age group 15-24 years. Snake bite was the commonest form of poisoning amongst all cases. By occupation, 46.0% cases were in farmers. Accidental poisoning prevailed over intentional poisoning. Seasonal trend revealed maximum cases being in summer (42.4%). Poisoning shows seasonal trend and hence proper intervention is required in community level. PMID:22808805

Gurung, C K; Dahal, R; Khanal, P; Nepal, S; Jaiswal, A K

2011-09-01

460

Extracorporeal methods in the treatment of poisoning.  

PubMed

Among the various ways of managing poisoning, haemodialysis may help in enhancing excretion of the toxic substance. We report a case, a Russian male, 35 years old, who was rushed to the Gleneagles Hospital Medan from the airport after being evacuated from Banda Aceh together with another older Russian who died as they arrived at the admission and Emergency Department. From the result of intensive allo anamnesis and the high anion gap metabolic acidosis, in the absence of disturbed renal and liver function, we presumed this patient was suffering from methanol intoxication. The time of exposure was approximately 70 hours before. The exact length of dialysis time to excrete the noxious substance from the blood without plasma methanol determination was difficult. Moreover the time elapsed from exposure to treatment had been approximately 70 hours, which means the optic nerve had been so long exposed to formic acid, the toxic metabolite of methanol, that the damage should have been very severe. Ethanol is also known to be an antidote of methanol, which can be given orally by nasogastric tube, or i.v. It should be given early, and plasma ethanol level should be closely monitored to make it effective and safe. This was also unavailable. Another antidote is fomepizole which is also as yet unavailable in Medan. Folic acid, thiamin, and i.v. folinic acid are also recommended by the literature, as well as oral steroid. PMID:18560027

Lubis, Harun Rasyid; Lubis, A Rahim Rasyid; Hariman, Herman; Parwis, Beby

2008-04-01

461

Fatal poisoning by alcohol and heroin.  

PubMed

Drug abuse with alcohol consumption have been on the rise in Split-Dalmatian County for a while now. This article reports two separate cases with three deaths due to fatal combinations of heroin and alcohol. The first case of poisoning is related to a young couple, a 30-year-old man and a 28-year-old woman, who were found dead in a car, surrounded by cans of a variety alcoholic drinks. Two needles were found beside the bodies as well. The victims were registered drug abusers who had been in withdrawal programs. The second case was a 29-year-old man who was found dead in a house. Three fresh injection marks were visible on his right arm, and two needles were near his body. He was not known as a drug addict, but he had tried to commit suicide recently. Carboxyhaemoglobin was found in blood samples of both victims from the first case. The concentration was 25% and that could contribute to their death. In both described cases blood alcohol concentration was higher then 1.60 g kg(-1). Toxicology tests were positive for heroin, meconin, acetaminophen, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, noscapine and papaverine. Ethanol, being a respiratory depressant, combined with morphine drastically increases the risk of rapid death due to respiration failure. PMID:17913687

Sutlovi?, Davorka; Definis-Gojanovi?, Marija

2007-09-01

462

Narcosis studies and oxygen poisoning of mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research for a mechanism by which narcotic gases alter metabolism is reported. Possible sites of action by narcotic and anesthetic gases in isolated electron transport particles were explored. Using the relative activities of the NADH-oxygen, NADH-ferricyanide, succinate-cytochrome C and succinate-NAD oxidoreductase systems as parameters, the relative potency of volatile anesthetics were tested. Testing the relative ability of human subjects to contract and repay an oxygen debt while in the narcotic versus alert state, it was found that narcosis induced by 33% nitrous oxide increased the size of the oxygen debt contracted and the amount of oxygen required to repay it during recovery. Mice acclimatized to sea level (760 mm Hg), 5000 feet (632 mm Hg) or 15,000 feet 437 mm Hg) for from one to eight weeks were found to be more susceptible to convulsion and death as a function of altitude acclimatization when tested in hyperoxic environments. There were no reasonable explanations for the connection between hypoxia and oxygen poisoning but several practical implications for persons living at altitude are discussed.

1973-01-01

463

Fatal hydrogen sulphide poisoning in unconfined spaces.  

PubMed

Fatal hydrogen sulphide poisoning usually occurs in confined spaces. We report two fatal accidents in unconfined spaces. The first accident caused the death of three workers who entered an unconfined room in a silo of sludge at the same time that a truck dumped several tons of sludge from water purification stations. The hydrogen sulphide that had accumulated inside the silo spilled out into the interior of the room due to a 'splashing effect' caused by the impact of the dumped sludge. The second accident occurred when the foreman of a wastewater treatment plant entered one of the substations to perform routine checks and suddenly lost consciousness. Although he was rapidly transferred to an intensive care unit, death occurred a few hours later. Hydrogen sulphide production was, in this case, due to an 'embolism effect' produced by the displacement of wastewater when the substation pumps were activated. We suggest ways in which accidents such as these caused by sudden release of hydrogen sulphide can be prevented. PMID:21467246

Nogué, S; Pou, R; Fernández, J; Sanz-Gallén, P

2011-05-01

464

Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication  

PubMed Central

During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

1973-01-01

465

Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants  

SciTech Connect

Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1996-04-01

466

Adult Prescription Drug Use and Pediatric Medication Exposures and Poisonings  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nontherapeutic medication ingestions continue to be a major pediatric health problem, with recent increases in ingestions despite a number of public health interventions. It is unknown how changes in adult prescription drug use relate to pediatric medication poisonings. The objective of the study was to measure the association between changing adult prescription drug patterns and pediatric medication exposures and poisonings and identify high-risk classes of medications and pediatric age groups. METHODS: We measured monthly pediatric exposures and poisonings using the National Poison Data System and prescriptions written for adults using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys for 2000 through 2009. Associations between adult prescriptions for oral hypoglycemics, antihyperlipidemics, ?-blockers, and opioids and exposures and poisonings among children 0 to 5, 6 to 12, and 13 to 19 years were analyzed by using multiple time-series analysis. Emergency department visits, serious injuries, and hospitalizations stemming from these associations were described. RESULTS: Adult medication prescriptions were statistically significantly associated with exposures and poisonings in children of all ages, with the strongest association observed for opioids. Across medications, the greatest risk was among children 0 to 5 years old, followed by 13- to 19-year-olds. Rates of emergency department visits were highest for events related to hypoglycemics (60.1%) and ?-blockers (59.7%), whereas serious injuries and hospitalizations occurred most frequently with opioids (26.8% and 35.2%, respectively) and hypoglycemics (19.5% and 49.4%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing adult drug prescriptions are strongly associated with rising pediatric exposures and poisonings, particularly for opioids and among children 0 to 5 years old. These associations have sizable impacts, including high rates of serious injury and health care use. PMID:23733792

Ayers, John W.; Brownstein, John S.; Bronstein, Alvin C.; Ewald, Michele Burns; Bourgeois, Florence T.

2013-01-01

467

Copper alloys for industrial hardware  

SciTech Connect

Copper and its alloys are widely used because of their excellent electrical and thermal conductivities, outstanding resistance to corrosion, and ease of fabrication. Lifecycle costs are another important reason for new and expanding applications for copper and copper alloys. For example, lifecycle cost analyses favor the use of copper-nickel for automotive brake tubes, and copper alloys in molds for plastic parts. However, copper also competes very well on a first-cost basis in the brazed copper-and-brass radiator, and in free-cutting brass machined components. This article highlights four specific applications in which advanced copper alloys and fabrication techniques enhance the performance of industrial hardware, based largely on conductivity, corrosion resistance, and lifecycle costs.

Peters, D.T. [Copper Development Association Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1996-10-01

468

The mineralogy of copper electrorefining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impurities in copper anodes occur both in solid solution in the copper metal matrix and in discrete inclusions at the copper grain boundaries. During electrorefining, all the impurities undergo extensive chemical and/or morphological changes. These changes impact significantly on anode passivation, cathode quality, electrolyte purification and, of course, the subsequent recovery of by-products from the anode slimes. Recently, mineralogical studies have been undertaken to characterize the various impurities and elucidate their transformations during copper electrorefining.

Chen, T. T.; Dutrizac, J. E.

1990-08-01

469

Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper  

PubMed Central

Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal; consequently, transport of this metal within the cell is tightly regulated. Intriguingly, the actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans has been shown to not only accumulate soluble copper to high levels within the cytoplasm, but the phenotype also correlated with enhanced cell growth during chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. This study offers a first glimpse into the physiological and proteomic responses of K. radiotolerans to copper at increasing concentration and distinct growth phases. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations (0–1.5 mM) in complex medium. Copper uptake coincided with active cell growth and intracellular accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2?=?0.7). Approximately 40% of protein coding ORFs on the K. radiotolerans genome were differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Interestingly, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase was repressed by low to moderate concentrations of copper during exponential growth, and activity was unresponsive to perturbation with paraquot. The biochemical response pathways invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations are exceptionally complex; though integral cellular functions are preserved, in part, through the coordination of defense enzymes, chaperones, antioxidants and protective osmolytes that likely help maintain cellular redox. This study extends our understanding of the ecology and physiology of this unique actinobacterium that could potentially inspire new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration. PMID:20865147

Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.

2010-01-01

470

Childhood lead poisoning from the smelter in Torreon, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in blood samples of 34 children (ages 2-17 years) living within a 113 km{sup 2} area of a silver-zinc-lead smelter plant in Torreon, Mexico were compared to those of associated environmental samples (soil, aerosols, and outdoor and indoor dust) to identify the principal source(s) of environmental and human lead contamination in the area. Lead concentrations of soil and outdoor dust ranged 130-12,050 and 150-14,365 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations were greatest near the smelter, with the highest levels corresponding with the prevailing wind direction, and orders of magnitude above background concentrations of 7.3-33.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Atmospheric lead depositions in the city varied between 130 and 1350 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, again with highest rates <1 km from the smelter. Blood lead (PbB) concentrations (11.0{+-}5.3 {mu}g dl{sup -1}) levels in the children ranged 5.0-25.8 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, which is 3-14 times higher than the current average (1.9 {mu}g dl{sup -1}) of children (ages 1-5 years) in the US. Lead isotopic ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of the urban dust and soil (1.200{+-}0.009, 2.467{+-}0.003), aerosols (1.200{+-}0.002, 2.466{+-}0.002), and PbB (1.199{+-}0.001, 2.468{+-}0.002) were indistinguishable from each other, as well as those of the lead ores processed at the smelter (1.199{+-}0.007, 2.473{+-}0.007). Consequently, an elevated PbB concentrations of the children in Torreon, as well as in their environment, are still dominated by industrial emissions from the smelter located within the city, in spite of new controls on atmospheric releases from the facility. - Highlights: {yields} Pb contents in environmental samples evidenced chronic Pb pollution in Torreon. {yields} Pb stable isotopes evidenced contemporary emissions from the Ag-Cod-Pb-Zn smelter. {yields} Pb urban dust and soil account for most of the childhood lead poisoning in Torreon.{yields} Levels of Pub in Torreon's children are 3-14 times higher than children in the US.{yields} Children Pub concentrations are primarily attributed to emissions from the smelter.

Soto-Jimenez, Martin F., E-mail: martin@ola.icmyl.unam.mx [Unidad Academica Mazatlan, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAM-ICMyL-UNAM), Apdo. Postal 811, Mazatlan 82040, Sinaloa (Mexico); Flegal, Arthur R. [WIGS, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [WIGS, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2011-05-15

471

High adherence copper plating process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

Mignardot, H.

1992-12-31

472

SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

473

High adherence copper plating process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

Nignardot, H.

1993-09-21

474

Migration of copper and some other metals from copper tableware  

SciTech Connect

Intake of heavy metals is an important problem in human health. Certain heavy metals are avoided with regard to their use for utensils or tableware coming into contact with food, although copper is widely used in food processing factories or at home. The use of copper products for the processing, cooking or serving of foods and beverages is considered to be a cause of a copper contamination. Although copper is essential element, its excess ingestion is undesirable. In this study, the migration of copper from tin-plated or non-plated copperware under several experimental conditions was investigated using food-simulating solvents.

Ishiwata, H.; Inoue, T.; Yoshihira, K.

1986-11-01

475

Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail that has been possible to date. The beam is produced by using third-generation insertion devices in a 7 GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1100 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high power devices is very high and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm{sup 2}. Because the beams will cycle