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Chronic arsenic poisoning.  


Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS). PMID:11869818

Hall, Alan H



Sunflower meal as cause of chronic copper poisoning in lambs in southeastern Spain.  

PubMed Central

Sunflower meal with a copper/molybdenum ratio of 10 caused copper toxicosis in lambs. Copper must be analyzed on a dry matter basis in liver and renal cortex. Oral administration of molybdenum and thiosulfate had a certain effectiveness in sick animals. Care must be taken with feedstuffs made from copper-dependent plants.

Garcia-Fernandez, A J; Motas-Guzman, M; Navas, I; Maria-Mojica, P; Romero, D



Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

deCastro, F.J.



Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings  

PubMed Central

Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Huseyin; Tuncer, Oguz; Atas, Bulent



Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This work was undertaken to determine whether there are any chronic neurological sequelae to acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. METHODS. California surveillance data were used in a study of neurological function among 128 men poisoned by organophosphate pesticides in California from 1982 to 1990 and 90 referents. Tests included a neurological physical examination, 5 nerve conduction tests, 2 vibrotactile sensitivity tests, 10 neurobehavioral tests, and 1 postural sway test. RESULTS. After correcting for confounding, the poisoned group performed significantly worse than the referent group on two neurobehavioral tests (sustained visual attention and mood scales). When the data were restricted to men with documented cholinesterase inhibition (n = 83) or to men who had been hospitalized (n = 36), the poisoned subjects also showed significantly worse vibrotactile sensitivity of finger and toe. Significant trends of increased impairment were found with increased days of disability on a wide spectrum of tests of both central and peripheral nerve function. CONCLUSIONS. While these findings are limited by low response rates and by small sample sizes for specific pesticides, this study was based on a large surveillance database and is the largest study to date of the chronic effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning. The evidence of some long-term effects of poisoning is consistent with two prior studies.

Steenland, K; Jenkins, B; Ames, R G; O'Malley, M; Chrislip, D; Russo, J



Copper poisoning in a dairy herd fed a mineral supplement  

PubMed Central

Copper poisoning in a dairy herd resulted in the death of 9 of 63 (14%) adult Holstein cows. Clinical signs were acute anorexia, weakness, mental dullness, poor pupillary light reflexes, and scant nasal discharge. These were followed by recumbency, chocolate-colored blood, jaundice, and death. Four animals exhibited signs of hyperesthesia and/or rumen stasis prior to death. At necropsy there was generalized icterus of body tissues, with the liver appearing orange and the kidneys dark blue. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in Kupffer cells, and severe to moderate hepatocellular necrosis in all cases. Ammonium molybdate added to the ration, combined with the cessation of mineral supplementation, arrested the outbreak. These cases illustrate significant mortality, due to copper poisoning, in adult cattle fed a low-dose mineral dietary supplement for over two years. Dietary copper intake of the herd (on a dry matter basis) was 37.5 mg/kg for lactating cows and 22.6 mg/kg for dry cows.

Bradley, Charles H.



Chronic Neurobehavioral Effects of Tokyo Subway Sarin Poisoning in Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neurobehavioral effects of acute sarin poisoning were evaluated in 9 male and 9 female patients who were exposed to sarin poisoning in the Tokyo subway incident in Japan. The investigators used nine neurobehavioral tests, as well as a posttraumatic stress disorder checklist, 6–8 mo after the poisoning occurred. Serum cholinesterase activity in patients on the day of poisoning (i.e.,

Kazuhito Yokoyama; Shunichi Araki; Katsuyuki Murata; Mariko Nishikitani; Tetsu Okumura; Shinichi Ishimatsu; Nobukatsu Takasu; Roberta F. White



Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.  

PubMed Central

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M



Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emara, A. M., El-Ghawabi, S. H., Madkour, O. I., and El-Samra, G. H. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 78-82. Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry. A survey was carried out on 36 workers in the dry battery industry exposed to dust containing 65 to 70% manganese oxide. Eight (22·2%) were found to have neuropsychiatric manifestations, six (16·6%)

A. M. Emara; S. H. El-Ghawabi; O. I. Madkour; G. H. El-Samra





Copper is an essential trace element, which is an important catalyst for heme synthesis and iron absorption. Following zinc and iron, copper is the third most abundant trace element in the body. Copper is a noble metal, like silver and gold. Useful industrial properties include high thermal and electrical conductivity, low corrosion, alloying ability, and malleability. Most of the metallic copper appears in electrical applications. Copper is a constituent of intrauterine contraceptive devices and the release of copper is necessary for their contraceptive effects. The average daily intake of copper in the US is about 1 mg Cu with the primary source being the diet. The bioavailability of copper from the diet is about 65-70% depending on a variety of factors including chemical form, interaction with other metals, and dietary components. The biological half-life of copper from the diet is 13-33 days with bilary excretion being the major route of elimination. Copper sulfate is a gastric irritant that produces erosion of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic copper toxicity is rare and primarily affects the liver. Wilson's disease and Indian childhood cirrhosis are examples of severe chronic liver disease that results from the genetic predisposition to the hepatic accumulation of copper. The serum copper concentration ranges up to approximately 1.5 mg/L in healthy persons. Gastrointestinal symptoms occur at whole blood concentrations near 3 mg Cu/L. Chelating agents (CaNa2EDTA, BAL) are recommended in severe poisoning, but there are little pharmacokinetic data to evaluate the effectiveness of these agents. PMID:10382557

Barceloux, D G



Diagnosis and treatment of chronic lead poisoning in CAPD patients.  


In order to screen for abstruse lead poisoning in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) levels were measured in 18 CAPD patients, 156 patients treated with hemodialysis (HD), and 420 control patients with normal renal function (NRF). An EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) mobilization test was performed in patients with low levels of ALAD (< 0.40 mumol of porphobilinogen formed per milliliter of red blood cells): 1 g of EDTA was infused IV followed by 20 L of hemofiltrate in HD patients and four bags of dialysate in CAPD patients. Lead was assayed in the ultrafiltrate liquid, the bags of dialysate, and in the 24-hour urine. ALAD levels were significantly lower in CAPD and HD patients than in the NRF subjects. ALAD was significantly correlated with EDTA mobilized lead in both dialysis and NRF patients. Using the usual criteria (EDTA mobilized lead > 800 micrograms/24 hours), the rate of lead poisoning observed was similar in the two groups. These results suggest that ALAD assay followed by the EDTA mobilization test is as effective in CAPD patients as in NRF subjects to diagnose and to treat chronic abstruse lead poisoning. PMID:8105909

Kessler, M; Durand, P Y; Hestin, D; Gamberoni, J; Chanliau, J



[Fatal chronic oxalosis after sublethal ethylene glycol poisoning].  


A 36-year-old man known as chronic alcohol abuser presently suffered from arthralgia and showed bilateral petriefied kidneys by sonography and computed tomography. Because of an unclear renal failure a kidney biopsy was performed and presented typical chronic renal oxalosis with massive oxalate crystal deposits, tubular atrophy and interstitital fibrosis. Since the man had never shown signs of hyperoxaluria in his life before, a secondary oxalosis was supposed. The subsequently prompted exploration established a three to four times abuse of rocket fuel with cola lemonade 12 years before during the patient's army time as a marine soldier. Such fuels contain ethylene glycol (glysantin) as antifreeze commonly known to cause in toxic doses acute renal tubular necrosis with hyperoxaluria. The presented case, however, suggests a rare sublethal ethylene glycol poisoning with initial renal tubular damage, oxalate crystal deposition and subsequent chronic interstitial oxalate nephritis with tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and chronic renal failure. Undergoing chronic hemodialysis, the patient died 5 months after the kidney biopsy diagnosis by acute heart failure. At autopsy, progressed chronic renal oxalosis could be confirmed. Decompensated oxalate cardiomyopathy with disseminated myocardial oxalate crystal deposits caused acute heart failure promoted by myocardial hypertrophy in renal hypertension. PMID:9380607

Nizze, H; Schwabbauer, P; Brachwitz, C; Lange, H



Chronic Neurological Sequelae of Acute Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the latent neurological effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning, this epidemiologic study examined 100 matched-pairs of individuals with previous acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning and nonpoisoned controls. No significant difference between poisoned subjects and controls was found on audiometric tests, ophthalmic tests, electroencephalograms, or the clinical serum and blood chemistry evaluations. Of the more than 50 scores from the neurological

Eldon P. Savage; Thomas J. Keefe; Lawrence M. Mounce; Robert K. Heaton; James A. Lewis; Patricia J. Burcar



Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry  

PubMed Central

Emara, A. M., El-Ghawabi, S. H., Madkour, O. I., and El-Samra, G. H. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 78-82. Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry. A survey was carried out on 36 workers in the dry battery industry exposed to dust containing 65 to 70% manganese oxide. Eight (22·2%) were found to have neuropsychiatric manifestations, six (16·6%) had chronic manganese psychosis, one had left hemi-parkinsonism, and one had left choreoathetosis. An environmental study revealed a high concentration of manganese dust at the main working areas, far exceeding the accepted MAC. The manganese level in blood was almost within the normal range. Coproporphyrin in urine was normal. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in only two of the affected workers (25%) but there was no association between this and the clinical manifestations or duration of exposure. The concentration of manganese dust in air showed some association with the prevalence and rapidity of effect on workers according to their occupation. However, individual susceptibility was apparent. The shortest latent period was one year.

Emara, A. M.; El-Ghawabi, S. H.; Madkour, O. I.; El-Samra, G. H.



Acute and chronic poisoning from residential exposures to elemental mercury--Michigan, 1989-1990  

SciTech Connect

From May 1989 through November 1990, eight episodes of elemental mercury exposure in private residences or schools in the United States were reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The case studies in this report document two of these episodes (both in Michigan) of residential mercury poisoning--one involving acute mercury exposure, and the other, chronic exposure to elemental mercury. These episodes illustrate the differing clinical and toxicologic manifestations of acute and chronic mercury poisoning.

Not Available



[Investigation of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by high arsenic coal pollution].  


This article reports the results of an investigation on environmental arsenic pollution and chronic arsenic poisoning in a rural area. Exploitation of high arsenic coal caused drinking and irrigating water to be polluted by arsenic and burning of this coal caused severe environmental arsenic pollution including air, food, soil and drinking well water. 1548 villagers in 47 villages suffered from chronic arsenic poisoning who used this coal in daily life. The polluted air and food were mainly responsible, while the polluted drinking water and skin absorption played some part in poisoning. When arsenic level in coal is as high as 100mg/kg, we should consider the possibility of environmental arsenic pollution and chronic arsenic poisoning in exposed population. The high arsenic coal's distribution is very uneven. When controlling the disease, it is important to remember monitoring the quantity of arsenic coal outside the arsenic coal mining area. PMID:8243176

Zhou, D X



Ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of mice ovaries following experimentally induced copper poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element involved in normal reproduction but its overexposure may produce some detrimental effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of copper sulfate poisoning on morphometery of mice ovarian structures and probable intracellular changes. Methods Thirty mature female mice were randomly allocated to control and two treatment groups. In treatment groups, two different doses of copper sulfate including 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in 0.2 cc were applied once a day for 35 consecutive days by gavage. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar method. Animals from each experimental group were sacrificed 14 and 35 days after the beginning of drug administration and the left ovaries were removed for stereological evaluations by light microscopy and right ovaries were obtained for preparing electron microscopic sections. Results The morphometrical results showed that only the number of antral follicles was decreased by 100 mg/kg copper sulfate on day 14 compared to the control group (P=0.043). Hence, higher copper dose or longer consumption period significantly reduced different classes of follicles and corpora lutea. With 100 mg/kg copper sulfate some mild ultrastructural cell damages such as decrease of zona pellucida thickness, limited vacuolated areas and nuclear envelop dilation were seen on day 14. Higher or longer Cu administration produced more detrimental effects including more vacuolated areas, presence of secondary lysosomes, irregularity in cell shape and segmented nuclei with condensed and marginated chromatin and more enlarged and damaged mitochondria. Conclusion New evidences of early as well as late intracellular damages of copper has been presented by accurate stereological and ultrastructural methods. Antral follicles was the most susceptible cells with the lower and shorter copper consumption and long term or higher dose of copper affected the whole of ovarian structures.

Babaei, H; Roshangar, L; Sakhaee, E; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Dehghani, R



Effect of green tea catechin on arachidonic acid cascade in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea catechin on the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 ± 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal and three cadmium-poisoned groups. The cadmium groups were classified as catechin-free diet group (Cd-0C), 0.25% catechin diet group (Cd-0.25C) and 0.5% catechin

Jeong-Hwa Choi; Hyeun-Wook Chang; Soon-Jae Rhee



Action of green tea catechin on bone metabolic disorder in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on bone metabolic disorders and its mechanism in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 ± 10 g were randomly assigned to one control group and three cadmium-poisoned groups. The cadmium groups included a catechin free diet (Cd-0C) group, a 0.25% catechin diet (Cd-0.25C) group

Jeong-Hwa Choi; In-Koo Rhee; Keun-Yong Park; Kun-Young Park; Jong-Ki Kim; Soon-Jae Rhee



Urine\\/blood ratios of ethanol in deaths attributed to acute alcohol poisoning and chronic alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ethanol were determined in femoral venous blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and the UAC\\/BAC ratios were evaluated for a large case series of forensic autopsies in which the primary cause of death was either acute alcohol poisoning (N=628) or chronic alcoholism (N=647). In alcohol poisoning deaths both UAC and BAC were higher by about 2g\\/l compared with

A. W. Jones; P. Holmgren



Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.



Extreme gastric dilation caused by chronic lead poisoning: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is a toxic metal that affects many organ systems and functions in humans. In the majority of adults, chronic lead poisoning comes from exposures to work places and can occur in numerous work settings, such as manufacturing, lead smelting and refinement, or due to use of batteries, pigments, solder, ammunitions, paint, car radiators, cable and wires, certain cosmetics. In

Vesna Begovic; Darko Nozic; Srdjan Kupresanin; Dino Tarabar



Beryllium copper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium disease.  


We describe two newly confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease who presented to our clinic from a facility that only used 2% beryllium copper alloy. These cases illustrate that the 2% beryllium copper alloy continues to cause chronic beryllium disease and that appropriate preventive measures must be taken to control exposures and educate industries and their workers about the hazards of beryllium alloys. PMID:10224597

Balkissoon, R C; Newman, L S



Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners  

PubMed Central

The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.

Dhatrak, Sarang V.; Nandi, Subroto S.



Assessment of effects of chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning on cytochrome p450 isoforms activity of rats by cocktail approach.  


Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the neurotoxic gases with suffocating and irritating. Its main target organs of toxic effects are the central nervous system and respiratory system. Cocktail method was used to evaluate the influence of chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning on the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of 4 specific probe drugs phenacetin, tolbutamide bupropion and metroprolol, respectively. The experimental rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning group. The chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning group rats were inhaled 20?ppm for 1?h twice a day for 40?d. The mixture of 4 probes was given to rats through sublingual veins and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time-points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the experiment for chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning and control group, there was a statistically significant difference in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-?), plasma clearance (CL) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) for phenacetin and bupropion, while there was no statistical pharmacokinetics difference for tolbutamide and metoprolol. Chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning could induce the activity of CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 of rats. PMID:24088256

Wang, Xianqin; Chen, Xiaole; Chen, Mengchun; Hu, Guoxin; Ma, Jianshe; Pan, Jianchun; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang



Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning.  


The first well-documented outbreak of acute methyl mercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of contaminated fish occurred in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. The clinical picture was officially recognized and called Minamata disease (MD) in 1956. However, 50 years later there are still arguments about the definition of MD in terms of clinical symptoms and extent of lesions. We provide a historical review of this epidemic and an update of the problem of MeHg toxicity. Since MeHg dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea, residents living around the sea were exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). These patients with chronic MeHg poisoning continue to complain of distal paresthesias of the extremities and the lips even 30 years after cessation of exposure to MeHg. Based on findings in these patients the symptoms and lesions in MeHg poisoning are reappraised. The persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex, but not by damage to the peripheral nervous system, as previously believed. PMID:17681548

Ekino, Shigeo; Susa, Mari; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kitamura, Toshinori



Evaluation of Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Due to Consumption of Contaminated Ground Water in West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ?50 ?g/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 ?g/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%), followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%)] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%)]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%)]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%)], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%)], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%)], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%)], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%)], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%)], alopecia [8 (10.95%)], neuropathy [5 (6.84%)], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%)] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

Ghosh, Asutosh



[Morphological signs of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence and chronic alcoholic intoxication in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system].  


Forensic medical diagnostics of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system remains an unresolved problem and encounters difficulties. This situation is due not only to the marked vulnerability of the neurons of the dopaminergic system but also to the fact that its mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present work was to substantiate and develop diagnostic criteria for ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the neurons both in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and in other brain regions. The object of the study was the brain of healthy adult subjects who died from alcohol intoxication (in the period of ethanol resorption) and under conditions of alcohol abstinence (completion of the abstinence course). The purpose of the study was to elucidate factors responsible for the different degree of damage to the neurons of various identification groups (intact, hypochromic, picnomorphic, shadow) and macrogliocytes. The cells of all these types were counted at an area of 0.25 sq. mm within 4 squares each having a side of 250 mcm in length. The absolute and relative number of neurons in each group as well as the number of polyneuronal satellite cells per one intact neuron was determined. It was shown that alcohol intoxication is associated with acute swelling of and severe damage to brain neurons caused by the combination of such factors as toxic effect of ethanol, excessive production of catecholamines, and functional overstrain of dopaminergic neurons. The severity of acute alcohol damage to the neurons decreased with the distance from the mid-brain dopaminergic nuclei. Restoration of neurons during alcohol abstinence was due to compensatory activation of interactions between neurons and glial cells. It decreased in the sequence from the paranigral nucleus of the ventral portion of mesencephalic tegumentum to the medial portion of the accumbence nucleus (field 24b, layer III of field la, layer V of field 1) depending on the initial severity of acute damage in the brain region being examined. The severity of damage to the neurons of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system under conditions of chronic alcohol intoxication estimated from the number of shadow neurons was similar to the degree of acute swelling associated with ethanol poisoning and decreases from a maximum in the nuclei of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system to a minimum in layer III of field 1. PMID:22117472

Droblenkov, A V


Copper Test  


... 3. What happens if I am exposed to toxic amounts of copper? Copper poisoning can cause vomiting ... Asked Questions American Cancer Society: Copper Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Public Health Statement for ...


A Potentiometric Cu Assay in Normal and Copper-Poisoned Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new method of copper analysis is presented which is more reliable, when used by students, than the IUPAC recommended spectral method, and the electrode is suitable for the copper assay of mains tap water, soft drinks, urine, and blood. (DF)

Matheson, Ian A.; Williams, David R.



The liver in itai-itai disease (chronic cadmium poisoning): pathological features and metallothionein expression.  


Cadmium (Cd) is a highly hepatotoxic heavy metal, which is widely dispersed in the environment. Acute Cd hepatotoxicity has been well studied in experimental animals; however, effects of prolonged exposure to Cd doses on the liver remain unclear. In the present study, to evaluate chronic Cd hepatotoxicity, we examined specimens from cases of itai-itai disease, the most severe form of chronic Cd poisoning. We compared 89 cases of itai-itai disease with 27 control cases to assess Cd concentration in organs. We also examined 80 cases of itai-itai disease and 70 control cases for histopathological evaluation. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for metallothionein, which binds and detoxifies Cd. Hepatic Cd concentration was higher than Cd concentration in all other organs measured in the itai-itai disease group, whereas it was second highest following renal concentration in the control group. In the liver in the itai-itai disease group, fibrosis was observed at a significantly higher rate than that in the control group. Metallothionein expression was significantly higher in the itai-itai disease group than that in the control group. Prolonged exposure to low doses of Cd leads to high hepatic accumulation, which can then cause fibrosis; however, it also causes high expression of metallothionein, which is thought to reduce Cd hepatotoxicity. PMID:23558578

Baba, Hayato; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Yazaki, Megumi; Nagata, Kohei; Minamisaka, Takashi; Tsuda, Tatsuhiro; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Shinichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Nakajima, Takahiko; Nakanishi, Yuko; Aoshima, Keiko; Imura, Johji



Acute and chronic methyl mercury poisoning impairs rat adrenal and testicular function  

SciTech Connect

Animals poisoned with methyl mercury (CH/sub 3/Hg) exhibit stress intolerance and decreased sexual activity, which suggest both adrenal and testicular dysfunction. Adrenal and testicular function was studied in male rats after treatment with CH/sub 3/Hg. In animals treated chronically, the adrenal glands were markedly hyperplastic with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. The mean basal serum levels of corticosterone were similar in experimental (17.8 and control (16.8 groups. However, with ether stress, experimental animals had a subnormal response, and the mean serum levels of corticosterone increased to only 23.9 compared to 40.6 in the controls. Exogenous ACTH stimulation produced a mean level of 19.0 in the CH/sub 3/Hg-treated animals and 49.7 in the controls. In vitro studies demonstrated a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. A profound impairment in swimming was partially reversed with glucocorticoid therapy. In animals treated with CH/sub 3/Hg, serum testosterone was lower than normal in the basal state. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased the mean serum concentration of testosterone to 23.4 ng/ml in controls, but it was only 4.50 ng/ml in experimental animals. The data indicate that CH/sub 3/Hg poisoning impairs adrenal and testicular steroid hormone secretion, which accounts in part for the diminished stress tolerance and decreased sexual activity observed in CH/sub 3/Hg-intoxicated animals.

Burton, G.V.; Meikle, A.W.



Pancreatic Secretion of Zinc and Copper in Normal Subjects and in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic secretion of zinc and copper in duodenal juice were measured in 7 healthy persons and in 9 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Stimulation with cholecystokinin and secretin increased secretion of zinc in healthy persons but not in patients. Copper secretion was not influenced. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the correlations between zinc secretion, and amylase and trypsin secretion were significant

I. Gjørup; L. Petronijevic; E. Rubinstein; B. Andersen; H. Worning; F. Burcharth



Physiological Effects of Chronic Copper Exposure to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) in Hard and Soft Water: Evaluation of Chronic Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of chronic copper exposure on a suite of indicators were examined: acute toxicity, acclimation, growth, sprint performance, whole-body electrolytes, tissue residues, and gill copper binding characteristics. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed for 30 d to waterborne copper in hard water (hardness = 120 ?g\\/L as CaCO3, pH = 8.0, Cu = 20 and 60 ?g\\/L) and soft water (hardness

Lisa N. Taylor; James C. McGeer; Chris M. Wood; D. Gordon McDonald



Chronic arsenic poisoning in drinking water in Inner Mongolia and its associated health effects.  


Since 1990, a large number of people have been experiencing various health problems from drinking arsenic contaminated water (50-1860 microg/L) in 13 counties of Inner Mongolia, China, most of which are located in the Hetao Plain area. It is calculated that 411,243 people are currently at risk from arsenic poisoning. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were carried out on 13,021 people to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. In all of the studied patients, 22% had typical hyperkeratosis on the palms or soles and some had raindrop-like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation on the trunk. Other data recorded included subjective and objective symptoms, such as chronic cough (35.0%) and insomnia (37.5%). During physical checkups of 680 villagers in arsenic affected areas, liver function tests showed elevated globulin levels in 6.8% (P value=0.006) of the subjects. Neurotoxicity manifesting as loss of hearing 5.88 (P value=0.005), loss of taste 5.44% (P value=0.001), blurred vision 17.35% (P value=0.000), tingling and numbness of the limbs 33.53% (P value=0.000) and hypertension 8.09% (P value=0.000) were significantly higher in the arsenic affected villages and arsenic pollution also seemed to affect patients' social life and mental health. To solve the problem of arsenic exposure, the quality of drinking water needs to be improved by reducing the arsenic content. We also plan to carry out a survey to detect the incidence and types of cancer among this population. PMID:17952786

Guo, Juan X; Hu, Lin; Yand, Peng Z; Tanabe, Kimiko; Miyatalre, Munetoshi; Chen, Yao



Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

Kachulis, C.J.



Chronic methyl mercury poisoning may trigger endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem".  


In endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) or "fogo selvagem" the epidemiological evidence shows that all the described outbreaks occur on the banks of rivers where there is mercury contamination from alluvium gold mining and deforestation. Pathophysiological evidence shows a similarity to pemphigus induced by sulphydryl (SH-) drugs that act by denaturing cadherins at the desmosomal level, which are the pemphigus antigens. The sulfhydryl radical (SH-) call also thiol or mercaptans from the SH-drugs, act at the level of SH-groups of cystein as would the methyl mercury from the contaminated animals and fish in the diet of humans from endemic areas of pemphigus foliaceus. The methyl mercury would join the SH-groups from the cysteines amino acids from cadherin proteins in the skin. The autoimmune disease would only be triggered in genetically susceptible individuals with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB 1 haplotypes, just as Brown-Norway (BN) rats which are susceptible to develop Th2-dependent autoimmunity induced by metals. Immunological evidence from all the seroepidemiological studies could also be explained by binding mechanism of the methyl mercury to the SH-groups from the cysteines in the desmosomal cadherins proteins. The conclusion is that chronic methyl mercury poisoning is the most likely trigger of endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem". To reduce the contamination of methyl mercury in the animals of the polluted rivers is pertinent to the design of campaigns and education programs with the population. Implement reforestation and biological control measures like phytoremediation technologies using decontaminant plants to decrease the methylation, and the process of biomagnifications of the methyl mercury in the Latin-America EPF foci. PMID:22000710

Robledo, Mary Ann



Hepatic Microcirculatory Changes in Acute and Chronic Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning in Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the hepatic microvasculature was carried out in the course of prolonged carbon tetrachloride poisoning, utilizing a silicone rubber perfusion technique. Consistent and rather selective damage was confined to central veins and centrilobular sinu...

T. Hase




EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory chronic toxicity test in which bluntnose minnows were exposed to copper in laboratory dilution water with a hardness of 200 mg/L as CaCO3 indicated that copper adversely affected fry survival, fry growth, and reproduction. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...


Impact of chronic lead poisoning on the hematological and biochemical profiles of a fish, Barbus conchonius (Ham)  

SciTech Connect

The contamination of natural waters by lead is mostly caused by a variety of anthropogenic activities related to increased mining operations and industrial uses of this metal. Adverse effects of lead poisoning in the fishes have been reported with references to both hematological and biochemical variables. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of chronically administered sublethal levels of inorganic lead on the hematological and biochemical profiles of widely distributed freshwater fish, Barbus conchonius. The variables such as erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, blood glucose, glycogen in liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, and cholesterol in blood, liver, ovary, and testes were evaluated.

Tewari, H.; Gill, S.T.; Pant, J.



Copper storage disease of the liver and chronic dietary copper intoxication in two further German infants mimicking Indian childhood cirrhosis.  


A severe copper storage disease of the liver with micronodular cirrhosis resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) was found in two siblings of a German family leading to death in one infant at the age of 13 months. The fatal outcome correlated with severe ballooning of hepatocytes and excessive formation of Mallory bodies. The copper content of the liver was 698 micrograms per gramme wet weight (control 5 micrograms) in the living patient and 2154 micrograms per gramme dry weight (controls 39, 54 micrograms) in the dead infant. In both cases copper was stored not only in hepatocytes but also to a high degree in mesenchymal cells. Chronic contamination of drinking water supplied from a well via copper pipes could be verified as the cause of copper intoxication, lending further support to ICC as an environmental, acquired disorder. Accumulation of exogenic copper already very early in infancy appears most important for the development of the disease, as both the parents and one child not exposed to copper intoxication during the first 9 months of its life are clinically healthy. PMID:3362750

Müller-Höcker, J; Meyer, U; Wiebecke, B; Hübner, G; Eife, R; Kellner, M; Schramel, P



Bioaccumulation and hepatic speciation of copper in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during chronic waterborne copper exposure.  


To protect cells from toxicity, metal-sensitive cellular compartments must be insulated against essential but toxic metals [such as copper (Cu)] accumulated in excess of metabolic requirements. We measured Cu concentrations at the organ and hepatic subcellular levels in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during exposure to sublethal waterborne Cu (40 microg/L) for 21 days. There was a time-dependent accumulation of Cu in the gill, liver, plasma, and carcass, with significant difference in Cu-exposed fish relative to the controls being evident by day 7. This significant accumulation of Cu was not associated with impaired growth. Copper concentrations in purity-tested liver subcellular fractions normalized to the liver protein concentration were in decreasing order: organelles > heat-stable proteins > nuclei-debris > NaOH-resistant granules > heat-labile proteins. As a proportion of the total, the majority of the hepatocellular Cu burden (60-68%) was associated with a metabolically active pool (organelles, nuclei-debris, and heat-stable proteins) and the remainder (32-40%) was associated with a metabolically detoxified pool (heat-stable proteins and NaOH-resistant granules) irrespective of the Cu-exposure regime. Because Cu concurrently accumulated in metabolically active and detoxified pools, we conclude that the spillover hypothesis of metal toxicity did not hold under the exposure conditions employed in this study. Moreover, these data suggest that rainbow trout can withstand significant above-background Cu accumulation in hepatic putative metal-sensitive compartments without chronic toxic effects at the organism level. PMID:17882469

Kamunde, Collins; MacPhail, Ruth



Food Poisoning  


... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...


Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria  

SciTech Connect

Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.



Chronic toxicity of dietary copper to Daphnia magna.  


There is a growing concern that dietborne metal toxicity might be important in aquatic ecosystems. However, the science behind this matter is insufficiently developed to explicitly and accurately account for this in metal regulation or risk assessment. We investigated the effects of a chronic exposure of Daphnia magna to an elevated level of Cu (3000 microg Cu/g dry wt) in their diet (the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Compared to daphnids fed with P. subcapitata containing a background of 10.6 microg Cu/g dry wt, daphnids fed for 21 days with this Cu-contaminated food accumulated a total copper body burden of 325 microg Cu/g dry wt, which is about 30-fold higher than the control body burden of 12.1 microg/g dry wt. The exposed daphnids experienced a 38% reduction of growth (measured as final dry body weight), a 50% reduction of reproduction (total number of juveniles produced per daphnid), and only produced three broods versus four broods by the control daphnids. Unlike most other studies, we were able to demonstrate that these effects were most likely not due to a reduced nutritional quality of the food, based on C:P ratios and fatty acid content and composition of the Cu-contaminated algae. Life-history analysis showed that time to first brood was not affected by dietary Cu, while the second and third broods were significantly delayed by 0.7 and 1.5 days, respectively. On the other hand, brood sizes of all three broods were significantly lower in Cu exposed daphnids, i.e. by 32-55%. The variety of effects observed suggest the possible, and perhaps simultaneous, involvement of several toxicity mechanisms such as increased metabolic cost, reduced energy acquisition (potentially via inhibition of digestive enzyme activity), targeted inhibition of reproduction (potentially via inhibition of vitellogenesis), and/or direct inhibition of molting. Further research is needed to differentiate between these postulated mechanisms of dietary Cu toxicity and to determine whether they act separately or in concert. PMID:17316837

De Schamphelaere, K A C; Forrez, I; Dierckens, K; Sorgeloos, P; Janssen, C R



Effects of chronic dietary copper exposure on growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna.  


A matter of current, intense debate with regard to the effects of metals on biological systems is the potential toxicity of metals associated with food particles. Recently developed biotic ligand models (BLM), which predict the toxicity of waterborne metals, may not be valid if the dietary exposure route contributes to metal toxicity. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first that investigates the potential toxicity of dietary copper to a freshwater invertebrate (i.e., Daphnia magna) feeding on a live diet (i.e., the green alga Pseudokircheneriella subcapitata). Algae were exposed for 3 d to different copper concentrations, resulting in algal copper burdens between approximately 6.2 X 10(-16) and 250 x 10(-16) g cell(-1). These algae were then used as food in chronic, 21-d D. magna toxicity tests in which growth, reproduction, and copper accumulation were assessed. Three exposure scenarios were tested: A waterborne exposure, a dietary exposure, and a combined waterborne and dietary exposure. Although exposure to dietary copper resulted in an increased copper body burden of the adult daphnids, it did not contribute to toxicity and did not affect the 21-d effect concentrations expressed as waterborne copper, indicating that the previously established good predictive capacity of the chronic D. magna BLM is not affected. On the contrary, exposure to the highest dietary copper levels resulted in an increase of as much as 75% in growth and reproduction. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that dietary copper exposure of a freshwater invertebrate feeding on a live diet resulted in a beneficial effect. PMID:15352495

De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Janssen, Colin R



Biochemical, histological, and memory impairment effects of chronic copper toxicity: a model for non-Wilsonian brain copper toxicosis in Wistar rat.  


Animal models of copper toxicosis rarely exhibit neurological impairments and increased brain copper accumulation impeding the development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat neurodegenerative diseases having high brain Cu content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper and zinc levels in the liver and hippocampus, on biochemical parameters, and on neurobehavioral functions (by Morris water maze) of male Wistar rats. Copper-administered animals exhibited significantly decreased serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and impaired neuromuscular coordination and spatial memory compared to control rats. Copper-intoxicated rats showed significant increase in liver and hippocampus copper content (99.1 and 73 % increase, respectively), 40.7 % reduction in hepatic zinc content, and interestingly, 77.1 % increase in hippocampus zinc content with concomitant increase in copper and zinc levels in serum and urine compared to control rats. Massive grade 4 copper depositions and grade 1 copper-associated protein in hepatocytes of copper-intoxicated rats were substantiated by rhodanine and orcein stains, respectively. Copper-intoxicated rats demonstrated swelling and increase in the number of astrocytes and copper deposition in the choroid plexus, with degenerated neurons showing pyknotic nuclei and dense eosinophilic cytoplasm. In conclusion, the present study shows the first evidence in vivo that chronic copper toxicity causes impaired spatial memory and neuromuscular coordination, swelling of astrocytes, decreased serum AChE activity, copper deposition in the choroid plexus, neuronal degeneration, and augmented levels of copper and zinc in the hippocampus of male Wistar rats. PMID:23613148

Pal, Amit; Badyal, Rama Kumari; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Attri, Savita Verma; Thapa, Babu Ram; Prasad, Rajendra



Selenium effects on antennal integrity and chronic copper toxicity in Daphnia pulex (deGeer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is obviously important in aquatic toxicological research to maintain experimental animals in chemically defined test media which are both physiologically compatible to the experimental organism and similar to natural waters, such media have not yet been developed for daphnids. Currently, the author has been using reconstituted waters containing only four or five salts in chronic copper toxicity tests

Robert W. Winner



Intracellular Copper Accumulation Enhances the Growth of Kineococcus radiotolerans during Chronic Irradiation?  

PubMed Central

The actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress, though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of six different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased colony formation during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper, compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute-irradiation-induced DNA damage levels were similar in the copper-loaded culture and the age-synchronized no-copper control culture, though low-molecular-weight DNA was more persistent during postirradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 2 h between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a low-radioactivity environment, K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging effects of ionizing radiation.

Bagwell, C. E.; Milliken, C. E.; Ghoshroy, S.; Blom, D. A.




SciTech Connect

The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C



Role of phospholipids in destabilization of lysosomal membranes in chronic alcohol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this investigation was to study changes in the phospholipids (PL) spectrum and possible activity of membrane-bound phospholipase A/sub 2/ in lysosomal membranes from albino rat liver under conditions of the normally metabolizing tissue and during long-term alcohol poisoning. Changes in stability of the lysosomal membranes were determined by measuring nonsedimented acid phosphatase (AP) activity. The substance 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (/sup 14/C-PCh) was synthesized by an enzymic method. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity was determined in an incubation medium of Tris-Maleate buffer containing 20 nanomoles (/sup 14/C)-PCH, 8 mM CaC1/sub 2/, and about 100 micrograms protein.

Tadevosyan, Y.V.; Batikyan, T.B.; Gevorkyan, G.A.; Karagezyan, K.G.



Outbreak of chronic arsenic poisoning among retired workers from an arsenic mine in Japan.  

PubMed Central

Retired former workers of Matsuo Arsenic Mine of Miyazaki prefecture in Japan were subjected to extensive medical examination. The number of retired workers subjected to examination were 61 of 208 workers who were engaged in the works of the mine and were tracked down by the work rolls. These workers left the mine more than 15 years prior to the time of the examination. The main works in the mine were classified as mining, dressing of ores, refining, and clerical work. Several findings such as arsenodermatitis, depigmentation, performation of nasal septum, hyposmia, anosmia, and peripheral nervous disturbance attributed to exposure to arsenic were observed in 9 of 21 roasters who often worked in the arsenic kitchen. No characteristic findings of arsenic poisoning, that is, gastrointestinal disturbance, disorder of the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic disorders, or liver disturbance were observed in the retired workers. Another notable finding was that 8 cases diagnosed as pneumoconiosis were found in 18 miners.

Ishinishi, N; Kodama, Y; Nobutomo, K; Inamasu, T; Kunitake, E; Suenaga, Y





... form. Copper is often added to vitamin and mineral supplements. But most people are able to get ... arthritis. Today, many multivitamins and other herbal and mineral supplements include copper. What is the evidence? Copper ...


Cytochemical studies on the behaviour of thiamine pyrophosphatase, NADH 2 -tetrazolium reductase and acid phosphatase in the cerebellum of rabbits chronically poisoned with manganese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of these studies was the cerebellum of rabbits chronically poisoned with manganese. The following enzymes were investigated: Thiamine pyrophosphatase, Acid Phosphatase and NADH2-tetrazolium reductase. The authors observed the increase of acid phosphatase activity and the decrease of TPP-ase and NADH2-tetrazolium reductase activity in the cerebellum of experimental animals. Basing on the obtained results the authors suppose, that the

J. Jonek; Z. Olkowski; G. Jonderko



Chronic toxicity of dietary copper to Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern that dietborne metal toxicity might be important in aquatic ecosystems. However, the science behind this matter is insufficiently developed to explicitly and accurately account for this in metal regulation or risk assessment. We investigated the effects of a chronic exposure of Daphnia magna to an elevated level of Cu (3000?g Cu\\/g dry wt) in their

K. A. C. De Schamphelaere; I. Forrez; K. Dierckens; P. Sorgeloos; C. R. Janssen



Feeding of Ferrets with the Raw Meat and Liver of Chickens Chronically Poisoned with Toxic Groundnut Meal  

PubMed Central

Chickens were fed a ration containing 30 per cent of toxic groundnut meal for up to six weeks. The concentration of aflatoxin (toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus) in the above ration was 3.06 p.p.m. At the end of 2nd, 4th or 6th week the birds were killed. The meat was removed from the bones and put through a meat grinder. The livers of three groups were pooled together. Three control groups of birds kept on commercial pellets were treated similarly. Female ferrets, two years of age, were used in the present study. They were divided into four groups. The first three groups were given for one month meat from chickens fed the toxic ration for 2, 4, and 6 weeks, respectively. Each of these three groups contained one control ferret that was fed with the meat of chickens fed a commercial ration for a similar period of time. One half of the 4th group was fed pooled liver from intoxicated birds and one half was fed liver from control birds. No significant changes in the ferret tissues were observed as a consequence of feeding them with the meat or liver from the chickens chronically poisoned with toxic groundnut meal.

Platonow, N.; Beauregard, M.



The effects of chronic copper exposure on the amyloid protein metabolisim associated genes' expression in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats.  


The pathogens of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still unclear, while accumulating evidences have indicated that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Recent studies suggest that AD is primarily a vascular disorder and copper (Cu) may play an important role in AD pathology. However, the consequences of chronic Cu exposure at the presence of other AD risk factors remain to be clarified. To investigate the effects of chronic Cu intake on cerebral hypoperfusion-induced AD pathology, Sprague-Dawley rats suffered bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) were administrated with 250 ppm copper-containing water or not. Morris water maze test showed that Cu exposure for 3 months exacerbated cognitive impairment induced by 2VO. Elevated amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression in mRNA and protein levels were also observed in brain of Cu-exposed rats suffered 2VO. In contrast, these Cu-exacerbated changes were ameliorated after Cu was withdrawn from drinking water. In summary, our findings demonstrate that chronic Cu exposure might exacerbate AD pathology in 2VO rats. PMID:22542740

Mao, Xuexuan; Ye, Jiantao; Zhou, Shiyou; Pi, Rongbiao; Dou, Juan; Zang, Linquan; Chen, Xiaohong; Chao, Xiaojuan; Li, Wenming; Liu, Mengfei; Liu, Peiqing



Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex  

SciTech Connect

Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

Flickinger, A.L.



Ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation using copper manganese oxide catalysts: Effect of residual Na + acting as catalyst poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ageing of copper manganese oxide catalysts prepared by co-precipitation is described and discussed. In particular, the ageing leads to a significant decrease in the concentration of surface sodium and this correlates with the catalytic activity for the oxidation of carbon monoxide at the extended ageing time.

Ali A Mirzaei; Hamid R Shaterian; Richard W Joyner; Michael Stockenhuber; Stuart H Taylor; Graham J Hutchings



Cyanide poisoning.  


In recent years, the increasing use of laetrile has been added to the traditional sources of exposure to cyanide in industry, chemistry labs, and fumigation. The events in Jonestown in 1978 were a grim reminder of the lethality of cyanide. Nonetheless, advancement in new modes of treatment has been slow. The traditional method of treatment used in the United States is effective, but not without its own morbidity and mortality. Using two case reports as models, we review here the topic of cyanide poisoning including sources of exposure, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of both acute and chronic exposure, and modes of treatment. Although there is currently no accepted alternate treatment in this country, review of the literature shows promise in other modalities being investigated in Europe, including hydroxocobalamin, cobalt salts, and particularly aminophenols. PMID:7016420

Vogel, S N; Sultan, T R; Ten Eyck, R P



Food poisoning  


... proper temperature or are not reheated properly Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have ... poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly ...


Malathion poisoning  


... Fluids through a vein (IV) Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison Tube through the ... usually recover. Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning, including intensive care hospitalization and long- ...


Mechanism of Suppression of Phagocytic and Metabolic Activity of Neutrophils and Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines during Chronic Poisoning with Organophosphorus Compounds.  


Experiments on albino outbred rats showed that chronic poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (Russian VX, and sarin) for 30 days in a total dose of 0.3 DL50 (0.01 DL50 daily) is followed by a decrease in phagocytic and metabolic activity of neutrophils. The reduction of functional activity of monocyte phagocytic system was stipulated by the stimulation of N-cholinergic receptors of these cells. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in blood concentration of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6). PMID:24143369

Zabrodskii, P F; Grishin, V A; Borodavko, V K



[Chronic Beryllium disease after exposure to low-beryllium-content copper].  


A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of exertional dyspnea and abnormal shadows on chest X-ray film. He worked in a factory, where he was exposed to 1.8% beryllium-copper alloys. His job was to draw out heated beryllium-copper wire to make it more fine. Chest X-ray film and chest CT scan showed left-sided pneumothorax, diffuse fine reticulonodular shadows, and several cysts. Pulmonary-function tests showed a restrictive disorder and a low diffusing capacity. A specimen obtained by open-lung biopsy showed epithelioid cell granuloma and alveolitis, which were compatible with chronic beryllium disease. The beryllium content of the lung tissue was 0.045 microgram/gram. Beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests on blood and on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. Based on these findings, chronic beryllium disease was diagnosed. After treatment with 1 mg/kg of prednisolone daily, dyspnea disappeared. Then the dose was tapered slowly. In Japan, chronic beryllium disease is extremely rare, and to our knowledge only 22 other cases have been reported. PMID:8544383

Hasejima, N; Kobayashi, H; Takezawa, S; Yamato, K; Kadoyama, C; Kawano, Y



Photographic fixative poisoning  


Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to ...



Microsoft Academic Search

As an introduction to a discussion of the therapy of radiation ; poisoning, damaging radiations, measurement units, and the pathological and ; physiological bases of radiation injury are discussed. The acute radiation ; syndrome is described and chronic radiation damage is considered. The general ; treatment is then indicated. (J.S.R.);




Recurrent neonatal organophoshorus poisoning.  


Organophosphorus poisoning in neonates is extremely rare and needs high index of suspicion to diagnose it. The clinical presentation is often confused with the features of sepsis like apnea, copious oral secretions, diarrhea, letharginess, seizures. There may be recurrence of manifestations due to chronic exposure. We report a classic case admitted in the intensive care unit of our hospital. PMID:23024082

Parvez, Yusuf; Mathew, Aji; Kutti, Satheesh Kalantra



Stonefish poisoning.  


Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

Lyon, Richard Mark



Carbolic acid poisoning  


Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...


Poison ivy - oak - sumac  


Poison ivy , oak, or sumac poisoning is an allergic reaction that results from touching the sap of these ... Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac Note: This list ...


Problems of chronic manganese poisoning on the basis of investigations of workers at a manganese alloy foundry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 46 persons among 119 workers at a foundry producing manganese alloy, manganese levels of over 20 µg% were found in the blood without marked objective symptoms of manganese poisoning. Comparison with a control group showed differences in magnesium and calcium levels, AlAT, AspAT, LDH, LAP activities, albumin, a1- and ?-globulin, bilirubin, cholesterol levels in serum and hemoglobin and reduced

G. Jonderko; A. Kujawska; H. Langauer-Lewowicka



Effects of diet, water hardness, and population source on acute and chronic copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diet, water hardness, and population source on acute toxicity, and diet and water hardness on chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) toCeriodaphnia dubia were evaluated. A diet of three algae (Chlamydomonas rheinhardti, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and Chlorella vulgaris, hereafter referred to as CAC) cultured in vitaminenriched media was superior to synthetic diets consisting of yeast, Cerophyll, and trout chow

Scott E. Belanger; Jerry L. Farris; Donald S. Cherry



Marked tachypnea in siblings with chronic beryllium disease due to copper-beryllium alloy.  


Two biological sisters working at the same factory for > 9 years developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD) from a copper-beryllium alloy. Both had marked tachypnea (36 breaths/min and 45 breaths/min at rest, respectively), persisting over 8 years. Ventilation during exercise (assessed in one sibling) was grossly excessive (57 L/min, expected 23 L/min) with a respiratory rate of 64 breaths/min even with normal baseline routine pulmonary function tests. Blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation test and lung biopsies confirmed the diagnosis. No other cases of CBD have been reported from this plant among about 120 workers. These cases support the genetic basis for berylliosis and illustrate the marked tachypnea that may accompany this disease. PMID:11171753

Tarlo, S M; Rhee, K; Powell, E; Amer, E; Newman, L; Liss, G; Jones, N



Evaluation of lead, zinc, and copper excretion in chronic moonshine drinkers.  


To assess the usefulness of various routine and inexpensive tests widely used in the detection of an increased body lead load, the whole blood lead value, the 24-hour urinary excretion of lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid (DALA) and coproporphyrin, the presence of basophilic stippling and the whole blood osmotic fragility test were compared to a 24-hour urinary lead excretion after a calcium disodium edetate (EDTA) mobilization test in 20 chronic moonshine drinkers. Of these tests, only urinary lead excretion after EDTA mobilization was a sensitive indicator of excessive body burden, though a reference value of 650 micrograms urine lead excretion per 24 hours may have excluded some patients with increased lead loads. The reason for increased zinc and copper excretion before and after EDTA mobilization is not known but raises the possibility of their concomitant contamination of moonshine whiskey. PMID:6771874

Havelda, C J; Sohi, G S; Richardson, C E



Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994–2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci



Refrigerant poisoning  


A refrigerant is a chemical that makes things cold. This article discusses poisoning from sniffing or swallowing such chemicals. ... occurs when people intentionally sniff a type of refrigerant called freon. This is for information only and ...


Mushroom Poisoning  


... if vomiting has not already occurred. The person's temperature, heart rate and blood pressure will be checked. He or she will be watched closely for severe symptoms and complications due to mushroom poisoning. In severe cases that are caused by ...


Benzene poisoning  


Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...


Serum copper, zinc, and magnesium levels in patients with chronic fluorosis.  


Although there are many studies on effect of fluoride on trace elements in experimental animals, few studies exist on serum trace elements levels in patients with endemic fluorosis. We aimed to determine the serum levels of trace elements including serum copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and serum levels of minerals including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K) in patients with endemic fluorosis. The study group consisted of 30 patients with endemic fluorosis (17 females, 13 males, mean age 33.53±9.85 years). An age, gender, and body mass index matched 30 healthy volunteers comprised control group (21 females, ten males with a mean age 33.93±7.39 years). Urine fluoride levels of chronic fluorosis patients were significantly higher than that of control subjects as expected (1.92±0.10 mg/l vs. 0.41±0.09 mg/l, respectively; P<0.001). Serum Cu levels (89.14±16.77 ?g/dL vs. 102.69±25.04 ?g/dL, respectively, P=0.017), serum Zn levels (77.98±20.58 ?g/dL vs. 94.57±35.87?g/dL, respectively, P=0.032), and serum Mg levels (1.92±0.18 mg/dL vs. 2.07±0.31 mg/dL, respectively, p=0.022) was significantly lower in chronic fluorosis patients than in controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the fluorosis group and control group with respect to serum levels of Na, K, Ca, and P. We concluded that chronic fluorosis is associated with reduced serum levels of Cu, Zn, and Mg. PMID:21080101

Ersoy, Ismail Hakki; Koroglu, Banu Kale; Varol, Simge; Ersoy, Siddika; Varol, Ercan; Aylak, Firdevs; Tamer, Mehmet Numan



Poisoning - fish and shellfish  


Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...


Association of genetic polymorphisms in ERCC1 and ERCC2/XPD with risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population.  


DNA damage induced by benzene and its metabolites is thought of as an important mechanism underlying benzene genotoxicity in chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Therefore, genetic variation in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to CBP in the exposed population. Since benzene-induced DNA damages include DNA adducts, we hypothesized that the polymorphisms of ERCC1 (Excision repair cross complementation group 1) and ERCC2/XPD (Excision repair cross complementation group 2/xeroderma pigmentosum group D) are associated with the risk of CBP. A case-control study involving 102 benzene-poisoned patients and 204 none-benzene-poisoned controls occupationally exposed to benzene was carried out in the Northeast region of China. The polymorphisms of codon 118 (rs11615) and C8092A (rs3212986) of ERCC1, codon 751 (rs13181), 312 (rs1799793) and 156 (rs238406) of ERCC2/XPD were genotyped by TaqMan(®) Real-time PCR. The results showed that individuals carrying the ERCC1 codon 118 TT genotype had an increased risk of CBP (OR(adj)=3.390; 95%CI: 1.393-8.253; P=0.007) comparing with its CC genotype. After stratified by smoking, gender and exposure duration we found that the increased risk of CBP associated with the ERCC1 codon 118 TT genotype confined to nonsmokers (OR=3.214; 95% CI: 1.359-7.601; P=0.006), female (OR=3.049; 95% CI: 1.235-7.529; P=0.013) and exposure duration> 12 years (OR=3.750; 95% CI: 1.041-13.513; P=0.035). Since ERCC1 and ERCC2/XPD are both located on chromosome 19q13.3, haplotype analysis of all 5 SNPs was also conducted. However no correlations between the risks of CBP and other genotypes or haplotypes were found. Therefore, our findings suggest an important role of ERCC1 codon 118 polymorphisms for a biomarker to CBP in the Chinese occupational population. PMID:23147699

Xiao, Sha; Gao, Lin; Liu, Yanhua; Yu, Tao; Jin, Cuihong; Pan, Liang; Zhu, Guolian; Lu, Xiaobo



Epidemiological investigation on chronic copper toxicity to children exposed via the public drinking water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper in drinking water has been associated with Non-Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NICC), a form of early childhood liver cirrhosis. This epidemiological study examines the exposition of infants to increased copper concentrations through drinking water from public water supplies in Berlin, Germany, and if this dietary copper intake can cause liver damage in early childhood. In total, water samples from 2944

Björn P. Zietz; Hermann H. Dieter; Max Lakomek; Heide Schneider; Barabara Keßler-Gaedtke; Hartmut Dunkelberg



Comparison of the lethality of lead and copper bullets in deer control operations to reduce incidental lead poisoning; field trials in England and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Legislative controls on the use of lead gunshot ove r wetland areas have been introduced in many countries, including the UK, in order to reduce lea d poisoning in waterfowl following ingestion of spent shot. Effective alternatives to lead shot are widely available. However, there is evidence that the problem also affects wildlife in terrestrial ecosys tems and that

Jeff Knott; Jo Gilbert; Rhys E. Green; David G. Hoccom


Scombroid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table.

Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.



Pentachlorophenol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.



Electron microscopic studies concerning the structural mechanism of the development of mental disturbance in experimental chronic methamphetamine poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 8 male albino strain guinea pigs, 1 mg\\/kg of methamphetamine HCl was injected daily for 7 months to 1 year to produce chronic methamphetamine intoxication and to study the fine structure of the brain electron microscopically. The following results were obtained:1.Coalescence of membranes, between axons at the nerve endings and between axons and dendrites, was found in the cortex

Taihei Miyakawa; SHIRO SUMIYOSI-II; Motonori Deshimaru; Eiichi Murayama; Seijun Tatetsu



Lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

Rekus, J.F.




PubMed Central

A fatal case of poisoning with phosphamidon, a recently developed organophosphate insecticide, is described. A second, probable case of mild phosphamidon poisoning is also reported. The clinical picture in both cases resembled that seen in poisoning with other organophosphate compounds. The first patient was an 18-year-old girl who had swallowed about 50 ml. of a 50% solution of phosphamidon and developed jaundice, bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary oedema. She died on the sixth day in hospital despite prolonged respiratory support and treatment with massive doses of atropine, PAM, and antibiotics. Post-mortem examination revealed a fatty liver, congestion of the internal organs, and brain damage of the type seen in anoxia. The second patient was a 50-year-old agricultural worker, who was engaged in uprooting and cutting shrubs which had been sprayed two weeks earlier with phosphamidon. He was admitted to hospital in a state of confusion and recovered within several hours. The importance of securing a free airway and of artificial ventilation as first-aid measures in organophosphate poisoning is stressed, and the value of early massive dosage of PAM is emphasized.

Gitelson, S.; Davidson, J. T.; Werczberger, A.



Lead Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has been mined and worked by men for millenniums. Its ductility, high resistance to erosion and other properties make it one of the most useful of metals. The inappropriate use of lead has, however, resulted in outbreaks of lead poisoning in humans from time to time since antiquity. The disease, which is sometimes called plumbism (from the Latin word

J. Julian Chisolm; J. J. Jr



Methanol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol ingestion is an uncommon form of poisoning that can cause severe metabolic disturbances, blindness, permanent neurologic dysfunction and death. While methanol itself may be harmless, it is converted in vivo to the highly toxic formic acid. The diagnosis is sometimes elusive and requires a high index of suspicion. Because antidotal treatment is available it is important to recognize methanol

J. A. Kruse



Plant-derived human acetylcholinesterase-R provides protection from lethal organophosphate poisoning and its chronic aftermath.  


Therapeutically valuable proteins are often rare and/or unstable in their natural context, calling for production solutions in heterologous systems. A relevant example is that of the stress-induced, normally rare, and naturally unstable "read-through" human acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R. AChE-R shares its active site with the synaptic AChE-S variant, which is the target of poisonous organophosphate anticholinesterase insecticides such as the parathion metabolite paraoxon. Inherent AChE-R overproduction under organophosphate intoxication confers both short-term protection (as a bioscavenger) and long-term neuromuscular damages (as a regulator). Here we report the purification, characterization, and testing of human, endoplasmic reticulum-retained AChE-R(ER) produced from plant-optimized cDNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. AChE-R(ER) purified to homogeneity showed indistinguishable biochemical properties, with IC50 = 10(-7) M for the organophosphate paraoxon, similar to mammalian cell culture-derived AChE. In vivo titration showed dose-dependent protection by intravenously injected AChE-R(ER) of FVB/N male mice challenged with a lethal dose of paraoxon, with complete elimination of short-term clinical symptoms at near molar equivalence. By 10 days postexposure, AChE-R prophylaxis markedly limited postexposure increases in plasma murine AChE-R levels while minimizing the organophosphate-induced neuromuscular junction dismorphology. Our findings present plant-produced AChE-R(ER) as a bimodal agent, conferring both short- and long-term protection from organophosphate intoxication. PMID:17475919

Evron, Tama; Geyer, Brian C; Cherni, Irene; Muralidharan, Mrinalini; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Fletcher, Samuel P; Soreq, Hermona; Mor, Tsafrir S



Copper and zinc dismetabolism in the mouse brain upon chronic cuprizone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports describe successful treatment using copper chelation therapy in neurodegenerative animal models. However, the success claimed for chelation therapy in neurodegenerative diseases is still rather controversial. To acquire new information on copper metabolism\\/homeostasis, we utilized cuprizone, a very sensitive and selective copper-chelating agent with well-known neurotoxic properties, as a relevant chemical model in mice. Upon cuprizone treatment, mice developed

P. Zatta; M. Raso; P. Zambenedetti; W. Wittkowski; L. Messori; F. Piccioli; P. L. Mauri; M. Beltramini



COMMD1-Deficient Dogs Accumulate Copper in Hepatocytes and Provide a Good Model for Chronic Hepatitis and Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

New therapeutic concepts developed in rodent models should ideally be evaluated in large animal models prior to human clinical application. COMMD1-deficiency in dogs leads to hepatic copper accumulation and chronic hepatitis representing a Wilson’s disease like phenotype. Detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and time course of this animal model is required to test its feasibility as a large animal model for chronic hepatitis. In addition to mouse models, true longitudinal studies are possible due to the size of these dogs permitting detailed analysis of the sequence of events from initial insult to final cirrhosis. Therefore, liver biopsies were taken each half year from five new born COMMD1-deficient dogs over a period of 42 months. Biopsies were used for H&E, reticulin, and rubeanic acid (copper) staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker (alpha-smooth muscle actin, ?-SMA), proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (caspase-3), and bile duct and liver progenitor cell (LPC) markers keratin (K) 19 and 7. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blots were performed on gene products involved in the regenerative and fibrotic pathways. Maximum copper accumulation was reached at 12 months of age, which coincided with the first signs of hepatitis. HSCs were activated (?-SMA) from 18 months onwards, with increasing reticulin deposition and hepatocytic proliferation in later stages. Hepatitis and caspase-3 activity (first noticed at 18 months) increased over time. Both HGF and TGF-?1 gene expression peaked at 24 months, and thereafter decreased gradually. Both STAT3 and c-MET showed an increased time-dependent activation. Smad2/3 phosphorylation, indicative for fibrogenesis, was present at all time-points. COMMD1-deficient dogs develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis comparable to human chronic hepatitis, although at much higher pace. Therefore they represent a genetically-defined large animal model to test clinical applicability of new therapeutics developed in rodent models.

Favier, Robert P.; Spee, Bart; Schotanus, Baukje A.; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Fieten, Hille; Brinkhof, Bas; Viebahn, Cornelia S.; Penning, Louis C.; Rothuizen, Jan



Decreased topoisomerase II? expression and altered histone and regulatory factors of topoisomerase II? promoter in patients with chronic benzene poisoning.  


Topoisomerase II? (Topo II?) has been implicated in the benzene-induced hemotoxicity in vitro. This study was to examine the effect of in vivo chronic benzene exposure on Topo II? in human bone marrow mononuclear cells, and to further explore the mechanism underlying decreased Topo II? expression in patients with chronic benzene exposure. Topo II? activity, expression, and mRNA level assessed by DNA cleavage/relaxation assay, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR, decreased in patients with benzene exposure. These changes were accompanied by reduced histone H4 and H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation, and increased H3K9 methylation in the Topo II? promoter, which were evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. In addition, there were alterations in mRNA levels of Topo II? promoter regulatory factors such as SP1, ATF-2, SP3, NF-YA, NF-M, P53, C-MYB, C-JUN, and ICBP90. Our results demonstrate that Topo II? expression was reduced in patients with chronic benzene exposure, which was accompanied by alterations in histone acetylation and methylation and regulatory factor mRNA levels of Topo II? promoter. PMID:21382456

Yu, Kang; Shi, Yi-Fen; Yang, Kai-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Zhu, Rong-He; Xu, Xi; Cai, Guoping



Epidemiological investigation on chronic copper toxicity to children exposed via the public drinking water supply.  


Copper in drinking water has been associated with Non-Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NICC), a form of early childhood liver cirrhosis. This epidemiological study examines the exposition of infants to increased copper concentrations through drinking water from public water supplies in Berlin, Germany, and if this dietary copper intake can cause liver damage in early childhood. In total, water samples from 2944 households with infants were tested for copper. Mean copper concentrations in the two different types of collected composite samples were 0.44 and 0.56 mg/l, respectively. Families having a copper concentration at or above 0.8 mg/l in one or both of the composite samples (29.9% of all sampled households) and a defined minimum ingestion of tap water of their infant were recommended to undergo a paediatric examination. Nearly every of the 541 recommended infants were examined by a local paediatrician and of these 183 received a blood serum analysis, too. None of the infants had clear signs of a liver disease although a few serum parameters lay outside the accompanying reference range and abdominal ultrasound imaging gave slightly unusual results in five cases. Additionally, no signs of a negative health effect could be found in the statistical analysis of the serum parameters GOT, GPT, GGT, total bilirubin, serum copper, or ceruloplasmin in relation to estimated daily and total copper intakes of the infants from tap water. No dose relation of serum parameters and estimated copper intakes could be established. From the results of the study, no confirmed indication of a liver malfunction in infants whose food had been prepared using tap water with an elevated copper concentration could be found and, therefore, no indication of a hazard due to copper pipes connected to public water supplies could be detected. PMID:12526904

Zietz, Björn P; Dieter, Hermann H; Lakomek, Max; Schneider, Heide; Kessler-Gaedtke, Barabara; Dunkelberg, Hartmut



Paraphenylenediamine poisoning.  


Hair dye containing paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in India because of its free availability and low cost. PPD produces local as well as systemic toxic effects when applied topically and/or ingested. It is highly toxic when taken by mouth and the outcome depends mainly on the dose taken. Important clinical manifestations are angioedema leading to dysphasia and respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure and hepatic necrosis. Myocarditis or fatal arrhythmia may also occur in PPD poisoning. Mainstay of management is early recognition and supportive measures as there is no specific antidote. We hereby report a young female who presented to us with features of angioedema, cardiac manifestation and hepatic dysfunction after ingesting PPD, which was treated successfully. In the absence of laboratory facilities, clinical features like angioedema and chocolate brown-colored urine could be suggestive of PPD poisoning. PMID:23563473

Chaudhary, S C; Sawlani, K K; Singh, K


Arsine poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hocken, A. G., and Bradshaw, G. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 56-60. Arsine poisoning. A case of acute arsine poisoning is described, occurring in an industrial metallurgy worker. The clinical course was of associated oliguric renal failure with acute haemolytic anaemia which was self-limiting but accompanied by marked non-thrombotic phlebitis. There was minor hepatocellular damage. Skin pigmentation was disproportionate to the elevation of serum bilirubin. Transient initial pulmonary oedema was regarded as a local irritative phenomenon. All systems underwent complete recovery. Renal function in particular was explored in all modalities, and no abnormality could be found in glomerular filtration, concentrating power or acidification 12 months after exposure. There was no proteinuria. The clinical picture was of acute tubular necrosis, although interstitial fibrosis was present and its incomplete final resolution is possible. Contrary to the findings of other workers, no evidence was found of myocardial damage at any stage either clinically or electrocardiographically. Images

Hocken, A. G.; Bradshaw, G.



Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  


Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H



Solder poisoning  


Antimony Bismuth Cadmium Copper Ethylene glycol Lead Mild acids Silver Tin Zinc ... and kidney failure (itai-itai disease) Symptoms for bismuth: Diarrhea Eye irritation Gingivitis Kidney damage Metallic taste ...


Mercuric chloride poisoning  


Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...


Ink remover poisoning  


... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...


Chronic toxicity of copper to a partial life cycle of the midge, Chironomus decorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and hatchability ofChironomus decorus eggs were not affected by 0.1 to 5 mg\\/L of copper in water. The embryos developed normally and hatched at about the same time (after 55 hr of incubation). All larvae survived the duration of the test (72 hr) except those subjected to 5 mg\\/L of copper in water, which died after only partial

Prapimpan Kosalwat; Allen W. Knight



Chronic toxicity of copper to five benthic invertebrates in laboratory-formulated sediment: sensitivity comparison and preliminary risk assessment.  


Five benthic organisms commonly used for sediment toxicity testing were chronically (28 to 35 days) exposed to copper in standard laboratory-formulated sediment (following Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines) and lethal and sub-lethal toxicities were evaluated. Sub-lethal endpoints considered were reproduction and biomass production for Lumbriculus variegatus, growth and reproduction for Tubifex tubifex, growth and emergence for Chironomus riparius, and growth for Gammarus pulex and Hyalella azteca. Expressed on whole-sediment basis the observed lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive) was: G. pulex>L. variegatus>H. azteca=C. riparius=T. tubifex, with median chronic lethal concentrations (LC50) between 151 and 327 mg/kg dry wt. The sub-lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive, with the most sensitive endpoint between parentheses): C. riparius (emergence)>T. tubifex (reproduction)=L. variegatus (reproduction)>G. pulex (growth)>H. azteca (growth), with median effective concentrations (EC50) between 59.2 and 194 mg/kg dry wt. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) or 10% effective concentrations (EC10) for the five benthic invertebrates were used to perform a preliminary risk assessment for copper in freshwater sediment by means of (a) the "assessment factor approach" or (b) the statistical extrapolation approach (species sensitivity distribution). Depending on the data (NOEC or EC10) and the methodology used, we calculated a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for sediment between 3.3 and 47.1 mg Cu/dry wt. This range is similar to the range of natural (geochemical) background concentrations of copper in sediments in Europe, i.e. 90% of sediments have a concentration between 5 and 49 mg Cu/kg dry wt. A detailed analysis of the outcome of this preliminary exercise highlighted that multiple issues need to be explored for achieving a scientifically more sound risk assessment and for the development of robust sediment quality criteria for copper, including (i) the use of the assessment factor approach vs. the statistical extrapolation approach, (ii) the importance of bioavailability modifying factors (e.g., organic carbon, acid volatile sulfide), and (iii) the influence of prevailing geochemical (bioavailable) background concentrations on the copper sensitivity of local benthic biota. PMID:17631947

Roman, Yblin E; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Nguyen, Lien T H; Janssen, Colin R



House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

Keller, Rosanne


Scombroid poisoning: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used

James M. Hungerford



Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.


Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  


The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A



Lead poisoning in the world and Iran.  


Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran. PMID:23022790

Azizi, M H; Azizi, F



Early Histological and Functional Effects of Chronic Copper Exposure in Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu is an essential trace element capable of producing toxic effects in animals and man when ingested acutely or chronically\\u000a in excess. Although chronic Cu exposure is increasingly recognized as a public health issue, its early effects remain largely\\u000a unknown. We approached the significance of a moderate chronic Cu load in young rats to correlate early hepatic histopathological\\u000a changes with

Felipe A. Cisternas; Gladys Tapia; Miguel Arredondo; Denise Cartier-Ugarte; Pamela Romanque; Walter D. Sierralta; María T. Vial; Luis A. Videla; Magdalena Araya



Paraphenylene diamine poisoning  

PubMed Central

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss



Paraphenylene diamine poisoning.  


The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed. PMID:22701263

Prabhakaran, A C Jesudoss




EPA Science Inventory

The development and hatchability of Chironomus decorus eggs were not affected by 0.1 to 5 mg/L of copper in water. he embryos developed normally and hatched at about the same time (after 55 hr of incubation). ll larvae survived the duration of the test (72 hr) except those subjec...


Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.  


This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male rats were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulfate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five rats from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, diameter of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease than those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen about the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H



Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

Kirkpatrick, John N.



Influence of copper, iron, zinc and fe (3) (+) haemoglobin levels on the etiopathogenesis of chronic calcific pancreatitis--a study in patients with pancreatitis.  


Chronic pancreatitis is a serious condition associated with severe abdominal pain, and a significant percentage of patients progresses to irreversible calcification in pancreas. The present study evaluates the degree to which the levels of trace elements, copper, iron, selenium, zinc and haemoglobin-Fe(3+), in blood, serum and pancreas have any role to play in the calcification process associated with fibrosis in pancreas. Twenty-seven calcific (CCP) and 23 non-calcific chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients and equal number of age- and sex-matched normal volunteers (50) were enrolled in the study. Surgically removed pancreatic tissue and blood samples were analysed for copper, iron, selenium, zinc, protein, collagen and lipid peroxidation products in terms of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, glutathione, methemoglobin, methemoglobin reductase and ceruloplasmin activity levels. We could find that the pancreatic tissue levels of copper, iron, protein and collagen contents were significantly elevated in CCP patients when compared to CP patients. Serum levels of copper, free ionic copper and iron were also elevated in CCP patients. The serum and the pancreatic tissue level of zinc and selenium showed a significant decrease in CCP patients. The level of methemoglobin was elevated more significantly with the concomitant decline in the activity of methemoglobin reductase. There was a positive correlation between the pancreatic level of copper and iron with the collagen and protein levels. The results of the present study revealed that the levels of copper and iron, the pro-oxidants and zinc and selenium may influence calcification process in CCP patients. Hypoxia-related tissue injury due to the formation of oxidised haemoglobin may also contribute to the pathogenesis of calcification in pancreas. PMID:20809271

Arumugam, Geetha; Padmanaban, Monika; Krishnan, Dhanya; Panneerselvam, Saranya; Rajagopal, Surendran



Hair straightener poisoning  


Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows chemicals used to straighten hair. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...


Hydrochloric acid poisoning  


Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...


Bracken fern poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....


Calcium hydroxide poisoning  


... powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. Calcium hydroxide poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have ...


[Natural toxin poisoning].  


Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan. PMID:22894079

Tsunematsu, Satoshi



Paraphenylene diamine poisoning  

PubMed Central

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are discussed.

Prabhakaran, A. C. Jesudoss



Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.


Lead Poisoning: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is...

N. Gendel



Chronic ecotoxicity of copper and cadmium to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate ecological consequences of the long-term presence of metals in aquatic ecosystems, we investigated the filtration rate and survival of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during chronic exposure to Cu and Cd. The filtration rate was measured once a week in laboratory experiments lasting 9–11 weeks. The lowest Cu concentration tested (13 µg\\/L) did not affect the filtration

Michiel H. S. Kraak; Daphna Lavy; Wilma H. M. Peeters; C. Davids



Glyphosate poisoning.  


Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister



Influence of Copper, Iron, Zinc and Fe 3 + Haemoglobin Levels on the Etiopathogenesis of Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis—A Study in Patients with Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pancreatitis is a serious condition associated with severe abdominal pain, and a significant percentage of patients\\u000a progresses to irreversible calcification in pancreas. The present study evaluates the degree to which the levels of trace\\u000a elements, copper, iron, selenium, zinc and haemoglobin-Fe3+, in blood, serum and pancreas have any role to play in the calcification process associated with fibrosis in

Geetha Arumugam; Monika Padmanaban; Dhanya Krishnan; Saranya Panneerselvam; Surendran Rajagopal



Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)  

SciTech Connect

Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

Bechmann, R.K. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)



Chronic contamination decreases disease spread: a Daphnia-fungus-copper case study  

PubMed Central

Chemical contamination and disease outbreaks have increased in many ecosystems. However, connecting pollution to disease spread remains difficult, in part, because contaminants can simultaneously exert direct and multi-generational effects on several host and parasite traits. To address these challenges, we parametrized a model using a zooplankton–fungus–copper system. In individual-level assays, we considered three sublethal contamination scenarios: no contamination, single-generation contamination (hosts and parasites exposed only during the assays) and multi-generational contamination (hosts and parasites exposed for several generations prior to and during the assays). Contamination boosted transmission by increasing contact of hosts with parasites. However, it diminished parasite reproduction by reducing the size and lifespan of infected hosts. Multi-generational contamination further reduced parasite reproduction. The parametrized model predicted that a single generation of contamination would enhance disease spread (via enhanced transmission), whereas multi-generational contamination would inhibit epidemics relative to unpolluted conditions (through greatly depressed parasite reproduction). In a population-level experiment, multi-generational contamination reduced the size of experimental epidemics but did not affect Daphnia populations without disease. This result highlights the importance of multi-generational effects for disease dynamics. Such integration of models with experiments can provide predictive power for disease problems in contaminated environments.

Civitello, David J.; Forys, Philip; Johnson, Adam P.; Hall, Spencer R.



A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic

Paul I. Dantzig



Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).  


Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. PMID:22511547

Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E




PubMed Central

1. After equilibrium of distribution of a phenol between water and an animal immersed in it has been once attained, the poisoning of the animal proceeds with constant velocity. The criterion of toxicity adopted in the first part of this study was the time required for initial recovery from paralysis after a given time in the phenol solution. In later work observations were made of the percentages of animals which died after stated periods in a phenol solution. 2. The numerical value of the velocity constant of poisoning for a given solution is independent of the criterion of toxicity adopted, provided that the criterion serves to measure the intensity of effect of the poison, and not merely the rate at which the poison is absorbed. 3. Recovery from paralysis produced by phenol and death from this poison has the same velocity constant. From this it may be inferred that recovery is due to a reversal of the mechanism which underlies poisoning. 4. The velocity of poisoning by phenols is nearly proportional to the square of the concentration. 5. A strictly chemical (mass law) interpretation is shown to be inadequate for the description of poisoning by phenols. 6. Certain physical factors, involved in poisoning by phenols, are discussed. 7. A precise method for obtaining the velocity constant of poisoning by a given agent is outlined.

Shackell, L. F.



Paraphenylene diamine poisoning.  


The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:23225987

Prabhakaran, A C Jesudoss



Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  


... Guidelines It is important to use soap and water to wash all potentially exposed areas since the oil of the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has ...


Paracetamol poisoning in children and hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

1. Paracetamol is one of the most common drugs that children accidentally ingest. Unlike the situation in adults, death and hepatotoxicity in children from paracetamol poisoning are exceedingly uncommon events. A review of the literature has revealed only seven deaths and fourteen cases of hepatotoxicity in children, with most of the cases resulting from chronic poisoning and not acute poisoning. 2. Children may be less prone to paracetamol hepatotoxicity because of developmental differences in the drug's metabolism and its pathways of detoxification. In the therapeutic setting of treatment of fever and pain in children, paracetamol is regarded as a drug with a higher therapeutic index, and as such, there seems to be little concern with strict adherence to dosage regimes. 3. Scrutiny of the above paediatric cases associated with chronic paracetamol poisoning suggests that the margin of safety of frequent therapeutic doses of paracetamol in infants and young children to be a lot lower than previously appreciated. This review highlights the need to re-evaluate the safety of paracetamol in the context of chronic therapy in infants and young children.

Penna, A; Buchanan, N



Zinc deficiency in molybdenum poisoned cattle  

SciTech Connect

Clinical signs ascribable to zinc deficiency were noted in a group of Friesian cows industrially poisoned with molybdenum. Zinc, copper, and molybdenum were determined in blood serum and black hair, and in the contaminated alfalfa pasture the group grazed on. Hematological parameters, and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity, were also determined. Pooled samples of alfalfa from 2 uncontaminated pastures, and of blood, serum and black hair of clinically normal Friesian cattle grazing on these were used as controls. A mixed contamination of the polluted pasture with molybdenum and copper was found, both metals being inversely correlated with he distance to the polluting chimney. Zinc concentrations were normal and not significantly correlated with the distance to the chimney very high molybdenum was found in serum and hair of the poisoned animals; copper was normal in serum and hair. Low calcium and Alkaline phosphatase activity were found in serum, both variables being significantly correlated with serum zinc. Reduced red blood cell number, packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations were also found, but no significant correlation of these parameters with any of the trace metals in serum or hair was found. Signs ascribed to zinc deficiency were consistent with the reduction of zinc in serum and hair and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. A zinc deficiency conditioned by a simultaneous increased intake of molybdenum and copper is proposed.

Parada, R.



Plant fertilizer poisoning  


... is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.


Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.


Long-term Neurobehavioral Effects of Mild Poisonings with Organophosphate and n-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides among Banana Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphate poisoning has been associated with chronic neurobehavioral dysfunction, but no epidemio- logic data exist with regard to long-term consequences from carbamate poisoning. This cross-sectional study eval- uated the neurobehavioral performances of 81 banana workers who, on average 27 months earlier, had received medical attention not requiring hospitalization for mild occupational poisoning by either an organophosphate or a carbamate pesticide.



Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. Chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Besser, J. M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F. J.; Mayer, Jr. , F. L.; Ingersoll, C. G.



Copper: Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although copper is a widespread and useful metal, the process of mining and refining copper can have severe detrimental impacts on humans, plants, and animals. The most serious impacts from copper production are the release of sulphur dioxide and other air pollutants and the poisoning of water supplies. These impacts occur in both the mining and…

Boutis, Elizabeth; Jantzen, Jonathan Landis, Ed.


Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day



Activities of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and ceruloplasmin in serum in chronic ischemia of lower limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is an endogenous scavanger of superoxide radicals (O\\u000a 2\\u000a ?\\u000a ) which also induce the synthesis of this enzyme. Ceruloplasmin is an antioxidant and acute-phase reactant. Changes in the\\u000a synthesis of both enzymes are related to the metabolism of copper and zinc. Concentrations of copper and zinc were previously\\u000a found to be increased in the serum and arterial

M. Iskra; W. Majewski



Hair bleach poisoning  


Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.


Fuel oil poisoning  


Fuel oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in (inhales), or touches fuel oil. This is for information only and not ... Fuel oil Kerosene Note: This list may not include all sources of fuel oil.


Jerusalem cherry poisoning  


The poison is found throughout the Jerusalem cherry plant, but especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. ... Diarrhea Drowsiness Enlarged (dilated) pupils Hallucinations Headache Low blood pressure Slowed breathing Slow pulse Stomach pain Vomiting


Clinitest tablets poisoning  


Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...


Hair dye poisoning  


... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...


Cuticle remover poisoning  


Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Note: This list may not include all sources of cuticle remover. ... Medication to treat the effects of the poison Removal of burned skin (debridement) Washing of the skin ( ...


Sodium carbonate poisoning  


Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...


Mineral spirits poisoning  


... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.


Stoddard solvent poisoning  


Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...


Potassium carbonate poisoning  


Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...


Wart remover poisoning  


Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...


The Poisons Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

Crawford, Barbara A.



Lead Poisoning in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does lead usually enter the body and what systems are usually involved? What one symptom above all others should arouse the suspicion of lead poison ing?In follow up of children with lead en cephalopathy, frequently they have a lower I.Q. than their peers. What is the evidence for this?Should the gastro-intestinal tract of chil dren with lead poisoning be

Ralph D. Feigin; Daniel C. Shannon; Stephen L. Reynolds; Lilian W. Shapiro; John P. Connelly




Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 55?75)\\/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI 19?43)\\/100,000 population



Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  


Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram



Prepare and Purify Urushiol from Poison Ivy and Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The active ingredients (urushiols) of poison ivy and poison oak were isolated in purified form by various chemical and physical procedures. Various properties were measured, including molecular weight, double bond value, refractive index and infrared spec...

M. D. Corbett



Poisonous Snakes of Southeastern Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Southeastern Asia; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the pois...



Prognostic factors in methanol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and laboratory factors in methanol poisoned patients to determine the prognosis of their toxicity. This survey was done as a prospective cross-sectional study in methanol-poisoned patients in Loghman-Hakim hospital poison center during 9 months from October 1999—June 2000. During this time 25 methanol-poisoned patients were admitted. The mortality rate was

H. Hassanian-Moghaddam; A. Pajoumand; S. M. Dadgar; Sh. Shadnia



In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  


... poison control center. If you believe you have been poisoned or injured by pesticides on an agricultural establishment covered under the WPS , ... about the pesticide to which you may have been exposed. See EPA's Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings for information on the health hazards of ...


Black-spot poison ivy.  


In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare. PMID:18346397

Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M


Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes in the metabolism of the essential metals copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium using an animal model of AC. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; an ad libitum control group (AL), a pair-fed control group (PF), and an ethanol-dosed group (ETOH). The latter group received gradually increasing concentrations (5-25%) of ethanol in the drinking water for 15 wk. Food intake was monitored and urine and feces collected for a 4-d period during the study to determine ethanol effects on trace-element balance. Growth of both the PF and ETOH animals was inhibited. Ethanol produced substantial increases in liver manganese and decreases in liver copper and zinc. Metal concentrations in heart and concentrations in other tissues studied (spleen, testes, brain, bone, kidney, and muscle) did not differ significantly among the groups, except for testes selenium and kidney zinc. Reduced food intake and ethanol ingestion were associated with a reduced percentage of ingested selenium excreted in the urine. Deficiencies of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in myocardial tissue are not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of AC in the rat. 38 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Bogden, J.D.; Al-Rabiai, S.; Gilani, S.H.



Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.



Poisoning Associated with Potassium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suicidal poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated solution of potassium (K+) (chloride) is described in the study. A 30-year-old Caucasian female health professional was found dead in a motel. An intravenous needle was found inserted in the antecubital area in a right arm vein of the deceased. Attached to the needle, by a flexible tubing, was a 50 ml

A. K. Chaturvedi; N. G. S. Rao; M. D. Moon



Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.



Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

Bakir, F.; And Others



Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Advances in poison management.  


This article advances the most current concepts in the management of poisoned patients including the use of ipecac, lavage, activated charcoal, whole-bowel irrigation, and specific antidotes. The benefits vs the risks of each of these procedures are reviewed. PMID:8697613

Bayer, M J; McKay, C



Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)|

Boeckx, Roger L.



Poisonous Koda Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE have been several well-ascertained examples of poisoning from diseased or improperly-prepared Koda millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) during the past year in India. Owing to the prevailing scarcity of the usual food-grains, it is probable that Koda millet has been extensively sold and eaten in localities where its use is ordinarily unknown.

A. E. Grant



[Taxus baccata poisoning].  


Common yew poisoning occurs by per oral application of needles or extracts of needles usually. The determination of the cause of death is more difficult in the latter case. In our article, we advise of circumstances which could be helpful in diagnostic. In addition, we describe the substances contained in yew, their effect, importance and toxicological detection. PMID:22145207

Baláz, P; Toupalík, P; Havel, R; Bartos, P; Stanková, M



Amnesic shellfish poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is caused by consumption of shellfish that have accumulated domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some strains of phytoplankton. The neurotoxic properties of domoic acid result in neuronal degeneration and necrosis in specific regions of the hippocampus. A serious outbreak of ASP occurred in Canada in 1987 and involved 150 reported cases, 19 hospitalisations and 4

B. Jeffery; T. Barlow; K. Moizer; S. Paul; C. Boyle



Neem oil poisoning.  


We report an unusual case of neem oil poisoning in a previously normal 5 year old child. The child presented with refractory seizures and was having metabolic acidosis. Late neurological sequelae in the form of auditory and visual disturbances, and ataxia were present. PMID:18250509

Dhongade, Ramchandra K; Kavade, Sandeep G; Damle, Rushikesh S



Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, a newly identified marine toxin disease associated with blooms of the diatom Pseudonitschia pungens. The page describes clinical presentation (symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of domoic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))



Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCiguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its

Mark P. Skinner; Tom D. Brewer; Ron Johnstone; Lora E. Fleming; Richard J. Lewis



Acute poisoning: an update.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective.

Raymond, C. W.



Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.  


Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi



Poisonous plant vouchers.  


Every published report of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, should document plant identification. The essential elements are: complete botanical Latin name including species, specific epithet and author(s); name of the collaborating botanist who identified the plant; and herbarium and collection number of a voucher specimen from the exposure lot. Additional information to aid identification might include plant photographs, drawings, and descriptions. PMID:10349708

Wagstaff, D J; Wiersema, J H; Lellinger, D B



Les poisons du fuseau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les poisons du fuseau constituent un groupe de médicaments anticancéreux d’origine naturelle caractérisés par leur cible,\\u000a le fuseau achromatique qui permet aux chromosomes de migrer lors de la mitose. Les vinca-alcaloïdes (vinblastine, vincristine,\\u000a vindésine, vinorelbine) inhibent la polymérisation de la tubuline en microtubules et les taxanes (paclitaxel et docétaxel)\\u000a inhibent la dépolymérisation des microtubules. La résistance à ces agents peut

J. Robert



Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask.




PubMed Central

1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined.

Binger, Carl A. L.; Faulkner, James M.; Moore, Richmond L.




PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end.

Weeks, D. E.



Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.  


Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22634487

Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit


Swimming pool cleaner poisoning  


... acids in them, or breathes in their fumes. Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more ... Bromine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Chelated copper ... bisulfate, phosphoric acid, sodium thiosulfate, cyanuric acid)


Lung function among employees of a copper mine smelter: lack of effect of chronic sulfur dioxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

Lung function among 599 white male employees of a southeastern Tennessee copper mine/smelter operation was compared according to smoking history and occupational experience. The job categories compared included employees with work histories in low sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) environments (both underground mining and non-mining), in high SO/sub 2/ exposure work areas, and in those with transient exposure to SO/sub 2/. Miners with low SO/sub 2/ exposure were found to have lower lung function indices (both FVC and FEV/sub 1/) than did employees in other job categories. Smoking history was strongly associated with low FEV/sub 1/. After adjusting for smoking history, cumulative long-term exposure to SO/sub 2/ was not demonstrated to contribute to decreased lung function.

Federspiel, C.F.; Layne, J.T.; Auer, C.; Bruce, J.



Seasonal trends in reported poisonings.  

PubMed Central

Review of 2,339 Duke Poison Control Center records for calendar year 1977 revealed that preschool children had an autumn peak for all poisonings; older victims a summer predominance. When the reports were stratified by poisoning agent, significant summer predominance was noted in preschool victims for plants, pesticides, paints, and cosmetics; winter predominance for external medicines. In older victims, spring predominance was found for pesticides and soaps, summer predominance for envenomations, plants, internal medicines, ethanol, soaps, and external medicines.

Greenberg, R S; Osterhout, S K



Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.  


Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country. PMID:7352816

Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B



Relative and Combined Effects of Chronic Alcohol Consumption and HCV Infection on Serum Zinc, Copper, and Selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In alcoholic hepatitis, Kupffer cells are activated by intestinal gram-bacteria, leading to cytokine production and free radicals\\u000a release, which, enhancing cytokine secretion, create a positive feedback loop which contributes to liver inflammation. Free\\u000a radicals also damage the liver in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a condition frequently associated to alcohol\\u000a consumption. In both situations, activity of antioxidant enzymes and

Emilio González-Reimers; M. Candelaria Martín-González; M. Remedios Alemán-Valls; María José de la Vega-Prieto; Luis Galindo-Martín; Pedro Abreu-González; Francisco Santolaria-Fernández




EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...


Ciguatera Fish Poison: A Cholinesterase Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substance responsible for the poisoning effect of ciguatera poison from fish is an anticholinesterase. In rats, mice, and rabbits ciguatera poison causes death by asphyxiation. Protopam chloride with atropine is an effective antidote.

Kwan-Ming Li



Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).  


Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids. PMID:11376396

Guin, J D



Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Herbicide poisoning: A diagnostic challenge  

PubMed Central

Despite widespread availability, reports of herbicide poisoning from India are not common. Diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of proper history, non-specific clinical features and lack of diagnostic tests. A case of Paraquat poisoning is reported where diagnosis could be established only after the recovery of the patient. The literature is reviewed.

Ghosh, Supradip; Singh, Amandeep; Dewan, Himanshu; Walia, Gunwant; Bansal, Abhishek




Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described. The operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to Septenber 1948. The poisons considered are Xe and Sm. (auth)



Regulatory consideration of bioavailability for metals: simplification of input parameters for the chronic copper biotic ligand model.  


The chronic Cu biotic ligand model (CuBLM) provides a means by which the bioavailability of Cu can be taken into account in assessing the potential chronic risks posed by Cu at specific freshwater locations. One of the barriers to the widespread regulatory application of the CuBLM is the perceived complexity of the approach when compared to the current systems that are in place in many regulatory organizations. The CuBLM requires 10 measured input parameters, although some of these have a relatively limited influence on the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for Cu. Simplification of the input requirements of the CuBLM is proposed by estimating the concentrations of the major ions Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4(2-), Cl- , and alkalinity from Ca concentrations. A series of relationships between log10 (Ca, mg?l(-1)) and log10 (major ion, mg?l(-1)) was established from surface water monitoring data for Europe, and applied in the prediction of Cu PNEC values for some UK freshwater monitoring data. The use of default values for major ion concentrations was also considered, and both approaches were compared to the use of measured major ion concentrations. Both the use of fixed default major ion concentrations, and major ion concentrations estimated from Ca concentrations, provided Cu PNEC predictions which were in good agreement with the results of calculations using measured data. There is a slight loss of accuracy when using estimates of major ion concentrations compared to using measured concentration data, although to a lesser extent than when fixed default values are applied. The simplifications proposed provide a practical evidence-based methodology to facilitate the regulatory implementation of the CuBLM. PMID:21082669

Peters, Adam; Merrington, Graham; de Schamphelaere, Karel; Delbeke, Katrien



[Poisonings in pregnancy].  


Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P



Nodularins in poisoning.  


Nodularins are an important class of hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptides that are produced by the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena. These peptides have been found worldwide and have been implicated in the deaths of animals as well as a potent cyanotoxin in humans. To date, approximately 10 variants have been discovered, among which nodularin-R is the most abundant. Though the mechanisms of their potential hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity are not well understood, the most frequently proposed mechanisms are described here. Most importantly, a comprehensive review of nodularins in poisoning is presented, including their bioaccumulation in water, cyanobacterial blooms and aquatic animals, the IC50, LC50 and LD50 values determined in laboratories, and wild, domestic and laboratory animal cases. However, the hazard of these toxins to humans has not been fully elucidated, predominantly due to the lack of exposure data. One of reasons underlying is that most current methods are ill suited for clinical monitoring. Thus, the available assays for the detection and quantification of nodularins are described with an emphasis on the problems encountered with each assay. Our ultimate aim is to demonstrate the urgency of better understanding the toxicity of nodularins, especially in humans, and thus effectively protecting ourselves from their poisoning. PMID:23872223

Chen, Yun; Shen, Danfeng; Fang, Danjun



Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.



Effects of chronic aluminum and copper exposure on growth and development of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae.  


Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) were exposed to aluminum (Al; 10, 100, 500, 1000, or 2000 ?gL(-1)) or copper (Cu; 1, 10, 50, 100, 200 ?gL(-1)) at a pH of 4.70 from the beginning of the larval period through the completion of metamorphosis (range=43-102 days). Observations on mortality, malformation, time to reach specific developmental stages, body mass at these stages, and metamorphic success were made throughout the larval developmental period. Only one case of malformation was observed and mortality was ? 10% at all concentrations except the highest Cu concentration where the rate was 33%. All larvae that survived the experiment successfully completed metamorphosis, but significant effects on growth and development occurred for both metals and these were most prominent for Cu. At the highest Al concentration (2000 ?gL(-1)), body mass of larvae was significantly lower (reduced by 17% compared to the control) at 20 days post hatching (DPH) and the time to reach the hind-limb (HL), front-limb (FL), and tail resorption (TR) stages was significantly increased (9-10 days longer than the control). Body mass of larvae exposed to the three highest concentrations of Cu (50, 100, 200 ?gL(-1)) was reduced by 30-34% at 20 DPH. Exposure to these concentrations also resulted in increased time to reach the HL, FL, and TR stages with larvae in the highest concentration taking 21-29 days longer to reach these stages. Larvae exposed to 10 ?gL(-1) Cu also took longer to reach the FL and TR stages of development, and exposure to all Cu concentrations increased tail resorption time by more than two days compared to the control. Although the only observed effects of Al were for a concentration that is probably not ecologically relevant, results demonstrate that environmentally-realistic levels of Cu may have significant biological effects that could influence individual fitness and population-level processes. PMID:23831691

Peles, John D



Influence of copper status on antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation following chronic ethanol feeding in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The effects of chronic ethanol (Et) consumption on liver antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation were assessed in Cu sufficient (+Cu) and deficient ({minus}Cu) rats fed liquid diets with Et or dextrose (C) at 36% of kcals for 2 mo. Rats in the Et groups consumed less calories than those in the non-Et groups, thus a restricted intake group (RI) was included to account for any effects due to caloric restriction. Et feeding resulted in lower Cu and Zn and higher Mn concentrations in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats relative to C rats. Both Cu intake and Et resulted in lower CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuSOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities relative to C rats. CuZnSOD and GPx activities were lowest in {minus}CuEt rats; values were 50% of C values. In contrast, Et feeding resulted in higher MnSOD activity in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats. Despite a limited antioxidant defense system in the {minus}Cu rats, Et had no effect on mitochondrial lipid peroxidation as assessed by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). In contrast, microsomal TBRS production was lower in the Et fed groups; the lowest values occurring in the {minus}CuEt rats. These results suggest that in the Cu deficient animal, despite reductions in some components of the antioxidant defense system, compensatory mechanisms can arise which result in a reduction in peroxidation targets and/or an increase in alternate free radical quenching factors.

Greco, D.J.; Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Han, B.; Rosenbaum, J.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))



Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S



Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.



[Experimental justification of approaches to pharmacological correction of delayed disorders caused by acute ethylene glycol poisoning].  


The development of delayed disorders caused by acute ethylene glycol poisoning has been studied in experiments on male rats. These disorders include chronic renal failure and secondary combined immunodeficiency status of the "circulus vitiosus" type. Urgent pharmacological correction was shown to be necessary shortly after the poisoning. The experimental therapy (administration of immunomodulators with various mechanisms of action in addition to conventional antidote treatment with ethanol) resulted in the restoration of nonspecific resistance and both cellular and humoral immunity. Reduction of the urinary system damage after the administration of immunomodulators was observed. The results demonstrated the importance of multiagent immunotherapy for the correction of delayed effects of acute ethylene glycol poisoning. PMID:23323331

Liubishin, M M; Sivak, K V; Savateeva-Liubimova, T N



Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery.

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa



Surface area of respirable beryllium metal, oxide, and copper alloy aerosols and implications for assessment of exposure risk of chronic beryllium disease.  


The continued occurrence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) suggests the current occupational exposure limit of 2 microg beryllium per cubic meter of air does not adequately protect workers. This study examined the morphology and measured the particle surface area of aerodynamically size-separated powders and process-sampled particles of beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, and copper-beryllium alloy. The beryllium metal powder consisted of compact particles, whereas the beryllium oxide powder and particles were clusters of smaller primary particles. Specific surface area (SSA) results for all samples (N=30) varied by a factor of 37, from 0.56 +/- 0.07 m(2)/g (for the 0.4-0.7 microm size fraction of the process-sampled reduction furnace particles) to 20.8 +/- 0.4 m(2)/g (for the 6 microm) to 20.8 +/- 0.44 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Dickerson, Robert M; Peterson, Eric J; Day, Gregory A; Breysse, Patrick N; Kent, Michael S; Scripsick, Ronald C


Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  


Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J



Anti-rust product poisoning  


Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...


Carbon dioxide poisoning.  


Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases. PMID:16499405

Langford, Nigel J



The recovery of gold from ammoniacal thiosulfate solutions containing copper using ion exchange resin columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loading of gold and copper, both individually and simultaneously, from thiosulfate solutions onto ion exchange resin columns and the subsequent elution of these species have been investigated. In the presence of copper, effective loading with good selectivity for gold can be achieved at pH 11, which balances the stability of the solution and minimizes the formation of poisoning polythionates.

Hongguang Zhang; David B Dreisinger



Delusions of persecution and poisoning in patients with schizophrenia: sociocultural and religious background.  


This article presents data on the phenomenology of delusions of persecution and poisoning in patients with schizophrenia and determines parallels between sociodemographic status and personal religiosity and this type of delusions. We have studied the content of delusions in patients with schizophrenia looking for persecution and poisoning themes using Fragebogen fuer psychotische Symptome (FPS). A total of 295 patients suffering from schizophrenia participated in this study; 74.7% reported delusions of persecution. The proportion of female patients (81.9%) who felt persecuted was almost one-third higher than the proportion of male patients (66.9%). The prevalence of delusions of persecution was lower in the group of persons for whom their faith was personally important (73.4%) than in the atheistic group (86.7%). Delusions of persecution and poisoning were strongly intercorrelated. Delusions of poisoning were reported by 57.8% of respondents: 54.8% by male and 60.6% by female patients. In multivariate analysis, delusions of persecution were more prevalent in women compared to men; in those with a chronic course of illness compared to those with periodic course; in those with small size of family compared to those with large family. The presence of delusions of being poisoned was related to older age of the patient, higher than secondary education, chronic course of schizophrenia, and younger parental age. Personal importance of the faith was not associated with prevalence of delusions of persecution and poisoning in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20516758

Rudaleviciene, Palmira; Adomaitiene, Virginija; Stompe, Thomas; Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras; Raskauskiene, Nijole; Rudalevicius, Jurgis; Bunevicius, Robertas



"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.



"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)|

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.



Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA


Poison ivy on the leg (image)  


This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...


A Model Poison Control System  

PubMed Central

Responding to the need for a poison information, education, data collection and research resource in California's Bay Area and North Coast counties, the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center has become an integral part of the region's emergency medical services. In the first 33 months after it opened, more than 54,000 calls for assistance were received, nearly a third from medical professionals. Through the cooperation and collaboration of public, private and university resources and interests, a cost-effective, comprehensive and accessible system has evolved for public and professional use. Through our experience a system has developed that can serve as a model for poison information services throughout the western states. Emerging public concern for toxicology issues will continue to refine this model.

Tong, Theodore G.; Becker, Charles E.; Foliart, Donna; Morse, Linda



National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.


Pralidoxime in carbaryl poisoning: an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Poisoning from organophosphates and carbamates is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Concerns have been expressed over the safety and efficacy of the use of oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) in patients with carbamate poisoning in general, and more so with carbaryl poisoning specifically. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of 2-PAM

Maria Mercurio-Zappala; Jason B. Hack; Annabella Salvador; Robert S. Hoffman



Neutralization of Shellfish Poison by Chemical Disinfectants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of shellfish poison was evaluated in the presence of 7 chemical disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in neutralizing the toxicity of the poison at concentration of 3 parts NaOCl per million (ppm) per microgram of poison at room ...

C. D. Chin



Management of the critically poisoned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management

Jennifer S Boyle; Laura K Bechtel; Christopher P Holstege



Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist;

T. G. Williamson; A. Q. Goslen



Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.



Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)|

Lipnickey, Susan Cross



Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler



Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  


This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A



Silent latency periods in methylmercury poisoning and in neurodegenerative disease.  

PubMed Central

This article discusses three examples of delay (latency) in the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning after exposure to methylmercury. First, a case is presented of a 150-day delay period before the clinical manifestations of brain damage after a single brief (<1 day) exposure to dimethylmercury. The second example is taken from the Iraq outbreak of methylmercury poisoning in which the victims consumed contaminated bread for several weeks without any ill effects. Indeed, signs of poisoning did not appear until weeks or months after exposure stopped. The last example is drawn from observations on nonhuman primates and from the sequelae of the Minamata, Japan, outbreak in which low chronic doses of methylmercury may not have produced observable behavioral effects for periods of time measured in years. The mechanisms of these latency periods are discussed for both acute and chronic exposures. Parallels are drawn with other diseases that affect the central nervous system, such as Parkinson disease and post-polio syndrome, that also reflect the delayed appearance of central nervous system damage.

Weiss, Bernard; Clarkson, Thomas W; Simon, William



Acute poisoning with pesticides in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  


Exposure to pesticides has been the source of many acute and chronic health problems in the rural population, mainly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to characterize the poisonings from acute exposure to agricultural pesticides used in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from 1992 to 2002, which were reported to the Integrated Center of Toxicological Vigilance of the State Health Department. A total of 1355 involuntary (accidental or occupational) and voluntary (intentional self-poisoning) cases were reported during the period of the study. The majority of the poisonings occurred with men ranging in age from 15 to 49 years of age (55.1%). One hundred seventy-six poisonings lead to death, with a case fatality rate (CFR) three times higher than the average Brazilian CFR. The pesticide poisoning rates, per 100,000 inhabitants living in rural areas, ranged from 25 to 65.7 during the period of the study. In 2000, the micro-region of Campo Grande, where the state capital is located, had the highest rate, with 100.5 exposure/100,000 inhabitants, followed by Dourados, the larger agricultural region of the state. Insecticides were involved in 75.7% of the poisoning cases, followed by herbicides, with 12.2% of the cases. The anticholinestherase insecticides methamidophos, carbofuran and monochrotophos were the primary pesticides involved in the poisonings. The insecticide dimethoate was associated with the highest CFR (30.8%). The high rates of pesticide poisoning in the rural populations of certain regions of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul indicate the need for a more detailed study concerning the risk of pesticide poisoning among these populations. PMID:15935444

Recena, Maria Celina Piazza; Pires, Dario Xavier; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra





A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

Ketzlach, N.



Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura




Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is the most significant and prevalent disease of environmental origin among US children. Despite over 100 years' knowledge of the special hazards of lead exposure for young children, it has taken over a century for ef- fective primary prevention to be adopted. Obstacles to primary prevention have included deliberate campaigns by industry to prevent restrictions upon such uses

Ellen K. Silbergeld



Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms  


... urushiol (you-ROO-shee-all). Urushiol is the oil in poison ivy, oak and sumac. You find this oil in all parts of the plants — the leaves, ... days. If you have a reaction to the oil, you can have these signs (what you see) ...


Choice of poison for intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Although intentional self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural parts of the Asia-Pacific region, relatively little is known of its epidemiology. We aimed to determine why Sri Lankan self-poisoning patients choose particular poisons, and whether acts of self-harm with highly dangerous poisons were associated with more premeditation and effort. Methods We interviewed 268 self-poisoning patients presenting to two district general hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. Results 85% of patients cited easy availability as the basis for their choice of poison. There was little premeditation: more than 50% ingested the poison less than 30 minutes after deciding to self-harm. Patients had little knowledge about treatment options or lethality of the poison chosen. We found no difference in reasons for choice of poison between people ingesting different poisons, despite marked differences in toxicity, and between people who died and those who survived. Conclusions Poisons were chosen on the basis of availability, often at short notice. There was no evidence that people using highly toxic poisons made a more serious or premeditated attempt. Restrictions on availability of highly toxic poisons in rural communities must be considered in strategies to reduce the number of intentional self-poisoning deaths in the Asia Pacific region.

Eddleston, Michael; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; Weerakoon, Manjula; Kumarasinghe, Subashini; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A; Gunnell, David



Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part II. Chronic Toxicity of Copper and Pentachlorophenol to Two Endangered Species and Two Surrogate Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest–observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical

J. M. Besser; N. Wang; F. J. Dwyer; F. L. Mayer; C. G. Ingersoll



Evidence for metal poisoning in acute deaths of large red drum (Scianeops ocellata)  

SciTech Connect

Two of the approximately 100 large, mature, red drum found dead or dying in Florida's Indian River and Mosquito Lagoon were examined. Determinations were made of serum electrolyte concentrations, total proteins, albumins, globulins, creatinine values, and enzyme activity. Concentrations of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium were determined by atomic aborption. The outstanding histological lesions were found in the gills of a moribund specimen. Results indicate that the acute episode was triggered by ingestion of copper, zinc, and arsenic. However, cadmium, mercury and chromium may have been contributory by binding with metallothionein and thus lowering tolerance to metal poisoning. (JMT)

Cardeihac, P.T.; Simpson, C.F.; White, F.H.; Thompson, N.P.; Carr, W.E.



Dispersion strengthened copper  


A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)



Dispersion strengthened copper  


A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)



Predicting outcomes in organophosphate poisoning based on APACHE II and modified APACHE II scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the scores of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and a modified APACHE II system (MAS), without parameters of biochemical tests; and to find prognostic value of individual elements of the APACHE II and MAS in predicting outcomes in organophosphate (OP) poisoning. Data were collected from 131 patients. The

N. Eizadi-Mood; M. Saghaei; M. Jabalameli



Pattern of acute poisoning in Tehran-Iran in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center (a teaching reference hospital of poisoning) in Tehran, Iran. All admitted acutely poisoned patients from January to December 2003 were evaluated retrospectively. Information of socio-demographic characteristics, agents and cause of poisoning, and the mortality rate were collected from medical records of the hospital. During this period, 24 179

Shahin Shadnia; Hadi Esmaily; Ghazal Sasanian; Abdolkarim Pajoumand; Hosein Hassanian-Moghaddam; Mohammad Abdollahi



Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute pyrethroid poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews 573 cases of acute pyrethroid poisoning reported in the Chinese medical literatures during 1983–1988. There were 325 cases of acute deltamethrin poisoning (occupational 158, accidental 167), 196 patients of acute fenvalerate poisoning (occupational 63, accidental 133, including 2 cases of ingestive fenvalerate-organophosphate mixture poisoning), 45 cases of acute cypermethrin poisoning (occupational 6, accidental 39) and 7 cases

Fengsheng He; Shaoguang Wang; Lihui Liu; Shuyang Chen; Zuowen Zhang; Jinxiu Sun



A Real-Time Mass Spectroscopy Study of the (Electro)chemical Factors Affecting CO 2Reduction at Copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide at copper in a hydrogen carbonate electrolyte saturated with CO2was investigated using differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy and improved experimental and data processing techniques. The poisoning effects were investigated and it is shown that the deactivation of the copper cathode could be decreased by application of anodic pulses to the cathode and\\/or by addition of

P. Friebe; P. Bogdanoff; N. Alonso-Vante; H. Tributsch



Zolpidem poisoning in a cat.  


Zolpidem (Stilnox) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug of the imidazopyridine class intended for treatment of insomnia in humans. A 16-year-old neutered cat, weighing 3.8 kg, was presented with sudden onset of stupor, disorientation, severe ataxia, vomiting and hypersalivation. Symptomatic treatment was given when ingestion of 1.25 mg/kg zolpidem (half of a 10-mg tablet) was confirmed, because no information on the efficacy and safety of the use of flumazenil in the treatment of zolpidem poisoning in cats has been published to date. As zolpidem is prescribed with increasing frequency in humans, the occurrence of accidental poisonings of pets is likely to increase. PMID:20633172

Czopowicz, M; Szalus-Jordanow, O; Frymus, T



Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.  


We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam



Psychiatric aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

PubMed Central

Forty-three patients with methylmercury poisoning were studied; 74·4% showed some degree of depression. Their blood levels of mercury were higher than the average values for the whole group, and considerably higher than the blood levels of the non-depressed patients. Irritability was observed in 44·2% of the patients, all except one of the 19 being under 30 years of age. There was general improvement in the mental states of the patients who were hospitalized. Mercury binding compounds did not seem to have a significant effect in enhancing recovery from the depressive state. The possibility of there being two distinct syndromes, due to organic and inorganic mercury poisoning, is discussed.

Maghazaji, H. I.



Management of poisoning in adults.  


Nurses play a key role in the care of patients presenting with poisoning. Assessment and management of such patients can be challenging, especially if they are intoxicated, have co-ingested other agents or their mental health is compromised. In addition, some nurses may be unfamiliar with current management guidelines. This article outlines a number of protocols and initiatives aimed at improving consistency in the management of patients following an overdose. The article focuses on paracetamol poisoning, the most common overdose presentation in the UK. This article was updated on May 7 2013 to include current UK guidelines for management of paracetamol overdose, which changed in September 2012 following a review by the Commission on Human Medicines. In addition, the authors published recently an article in this journal that discussed the assessment and management of patients who present to hospital following a paracetamol overdose ( Pettie and Dow 2013 ). PMID:23987975

Pettie, Janice; Dow, Margaret


The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley



Lead shot poisons bald eagles  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the controversy between the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Wildlife Federation and the increased mortality of bald eagles. The eagles are being poisoned by preying on waterfowl which have ingested lead shot or have been wounded by shot and not recovered. The controversy has resulted in the establishment of new criteria for so-called non-toxic shot waterfowl hunting.

Cohn, J.P.



Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.



Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.  


Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected. PMID:22082823

Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi



[Relations between food poisoning and ascariasis].  


During the examination of faeces for the causative agents of food poisoning, the search was also extended to the occurrence of worm eggs. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs occurred six times more frequently in persons affected with food poisoning than in consumers who were not harmed by the intake of poisoned food. This relationship was observed in non-specific cases of food poisoning and in those of unknown aetiology, whereas it was less pronounced in cases of specific poisoning. This difference has not been confirmed for Trichuris trichiura. It is safe to say that Ascaris infection increases the disposition to manifestation of symptoms of intoxication and represents, among other things, a factor in the aetiology of food poisoning. PMID:6322473

Bodnár, S; Nikodemusz, I; Márton, M



Circumstances of Accidental Poisoning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Of 377 children with accidental poisoning, the commonest ages were 1, 2, and 3. The most important contributory factor was that the poison was kept in an inappropriate place. Most containers were closed, but the children found them easy to open. In some cases the container itself was unsuitable for the contents. The frequency of poisoning in childhood might be reduced in six main ways: (1) a reduction in the quantity of drugs kept in the home; (2) the provision of drug cupboards; (3) the provision of containers that are difficult for children to open, or individually foil-wrapping tablets; (4) making tablets less attractive to children; (5) clear identification of potential poisons; and (6) increasing parental awareness of the circumstances under which poisoning occurs. A plea is made for further sociomedical research into the prevention of poisoning.

Jackson, R. H.; Walker, J. H.; Wynne, N. A.



Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.  


Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern. PMID:23122015

Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A



Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Poison ivy and poison oak are the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis in North America.Objective: We investigated whether a new topical lotion containing 5% quaternium-18 bentonite prevents experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis.Methods: A single-blind, paired comparison, randomized, multicenter investigation was used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of quaternium-18 bentonite lotion in

James G Marks; Joseph F Fowler; Elizabeth F Sherertz; Robert L Rietschel



Thermoregulatory dysfunction secondary to acute ethanol poisoning.  


Acute ethanol poisoning followed by drugs of abuse and psychiatric disorders is the most common cause of hypothermia. An attempt to evaluate the ethanol poisoning degree considering body temperature, serum osmolality, osmolal gap and ethanol concentration measurements was the aim of study. The lowest body temperature measured using infrared tympanic thermometer--First Temp Genius, Sherwood Medical was noted in the severely poisoned patients and was well correlated with the serum osmolality and with the osmolal gap. PMID:7644696

Szpak, D; Groszek, B; Obara, M; Kusiak, M



Aluminium phosphide poisoning: a case report.  


This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. PMID:22455303

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz


Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: cases and developments.  


Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy. In the Western world, the occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning is less prevalent due to the declining availability of organophosphate pesticides, which could render the recognition of this particular type of intoxication and its specific treatment more difficult. In this article we discuss some recent developments and treatment dilemmas, illustrated by cases from our clinic, followed by a review of the current recommendations in the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. PMID:18424861

Aardema, H; Meertens, J H J M; Ligtenberg, J J M; Peters-Polman, O M; Tulleken, J E; Zijlstra, J G



49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




Acute renal failure following copper sulphate intoxication.  

PubMed Central

Eleven out of a series of twenty-nine patients (37-9%) with acute copper sulphate poisoning developed acute renal failure. Intravascular haemolysis appeared to be the chief factor responsible for renal lesions in these patients. Histological lesions observed in the kidney varied from those of mild shock to well established acute tubular necrosis. In one case, granulomatous lesions were seen in response to tubulorrhexis. Renal failure was the chief indication for dialysis in ten patients, whereas one patient was dialysed primarily for removal of copper. Notwithstanding the adequate control of uraemia by dialysis, only six of the eleven patients recovered. Septicaemia was responsible for death in three, hepatic failure in one and methaemoglobinaemia in another. It is postulated that release of copper from haemolysed red cells during acute haemolytic episodes may initiate, or contribute to, the development of renal damage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Chugh, K. S.; Sharma, B. K.; Singhal, P. C.; Das, K. C.; Datta, B. N.



77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention In accordance...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...



77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...



75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...



Uncommon sources and some unsual manifestations of lead poisoning in a tropical developing country.  


Lead-containing cooking utensils, sometimes used in South Indian homes, and indigenous medications, widely used in India and increasingly in developed countries, may be responsible for lead intoxication in adults. We report chronic lead poisoning in five adult patients. Not all patients had abdominal colic, while dramatic weight loss, depression and encephalopathy were seen. Once recognized, lead poisoning is treatable and sometimes preventable. Response to chelation therapy with agents such as calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) is impressive, although several courses of therapy may be necessary. PMID:22438702

Rolston, David D K



Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning.  


In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of referral to the hospital, hospitalization period, and prognosis. The age group of most poisoning cases was <5 years of age and constituted 51% (n = 197) of all cases. The main toxic agent was drugs (70.2%), followed by foods (8.8%), rodenticides (7%), insecticides/pesticides (4.9%), and carbon monoxide (4.7%). In childhood poisonings, accidental drug poisoning was frequent in toddlers, whereas suicidal poisoning was frequent in adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rate was 23.8% among all poisoning patients, and 98.9% of these patients were adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rates for males and females were 30% and 70%, respectively. An increase in suicidal and inhalation poisonings was observed when compared with previous studies that have been conducted in the same region. The results of the present study suggest that poisonings still represents an important health problem that could be prevented by safe drug storage at home, as well as parental education on adolescence issues, particularly those regarding females. PMID:20019095

Mutlu, M; Cansu, A; Karakas, T; Kalyoncu, M; Erduran, E



Copper Imbalances in Ruminants and Humans: Unexpected Common Ground1  

PubMed Central

Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen–free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson’s disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre–hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen–free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the “copper cost” of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question “can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?” A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

Suttle, Neville F.



[Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].  


Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane. PMID:23381711

Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés


Ricin poisoning and forensic toxicology.  


Ricin is one of the most fascinating poisons due to its high toxicity: as little as 500 microg can kill an adult. It gained fame by its use in the so-called 'umbrella murder' to kill the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov in 1978. Ricin also became known as a potential bio-terror agent to which people could be exposed through the air, food, or water. The origin, biochemistry, toxicity, and analytical procedures for the determination of ricin are summarized. The homicide of Markov is described as well as recent cases of criminal ricin use. PMID:20355196

Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard



Benzene hexachloride poisoning in cattle.  


Of 174 cattle dipped in an emulsified preparation of benzene hexachloride labeled for plant use, 18 were fatally poisoned. The preparation contained 0.14% active ingredient, gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride (BHC), a normally safe concentration for cattle. Analyses revealed 0.08% gamma BHC in the used dip and 0.5, 7.9, and 198 ppm in liver, kidney, and hairskin specimens, respectively, from a fatally affected cow. Microscopic examination of the freshly prepared dip demonstrated emulsion droplets ranging from 5 to 60 mu in diameter. PMID:49345

Ray, A C; Norris, J D; Reagor, J C



Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Treatment of methyl bromide poisoning with haemodialysis.  

PubMed Central

Acute accidental methyl bromide poisoning was treated with haemodialysis. The treatment was successful in removing bromide from the blood but the patient persists with severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. To the best of our knowledge haemodialysis has not been used previously for the treatment of organic bromide poisoning.

Moosa, M. R.; Jansen, J.; Edelstein, C. L.



The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.



Hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis following anticholinesterase poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was undertaken to find the incidence of hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis in patients with anticholinesterase poisoning. This was done by serial estimation of total serum amylase and pancreatic imaging by ultrasonography and confirmed, if necessary, by computerized tomography. Anticholinesterase poisoning was caused by either ingestion or accidental exposure to organophosphates or carbamates; it was diagnosed when patients

Surjit Singh; Udaybhan Bhardwaj; Suresh k. Verma; Ashish Bhalla; Kirandip Gill



Age and paracetamol self-poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whereas paracetamol poisoning is predominantly seen in adolescents and young adults, the majority of paracetamol associated deaths occur in an older population.Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate age as a risk factor for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and death in a large population of patients with paracetamol poisoning.Patients: A total of 746 patients transferred to

L E Schmidt



Identification of pesticide poisoning in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme investigates incidents of suspected poisoning of wildlife (also honey bees and companion animals) by pesticides in the United Kingdom. The approach to these investigations has evolved over the past 30 years. Field investigations, post-mortem examinations, toxicological data and experience of previous poisoning incidents assist in the selection and interpretation of appropriate chemical analyses. Several ‘multi-residue’

Peter Brown; Andrew Charlton; Mary Cuthbert; Libby Barnett; Leigh Ross; Margaret Green; Liz Gillies; Kathryn Shaw; Mark Fletcher



An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu



Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M



Ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Pacific Ocean has arguably more ciguatera poisoning than any other place on earth. Here we tested two competing hypotheses that outline the primary causes of ciguatera outbreaks: (1) the ‘new surface hypothesis’ and (2) the ‘climate oscillation hypothesis’. Our findings indicated that in Rarotonga, from 1994 to 2010, the annual incidence of ciguatera poisoning ranged from 204 to

Teina Rongo; Robert van Woesik



The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.



The Chemotherapy of Poisoning by Organophosphate Anticholinesterases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oximes (with or without atropine as an adjunct) have recently been used successfully in the treatment of humans poisoned by organophosphate anticholinesterases. The discovery of the nature of the biochemical lesion in organophosphate poisoning has permitted the design of drugs to repair specifically this particular lesion. This paper reviews historically the researches which led to the development of pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide

D. R. Davies; A. L. Green



Newer antidotal therapies for pediatric poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific antidotal therapy is essential for the successful management of a limited number of intoxications. Newer antidotes have emerged in the last 10 years that target specific life-threatening poisonings. These newer therapies, including hormones, drug antagonists, enzyme inhibitors, and antibodies against drugs and venoms, illustrate the spectrum of mechanisms by which an antidote can reverse toxicity of a poison. This

Erica L. Liebelt



Poisoning with Veratrum-containing Sneezing Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Nine cases of accidental poisoning of children with sneezing powder are reported. Symptoms, besides sneezing, included gastrointestinal disturbances and syncope, whilst examination demonstrated bradycardia and hypotension.2 The powder, as supplied, carried no information on its constituents but Veratrum alkaloids were identified on analysis. The signs and symptoms observed were compatible with poisoning from these compounds.3 As a result of

P. Carlier; M.-L. Efthymiou; R. Garnier; J. Hoffelt; E. Fournier



Emergency management of poisoning in Hong Kong.  


The emergency management of poisoning is important in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity in poisoned patients. This article reviews the Hong Kong system of prehospital and emergency care of poisoning, with reference to recent advances in this field. Administering activated charcoal is recommended for the gastro-intestinal decontamination of most poisons, unless doing so is contra-indicated. Gastric lavage should be considered only in life-threatening cases of poisoning that present within the first hour. Newer antidotes that are available in Hong Kong accident and emergency departments include hydroxocobalamin, stonefish and snake antevenenes, digoxin-specific antibodies, esmolol hydrochloride, and octreotide. The 'golden hour' concept of gastro-intestinal decontamination is advocated and ways to ensure that decontamination is performed within the 'golden hour' are suggested. PMID:11025848

Lau, F L



The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.



Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.  


A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M



Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  


Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario



Risks and benefits of copper in light of new insights of copper homeostasis.  


Copper is an essential micronutrient involved in a variety of biological processes indispensable to sustain life. At the same time, it can be toxic when present in excess, the most noticeable chronic effect being liver damage. Potent, efficient regulatory mechanisms control copper absorption in the digestive tract and copper biliary excretion; absorption ranges between 12 and 60% in humans, depending on Cu intake, presence of other factors in the diet that may promote or inhibit its absorption and on the copper status of the individual. Current evidence suggests that copper deficiency may be more prevalent than previously thought, while copper toxicity is uncommon under customary daily life conditions. Menkes syndrome and Wilson disease are genetic conditions associated with severe copper deficiency and severe copper toxicity, respectively. Effects of milder degrees of copper deficiency and excess copper exposure are not well described, mainly due to lack of sensitive and specific indicators; serum copper concentration and ceruloplasmin are the most frequently used indicators, but they only detect rather intense changes of copper status. Of the many proteins assessed as potential markers of copper status the chaperone of Zn-Cu superoxide dismutase (CCS1) has yielded promising results; data on its performance under different conditions are needed to confirm its use as an indicator of early copper deficiency. Defining copper requirements and upper safe limits of consumption (UL) is a complex process since there are adverse health consequences from both copper deficiency and copper excess (U shape curve). The regulatory framework for risk assessment of essential trace elements introduced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) has proposed a homeostatic model to determine the Adequate Range of Oral Intake (AROI) of essential trace elements; the nadir of the resulting U shape curve serves to define the AROI. At this range of intake physiological mechanisms allow for normal homeostasis and basically, there are no detectable adverse effects. At present, Recommended Dietary Intakes (DRIs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs) are used to recommend copper intakes at different ages and life situations. Evidence obtained in humans and non-human primates presented here suggest that current copper UL should be re evaluated. Developing the scientific basis for a copper UL and evaluating the relevance of copper deficiency globally are future key challenges for copper researchers. PMID:21342755

de Romaña, Daniel López; Olivares, Manuel; Uauy, Ricardo; Araya, Magdalena



Relationship between exposure duration, tissue residues, growth, and mortality in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles sub-chronically exposed to copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a 56-day sub-chronic test on the effects of Cu on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry at a nominal water hardness of 100 mg l?1 (as CaCO3). Response measures were growth, whole body Cu concentrations, and mortality. Significant mortality was observed in fish exposed to 54.1 ?g Cu l?1 (47.8%) and 35.7 ?g Cu l?1 (11.7%). Growth was dose-dependent

J. A Hansen; J Lipton; P. G Welsh; J Morris; D Cacela; M. J Suedkamp



Food poisoning and house gecko: myth or reality?  


The reason behind the food-poisoning due to felling of house geckos in eatables is described in this paper. House geckos are known to carry various types of pathogens in their bodies which cause food-poisoning after consuming the contaminated foods. Since these geckos are non-poisonous, the food poisoning due to their presence in food is not possible. PMID:23033707

Kotangale, J P



Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.  


Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans



Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.  


Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning. PMID:17052991

Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri



Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.



Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.  


Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well. PMID:16805148

Gladman, Aaron C



Differential responses to copper-induced oxidative stress in the marine macroalgae Lessonia nigrescens and Scytosiphon lomentaria (Phaeophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to help explain the absence of the brown kelp Lessonia nigrescens from a coastal environment chronically enriched with copper, we characterized the biochemical responses induced by copper stress in this kelp and compared them with those displayed by the copper tolerant brown alga Scytosiphon lomentaria. These algae were cultivated with increasing concentrations of copper (20, 40 and 100?gL?1)

Loretto Contreras; Daniella Mella; Alejandra Moenne; Juan A. Correa



Hallucinogenic plant poisoning in children.  


Datura is a hallucinogenic plant found in urban or rural areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia KSA. It grows wildly in many parts of the country. Its taste and shape makes it unattractive to both man and animals, though deliberate use by young adults for its hallucinogenic effects have been widely reported for the past 30 years. Datura contains 3 main toxic alkaloids: atropine, scopolamine and hyoscamine. Consumption of any part of the plant can result in severe anticholinergic toxicity. Clinical symptoms are those seen in atropine poisoning, particularly mydriasis and hallucinations. Children have a special susceptibility to atropine toxicity; even small amount may produce central nervous system manifestations. Hospitalization is required for agitation and combative behavior although symptomatic treatment is usually sufficient. We report a case of acute Datura stramonium intoxication in a 6-year-old boy from Khamis Mushayt, KSA, who presented with restlessness, hallucinations and mydriasis 8 hours after ingesting the seeds of Datura plant. PMID:15756367

Al-Shaikh, Adnan M; Sablay, Zakira M



Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. METHODS: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings

Mari A Bjornaas; Brita Teige; Knut E Hovda; Oivind Ekeberg; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Dag Jacobsen



49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials...Requirements for Division 2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous)...



49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials...Requirements for Division 2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous)...



Poisoned food, poisoned uniforms, and anthrax: or, how guerillas die in war.  


Many people believe that Rhodesia, struggling to maintain minority rule in Africa, used chemical and biological weapons against African guerilla armies in the liberation war. Clothes and food were routinely poisoned, and Rhodesian agents, perhaps in concert with global forces of reaction, caused the largest single outbreak of anthrax in modern times. Oral interviews with traditional healers and Rhodesians' confessional memoirs of the war suggest that deaths by poisoning or disease were not so straightforward, that guerillas and healers and doctors struggled to understand not only what caused death but also what kind of death a poisoned uniform or poisoned boot was. PMID:15484386

White, Luise



Resistance mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against phagosomal copper overload  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen with an extremely slow growth rate, an unusual outer membrane of very low permeability and a cunning ability to survive inside the human host despite a potent immune response. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to acquire essential nutrients while still preserving its natural resistance to toxic compounds. In this regard, copper homeostasis mechanisms are particularly interesting, because copper is an important element for bacterial growth, but copper overload is toxic. In M. tuberculosis at least two enzymes require copper as a cofactor: the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase SodC and the cytochrome c oxidase which is essential for growth in vitro. Mutants of M. tuberculosis lacking the copper metallothionein MymT, the efflux pump CtpV and the membrane protein MctB are more susceptible to copper indicating that these proteins are part of a multipronged system to balance intracellular copper levels. Recent evidence showed that part of copper toxicity is a reversible damage of accessible Fe-S clusters of dehydratases and the displacement of other divalent cations such as zinc and manganese as cofactors in proteins. There is accumulating evidence that macrophages use copper to poison bacteria trapped inside phagosomes. Here, we review the rapidly increasing knowledge about copper homeostasis mechanisms in M. tuberculosis and contrast those with similar mechanisms in E. coli. These findings reveal an intricate interplay between the host which aims to overload the phagosome with copper and M. tuberculosis which utilizes several mechanisms to reduce the toxic effects of excess copper.

Rowland, Jennifer L.; Niederweis, Michael



Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony  

PubMed Central

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodriguez, M? Jesus; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, Jose; Ruiz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel



Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ciguatera is a syndrome occuring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from eating toxic dinoflagellates. Previous research points to the presence of multi...

D. M. Miller



Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)|

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.



Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  


... are warning consumers not to use skin creams, beauty and antiseptic soaps, or lotions that might contain ... DSHS Warns of Mercury Poisoning Linked to Mexican Beauty Cream (includes product photos) California Department of Public ...


[Bull's blood as an ancient poison].  


Article presents ancient tradition about poisoning with bull's blood and the modern attempts of its explanation. Greek and Roman literary sources are compared with the ancient medical texts. PMID:22010443

Ry?, Anna; Siek, Bart?omiej; Sein Anand, Jacek



Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.


Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ciguatera is a syndrome occurring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from eating toxic dinoflagellates. Previous research points to the presence of mult...

D. L. Miller



Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed poisoning admissions to all government health facilities from 1999 to 2001, in an effort to expand our current knowledge on poisoning in Malaysia to a level that better reflects a nationwide burden. There were 21 714 admissions reported with 779 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 35.88\\/1000 admissions. The majority of admissions (89.7%) and deaths (98.9%) occurred in

R. Rajasuriar; R. Awang; S. B. H. Hashim; H. R. B. H. Rahmat



History of USDA poisonous plant research.  


Research on poisonous plants was instituted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a result of serious livestock poisoning by plants as the pioneers moved west in the mid-to-late 1800s and early 1900s. Historical records indicate the USDA began poisonous plant research in 1894 under the direction of Mr. V. K. Chestnut, a botanist (Table 1 briefly summarizes those who have directed poisonous plant research from the inception to the present). Mr. Chestnut's responsibility (1894-1904) was primarily administrative, although he did extensive field work in Washington and Montana. Temporary field stations were set up to study specific poisonous plant problems. These included field stations at Hugo and Woodland Park, Colorado, and Imperial, Nebraska (1905-1909), to study locoweed; Gunnison, Colorado (1910-1912), to primarily study larkspur; and Greycliff, Montana (1912-1915), to study the poisonous plants of the Yellowstone Valley. Dr. Rodney True replaced Mr. Chestnut in 1904 and in 1905 hired Dr. C. D. Marsh (1905-1930) to establish the temporary field stations listed above. In 1915 a permanent facility was established at Salina, Utah, under the direction of C. D. Marsh who remained in charge until 1930 when he retired; he was followed by A. B. Clawson until 1937 when Dr. Ward Huffman was placed in charge. Research on poisonous plants was located at the Salina Experiment Station until 1955 when the station was closed and the laboratory moved to the campus of Utah State Agricultural College at Logan, Utah, where it is currently located. Dr. Wayne Binns was hired as the director of the laboratory in 1954 and retired in 1972. In 1972 Dr. Lynn F. James, who joined the PRPL staff in July 1957, was appointed as Research Leader and presently directs the research at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. PMID:10091124

James, L F



Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.  


Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:1567533

Allen, H



Ciguatera fish poisoning--Texas, 1997.  


On October 21, 1997, the Southeast Texas Poison Center was contacted by a local physician requesting information about treatment for crew members of a cargo ship docked in Freeport, Texas, who were ill with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle weakness. This report summarizes an investigation of this outbreak by the Texas Department of Health (TDH), which indicated that 17 crew members experienced ciguatera fish poisoning resulting from eating a contaminated barracuda. PMID:9733416



An unusual case of reversible acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide poisoning.  


Abstract Chlorine dioxide is a commonly used water disinfectant. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites is rare. In experimental studies, it was shown that acute and chronic toxicity were associated with insignificant hematological changes. Acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide was not reported. Two cases of renal toxicity due to its metabolites, chlorate and chlorite were reported. Herein, we report a case of chlorine dioxide poisoning presenting with acute kidney injury. PMID:23902291

Bathina, Gangadhar; Yadla, Manjusha; Burri, Srikanth; Enganti, Rama; Prasad Ch, Rajendra; Deshpande, Pradeep; Ch, Ramesh; Prayaga, Aruna; Uppin, Megha




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...


In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)



CO hydrogenation on nickel-based catalysts: Effects of copper addition  

SciTech Connect

The effect of copper addition on the catalytic properties of silica-supported nickel catalysts for the reaction of CO hydrogenation in the temperature range of 200--500 C has been investigated. Different effects, positive or negative, depending on the temperature and the copper content, are described and explained. At low temperature (230 C), the addition of low copper content prevents the loss of the active surface by sintering without inhibiting the rate of CO hydrogenation too much. At high temperatures (450 C), high copper content is necessary to limit the accumulation of poisonous carbon products, but at the expense of CO conversion. On the basis of the various kinetic and morphologic effects of copper addition, an advanced description of the CO hydrogenation mechanism is also provided, assuming an active site formed by 2--3 adjacent Ni atoms, whatever the temperature or the copper content may be.

Agnelli, M.; Mirodatos, C.



Childhood and adolescence poisoning in NSW, Australia: an analysis of age, sex, geographic, and poison types  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate whether there is any association between the types of poison substances and geographic locations for different age groups and sex. Design: This is a population based epidemiological study utilising routinely collected inpatient statistics. Setting: Data are collected as part of the routine vital health information system via all hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Patients: All patients aged between 0–19 years who were admitted to a hospital because of poisoning by the four major types of substances that were defined in the study in NSW in 2000. Main results: The standardised incidence ratios of poisoning related hospitalisation between metropolitan and rural areas varied across different poison types when compared with the NSW average. While there are few differences between metropolitan and rural areas for analgesic and chemical related poisoning admissions across different age groups and sex, differences in the standardised incidence ratios between geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning admissions were found. No significant difference in standardised mortality ratios were found between metropolitan and rural areas except for females in the 10–14 years age group (standardised mortality ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.69 to 6.21). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study, on the whole, provide some evidence for an association between poison types and geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning.

Lam, L



Toxicology of Poison Oak (Rhus toxicodendron) and Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) Extracts in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine the toxicity of extracts of poison ivy, poison oak, and a polyethylene glycol vehicle (Carbowax R) when given orally to rats. Throughout a seven-month study four groups of rats (N=15) were administered the follo...

C. W. Waller I. W. Waters



Performance of clinical scoring systems in acute organophosphate poisoning.  


Abstract Introduction. Clinical scoring systems are used to predict mortality rate in hospitalized patients. Their utility in organophosphate (OP) poisoning has not been well studied. Methods. In this retrospective study of 396 patients, we evaluated the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Mortality Prediction Model (MPM) II, and the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS). Demographic, laboratory, and survival data were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to study the relationship between individual scores and mortality rate. Results. The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients was 31.4 (12.7) years, and at admission, their pseudocholinesterase (median, interquartile) level was 317 (222-635) U/L. Mechanical ventilation was required in 65.7% of the patients and the overall mortality rate was 13.1%. The mean (95% confidence interval) scores were as follows: APACHE-II score, 16.4 (15.5-17.3); SAPS-II, 34.4 (32.5-36.2); MPM-II score, 28.6 (25.7-31.5); and PSS, 2.4 (2.3-2.5). Overall, the AUC for mortality was significantly higher for APACHE-II (0.77) and SAPS-II (0.77) than the PSS (0.67). When patients were categorized, the AUCs were better for WHO Class II (0.71-0.82) than that for Class I compounds (0.60-0.66). For individual compounds, the AUC for APACHE-II was highest in quinalphos (0.93, n = 46) and chlorpyrifos (0.86, n = 38) and lowest in monocrotophos (0.60, n = 63). AUCs for SAPS-II and MPM-II were marginally but not significantly lower than those for APACHE-II. The PSS was generally a poorer discriminator compared to the other scoring systems across all categories. Conclusions. In acute OP poisoning, the generic scoring systems APACHE-II and SAPS-II outperform the PSS. These tools may be used to predict the mortality rate in OP poisoning. PMID:24066733

Peter, J V; Thomas, L; Graham, P L; Moran, J L; Abhilash, K P P; Jasmine, S; Iyyadurai, R



Toxicity of Copper to Daphnids in Reconstituted and Natural Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toxicity of copper was compared for Daphnia magna cultured in reconstituted versus pond water and fed on trout-pellet versus vitamin-enriched, algal foods. Effects of a chronic copper stress were highly variable when animals were tested in reconstitut...

R. W. Winner



The utility of poison control centres in diagnosing and managing cases of poisoning and overdose.  


The practice of establishing poison control centres is yet to catch on in a big way in India, even though most developed countries have this concept well in place. This has helped these countries in diagnosing and managing cases of poisoning and overdose much more effectively, thereby bringing down the morbidity and mortality, while India lags far behind with a staggering mortality rate, much of which is because of lack of access to latest methodologies of diagnosing and managing poisoning, as also the lack of facility to analyse body fluids and other samples for the presence and/or concentration of the toxic agent or its metabolites. Establishing properly equipped and staffed poison control centres would constitute a major step in ameliorating the situation, as exemplified by the Cochin (Kerala) experience, which has a fully equipped poison control centre in a major hospital that is recognised by the World Health Organisation. PMID:21043354

Pillay, V V



Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  


44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M



Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline.

Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo



Preparing Copper Powder from Cemented Copper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques were developed for preparing metallurgical-grade copper powder from industrially produced cement copper. Flotation was used for rejecting discrete gangue particles, acid leaching to remove residual iron and aluminum, hydrogen reduction to elimi...

J. K. Winter L. G. Evans R. D. Groves



An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  


Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua



Illiteracy: a contributing factor to poisoning.  


It is estimated that over 60 million Americans (1/3 of the adult population) are functionally or marginally illiterate. To recognize and gain an understanding of illiteracy and its impact on poisoning, we determined if the illiterate in our community could recognize potential poisons. A prospective study involving 29 male and 21 female adult illiterates was undertaken. A personal interview was conducted to determine their ability to purchase medication and household products, their understanding of the uses and associated dangers of medications, and their manner of storage of these products in their homes. Of the participants, 66% were at reading levels of 0-3rd grade and 34% were at 3rd through 6th grade reading level. Each participant was shown 3 separate products and asked to distinguish and interpret caution statements and directions. In the 0-3rd grade group, 30% were unable to identify any of the products and none could explain the cautions or directions. In the second group (3rd-6th grade), all were able to identify the products and 76% could explain the cautions; everyone in this group correctly read the directions. We concluded that a large percentage of the adult population are potential poisoning victims due to their inability to read and comprehend label instructions. Poison Centers should recognize illiteracy as a contributing factor in poisonings and consider education and prevention programs for this segment of our population. PMID:8249274

Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P



Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)



Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

Not Available



Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980-2008  


... Data Brief Number 81, December 2011 Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980–2008 On This ... File Poisoning is now the leading cause of death from injuries in the United States and nearly ...


14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137...dispense or cause to be dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered...person dispensing economic poisons for experimental purposes underâ (1) The...



FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 7 - Poisonous or Toxic ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 7 - Poisonous or Toxic Materials. ... Pf. Container Prohibitions. 7-203.11 Poisonous or Toxic Material Containers. ... More results from


Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash



Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?  


A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears. PMID:12083714

Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs



Terbufos Poisoning in a Dairy Herd  

PubMed Central

This report describes the accidental poisoning of over 200 head of Holstein cattle by the organophosphate, terbufos. The ingestion of an acutely toxic dose (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) of terbufos by 84 heifers resulted in severe respiratory distress as the primary clinical sign and death within 12 hours. There was no response to treatment with atropine sulfate. One hundred and twenty milking cows received a portion of the contaminated feed diluted approximately ten times. These cattle had typical signs of organophosphate poisoning and responded to atropine sulfate. Severely affected cows received pralidoxime chloride and activated carbon 48 h after terbufos ingestion but did not respond to the drugs. Diagnosis of organophosphate poisoning was confirmed by tissue and feed analysis for terbufos and measurement of whole blood cholinesterase activity.

Boermans, H. J.; Black, W. D.; Chesney, J.; Robb, R.; Shewfelt, W.



Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The amplitude tended to be lower in those more severely affected. On repetitive stimulation there was usually no decrement with three stimuli per second and only occasional decrement at 10 per second. At 30 Hz several cases showed a decrement even in the absence of paralysis. This response to repetitive stimuli is thus quite distinct from that seen in either myasthenia or Eaton Lambert syndrome. On three occasions after poisoning with dichlorovos there was first anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning and later delayed neurotoxicity as seen with triorthocresylphosphate. These cases showed all the features of a severe pure motor axonal degeneration neuropathy.

Wadia, R S; Chitra, S; Amin, R B; Kiwalkar, R S; Sardesai, H V



Lead poisoning: more than a medical problem  

SciTech Connect

Medical records of 236 Newark, New Jersey children hospitalized and chelated for lead poisoning in 1977 through 1980 were reviewed to determine whether or not any discernible progress had been made in eradicating the disease since 1972. Results show that the number of treated asymptomatic children, ages 1-6, began to rise after 1976 and was higher in 1980 than in 1972 when the Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program first began. Although mean and peak blood lead levels have decreased over the nine-year period since 1972, signaling a lessening of disease severity, the increase in numbers and rats indicates that childhood lead poisoning still exists as an environmental and social problem.

Schneider, D.J.; Lavenhar, M.A.



A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.



Secondary phorate poisoning of large carnivores in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India, with its huge human population and fragmented wildlife habitat, is plagued with human–animal conflicts. In conflict\\u000a areas, large carnivores are often primary targets for malicious poisoning. The effects of certain poisons do not stop with\\u000a the target animal but also affects other species of wildlife in the form of secondary poisoning. This paper describes incidences\\u000a of secondary poisoning of

Nallusamy Kalaivanan; Ragothaman Venkataramanan; Chirukandoth Sreekumar; Alagarsamy Saravanan; Rajeev K. Srivastava



Metabolic effects of mixture containing branched-chain amino acids and taurine during subchronic poisoning with barbiturates.  


We studied the effect of a mixture containing branched-chain amino acids and taurine on the pool of free amino acids and their derivatives during chronic phenobarbital poisoning. Subchronic barbiturate poisoning produced by daily intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital caused imbalance in the content of some amino acids in blood plasma and liver of rats. Treatment with the mixture of branched-chain amino acids and taurine normalized the content of amino acids in the liver and blood plasma of animals with subchronic phenobarbital poisoning. The mixture of branched-chain amino acids and taurine corrects metabolic processes and normalized the peripheral pool of amino acids. Our findings extend the range for application of amino acids in clinical practice. PMID:15455113

Smirnov, V Yu; Razvodovskii, Yu E; Doroshenko, E M




Microsoft Academic Search

S>The poisoning which occurs during the continuation of atomic tests is ; distinguished from that occurring later. The earth and body poisoning and the ; quantity of radiation causing poisoning of critical organs are calculated. The ; calculation is simplified by the assumption that during the tests the fall-out is ; continuous. With umlimited continuation of atomic tests, earth and




Occupational lead poisoning in Ohio: surveillance using worker's compensation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the utility of workers' compensation (WC) data in a system for the surveillance of occupational lead poisoning, we reviewed workers' compensation claims for lead poisoning in Ohio. For the period 1979 through 1983, 92(81 per cent) of the 114 claims attributed to lead met our case definition of lead poisoning. The likelihood that a company had a case

P. J. Seligman; W. E. Halperin; R. J. Mullan; T. M. Frazier



Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad



Prevalence of autonomic signs and symptoms in antimuscarinic drug poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically described antimuscarinic poisoning signs and symptoms include mydriasis, decreased secretions, ileus, urinary retention, hyperthermia, tachycardia, and altered mental status. These features may be used clinically to assist in the diagnosis of patients with unknown poisonings. We sought to analyze the prevalence of antimuscarinic physical examination findings in evaluating patients presenting with acute poisoning from antimuscarinic agents. We conducted a

Raj J Patel; Tim Saylor; Saralyn R Williams; Richard F Clark



Tactile Vibration Thresholds after Acute Poisonings with Organophosphate Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the association between acute poi- soning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and quan- titative tactile vibration thresholds. Thresholds of the dominant index fingers and big toes of 56 men hospital- ized for acute poisoning with OPs were measured at hos- pital discharge (1-24 days after poisoning) and around seven weeks later (24-176 days after poisoning), and com- pared



Experience with soluble neutron poisons for criticality control at ICPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble neutron poisons assure criticality control in two of the headend fuel reprocessing systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Soluble poisons have been used successfully since 1964 and will be employed in the projected new headend processes. The use of soluble poisons (1) greatly increases the process output (2) allows versatility in the size of fuel assemblies processed and

R. E. Wilson; S. R. Mortimer



Thallium poisoning: emphasis on early diagnosis and response to haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium poisoning is known for its diverse manifestations and these can delay the diagnosis if a clear history of poisoning is not forthcoming. A 42 year old man presented on the third day of illness with flaccid quadriparesis and paresthesia, which were confused with Guillain-Barre? syndrome. Because of associated loose motions, skin lesions, and liver and kidney dysfunction arsenic poisoning

U K Misra; J Kalita; R K Yadav; P Ranjan



78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...



[Risk of high copper content in drinking water].  


Copper occurs in small amounts in certain food items, but toxic exposures in Northern Europe have occurred only in connection with contaminated drinking water. Chronic exposure of small children can result in development of Indian Childhood Cirrhosis. This disease has recently been documented in Germany as a result of drinking water contaminated from corrosion of water pipes made of copper. Continued diarrhoea in small children can also be due to high copper exposure. Copper is not routinely determined in drinking water in Denmark. Further, no central registration is available concerning water with low pH or the types of water pipes used in houses. PMID:2194331

Madsen, H; Poulsen, L; Grandjean, P



The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.



Observation unit experience for pediatric poison exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Short-Stay Emergency Department Observation Units (OU) are an alternative to hospitalization, but data on OU care of pediatric\\u000a poisoning exposures is limited. We report the experience of a pediatric OU with this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children with poison exposure admitted to a pediatric OU during a 30-month period.\\u000a Data was collected pertaining to demographics, type of

Diane P. Calello; Elizabeth R. Alpern; Maureen McDaniel-Yakscoe; Brianna L. Garrett; Kathy N. Shaw; Kevin C. Osterhoudt



Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.  


Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods. PMID:6786233

Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J



Kerosene poisoning in children in Iraq.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and three children with kerosene poisoning were studied. The majority of the patients were under five years of age and included a newborn baby. More patients were seen in spring and fewer in winter months. Most of the patients were children of poor families living in overcrowded conditions. Negligence and ignorance were the main causes of poisoning. Respiratory and central nervous systems were mainly involved. Chest X-ray abnormalities were frequently seen. The patients were treated symptomatically. Only one patient died, he had been in a coma on admission to the hospital. All other patients had rapid and complete recoveries.

Nagi, N. A.; Abdulallah, Z. A.



Antioxidant treatment and outcome of cortinarius orellanus poisoning: a case series.  


Abstract Objectives: To study the frequency, severity, and long-term outcome of renal injury in Cortinarius orellanus poisoning, to evaluate the association between the ingested amount of C. orellanus and outcome, and to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroid treatment on outcome. Methods: Case series of eight patients. Diagnosis and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were classified according to current AKI and CKD definitions. N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroids were administered to six patients, former according to the standard for paracetamol poisoning. Main findings: All patients developed AKI, six in the most severe stage and four required renal replacement therapy (RRT). After 12 months, seven patients presented with CKD, of whom three required chronic RRT and further two were in advanced CKD. AKI and CKD severity highly correlated with the consumed amounts of Cortinarius orellanus (r?=?0.98, p?poisoning. The ingested amount of Cortinarius orellanus correlates with the severity of both AKI and CKD. N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroid treatment do not seem to have a beneficial effect on either AKI or CKD. PMID:23968303

Grebe, Scott-Oliver; Langenbeck, Martin; Schaper, Andreas; Berndt, Siegmar; Aresmouk, Duaa; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan



Copper and prion disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prion protein is a cell surface glyco-protein expressed by neurones. Its function has remained elusive until it was recently shown to be a copper binding protein. There is now strong evidence that the prion protein has a role in normal brain copper metabolism. Prion protein expression alters copper uptake into cells and enhances copper incorporation into superoxide dismutase. Furthermore

David R Brown




EPA Science Inventory

Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...


Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs), but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related

Hsin-Ling Lee; Hung-Jung Lin; Steve Ting-Yuan Yeh; Chih-Hsien Chi; How-Ran Guo



Acute lead poisoning in nursing home and psychiatric patients from the ingestion of lead-based ceramic glazes.  


To our knowledge, acute inorganic lead poisoning from single ingestions of lead compounds has been only rarely reported. During a 14-month period, we were contacted regarding eight instances of acute ingestions of liquid lead-based ceramic glazes by mentally impaired residents of nursing homes or psychiatric facilities participating in ceramic arts programs. While some ingestions did not cause toxic effects, some patients developed acute lead poisoning characterized by abdominal pain, anemia, and basophilic stippling of red blood cells. In the blood of several patients, lead concentrations were far above normal (4 to 9.5 mumol/L). Urinary lead excretions were tremendously elevated during chelation therapy, with one patient excreting 535.9 mumol/L of lead during a 6-day period, the largest lead excretion ever reported in a patient suffering from acute lead poisoning, to our knowledge. All patients recovered following supportive care and appropriate use of chelating agents. Lead-based glazes are commonly found in nursing homes and psychiatric facilities. We suspect that acute or chronic lead poisoning from the ingestion(s) of lead-based ceramic glazes may be an unrecognized but not uncommon problem among such residents. We urge physicians to take ingestions of lead-based glazes seriously and to consider the diagnosis of lead poisoning in nursing home and psychiatric patients who have participated in ceramic crafts programs. PMID:2222094

Vance, M V; Curry, S C; Bradley, J M; Kunkel, D B; Gerkin, R D; Bond, G R



Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  


We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh



Predicting Outcome in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning with a Poison Severity Score or the Glasgow Coma Scale  

PubMed Central

Background: Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning kills around 200,000 people each year, principally due to self poisoning in the Asia-Pacific region. Aim: We wished to assess whether patients at high risk of death could be identified accurately using clinical parameters soon after hospital admission. Design: We evaluated the usefulness of the International Program on Chemical Safety Poison Severity Score (IPCS PSS) and the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) prospectively for predicting death in patients poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multicentre cohort study in Sri Lanka. Study doctors saw all patients on admission, collecting data on pulse, blood pressure, pupil size, need for intubation, and GCS. Results: 1365 patients with a history of acute organophosphorus poisoning were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the IPCS PSS and GCS on admission. The IPCS PSS and GCS had similar ROC area under the curves (AUC) and best cut points as determined by Youden's index (AUC/sensitivity/specificity 0.81/0.78/0.79 for IPCS PSS ? grade 2 and 0.84/0.79/0.79 for GCS ?13). The predictive value varied with the pesticide ingested, being more accurate for dimethoate poisoning and less accurate for fenthion poisoning (GCS AUC 0.91 compared to 0.69). Conclusions: GCS and the IPCS PSS were similarly effective at predicting outcome. Patients presenting with a GCS ? 13 need intensive monitoring and treatment. However, the identity of the organophosphate must be taken into account since the half of all patients who died from fenthion poisoning only had mild symptoms at presentation.

Davies, James O. J.; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A.



Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  


This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E


Dns cache poisoning-the next generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old problem of DNS cache poisoning has again reared its ugly head. While some would argue that the domain name system protocol is inherently vulnerable to this style of attack due to the weakness of 16-bit transaction IDs, we cannot ignore the immediate threat while waiting for something better to come along. There are new attacks, which make DNS

J. Stewart



Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison



"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan



Acute renal dysfunction in acetaminophen poisoning.  


Although acetaminophen (APAP)-associated liver injury is well recognized, there are few reports describing APAP nephrotoxicity, and most of them are single cases. It has also been suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), used to treat the hepatotoxicity, may be harmful to the kidneys. To examine this contention and to determine whether renal involvement in APAP poisoning is at all common, we analyzed the incidence and outcome of acute renal dysfunction in patients hospitalized for APAP overdose reported to our regional poison center over a year. Eleven APAP-poisoned patients had elevated liver function tests; nine of them had azotemia. Those with higher AST levels tended to be younger and to have lower APAP levels on admission. Two patients with acute renal injury died after admission. The other seven patients with renal dysfunction recovered in 2 to 7 days. Six of these received NAC; their mean serum creatinine fell from 3.2 +/- 2.0 versus 1.7 +/- 0.9 mg/dL (p < 0.05). We conclude that acute renal failure is not uncommon in APAP poisoning and appears to be unrelated to the degree of liver injury. NAC therapy did not seem to worsen nephrotoxicity. PMID:16060123

Mour, Girish; Feinfeld, Donald A; Caraccio, Thomas; McGuigan, Michael



Management of Beta-Adrenergic Blocker Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta-adrenergic blocking agents or ?-blockers are prescribed for the treatment of a broad array of common disorders. Their widespread use, coupled with a narrow therapeutic index, contributes to their being a significant cause of poisoning from overdose and the second most common cause of mortality from cardiovascular agents. This article provides an overview of beta-adrenergic system pathophysiology and the properties

Angela C. Anderson



49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word âTOXICâ may be used in lieu of the word âPOISONâ....



49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word âTOXICâ may be used in lieu of the word âPOISONâ....



Accidental colchicine poisoning in a dog.  


A 14-month-old toy poodle-cross was presented, after ingesting the owner's colchicine medication, with severe gastrointestinal disturbances and in shock. Despite aggressive medical management, the patient was euthanized approximately 24 hours after the ingestion. The clinical features, treatment, and necropsy findings of colchicine poisoning are discussed. PMID:14992256

Wagenaar, Zoë



Measurement of Endrin Following Epidemics of Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967, four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha, Qatat and Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. They resulted in the hospitalization of 874 persons and the death of 26 persons. This paper reports o...

A. Curley R. W. Jennings H. T. Mann V. Sedlak



Poison Exposure in Children before Passover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extensive cleaning of homes in Israel before Passover may result in increased exposure of chil- dren to cleaning substances. Objectives: To evaluate the potential danger of Pass- over cleaning to children, and to study the risk factors in order to identify areas for prevention. Methods: All cases of poison exposure in Jewish and Arab children under the age of

Yona Amitai; Yedidia Bentur; Matityahu Lifshitz; Pinhas Fainmesser; David Applebaum; Yehezkel Waisman; Nadine Cohen; Samuel D. Oman


Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.


Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritis and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the

Jan M. Jones



Bat Mortality: Pesticide Poisoning and Migratory Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in

Kenneth N. Geluso; J. Scott Altenbach; Don E. Wilson



Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.|

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.



Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses.  


Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introduced in a small paddock invaded by the plant. The first nervous signs were observed 44 days from the start of grazing. The animal was euthanized on day 59. No significant gross lesions were observed upon necropsies of the experimental horse as well as one spontaneously affected horse. Upon histologic examination neuronal lipofuscinosis was observed in the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Wallerian-type degeneration was observed on some mesencephalic tracts. Neuronal and axonal degeneration and lipofuscinosis were observed on electron microscopy examination. Indospicine was detected in four samples of I. lespedezioides with concentrations ranging from 63 to 1178 ?g/g whereas nitro toxins could be detected in only one of the samples at a concentration of 2.5 mg/g. In conclusion, poisoning by I. lespedezioides is very similar to those poisonings by Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera hendecaphylla. Based on the preponderance of indospince and lack of nitro toxins in the samples it is proposed that indospicine is the toxic compound responsible for the poisoning. PMID:22560887

Lima, Everton F; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Gardner, Dale R; Barros, Severo S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Soares, Mauro P; Riet-Correa, Gabriela



Severe chlorate poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe sodium chlorate poisoning was observed within 5 h after suicidal ingestion of 150–200 g of the herbicide. Methaemoglobinaemia was the early symptom of the intoxication. Treatment with methylene blue and ascorbic acid could not prevent a massive haemolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis could be treated successfully with exchange transfusions, heparin and fresh plasma.

Christian Steffen; Rainer Seitz



A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  


Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad



Chemistry of animal venoms, poisons and toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic products from animals have attracted steadily increasing interest during the last years. New methods and techniques for isolation, purification and structural analysis of these natural compounds enabled a rapid progress in our knowledge of their chemistry and mode of action. Various toxins and components from venoms and poisons were applied in biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine as valuable tools. This

D. Mebs



Amisulpride poisoning: a report on two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two observations of human poisoning involving the recently developed neuroleptic amisulpride are described. In both cases drug determination was per formed using reversed-phase HPLC coupled with diode- array detection. Case 1 was a nonfatal overdosage in which the ingestion of 3.0 g amisulpride induced an attack of seizures, then light coma with agitation, hyperthermia, mydriasis, minimal extrapyramidal features,

A. Tracqui; C. Mutter-Schmidt; P. Kintz; C. Berton; P. Mangin



Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of “ALL-OUT” a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus.

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish



Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning.  


This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of "ALL-OUT" a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish



Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant


Food poisoning by clenbuterol in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the occurrence of four cases of acute food poisoning, involving a total of 50 people, due to the ingestion of lamb and bovine meat containing residues of clenbuterol. Symptoms shown by the intoxicated people may be generally described as gross tremors of the extremities, tachycardia, nausea, headaches and dizziness. Analytical methodology developed for the determination of clenbuterol

Jorge Barbosa; Clara Cruz; José Martins; José Manuel Silva; Celeste Neves; Carlos Alves; Fernando Ramos; Maria Irene Noronha Da Silveira



[A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].  


Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls. PMID:17124355

Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina



Epidemiology of organomercury poisoning in Iraq  

PubMed Central

A survey was carried out in a defined area in rural Iraq where there had been many cases of organomercury poisoning following the consumption of bread contaminated by mercury, in order to determine the true incidence of the disorder. The results were compared with those obtained from a similar rural area from which few cases had been reported. A questionnaire was used to determine the amount of contaminated bread eaten and the frequency of symptoms; a simple clinical examination was performed and blood and hair samples were collected for estimation of total mercury concentration. Of 700 people over the age of 5 years in the high-exposure area, 66% admitted to having eaten contaminated bread, while none of the 864 persons in the low exposure area had done so. The mean period during which contaminated bread was eaten was 32 days, but some people had eaten it for as long as 3 months. A mean of 121 loaves was eaten, the maximum being 480 loaves. For the mean number of loaves the intake of methylmercury was likely to have been between 80 mg and 250 mg, but the people who had consumed the largest amount of contaminated bread may have ingested up to 1 000 mg of methylmercury over a 3-month period. Of those with signs of alkylmercury poisoning at the time of the survey, 80% had eaten more than 100 loaves, and 53 (71%) out of 75 persons who had eaten more than 200 loaves showed some evidence of poisoning. The incidence rate for poisoning was estimated at 271 per 1 000; this figure includes a mortality rate of 59 per 1 000, 32 per 1 000 cases with severe disability, 41 per 1 000 cases with mild or moderate disability and 138 per 1 000 cases with only subjective evidence of poisoning at the time of the study.

Al-Mufti, A. W.; Copplestone, J. F.; Kazantzis, G.; Mahmoud, R. M.; Majid, M. A.



Seasonal changes in poisoning exposures reported to a regional poison center from coastal resort areas.  


This study examined the role of seasonality in the reporting of poisoning exposures from geographically distinct regions, specifically from coastal resort and vacation areas. The monthly distribution of calls received by a regional poison control center from counties with popular beach and vacation resorts was compared with the monthly distribution of the overall calls to the center. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if there was a significant difference between the monthly distribution of calls received from the resort counties and the overall calls received by the poison center. Further, exposure and information calls from the resort counties were separately examined to determine if they were equally distributed between months. The monthly distribution of calls received from coastal resort counties was significantly different from the monthly distribution of overall calls received by the center. Significantly more calls were received from the resort counties during the months of July and August at the height of the vacation season. While there was no seasonal variation in the number of information calls from these counties, the poisoning exposure calls were not equally distributed between months, as there were more such calls during the months of July and August. Seasonality appears to play a role in the number of calls received by a regional poison center from coastal areas with popular beach resorts. Poisoning exposure calls seem to increase particularly during the months of July and August. A greater effort may have to be put into activities related to poison control and prevention into such areas during the vacation season. PMID:15799624

Vassilev, Zdravko P; Marcus, Steven M



Zinc and Copper Levels in Hair, Fingernails and Plasma of Elderly Persons Based on Selected Health Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty self sufficient elderly participants from a Senior Citizen Center in Kentucky were studied to estimate their dietary intake of zinc and copper and determine whether hair, fingernails, and plasma levels of zinc and copper reflect chronic illnesses. Subjects who were hypertensive had very similar levels of zinc and copper in their hair, fingernails and plasma as those without hypertension.

Carolyn B Brooks; Lillian P Cummings



Childhood self-poisoning: a one-year review.  


Self-poisoning in children is a serious health concern accounting for 2% and 5% of childhood deaths in the developed and developing world, respectively. Type of poison and intent varies between age groups, with alcohol poisoning becoming increasingly common in teenagers. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of paediatric self-poisoning at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, as a function of age, sex, intent and type of poison. Data from patients under the age of 17 presenting to Ninewells Hospital's Emergency Department with self-poisoning from 1 December 2008 to 30 November 2009 inclusive were identified, classified and analysed using chi-square testing. Overall there was no significant difference in gender. However, females significantly dominated in the ?12<17 years age group, with older females also significantly more likely to deliberately self-poison. Alcohol was the sole cause of accidental self-poisoning in this age group while paracetamol was used in the majority of cases of deliberate self-poisoning. In the <6 years age group, household chemical ingestion and over-the-counter medications were the most common poisons. The findings reflect previous published data and national trends. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in the ?12<17 years age group is a major public health issue that must be addressed. PMID:23138578

Neilson, Z E; Morrison, W



Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka.  


This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history of pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study shows that acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka is determined by a combination of sociodemographic and psychological factors. Suggestions are given for interventions that could control the morbidity and mortality due to acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries. PMID:15941423

van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming



Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon  

PubMed Central

Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images

Hopkins, Anthony



Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew



Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  


Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad



Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1.

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F



Readability and its application to poison prevention.  


To improve communication with the general public, poison prevention materials must be written in a language suited to the population to be reached. The information should be nontechnical, concise and easily understood. Sentence length of written material should be short and the vocabulary kept simple. Recall can be significantly improved by organizing statements and labeling categories (12). The readability level must be kept low enough for the general public to read, comprehend and remember the material. This generally means writing no higher than the seventh or eighth-grade level. By using readability formulas to evaluate written poison prevention educational materials and simplifying the reading level, writers can improve comprehension of the information. PMID:7257165

Ross, J W; Metts, B C; Parrish, J S



Cestrum parqui (green cestrum) poisoning in cattle.  


Naturally occurring cases of poisoning of cattle by Cestrum parqui were characterised by ataxia, depression, recumbency, convulsions and death. Three cattle were dosed experimentally by intrarumenal administration of fresh plant material. One calf died 48 h after receiving 30 g (wet weight) of plant/kg bodyweight. Doses of 11 and 17 g/kg caused only mild intoxication, with dullness and anorexia lasting 2 days. In natural and experimental cases the main lesion was hepatic periacinar necrosis. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate transaminase and prolonged prothrombin times were demonstrated in experimental cases. Haemorrhage beneath the serosa and into the intestinal lumen occurred in field cases, but not in the experimental. It is concluded that C. parqui poisoning in cattle is a primary hepatotoxicity. PMID:6517779

McLennan, M W; Kelly, W R



Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.  

PubMed Central

Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption.

Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.



Glucosylated isoflavones as DNA topoisomerase II poisons.  


Since topoisomerase poisons allow the enzyme to cut and covalently bind to DNA but abort the subsequent rejoining of the molecule after relieving the torsional stress. To study their action we have made use of a supercoiled form of the pRYG plasmid that bears a specific topoisomerase recognition and binding region. The conversion of the supercoiled circular double-stranded DNA to the linear and open circle forms in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison and a denaturation step by proteinase K-SDS is indicative of the efficiency of our test agents to stabilize the cleavable complex. Using this system, three glucosylated isoflavones (6'-methoxy-pseudobaptigenin-7-O-beta-glucoside, genistin, and daidzin) isolated from cytotoxic chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Retama sphaerocarpa Boissier, were found to have the ability to stabilize the cleavage complex human DNA topoisomerase II. PMID:11030085

Martín-Cordero, C; López-Lazaro, M; Piñero, J; Ortiz, T; Cortés, F; Ayuso, M J



Bat mortality: pesticide poisoning and migratory stress.  


Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in populations of this bat. PMID:959845

Geluso, K N; Altenbach, J S; Wilson, D E



Indoxacarb poisoning: A rare presentation as methemoglobinaemia.  


Indoxacarb is a broad-spectrum non-organophosphorus oxidiazine insecticide widely used in farming. Once absorbed it acts on sodium channels and blocks the flow of sodium ions. We report a case of indoxacarb poisoning in a farmer following suicidal consumption, manifested as unconsciousness, cyanosis and stationary SpO(2) values. Methemoglobinaemia was suspected on clinical presentation which was successfully managed with inj. methylene blue and other symptomatic and supportive treatment. PMID:20885872

Chhabra, Roopam; Singh, Ishwar; Tandon, Mansi; Babu, Ram



Indoxacarb poisoning: A rare presentation as methemoglobinaemia  

PubMed Central

Indoxacarb is a broad-spectrum non-organophosphorus oxidiazine insecticide widely used in farming. Once absorbed it acts on sodium channels and blocks the flow of sodium ions. We report a case of indoxacarb poisoning in a farmer following suicidal consumption, manifested as unconsciousness, cyanosis and stationary SpO2 values. Methemoglobinaemia was suspected on clinical presentation which was successfully managed with inj. methylene blue and other symptomatic and supportive treatment.

Chhabra, Roopam; Singh, Ishwar; Tandon, Mansi; Babu, Ram



An esoteric occupational hazard for lead poisoning.  


A case of life threatening lead poisoning was diagnosed clinically in a Jewish scribe and verified by appropriate laboratory studies. The special ink used by the scribe was found to contain lead in appreciable amounts. Eleven more asymptomatic subjects, both scribes and manufacturers of the ink, were studied and five were found to have subclinical lead overload. Handling or production of this ink is a potential hazard for lead intoxication. PMID:3084807

Cohen, N; Modai, D; Golik, A; Pik, A; Weissgarten, J; Sigler, E; Averbukh, Z



Kontaktallergie auf Poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Zwei Patientinnen erkrankten innerhalb von 3 Tagen mit Erythemen, demen und Blschen\\/Blasen in exanthematischer Aussaat an\\u000a einer vermutlichen Poison-ivy-Allergie. Der kausale Zusammenhang konnte durch die detaillierte Anamnese und die positive Epikutantestung\\u000a geklrt werden. In der Bundesrepublik ist die Sensibilisierungsgefahr durch Toxicodendron-Arten, die wohl ausschlielich in Botanischen Grten stehen, zwar gering, doch sind andere Pflanzen aus der Familie der Anacardiaceae,

Regina Fölster-Holst; B. M. Hausen; J. Brasch; E. Christophers



Copper metabolism of astrocytes  

PubMed Central

This short review will summarize the current knowledge on the uptake, storage, and export of copper ions by astrocytes and will address the potential roles of astrocytes in copper homeostasis in the normal and diseased brain. Astrocytes in culture efficiently accumulate copper by processes that include both the copper transporter Ctr1 and Ctr1-independent mechanisms. Exposure of astrocytes to copper induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) content as well as synthesis of metallothioneins, suggesting that excess of copper is stored as complex with GSH and in metallothioneins. Furthermore, exposure of astrocytes to copper accelerates the release of GSH and glycolytically generated lactate. Astrocytes are able to export copper and express the Menkes protein ATP7A. This protein undergoes reversible, copper-dependent trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and vesicular structures. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently take up, store and export copper suggests that astrocytes play a key role in the supply of neurons with copper and that astrocytes should be considered as target for therapeutic interventions that aim to correct disturbances in brain copper homeostasis.

Dringen, Ralf; Scheiber, Ivo F.; Mercer, Julian F. B.



Copper metabolism of astrocytes.  


This short review will summarize the current knowledge on the uptake, storage, and export of copper ions by astrocytes and will address the potential roles of astrocytes in copper homeostasis in the normal and diseased brain. Astrocytes in culture efficiently accumulate copper by processes that include both the copper transporter Ctr1 and Ctr1-independent mechanisms. Exposure of astrocytes to copper induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) content as well as synthesis of metallothioneins, suggesting that excess of copper is stored as complex with GSH and in metallothioneins. Furthermore, exposure of astrocytes to copper accelerates the release of GSH and glycolytically generated lactate. Astrocytes are able to export copper and express the Menkes protein ATP7A. This protein undergoes reversible, copper-dependent trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and vesicular structures. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently take up, store and export copper suggests that astrocytes play a key role in the supply of neurons with copper and that astrocytes should be considered as target for therapeutic interventions that aim to correct disturbances in brain copper homeostasis. PMID:23503037

Dringen, Ralf; Scheiber, Ivo F; Mercer, Julian F B



Soluble poison flux quenching in nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there have been significant developments in the area of inherently safe nuclear reactor conceptual designs. Among these there is much interest in the so-called PIUS reactor, where safety is to be guaranteed by the timely introduction of borated water into the core. In the event of an accidental reactivity insertion followed by a power excursion, the poison introduction would be triggered automatically by natural physical thermal-hydraulic phenomena without any need for the intervention of externally operated control systems. In a first rough approach to reactor kinetics, the poison introduction can be modeled by a region characterized by higher neutron capture properties with respect to the core and whose boundary moves all the way through with a given velocity. It seems there are no adequate treatments of moving boundary problems in reactor physics, and the usual point kinetics techniques are obviously unsatisfactory. The authors present here a first attempt to study the poison flux quenching within a homogenized reactor, using multigroup diffusion theory and taking into account the presence of the delayed neutron generation. Only slab geometry will be considered, but the model is easily extendable to more realistic configurations, such as cylinders, and different spectral describes can be introduced, such as continuous energy by means of suitable slowing down kernels.

Ravetto, P. (Politecnico di Torino (Italy)); Ganapol, B.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))



Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.  


In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention. PMID:14989575

Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S



[Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning: a complicated medical challenge].  


Exposure to insecticides, mainly cholinesterase inhibitors, is a global problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Risk of intoxication is increased in rural areas where there is high availability and proximity of insecticides to families and children. Neglected storage and inadequate practice lead to dangerous exposure. Strict regulations and appropriate safety measures are needed for the prevention of exposure to insecticides. Broad toxicological knowledge is necessary in order to treat organophosphate and carbamate poisoned patients. Diagnosis is not trivial, since the identity of the poison is not always apparent. Multiple exposures including organic solvents are possible. The clinical presenting can be confusing. Measurement of cholinesterase activity is mandatory in establishing the diagnosis. Prompt treatment with proper antidotes and respiratory support is indicated. Early administration of anticonvulsants may mitigate central neurologic complications. Monitoring neurologic and cardiac function is advised for rapid identification of complications and prognosis evaluation. Meticulous preparedness of health care providers for insecticide poisoning is needed from the pre-hospital phase to emergency departments and the different hospital wards. PMID:23957084

Lavon, Ophir; Sagi, Ram



Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines.  


1. To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admitted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied. 2. There were 54 women and 17 men with their age ranging from 15 to 86 years. Twenty-three subjects (32%) also took alcohol, chemicals or drugs. Of the 51 subjects (72%) who had taken topical medicaments, 22 had no symptoms while 28 had minor features of gastrointestinal irritation (n = 26), mild (n = 2) or severe (n = 1) salicylate poisoning. Of the 17 subjects (24%) who had taken CPM tablets/capsules, nine had mild symptoms including nausea/vomiting and drowsiness. The three remaining patients (4%) who had ingested liquid CPM preparations were asymptomatic. Elevated plasma salicylate or paracetamol concentrations (> 0.1 mmol l-1) were found in some patients who had taken topical medicaments and CPM tablets/capsules, respectively. All the 71 patients completely recovered. 3. Most of the CPM used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong were of low to moderate toxicity except for those containing wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate). PMID:7612306

Chan, T Y; Lee, K K; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A



Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.  


Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent. PMID:6338083

Burchell, H B



Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.  


We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated. PMID:10809852

Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K



Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every major species of waterfowl in North America and has also been reported in a wide variety of other birds. The annual magnitude of lead poisoning losses for individual species cannot be precisely determined. However, reasonable estimates of lead-poisoning losses in different species can be made on the basis of waterfowl mortality reports and gizzard analyses. Within the United States, annual losses from lead poisoning have been estimated at between 1.6 and 2.4 million waterfowl, based on a fall flight of 100 million birds.

Friend, M.



[Cyanide poisoning: forensic toxicology observations in the study of 54 cases of fatal poisoning].  


The present study describes various observations made during the examination of 54 cases of lethal cyanide intoxication at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the University of Zürich during a period of more than 40 years. Data pertain to the scene of death, the medicolegal inspection, the autopsy, the histological examinations, the chemical analyses, the various types of poisoning observed and the diagnostic criteria used. The intoxicated victims were mostly adults who had professional access to various cyanogenic compounds and had ingested them with the intention of committing suicide. Cases of accidental and criminal poisoning were rare. In spite of this fact, and although its frequency has not increased in the last few decades, cyanide poisoning has maintained undiminished importance. PMID:4060897

Pasi, A; Morath, M; Hartmann, H



Clinical predictors of completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning in 8895 self-poisoning patients.  


The diagnoses of 8895 patients who were admitted for intentional self-poisoning with psycho-active drugs were studied in order to find predictors for subsequent completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning. Automated record linkage by means of the Swedish personal identification numbers was performed between the Stockholm County inpatient registry and the cause-of-death registry. With Cox regression models, several diagnostic predictors were identified although they were generally unspecific and insensitive. This may be due both to the low base rate of suicides, and to the omission of other more powerful non-clinical predictors, such as personality traits, hopelessness and social disruption. It is concluded that secondary psychiatric prevention may still be justified, although it will be applied to large numbers of patients who will not eventually commit suicide or repeat self-poisoning. PMID:2138552

Allgulander, C; Fisher, L D



Psychological picture of manifest and latent carbon disulphide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hänninen, H. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 374-381. Psychological picture of manifest and latent carbon disulphide poisoning. A battery of psychological tests was administered to 50 viscose workers with carbon disulphide (CS2) poisoning, 50 viscose workers exposed to CS2 without known poisoning, and 50 workers not exposed to CS2. There were large and statistically significant differences between the group means of

Helena Hänninen



A Rare Neurological Complication of Acute Organophosphorous Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous (OP) compound poisoning is one of the most common causes for admission to the Medical Intensive Care Unit. The morbidity and mortality associated with OP poisoning is due to the action of the compound at the muscarinic, nicotinic receptors, and the central nervous system. Here is a rare case of extrapyramidal manifestations occurring in the intermediate phase of OP poisoning, use of amantidine led to subsiding of the symptoms.

Kalyanam, Balamurali; Narayana, Sarala; Kamarthy, Prabhakar



A rare neurological complication of acute organophosphorous poisoning.  


Organophosphorous (OP) compound poisoning is one of the most common causes for admission to the Medical Intensive Care Unit. The morbidity and mortality associated with OP poisoning is due to the action of the compound at the muscarinic, nicotinic receptors, and the central nervous system. Here is a rare case of extrapyramidal manifestations occurring in the intermediate phase of OP poisoning, use of amantidine led to subsiding of the symptoms. PMID:24082514

Kalyanam, Balamurali; Narayana, Sarala; Kamarthy, Prabhakar



Cyanobacterial poisoning in livestock, wild mammals and birds – an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning of livestock by toxic cyanobacteria was first reported in the 19th century, and throughout the 20th century cyanobacteria–related poisonings of livestock and wildlife in all continents have been described. Some mass mortality\\u000a events involving unrelated fauna in prehistoric times have also been attributed to cyanotoxin poisoning; if correct, this\\u000a serves as a reminder that toxic cyanobacteria blooms predate anthropogenic

Ian Stewart; Alan A. Seawright; Glen R. Shaw


Delay among the general public in telephoning a poison center.  


Delay in seeking treatment for poisonings can hinder patient recovery. Our study examined delay in notifying a poison center about green tobacco sickness (GTS), a form of nicotine poisoning resulting from dermal contact with tobacco leaves. We conducted a follow-up survey of 55 cases of GTS reported by telephone to the kentucky Regional Poison Center in 1993. The "delay" group (38.2% of the cases) was defined as those callers who stated in the follow-up report that they should have phoned the poison center sooner than they did. Characteristics of the callers who delayed and the GTS patients they reported were compared with characteristics of the "non-delay" group. Delay was associated with callers' awareness of the poison center's expertise in agricultural poisonings and with age and sex of the patient. Our findings point to the need to target groups such as farmers with an educational campaign to make them more aware of the extent of the poison center's services and to encourage timely reporting of occupational poisonings. PMID:8693693

McKnight, R H; Dawson, S K; Westneat, S C; Rodgers, G C; Ross, M P



Guidance for Industry: Action Levels for Poisonous or ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance for Industry: Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed. Contains ... More results from


76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...



46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...



Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor  

PubMed Central

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates.

Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.



Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor.  


Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world's rarest birds-the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor's apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

Finkelstein, Myra E; Doak, Daniel F; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R



Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter\\u000a fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in\\u000a the subacute phase after CO intoxication.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group\\u000a A, patients with

Takaaki Beppu; Hideaki Nishimoto; Daiya Ishigaki; Shunrou Fujiwara; Tomoyuki Yoshida; Hirotaka Oikawa; Katsura Kamada; Makoto Sasaki; Kuniaki Ogasawara



Lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria from copper-loaded rats.  


The amount of phospholipids in liver mitochondria decreased after chronic alimentary copper-loading of rats (40 mg CuSO4 per rat per day in the course of two weeks), while 24 hours after a single intraperitoneal injection of copper (20 mg CuSO4 per kg body weight) it remained unchanged, notwithstanding that both copper treatments highly increased the copper level in mitochondria. Alimentary copper-loading led to a decrease in the relative proportions of the majority of unsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial phospholipids. Both the spontaneous and Fe2+-induced formation of malonaldehyde were more enhanced in the mitochondria from the two experimental groups as compared to the controls. PMID:4050469

Russanov, E; Balevska, P; Ivancheva, E; Kirkova, M



Acute lead poisoning with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in calves on a farm receiving land application of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A total of 3 cases of acute lead poisoning in calves was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis of biological samples, presence of an acute lead exposure source, clinical signs of impaired vision in one case and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in another case. One of two other calves which died approximately 2 months earlier had nervous signs and it is likely that they also had lead poisoning. Dams of two of the cases did not have elevated lead levels. Municipal sewage sludge had been applied to most fields on the farm during the preceding 5 year period. There had been approximately a doubling of the lead content in the soil; however, the foodstuffs produced on the farm had low lead concentrations. The extremely high lead levels in the abomasal contents and feces of calves eliminated sludge as the source of the lead in this acute poisoning episode. The contents of oil filters, accessible to calves but not to adult cattle, had lead levels as high as 26,922 micrograms/g and was the most likely lead source responsible for this lead intoxication. It appears that the manifestation of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in lead poisoning cases may occur in young calves as well as in cows and in acute as well as in chronic intoxications.

Dorn, C.R.; Tuomari, D.; Reddy, C.; Logan, T.J.



Zinc, copper and manganese in the organs of rats after sublethal cyanide intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single doses of sodium cyanide (60 µmol\\/kg body weight s.c.) were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of this poison on the content of the trace elements zinc, copper and manganese was investigated in various organs after 30 min, 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 1 week. The zinc content in the liver was elevated 24 h after

Jai Raj Behari; K. Mengel; K. D. Friedberg



Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.



Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to

Ruth Kipping; Howard Eastcott; Joyshri Sarangi



To calculation of samarium poisoning in a starting duty after continuous stop of poisoned reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature dedicated to physics of transients and basic physics of exploitation of nuclear reactors the starting duty after continuous stop of a poisoned reactor was not practically considered. In operational practice there is the rather a slow passing process (from several days up to tens day) and insignificance of effects of change of fuel scarifying (less than prompt

I. B. Valuev; R. P. Gorlov; A. V. Kuzmin




Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation hazards are discussed from the point of view of sources of ; radiation, biologic effects, and symptoms of radiation sickness and its treatment. ; Cases of poisoning from ingestion of luminous paint are described. In the four ; cases studied, nothing was demonstrated in terms of internal deposition. This ; material apparently went through the intestine and only an

H. Jacobziner; H. W. Raybin



Erythroid karyorrhexis in the peripheral blood smear in severe arsenic poisoning: a comparison with lead poisoning.  


Three men with severe arsenic poisoning were hospitalized with working diagnoses, respectively, of peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, and viral gastroenteritis. In the first two patients, correct diagnosis was delayed until the return of heavy-metal screening tests ordered because of painful peripheral neuropathy in one and sudden flaccid paralysis, resembling Guillain-Barré syndrome, in the other. Both patients had coarsely stippled red blood cells with markedly abnormal nuclei in their peripheral blood smears. These distinctive hematologic features led to an early diagnosis in the third patient. The author's review of past cases of lead poisoning showed that red blood cell karyorrhexis also tends to occur in patients who consume illicit whiskey ("moonshine"). Karyorrhexis or marked dyserythropoiesis in the peripheral smear, not heretofore described in arsenic or lead poisoning, may indeed be a unique hematologic clue. Scrutiny of the peripheral blood and/or buffy coat smear in patients with perplexing gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms may enable earlier diagnosis and better therapy of arsenic poisoning. PMID:6702757

Eichner, E R



Immunologic Studies of Poisonous Anacardiaceae: Oral Desensitization to Poison Ivy and Oak urushiols in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poison ivy and oak urushiols or their components were compared with the respective esterified derivatives for efficacy in oral desensitization of Hartley guinea pigs sensitized to urushiols. The esterified derivatives produced a significantly greater degree of hyposensitization than did free urushiol counterparts. Suppression produced by esterified urushiols was of longer duration than that produced by free urushiols. Groups of sensitized

Edna S. Watson; James C. Murphy; Mahmoud A. ElSohly



Snake venom poisoning: experience with 633 cases.  


Snake venom poisoning is a common medical emergency and the epidemiological features vary from region to region. We conducted a prospective study to review the epidemiology, treatment and outcome of snake venom poisoning in central Karnataka. Six hundred and thirty three cases of snake bite, seen in a teaching hospital, upto the age of 18 years, over a period of 8 years from 1985 to 1992 constituted the material for the study. Detailed history with special reference to the type of snake, circumstances leading to the bite and clinical consequences were studied and final outcome was noted. Males (n = 433) were bitten more often than females (n = 200). Two hundred and fifty six (40.4%) cases were in the age range of 11-15 years. The cases were seen during two periods, i.e., Oct, Nov, Dec (n = 210) and Apr, May, June (n = 199). Most (n = 506) were encountered in the lower limbs. Viper was the most common poisonous snake. Five hundred and seventy (90%) cases were from rural area. Coagulation time was prolonged in 371 (58.6%) cases, hemorrhagic syndrome was noticed in 354 (55.9%) cases, neurological involvement in 79 (12.5%) cases. Polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV) was given to 479 cases. Hypersensitivity to ASV was noted in 8 cases. Blood transfusion was given to 33 cases for the management of excessive bleeding. The death rate among snake victims was 5.2% (33 cases). The morbidity and mortality can be reduced substantially by increasing and maintaining confidence in good medical care and providing health education. PMID:7875785

Kulkarni, M L; Anees, S



Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated.

Argudin, Maria Angeles; Mendoza, Maria Carmen; Rodicio, Maria Rosario



Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins.  


Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario



Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  


An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R



Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.  


A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used. PMID:16031005

Jones, J M


Self-poisoning of the mind  

PubMed Central

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre.

Elster, Jon



Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.  


The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F



Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts, revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique aspects of catalysts in the electrical generating unit of fuel cells are discussed. Fuel cell catalysts suffer from deactivation and poisoning phenomena that are either identical to or strongly analogous to the processes which occur in heterogeneous catalysis. Fuel cell performance is degraded by poisoning from impurities, loss of surface area of noble metal, and physical deterioration of

P. N. Ross Jr.; P. N. Jr



Circe in Crinoline: Domestic Poisonings in Victorian England  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Victorian era, about forty women were tried for poisoning their husbands. Despite the small number, the cases loomed large in the public imagi nation and were given widespread and sensational coverage by the press. Evidence presented at poison trials tells us much regarding Victorian ideas about science, domestic routines, patterns of marital conflict, and attitudes toward women in

George Robb



The role of Poison Control Centers in radiation accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the days after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl (USSR) in April 1986, the Dutch Poison Control Center had to answer questions concerning possible health effects caused by (over)exposure to ionizing radiation. These questions were similar to questions asked regarding exposure to toxic agents after chemical accidents. It is obvious that the experience and practical approach of a Poison

T. J. F. Savelkoul; H. P. Leenhouts; B. Sangster



Fatal poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009.  


Fatal alcohol and drug poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009 were studied. Cases were divided into those that occurred outside the hospitals (the majority of cases) and those that occurred within the hospitals (the minority of cases). Differences and similarities between the two groups were analysed. The postmortem toxicological investigation of all sudden and unexpected deaths in Finland is centralised at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki. We examined each fatal poisoning separately and verified the cause and place of death as well as the age and sex of the deceased. Fatal poisonings, including suicides, have remained unchanged for many years from the same high level, that is, about 1200 cases annually (22/100,000 inhabitants). The number of patients dying in hospitals due to poisoning has also remained stable (55-70 patients/year). However, the toxic agents involved in such poisonings have changed and deaths due to opioids are now being more numerous. The number of fatal unintentional drug poisonings rose significantly from 191 to 341 (3-6/100,000 inhabitants, p < 0.001) during the study years, and the difference between poisonings caused by drugs or alcohol also changed significantly (p < 0.001). Diminishing substantially, the number of all fatal poisonings will be challenging because of the high percentage of suicides. However, a reduction in unintentional drug overdoses, which are presently on the rise, should be possible. PMID:23696556

Lapatto-Reiniluoto, O; Vuori, E; Hoppu, K; Ojanperä, I



Acute Poisoning in Children; Data of a Pediatric Emergency Unit  

PubMed Central

Objective Acute Poisoning in children is still an important public health problem and represents a frequent cause of admission in emergency units. The epidemiological surveillance specific for each country is necessary to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken. Methods The present retrospective study describes the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in a pediatric population admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department of Eskisehir Osmangazi University Hospital during the year 2009. Findings Two hundred eighteen children were reffered to the emergency department due to acute poisoning. 48.4% of patients were boys and 51.6% were girls. The majority of cases were due to accidental poisoning (73.3% of all patients). Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning (48.3%), followed by ingestion of corrosive substance (23.1%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (12.5%). Tricyclic antidepressant was the most common drug (11.7%). Methylphenidate poisoning, the second common drug. 262 patients were discharged from hospital within 48 hours. Conclusion Preventable accidental poisonings are still a significant cause of morbidity among children in developing countries. Drugs and corrosive agents are the most frequent agents causing poisoning.

Sahin, Sabiha; Bora Carman, Kursat; Dinleyici, Ener Cagr?



Childhood Lead Poisoning: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems, this report examines lead poisoning as a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible and as a housing problem directly related to a shortage of safe, affordable housing. The report details screening rates in Rhode…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.


Mitochondrial degeneration after organic phosphate poisoning in prosimian primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degenerative reaction of mitochondria to tricresylphosphate (TCP) poisoning in spinal ganglion cells of Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang coucang) were studied with the electron microscope. In neurones of animals treated with TCP, mitochondria display various stages of alterations which confirm mitochondrial involvement in TCP poisoning. The role of degenerated mitochondria in the formation of neuronal lipofuscin is discussed. It is

M. Mumtazuddin Ahmed; Paul Glees



An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

Rajaram, Shireen S.



Neuromaturation and behavior development: The case of childhood lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a rationale for the study of the role of neuromaturation in cognitive and behavioral development. Early childhood lead poisoning is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms and known cognitive sequelae. 18 children, 4–6 yrs old, with past histories of lead poisoning, were compared to matched controls on a 6-factor cognitive and neuromotor battery that included the WPPSI and the

Sandra J. Shaheen



Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.


Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 2: Companion animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second in a series of three review articles on animal poisoning in Europe and focuses on cases in pet animals and horses in five European countries (Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain) reported over the last decade. In the participating countries, dogs were the most commonly poisoned species, particularly younger animals. The majority of cases in companion

Philippe Berny; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Magda Sachana; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Franca Davanzo; Raimon Guitart



A global approach to childhood lead poisoning prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood lead poisoning is an important, preventable environmental disease affecting millions of children around the world. The effects of lead are well known and range from delayed and adversely affected neurodevelopment to severe health outcomes including seizures, coma, and death. This article reviews the childhood effects of lead poisoning, the approach being taken to the problem in the United States,

Pamela A. Meyer; Michael A. McGeehin; Henry Falk



Examining the contribution of infant walkers to childhood poisoning.  


Parents frequently utilize baby walkers in their infants of approximately 5-15 mo of age and create opportunities for traumatic accidents. Healthcare professionals have tried to increase awareness of their dangers; despite this, between 1986 and 1991 reported walker-related accidents rose 45%. We determined if walkers were a significant contributor to childhood poisonings and what toxins were encountered most commonly. A 14-mo prospective study in a regional poison information center determined the prevalence of accidental pediatric poisonings in children aged 5-15 mo old who suffered their exposure while in a baby walker. The regional poison information center managed 7.058 poisoning exposures, 2.8% of which occurred while the child was in an infant walker. The mean age was 8.25 mo (range 5-14 mo), with 96% less than 12 mo. Substances involved were: plants 56.7%, cleaning products 9.9%, cosmetics 5.5%, construction supplies 5.0%, cigarettes 4.5%, topicals 4.5%, oral medications 2.0%, chalk 2.0% and miscellaneous 9.9%. The majority (95%) of children were asymptomatic. Infant walkers contributed substantially less to infant poisonings than was anticipated. Despite the innocuous nature of exposures, a vulnerable population was exposed to potential poisons within reach of their grasp. Baby walker injuries are not limited to trauma, and accidental poisonings should be included in the admonitions that accompany their use. PMID:10670086

Mroz, L S; Krenzelok, E P



Intentional self-poisoning with glyphosate-containing herbicides.  


Four cases of self-poisoning with 'Roundup' herbicide are described, one of them fatal. One of the survivors had a protracted hospital stay and considerable clinical and laboratory detail is presented. Serious self-poisoning is associated with massive gastrointestinal fluid loss and renal failure. The management of such cases and the role of surfactant toxicity are discussed. PMID:1675099

Menkes, D B; Temple, W A; Edwards, I R



Coupled IVPs to Investigate a Nuclear Reactor Poison Burn Up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of coupled IVPs that describe the change rate of an important poison, in a nuclear reactor, has been written herein. Specifically, in this article, we have focused on the samarium-149 (as a poison) burnup in a desired pressurized water nuclear reactor and its concentration are given using our MATLAB-linked ``solver.''

Faghihi, F.



Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause large economic losses throughout the rangelands of the world. In the 17 western states of the United States alone, it has been estimated that losses related to the ingestion of poisonous plants exceed $340 million annually. There are many plants that contribute to these large...


Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.


Chemical poisonings among Kraków inhabitants in 1972 and 2002.  


The patterns (frequency, poisoning type, toxic agent involved) of adolescent and adult poisonings in Kraków in 1972 and 2002 are presented. The analysis includes data for poisoned patients treated at the Kraków Department of Clinical Toxicology in 2002 and 1972, and all on the spot fatal cases subjected to post-mortem autopsy and toxicological examinations at the Department of Forensic Medicine in both the years. As much as 4116 poisoned cases (males 2722; females 1394) were treated in 2002 compared to 1485 (males 649; females 836) in 1972. There was no substantial difference between a number of poison related fatalities on the spot in years analysed: 126 (males 105; females 21) in 2002 and 122 (males 84; females 38) in 1972. An elevation in poisoning incidence rate per 10,000 of Kraków inhabitants was also noted in 2002 compared to 1972 (54.3 vs. 30.0). A pharmaceuticals (32.9%) followed by CO (18.2%) and mixed pharmaceuticals (16.2%) were mostly involved in poisoning cases in 1972, whereas ethanol (46%), pharmaceuticals (13.2%), pharmaceuticals co-ingested with ethanol (7.8%), narcotics (7.8%), mixed pharmaceuticals (6.7%), and CO (5.2%) were mostly involved in poisoning cases treated in 2002. A mortality rate both concerning only a people who died in hospital or/and those who died on the spot (prior to any treatment) was significantly higher in 1972 compared to 2002. PMID:15521577

Targosz, Dorota; Sancewicz-Pach, Krystyna; Szkolnicka, Beata; K?ys, Ma?gorzata



Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.  


Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy. PMID:20487653

Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J


Clinical Investigation of Hyposensitization in Poison Oak Sensitive Individuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to determine whether individuals in California who were sensitive to poison oak could be desensitized by the use of the purified active principle of poison oak, urushiol. Many adult males were skin-tested to determine sens...

W. L. Epstein



Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut



Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment.  


The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described. PMID:22181211

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut



Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized.

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic



Recovery of copper powder from copper bleed electrolyte of an Indian copper smelter by electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper bleed solution generated from an Indian Copper smelter contains high amount of copper and nickel along with several impurities. Attempts have been made to develop a new process for the production of pure copper powder from such streams. The purity of the electrolytic copper powder produced from such bleed streams was found to be 99.93%. Properties such as compact

Archana Agrawal; Sarita Kumari; D. Bagchi; V. Kumar; B. D. Pandey



How Bacteria Handle Copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper in biological systems presents a formidable problem: it is essential for life, yet highly\\u000a reactive and a potential source of cell damage. Tight control of copper is thus a cellular necessity.\\u000a To meet this challenge, cells have evolved pumps for transmembranous transport, chaperones for intracellular\\u000a routing, oxidases and reductases to change the oxidation state of copper, and regulators to control gene\\u000a expression

David Magnani; Marc Solioz


Current Research Problems of Chronic Arsenicosis in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic arsenicosis is a newly-emerged public-health issue in China and many other Asian countries. Over 200 million people are estimated to be at the risk of high arsenic exposure from drinking-water in the Asian region. To protect people from the hazards of chronic arsenic poisoning, the Chinese Gov- ernment has been providing low-arsenic drinking-water to some seriously-affected rural areas, such

Guifan Sun; Xin Li; Jingbo Pi; Yang Sun; Bing Li; Yaping Jin; Yuanyuan Xu



Acquired Copper Deficiency: A Potentially Serious and Preventable Complication Following Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an essential cofactor in many enzymatic reactions vital to the normal function of the hematologic, vascular, skeletal, antioxidant, and neurologic systems. Copper deficiency in the United States is believed to be relatively rare but has been described in the setting of zinc supplementation, myelodysplastic syndrome, use of parenteral nutrition and chronic tube feeding, and in various malabsorptive syndromes,

Daniel P. Griffith; David A. Liff; Thomas R. Ziegler; Gregory J. Esper; Elliott F. Winton



Low levels of copper reduce the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine organisms that occur in urbanised bays can be exposed to low-level chronic pollution that results in sublethal changes to behavior or reproduction. The effects of low levels of copper on the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate were assessed. Free living flatworms are common predators of bivalves and barnacles. Flatworms (Stylochus pygmaeus) were exposed to low levels of copper

Ka-Man Lee; Emma L. Johnston



Cognitive deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adult monozygotic twins with lead poisoning.  


Seventy-one-year-old identical twin brothers with chronic lead poisoning were identified from an occupational medicine clinic roster. Both were retired painters, but one brother (J.G.) primarily removed paint and had a history of higher chronic lead exposure. Patella and tibia bone lead concentrations measured by K-X-ray fluorescence in each brother were 5-10 times those of the general population and about 2.5 times higher in J.G. than in his brother (E.G.). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies examined N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratios, a marker of neuronal density. Ratios were lower in J.G. than in his brother. Scores on neurocognitive tests that assess working memory/executive function were below expectation in both twins. Short-term memory function was dramatically worse in J.G. than in his brother. These results demonstrate some of the more subtle long-term neurologic effects of chronic lead poisoning in adults. In particular, they suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in both twins, but more dramatic hippocampal dysfunction in the brother with higher lead exposure. The MRS findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure caused neuronal loss, which may contribute to the impairment in cognitive function. Although a causal relation cannot be inferred, the brothers were genetically identical, with similar life experiences. Although these results are promising, further study is necessary to determine whether MRS findings correlate both with markers of lead exposure and tests of cognitive function. Nevertheless, the results point to the potential utility of MRS in determining mechanisms of neurotoxicity not only for lead but also for other neurotoxicants as well. PMID:15064171

Weisskopf, Marc G; Hu, Howard; Mulkern, Robert V; White, Roberta; Aro, Antonio; Oliveira, Steve; Wright, Robert O



A nationwide evidence-based study of factors associated with hospitalisations due to unintentional poisoning and poisoning mortality in Taiwan.  


The aim of this study was to explore the epidemiologic characteristics of unintentional poisoning cases and the factors associated with inpatient mortality. Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance database from 2005 to 2007. Patients with diagnosis classifications of ICD-9-CM E850-E869 (unintentional poisoning) were selected. SPSS 18.0 software was used for the analysis. In Taiwan between 2005 and 2007, a total of 11,523 patients were hospitalised due to unintentional poisoning, with a hospitalisation rate of 16.83 per 100,000, of which 60.1% and 39.9% were attributable to drug poisoning and solid, liquid and gas substance poisoning, respectively. The hospitalisation rate in men was higher than that of women. The age group of 45-64 had the highest hospitalisation rate of 52.85 per 100,000. The inpatient mortality rate increased with the presence of the following factors: age of 65 or older, surgery or procedure, a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), short length of hospital stays, acute respiratory failure, alcohol poisoning, pesticide poisoning and a higher-level hospital visited. Methanol, herbicides and organophosphorus pesticide intoxications are associated with higher mortality rates. Therefore, when caring for patients poisoned by the above agents, healthcare professionals should look out for their clinical development to ensure quality of care and to reduce mortality. PMID:23003103

Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Lai, Ching-Huang



Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper  

SciTech Connect

Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal whose transport into the cell is tightly regulated. Kineococcus radiotolerans was previously shown to specifically accumulate soluble copper in the cytoplasm and cell growth was significantly enhanced by copper during chronic irradiation. This study provides a systematic investigation of copper accumulation, toxicity, and homeostasis in K. radiotolerans through combined physiological experimentation and quantitative shot-gun proteomics. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations, though intracellular metal accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2 = 0.7). Global proteomics analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the total number of response proteins and their abundance with copper concentration and culture age. Approximately 40% of the K. radiotolerans genome was differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Concomitant production of antioxidants and protective osmolytes signifies an important adaptation for maintenance of cellular redox; few known metal binding proteins were detected. This study offers a first glimpse into the complexity of coordinated biochemical response pathways in K. radiotolerans invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations that may be pertinent for new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration.

Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.



Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality.

Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Guven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul



Subacute poisoning with phosalone, an organophosphate insecticide.  

PubMed Central

An illness characterized by weakness, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symtoms was identified among a crew of 30 migrant field-workers employed by a grape grower in Madera County, California, during August 1987. The onset of symptoms occurred between August 24 and August 30 and a median of 9 days from the date of first employment. The first crew member sought medical treatment on August 26, and 10 crew members were admitted to hospital between August 27 and August 30. For most workers, gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms resolved shortly after admission, but 4 patients had episodes of severe sinus bradycardia persisting for several days. On the day of admission, transient atrioventricular dissociation developed in 2 persons. Interviews with 16 crew members not admitted to the hospital identified only 1 additional worker ill with gastrointestinal symptoms, but all 16 had moderate to severe inhibition of both plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase. Four other workers who were tested but not interviewed also had cholinesterase depression. The crew had had exposure since August 19 to the organophosphate insecticide phosalone, which was last applied to the vineyard on July 21, or 29 days earlier. Although this is the first report unequivocally linking phosalone to field-worker poisoning, the delayed onset and nonspecific nature of the symptoms associated with subacute poisoning may have hindered the recognition of previous similar episodes. Images

O'Malley, M. A.; McCurdy, S. A.



The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin.  


Poisons are common in nature, where they often serve the organism in chemical defense. Such poisons either are produced de novo or are sequestered from dietary sources or symbiotic organisms. Among vertebrates, amphibians are notable for the wide range of noxious agents that are contained in granular skin glands. These compounds include amines, peptides, proteins, steroids, and both water-soluble and lipid-soluble alkaloids. With the exception of the alkaloids, most seem to be produced de novo by the amphibian. The skin of amphibians contains many structural classes of alkaloids previously unknown in nature. These include the batrachotoxins, which have recently been discovered to also occur in skin and feathers of a bird, the histrionicotoxins, the gephyrotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, epibatidine, and the samandarines. Some amphibian skin alkaloids are clearly sequestered from the diet, which consists mainly of small arthropods. These include pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids from ants, tricyclic coccinellines from beetles, and pyrrolizidine oximes, presumably from millipedes. The sources of other alkaloids in amphibian skin, including the batrachotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the histrionicotoxins, the pumiliotoxins, and epibatidine, are unknown. While it is possible that these are produced de novo or by symbiotic microorganisms, it appears more likely that they are sequestered by the amphibians from as yet unknown dietary sources. PMID:7816854

Daly, J W



Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N



Homicidal methanol poisoning in a child.  


A case of homicidal poisoning of a 21-month-old child using methanol is presented. The child was found dead in his crib during a court-ordered visit to his father's home. He reportedly was experiencing "flu-like" symptoms the day before. Routine toxicology testing of specimens taken at autopsy revealed the presence of methanol in a concentration of 0.21%, 0.23%, 0.31%, 0.28%, and 0.26% (w/v or w/w) in heart blood, venous blood, urine, vitreous humor, and gastric contents, respectively. Formic acid concentrations were 1.0 and 6.4 g/L in heart blood and urine. No other drugs or chemicals were detected in comprehensive screening. Accidental ingestion of methanol was ruled out; however, the homicide investigation was complicated by the fact that up to seven adults at three different locations had been involved in the child's care. Minimal information in the literature on the time frame for the development of symptoms of methanol intoxication in a child of this age made predicting a likely time of ingestion difficult. Discussion of the investigation and the timeline for the poisoning that was eventually established are included. PMID:21871164

Beno, Jeanne M; Hartman, Rebecca; Wallace, Christine; Nemeth, David; LaPoint, Scott



Acute mercury poisoning: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED) due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentat?on A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 ?g/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 ?g/dL). Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.



Gallium poisoning: a rare case report.  


The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea, vertigo, and unexpected black-outs. Had there been effective emergency medical care protocols, diagnostic testing, treatment and antidotes, the latent manifestations of irreversible cardiomyopathy may have been prevented. Given how quickly exposure led to morbidity, this article aims to raise an awareness of the toxic potential of gallium. This has particular relevance for workers involved in the production of semiconductors where there is a potential for accidental exposure to gallium by-products during device processing. It may also have implications for dentists who use gallium alloys to replace mercury containing amalgam. In the absence of threshold limit values and exposure limits for humans, as well as emergency medical guidelines for treatment of poisoning, the case calls on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to establish guidelines and medical management protocols specific for gallium. PMID:22024274

Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Hottel, Timothy L



Chronic berylliosis of the lung: report of a case.  


We report a case of chronic berylliosis of the lung in a patient who was exposed to copper beryllium alloy, which was mistaken and being treated as miliary tuberculosis. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:16892748

Chandrashekar, H B; Ramesh, B R; Chitra, D