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1

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING.... Beasley. $4. S., Asst. Agronomist S. D. Reynolds, Jr., Feed Inspector Publications : P. A. Moore, Feed Inspector A. I3 Jackson, Chief E. J. Wilson, B. S.. Feed Inspector H. G. Wickes. D. V. M.. Feed Inspector SUBSTATIO~L>'., No. 1. Beeville. Bee...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

2

Attempted induction of chronic copper poisoning in boma confined impala.  

PubMed

Induction of chronic copper poisoning in ten boma-confined impala was attempted in a randomized, single dose, parallel designed, titration study using five increasing oral doses, ranging between 125 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg, of copper oxide needles. Two untreated impala were kept as controls. Impala (n = 1) from each treatment group were culled 52 d and 105 d after treatment and examined for tissue copper accumulation and signs of chronic copper poisoning. Despite the high doses of copper administered to the impala and liver copper concentrations above 150 ppm WM achieved in two animals, no clinical signs related to chronic copper poisoning were observed. Faecal copper concentrations indicated that the major portion of copper oxide particles was excreted in the faeces. PMID:10631706

Grobler, D G; Swan, G E

1999-09-01

3

Chronic interstitial nephritis following parenteral copper sulfate poisoning.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old male patient was admitted with acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following suicidal parenteral copper sulfate poisoning. He developed metabolic acidosis and septicemia; and was treated with intensive hemodialysis, blood transfusions and antibiotics. After remaining anuric for 4 weeks, his urine output gradually increased. However his renal functions improved only partially. Renal biopsy done 8 weeks after the episode showed chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis (CIN). This is the first reported case showing CIN following acute copper sulfate intoxication. PMID:11725921

Bhowmik, D; Mathur, R; Bhargava, Y; Dinda, A K; Agarwal, S K; Tiwari, S C; Dash, S C

2001-09-01

4

Chronic poisoning by copper in tap water: I. Copper intoxications with predominantly gastointestinal symptoms.  

PubMed

Copper can induce acute and chronic intoxications in humans. Copper in tap water has caused a series of severe systemic diseases in Germany in recent years (copper induced liver cirrhosis). Besides cirrhosis, another type of disease with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms has occurred which likewise appeared to be induced by copper in tap water. - In a retrospective investigation we looked for additional indications and proof that chronic copper poisoning has been the cause of the observed gastrointestinal diseases. All patients suffering from this type of disease had copper plumbing in their houses. - The patients (children and adults) suffered from nausea, vomiting, colic, and diarrhoea. In the group of infants, one refused formula milk (prepared with tap water) and the others suffered from persistent restlessness, unexplainable screaming (especially at night) and/or long lasting diaper rash. - We accept the diagnosis of chronic copper intoxication as the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms when at least one of the following criteria were fulfilled: 1. first manifestation, remission and relapse of the disease depend on intake and a non-intake of water containing copper, respectively. 2. hypercupric state of the patients (i.e. pathological high concentrations of the non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper in serum and/or elevated copper levels in urine) 3. signs of systemic copper intoxication in the same patient 4. signs of systemic copper intoxication or hypercupric states in members of the patient s family or in his neighbourhood (non-relatives) - We found that the disease can even be caused by copper concentrations below the allowed concentration given by the German Guidelines for Drinking Water (Trinkwasserverordnung). - The data prove that copper in drinking water can cause gastrointestinal diseases and not only the better known systemic diseases (i.e. copper induced liver cirrhosis). Copper poisoning must be considered as a possible cause of chronic gastrointestinal diseases in those countries in which copper plumbing is common. PMID:10383875

Eife, R; Weiss, M; Barros, V; Sigmund, B; Goriup, U; Komb, D; Wolf, W; Kittel, J; Schramel, P; Reiter, K

1999-06-28

5

Chronic poisoning by copper in tap water: II. Copper intoxications with predominantly systemic symptoms.  

PubMed

Copper can induce acute and chronic intoxications in humans. Copper in tap water has caused a series of severe systemic diseases in Germany in recent years (chronic copper poisoning, CCuP). From the clinical point of view it has been difficult to establish the diagnosis on the basis of clinical and laboratory methods. In a retrospective study, we therefore looked for essential clinical signs as well as laboratory findings which might be typical and essential for the diagnosis of CCuP. - We observed that in patients with severe systemic CCuP not only the liver but also several other organs have been the target of copper. As a proof copper overload has been measured. The latter results are presented here. - During or shortly after exposure "free" serum copper (= non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper) was significantly elevated in all patients (range 5.1 to 47.1 micromol/l, or 25.7 to 56.2 % of total serum copper). The normal upper limits in infants according to Salmenperä (8) are: 0.3 micromol/l, or 1.6 % of total serum copper. - Total serum copper was elevated in 14/16 patients: 13.7 to 30.1 micromol/l in sick infants (normal upper level: 12.6 micromol/l), and 17.0 to 27.2 in sick children (normal upper level for children and adults: 21.4 micromol/l). - Urine copper excretion was found elevated in 9/10 patients, with a range of 11 to 456 microg/dl (normal upper level in adults: 15 microg/dl). - Our results show that patients with systemic CCuP are in a "hypercupric" state. The data thus firstly prove that indeed the putative agent copper is found in excess in the patients and secondly show that the estimation of "free" copper in serum and the measurement of copper in urine are reliable diagnostic methods. Elevation of total serum copper (even though not specific) can give a first hint to the diagnosis. - The hypercupric state of systemic CCuP can be differentiated from that of Wilson's disease by (1) normal levels of ceruloplasmin and (2) the observation that values for free copper in serum or urinary copper normalize in an environment without copper in tap water, for instance in a hospital. PMID:10383876

Eife, R; Weiss, M; Müller-Höcker, M; Lang, T; Barros, V; Sigmund, B; Thanner, F; Welling, P; Lange, H; Wolf, W; Rodeck, B; Kittel, J; Schramel, P; Reiter, K

1999-06-28

6

Clinical observations of cattle and buffalos with experimentally induced chronic copper poisoning.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of cattle and buffalos to chronic copper poisoning (CCP) was compared by using cattle (n=10) and buffalo (n=10) steers distributed into two copper supplemented (n=6) and two control (n=4) groups. Supplemented animals received 2 mg copper (Cu)/kg body weight daily for one week, with an additional 2 mg weekly until the end of the experiment (day 105). Three liver biopsies (day 0, 45, and 105) were obtained for mineral analyses; clinical examinations and blood samples were obtained every 15days. Three supplemented cattle and two buffalos with typical manifestations of CCP died. There were no differences in the frequency of mortality between cattle and buffalos; hepatic copper concentration was higher in cattle than buffalos. These findings suggest that buffalos and cattle might be equally susceptible to CCP. However, buffalos accumulate less liver copper than cattle and have a lower threshold of hepatic Cu accumulation, which leads to clinical manifestation of CCP. PMID:19487001

Minervino, Antonio H H; Barrêto Júnior, Raimundo A; Ferreira, Rodrigo N F; Rodrigues, Frederico A M L; Headley, Selwyn A; Mori, Clara S; Ortolani, Enrico L

2009-12-01

7

Chronic copper poisoning in sheep grazing pastures fertilized with swine manure  

SciTech Connect

Several pregnant ewes developed an acute hemolytic crisis and died. Liver and kidney copper concentrations were high, confirming chronic copper poisoning as the cause of death. Feed and water samples that the affected ewes had been consuming did not contain excess copper. Because swine manure slurry had been applied to the pasture where the sheep had grazed, a copper analysis was conducted on soil and forage samples from this field. High copper concentrations were detected in the soil and forage samples from the slurry pasture. Most sheep producers are aware of the catastrophic consequences that result when feeds containing copper and insufficient amounts of molybdenum are fed to sheep. However, producers and veterinarians often are unaware of some of the subtle sources of copper. Most of the copper that is added to swine and poultry feeds as growth promotants passes through the gastrointestinal tract unabsorbed and remains in the waste material. Pastures that have copper-containing waste material, but no molybdenum applied, can produce the same fatal results as giving sheep feed supplemented with copper but containing no molybdenum.

Kerr, L.A.; McGavin, H.D. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1991-01-01

8

[Treatment of chronic copper poisoning in dairy sheep with oral ammonium molybdate and sodium sulphate ].  

PubMed

Four weeks after the introduction of a new ration, a herd of sheep in the Swiss midland area was affected by depression, anorexia, decreased milk production, anemia, hemoglobinuria and frequent recumbency. Seventeen ewes died within a few days. A diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning was based on the results of feed analysis, histopathological findings and the toxicological examination of liver tissue. The remaining sheep were treated with oral ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate, which together provide an inexpensive alternative to the chelator D-penicillamine.This combination not only prevents further copper intake, but also supports its elimination from the hepatocellular storage compartments. Serum copper levels have been determined to monitor the mobilization of copper following this antidote therapy. PMID:15929603

Kupper, J; Bidaut, A; Waldvogel, A; Emmenegger, B; Naegeli, H

2005-05-01

9

Chronic arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS). PMID:11869818

Hall, Alan H

2002-03-10

10

[Photometric determination of copper content in the liver during experimental chronic copper poisoning in sheep].  

PubMed

15 castrated rams were exposed to an oral copper-dosage of 3.64 mg/d/kg body weight for 84 days. The control group consisted of 11 rams with a copper intake of 0.14 mg/d/kg bodyweight. Liver biopsies were taken percutaneously (100 samples), under laparoscopic control (53 samples) or post mortem (14 samples) before, during and up to 200 days after the controlled copper intake. Analysis of copper concentration in the liver tissue was done by a modified photometrical Bathocuproin-method after cold extraction with hydrochloric and trichloracetic acid. By using a parallel specimen blank with added EDTA, disturbing factors of the sample matrix were eliminated. The method was evaluated by the atom-absorption-spectroscopy after wet incineration as well as by standard addition of copper titrisol. The correlation with the reference method was very good (r > 0.99); the recovery rate after standard addition was 95 +/- 5.4%. The maximum copper concentrations in the liver were reached after the completion of the copper dosage. Blackheaded sheep showed significantly higher values (480 +/- 173 mg/kg wet tissue weight) than Merino sheep (338 +/- 103). The values of the control animals were 36 +/- 18 mg/kg. In the copper dosed rams the course of copper storage in the liver tissue could be described by an multiple regression with an accuracy of r2 > 0.75. The half-life of the copper concentration in the liver after exceeding maximum levels was 175 +/- 91 days. The pathogenetic role of the copper retention in the dosed animals was proven by regularly increased values of the hepatocellular enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase in the plasma. PMID:9471415

Bickhardt, K; Humann, E; Schwert, B; Coenen, M

1997-11-01

11

Long-term observation of subclinical chronic copper poisoning in two sheep breeds.  

PubMed

Fourteen castrated male sheep of two breeds, the Mutton Merino (MMB) and Blackhead Suffolk cross breed (BSC), were exposed to an oral copper (Cu) intake of 3.7 mg/day per kg body weight for 84 days (high Cu group, HCu), and 11 castrated male sheep received a daily oral Cu intake of 0.16 mg/day per kg body weight (controls). Liver Cu concentration was measured in liver biopsies until 2.7 years after Cu overdose. Haematologic parameters, plasma Cu, enzymes and metabolites were analysed and post-mortem examinations were carried out. No haemolytic crises occurred. The highest liver Cu concentrations (133-677 mg/kg wet weight) were measured in HCu sheep around day 110 with significantly higher values in BSC than in MMB. The very slow decreases of liver Cu concentration of HCu sheep after day 215 showed individual half-life periods of 175 +/- 91 days. A progressive Cu retention in the liver of HCu sheep during Cu supplementation indicates strong Cu binding and storage in the liver. High values of glutamate dehydrogenase (20-940 U/l) measured frequently until day 700 and a diminished plasma clearance of bromosulphthalein as well as pathohistological findings of focal liver necrosis confirm the markedly chronic character of Cu poisoning. PMID:11599680

Humann-Ziehank, E; Coenen, M; Ganter, M; Bickhardt, K

2001-09-01

12

Sunflower meal as cause of chronic copper poisoning in lambs in southeastern Spain.  

PubMed

Sunflower meal with a copper/molybdenum ratio of 10 caused copper toxicosis in lambs. Copper must be analyzed on a dry matter basis in liver and renal cortex. Oral administration of molybdenum and thiosulfate had a certain effectiveness in sick animals. Care must be taken with feedstuffs made from copper-dependent plants. PMID:10563240

García-Fernández, A J; Motas-Guzmán, M; Navas, I; María-Mojica, P; Romero, D

1999-11-01

13

Copper poisoning in the Kruger National Park: field investigation in wild ruminants.  

PubMed

Chronic copper poisoning was investigated in ruminants within the Phalaborwa area of the Kruger National Park (KNP). Exposure of ruminants to environmental copper pollution resulting form copper smelting operations of a mine in the area was examined by comparing impala faecal copper concentrations in dung heaps and tissue (liver, lung and kidney) copper concentrations of organs collected from impala and buffalo culled within three risk zones (high, moderate and low) of the study area in relation to the distance from the smelter over a period of 4 years. An additional area within the KNP not exposed to the environmental copper pollution from the mine served as control. Tissue copper accumulation was also determined in tracer impala placed in the highest risk zone. The results of this study confirmed the occurrence of chronic copper poisoning in impala and indicated an inverse relationship in extent of impala faecal copper elimination and in tissue copper accumulation in impala and buffalo with distance from the copper smelter. Impala liver copper concentrations were shown to be a reliable indicator of copper accumulation for these ruminants. The presence lung copper concentrations, indicating the exposure to airborne copper were the highest in impala culled in the zone closest to the smelter. Liver copper concentrations above the diagnostic limit of 150 ppm for chronic copper poisoning in domestic sheep were consistently found in impala within the highest risk zone. Clinical pathological measurements suggested that AST activity could possibly be used as an indicator for chronic copper poisoning in impala. It is concluded that, in addition to the environmental and geo-botanical evidence previously reported, the copper smelter of a nearby copper mine is the most likely source of copper pollution responsible for chronic copper poisoning in impala and the occurrence of high copper concentrations in buffalo in the Phalaborwa area of the KNP. PMID:10631705

Grobler, D G; Swan, G E

1999-09-01

14

Chronic Arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Chronic Arsenic Toxicity may have varied clinical presentations ranging from non-cancerous manifestations to malignancy of skin and different internal organs. Dermal lesions such as hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis, predominantly over palms and soles are diagnostic of Chronic Arsenicosis. We report two cases from a family living in Sukkur who presented with classical skin lesions described in Chronic Arsenicosis. The urine, nail and hair samples of these patients contained markedly elevated levels of arsenic. Also the water samples from their household and the neighbouring households were found to have alarming levels of inorganic Arsenic. PMID:19260576

Ahsan, Tasnim; Zehra, Kaneez; Munshi, Alia; Ahsan, Samiah

2009-02-01

15

Severe acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

As copper sulphate pentahydrate (CSP) is a common compound used in agriculture and industry, chronic occupational exposures to CSP are well known, but acute poisoning is rare in the Western world. This case report describes acute poisoning of a 33-year-old woman who attempted suicide by ingesting an unknown amount of CSP. On admission to the hospital, she had symptoms and signs of severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, dehydration, renal dysfunction and methaemoglobinaemia with normal serum copper level. Therapy included early gastric lavage, fluid replacement, vasoactive drugs, furosemide, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, and antidotes methylene blue and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS). However, the patient developed severe intravascular haemolysis, acute severe hepatic and renal failure, as well as adrenal insufficiency. After prolonged, but successful hospital treatment, including haemodialysis and IV hydrocortisone, the patient was discharged with signs of mild renal and liver impairment. Our conclusion is that in severe cases of copper poisoning early supportive measures are essential. In addition, antidotes such as methylene blue for methaemoglobinaemia and chelating agent such as DMPS improve morbidity and survival of severely poisoned victims. PMID:18407869

Sinkovic, Andreja; Strdin, Alenka; Svensek, Franci

2008-03-01

16

A series of patients in the emergency department diagnosed with copper poisoning: recognition equals treatment.  

PubMed

Only scarce data are available on chronic copper poisoning in general toxicology literature. This paper reports four patients with chronic copper poisoning and one patient with acute poisoning. The cases with chronic poisoning in our study consisted of four members of a farmer family presenting to the emergency department (ED) with malaise, weakness, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, tightness in the chest, leg and back pain, accompanied by significant anemia (hemoglobin [Hb]: 8.7 - 9.5 g/dl). They were hospitalized and investigated thoroughly, although there were no other findings or clues enlightening the etiology of anemia. The anemia was attributed to chronic copper exposure acquired from vegetables containing copper. The diagnosis was established by ruling out other possible etiologies and history coupled with laboratory findings. The patients were discharged with the recommendation on diet to avoid consumption of pesticide-treated vegetables. Their Hb values were between 10 and 11.4 g/dl on the 15th day, and between 12 and 14 g/dl after two months. Their symptoms had also resolved completely in two months. The patient with acute intoxication (5th case) had ingested copper oxychloride with suicidal intent. He was admitted with anuria and hemolytic anemia. After being hospitalized for fifteen days, he was diagnosed with chronic renal failure and was scheduled for a dialysis program. Acute poisoning is more deliberate, while chronic exposure may result in atypical findings. In conclusion, physicians working in primary care and EDs should consider copper poisoning in patients presenting with anemia, abdominal pain, headache, tightness in the chest, and leg and back pain. PMID:16778371

Gunay, Nurullah; Yildirim, Cuma; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Gunay, Nahide Ekici; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Usalan, Celalettin; Kose, Ataman; Togun, Ismail

2006-07-01

17

Case study of copper poisoning in a British dairy herd.  

PubMed

Following the initial diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning (CCP), the copper (Cu) status of a British dairy herd was investigated. Eight fatal cases of CCP were identified over a 17-month period, from December 1999 to May 2001, involving seven Jersey cows and one Holstein-Friesian; seven cows were dry when CCP occurred. Case diagnostic criteria were necrotising hepatopathy associated with abnormally high liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Analysis of the ration for the high-yielding Jersey cow group revealed about 50 mg Cu/kg dry matter intake (DMI). Risk factors predisposing to fatal CCP were Jersey breed, previous high yield, first two weeks of the dry period and moderately high dietary Cu (greater than 40 mg Cu/kg DMI). PMID:22562897

Bidewell, C A; Drew, J R; Payne, J H; Sayers, A R; Higgins, R J; Livesey, C T

2012-05-01

18

Haemolytic crisis in sheep as a result of chronic exposure to copper.  

PubMed

Usually practicing veterinarians and animal keepers have to deal with inadequate supplementation of copper which causes deficiency diseases. However, instead of curing, the consequential intake of copper is likely to cause copper intoxication. Copper poisoning is observed particularly frequently, in sheep--the most sensitive domestic animal to copper toxicity. In most cases, sheep undergo chronic exposure to copper causing liver necrosis and resulting in massive haemolysis, haemoglobinuria and eventually in renal failure. The observed symptoms have an acute character and a set of them is called haemolytic crisis. The pathogenesis, signs and diagnosis of this syndrome are described in this article. PMID:17388026

Mendel, M; Ch?opecka, M; Dziekan, N

2007-01-01

19

Outbreak of copper poisoning in cattle fed poultry litter.  

PubMed

In a feedlot of about 1,000 head of cattle, 146 animals died within a period of a few months affected by a disease characterized by anorexia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, constipation, or diarrhea. The clinical course of the disease lasted a few days. Postmortem findings were generalized icterus and a yellow discolored liver. The kidneys were dark brown, and the urinary bladder was filled with urine of the same dark-brown color. The main histopathological findings were centrolobular coagulative necrosis, apoptosis, bilestasis, and proliferation of bile ducts in the portal space. Changes in the kidneys included nephrosis and the presence of bile and precipitates, and cylinders of albumin and of hemoglobin in the uriniferous tubules. Liver samples, collected from 3 animals on which postmortem examinations were performed, had 2,008, 2,783 and 4,906 ppm copper in their dry matter. Two samples of poultry litter fed to the cattle contained 362 and 323 ppm copper. The green forage that formed the rest of their feed only had 4.7 ppm copper. Copper poisoning was diagnosed, most probably caused by feeding litter from poultry that had been fed a ration treated with copper sulfate to avoid aspergillosis. PMID:10750174

Tokarnia, C H; Döbereiner, J; Peixoto, P V; Moraes, S S

2000-04-01

20

MRI of the brain in chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 13 patients with chronic carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); all of them had been in an explosion in a coal mine 25 years previously. Symmetrical globus pallidus lesions were observed in 12, as was degeneration of the white matter, with focal cortical atrophy. The temporal parietal and occipital lobes were usually affected, the parietooccipital

A. Uchino; K. Hasuo; K. Shida; S. Matsumoto; K. Yasumori; K. Masuda

1994-01-01

21

Diagnosis and treatment of copper poisoning caused by accidental feeding on poultry litter in a sheep flock.  

PubMed

We report a case of chronic copper poisoning in a flock of 182 grazing dairy sheep in Thessaly, Central Greece. Five ewes were found dead during the course of a week. The diagnosis of copper poisoning was confirmed by necropsy examination, blood test results, and abnormally high copper levels in liver and kidney samples. A field investigation revealed the source of copper as a litter heap from a broiler farm to which the sheep had accidental access during their movement between the milking parlour and the grazing area. Access to the litter was subsequently blocked and all sheep were provided with 50 g of a salt/gypsum/sodium molybdate mixture (90.0: 9.8: 0.2, w/w) mixed in 500 g of concentrate feed daily, for a period of 5 weeks. Follow-up blood samples were taken 3 and 8 wk after the initial diagnosis. A reduction in aspartate aminotransferase activity indicated the source of copper had been eliminated and the subsequent treatment was successful. PMID:17970849

Christodoulopoulos, G; Roubies, N

2007-11-01

22

Case study on chronic organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Ernest and Leslie Rea, two farmers in their mid-fifties, contacted their local County Agricultural Extension Office in Cape May, New Jersey, regarding health problems associated with their use of pesticides. They were referred to Dr. Hamilton and the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) clinic for consultation and evaluations. They were diagnosed with chronic intoxication of organophosphate pesticides. Recommendations were made to decrease health risks in the farming operations. These included the usage of personal protective equipment while handling or applying pesticides, transportation of pesticides in a separate trailer behind the farm truck, and construction of separate storage areas for herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. A separate wash site was also constructed for use at the end of the work day. Compliance with these strategies resulted in improvements in health for both farmers. PMID:17208704

Robson, M G; Hamilton, G C; Brachman, G O

2001-01-01

23

Copper.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential trace element, which is an important catalyst for heme synthesis and iron absorption. Following zinc and iron, copper is the third most abundant trace element in the body. Copper is a noble metal, like silver and gold. Useful industrial properties include high thermal and electrical conductivity, low corrosion, alloying ability, and malleability. Most of the metallic copper appears in electrical applications. Copper is a constituent of intrauterine contraceptive devices and the release of copper is necessary for their contraceptive effects. The average daily intake of copper in the US is about 1 mg Cu with the primary source being the diet. The bioavailability of copper from the diet is about 65-70% depending on a variety of factors including chemical form, interaction with other metals, and dietary components. The biological half-life of copper from the diet is 13-33 days with bilary excretion being the major route of elimination. Copper sulfate is a gastric irritant that produces erosion of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic copper toxicity is rare and primarily affects the liver. Wilson's disease and Indian childhood cirrhosis are examples of severe chronic liver disease that results from the genetic predisposition to the hepatic accumulation of copper. The serum copper concentration ranges up to approximately 1.5 mg/L in healthy persons. Gastrointestinal symptoms occur at whole blood concentrations near 3 mg Cu/L. Chelating agents (CaNa2EDTA, BAL) are recommended in severe poisoning, but there are little pharmacokinetic data to evaluate the effectiveness of these agents. PMID:10382557

Barceloux, D G

1999-01-01

24

Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning  

E-print Network

1 Intoxication aiguë et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning Pascal ANDUJAR1 poisoning Summary (176 words): Key words : cadmium - poisoning - pneumonia - nephropathy - osteomalacia population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing Unconsciousness (fainting) How can I prevent poisoning? The best way to guard against poisoning is to avoid exposure to harmful substances. The following are some tips: Keep all dangerous household ...

26

Computerized tomographies of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brains of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning) were examined using computerized tomography (CT). Ventricular and sulcal dilatations were measured quantitatively, with picture analysis of CT for the measurement of ventricular dilatation. Significant ventricular and sulcal dilatations were found in all cases of the CO group compared with age-matched controls, and bilateral

Eisuke Kono; Ryosuke Kono; Kenshiro Shida

1983-01-01

27

Human health effects from chronic arsenic poisoning--a review.  

PubMed

The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 microg/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 microg/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5 microg/L. The reason for these regulatory changes is the realization that As can cause deleterious effects at lower concentrations than was previously thought. There is a strong relationship between chronic ingestion of As and deleterious human health effects and here we provide an overview of some of the major effects documented in the scientific literature. As regulatory levels of As have been decreased, an increasing number of water supplies will now require removal of As before the water can be used for human consumption. While As exposure can occur from food, air and water, all major chronic As poisonings have stemmed from water and this is usually the predominant exposure route. Exposure to As leads to an accumulation of As in tissues such as skin, hair and nails, resulting in various clinical symptoms such as hyperpigmentation and keratosis. There is also an increased risk of skin, internal organ, and lung cancers. Cardiovascular disease and neuropathy have also been linked to As consumption. Verbal IQ and long term memory can also be affected, and As can suppress hormone regulation and hormone mediated gene transcription. Increases in fetal loss and premature delivery, and decreased birth weights of infants, can occur even at low (<10 microg/L) exposure levels. Malnourished people have been shown to be more predisposed to As-related skin lesions. A large percentage of the population (30-40%) that is using As-contaminated drinking water can have elevated As levels in urine, hair and nails, while showing no noticeable clinical symptoms, such as skin lesions. It is therefore important to carry out clinical tests of As exposure. Factors combining to increase/decrease the ill effects of As include duration and magnitude of As exposure, source of As exposure, nutrition, age and general health status. Analytical determinations of As poisoning can be made by examining As levels in urine, hair and toenails. Communities and individuals relying on groundwater sources for drinking water need to measure As levels to ensure that their supplies are safe. Communities with water As levels greater than 5 microg/L should consider a program to document As levels in the population. PMID:17018421

Kapaj, Simon; Peterson, Hans; Liber, Karsten; Bhattacharya, Prosun

2006-01-01

28

Experimental copper poisoning in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

Copper sulphate was administered by the oral or intravenous route to five dromedary camels. Two camels (1 and 2) receiving copper sulphate at 200 mg per kg per day by drench died within 8 days and camel 3, receiving 100 mg per kg per day by the same route, was slaughtered on day 172. Intravenous injection of 2 mg per kg per day caused the death of camel 4 on day 95 and camel 5, treated similarly, was slaughtered on day 138. Anorexia, dullness, diarrhoea, dehydration and recumbency in camels 1 and 2 were probably clinical signs of copper toxicity. Camels 3, 4 and 5 lost weight. Jaundice was not a prominent clinical sign. The main lesions in camels 1 and 2 were fatty change and necrosis of the liver cells, dilatation and necrosis of kidney tubules, catarrhal abomasitis, enteritis and congestion of the blood vessels of the heart. In camels 3, 4 and 5 the hepatic lesions were mild, with leucocytic infiltration and gastrointestinal and heart lesions were either mild (camel 3) or absent (camels 4 and 5). Cytoplasmic copper granules in hepatic cells were generalized in distribution but more concentrated in the centrilobular zone. In the kidney these granules were confined to the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. Copper accumulated in the liver and kidneys of all the camels and zinc accumulated in the liver and kidneys of those receiving copper sulphate intravenously. Macrocytic hypochromic anaemia developed in camels 3, 4 and 5 and haemoconcentration in camels 1 and 2. The concentration of serum copper, zinc and iron increased in animals 1, 2 and 4, and unbound iron binding capacity decreased in four camels. There was a rise in the activity of gamma GT, GOT, LDH and CPK in the serum of all the animals. Serum ALP activity, however, increased in camels 1 and 2 and decreased in camels 3, 4 and 5. PMID:8097211

Abu Damir, H; Eldirdiri, N I; Adam, S E; Howarth, J A; Salih, Y M; Idris, O F

1993-02-01

29

Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

1984-09-01

30

Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle.  

PubMed

An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence river, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973; considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant has been designated as the "major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island." Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall island cattle was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. Cows died at or were slaughtered after the third pregnancy. The deterioration of cows did not allow further pregnancies. Fluoride concentrations in ash of biopsied coccygeal vertebrae increased significantly with age and were dependent on distance from and direction to the aluminum plant. Fluoride in bone ash of a 7-month old-fetus exceeded 500 ppm; fluoride thus was passed transplacentally. Analyses of fluoride in ash of bones obtained at necropsy of cattle from 4 months of age to 4 to 5 years of age showed increased amounts with age. Cancellous bone retained far higher amounts than cortical bone, a reflection of the normally higher metabolic rate of cancellous bone. Concentrations exceeding 10,000 ppm fluoride were recorded in cancellous bone of a 4-to 5-year-old cow. The target cells for fluoride in chronic fluorosis were shown to be the ameloblasts, the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts and, in bone, primarily the resorbing osteocytes and also the osteoblasts. Atrophy and necrosis of the ameloblasts were responsible for enamel defects. The existing enamel showed brown discoloration from fluoride deposits. The pulp cells underwent fibrous and osseous metaplasia and necrosis of the ectopic bone occurred. The odontoblasts were atrophic and the dentin showed brown discoloration. The resorbing osteocytes were inactive and osteosclerosis resulted. This was especially pronounced in areas of normally great apposition, i.e. in the metaphyses. The epiphyseal plate became squeezed between petrotic bone and growth was stunted. Resorption of alveolar bone surrounding the deciduous teeth was severely retarded or arrested. A delay in eruption of permanent teeth occurred; it was up to 3.5 years in incisor teeth. Interference with the resorbing osteocytes in fluorotic bone was also demonstrated by loss of collagen birefringency in such bone. Failure of bone resorption also caused retention of trabecular bone in the cortices; this was observed even in a 4-t0-5-year-old cow. In areas where modeling into osteonic bone had begun, fluoride deposits were extremely heavy but this bone showed numerous soft osteons in microradiographs. The toxic effect of fluoride on osteocytes also resulted in the death of the cells. Such osteonecrosis occurred mainly in gnathic bone. There was atrophy of the osteoblasts. Osteopenia thus resulted from osteonecrosis and osteoporosis. Subperiosteal exostoses were not observed in long bones. The degree of fluorosis in Cornwall Island cattle was severe... PMID:467082

Krook, L; Maylin, G A

1979-04-01

31

An overview of various mammalian models to study chronic copper intoxication associated Alzheimer's disease like pathology.  

PubMed

Chronic copper toxicity has been long known to cause hepatotoxicity and liver cirrhosis as observed in Wilson's disease; however, substantial evidence accrued over the time have shown considerable increase in animal studies demonstrating Alzheimer's disease like pathology due to chronic copper-intoxication under certain conditions. This review integrates the contemporary mammalian studies in which the effect of chronic copper intoxication was assessed on the central nervous system and cognition of animals. PMID:25307560

Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

2015-02-01

32

Tissue Swainsonine Clearance in Sheep Chronically Poisoned with Locoweed1 (Oxytropis sericea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweed poisoning is seen through- out the world and annually costs the livestock industry millions of dollars. Swainsonine inhibits lysosomal a-mannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II. Poisoned animals are lethargic, anorexic, emaciated, and have neurologic signs that range from subtle apprehension to seizures. Swainsonine is water-solu- ble, rapidly absorbed, and likely to be widely dis- tributed in the tissues of poisoned

Bryan L. Stegelmeier; Lynn F. James; Kip E. Panter; Dale R. Gardner; Michael H. Ralphs; James A. Pfister

2010-01-01

33

Boric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic poisoning ... and ant pesticides Photography chemicals Powders to kill roaches Some eye wash products Note: This list may ...

34

Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata  

SciTech Connect

The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan)] [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others] [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan); and others

1995-07-01

35

Alterations of Serum Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Patients with Acute and Chronic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure the alterations in serum zinc (Zn) copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) concentrations in patients with acute and chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Serum zinc and copper were measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer and serum iron concentration was measured by the Ferrozine method with commercial kits and assay was carried out by using an

M Faryadi; M Mohebali

2003-01-01

36

Copper toxicity in confinement-housed ram lambs.  

PubMed

Fourteen Suffolk rams (6 mo) were diagnosed with chronic copper poisoning. Preliminary results indicated that a combination of serum aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, and copper could be used as a test so that high risk lambs could be treated more aggressively. PMID:9262859

Lewis, N J; Fallah-Rad, A H; Connor, M L

1997-08-01

37

Human Pentachlorophenol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was, and still is, one of the most frequently used fungicides and pesticides, Its toxicity is due to interference with oxidative phosphorylation. Acute and chronic poisoning may occur by dermal absorption, inhalation or ingestion. Chronic poisoning occurs mainly in sawmill workers or people living in log homes treated with PCPcontaining wood protecting formulations. Quantitative determination of PCP in

Philippe G. Jorens; Paul J. C. Schepens

1993-01-01

38

Tissue swainsonine clearance in sheep chronically poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).  

PubMed

Locoweed poisoning is seen throughout the world and annually costs the livestock industry millions of dollars. Swainsonine inhibits lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II. Poisoned animals are lethargic, anorexic, emaciated, and have neurologic signs that range from subtle apprehension to seizures. Swainsonine is water-soluble, rapidly absorbed, and likely to be widely distributed in the tissues of poisoned animals. The purpose of this study was to quantify swainsonine in tissues of locoweed-poisoned sheep and determine the rate of swainsonine clearance from animal tissues. Twenty-four crossbred wethers were gavaged with ground Oxytropis sericea to obtain swainsonine doses of 1 mg swainsonine x kg(-1) BW x d(-1) for 30 d. After dosing, the sheep were killed on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 14, 30, 60, and 160. Animal weights and feed consumption were monitored. Serum was collected during dosing and withdrawal periods, and tissues were collected at necropsy. Serum swainsonine concentrations were determined using an alpha-mannosidase inhibition assay. Swainsonine concentrations in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and serum were similar at approximately 250 ng/g. Clearance from these tissues was also similar, with half-lives (T(1/2)) of less than 20 h. Swainsonine at more than 2,000 ng/g, was detected in the liver, spleen, kidney, and pancreas. Clearance from liver, kidney, and pancreas was about T(1/2) 60 h. These findings imply that poisoned sheep have significant tissue swainsonine concentrations and animals exposed to locoweed should be withheld from slaughter for at least 25 d (10 T(1/2)) to ensure that the locoweed toxin has cleared from animal tissues and products. PMID:9581938

Stegelmeier, B L; James, L F; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Ralphs, M H; Pfister, J A

1998-04-01

39

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC COPPER EXPOSURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL IN THE SOUTHERN LEOPARD FROG (LITHOBATES [RANA] SPHENOCEPHALUS)  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC COPPER EXPOSURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL IN THE SOUTHERN LEOPARD FROG, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu;31:1587­1594. # 2012 SETAC Keywords--Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus Copper Amphibian Ecotoxicology Metal toxicity

Georgia, University of

40

Mortality, bioaccumulation and physiological responses in juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) chronically exposed to copper.  

PubMed

Several studies have indicated that the early life stages of freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to inorganic chemicals, including copper. However, little is known about the toxic mode of action and sub-lethal effects of copper exposure in this group of imperiled animals. In this study, the physiological effects of long-term copper exposure (survival, growth, copper bioaccumulation, whole-body ion content, oxygen consumption, filtration rate, ATPase activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) were evaluated in juvenile (6 month old) mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The mussels' recovery capacity and their ability to withstand further acute copper challenge were also evaluated in secondary experiments following the 28 day exposure by assessing survival, copper bioaccumulation and whole-body ion content. Mussels chronically exposed to 2 and 12 ?g Cu/L showed significantly higher mortality than those held under control conditions (mortality 20.9, 69.9 and 12.5%, respectively), indicating that juvenile L. siliquoidea is underprotected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) biotic ligand model (BLM)-derived chronic water quality criteria (WQC) (2.18 ?g Cu/L) and the hardness-derived USEPA WQC (12.16 ?g Cu/L). Soft tissue copper burden increased equally for both copper exposures, suggesting that chronic toxicity is not associated with copper bioaccumulation. Several physiological disturbances were also observed during chronic copper exposure. Most relevant was a decrease in whole-body sodium content paralleled by an inhibition of Na(+) K(+)-ATPase activity, indicating a metal-induced ionoregulatory disturbance. Filtration and oxygen consumption rates were also affected. Redox parameters (reactive oxygen production, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and glutathione (GSH) concentration) did not show clear responses, but membrane damage as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in both copper exposures. Mussels previously held in control conditions or pre-exposed to 2 ?g dissolved Cu/L were able to maintain their ionic homeostasis and did not experience mortality after the 4-d recovery period. In contrast, those previously exposed to 12 ?g dissolved Cu/L exhibited 50% mortality indicating that they had already reached a 'point of no return'. Pre-exposure to copper did not influence mussel response to the copper challenge test. As observed for the chronic exposure, mortality of mussels held in the absence of copper and submitted to the challenge test was also associated with an ionoregulatory disturbance. These results indicate that ionoregulatory disruption in freshwater mussels chronically exposed to copper is the main mechanism of toxicity and that redox parameters do not appear to be useful as indicators of sub-lethal copper toxicity in these animals. PMID:23183413

Jorge, Marianna B; Loro, Vania L; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M; Gillis, Patricia L

2013-01-15

41

Lanolin poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... on your skin. Because it is similar to wax, eating large amounts of lanolin can cause a ...

42

CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER AND AMMONIA TO JUVENILE FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The objectives of the present study were to develop,methods,for conducting,chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine,the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia,to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea, were fed various live algae or nonviable,algal mixture,for 28 d. The algal mixture,was,the best food resulting in high survival (90%)

Ning Wang; Christopher G. Ingersoll; I. Eugene Greer; Douglas K. Hardesty; Christopher D. Ivey; James L. Kunz; William G. Brumbaugh; F. James Dwyer; Andy D. Roberts; Tom Augspurger; Cynthia M. Kane; Richard J. Neves; M. Chris Barnhart

2007-01-01

43

Contaminant Sensitivity of Freshwater Mussels CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER AND AMMONIA TO JUVENILE FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for

NING WANG; CHRISTOPHER G. INGERSOLL; I. EUGENE GREER; DOUGLAS K. HARDESTY; CHRISTOPHER D. IVEY; JAMES L. KUNZ; WILLIAM G. BRUMBAUGH; F. JAMES DWYER; ANDY D. ROBERTS; TOM AUGSPURGER; CYNTHIA M. KANE; RICHARD J. NEVES; M. CHRIS BARNHART

44

Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria  

SciTech Connect

Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

1987-10-01

45

INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

2007-07-24

46

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

47

Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae).  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (>or=90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 microg Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 microg Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 microg/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20 degrees C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. PMID:17867874

Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Greer, I Eugene; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; Brumbaugh, William G; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

2007-10-01

48

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure. PMID:22689549

Kasbekar, Shivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Jose Argelio

2011-01-01

49

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure.

Shivani Kasbekar; Jose Argelio Gonzalez-Martin

2011-01-01

50

Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex  

SciTech Connect

Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

Flickinger, A.L.

1984-01-01

51

The chronic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles and copper salt to Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of CuO nanoparticles and CuCl2·2H2O were tested on Daphnia magna under chronic exposure scenarios. During a 21-day exposure to the nanoparticles and salt, the reproduction was followed by a daily count of the number of offspring. After the exposure, the adult Daphnia length and uptake of copper was measured. The dissolved, nanoparticle and aggregated fractions were distinguished in the exposure medium. The results showed that only a small fraction of the nanoparticles dissolved, while the majority of the particles formed large aggregates (>450nm). The dissolved fraction of the nanoparticles corresponded with the dissolved fraction of the copper salt. The effects of the nanoparticles (reproduction EC10: 0.546mg Cu/l, EC20: 0.693mg Cu/l, EC50: 1.041mg Cu/l) on reproduction and length were much lower than the effects of the copper salts (reproduction EC10: 0.017mg Cu/l, EC20: 0.019mg Cu/l, EC50: 0.022mg Cu/l). Based upon total body analysis, the Daphnia copper concentration appeared much higher when exposed to the nanoparticles than when exposed to the salt. These combined results indicate that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to D. magna is caused by copper ions formed during dissolution of the nanoparticles in the exposure medium. PMID:25464278

Adam, Nathalie; Vakurov, Alexander; Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny

2015-02-11

52

Feeding of Ferrets with the Raw Meat and Liver of Chickens Chronically Poisoned with Toxic Groundnut Meal  

PubMed Central

Chickens were fed a ration containing 30 per cent of toxic groundnut meal for up to six weeks. The concentration of aflatoxin (toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus) in the above ration was 3.06 p.p.m. At the end of 2nd, 4th or 6th week the birds were killed. The meat was removed from the bones and put through a meat grinder. The livers of three groups were pooled together. Three control groups of birds kept on commercial pellets were treated similarly. Female ferrets, two years of age, were used in the present study. They were divided into four groups. The first three groups were given for one month meat from chickens fed the toxic ration for 2, 4, and 6 weeks, respectively. Each of these three groups contained one control ferret that was fed with the meat of chickens fed a commercial ration for a similar period of time. One half of the 4th group was fed pooled liver from intoxicated birds and one half was fed liver from control birds. No significant changes in the ferret tissues were observed as a consequence of feeding them with the meat or liver from the chickens chronically poisoned with toxic groundnut meal. PMID:14295993

Platonow, N.; Beauregard, M.

1965-01-01

53

Poison Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... eaten or drunk something poisonous. If you suspect poisoning because of a telltale odor, unexplained stains on ... million American children younger than 6 years suffer poisoning every year. Household cleaners, personal care products, and ...

54

Mistletoe poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... berries. Mistletoe poisoning occurs when someone eats any part of this plant. Poisoning can also occur if you drink tea ... The poisonous ingredient is found in all parts of the plant, but especially in the leaves.

55

Chronic pesticide poisoning from persistent low-dose exposures in Ecuadorean floriculture workers: toward validating a low-cost test battery.  

PubMed

Chronic pesticide poisoning is difficult to detect. We sought to develop a low-cost test battery for settings such as Ecuador's floriculture industry. First we had to develop a case definition; as with all occupational diseases a case had to have both sufficient effective dose and associated health effects. For the former, using canonical discriminant analysis, we found that adding measures of protection and overall environmental stressors to occupational category and duration of exposure was useful. For the latter, factor analysis suggested three distinct manifestations of pesticide poisoning. We then determined sensitivity and specificity of various combinations of symptoms and simple neurotoxicity tests from the Pentox questionnaire, and found that doing so increased sensitivity and specificity compared to use of acethylcholinesterase alone--the current screening standard. While sensitivity and specificity varied with different case definitions, our results support the development of a low-cost test battery for screening in such settings. PMID:22550693

Breilh, Jaime; Pagliccia, Nino; Yassi, Annalee

2012-01-01

56

Effects of chronic cadmium poisoning on Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, and metallothionein in liver and kidney of rats.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to invest effects of chronic cadmium poisoning on Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, and metallothionein gene expression and protein synthesis in liver and kidney in rats. Forty rats, 6 weeks old, were randomly allocated into two groups. A group was given CdCl(2) (1 mg/KgCd(2+)) by intraperitoneal injection once a day. The other group was treated with normal saline in the same way. Liver and kidney were collected for analysis at the end of the third week. Results showed that Cd exposure increased Cd (P<0.01) and Zn (P<0.01) content both in liver and kidney. Fe and Ca concentration had a considerable increase in kidney (P<0.01), while both had different degree reduction in liver. Discrepancies between MT mRNA and protein were observed in liver and kidney. In liver, both MT mRNA and protein had a significant increase (P<0.01), while in kidney, only MT gene increase was checked. Meanwhile, the expression levels of MT-1 mRNA and MT-2 mRNA were distinct between liver and kidney. The present study indicated that changes in tissue Cd and Zn levels tended to reflect MT mRNA expression, but bear no clear relationship with MT protein. There did not have a strict dose-dependent relationship among Cd content, MT gene expression, and MT protein synthesis. What is more, changes of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Ca had a certain interaction with both MT mRNA and protein. PMID:22457021

Zhang, Ding; Gao, Jianfeng; Zhang, Kerong; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Jiakui

2012-10-01

57

Chronic effects of copper exposure versus endocrine toxicity: two sides of the same toxicological process?  

PubMed

Chronic sub-lethal exposure to copper (Cu) causes a series of cellular and physiological changes in fish that enable the animal to survive. Copper is also an endocrine disrupting metal in the aquatic environment, and has a number of normal neuro-endocrine roles in vertebrates. This paper explores whether the chronic effects of Cu exposure can be explained by the effects of Cu on neuro-endocrine functions in fish. Chronic Cu exposure involves complex physiological adjustments in many body systems, including increased oxygen consumption, reduced mean swimming speed, up-regulation of ionic regulation, decreasing lymphocyte levels and increasing neutrophils, altered immunity, modulation of Cu-dependent and independent enzyme activities, and proliferation of epithelial cells in gills or intestine. These responses can occur with exposure via the food or the water and can be rationalised into three major categories: (1) up-regulation of enzymes/metabolism (2) altered haematopoietic responses and (3) altered cellularity (cell type, turnover or size) in tissues. Some of these responses can be explained by stimulation of general stress responses, including the adrenergic response and stimulated cortisol release via the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis. This can occur despite evidence of vacuolation and foci of necrosis in the brain, and increased macrophage activity, in the kidney of fish exposed to dietary Cu. In addition to generic stress responses, Cu regulates specific neuro-endocrine functions, including the loss of circadian rhythm during dietary Cu exposure that involves the failure to respond to circulating melatonin and a loss of circulating serotonin. We conclude that the chronic physiological effects of Cu and apparent endocrine disrupting effects of Cu are two sides of the same toxicological process. PMID:12727547

Handy, Richard D

2003-05-01

58

Copper  

MedlinePLUS

... minimum recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for copper is 0.9 milligrams per day for most adults, 1 ... in the cancer process is still unclear, copper complexes have been shown to ... evidence that trace metals, including copper, iron and zinc, may have a ...

59

Mushroom Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Food Poisoning | Mushroom Poisoning Is it possible to tell if a wild mushroom is poisonous? You can't tell for sure if a ... watch the person for any symptoms of mushroom poisoning for the next 24 hours. Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff ... Reviewed/Updated: 04/14 Created: 09/00

60

Neuroprotective effect of acute and chronic administration of copper (II) sulfate against MPP+ neurotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative effects of MPP+, the main metabolite of MPTP include dopamine (DA) depletion and enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mice striata, both associated to free radicals overproduction. Since copper is related to several antioxidant enzymes, we tested its neuroprotective effect against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity (20 microg/3 microl). CuSO4 pretreatment was administrated by either acute (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or chronic (350 or 700 mg/l doses through drinking water, for 30 days) schemes. Acute administration blocked MPP+-induced striatal LPO only when administered 16 or 24 hours before MPP+, and prevented the DA-depleting effect only at 24 hours. Chronic CuSO4 prevented the LPO increase, and blocked the DA depletion only at the higher dose used (700 mg/l). Neuroprotective effect of CuSO4 was dependent on the dose and the time of pretreatment, which suggest that this lag could be related with mechanisms of activation or synthesis of copper-dependent proteins responsible of cellular defense against MPP+. PMID:11358283

Alcaraz-Zubeldia, M; Rojas, P; Boll, C; Rios, C

2001-01-01

61

Short-term exposures to chronically toxic copper concentrations induce HSP70 proteins in midge larvae (Chironomus tentans).  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the induction of HSP70 proteins in Chironomus tentans in response to copper exposure. Larvae were exposed for 24 h to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mgl(-1) copper, concentrations that were previously shown to cause growth reduction or mortality in 10 d bioassays. The induction of HSP70 was evaluated by Western blotting, and we observed a significant increase in HSP70 proteins over controls at all tested concentrations. The results suggest that short-term laboratory exposures to chronically toxic but acutely sublethal copper concentrations induce HSP70 proteins in C. tentans larvae. PMID:12873416

Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Zehr, Jonathan P

2003-08-01

62

Chronic Neuropsychological Sequelae of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in the Absence of Structural Brain Damage: Two Cases of Acute Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Here we describe two cases of carbamate poisoning. Patients AMF and PVM were accidentally poisoned by cholinesterase inhibitors. The medical diagnosis in both cases was overcholinergic syndrome, as demonstrated by exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors. The widespread use of cholinesterase inhibitors, especially as pesticides, produces a great number of human poisoning events annually. The main known neurotoxic effect of these substances is cholinesterase inhibition, which causes cholinergic overstimulation. Once AMF and PVM had recovered from acute intoxication, they were subjected to extensive neuropsychological evaluation 3 and 12 months after the poisoning event. These assessments point to a cognitive deficit in attention, memory, perceptual, and motor domains 3 months after intoxication. One year later these sequelae remained, even though the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans were interpreted as being within normal limits. We present these cases as examples of neuropsychological profiles of long-term sequelae related to acute poisoning by cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides and show the usefulness of neuropsychological assessment in detecting central nervous system dysfunction in the absence of biochemical or structural markers. PMID:15929901

Roldán-Tapia, Lola; Leyva, Antonia; Laynez, Francisco; Santed, Fernando Sánchez

2005-01-01

63

Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.  

PubMed

Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy. PMID:25371526

Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

2014-10-01

64

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

65

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... the poison ivy plant. The oil from the plant is carried in the smoke. Treatment How is poison ivy treated? Urushiol can bond to your skin within minutes. If you think that you've come in contact with poison ivy, you need to wash the area with plain cool water as soon as possible. This may help to ...

66

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

Dolan, Michael C.

1985-01-01

67

Effects of chronic copper exposure on fluvial systems: linking structural and physiological changes of fluvial biofilms with the in-stream copper retention.  

PubMed

Long-term metal exposure is known to be responsible for a large variety of structural and functional changes in periphyton communities which allow these communities to adapt to metal-polluted conditions. This study aimed to link the changes that chronic copper (Cu) exposure causes on the structure and physiology of fluvial biofilms with the efficiency of the river systems in retaining phosphate and Cu. The effects of a chronic Cu exposure on the structure, physiology and induction of Cu tolerance of the community were evaluated by comparing this community with a non-exposed one. Results showed that periphyton chronically exposed to Cu had lower algal biomass, higher proportion of green algae, lower proportion of brown algae, and higher EPS content per unit of biomass than the un-exposed community. In addition, the chronically-exposed community showed a Cu content (both total and intracellular Cu content) ten times higher than the un-exposed community. While in-stream phosphate retention was not markedly influenced by chronic Cu exposure; Cu retention was clearly reduced, as was shown by a reduction in Cu retention efficiency (Cu-S(w)) and demand (Cu-Vf). The chronically-exposed periphyton, in spite of having high intracellular Cu concentration, showed similar photosynthetic efficiency than the un-exposed community and showed a higher Cu tolerance. It indicated that this community was acclimatized to Cu exposure and that this acclimatization was probably linked to the ability to detoxify and immobilize metals. These observations suggest that the fate of Cu in fluvial ecosystems will be influenced by the exposure history of the system. The results from this study indicate that metals will travel longer distances in metal-polluted streams compared to pristine systems having effects on water quality farther downstream. PMID:19646733

Serra, A; Guasch, H

2009-09-15

68

Association of genetic polymorphisms in GADD45A, MDM2, and p14{sup ARF} with the risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population  

SciTech Connect

Benzene reactive metabolites can lead to DNA damage and trigger the p53-dependent defense responses to maintain genomic stability. We hypothesized that the p53-dependent genes may play a role in the development of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). In a case-control study of 303 patients with benzene poisoning and 295 workers occupationally exposed to benzene in south China, we investigated associations between the risk of CBP and polymorphisms in three p53-dependent genes. Potential interactions of these polymorphisms with lifestyle factors were also explored. We found p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 polymorphism was associated with risk of CBP (P = 0.014). Compared with those carrying the GG genotype, individuals carrying p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a reduced risk of CBP ([adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}) = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.36-0.89]. Further analysis showed p14{sup ARF} TGA/TAG diplotype was associated with an increased risk of CBP (P = 0.0006), whereas p14{sup ARF} TGG/TAA diplotype was associated with a decreased risk of CBP (P = 0.0000001). In addition, we found individuals carrying both MDM2 Del1518 WW genotype and p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a lower risk of CBP (OR{sub adj} = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.10-0.62; P = 0.003). Although these results require confirmation and extension, our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in p14{sup ARF} may have an impact on the risk of CBP in the study population.

Sun Pin; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety (Fudan University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China); Zhao Naiqing [Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jin Xipeng [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety (Fudan University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China); Xia Zhaolin [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety (Fudan University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zlxia@shmu.edu.cn

2009-10-01

69

[Mechanism of the membrane stabilizing action of vitamins K and E under conditions of chronic phenol poisoning in albino rats].  

PubMed

In experiment with white male-rats the influence of membranotropic phenol-poison on the qualitative composition of phospholipids of liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles as well as biomembranes of erythrocytes and mitochondria of liver was investigates. Along with these investigations the possibility of preventing from supposed changes of qualitative composition of phospholipids has also been studied by additional injection K and K vitamins as minor lipid components. As the result of this research it was stated that when phenol (per, os) was repeatedly injected the content of lysophospholipids, phosphatidic acids in phospholipid composition increased and the content of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin simultaneous decreased. Additional injection E and K vitamins (50 mg/kg by weight and 20 mg/kg accordingly) prevented to a greater extent the changes of fractional composition of the lipid phase of biomembranes. The mechanism of protective action of K and E vitamins is probably connected with spatial screening of pi-bonds in the radicals of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid composition from reoxidation and on the hand the competitive interrelations may exist between minor lipid components and on the other hand between the ethers of cholesterol. These conclusions agree with hypothesis that K and E vitamins are the natural modifiers of the membranes of different types of structure. PMID:8967049

Nazarov, P V; Lider, V A

1996-01-01

70

Neurological abnormalities in chronic benzene poisoning. A study of six patients with aplastic anemia and two with preleukemia  

SciTech Connect

Neurological, electromyographical and motor conduction velocity examinations were applied to 6 patients with aplastic anemia and two cases of preleukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene. In addition, sensory conduction velocities were measured in three patients. Neurological abnormalities were found in four out of six pancytopenic individuals. There was a certain relationship between the presence of neurological abnormalities and the period of cessation of the exposure. In the two patients with preleukemia similar neurologic abnormalities were found.

Baslo, A.; Aksoy, M.

1982-04-01

71

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly people are at the greatest risk for food poisoning. You are also at higher risk if: ...

72

Methylmercury poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

73

Methanol poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The patient may receive: Dialysis Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol) Medicines to ...

74

Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Insects and Scorpions Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Print page Get email updates Subscribe to RSS ... Insects and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases West Nile Virus Lyme Disease ...

75

Acute and chronic toxicities of Irgarol alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Irgarol 1051 has been widely used as a booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints. The combined toxicity of Irgarol with Cu on marine organisms, however, has not been fully investigated. This study investigated the acute and chronic toxicities of binary mixtures of Irgarol and CuSO(4) to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The acute combined toxicity of Irgarol and Cu was simple additive as revealed by two response surface models and their contours. However, based on chronic full life-cycle tests, when Irgarol was combined with Cu at an environmentally realistic concentration (10 ?g L(-1)), a slightly synergistic effect was observed at a high Irgarol concentration (940 ?g L(-1)), as shown by a significant increase in larval mortality. As Cu contamination is widespread in coastal environments, our results entail the importance of considering the combined toxic effect of the booster biocide and Cu for setting ecologically realistic water quality criteria. PMID:23069205

Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert C S; Lam, Michael H W

2013-01-01

76

Effect of chronic cadmium administration on liver and kidney concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and chromium  

SciTech Connect

Chronic Cd exposure in animals brings about significant morphological and functional changes in both liver and kidney. Most studies of cadmium effects on essential metal tissue distribution involve large concentrations of either Cd or essential metals added to the diet. The effect of Cd ingestion on trace metal metabolism of animals consuming usual diets may be marked, as elements whose physical and chemical properties are enough alike...will act antagonistically to each other biologically. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of a chronic low dose of Cd added to an otherwise normal diet on the liver and kidney accumulation of zinc, copper, iron, manganese and chromium in the mouse at different times after the cessation of cadmium ingestion.

Friel, J.K.; Borgman, R.F.; Chandra, R.K.

1987-04-01

77

Genetic polymorphisms in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH and risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative damage to DNA induced by benzene is an important mechanism of its genotoxicity, which leads to chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Therefore, genetic variation in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to CBP in the exposed population. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH genes are associated with risk of CBP. We genotyped SNPs at codon 83 of hMTH1, codon 326 of hOGG1, and codon 324 of hMYH in 152 CBP patients and 152 healthy workers occupationally exposed to benzene without poisoning manifestations. The genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restrained fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. There were 2.51-fold [adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}), 2.51; 95% CI, 1.14-5.49; P = 0.02] and 2.49-fold (OR{sub adj}, 2.49; 95% CI: 1.52-4.07; P < 0.01) increased risk of CBP for individuals carrying genotypes of hMTH1 83Val/Met + Met/Met and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys, respectively. Compared with individuals carrying genotypes of hOGG1 326Cys/Cys and hMYH 324His/His at the same time, there was a 0.33-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15-0.72; P < 0.05) decreased risk of CBP for those with genotypes of hOGG1 326Ser/Cys + Ser/Ser and hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln. In the smoking group, there was a 0.15-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.68; P = 0.01) decreased risk of CBP for subjects carrying genotypes of hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln compared with those of genotype of hMYH 324His/His. Therefore, our results suggested that polymorphisms at codons 83 of hMTH1 and codon 326 of hOGG1 might contribute to CBP in a Chinese occupational population.

Wu Fen; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Gu Shouyong [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Weiwei [Guangzhou Hospital for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jin Xipeng [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xia Zhaolin [Department of Occupational Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zlxia@shmu.edu.cn

2008-12-15

78

Response of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and metal imbalance to combined administration of DMSA and monoisoamyl-DMSA during chronic arsenic poisoning in rats.  

PubMed

Arsenic and its compounds cause adverse health effects in humans. Current treatment employs administration of thiol chelators, such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), which facilitate its excretion from the body. However, these chelating agents are compromised by number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature, particularly in case of chronic poisoning. Combination therapy is a new approach to ensure enhanced removal of metal from the body, reduced doses of potentially toxic chelators, and no redistribution of metal from one organ to another, following chronic metal exposure. The present study attempts to investigate dose-related effects of two thiol chelators, DMSA and one of its new analogues, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), when administered in combination with the aim of achieving normalization of altered biochemical parameters suggestive of oxidative stress and depletion of inorganic arsenic following chronic arsenic exposure. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were given 25 ppm arsenic for 10 weeks followed by chelation therapy with the above chelating agents at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg (orally) when administered individually or 0.15 mmol/kg and 0.3 mmol/kg (once daily for 5 consecutive days), respectively, when administered in combination. Arsenic exposure led to the inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and depletion of glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by significant depletion of hemoglobin, RBC and Hct as well as blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) acitivity. There was an increase in hepatic and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, while GSH:GSSG ratio decreased significantly, accompanied by a significant increase in metallothionein (MT) in hepatocytes. DNA damage based on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significant loss in the integrity of DNA extracted from the liver of arsenic-exposed rats compared to that of normal animals. These changes were accompanied by a significant elevation in blood and soft-tissue arsenic concentration. Co-administration of DMSA and MiADMSA at lower dose (0.15 mmol/kg) was most effective not only in reducing arsenic-induced oxidative stress but also in depleting arsenic from blood and soft tissues compared to other treatments. This combination was also able to repair DNA damage caused following arsenic exposure. We thus recommend combined administration of DMSA and MiADMSA for achieving optimum effects of chelation therapy. PMID:17086449

Bhadauria, S; Flora, S J S

2007-03-01

79

Early carbon monoxide intoxication: happy to be poisoned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide poisoning is the commonest cause of death by poisoning in the UK and chronic exposure is thought to be a frequently missed diagnosis. Early recognition of carbon monoxide poisoning is vital to institute prompt treatment and to prevent exposure to others. An incident of mass exposure to carbon monoxide is presented where euphoria, lasting several hours, was the

S F J Clarke; A Crosby; D Kumar

2005-01-01

80

Chronic toxicity of copper to five benthic invertebrates in laboratory-formulated sediment: sensitivity comparison and preliminary risk assessment.  

PubMed

Five benthic organisms commonly used for sediment toxicity testing were chronically (28 to 35 days) exposed to copper in standard laboratory-formulated sediment (following Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines) and lethal and sub-lethal toxicities were evaluated. Sub-lethal endpoints considered were reproduction and biomass production for Lumbriculus variegatus, growth and reproduction for Tubifex tubifex, growth and emergence for Chironomus riparius, and growth for Gammarus pulex and Hyalella azteca. Expressed on whole-sediment basis the observed lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive) was: G. pulex>L. variegatus>H. azteca=C. riparius=T. tubifex, with median chronic lethal concentrations (LC50) between 151 and 327 mg/kg dry wt. The sub-lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive, with the most sensitive endpoint between parentheses): C. riparius (emergence)>T. tubifex (reproduction)=L. variegatus (reproduction)>G. pulex (growth)>H. azteca (growth), with median effective concentrations (EC50) between 59.2 and 194 mg/kg dry wt. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) or 10% effective concentrations (EC10) for the five benthic invertebrates were used to perform a preliminary risk assessment for copper in freshwater sediment by means of (a) the "assessment factor approach" or (b) the statistical extrapolation approach (species sensitivity distribution). Depending on the data (NOEC or EC10) and the methodology used, we calculated a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for sediment between 3.3 and 47.1 mg Cu/dry wt. This range is similar to the range of natural (geochemical) background concentrations of copper in sediments in Europe, i.e. 90% of sediments have a concentration between 5 and 49 mg Cu/kg dry wt. A detailed analysis of the outcome of this preliminary exercise highlighted that multiple issues need to be explored for achieving a scientifically more sound risk assessment and for the development of robust sediment quality criteria for copper, including (i) the use of the assessment factor approach vs. the statistical extrapolation approach, (ii) the importance of bioavailability modifying factors (e.g., organic carbon, acid volatile sulfide), and (iii) the influence of prevailing geochemical (bioavailable) background concentrations on the copper sensitivity of local benthic biota. PMID:17631947

Roman, Yblin E; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Nguyen, Lien T H; Janssen, Colin R

2007-11-15

81

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center;)

2010-04-09

82

Yew poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... is found in various kinds of the yew plant. The poison is in most parts of the yew plant, but the highest amount ... information: Patient's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

83

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

84

Zigadenus Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of

Katherine L Heilpern

1995-01-01

85

Relative and combined effects of chronic alcohol consumption and HCV infection on serum zinc, copper, and selenium.  

PubMed

In alcoholic hepatitis, Kupffer cells are activated by intestinal gram-bacteria, leading to cytokine production and free radicals release, which, enhancing cytokine secretion, create a positive feedback loop which contributes to liver inflammation. Free radicals also damage the liver in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a condition frequently associated to alcohol consumption. In both situations, activity of antioxidant enzymes and of its cofactors zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and copper (Cu) is important. This study was performed to assess the relative and combined effects of chronic alcoholism and HCV infection on serum Se, Zn, and Cu, and its relation with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, and interleukins (IL) 4, 6, and 8, in 19 HCV- alcoholic patients, 12 HCV+ alcoholic patients, nine HCV+ non-alcoholic patients, and 20 controls. Serum Zn and Se were lower in both HCV+ and HCV- alcoholic patients, whereas serum Cu was lower in HCV+ individuals. Serum Zn and Se were related to liver function derangement. MDA levels were higher in alcoholics, but no relation was observed between trace elements and MDA or cytokines, so that our results do not support a relevant role of the analyzed trace elements in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease. PMID:19444388

González-Reimers, Emilio; Martín-González, M Candelaria; Alemán-Valls, M Remedios; de la Vega-Prieto, María José; Galindo-Martín, Luis; Abreu-González, Pedro; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

2009-12-01

86

Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses pre-established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the presence of pressure overload induced by ascending aor...

87

Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.

Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

88

Electron microscopic studies on the cerebral lesions of rats in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental carbon monoxide poisoning, more marked and widespread pathological changes in the brain were seen in the white matter as compared with the gray matter. No essential difference, in the appearance of cerebral alterations, was detected between acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning. It was confirmed that the changes resulting from chronic poisoning showed a higher degree of severity

TSUTOMU MIYAGISHI; Nozomi Suwa

1969-01-01

89

Chronic Copper Exposure Causes Spatial Memory Impairment, Selective Loss of Hippocampal Synaptic Proteins, and Activation of PKR/eIF2? Pathway in Mice.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential element for human growth and development; however, excessive intake of copper could contribute to neurotoxicity. Here we show that chronic exposure to copper in drinking water impaired spatial memory with simultaneous selective loss of hippocampal pre-synaptic protein synapsin 1, and post-synaptic density protein (PSD)-93/95 in mice. Copper exposure was shown to elevate the levels of nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampus, two markers of oxidative stress. Concurrently, we also found that copper exposure activated double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as evidenced by increased ratio of phosphorylated PKR at Thr451 and total PKR and increased the phosphorylation of its downstream signaling molecule eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) at Ser51 in hippocampus. Consistent with activation of PKR/eIF2? signaling pathway which was shown to mediate synaptic deficit and cognitive impairment, the levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a downstream signaling molecule of eIF2? and a repressor of CREB-mediated gene expression, were significantly increased, while the activity of cAMP response elements binding protein (CREB) was inactivated as suggested by decreased phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 by copper exposure. In addition, the expression of the pro-apoptotic target molecule C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) of ATF-4 was upregulated and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis was induced by copper exposure. Taken together, we propose that chronic copper exposure might cause spatial memory impairment, selective loss of synaptic proteins, and neuronal apoptosis through the mechanisms involving activation of PKR/eIF2? signaling pathway. PMID:25159668

Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Sui, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huimin; Huang, Haiyan; Yang, Linqing; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

2015-01-01

90

Solder poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Antimony Bismuth Cadmium Copper Ethylene glycol Lead Mild acids Silver Tin Zinc ... and kidney failure (itai-itai disease) Symptoms for bismuth: Diarrhea Eye irritation Gingivitis Kidney damage Metallic taste ...

91

Lead Poisoning in Rural Scotland  

PubMed Central

Nine people from four families living in rural parts of Scotland have been found to suffer from clinical or biochemical effects of lead poisoning. Five had symptoms and four had unequivocal evidence of excessive lead exposure. The source of lead has been traced to the domestic water supply which in all cases was grossly contaminated with lead acquired from lead plumbing systems, including lead storage tanks. Clinical improvement followed the replacement of lead piping in two families studied. Lead poisoning is a possible cause of chronic ill health in areas of plumbosolvent water. PMID:5031206

Beattie, A. D.; Dagg, J. H.; Goldberg, A.; Wang, I.; Ronald, J.

1972-01-01

92

Zigadenus poisoning.  

PubMed

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of the morbidity caused by ingestion of some Zigadenus species. PMID:7832360

Heilpern, K L

1995-02-01

93

Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.  

PubMed

This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male mice were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulphate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five mice from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease compared to those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen in the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

2014-03-01

94

Ink remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...

95

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... LR, Green JL, Rumack BH, Giffin SL. 2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 26th Annual Report . 2009. Clinical Toxicology (2009) 47, 911–1084. Poison ...

96

Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 ?g/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and CuPT) and Cu on the copepod. To better protect precious marine resources, it is necessary to revise and tighten existing water quality criteria for biocides, such as ZnPT and CuPT, to account for their synergistic effects with Cu at environmentally realistic levels. PMID:25456222

Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

2014-12-01

97

Connective tissue disease features after thallium poisoning.  

PubMed

We present 5 patients in whom thallium poisoning (1) mimicked systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with positive antinuclear antibodies; (2) caused a SLE-like illness with positive antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor that was followed by a persistent chronic polyarthritis; (3) mimicked SLE with negative antinuclear antibodies and no residual disease; (4) caused arthralgia, Raynaud's phenomenon and palmar erythema with negative antinuclear antibodies followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca; and (5) triggered the onset of SLE with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Although the notion exists that thallium poisoning may simulate seronegative SLE, these associations between connective tissue diseases and thallium poisoning have not been previously recorded. PMID:2787403

Alarcón-Segovia, D; Amigo, M C; Reyes, P A

1989-02-01

98

Mania following organophosphate poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

2014-01-01

99

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

100

Chronic contamination decreases disease spread: a Daphnia–fungus–copper case study  

PubMed Central

Chemical contamination and disease outbreaks have increased in many ecosystems. However, connecting pollution to disease spread remains difficult, in part, because contaminants can simultaneously exert direct and multi-generational effects on several host and parasite traits. To address these challenges, we parametrized a model using a zooplankton–fungus–copper system. In individual-level assays, we considered three sublethal contamination scenarios: no contamination, single-generation contamination (hosts and parasites exposed only during the assays) and multi-generational contamination (hosts and parasites exposed for several generations prior to and during the assays). Contamination boosted transmission by increasing contact of hosts with parasites. However, it diminished parasite reproduction by reducing the size and lifespan of infected hosts. Multi-generational contamination further reduced parasite reproduction. The parametrized model predicted that a single generation of contamination would enhance disease spread (via enhanced transmission), whereas multi-generational contamination would inhibit epidemics relative to unpolluted conditions (through greatly depressed parasite reproduction). In a population-level experiment, multi-generational contamination reduced the size of experimental epidemics but did not affect Daphnia populations without disease. This result highlights the importance of multi-generational effects for disease dynamics. Such integration of models with experiments can provide predictive power for disease problems in contaminated environments. PMID:22593104

Civitello, David J.; Forys, Philip; Johnson, Adam P.; Hall, Spencer R.

2012-01-01

101

Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. PMID:22511547

Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

2012-07-01

102

Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)  

SciTech Connect

Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

Bechmann, R.K. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

1994-09-01

103

Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation  

PubMed Central

This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2009-01-01

104

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has been washed off, there is no risk of spreading poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac to other parts of the body. Be sure to wash any ...

105

[Occupational phosphine poisoning].  

PubMed

The authors report their observations on late sequelae of phosphine poisoning. For 18 months after acute poisoning signs of nervous system damage persisted (objective changes, EEG abnormalities). PMID:3444514

Kurzbauer, H; Kiesler, A

1987-01-01

106

The Power of Poison  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This striking new exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History explores the cultural, historical, and biological powers of poison. Designed to complement an in situ exhibit, visitors can learn about poison in nature, myth, and legend. A video introduction to the exhibit is a great place to start and visitors can also meet the curator, Dr. Mark Siddall. In the Poison in Nature area, users can learn how poison is used by tree frogs and other species to defend their territory. The Villains and Victims area includes profiles of notable people in history who have used poison in a nefarious fashion. Additionally, this area contains a free app that features three poison "mysteries" for interested parties to solve. Finally, visitors should be sure to check out the Poison for Good area, which contains information about how treatments from the yew tree (which is quite poisonous) can be used as an anti-cancer medicine.

Siddall, Mark Edward, 1966-

2013-11-16

107

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

108

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

... blooming in the ocean, such as during “"red tide." A red tide occurs when there is a rapid increase in ... poisonings also increases when there is a "red tide." Shellfish poisoning occurs in seafood with two shells ...

109

Prevent Unintentional Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... emergency departments. And the number of deaths is rising. Learn what you can do to reduce your— ... of poisoning in the United States, including occurrence, costs and risk factors. Unintentional Poisoning: CDC Activities Summary ...

110

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

111

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

112

Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.  

PubMed

One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner. PMID:18308700

Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

2008-06-01

113

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

114

[Acute salicylate poisoning].  

PubMed

Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis. PMID:16467617

Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

2006-01-01

115

Copper-induced hepatitis: the COMMD1 deficient dog as a translational animal model for human chronic hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic inflammatory liver disease regardless of aetiology leads to failing regeneration and fibrosis, ending in cirrhosis. Both in man and in animals this worldwide health problem has no definitive cure. Chronic liver injury causes hepatic stellate cells to proliferate and differentiate into matrix-producing cells. New therapeutic options will be developed upon detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving liver fibrosis.

R. P. Favier; B. Spee; L. C. Penning; J. Rothuizen

2011-01-01

116

Long-term Neurobehavioral Effects of Mild Poisonings with Organophosphate and n-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides among Banana Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphate poisoning has been associated with chronic neurobehavioral dysfunction, but no epidemio- logic data exist with regard to long-term consequences from carbamate poisoning. This cross-sectional study eval- uated the neurobehavioral performances of 81 banana workers who, on average 27 months earlier, had received medical attention not requiring hospitalization for mild occupational poisoning by either an organophosphate or a carbamate pesticide.

CATHARINA WESSELING; MATTHEW KEIFER; ANDERS AHLBOM; ROB MCCONNELL; JAI-DONG MOON; LINDA ROSENSTOCK; CHRISTER HOGSTEDT

117

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.

118

Sweet clover poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sweet clover poisoning is a hemorrhagic disease produced when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alba) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathologic lesions or poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and treat...

119

Suspected Pesticide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

1991-01-01

120

Paraquat Poisoning in Children  

PubMed Central

Four children with paraquat poisoning are described, with 2 fatalities. In one fatal case delay in treatment occurred as the nature of the ingested fluid was uncertain. A method for rapid detection of paraquat in the urine is referred to. The treatment of paraquat poisoning consists of immediate gastric lavage and forced osmotic diuresis. PMID:5427860

McDonagh, Brian J.; Martin, John

1970-01-01

121

Sodium bisulfate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

122

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

123

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

124

Liver histopathology of fatal phosphine poisoning.  

PubMed

Two commonly used pesticides in agriculture are phosphides of aluminium and zinc. Both of these metal phosphides act through elaboration of toxic phosphine gas. The poisoning in Iran is mostly oral and suicidal. Phosphine is rapidly absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and it is partly carried to the liver by the portal vein. In this study the liver histopathology of fatal poisoning is scrutinized. A descriptive, retrospective study was performed on 38 fatal phosphine poisonings. The slides of liver specimens of the cases were retrieved and studied separately by two pathologists. The poisoning was suicidal in 33 (86.5%) of cases. Portal inflammation was negligible in 37 cases and only in one of the cases, a moderate degree of chronic inflammation accompanied by granuloma formation was observed. Major histopathologic findings were as follows: mild sinusoidal congestion; 12 cases (31.6%), severe sinusoidal congestion; 25 cases (45.8%), central vein congestion; 23 cases (60.5%), centrilobular necrosis; 3 cases (7.9%), hepatocytes nuclear fragmentation; 6 cases (15.8%), sinusoidal clusters of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; 12 cases (31.6%), and mild macrovesicular steatosis; 5 cases (13.2%). Fine isomorphic cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in 36 cases (94.7%). These vacuoles were distributed uniformly in all hepatic zones in the majority (75%) of cases. This study reveals that the main histopathologic findings of fatal phosphine poisoning in the liver are fine cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes and sinusoidal congestion. PMID:16806774

Saleki, Sepideh; Ardalan, Farid Azmoudeh; Javidan-Nejad, Abdullah

2007-03-01

125

Poisonous Plants Web Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

1997-01-01

126

Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat  

PubMed Central

The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII) via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s) involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2·?) scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·? in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD) or control vector (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7) in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9). These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·? in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension. PMID:25474089

Collister, John P.; Bellrichard, Mitch; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

2014-01-01

127

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem environmental sources of lead exposure, especially from gasoline and food. But 83% of all homes built

128

Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridium dichloride), a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon. PMID:24672279

Raghu, Kondle; Mahesh, Vidavalur; Sasidhar, Parri; Reddy, Polam R.; Venkataramaniah, Vajja; Agrawal, Amit

2013-01-01

129

Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram

2013-01-01

130

Superwarfarin (brodifacoum) poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of self-ingestion of brodifacoum that resulted in spontaneous intra-abdominal haemorrhage, circulatory shock, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is reported. Current knowledge and management of superwarfarin poisoning are discussed. PMID:9452861

Corke, P J

1997-12-01

131

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

132

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin ... TN 37831 Online Email not for emergency use. Tennessee Florida Poison Information Center - Miami Address Jackson Memorial ...

133

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

134

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

135

Acid soldering flux poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

136

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

137

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

138

Occupational cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

139

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... oxalate crystals Asparagine, a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts ... age, weight, and condition The name of the plant and the parts eaten The amount swallowed The time it was ...

140

Wart remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...

141

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair lightener poisoning ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach. ... al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

142

Stoddard solvent poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Stoddard solvent is a flammable, liquid chemical that smells like kerosene. Stoddard solvent poisoning occurs when someone ... swelling Nervous system: Burning sensations Convulsions Dizziness ... problems Nervousness Numbness in arms and legs Unconsciousness ...

143

Rhubarb leaves poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Flush the skin and eyes with lots of water, if the plant touched these areas. ... the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment is received. ... in kidney failure. Deaths have been reported, but are rare.

144

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

145

Metal cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2 butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

146

Acute Oral Poisoning Due to Chloracetanilide Herbicides  

PubMed Central

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO3 ¯ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-01-01

147

Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.  

PubMed

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO?? was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-02-01

148

Nail polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Organic solvent syndrome; Psychoorganic syndrome; Chronic solvent encephalopathy ... memory loss. Painter syndrome may also be called organic solvent syndrome, psychoorganic syndrome, and chronic solvent encephalopathy ( ...

149

Copper-induced hepatitis: the COMMD1 deficient dog as a translational animal model for human chronic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory liver disease regardless of aetiology leads to failing regeneration and fibrosis, ending in cirrhosis. Both in man and in animals this worldwide health problem has no definitive cure. Chronic liver injury causes hepatic stellate cells to proliferate and differentiate into matrix-producing cells. New therapeutic options will be developed upon detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving liver fibrosis. This may lead to new anti-fibrotic therapies which need to be tested in suitable models before application in the veterinary and human clinic. On the other side, to restore the failing regenerative capacity of the diseased liver cells, adult progenitor cells are of interest, as an alternative to whole organ transplantation. In order to find the most suitable large animal model it is important to recognise that the typical histopathological reaction pattern of the liver can differ between mammalian species. It is therefore imperative that specialists in veterinary internal medicine and pathology, being familiar with the diseases and pathologies of the liver in different animal species, are teaming-up in finding the best models for veterinary and human liver diseases. Several large animal models have been mentioned, like pigs, sheep, and dogs. Based on the observations that man and dog share the same hepatopathies and have identical clinical, pathological and pathogenetic reaction patterns during the development of liver disease, the dog seems to be a properly suited species to test new therapeutic strategies for pets and their best friends. PMID:22029820

Favier, R P; Spee, B; Penning, L C; Rothuizen, J

2011-03-01

150

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... to tell whether the person is suffering from heat exhaustion or pesticide poisoning. The table below compares the symptoms. Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Symptoms of Organophosphate/ Carbamate Poisoning Sweating Sweating Headache ...

151

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

152

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

153

Serum enzyme status of Chios ewes fed increasing amounts of copper from copper sulfate.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate effects of orally administered copper (Cu) to Chios sheep breed on serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), l-alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate deydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), in order to establish a practical and effective method in diagnosing the prehemolytic stage of chronic Cu poisoning. Eighteen ewes were allocated to three treatments of six ewes and fed a diet that contained 16.4 mg/day of Cu. Ewes in treatment Cu-0 received no additional Cu (control), while those in treatments Cu-60 and Cu-95 received 60 and 95 mg additional Cu/day, respectively, as an oral solution of copper sulfate. Therefore the ewes in treatment Cu-0, Cu-60 and Cu-95 consumed 16.4, 76.4 and 111.4 mg Cu/day, respectively. Serum enzyme levels were similar among treatments and all ewes remained clinically healthy until the end of the experiment. Results suggest that Chios ewes exhibit tolerance to Cu supplementation for up to 6 weeks. PMID:20045542

Bampidis, V A; Christodoulou, V; Chatzipanagiotou, A; Sossidou, E; Salangoudis, A

2010-06-01

154

Chronic exposure of Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings to ambient copper: Effects on food intake, growth performance, biochemistry and stress resistance.  

PubMed

An 8-week trial was conducted to investigate the effect of ambient copper (Cu) on growth performance, physiological characteristics and stress resistance of Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus. Fish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 ppm Cu, and their food intake and growth performance were fortnightly recorded. Also, serum cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and sodium (Na) levels were determined after 2 and 8 weeks exposure to ambient Cu. At the end of trial, serum total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin-globulin ratio (A:G) levels, whole body proximate composition and stress tolerance of the fish were measured. Results showed that Cu exposure resulted in a significant suppression in food intake after 2 weeks, which was eliminated after 4 weeks in 0.02 ppm groups and after 6 weeks in 0.04 and 0.06 ppm groups. Cu exposure brought about an inferior growth that recovered in line with the experiment progression, following a dose-dependent manner. Cu-exposed fish showed a dose-dependent increase in serum cortisol, glucose and ALT as well as decrease in serum Na, after 2 weeks. These parameters showed a full recovery in 0.02 ppm group and a partial recovery in 0.04 and 0.06 ppm groups, at the 8th week. Significant suppression in serum total protein, albumin, globulin and A:G levels and whole body dry matter, lipid and protein levels as well as stress resistance was observed in 0.04 and 0.06 ppm groups. It is concluded that Cu exposure could adversely affect growth performance, physiological characteristics and stress resistance of Caspian roach, which might affect its ecological features. PMID:24105068

Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Rajabiesterabadi, Hamid; Kordrostami, Sara

2013-10-01

155

Pesticide Poisoning and Depressive Symptoms among Farm Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study presented is to evaluate the association between pesticides and depressive symptoms among a population exposed to chemicals as a result of agricultural use. Chronic sequelae of acute pesticide poisoning from organophosphate compounds may include anxiety and depression. In some states, farmers have been reported to have higher rates of depression than other population groups.

Lorann Stallones; Cheryl Beseler

2002-01-01

156

Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the

M. V. Balzan; G. Agius; A. Galea Debono

1996-01-01

157

MR in trichloroethane poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of acute trichloroethane intoxication caused by inhalation of typewriter correction fluid. CT and MR findings revealed lesions in the basal ganglia and cortex similar to those observed in patients with methanol and carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:8791934

del Amo, M; Berenguer, J; Pujol, T; Mercader, J M

1996-01-01

158

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

159

Poisonous Koda Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE have been several well-ascertained examples of poisoning from diseased or improperly-prepared Koda millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) during the past year in India. Owing to the prevailing scarcity of the usual food-grains, it is probable that Koda millet has been extensively sold and eaten in localities where its use is ordinarily unknown.

A. E. Grant

1898-01-01

160

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

161

Percutaneous organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

After cutaneous application of the organophosphate insecticide Diazinon for pubic lice, our patient had symptoms of cholinergic excess, lost consciousness, and had a seizure. Because of the high index of clinical suspicion for potentially lethal organophosphate poisoning, the patient received empiric therapy with pralidoxime and atropine and completely recovered. PMID:3629322

Halle, A; Sloas, D D

1987-09-01

162

Super Rat Poison Man  

E-print Network

Bob Square Tie. But Zheng Xiaoyu, the deposed head of China's State Food and Drug Administration begs to be excused. A rat poison manufacturer here in China applied for permission to name some of its products after him, partly because he's corrupt...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-04

163

Poison Ivy Dermatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly describes this woody vine with 2-4" leaflets in groups of three. The center leaf has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ...

164

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Carbolic acid is a sweet-smelling clear liquid that is added to many different products. Carbolic acid poisoning occurs when someone touches or swallows this chemical. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management ...

165

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

166

Surface area of respirable beryllium metal, oxide, and copper alloy aerosols and implications for assessment of exposure risk of chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

The continued occurrence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) suggests the current occupational exposure limit of 2 microg beryllium per cubic meter of air does not adequately protect workers. This study examined the morphology and measured the particle surface area of aerodynamically size-separated powders and process-sampled particles of beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, and copper-beryllium alloy. The beryllium metal powder consisted of compact particles, whereas the beryllium oxide powder and particles were clusters of smaller primary particles. Specific surface area (SSA) results for all samples (N=30) varied by a factor of 37, from 0.56 +/- 0.07 m(2)/g (for the 0.4-0.7 microm size fraction of the process-sampled reduction furnace particles) to 20.8 +/- 0.4 m(2)/g (for the 6 microm) to 20.8 +/- 0.44 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Dickerson, Robert M; Peterson, Eric J; Day, Gregory A; Breysse, Patrick N; Kent, Michael S; Scripsick, Ronald C

2003-01-01

167

Acute poisoning: an update.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective. PMID:890634

Raymond, C. W.

1977-01-01

168

[Poisoning by bee sting].  

PubMed

Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

2005-01-01

169

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

170

[Familial lead poisoning].  

PubMed

A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

1989-06-01

171

Poisonous plant vouchers.  

PubMed

Every published report of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, should document plant identification. The essential elements are: complete botanical Latin name including species, specific epithet and author(s); name of the collaborating botanist who identified the plant; and herbarium and collection number of a voucher specimen from the exposure lot. Additional information to aid identification might include plant photographs, drawings, and descriptions. PMID:10349708

Wagstaff, D J; Wiersema, J H; Lellinger, D B

1999-06-01

172

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-07-01

173

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings  

PubMed Central

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-01-01

174

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

175

The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.  

PubMed

Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

Ogada, Darcy L

2014-08-01

176

Poisonous snakebite in Utah.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

1995-01-01

177

Juniper tar poisoning.  

PubMed

Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day. PMID:15732446

Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

2005-01-01

178

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

179

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

180

Population Cycles of Poisonous Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poisonous plant is harmless until it is consumed. Once eaten the degree of damage depends on the amount of the plant consumed or more specifically the amount of toxin entering and absorbed by the body. Poisoning therefore, depends on two principal variables; the toxin level in the plant and the ...

181

Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.  

PubMed

Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

Lincoln, S D; Black, B

1980-04-15

182

Copper metabolic defects and liver disease: environmental aspects.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for many biological processes. Cu homeostasis is generally well maintained by inbuilt controls in intestinal absorption, biliary excretion and intrahepatic storage. Copper deficiency disorders are rare. Acute Cu toxicity occurs occasionally in accidental poisoning with Cu sulfate. Chronic Cu toxicity in the form of liver cirrhosis and damage to other organs is seen classically in Wilson's Disease (genetic abnormality of Cu metabolism) and in the presumed environmental disorder Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (ICC). The clinical, epidemiological and treatment aspects of ICC are described. The evidence linking ICC to environmental Cu is (i) greatly increased hepatic Cu; (ii) early introduction of Cu contaminated milk boiled or stored in brass vessels; (iii) dramatic decline in ICC throughout the country coincident with change in feeding vessels; and (iv) continued long-term remission in d-penicillamine-treated patients after withdrawal of the drug. The nature and role of a second factor in the causation of ICC remains unclear, although a genetic predisposition is strongly suspected. Scattered reports of an ICC-like illness from the West (Idiopathic Cu Toxicosis, Endemic Tyrolean Infantile Cirrhosis), suggest that different mechanisms (environmental, genetic or both) can lead to the same end stage liver disease-'ecogenetic' disorders. PMID:12472971

Pankit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A

2002-12-01

183

Acute poisonings with dipyridil herbicides.  

PubMed

Severe cases of poisoning with pesticides, especially suicidal ones, continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic problem in Regional Toxicological Centre in Lublin. The present author describes the pathomechanism of poisonings with dipyridil herbicides basing on the literature on the subject. The present article presents our own observations of the treatment of acute poisonings with the above herbicides, the clinical course, and complications from various internal organs, outcome and prognosis in this type of poisoning cases in the Lublin macro-region basing on the comprehensive material gathered. Our observations confirm high toxicity of dipyridil, especially in the cases of suicidal poisoning with changes in many internal organs and often a lethal outcome. High mortality rate in these cases motivates for finding better prevention methods not only when they are produced and distributed but also when they are used on fields. PMID:9478105

Brzeski, Z

1997-01-01

184

Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old man committed suicide by ingestion of aluminum phosphide, a potent mole pesticide, which was available at the victim's workplace. The judicial authority ordered an autopsy, which ruled out any other cause of death. The victim was discovered 10 days after the ingestion of the pesticide. When aluminum phosphide comes into contact with humidity, it releases large quantities of hydrogen phosphine (PH3), a very toxic gas. Macroscopic examination during the autopsy revealed a very important asphyxia syndrome with major visceral congestion. Blood, urine, liver, kidney, adrenal, and heart samples were analyzed. Phosphine gas was absent in the blood and urine but present in the brain (94 mL/g), the liver (24 mL/g), and the kidneys (41 mL/g). High levels of phosphorus were found in the blood (76.3 mg/L) and liver (8.22 mg/g). Aluminum concentrations were very high in the blood (1.54 mg/L), brain (36 microg/g), and liver (75 microg/g) compared to the usual published values. Microscopic examination revealed congestion of all the organs studied and obvious asphyxia lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma. All these results confirmed a diagnosis of poisoning by aluminum phosphide. This report points out that this type of poisoning is rare and that hydrogen phosphine is very toxic. The phosphorus and aluminum concentrations observed and their distribution in the different viscera are discussed in relation to data in the literature. PMID:10732945

Anger, F; Paysant, F; Brousse, F; Le Normand, I; Develay, P; Gaillard, Y; Baert, A; Le Gueut, M A; Pepin, G; Anger, J P

2000-03-01

185

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

186

1 H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication leads to acute and chronic neurological deficits, but little is known about the specific\\u000a noxious mechanisms. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow insight into the pathophysiology of CO poisoning by monitoring neurochemical\\u000a disturbances, yet only limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological\\u000a effects of CO poisoning.

Daniel Kondziella; Else R. Danielsen; Klaus Hansen; Carsten Thomsen; Erik C. Jansen; Peter Arlien-Soeborg

2009-01-01

187

[Experimental justification of approaches to pharmacological correction of delayed disorders caused by acute ethylene glycol poisoning].  

PubMed

The development of delayed disorders caused by acute ethylene glycol poisoning has been studied in experiments on male rats. These disorders include chronic renal failure and secondary combined immunodeficiency status of the "circulus vitiosus" type. Urgent pharmacological correction was shown to be necessary shortly after the poisoning. The experimental therapy (administration of immunomodulators with various mechanisms of action in addition to conventional antidote treatment with ethanol) resulted in the restoration of nonspecific resistance and both cellular and humoral immunity. Reduction of the urinary system damage after the administration of immunomodulators was observed. The results demonstrated the importance of multiagent immunotherapy for the correction of delayed effects of acute ethylene glycol poisoning. PMID:23323331

Liubishin, M M; Sivak, K V; Savateeva-Liubimova, T N

2012-01-01

188

[Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].  

PubMed

This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism. PMID:12488928

Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

2003-02-01

189

[Ciguatera fish poisoning].  

PubMed

Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. PMID:25001048

Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

2014-09-01

190

Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

2012-01-01

191

[Fatal paraquat poisoning].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a potent bipiridilium herbicide, largely used by farmers. Is very toxic in the concentrated liquid form supplied. When ingested, even a minimum quantity, can be letal. We present a case of a 69 years old man who intencionaly ingested 60 ml of paraquat and 20 ml of NaOH. Tow hours after the ingestion, the patient wes admited to the emergency service. He was treated with gastrointestinal lavage, activated charcoal, füller's hearth, catárticos, fluid and electrolytes, mannitol, dopamine and haemoperfusion. Despite therapy, the patient developed a multiple organic failure and died fiveteen hours after admission. Clinical course and therapeutical management are described of this deliberale self poisoning infrequently reported in Spain. PMID:8948818

Bajo Bajo, A; Sanz Ortega, F; Santos Perez, M E; Thomson Okatsu, K; Zapico Alvarez, N; Garcia Perez, A

1996-02-01

192

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

193

FTIR analysis of food poisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

Yasui, Sritana C.

1992-03-01

194

Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires stronger enforcement of existing laws and regulations, as well as accountability of local authorities charged with upholding environmental regulations. In this context, restrictions on such rights as freedom of expression, assembly, and political participation have direct consequences on the realization of the right to health. PMID:23568949

Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

2012-01-01

195

[Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of poisoning.  

PubMed

Experiments have suggested reduction of neurological sequelae from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by treatment with hyper-baric oxygen (HBO). Randomised clinical trials have, however, been ambiguous. The discrepancy may be explained by timing of HBO relative to exposure. For other asphyxiants data are too sparse for a qualified judgement. Until more evidence is avail-able, we suggest that HBO is used exclusively for moderate an d severe CO poisoning within a time window of 12 hours. PMID:25292230

Jacobsen, Peter; Carlsen, Rasmus; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

2014-07-21

196

Cabbage poisoning in ruminants.  

PubMed

A complaint of poor productivity was investigated in a herd of Jersey cattle and a small flock of Dorper sheep that had been fed cabbage for 5 to 6 months per year, over a number of years. During that time a number of lambs were lost as a result of swayback, some cows aborted, milk production was down, and although the farmer was an experienced inseminator, the conception rate in the Jerseys was low. After rectal examination and consulting the records, 26% of the cows were found to have been open for more than 150 d and 28% had been inseminated more than 3 times. The body condition of the cows ranged from poor to moderate, the hair coats were dull and some cows were anaemia. The young lambs had visibly enlarged thyroids. Haematological investigations revealed a typical Heinz body type haemolytic anaemic. In the cattle the anaemia appeared to be macrocytic, hypochromic and associated with thrombocytosis, while in the sheep it seemed to be normochromic and slightly microcytic. Plasma copper concentrations were severely depressed in all cases. Most thyroxine concentrations were within the normal range, although some were on the low side. Analysis of cabbage revealed a high sulphur content and marginally low copper and zinc levels. The main factor in cabbage which is responsible for poor animal performance, is the high sulphur content. High levels of this mineral exert detrimental effects, in order of priority, by elevating s-methyl cystine sulphoxide, diminishing the availability of copper and raising the glucosinolate content of the plant. PMID:8410951

Taljaard, T L

1993-06-01

197

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

198

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

199

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

200

Factors for Determining Survival in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Organophosphate poisoning has a high mortality rate. Recently, differences among organophosphorus insecticides in human self-poisoning were reported. This study investigated the prognostic risk factors and the mortality of different organophosphates following acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods This retrospective study included 68 patients with acute organophosphate poisoning. We investigated patient survival according to initial parameters, including the initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, serum cholinesterase level, and hemoperfusion and evaluated the mortality according to organophosphate types. Results Thirteen of the 68 patients died. The agents responsible for mortality were different. The APACHE II score was a significant predictor of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.194; p<0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.089 to 1.309) and respiratory failure (OR, 1.273; p<0.01; 95% CI, 1.122 to 1.444). The mortality was 0% for dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos and profenofos. However, other organophosphates showed different mortality (16.7% for O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate, 25% for phenthoate, 37.5% for phosphamidon, 50% for methidathion). The usefulness of hemoperfusion appears to be limited. Conclusions The initial APACHE II score is a useful prognostic indicator, and different organophosphates have different mortality. PMID:19949736

Kang, Eun-Jung; Seok, Su-Jin; Lee, Kwon-Hyun; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Hong, Sae-Yong

2009-01-01

201

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

2013-01-01

202

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

...2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

2014-01-01

203

Assessment of Digoxin-Specific Fab Fragment Dosages in Digoxin Poisoning.  

PubMed

Digoxin poisoning still remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, digoxin-specific Fab fragments are commercially available as an antidote. However, these Fab fragments are several thousand dollars per vial. There is a standardized formula to calculate appropriate Fab fragment dosage based on the serum digoxin concentration. This can greatly reduce the amount of Fab fragment administered. There is also an empiric dosing guideline recommending 6-10 vials be given; however, this may result in higher amounts of Fab fragments being administered than required. We performed this study to assess the amounts of digoxin-specific Fab fragments administered in the treatment of digoxin poisonings recorded in a poison control system database from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009, in which digoxin serum concentrations were available. This was a retrospective study of 278 patients, 107 with acute poisonings (group A) and 171 following chronic poisoning (group B). In group A, the calculated Fab dose was higher than the calculated dose based on available concentrations in 39 (36%) of group A and 15 (9%) of group B patients. The average wholesale price cost of the excessive dosages ranged from $4818 to as high as $50,589 per patient. Our data suggests that clinician education on digoxin poisoning and the use of the standardized formula to calculate the Fab dose may decrease over utilization and decrease costs associated with the administration of digoxin-specific Fab fragments in the treatment of digoxin poisonings. PMID:25379735

Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Machado, Carol; Cantrell, F Lee

2014-11-01

204

Severe oral and intravenous insecticide mixture poisoning with diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background The widespread use of pesticides in public health protection and agricultural pest control has caused severe environmental pollution and health hazards, especially in developing countries, including cases of severe acute and chronic human poisoning. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an uncommon manifestation of acute pesticide poisoning. Suicidal pesticide poisoning by injection is also an unusual way to take poison. We report a severe pesticide mixture poisoning case with diabetic ketoacidosis in an adult with improved outcome after supportive treatment and large doses of atropine. Case presentation A 30-year-old unmarried Moroccan Arab male with a previous history of active polysubstance abuse and behavior disorders had ingested and self injected intravenously into his forearm an unknown amount of a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. He developed muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms with hypothermia, inflammation in the site of the pesticide injection without necrosis. Red blood cell cholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase were very low (<10%). By day 3, the patient developed stroke with hypotension (80/50 mmHg) and tachycardia (143 pulses /min). Laboratory tests showed severe hyperglycemia (4.49 g/dL), hypokaliemia (2.4 mEq/L), glycosuria, ketonuria and low bicarbonate levels (12 mEq/L) with improvement after intensive medical treatment and treatment by atropine. Conclusion Suicidal poisonings with self-injection of insecticide were rarely reported but could be associated with severe local and systemic complications. The oxidative stress caused by pyrethroids and organophosphates poisoning could explain the occurrence of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. PMID:25078103

2014-01-01

205

[Poisoning with aluminum phospholipide used as a poison against moles].  

PubMed

Aluminium phosphide (AIP) is a poison used in Denmark to combat moles and vermines e.g. in granaries. On contact with water AIP releases phosphine gas, which has a strong cytotoxic action. We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy 83 year old man, caused by ingestion of pellets containing AIP. After ingestion the primary symptoms were burning retrosternal pain, severe vomiting and diarrhoea which progressed to cardiac failure, arrhythmias and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient and his excreta smelled of garlic, ammonium carbide and decaying fish, which is characteristic of this poisoning. In spite of intensive care support the patient died in cardiac and respiratory failure 17 hours after ingestion of the pellets. Treatment is supportive. Knowledge about the toxicity of AIP is described and discussed. PMID:8966781

Andersen, T S; Holm, J W; Andersen, T S

1996-09-16

206

Immunocytochemical detection of metallothionein (MT1 and MT2) in copper-enhanced sheep brains.  

PubMed

The role of metallothionein (MT) in the brain in heavy metal detoxification is relatively unexplored. Brain copper (Cu) elevation although unusual in chronic Cu poisoning in sheep, has been shown to occur after treatment with the chelating agent ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of MT in TTM Cu-enhanced sheep brains, with immunohistochemical techniques. Brains from TTM-treated, Cu-poisoned sheep were examined for MT immunolabelling with a mouse monoclonal antibody (E9) for MT1 and MT2, and compared with brains from untreated sheep. Brain samples were analysed separately for Cu and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Markedly increased MT immunoreactivity was found in astrocytes of the cerebellum, thalamus/hypothalamus, cerebrum and medulla oblongata of the high-Cu brains, corresponding to the regional Cu elevations. MT immunolabelling was also found in the pia mater, choroid plexus and ependymal cells. Neurons were rarely labelled. MT induction within astrocytes and at the blood-brain barrier suggests that these are sites of stabilization and possibly transport for Cu and supports the hypothesis that the astrocyte compartment modulates metal homeostasis, conferring protection on vulnerable neurons and effecting damage limitation. PMID:10098014

Dincer, Z; Haywood, S; Jasani, B

1999-01-01

207

Effects of clonidine and idazoxan on tetrathiomolybdate-induced copper and lysosomal enzyme excretion into sheep bile.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of intravenous (IV) administration of tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), and ?(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine (CLO) and ?(2)-antagonist idazoxan (IDA), alone or in combination with TTM, on sheep fed low (LCu) and high (HCu) copper diets. Effects on bile flow, biliary Cu concentration and excretion, plasma Cu concentration, and lysosomal enzyme ?-glucuronidase (?-GLU) activity in bile and plasma were determined. Tetrathiomolybdate alone or with CLO or IDA significantly enhanced biliary Cu excretion most likely by removing Cu from hepatocyte lysosomes as evidenced by a significant increase in ?-GLU enzyme activity in bile. A significant increase in plasma ?-GLU concentration occurred only in sheep treated with CLO in combination with TTM. Because of the lytic nature of the lysosomal enzymes, caution is advocated in use of drugs, especially ?(2)-adrenergic agonists, to further enhance TTM-induced biliary Cu excretion in the treatment of chronic Cu poisoning in sheep. PMID:21570700

Gooneratne, S R

2012-06-01

208

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

209

CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... drinking. Issue Details Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

210

Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock.  

E-print Network

. secundiflona leaf poisoning. It is interesting to note that the writers have also found a decided increase in the inorganic phos- phorus in the blood serum of sheep suffering from bitterweed, Actinea odorata, poisoning. The serum calcium in all cases...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1935-01-01

211

A Model Poison Control System  

PubMed Central

Responding to the need for a poison information, education, data collection and research resource in California's Bay Area and North Coast counties, the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center has become an integral part of the region's emergency medical services. In the first 33 months after it opened, more than 54,000 calls for assistance were received, nearly a third from medical professionals. Through the cooperation and collaboration of public, private and university resources and interests, a cost-effective, comprehensive and accessible system has evolved for public and professional use. Through our experience a system has developed that can serve as a model for poison information services throughout the western states. Emerging public concern for toxicology issues will continue to refine this model. PMID:7179955

Tong, Theodore G.; Becker, Charles E.; Foliart, Donna; Morse, Linda

1982-01-01

212

[Phosphine poisoning in healthcare workers].  

PubMed

Phosphine gas constitutes a potential and serious little-known cause of poisoning of professional nature of the medical staff and nursing care of patients who voluntarily swallow phosphides rodenticides purposes suicide. The objective of this paper is to inform to healthcare workers from urgencies, forensic and occupational health services on this occupational hazard. We present the case of a nurse who suffered from poisoning by gas phosphine confirmed through an environmental monitoring of gases in an emergency department carried out by the government service of civil protection of the State of Jalisco. PMID:21894233

Arredondo Trujillo, Francisco; Hurtado Pérez, Martha Patricia; Castañeda Borrayo, Yaocihuatl

2011-01-01

213

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

214

Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

215

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

216

Modern strategies in therapy of organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the various microscopic reactions as well as toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic principles in therapy of organophosphate poisoning, the administration of obidoxime by an initial bolus dose followed by continuous infusion appears rational. Using this protocol, six patients each with parathion or oxydemeton methyl poisoning were treated. In parathion poisoning, reactivation was possible up to 7 days. At paraoxon concentrations >0.1

H. Thiermann; L. Szinicz; F. Eyer; F. Worek; P. Eyer; N. Felgenhauer; T. Zilker

1999-01-01

217

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

218

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

219

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

220

Copper hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions. PMID:25098945

Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

2014-10-01

221

Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.  

PubMed

alpha-Lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring dithiol compound, has long been known as an essential cofactor for mitochondrial bioenergetic enzymes. Aside from its enzymatic role, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that LA also acts as a powerful micronutrient with diverse pharmacologic and antioxidant properties. Pharmacologically, LA improves glycemic control, polyneuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus, and effectively mitigates toxicities associated with heavy metal poisoning. As an antioxidant, LA directly terminates free radicals, chelates transition metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), increases cytosolic glutathione and vitamin C levels and prevents toxicities associated with their loss. These diverse actions suggest that LA acts by multiple mechanisms both physiologically and pharmacologically, many of which are only now being explored. Herein, we review the known biochemical properties of LA with particular reference to how LA may be an effective agent to ameliorate certain pathophysiologies of many chronic diseases. PMID:15134511

Smith, A R; Shenvi, S V; Widlansky, M; Suh, J H; Hagen, T M

2004-05-01

222

Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera pascuori was recently reported in horses in the state of Roraima. It causes chronic signs of sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, and progressive weight loss. Some animals are blind. Young horses are more affected than adults. After the end of plant consumption the anima...

223

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to

N. M. Senozan; J. A. Devore

1996-01-01

224

Fatal tolperisone poisoning: Autopsy and toxicology findings in three suicide cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolperisone (Mydocalm®) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant with few sedative side effects that is used for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. We describe three cases of suicidal tolperisone poisoning in three healthy young subjects in the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. In all cases, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings did not reveal the cause of death.Systematic toxicological analysis

Frank Sporkert; Christophe Brune; Marc P. Augsburger; Patrice Mangin

225

Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals. In the setting of toxicity from either agent class, clinical syndromes result from excessive nicotinic and muscarinic neurostimulation. The toxic effects from OPs and carbamates differ with respect to reversibility, subacute, and chronic effects. Decontamination, meticulous supportive care, aggressive antimuscarinic therapy, seizure control, and administration of oximes are cornerstones of management. PMID:25455666

King, Andrew M; Aaron, Cynthia K

2015-02-01

226

Paraquat poisoning - management and prognosis.  

PubMed

Paraquat poisoning has become a significant clinical problem since the early 1960s. Its high mortality has posed a major challenge to clinicians treating these patients. Two patients who survived and one who did not are reported. The management of these patients and the possible factors affecting their outcome are discussed. PMID:7332290

Lee, E J; Pang, M; Woo, K T

1981-04-01

227

Copper Metallochaperones  

PubMed Central

The current state of knowledge on how copper metallochaperones support the maturation of cuproproteins is reviewed. Copper is needed within mitochondria to supply the CuA and intramembrane CuB sites of cytochrome oxidase, within the trans-Golgi network to supply secreted cuproproteins and within the cytosol to supply superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Subpopulations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase also localize to mitochondria, the secretory system, the nucleus and, in plants, the chloroplast, which also requires copper for plastocyanin. Prokaryotic cuproproteins are found in the cell membrane and in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Cu(I) and Cu(II) form tight complexes with organic molecules and drive redox chemistry, which unrestrained would be destructive. Copper metallochaperones assist copper in reaching vital destinations without inflicting damage or becoming trapped in adventitious binding sites. Copper ions are specifically released from copper metallochaperones upon contact with their cognate cuproproteins and metal transfer is thought to proceed by ligand substitution. PMID:20205585

Robinson, Nigel J.; Winge, Dennis R.

2014-01-01

228

An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. METHODS: A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due to CO poisoning between January 1988 to December 1994. The main outcome measures were age and sex standardised incidence rates (SIRs) for non-intentional, suicidal, and undetermined poisonings for health authorities and the linear relation with socioeconomic deprivation. RESULTS: Overall rate of non-intentional poisonings over the 7 year period was 7.6/100,000, an annual rate of 1.1/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest in people > or = 85; men 24.0/100,000 and women 19.7/100,000. For suicides the 7 year rate was 19.6/100,000, an annual rate of 2.8/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest for men of 35-39, 64.1/100,000, and for women aged 45-49, 15.3/100,000. None of the causes of poisoning were related to deprivation. Non-intentional poisonings showed a strong seasonal variation with the highest rates being recorded in the months October to March. Increased rates of poisoning were found in the rural districts of the West Midlands. There seems to have been a decline in suicides coinciding with the introduction of three way catalytic converters on cars. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people and the very young are at the greatest risk from non- intentional CO poisoning and rates are highest in the winter months. Although deaths from non-intentional CO poisoning are declining nationally, in the West Midlands they have remained stable and hospital admissions are increasing. It is not solely an urban phenomenon with rates for non-intentional CO poisoning and suicides higher in the rural districts. Health authorities need to consider all populations in any prevention programme. Further work is needed to establish the extent of the burden of chronic CO poisoning and the impact of catalytic converters on suicides.   PMID:9924447

Wilson, R. C.; Saunders, P. J.; Smith, G.

1998-01-01

229

Evidence for metal poisoning in acute deaths of large red drum (Scianeops ocellata)  

SciTech Connect

Two of the approximately 100 large, mature, red drum found dead or dying in Florida's Indian River and Mosquito Lagoon were examined. Determinations were made of serum electrolyte concentrations, total proteins, albumins, globulins, creatinine values, and enzyme activity. Concentrations of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium were determined by atomic aborption. The outstanding histological lesions were found in the gills of a moribund specimen. Results indicate that the acute episode was triggered by ingestion of copper, zinc, and arsenic. However, cadmium, mercury and chromium may have been contributory by binding with metallothionein and thus lowering tolerance to metal poisoning. (JMT)

Cardeihac, P.T.; Simpson, C.F.; White, F.H.; Thompson, N.P.; Carr, W.E.

1981-12-01

230

Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It manifests as broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild headache, nausea, and fatigue to dizziness, syncope, coma, seizures resulting in cardiovascular collapse, respiratory failure, and death. Cardiovascular complications of CO poisoning has been well reported and include myocardial stunning, left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmias. Acute myocardial ischemia has also been reported from increased thrombogenicity due to CO poisoning. Myocardial toxicity from CO exposure is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels do not correlate well with the clinical severity of CO poisoning. Supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy for CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases CO elimination and has been used with wide variability in patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury from CO poisoning, but its benefit in limiting or reversing cardiac injury is unknown. We present a comprehensive review of literature on cardiovascular manifestations of CO poisoning and propose a diagnostic algorithm for managing patients with CO poisoning. PMID:24518173

Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Khera, Sahil; Ahmad, Hasan; Jain, Diwakar; Aronow, Wilbert S; Frishman, William H

2014-02-10

231

Brodifacoum poisoning with toxicokinetic data.  

PubMed

The case of a 46-year-old woman who survived after a brodifacoum poisoning is presented. The patient was admitted due to a severe coagulopathy. Initial prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were both greater than 110 seconds and the patient suffered severe gastric and pulmonary hemorrhage requiring fresh frozen plasma transfusion and parenteral phytonadione administration (up to 100 mg per day). Serum brodifacoum levels were determined by HPLC during seven months. Five days after admission, serum brodifacoum level was 1302 ng/ml. Serum brodifacoum levels decreased till day 209 when became not detectable. Brodifacoum elimination showed a first order kinetic and a 56-day half-life. Investigation of superwarfarin should be considered in any patient with vitamin K dependent coagulation disorder. It would be also useful to obtain periodic brodifacoum levels and build the corresponding elimination curve to help direct phytonadione therapy in poisoned patients. PMID:17503253

Olmos, Valentina; López, Clara Magdalena

2007-01-01

232

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

233

Hybanthus calceolaria poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Hybanthus calceolaria, also known as "papaconha" or "ipepacuanha," is a herbaceous plant found in northeastern Brazil, which is often implicated by farmers as the cause of neurological signs in livestock grazing. Several poisoning outbreaks associated with the ingestion of this plant were observed in cattle in the municipalities of Colônia de Gurguéia in the state of Piauí and Sirinhaém in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main clinical signs were ataxia, recumbency, and myokymia. No significant lesions were observed during necropsy or on histological examination. The disease was experimentally reproduced by the administration of 2 daily doses of 40 g/kg/body weight of the fresh green plant containing fruits. The plants without fruits were nontoxic, which is in accordance with the farmers' information, as it was stated that the poisoning only occurs when the plant is fruiting. PMID:25085870

Carvalho, Fabricio K L; Nascimento, Eduardo M; Rocha, Brena P; Mendonça, Fábio S; Veschi, Josir L A; Silva, Silvana M M S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2014-09-01

234

Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs, depending on age, sex and the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Only few data are available for the storage of elements in the organs of dogs. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the canine liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the relevance of age, sex and the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, tissues of 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn and Mn were highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. Highest Sr, Cd and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex, while markedly lower concentrations were found in the renal medulla and the liver. Female dogs showed higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver; renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver; renal cortex), Cr (liver; renal cortex; renal medulla) and Pb (liver) than male dogs. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. The hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge on the storage of specific elements in the canine liver and kidneys and can be considered as important reference data for diagnostics and further investigations. PMID:25234328

Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, JÜrgen

2014-09-17

235

Strychnine poisoning of aquatic birds.  

PubMed

Strychnine poisoning was diagnosed in free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) found dead on a pond in a zoo. The probable source of toxin was improperly applied strychnine-treated grain used for control of rodents on adjacent farm land. Ingesta of the birds contained 19.7-85.1 mg/kg of strychnine. PMID:3586216

Wobeser, G; Blakley, B R

1987-04-01

236

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

237

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

238

Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.  

PubMed

The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-11-01

239

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

240

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

241

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

242

Is Nai Habarala (Alocasia cucullata) a poisonous plant?  

PubMed

Nai Habarala is not documented as a poisonous plant. However, we report two cases of fatal poisoning following ingestion of its fruit. The clinical manifestations have a similarity to cyanogenic glycoside poisoning. PMID:8342179

Goonasekera, C D; Vasanthathilake, V W; Ratnatunga, N; Seneviratne, C A

1993-06-01

243

Late respiratory complications of mustard gas poisoning in Iranian veterans.  

PubMed

Mustard gas or sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that was widely used during the World War I and in the Iran-Iraq conflict. We aimed to study late toxic effects of SM on the respiratory system of severely intoxicated Iranian veterans. Respiratory examination, spirometry, arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis, and high resolution computed tomograpghy (HRCT) of the chest were performed on all severely SM-poisoned veterans in the province of Khorasan, Iran. HRCT abnormalities were classified into four grades based on the number of lung lobes involved. ABG and spirometric results were compared with each other, as well as, with the severity grades of HRCT abnormalities, using Spearman's rank correlation test. Forty male subjects with confirmed SM poisoning 16 to 20 years ago, were studied. Main respiratory complications were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (35%), bronchiectasis (32.5%), asthma (25%), large airway narrowing (15%), pulmonary fibrosis (7.5%), and simple chronic bronchitis (5%) patients. While there was a significant correlation (p<0.05) between ABG and spirometric results, the severity grades of HRCT abnormalities revealed a significant correlation (p<0.05) only with PaO2. We concluded that SM-induced respiratory complications tend to progress over the years. While spirometry is a valuable diagnostic tool for evaluation of pulmonary impairment during regular follow-ups, ABG and HRCT are more objective and should be more considered for evaluation of the severity and for diagnosis of the respiratory complications. PMID:16033754

Hefazi, Mehrdad; Attaran, Davoud; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

2005-10-01

244

Copper toxicosis in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

PubMed

Six 12- to 14-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were diagnosed with copper toxicosis. These rabbits were part of a group of 110 purchased and shipped overnight for research purposes. On arrival, the group experienced an abrupt diet change. Eight died over 3 weeks and 6 were submitted for postmortem examination. Microscopic findings included severe centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular necrosis with rhodanine stain-positive copper granules in the remaining hepatocytes. Mild periportal fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, and splenic erythrophagocytosis were also observed. Hepatic copper concentrations were elevated, ranging from 319 to 997 ppm. Clinical disease was not previously observed in younger rabbits gradually transitioned from the supplier's copper-supplemented diet. Copper toxicosis likely occurred in these rabbits from a combination of (1) increased duration of copper supplementation leading to increased hepatocellular stores and (2) stress leading to anorexia and release of hepatocellular copper stores similar to chronic copper toxicosis as described in sheep. PMID:23697481

Ramirez, C J; Kim, D Y; Hanks, B C; Evans, T J

2013-11-01

245

Profenofos metabolites in human poisoning.  

PubMed

Profenofos and its metabolites were determined in a case of fatal poisoning. Little profenofos and large amounts of metabolites were detected by gas chromatography/flame photometric detection in the acid extracts of blood and urine after methylation with diazomethane. Four major metabolites containing phosphorus were identified with the synthesized metabolites, namely, despropylated profenofos, desethylated profenofos and des-S-propylated profenofos, respectively. 4-Bromo-2-chlorophenol (BCP), an aryl moiety of profenofos, was also determined in blood and urine with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as free or conjugated metabolites. PMID:11182275

Gotoh, M; Sakata, M; Endo, T; Hayashi, H; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

2001-02-15

246

[Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].  

PubMed

Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. PMID:22169568

Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

2012-01-01

247

Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education  

SciTech Connect

Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

Makalinao, Irma R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of the Philippines College of Medicine, 547 Pedro Gil Street, Ermita, Manila 1000 (Philippines) and National Poison Control Information Service, University of the Philippines, Manila (Philippines)]. E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat [National Poison Centre, Universiti Sains (Malaysia)

2005-09-01

248

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning.  

PubMed

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu Tian

2010-04-01

249

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning  

PubMed Central

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

2010-01-01

250

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

251

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

252

Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

2001-01-01

253

Datura poisoning--the Angel's Trumpet.  

PubMed

A group of seven ate flowers of Datura arborea ("The Angel's Trumpet" or "Trumpet Lilies") and suffered severe hallucinations. One member of the group drowned in shallow water while suffering from these effects. Although poisoning with related species is common, poisoning with this plant is rare, perhaps due to its terrifying rather than pleasurable hallucinogenic effect. PMID:4069765

Hayman, J

1985-07-01

254

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

255

Treatment of methyl bromide poisoning with haemodialysis.  

PubMed Central

Acute accidental methyl bromide poisoning was treated with haemodialysis. The treatment was successful in removing bromide from the blood but the patient persists with severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. To the best of our knowledge haemodialysis has not been used previously for the treatment of organic bromide poisoning. PMID:7831171

Moosa, M. R.; Jansen, J.; Edelstein, C. L.

1994-01-01

256

Poison Ivy: Tips for Treating and Preventing  

MedlinePLUS

... to air turn brownish black. Before urushiol hits the air, it is clear or a pale yellow. It may have yellow-white berries. Poison sumac: This plant has 7 to 13 leaflets on each leaf. It grows in standing water as a tall shrub or small tree. How to protect your skin from poison ivy, ...

257

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

258

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Seagrant, University O.

259

Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.  

PubMed

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome. PMID:24592666

Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

2013-01-01

260

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

2009-01-01

261

Copper toxicosis in sheep: a case report.  

PubMed

Two ewes died after being fed rabbit ration and mineral salts designated for cows. This food is known to contain copper levels above that indicated for sheep. Blood counts revealed anemia, and serological tests showed high blood urea nitrogen, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase values. At necropsy, the animals had hepatopathy and nephropathy. Hepatic copper levels were 414 ppm. Histological examination revealed chronic active hepatitis with bile casts and tubular nephrosis. The liver, spleen and kidneys had hemosiderosis. This was attributed to the massive hemolysis caused by the copper. The liver failure and hemolytic anemia caused death in these sheep. PMID:9554065

Maiorka, P C; Massoco, C O; de Almeida, S D; Gorniak, S L; Dagli, M L

1998-04-01

262

[Occupational medicine in aluminum and copper alloy production].  

PubMed

Workers engaged into aluminum alloys production demonstrated high prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases caused by dust--pneumoconiosis and dust bronchitis, workers of copper alloys production were diagnosed as having early stage of chronic lead intoxication. PMID:10826366

Rosly?, O F; Gerasimenko, T I; Tartakovskaia, L Ia; Zhovtiak, E P; Fedoruk, T I

2000-01-01

263

Human Health Effects From Chronic Arsenic Poisoning–A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 ?g\\/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 ?g\\/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5

SIMON KAPAJ; HANS PETERSON; KARSTEN LIBER; PROSUN BHATTACHARYA

2006-01-01

264

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.?? PMID:9576536

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

265

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

266

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or  

E-print Network

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or breathing lead. Children under 6 years old problems.FACT Lead poisoning hurts the brain and nervous system. Some of the effects of lead poisoning may and speech · Make it hard to pay attention and learn FACT Most children get lead poisoning from paint

267

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

268

An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

1998-01-01

269

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

1996-08-01

270

Surreptitious superwarfarin poisoning with brodifacoum.  

PubMed

Because of the emergence of warfarin resistance in rodents, second-generation anticoagulants named "superwarfarins" were developed and marketed in over-the-counter rodenticide products. The availability of these compounds has resulted in accidental or intentional human ingestions, which cause severe bleeding. The methods for diagnosis and treatment of patients using superwarfarins are different from those for patients taking the regular warfarins. We report a case of intentional superwarfarin ingestion that caused petechiae and hematuria. Although the patient denied taking anticoagulant, the persistence of vitamin K-dependent factor deficiency led us to investigate the serum for anticoagulant rodenticides. We found high levels of brodifacoum, a superwarfarin compound. This case emphasizes the need for suspicion of superwarfarin poisoning in patients who show unexplained bleeding due to deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors and resistance to treatment. PMID:9347822

Tecimer, C; Yam, L T

1997-10-01

271

Emergency care of insecticide poisonings.  

PubMed

Insecticide poisoning is an increasing event which requires a thorough knowledge base for diagnosis and management. Awareness of the importance of decontamination is fundamental not only in the prehospital care phase but also in the emergency department. A thorough knowledge of the essentials of emergency and critical care is indispensable for the management and support of ventilatory and circulatory functions. Specific antidotal therapy utilizing atropine and pralidoxime is usually necessary in the immediate care of acute cases. In addition, use of pralidoxime after acute exposure may contribute to a beneficial outcome. Appropriate laboratory determinations in the acute phase are necessary parameters for successful outcomes. The use of cholinesterase determinations for diagnostic and prognostic purposes is discussed. PMID:7815041

Hillman, J V

1994-11-01

272

Lead Poisoning Mimicking Acute Porphyria!  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth

2014-01-01

273

Resistance mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against phagosomal copper overload  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen with an extremely slow growth rate, an unusual outer membrane of very low permeability and a cunning ability to survive inside the human host despite a potent immune response. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to acquire essential nutrients while still preserving its natural resistance to toxic compounds. In this regard, copper homeostasis mechanisms are particularly interesting, because copper is an important element for bacterial growth, but copper overload is toxic. In M. tuberculosis at least two enzymes require copper as a cofactor: the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase SodC and the cytochrome c oxidase which is essential for growth in vitro. Mutants of M. tuberculosis lacking the copper metallothionein MymT, the efflux pump CtpV and the membrane protein MctB are more susceptible to copper indicating that these proteins are part of a multipronged system to balance intracellular copper levels. Recent evidence showed that part of copper toxicity is a reversible damage of accessible Fe-S clusters of dehydratases and the displacement of other divalent cations such as zinc and manganese as cofactors in proteins. There is accumulating evidence that macrophages use copper to poison bacteria trapped inside phagosomes. Here, we review the rapidly increasing knowledge about copper homeostasis mechanisms in M. tuberculosis and contrast those with similar mechanisms in E. coli. These findings reveal an intricate interplay between the host which aims to overload the phagosome with copper and M. tuberculosis which utilizes several mechanisms to reduce the toxic effects of excess copper. PMID:22361385

Rowland, Jennifer L.; Niederweis, Michael

2012-01-01

274

Copper peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of oxidizing agents, including chlorine, bromine, ozone and other peroxides, were allowed to act on copper solutions with the intention of forming copper peroxide. The only successful agent appears to be hydrogen peroxide. It must be used in a neutral 50 to 30 percent solution at a temperature near zero. Other methods described in the literature apparently do not work. The excess of hydrogen must be quickly sucked out of the brown precipitate, which it is best to wash with alcohol and ether. The product, crystalline under a microscope, can be analyzed only approximately. It approaches the formula CuO2H2O. In alkaline solution it appears to act catalytically in causing the decomposition of other peroxides, so that Na2O2 cannot be used to prepare it. On the addition of acids the H2O2 is regenerated. The dry substance decomposes much more slowly than the moist but is not very stable.

Moser, L.

1988-01-01

275

COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

276

Rapid increase in copper concentrations in a new marina, San Diego Bay.  

PubMed

Concentrations of copper in water rose rapidly following the introduction of boats to a new marina in San Diego Bay. Two months after the marina reached half its capacity, a majority of water samples exceeded chronic and acute criteria for dissolved copper, and copper concentrations in several samples exceeded the highest concentrations observed in another marina that has been listed as an impaired water body. A box model suggested that a small fraction of the leached copper was sequestered in sediment. Copper concentrations in water entering the marina from the bay was more than half the chronic concentration limit, so only 50% of marina boat capacity could be accommodated without exceeding the chronic criterion more than 50% of the time. Copper concentrations in water may increase rapidly following boat introduction in small marinas, but could return to pre-introduction levels by controlling boat numbers or reducing use of copper-based paints. PMID:22245437

Biggs, Trent W; D'Anna, Heather

2012-03-01

277

Pattern of poisoning in Japan: selection of drugs and poisons for systematic toxicological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of poisoning are known to be different in different countries, because of the local environmental, cultural, and\\u000a religious situations. Therefore, in Japan, it is important to know the pattern of poisoning in our own country and to prepare\\u000a for every poisoning case by establishing an efficient systematic toxicological analysis system in forensic practice. We conducted\\u000a a retrospective study of

Keiko Kudo; Tomomi Ishida; Wakako Hikiji; Yosuke Usumoto; Takahiro Umehara; Kumi Nagamatsu; Akiko Tsuji; Noriaki Ikeda

2010-01-01

278

Insights on the SO 2 poisoning of Pt 3Co\\/VC and Pt\\/VC fuel cell catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SO2 poisoning of carbon-supported Pt3Co (Pt3Co\\/VC) catalyst is performed at the cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in order to link previously reported results at the electrode\\/solution interface to the FC environment.First, the surface area of Pt3Co\\/VC catalyst is rigorously characterized by hydrogen adsorption, CO stripping voltammetry and underpotential deposition (upd) of copper adatoms. Then the performance of

Olga A. Baturina; Benjamin D. Gould; Yannick Garsany; Karen E. Swider-Lyons

2010-01-01

279

Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood.  

PubMed Central

The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on almost all of the cognitive tasks. This pattern of widespread deficits resembles that found in children evaluated at the time of acute exposure to lead rather than the more circumscribed pattern typically seen in adults exposed to lead. Despite having completed as many years of schooling as controls, the subjects exposed to lead were lower in lifetime occupational status. Within the exposed group, performance on the neuropsychological battery and occupational status were related, consistent with the presumed impact of limitations in neuropsychological functioning on everyday life. The results suggest that many subjects exposed to lead suffered acute encephalopathy in childhood which resolved into a chronic subclinical encephalopathy with associated cognitive dysfunction still evident in adulthood. These findings lend support to efforts to limit exposure to lead in childhood. PMID:8343422

White, R F; Diamond, R; Proctor, S; Morey, C; Hu, H

1993-01-01

280

In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

1993-01-23

281

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony.  

PubMed

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony's history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided. PMID:17616062

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Ma Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

2007-06-01

282

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

283

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... skin products taken from store shelves contained mercury . Photos of some illegal mercury-containing products are shown ... Lightening Products Found to Contain Mercury (includes product photos) Texas DSHS Warns of Mercury Poisoning Linked to ...

284

American Association of Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... and home, environmental toxins, drugs and medicine, and animal and insect bites and stings. Bath Salts Synthetic cathinones, or “bath salts” are powerful drugs that can cause hallucinations and violent behavior. E-Cigarette Devices and Liquid Nicotine Local poison ...

285

Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts  

MedlinePLUS

Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

286

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

287

Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./ Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997, Volume 4, Part 8 - Neutron Poison Plates in Assemblies Containing Homogeneous Mixtures of Polystyrene-Moderated Plutonium and Uranium Oxides  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a series of critical experiments using a remotely operated Split-Table Machine was performed with homogeneous mixtures of (Pu-U)O{sub 2}-polystyrene fuels in the form of square compacts having different heights. The experiments determined the critical geometric configurations of MOX fuel assemblies with and without neutron poison plates. With respect to PuO{sub 2} content and moderation [H/(Pu+U)atomic] ratio (MR), two different homogeneous (Pu-U) O{sub 2}-polystyrene mixtures were considered: Mixture (1) 14.62 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 30.6 MR, and Mixture (2) 30.3 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 2.8 MR. In all mixtures, the uranium was depleted to about O.151 wt% U{sup 235}. Assemblies contained copper, copper-cadmium or aluminum neutron poison plates having thicknesses up to {approximately}2.5 cm. This evaluation contains 22 experiments for Mixture 1, and 10 for Mixture 2 compacts. For Mixture 1, there are 10 configurations with copper plates, 6 with aluminum, and 5 with copper-cadmium. One experiment contained no poison plate. For Mixture 2 compacts, there are 3 configurations with copper, 3 with aluminum, and 3 with copper-cadmium poison plates. One experiment contained no poison plate.

Yavuz, M.

1999-05-01

288

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

289

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

290

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

291

Lab Tracker and Copper Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

... Lab Tracker and Copper Calculator Serum Copper (mcg/dl) Ceruloplasmin (mg/dl) Non-Ceruloplasmin Copper Serum Copper (micromoles/liter) Ceruloplasmin ( ... Copper per 24 hours (micrograms) Copper concentration (mcg/dl) Volume (liters) Copper per 24 hours (micrograms) Copper ...

292

Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. PMID:21607993

Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

2011-08-01

293

Role of copper transporters in copper homeostasis.  

PubMed

Copper is a redox active metal that is essential for biological function. Copper is potentially toxic; thus, its homeostasis is carefully regulated through a system of protein transporters. Copper is taken up across the lumen surface of the small intestinal microvilli as cuprous ion by Ctr1. Cupric ion may also be taken up, but those processes are less well understood. Within the cell, intestinal as well as others, copper is escorted to specific compartments by metallochaperones. One, CCS, donates copper to superoxide dismutase. Another, COX17, delivers copper to additional chaperones within the mitochondria for synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase. A third chaperone, Atox1, delivers copper to the secretory pathway by docking with 2 P-type ATPases. One, ATP7A, is the protein nonfunctional in Menkes disease. This protein is required for cuproenzyme biosynthesis, and in the enterocyte it is required for copper efflux to portal blood. The second, ATP7B, predominantly expressed in liver, is required for copper metallation of ceruloplasmin and biliary copper excretion. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease. Additional intracellular hepatic copper-binding proteins COMMD1 (copper metabolism MURR1 domain) and XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) may also be required for excretion. Other proteins involved in copper homeostasis may include metallothionein and amyloid precursor protein. Plasma protein transport of copper from the intestine to liver and in systemic circulation probably includes both albumin and alpha2-macroglobulin. Changes in the expression of copper "transporters" may be useful to monitor copper status of humans, provided a suitable cell type can be sampled. PMID:18779302

Prohaska, Joseph R

2008-09-01

294

SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

2004-01-01

295

Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline. PMID:22953225

Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

2012-01-01

296

[The study of status and advances on tetramine poisoning].  

PubMed

Tetramethylenedisulphotetramine(TETS) is virulent rodenticides which was strictly forbidden to use in China. Poison dose of TETS is very little, LD50 in rats in 0.1 mg/kg. Manifestations and signs of TETS poisoning are showed in 5 min. The long dated effect of poisoning is extremely strict. Mamy studys on TETS are restricted on the treatment of TETS poisoning, while that of poisoning mechanism is very few. This paper reviewed TETS poisoning mechanism, pathological changes and research advances. PMID:15150879

Zhu, Chuan-hong; Liu, Liang; Liu, Yan

2004-01-01

297

Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  

PubMed

44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M

1997-01-01

298

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs  

E-print Network

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

Cummings, Molly E.

299

COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

300

Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders from Finland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than in the livers of adults.

Hollmen, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.

1998-01-01

301

Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

2014-01-01

302

Copper and copper proteins in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

Montes, Sergio; Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

2014-01-01

303

Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

2014-05-01

304

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

305

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

306

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

307

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

308

Study of blood and brain lithium pharmacokinetics in the rat according to three different modalities of poisoning.  

PubMed

Lithium-induced neurotoxicity may be life threatening. Three patterns have been described, including acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic poisoning, with unexplained discrepancies in the relationship between clinical features and plasma lithium concentrations. Our objective was to investigate differences in plasma, erythrocyte, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain lithium pharmacokinetics using a multicompartmental approach in rat models mimicking the three human intoxication patterns. We developed acute (intraperitoneal administration of 185?mg/kg Li2CO3 in naive rats), acute-on-chronic (intraperitoneal administration of 185?mg/kg Li2CO3 in rats receiving 800?mg/l Li2CO3 in water during 28 days), and chronic poisoning models (intraperitoneal administration of 74?mg/kg Li2CO3 during 5 days in rats with 15?mg/kg K2Cr2O7-induced renal failure). Delayed absorption (4.03 vs 0.31?h), increased plasma elimination (0.65 vs 0.37?l/kg/h) and shorter half-life (1.75 vs 2.68?h) were observed in acute-on-chronically compared with acutely poisoned rats. Erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid kinetics paralleled plasma kinetics in both models. Brain lithium distribution was rapid (as early as 15?min), inhomogeneous and with delayed elimination (over 78?h). However, brain lithium accumulation was more marked in acute-on-chronically than acutely poisoned rats [area-under-the-curve of brain concentrations (379?±?41 vs 295?±?26, P?chronically compared with acute-on-chronically poisoned rats (brain-to-plasma ratio: 9?±?1 vs 3?±?0, P?

Hanak, Anne-Sophie; Chevillard, Lucie; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Risède, Patricia; Peoc'h, Katell; Mégarbane, Bruno

2015-01-01

309

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

310

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and/or oxy acids: [D-O-Leu-D-Ala-L-O-Val-L-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the potassium ionophore valinomycin. Two of the three enterotoxins have been shown to be involved in food poisoning. They both consist of three different proteins that act together. One of these enterotoxins is also a haemolysin. This haemolytic enterotoxin is transcribed from one operon. The third enterotoxin is a single component protein, but has not been shown to be involved in food poisoning. PMID:9435100

Granum, P E; Lund, T

1997-12-15

311

Acute pesticide poisoning in England and Wales.  

PubMed

Between 1979 and 1983 less than 1% of admissions from acute poisoning in the UK were due to pesticides and fewer than 4% of admissions in those under 5 years were from this cause. Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides account for only 10% of the total in both children and adults. Suspected pesticide poisoning was the cause of fewer than 0.3% of home accidents in those under 10 years of age and less than 4% of suspected poisonings documented by the Home Accident Surveillance System. Rodenticides were thought to be involved in 62% of these cases. Of children who presented to hospital 42% were admitted and 93% of these were discharged home within 2 days. In the UK, the morbidity from acute pesticide poisoning in children is low and the mortality is nil and there is therefore no evidence to support the view that paediatric pesticide intoxication is a significant clinical problem. Though no fatalities were recorded in children, pesticides were responsible for 1.3% of all deaths due to poisoning in the UK between 1979 and 1983. In adults admitted to hospital, the mortality from pesticide poisoning is approximately 12% and three quarters of these deaths are due to the deliberate ingestion of paraquat. The general term pesticide refers to a group of products that are used as insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, and plant growth agents. Chemically, the group includes bipyridilium compounds, carbamates, chloralose, chlorates, coumarins, dinitro compounds, dithiocarbamates, fluoroacetates, organochlorine organophosphorus and organotin compounds, pentachlorophenol, phenoxyacetates, phosphine (as magnesium and aluminium phosphides), pyrethrins, pyrethroids and triazines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10281618

Vale, T J; Meredith, T J; Buckley, B M

1987-02-01

312

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-01-01

313

Ice hockey lung - a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Nitrogen dioxide (NO?) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO? poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO? poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 - three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Stanek, Miroslav

2013-01-01

314

Laboratory diagnosis of zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Zinc phosphide, a readily-available rodenticide, poses a significant risk for intoxication in animals. Animals have been poisoned by ingesting treated bait or the carcasses of poisoned rodents. Toxicity is due to the liberation of phosphine gas in the stomach. Clinical signs include central nervous system excitation, depression and vomition. Similarities of clinical signs with other central nervous system toxicants make the diagnosis difficult without a specific diagnostic test. The procedure outlined in this paper detects phosphine liberated from zinc phosphide by the addition of hydrochloric acid as well as the phosphine previously generated by contact with stomach acid. PMID:7900268

Guale, F G; Stair, E L; Johnson, B W; Edwards, W C; Haliburton, J C

1994-12-01

315

Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine  

PubMed Central

Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

2015-01-01

316

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

317

[The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].  

PubMed

The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote. PMID:21834338

Vuori, Arno

2011-01-01

318

Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:21264171

Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

2011-01-01

319

Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad

2008-01-01

320

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2012-04-01

321

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2013-04-01

322

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2010-04-01

323

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2014-04-01

324

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2011-04-01

325

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2011-04-01

327

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2014-04-01

328

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2013-04-01

329

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2012-04-01

330

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

331

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

332

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

333

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

334

Current Research Problems of Chronic Arsenicosis in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic arsenicosis is a newly-emerged public-health issue in China and many other Asian countries. Over 200 million people are estimated to be at the risk of high arsenic exposure from drinking-water in the Asian region. To protect people from the hazards of chronic arsenic poisoning, the Chinese Gov- ernment has been providing low-arsenic drinking-water to some seriously-affected rural areas, such

Guifan Sun; Xin Li; Jingbo Pi; Yang Sun; Bing Li; Yaping Jin; Yuanyuan Xu

2006-01-01

335

Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

336

A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-03-01

337

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony  

PubMed Central

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided. PMID:17616062

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

2007-01-01

338

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

339

Detection of Kaminsky DNS Cache Poisoning Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

We statistically investigated the total inbound standard DNS resolution traffic from the Internet to the top domain DNS server in a university campus network through January 1st to December 31st, 2010. The following results are obtained: (1) We found five Kaminsky DNS Cache Poisoning (Kaminsky) attacks in observation of rapid decrease in the unique source IP address based entropy of

Yasuo Musashi; Masaya Kumagai; Shinichiro Kubota; Kenichi Sugitani

2011-01-01

340

Dns cache poisoning-the next generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old problem of DNS cache poisoning has again reared its ugly head. While some would argue that the domain name system protocol is inherently vulnerable to this style of attack due to the weakness of 16-bit transaction IDs, we cannot ignore the immediate threat while waiting for something better to come along. There are new attacks, which make DNS

J. Stewart

2003-01-01

341

Important poisonous plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

342

Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

343

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

344

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

345

Poisonous Plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

346

"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan

2007-01-01

347

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Jacobs, Dan

348

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

349

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-01-01

350

Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

Carter, Constance, Comp.

351

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

352

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

353

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

354

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

355

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

356

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

357

Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd  

PubMed Central

Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of monitoring herd copper status regularly. Also the poor correlation between liver and serum copper concentrations in the three herds sampled demonstrates the importance of using liver copper concentration to assess herd copper status. PMID:25279139

2014-01-01

358

Methylphenidate poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.  

PubMed

A review of US poison center data for 2004 showed over 8,000 ingestions of methylphenidate. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with suspected ingestions of methylphenidate by 1) describing the process by which a specialist in poison information should evaluate an exposure to methylphenidate, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of methylphenidate ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This review focuses on the ingestion of more than a single therapeutic dose of methylphenidate and the effects of an overdose and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in cases in which a malicious intent is suspected (e.g., child abuse or neglect) should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 2) In patients without evidence of self-harm, abuse, or malicious intent, poison center personnel should elicit additional information including the time of the ingestion, the precise dose ingested, and the presence of coingestants (Grade D). 3) Patients who are chronically taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and who have ingested any amount of methylphenidate require referral to an emergency department (Grade D). 4) Patients experiencing any changes in behavior other than mild stimulation or agitation should be referred to an emergency department. Examples of moderate to severe symptoms that warrant referral include moderate-to-severe agitation, hallucinations, abnormal muscle movements, headache, chest pain, loss of consciousness, or convulsions (Grade D). 5) For patients referred to an emergency department, transportation via ambulance should be considered based on several factors including the condition of the patient and the length of time it will take for the patient to arrive at the emergency department (Grade D). 6) If the patient has no symptoms, and more than 3 hours have elapsed between the time of ingestion and the call to the poison center, referral to an emergency department is not recommended (Grade D). 7) Patients with acute or acute-on-chronic ingestions of less than a toxic dose (see recommendations 8, 9, and 10) or chronic exposures to methylphenidate with no or mild symptoms can be observed at home with instructions to call the poison center back if symptoms develop or worsen. For acute-on-chronic ingestions, the caller should be instructed not to administer methylphenidate to the patient for the next 24 hours. The poison center should consider making a follow-up call at approximately 3 hours after ingestion (Grade D). 8) Patients who ingest more than 2 mg/kg or 60 mg, whichever is less, of an immediate-release formulation (or the equivalent amount of a modified-release formulation that has been chewed) should be referred

Scharman, Elizabeth J; Erdman, Andrew R; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Olson, Kent R; Woolf, Alan D; Caravati, E Martin; Chyka, Peter A; Booze, Lisa L; Manoguerra, Anthony S; Nelson, Lewis S; Christianson, Gwenn; Troutman, William G

2007-01-01

359

Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion  

EPA Science Inventory

The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

360

Copper metabolism of astrocytes  

PubMed Central

This short review will summarize the current knowledge on the uptake, storage, and export of copper ions by astrocytes and will address the potential roles of astrocytes in copper homeostasis in the normal and diseased brain. Astrocytes in culture efficiently accumulate copper by processes that include both the copper transporter Ctr1 and Ctr1-independent mechanisms. Exposure of astrocytes to copper induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) content as well as synthesis of metallothioneins, suggesting that excess of copper is stored as complex with GSH and in metallothioneins. Furthermore, exposure of astrocytes to copper accelerates the release of GSH and glycolytically generated lactate. Astrocytes are able to export copper and express the Menkes protein ATP7A. This protein undergoes reversible, copper-dependent trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and vesicular structures. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently take up, store and export copper suggests that astrocytes play a key role in the supply of neurons with copper and that astrocytes should be considered as target for therapeutic interventions that aim to correct disturbances in brain copper homeostasis. PMID:23503037

Dringen, Ralf; Scheiber, Ivo F.; Mercer, Julian F. B.

2013-01-01

361

Copper metabolism of astrocytes.  

PubMed

This short review will summarize the current knowledge on the uptake, storage, and export of copper ions by astrocytes and will address the potential roles of astrocytes in copper homeostasis in the normal and diseased brain. Astrocytes in culture efficiently accumulate copper by processes that include both the copper transporter Ctr1 and Ctr1-independent mechanisms. Exposure of astrocytes to copper induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) content as well as synthesis of metallothioneins, suggesting that excess of copper is stored as complex with GSH and in metallothioneins. Furthermore, exposure of astrocytes to copper accelerates the release of GSH and glycolytically generated lactate. Astrocytes are able to export copper and express the Menkes protein ATP7A. This protein undergoes reversible, copper-dependent trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and vesicular structures. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently take up, store and export copper suggests that astrocytes play a key role in the supply of neurons with copper and that astrocytes should be considered as target for therapeutic interventions that aim to correct disturbances in brain copper homeostasis. PMID:23503037

Dringen, Ralf; Scheiber, Ivo F; Mercer, Julian F B

2013-01-01

362

Chronic Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Learn more. Doctors ...

363

Thallium poisoning. Diagnosis may be elusive but alopecia is the clue.  

PubMed Central

Thallium is a heavy metal whose salts are used in some rodent poisons and in the manufacture of optical lenses, semiconductors, scintillation counters, low temperature thermometers, and switching devices, green coloured fireworks, and imitation jewelery, and as chemical catalysts. In clinical practice thallium isotopes are used in cardiac scanning, but the use of thallium salts to treat scalp ringworm was abandoned earlier this century because of their toxicity. The sale of thallium in Britain is strictly licensed because of its toxicity and potential for use in murder, which is helped by the fact that thallous salts are colourless, tasteless, and odorless. The more water soluble salts (such as thallium sulphate, acetate, or carbonate) have higher toxicity, and although the toxic dose is variable most deaths occur after the ingestion of 10-15 mg/kg of soluble salt. Most cases of thallium toxicity occur after oral ingestion but severe toxicity has been reported after inhalation of contaminated dust from pyrite burners, in zinc and lead smelting, and in the manufacture of cadmium, after dermal absorption through protective rubber gloves, and after snorting what was thought to be cocaine. The elimination half time of thallium is between 1.7 and 30 days depending on the time since, and chronicity of, ingestion. The elimination time phases are apparent and because of the long terminal elimination half time thallium may act as a cumulative poison. We present two cases of thallium poisoning with intent to kill. Images FIG 3 PMID:8518684

Moore, D; House, I; Dixon, A

1993-01-01

364

Thallium poisoning. Diagnosis may be elusive but alopecia is the clue.  

PubMed

Thallium is a heavy metal whose salts are used in some rodent poisons and in the manufacture of optical lenses, semiconductors, scintillation counters, low temperature thermometers, and switching devices, green coloured fireworks, and imitation jewelery, and as chemical catalysts. In clinical practice thallium isotopes are used in cardiac scanning, but the use of thallium salts to treat scalp ringworm was abandoned earlier this century because of their toxicity. The sale of thallium in Britain is strictly licensed because of its toxicity and potential for use in murder, which is helped by the fact that thallous salts are colourless, tasteless, and odorless. The more water soluble salts (such as thallium sulphate, acetate, or carbonate) have higher toxicity, and although the toxic dose is variable most deaths occur after the ingestion of 10-15 mg/kg of soluble salt. Most cases of thallium toxicity occur after oral ingestion but severe toxicity has been reported after inhalation of contaminated dust from pyrite burners, in zinc and lead smelting, and in the manufacture of cadmium, after dermal absorption through protective rubber gloves, and after snorting what was thought to be cocaine. The elimination half time of thallium is between 1.7 and 30 days depending on the time since, and chronicity of, ingestion. The elimination time phases are apparent and because of the long terminal elimination half time thallium may act as a cumulative poison. We present two cases of thallium poisoning with intent to kill. PMID:8518684

Moore, D; House, I; Dixon, A

1993-06-01

365

Childhood self-poisoning: a one-year review.  

PubMed

Self-poisoning in children is a serious health concern accounting for 2% and 5% of childhood deaths in the developed and developing world, respectively. Type of poison and intent varies between age groups, with alcohol poisoning becoming increasingly common in teenagers. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of paediatric self-poisoning at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, as a function of age, sex, intent and type of poison. Data from patients under the age of 17 presenting to Ninewells Hospital's Emergency Department with self-poisoning from 1 December 2008 to 30 November 2009 inclusive were identified, classified and analysed using chi-square testing. Overall there was no significant difference in gender. However, females significantly dominated in the ?12<17 years age group, with older females also significantly more likely to deliberately self-poison. Alcohol was the sole cause of accidental self-poisoning in this age group while paracetamol was used in the majority of cases of deliberate self-poisoning. In the <6 years age group, household chemical ingestion and over-the-counter medications were the most common poisons. The findings reflect previous published data and national trends. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in the ?12<17 years age group is a major public health issue that must be addressed. PMID:23138578

Neilson, Z E; Morrison, W

2012-11-01

366

[Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].  

PubMed

The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important. PMID:9601842

Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

1997-04-01

367

Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

1974-01-01

368

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

2008-01-01

369

Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

1995-01-01

370

Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon  

PubMed Central

Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images PMID:4987891

Hopkins, Anthony

1970-01-01

371

Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. PMID:25098904

Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

2015-01-01

372

[Fatal voluntary poisoning by parenteral paraquat].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a potent herbicide, very toxic in the concentrated liquid form as supplied to farmers. Suicidal poisoning represents a serious emergency with a known high mortality rate. Suicidal poisoning following the parenteral route has been rarely reported. A 16-year-old girl was admitted to our emergency unit after subcutaneous injection of gramoxone 20% (about 400 mg of paraquat). Despite immediate surgical excision and revision, and subsequent antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (400 mg/kg/day during 48 hours), she died 17 days later from refractory hypoxemia following pulmonary fibrosis. From this observation and from the literature, it appears that an effective treatment does not depend on changes in the toxicokinetics of the herbicide (hemoperfusion, antidotes, drugs). PMID:1925459

Pedrazzini, G B; Saglini, V; Pedrinis, E; Mombelli, G; Domenighetti, G

1991-09-01

373

Iron and copper-associated cirrhosis in infants. Acquired metal toxicity or genetic disorder?  

PubMed

Iron and Copper are essential trace elements for growth and development of the human infant but are toxic in excess. Lethal cirrhotic syndromes in the neonate and infant have been associated with both copper and iron overload. The relative importance of underlying genetic susceptibility and acquired excess of iron or copper in the pathogenesis of these chronic metal toxicity states is controversial and both syndromes probably encompass a spectrum of conditions. PMID:9891605

Lockitch, G

1998-12-01

374

Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter\\u000a fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in\\u000a the subacute phase after CO intoxication.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group\\u000a A, patients with

Takaaki Beppu; Hideaki Nishimoto; Daiya Ishigaki; Shunrou Fujiwara; Tomoyuki Yoshida; Hirotaka Oikawa; Katsura Kamada; Makoto Sasaki; Kuniaki Ogasawara

2010-01-01

375

Aluminum phosphide poisoning--a review.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide poisoning is common in the rural belt of Northern India. The release of cytotoxic phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, although all organs can be involved. The cellular site of action of phosphine requires further definition. Diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion, silver nitrate test and biochemical examination of the gastric aspirate and viscera. Treatment consists of early gastric lavage, vasopressors and supportive care. Specific therapy with intravenous magnesium sulphate is recommended. PMID:7837309

Gupta, S; Ahlawat, S K

1995-01-01

376

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

377

Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

2014-01-01

378

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of methylmercury poisoning.  

PubMed Central

An opportunity to study the effects of methylmercury poisoning in humans was provided by the large outbreak in Iraq in 1971-2. In adults, poisoning resulted from the ingestion of home-made bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain and there was a highly significant correlation between the amount of bread ingested and blood mercury levels. Poisoning in infants resulted either from prior exposure in utero or from suckling or both. Blood mercury levels were higher in infants and children than in adults. There was no increased incidence of congenital defects. Symptoms and signs of poisoning and histopathological changes were mainly confined to the CNS. Symptoms developed, on average, 1-2 months after exposure. In children there was mental retardation with delayed onset of speech and impaired motor, sensory and autonomic function. Severely affected children were blind and deaf. In adults, the clinical picture could be classified as 1, mild (mainly of sensory symptoms) 2, moderate (sensory symptoms accompanied by cerebellar signs) and 3, severe (gross ataxia with marked visual and hearing loss which, in some cases, progressed to akinetic mutism followed by coma). Grades 1 and 2 carried a better prognosis thant grade 3. Interference with transmission at the myoneural junction was found in 14% of patients studied. There was no evidence of peripheral nerve involvement per se and sensory symptoms may be of central origin. The clinical differences between the Iraqi and Japanese outbreaks may be a result, in part at least, of the severe, prolonged and continuous exposure which occurred in the latter outbreak. Improvement was observed among the mild and moderate group. Treatment with chelating agents, thiol resin, haemodialysis and exchange transfusion lowered blood mercury concentrations but produced no convincing clinical benefit. To be effective, treatment may need to be instituted soon after exposure. PMID:7383945

Bakir, F.; Rustam, H.; Tikriti, S.; Al-Damluji, S. F.; Shihristani, H.

1980-01-01

379

Acute phenylbutazone poisoning in a child.  

PubMed

Accidental acute intoxication with phenylbutazone in a 2 1/2-year-old child produced an acute picture of coma, convulsions, diarrhoea, and of cholestatic jaundice which evolved over the succeeding 10 days. Transient, unexplained hyperglycaemia occurred during the first few hours of the illness. Recovery was complete within three weeks after the poisoning. Her clinical progress was monitored with the aid of regular estimations of plasma phenylbutazone levels. PMID:6843432

Bury, R W; Mashford, M L; Glaun, B P; Saaroni, G

1983-05-14

380

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

381

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

382

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

383

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

384

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

385

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been studied extensively, including detailed adsorption studies at various temperatures and pressures. Predictive models have been developed that effectively predict anode tolerance to carbon monoxide. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H/sub 2/S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a graphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700/sup 0/C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e. higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the eletrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss. In addition, support corrosion may also cause loss of Pt into the separator. Support corrosion appears to be the life limiting factor for phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1985-06-01

386

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

387

Moldy sweetclover poisoning in a horse.  

PubMed

A six year old Percheron mare was presented with a history of spontaneous unilateral epistaxis of 24 hours duration. The blood one stage prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were markedly prolonged. A diagnosis of moldy sweetclover poisoning was made on the basis of the history and clinical and laboratory findings. A single whole blood transfusion and four daily intravenous injections of vitamin K(3) proved to be a successful treatment. PMID:6159959

McDonald, G K

1980-09-01

388

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

389

Arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in cattle from Galicia, NW Spain.  

PubMed

Knowledge of trace and toxic metal concentrations in livestock is important for assessing the effects of pollutants on domestic animals and contaminant intakes by humans. Metal levels in cattle have been measured in various countries but not in Spain. In this study, the (wet wt.) concentrations of three toxic elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead) and two trace elements (copper, zinc) were quantified in the liver (Li), kidney (Ki), muscle (M) and blood (Bl) of calves (males and females between 6 and 10 months old) and cows (2-16 years old) from Galicia, NW Spain. For the toxic elements, geometric mean concentrations of arsenic in calves (sexes combined) and cows were 10.8 and 10.2 microg/kg (Li), 11.3 and 15.2 microg/kg (Ki), 3.75 and 4.25 microg/kg (M), 3.23 and 2.92 microg/l (Bl). The corresponding cadmium concentrations were 7.78 and 83.3 microg/kg (Li), 54.3 and 388 microg/kg (Ki), 0.839 and 0.944 microg/kg (M), 0.373 and 0.449 microg/l (Bl). Geometric mean concentrations of lead in calves and cows were similarly low and were 33.0 and 47.5 microg/kg (Li), 38.9 and 58.3 microg/kg (Ki), 6.37 and 12.5 microg/kg (M), 5.47 and 12.2 microg/l (Bl). Sex had almost no effect on the amount of toxic metal accumulated except that kidney cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Age did influence accumulation; cadmium and lead (but not arsenic) concentrations in most tissues were significantly greater in cows than female calves. For the trace elements, geometric mean copper levels in calf and cow tissues were 49.9 and 36.6 mg/kg (Li), 4.27 and 3.63 mg/kg (Ki), 0.649 and 1.68 mg/kg (M) and 0.878 and 0.890 mg/l (Bl). The corresponding zinc concentrations were 46.3 and 52.5 mg/kg (Li), 14.2 and 20.7 mg/kg (Ki), 47.3 and 52.5 mg/kg (M) and 2.80 and 2.22 mg/l (Bl). Female calves had significantly higher levels than males of muscle zinc and blood copper and zinc. Female calves accumulated more copper but less zinc in the liver and kidneys compared with cows; this may have been associated with the chronic, low-level cadmium accumulation observed in cows. Overall, the levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc in cattle in Galicia do not constitute a risk for animal health. However, up to 20% of cattle in some regions in Galicia had levels of copper in the liver that exceeded 150 mg/kg wet wt. These animals may be at risk from copper poisoning. PMID:10696725

López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

2000-02-10

390

EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TIME AND COPPER CONCENTRATION ON REPRODUCTION OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW ('PIMEPHALES PROMELES')  

EPA Science Inventory

Three concurrent studies were conducted to determine the chronic effect of prespawning exposure to various concentrations of copper on fathead minnow reproduction. Copper was introduced into the three exposure systems to give 6-, 3-, and 0-months exposure prior to spawning. Presp...

391

Circulation of copper in the biotic compartments of a freshwater dammed reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns a chronic copper release in an aquatic ecosystem: Mirgenbach reservoir; which is characterized by high salinity, conductivity and hardness, a eutrophic state and a high temperature. To study the bioavailability of copper in the biotic compartments, the sampling covered the entire food chain (phyto- and zooplankton, macroalgae, aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks, and fish). Of the organisms present,

I. Vinot; J. C. Pihan

2005-01-01

392

Selected elements of Poison Pax Paxillus involutus.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies as well as separately in caps and stalks of Poison Pax collected from three geographically distant sites across Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. Based on arithmetic mean and median values for Poison Pax specimens from the Lezno site the elements such as Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Mn, Mo, K, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, V and Tl occur at similar concentration both in the caps and stalks, while for Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg and Zn around two-fold greater concentrations were noted in caps than stalks (cap/stalk concentration quotient > 1). Cs, Cd, Ni and Rb occurred at much greater concentration in specimens collected from the K?odzka Hollow in the Sudety Mountains when compared to the lowland site (Mann-Whitney U-test), and slightly greater values were noted also for Cr, Mo and Rb, while for Ca, Co, Mg and Mn were smaller The results provide useful environmental and biological baseline level of information for metallic elements of Poison Pax. PMID:17616889

Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Brzostowski, A; Justyna, Mazur A; Falandysz, J; Tanabe, S

2007-07-01

393

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION  

E-print Network

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

Boyer, Edmond

394

Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor.  

PubMed

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world's rarest birds-the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor's apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

Finkelstein, Myra E; Doak, Daniel F; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R

2012-07-10

395

Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor  

PubMed Central

Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ? 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ?20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (?450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.

2012-01-01

396

Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the 'Qilu scheme', which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

Song, Chengzhen; Kan, Baotian; Yu, Guangcai; Jian, Xiangdong; Wang, Jieru; Sun, Jing

2014-11-01

397

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

398

[Secondary hyperoxaluria and nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol poisoning].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 3-year-old boy admitted to the pediatric emergency department for ethylene glycol poisoning. During hospitalization, he presented dysuria associated with crystalluria. Blood tests showed metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap. A renal ultrasound performed a few weeks later revealed bilateral medullary hyperechogenicity. Urine microscopic analysis showed the presence of weddellite crystals. Secondary nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol intoxication was diagnosed. Hyperhydration and crystallization inhibition by magnesium citrate were initiated. Despite this treatment, persistent weddellite crystals and nephrocalcinosis were seen more than 2years after the intoxication. Ethylene glycol is metabolized in the liver by successive oxidations leading to its final metabolite, oxalic acid. Therefore, metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap is usually found following ethylene glycol intoxication. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition may occur in several organs, including the kidneys. The precipitation of calcium oxalate in renal tubules can lead to nephrocalcinosis and acute kidney injury. The long-term renal prognosis is related to chronic tubulointerstitial injury caused by nephrocalcinosis. Treatment of ethylene glycol intoxication is based on specific inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase and hemodialysis in the most severe forms, and should be started promptly. PMID:23827374

Monet, C; Richard, E; Missonnier, S; Rebouissoux, L; Llanas, B; Harambat, J

2013-08-01

399

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Gonullu, Hayriye; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aydin, Irfan; Vuruskan, Ertan

2011-01-01

400

ATROPINE AEROSOL SPRAY (AAS) BY NASAL APPLICATION IN ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atropine aerosol spray (AAS) was used to treat three organophosphorus (OP)-intoxicated patients to determine if alternate routes of drug administration were as efficacious as intramuscular or intravenous routes when treating OP poisoning. Case I was a seriously intoxicated 20-year-old man classified as Namba IV (severe poisoning). Case II was a 25- year-old man classified as Namba II (mild poisoning), with

Gurayten Özyurt; Hülya Bilgin; Melda Gedik Kutsal

401

Cyanobacterial poisoning in livestock, wild mammals and birds – an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning of livestock by toxic cyanobacteria was first reported in the 19th century, and throughout the 20th century cyanobacteria–related poisonings of livestock and wildlife in all continents have been described. Some mass mortality\\u000a events involving unrelated fauna in prehistoric times have also been attributed to cyanotoxin poisoning; if correct, this\\u000a serves as a reminder that toxic cyanobacteria blooms predate anthropogenic

Ian Stewart; Alan A. Seawright; Glen R. Shaw

402

Multi-organ Dysfunction Syndrome with Dual Organophosphate Pesticides Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is common in developing countries. Poisoning with dual OP compounds is rare. Multi-organ dysfunction after OP poisoning has a high mortality rate. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome with fatal outcome after intentional ingestion of 50:50 mixture of two OP compounds, dichlorvos and profenofos. PMID:24403738

Mishra, Ajay; Pandya, Himanshu V.; Dave, Nikhil; Mehta, Manan

2013-01-01

403

Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Single Cooper-Pair Box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the pheonomenon of quasiparticle poisoning in a single Cooper-pair box (SCB). We have designed, fabricated, and tested an SCB that demonstrates a transition between poisoned and unpoisoned Coulomb staircases, depending on the speed with which the gate charge is swept. Poisoning is shown to be suppressed at moderately high sweep rates. Coulomb staircases were measured for a variety of sweep rates, and quasiparticle tunneling rates were extracted from this data.

Schneiderman, J. F.; Delsing, P.; Johansson, G.; Shaw, M. D.; Bozler, H. M.; Echternach, P. M.

2006-09-01

404

Enhanced analgesic properties and reduced ulcerogenic effect of a mononuclear copper(II) complex with fenoprofen in comparison to the parent drug: promising insights in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28 mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21 mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79 mm(2) while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22 mm(2). The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

Agotegaray, Mariela; Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

2014-01-01

405

Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28?mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21?mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79?mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22?mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

2014-01-01

406

HEALTH MATTERS Copper T IUD  

E-print Network

HEALTH MATTERS Copper T IUD What is the Copper T IUD? The Copper T IUD is one of two types of intrauterine devices available in the United States. The Copper T IUD is a small, flexible device made of soft plastic and copper. It is easily and quickly inserted into the uterus by a health care provider to prevent

Yener, Aylin

407

An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.  

PubMed

Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

2011-12-01

408

Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper  

SciTech Connect

Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal whose transport into the cell is tightly regulated. Kineococcus radiotolerans was previously shown to specifically accumulate soluble copper in the cytoplasm and cell growth was significantly enhanced by copper during chronic irradiation. This study provides a systematic investigation of copper accumulation, toxicity, and homeostasis in K. radiotolerans through combined physiological experimentation and quantitative shot-gun proteomics. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations, though intracellular metal accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2 = 0.7). Global proteomics analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the total number of response proteins and their abundance with copper concentration and culture age. Approximately 40% of the K. radiotolerans genome was differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Concomitant production of antioxidants and protective osmolytes signifies an important adaptation for maintenance of cellular redox; few known metal binding proteins were detected. This study offers a first glimpse into the complexity of coordinated biochemical response pathways in K. radiotolerans invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations that may be pertinent for new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration.

Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.

2010-08-26

409

Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse reactions and costs. 2014 #12;Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse

Edinburgh, University of

410

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2013-04-01

411

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2010-04-01

412

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2011-04-01

413

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

...2014-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2014-04-01

414

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2012-04-01

415

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

416

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2012-04-01

417

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2011-04-01

418

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2013-04-01

419

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2014-04-01

420

3 CFR 8352 - Proclamation 8352 of March 13, 2009. National Poison Prevention Week, 2009  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...thousand deaths due to poisoning take place in the United States every year. Poisoning most frequently...dosages, and installing carbon monoxide detectors can all help...event of a potential poisoning, experts at...

2010-01-01

421

Chronic kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... kidney disease. If it worsens to end-stage renal disease , and how ... Kidney failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. ...

422

Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.  

PubMed

The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

2014-07-30

423

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

424

Self-poisoning of the mind.  

PubMed

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-27

425

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

426

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

427

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFF? Administration : Veterinary Science : A. B. Conner, M. S., Director *M. Francis. D. V. M., Chief R. E. Karper, M. S., Vice-Director H. Schmidt. D. V. M., Veterinarian... made daily over a period of four to six days, and the final mortality per- centages which were attributed to each articular combination of Fig. 1. Cal~es used in studying the ingestion poison-dust distribution on the of roison by the boll weevil...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

428

Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.  

PubMed

Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

Forrester, Mathias B

2013-01-01

429

DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

1997-04-01

430

Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.  

PubMed

The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F

2007-04-20

431

Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

1993-01-01

432

Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning  

E-print Network

Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning Shimrit Tzur-David Kiril Lashchiver,kiril,dolev,anker@cs.huji.ac.il Abstract. The Domain Name System (DNS) protocol is used as a naming sys- tem for computers, services the attacker inserts incorrect data into the DNS cache. In order to successfully poison the cache, the attacker

Dolev, Danny

433

An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

Rajaram, Shireen S.

2007-01-01

434

Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

435

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

436

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

437

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

438

Deaths from Pesticide Poisoning: Are we lacking a global response?  

PubMed Central

Self-poisoning with pesticides accounts for around a third of all suicides worldwide. To tackle this problem, WHO announced a Global Public Health initiative in 2005. Planned approaches will range from Government regulatory action to the development of new treatments for pesticide poisoning. With broad-based support this strategy will have a major impact on the global burden of suicide. PMID:16946353

Bertolote, JM; Fleischmann, A; Eddleston, M; Gunnell, D

2008-01-01

439

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

440

Collection of lead-poisoned catalysts in houston. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project involving the testing of lead-poisoned catalytic converters in the Houston, Texas, area. Five lead-poisoned catalysts were collected from motor vehicles. Various methods to evaluate the conditions of the degraded catalysts included weight and backpressure measurements, and x-ray diffraction to define substrate structure.

Harvey, C.A.

1986-09-01

441

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

442

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

443

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

444

[Fatal poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L.: a case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 13-year-old child admitted to the ICU because of Atractylis gummifera poisoning. This plant is poisonous, with a liver tropism and is a public health problem in the pediatric population. Beyond this observation, we review this intoxication, whose diagnosis is clinical, treatment is symptomatic and prevention is crucial. PMID:23562315

Mouaffak, Y; Boutbaoucht, M; Ejlaidi, A; Toufiki, R; Younous, S

2013-05-01

445

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

446

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

447

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --  

E-print Network

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

448

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

449

Inorganic mercury exposure, mercury-copper interaction, and DMPS treatment in rats.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of oral treatment with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) on reducing mercury deposits in rat kidney after chronic exposure to inorganic mercury. The effect on kidney copper levels was also evaluated. The results showed that after two months of exposure to 50 ppm of mercury (as mercuric chloride) the concentration of mercury in the kidney was 124 micrograms/g wet tissue. At the same time copper concentration rose from 11 to 77 micrograms/g. DMPS treatment caused 2- and almost 4-fold reduction of mercury and copper, respectively. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury may alter metabolism of copper and that DMPS is an effective means for reduction of both mercury and copper. PMID:7843122

Blanusa, M; Prester, L; Radi?, S; Kargacin, B

1994-01-01

450

COPPER RESEARCH UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an update and overview of new research results and remaining research needs with respect to copper corrosion control issues. The topics to be covered include: occurrence of elevated copper release in systems that meet the Action Level; impact of water c...

451

SERUM COPPER IN ALZHEIMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities in the homeostasis of brain metals in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can contribute to set up environmental conditions where ß-amyloid toxicity and deposition are promoted within areas at risk. Recent studies in man have described possible implications of copper in the AD pathogenesis. In particular, evidence collected in our laboratory in the past six years shows that abnormalities in copper

R. SQUITTI; P. M. ROSSINI

2007-01-01

452

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized. PMID:788340

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

453

Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity. PMID:24364054

Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

2013-01-01

454

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

455

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

456

Electron probe X-ray analysis on human hepatocellular lysosomes with copper deposits: copper binding to a thiol-protein in lysosomes  

SciTech Connect

Livers of eight patients with chronic liver diseases were investigated by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. First, three kinds of preparations (osmium-Epon sections, glutaraldehyde-frozen sections, and unfixed-frozen sections) were compared for element detectability at a subcellular level. The glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were satisfactory as far as copper, sulfur, and phosphorus were concerned. Five patients (one patient with Wilson's disease, one chronic cholestasis, one chronic hepatitis, and two asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis) yielded x-ray images of copper and sulfur consistent with hepatocellular lysosomes. Second, the glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were utilized for a study of copper deposits in the patients' livers. There was a significant correlation between copper and sulfur contents in the lysosomes of all patients studied but no correlation in the remainder of the cytoplasm. Zinc was not detected in the lysosomes. Whatever the content of copper in the lysosomes, the ratio of delta copper to phosphorus (weight/weight) to delta sulfur to phosphorus was 0.60. These data indicate that most lysosomal copper binds to a thiol protein, probably metallothionein, in the liver.

Hanaichi, T.; Kidokoro, R.; Hayashi, H.; Sakamoto, N.

1984-11-01

457

[Copper deficiency anemia morphologically mimicking myelodysplastic syndrome].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man underwent kidney transplantation for progressive chronic renal failure which had developed 8 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. Because of post-operative complications, he had been placed on intravenous hyperalimentation. Three months after the transplantation, anemia rapidly progressed (hemoglobin, 7.9 g/dl). The proportion of reticulocytes was 0.2%, but white blood cell and platelet counts remained within normal ranges. Serum iron, vitamin B12, and folate levels were normal. Bone marrow examination showed the presence of ringed sideroblasts and cytoplasmic vacuoles in a fraction of erythroid cells. Megakaryocytes were adequate in number with normal morphology. Although the findings were consistent with refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts according to the WHO classification, cytoplasmic vacuolations were also observed in myeloid cells, suggesting copper deficiency. Indeed, serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were found to be low (33 ?g/dl and 11 mg/dl, respectively), and oral copper supplementation at a daily dose of 1 mg was initiated. There was a prompt increase in reticulocytes, and the hemoglobin level was normalized within one month, in response to this regimen. In progressive anemia cases with ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, copper deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24681939

Kikuchi, Taku; Mori, Takehiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Mitsuhasi, Takayuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Shinichiro

2014-03-01

458

Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia (Canada); Langelier, K.M. [Island Veterinary Hospital, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada); Scheuhammer, A.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bowes, V. [Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

459

Adrenocortical involvement in aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

The effect of aluminium phosphide (AlP) which is a systemic poison on the adrenal cortex was studied in 30 patients of AlP poisoning. A significant rise in the plasma cortisol level (greater than 1048 nmol/l) was observed in the twenty patients. Mortality was 50 per cent. Autopsy study could be undertaken only in 10 patients. Histopathology showed mild to moderate changes. In the rest (10 patients), the adrenal cortex was critically involved and the cortisol level failed to rise beyond normal levels (less than 690 nmol/l). The histopathology revealed severe changes (complete lipid depletion, haemorrhage, necrosis etc.) and all these patients died. In the critically ill patients, the cortisol levels remained low because of severe adreno-cortical involvement. The changes in the adrenal cortex could be due to shock or to cellular toxic effect of phosphine. The histopathological changes in various viscera showed congestion, edema and cellular infiltration. In the heart, there were patchy areas of necrosis, while the liver showed fatty changes and the lungs showed, in addition areas of gray/red hepatization. There was no adrenal apoplexy or extensive haemorrhage that could explain shock in these patients. Cardiogenic shock could not be confirmed due to lack of facilities for haemodynamic monitoring, but there was histopathological evidence in support of cardiovascular shock. PMID:2620956

Chugh, S N; Ram, S; Sharma, A; Arora, B B; Saini, A S; Malhotra, K C

1989-08-01

460

The Anaemia of Lead Poisoning: A Review  

PubMed Central

Lead intoxication has been recognized as a clinical entity since ancient times. Hippocrates (370 B.C.) was probably the first person to associate lead with clinical symptoms, since when the harmful effects of lead on the body have been well documented. Early observations culminated in the brilliant monograph of Tanquerel des Planches (1839) in which the clinical aspects of the disease were completely outlined and most of the early signs of the disease were mentioned. So complete was this work that virtually nothing has been added to des Planches's observations since their publication. The earliest reference to lead anaemia was made in 1831 by Laennec, who described thinness of the blood and pallor of the tissues in cases of lead poisoning at necropsy. The first direct evidence of the effect of lead on red blood cells was presented by Andral and Gavarret (1840), who counted the number of red blood cells in cases of lead poisoning and found the count to be much lower than normal. Since these early reports a great deal of work has been undertaken to try to discover the means by which lead causes anaemia, but it is probably true to say that at the present time this mechanism is still not fully understood. This review is an attempt to draw together at least some of the theories which have been advanced in the past and to present them, it is hoped, in an easily accessible manner for future workers in this field. Images PMID:5326074

Waldron, H. A.

1966-01-01

461

Dynamic transition in etching with poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a lattice model for etching of a crystalline solid including the deposition of a poisoning species. The model considers normal and lateral erosion of the columns of the solid by a flux of etching particles and the blocking effects of impurities formed at the surface. As the probability p of formation of this poisoning species increases, the etching rate decreases and a continuous transition to a pinned phase is observed. The transition is in the directed percolation (DP) class, with the fraction of the exposed columns as the order parameter. This interpretation is consistent with a mapping of the interface problem in d+1 dimensions onto a d-dimensional contact process, and is confirmed by numerical results in d=1 and d=2. In the etching phase, the interface width scales with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) exponents, and shows a crossover from the critical DP behavior (W˜t) to KPZ near the critical point, at etching times of the order of (pc-p)-??. Anomalous roughening is observed at criticality, with the roughness exponent related to DP exponents as ?c=??/??>1. The main differences from previously studied DP transitions in growth models and isotropic percolation transitions in etching models are discussed. Investigations in real systems are suggested.

Aarão Reis, F. D.

2003-10-01

462

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

463

Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)-induced nephrotoxicity was diagnosed in 6 herds of cattle from 3 counties in southwest Missouri. Forty-eight cows and calves died and another 35 were clinically affected. Serum urea nitrogen concentration, determined in 4 affected calves, was between 55 and 284 mg/dl, and serum creatinine concentration was between 6.7 and 29.9 mg/dl. Postmortem examination of affected cows and calves revealed amber-colored fluid in peritoneal cavities and retroperitoneal perirenal edema. Histologic examination of kidney sections revealed widespread degeneration and necrosis of proximal and distal tubules. Compared with archived kidney sections from cattle with Quercus (oak) poisoning, distal renal tubules were more severely affected. Oak poisoning also was associated with a higher prevalence of interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular oxalosis. We concluded that ingestion of the aerial and leafy portions of pigweed by cattle in drought situations does not necessarily lead to nitrate-induced sudden death associated with consumption of the nitrate-containing stems. PMID:8045809

Casteel, S W; Johnson, G C; Miller, M A; Chudomelka, H J; Cupps, D E; Haskins, H E; Gosser, H S

1994-04-01

464

Dynamic transition in etching with poisoning.  

PubMed

We study a lattice model for etching of a crystalline solid including the deposition of a poisoning species. The model considers normal and lateral erosion of the columns of the solid by a flux of etching particles and the blocking effects of impurities formed at the surface. As the probability p of formation of this poisoning species increases, the etching rate decreases and a continuous transition to a pinned phase is observed. The transition is in the directed percolation (DP) class, with the fraction of the exposed columns as the order parameter. This interpretation is consistent with a mapping of the interface problem in d+1 dimensions onto a d-dimensional contact process, and is confirmed by numerical results in d=1 and d=2. In the etching phase, the interface width scales with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) exponents, and shows a crossover from the critical DP behavior (W approximately t) to KPZ near the critical point, at etching times of the order of (pc-p)(-nu(||)). Anomalous roughening is observed at criticality, with the roughness exponent related to DP exponents as alphac=nu(||)/nu(perpendicular)>1. The main differences from previously studied DP transitions in growth models and isotropic percolation transitions in etching models are discussed. Investigations in real systems are suggested. PMID:14682948

Aarão Reis, F D A

2003-10-01

465

The good and the bad of poisonous plants: An introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL, and the potential assistance we can provide to plant poisoning incidences. Discussion: The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of th...

466

Cuprizone neurotoxicity, copper deficiency and neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Cuprizone is used to obtain demyelination in mice. Cuprizone-treated mice show symptoms similar to several neurodegenerative disorders such as severe status spongiosus. Although it has a simple chemical formula, its neurotoxic mechanism is still unknown. In this work, we examined both physico-chemical properties and biological effects of cuprizone. Our results indicate that cuprizone has very complicated and misunderstood solution chemistry. Moreover, we show here the inability of cuprizone to cross neither the intestinal epithelial barrier nor the neuronal cell membrane, as well its high tolerability by cultured neurons. If added to mice diet, cuprizone does not accumulate in liver or in brain. Therefore, its neurotoxic effect is explainable only in terms of its capability to chelate copper, leading to chronic copper deficiency. PMID:20685220

Benetti, Federico; Ventura, Marcello; Salmini, Benedetta; Ceola, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Mammi, Stefano; Zitolo, Andrea; D'Angelo, Paola; Urso, Emanuela; Maffia, Michele; Salvato, Benedetto; Spisni, Enzo

2010-09-01

467

Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

468

Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?  

PubMed

In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths. PMID:14677794

Horowitz, B Zane

2003-01-01

469

Intracellular copper routing: the role of copper chaperones.  

PubMed

Copper is required by all living systems. Cells have a variety of mechanisms to deal with this essential, yet toxic trace element. A recently discovered facet of homeostatic mechanisms is the protein-mediated, intracellular delivery of copper to target proteins. This routing is accomplished by a novel class of proteins, the 'copper chaperones'. They are a family of conserved proteins present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which suggests that copper chaperones are used throughout nature for intracellular copper routing. PMID:10637610

Harrison, M D; Jones, C E; Solioz, M; Dameron, C T

2000-01-01

470

Copper tolerance in Silene cucubalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, translocation and subcellular distribution of copper as well as its effect on chloroplasts and plastocyanin synthesis were studied in a copper-sensitive and a copper-tolerant population of Silene cucubalus (L.) Wib. As a function of time, the copper concentration in roots of tolerant plants increased more slowly than that in roots of sensitive ones. Translocation to the shoot occurred

P. C. Lolkema; R. Vooijs

1986-01-01

471

COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Chelsea Hubbard

2001-05-01

472

A study on poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Acute poisoning with various substance is common everywhere. The earlier the initial resuscitations, gastric decontamination and use of specific antidotes, the better the outcome. The aim of this study was to characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care hospital, Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. All cases admitted to the emergency department of the hospital between the months of January and December, 2007, were evaluated retrospectively. We reviewed data obtained from the hospital medical records and included the following factors: socio-demographic characteristics, agents and route of intake and time of admission of the poisoned patients. During the outbreak in 2007, 2,226 patients were admitted to the hospital with different poisonings; the overall case fatality rate was 8.3% (n = 186). More detailed data from 2007 reveals that two-third of the patients were 21–30 years old, 5.12% (n = 114) were male and 3.23% (n = 72) were female, who had intentionally poisoned themselves. In summary, the tertiary care hospitals of the Telangana region, Warangal, indicate that significant opportunities for reducing mortality are achieved by better medical management and further sales restrictions on the most toxic pesticides. This study highlighted the lacunae in the services of tertiary care hospitals and the need to establish a poison information center for the better management and prevention of poisoning cases. PMID:22096334

Kumar, Subash Vijaya; Venkateswarlu, B.; Sasikala, M.; Kumar, G. Vijay

2010-01-01

473

Effects of packaging and appearance on childhood poisoning. Vacor rat poison  

SciTech Connect

Over a 13-month period, 14 patients were hospitalized at Milwaukee Children's Hospital for rodenticide ingestions. Ten of the 14 patients ingested Vacor Rat Poison (N-3-pyridylmethyl N'-p-nitrophenyl urea). Small children could easily mistake Vacor, which resembles corn meal, for breakfast cereal. To intervene for safer packaging of toxic substances, pediatricians need to be aware of the health hazard posed to children by attractive packaging.

Schum, T.R.; Lachman, B.S.

1982-05-01

474

Low back pain - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... waist, leads to pain. Many people with chronic back pain have arthritis. Or they may have extra wear ...

475

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

476

Chronic Diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... as: Disorders of the pancreas (e.g. chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme deficiencies, cystic fibrosis) Intestinal disorders (e. ... Altered immune function (e.g. immunoglobulin deficiencies, AIDS, autoimmune disease) Hereditary disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, enzyme ...

477

Chronic Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include sarcoidosis and certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

478

[Chronic migraine].  

PubMed

The classification of the International Headache Society (IHS) generally differentiates episodic from chronic headache. Chronic migraine is defined as headache on 15 and more days a month over more than 3 months and headache on 8 days or more fulfils the criteria for migraine or were triptan/ergot-responsive when thought to be migrainous in early stages of the attack. The prevalence of chronic migraine is estimated at 2-4?%. The quality of life is highly compromised in this condition and comorbidities are much more frequent compared to episodic migraine. Data from prospective randomized studies are scarce as most patients with chronic migraine were excluded from previous trials and only few studies were conducted for this condition. The efficacy for prophylactic treatment compared with placebo is proven for topiramate and onabotulinum toxin A. PMID:24337617

Diener, H C; Holle, D; Müller, D; Nägel, S; Rabe, K

2013-12-01

479

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

480

Acute poisoning with methidathion: a case.  

PubMed

An acute poisoning in a 50-year-old man who ingested approximately 6.2 g of the phosphorus ester methidathion is described. The patient was treated with three haemoperfusions 23, 44 and 115 h after ingestion, with continuous gastric lavage, atropine and pralidoxime administration and with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Haemoperfusion was an ineffective epuration technique since it removed only 0.22% of the ingested methidathion. The clinical course wavered because of a probable redistribution of phosphorus ester from fat to blood. A plasma level higher than 100 micrograms l-1 was associated with the most serious phases. Methidathion was present in the plasma until the sixth day, in the urine until the seventh and in the gastric juice until the eighth. Its absence in the fat biopsy made on the tenth day was an aid to therapy. The phosphorus ester did not inhibit lymphocyte neuropathy target esterase (NTE), neither did it induce development of delayed polyneuropathy. PMID:2271234

Zoppellari, R; Targa, L; Tonini, P; Zatelli, R

1990-11-01

481

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

482

Retrospective searching for poisonous plant vouchers.  

PubMed

Few published reports of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, document vouchers. This can be rectified by retrospective location of vouchers through determination of a collaborating botanist or herbarium of deposit. An absolute voucher is referenced in the toxicology report. For a probable voucher the report does not identify an herbarium specimen, but the report and the specimen label or sheet agree on plant name, collector's name, collection date and place. A possible voucher is perhaps from the exposure lot, but was collected by the collaborating botanist at a somewhat earlier or later date than the exposure date. On the other hand, a supporting specimen was collected by the collaborating botanist but is not from the exposure lot. Vouchers and supporting specimens for some species of Asclepias tested for toxicity by CD Marsh and coworkers were found in the US National Herbarium at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. PMID:10349707

Wagstaff, D J; Lellinger, D B; Wiersema, J H

1999-06-01

483

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

2014-05-01

484

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

485

Standardized treatment of severe methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Seven patients with methanol poisoning were treated with ethanol, hemodialysis and supportive measures. The interval between ingestion and initiation of ethanol therapy varied from 3 to 67 hours and from ingestion to dialysis from 9 to 93 hours. All patients survived, but one had permanent visual impairment. A 10% ethanol solution administered intravenously is a safe and effective antidote for severe methanol poisoning. Ethanol therapy is recommended when plasma methanol concentrations are higher than 20 mg per dl, when ingested doses are greater than 30 ml and when there is evidence of acidosis or visual abnormalities in cases of suspected methanol poisoning. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

Ekins, B.R.; Rollins, D.E.; Duffy, D.P.; Gregory, M.C.

1985-03-01

486

Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on complaints and findings of mad honey poisoning. Patient information and findings at the time of admission were compared with those at one month after discharge through telephone interviews. They were asked if either they or their relatives had continued consuming the same honey. Frequency data such as gender, purpose of honey consumption, first complaints and continuance of honey consumption are shown as number (n) and percentage (%). A Chi Square test was conducted to determine the difference between groups. Results: 38 patients were participated in this study; 18 of the patients had to be followed up in a coronary intensive care unit. We were able to reach 34 patients by phone after discharge. It was found that 12 of 16 patients discharged after emergency unit observation or their close relatives were continuing to consume mad honey, whereas 16 (88.9%) of the 18 patients under coronary intensive care had discontinued consuming mad honey. The difference in the continuation of mad honey consumption between patient groups followed-up in the intensive care unit and those discharged after emergency observation was statistically significant. Conclusion: Hazards associated with and serious consequences following the consumption of mad honey must be clearly explained to patients who are found to be consuming mad honey. PMID:25207122

Ero?lu, Serkan Emre; Urgan, O?uz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizba??, Arzu; Ako?lu, Haldun

2013-01-01

487

Genomic organization of ATOX1, a human copper chaperone  

PubMed Central

Background Copper is an essential trace element that plays a critical role in the survival of all living organisms. Menkes disease and occipital horn syndrome (OHS) are allelic disorders of copper transport caused by defects in a X-linked gene (ATP7A) that encodes a P-type ATPase that transports copper across cellular membranes, including the trans-Golgi network. Genetic studies in yeast recently revealed a new family of cytoplasmic proteins called copper chaperones which bind copper ions and deliver them to specific cellular pathways. Biochemical studies of the human homolog of one copper chaperone, ATOX1, indicate direct interaction with the Menkes/OHS protein. Although no disease-associated mutations have been reported in ATOX1, mice with disruption of the ATOX1 locus demonstrate perinatal mortality similar to that observed in the brindled mice (Mobr), a mouse model of Menkes disease. The cDNA sequence for ATOX1 is known, and the genomic organization has not been reported. Results We determined the genomic structure of ATOX1. The gene contains 4 exons spanning a genomic distance of approximately 16 kb. The translation start codon is located in the 3' end of exon 1 and the termination codon in exon 3. We developed a PCR-based assay to amplify the coding regions and splice junctions from genomic DNA. We screened for ATOX1 mutations in two patients with classical Menkes disease phenotypes and one individual with occipital horn syndrome who had no alterations detected in ATP7A, as well as an adult female with chronic anemia, low serum copper and evidence of mild dopamine-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and no alterations in the ATOX1 coding or splice junction sequences were found. Conclusions In this study, we characterized the genomic structure of the human copper chaperone ATOX1 to facilitate screening of this gene from genomic DNA in patients whose clinical or biochemical phenotypes suggest impaired copper transport. PMID:12594858

Liu, Po-Ching; Koeller, David M; Kaler, Stephen G

2003-01-01